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Sample records for chloride pc code

  1. PC-Reactor-core transient simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PC-REATOR, a reactor core transient simulation code has been developed for the real-time operator training on a IBM-PC microcomputer. The program presents capabilities for on-line exchange of the operating parameters during the transient simulation, by friendly keyboard instructions. The model is based on the point-kinetics approximation, with 2 delayed neutron percursors and up to 11 decay power generating groups. (author)

  2. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy's ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections)

  3. Development of PC version code system for radiation dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a direct access from a radiation work site to a main frame computer is usually difficult, evaluation of radiation sources and/or doses are often carried out by handcalculations with less accuracy. So considering a recent remarkable progress of PC (Personal computer), we have developed an interactive code system of PC version to calculate dose equivalent values with high accuracy. It consists of a radiation source calculation code ORIGEN-2 and point kernel shielding calculation codes, QAD-CGGP2 and G33-GP2. With the present system, you can easily obtain dose equivalent values at any detector point starting from radiation source estimation. Validity of these codes have been verified individually on a main frame computer through various benchmark calculations. Thus we verified the present PC version system by comparing the PC calculations with those using a main frame computer. Excellent agreement was obtained between them. (author)

  4. An Auto sequence Code to Integrate a Neutron Unfolding Code with thePC-MCA Accuspec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a neutron spectrometry using proton recoil method, the neutronunfolding code is needed to unfold the measured proton spectrum to become theneutron spectrum. The process of the unfolding neutron in the existingneutron spectrometry which was successfully installed last year was doneseparately. This manuscript reports that the auto sequence code to integratethe neutron unfolding code UNFSPEC.EXE with the software facility of thePC-MCA Accuspec has been made and run successfully so that the new neutronspectrometry become compact. The auto sequence code was written based on therules in application program facility of PC-MCA Accuspec and then it wascompiled using AC-EXE. Result of the test of the auto sequence code showedthat for binning width 20, 30, and 40 giving a little different spectrumshape. The binning width around 30 gives a better spectrum in mean of givingsmall error compared to the others. (author)

  5. Extraction studies of cobalt (Ⅱ) and nickel (Ⅱ) from chloride solution using PC88A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Lin; WEI Jian-hong; WU Gen-yi; F. TOYOHISA; S. ATSUSHI

    2006-01-01

    Solvent extraction study of cobalt and nickel were carried out from a chloride solution with a high ratio of Co to Ni using the sodium salt of PC88A as extractant diluted in kerosene. The solution was generated in batches by leaching a tungsten super alloy scraps. The results show that extraction rate of metal ions increases with increase of aqueous phase pH value. The pH0.5 value difference of 1.40 with PC88A indicates the possible separation of cobalt and nickel. Increase of the concentration of the solvent can enhance the percentage extraction of both metal ions. Improvement of temperature is beneficial to extraction separation of cobalt and nickel. Extraction and stripping processes were also studied in a cross-current solvent extraction unit and the results were also given.

  6. Application of an integrated PC-based neutronics code system to criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated system of neutronics and radiation transport software suitable for operation in an IBM PC-class environment has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the past four years. Nuclear cross-section data and resonance parameters are preprocessed from the Version 5 Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-V) and supplied in a form suitable for use in a PC-based spectrum calculation and cross-section generation module. The cross-section module of the PC-based code system produces application-specific data libraries that can be used in various PC-based neutron transport and diffusion theory code modules. Some of the modules in the system are straightforward conversions of existing codes with a few improvements to allow more effective operation in the PC environment while other modules were specifically written for the PC code system. Four modules within the system are particularly useful for criticality safety applications: COMBINE/PC, a portable ENDF/B Version 5 neutron spectrum and cross-section generation program; KENO5A/PC, a three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality module; ANISN/PC, a one-dimensional, discrete ordinates transport theory code; and DORT/PC, a two-dimensional, discrete ordinates transport theory code. A description of the codes and methods used in the analysis and the results of the benchmark critical experiments are presented in this paper. In general, excellent agreement was found between calculated and experimental results. 19 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  8. Codes CONV45 and CONV56 for a PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codes CONV45 and CONV56 convert data files from ENDF/B-4 to ENDF/B-5 and from ENDF/B-5 to ENDF/B-6 format respectively. The codes which were received from US National Nuclear Data Center were implemented at the IAEA Nuclear Data Section for use on personal computers. (author). 2 refs, 3 tabs

  9. Development of a PC code package for the analysis of research and power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer codes available for performing reactor physics calculations for nuclear research reactors and power reactors are normally suited for running on mainframe computers. With the fast development in speed and memory of the PCs and affordable prices it became feasible to develop PC versions of commonly used codes. The present work performed under an IAEA sponsored research contract has successfully developed a code package for running on a PC. This package includes a cross-section generating code PSU-LEOPARD and 2D and 1D spatial diffusion codes, MCRAC and MCYC 1D. For adapting PSU-LEOPARD for a PC, the binary library has been reorganized to decimal form, upgraded to FORTRAN-77 standard and arrays and subroutines reorganized to conform to PC compiler. Similarly PC version of MCRAC for FORTRAN-77 and 1D code MCYC 1D have been developed. Tests, verification and bench mark results show excellent agreement with the results obtained from mainframe calculations. The execution speeds are also very satisfactory. 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  10. PC code STAR. Show transmutation of actinides in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program is made named STAR (acronym for Show Transmutation of Actinides in Reactors), which solves analytically the differential equations describing buildup and removal (by decay and transmutation) of nuclides irradiated in a constant neutron flux. The model and algorithm according to which STAR solves the differential equations are explained. Also a short description of the data library is given. STAR is validated with the ORIGEN-S fuel depletion code and runs on IBM compatible PCs and DEC alpha workstations. (orig.)

  11. Specific experimental instrumentation and PC codes for magnetic fields numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez C, R.; Chavez A, E.; Gaytan G, E.; Melendez L, L.; Valencia A, R.; Flores O, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The specific instrumentation for a security system, plasma diagnostic as well as PC codes for numerical simulation of magnetic fields for toroidal configurations are presented. An automated security system to avoid electric hazards through a robotized arm with a TV chamber is described. For plasma diagnostic purposes a mobile system with an electrical single probe has been constructed, and plasma {eta} characteristic curves have been obtained. The PC codes were used to design the magnetic system of Novillo Tokamak as well as to correct stray magnetic fields inside the chamber; a typical magnetic field pattern is included. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs.

  12. Parallel implementation of a lattice-gauge-theory code: studying quark confinement on PC clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Cucchieri, A; Travieso, G; Taurines, A R; Cucchieri, Attilio; Mendes, Tereza; Travieso, Gonzalo; Taurines, Andre R.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the implementation of a parallel Monte Carlo code for high-performance simulations on PC clusters with MPI. We carry out tests of speedup and efficiency. The code is used for numerical simulations of pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory at very large lattice volumes, in order to study the infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators. This problem is directly related to the confinement of quarks and gluons in the physics of strong interactions.

  13. Effect of a Single Dose Montelukast Sodium on Methacholine Chloride PC20

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Beth E; Cockcroft, Donald W

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is currently recommended that leukotriene modifiers (receptor antagonists and synthesis inhibitors) be withheld for a minimum of 24 h before direct bronchoprovocation testing, but there is little evidence to support this recommendation.OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a single oral dose of montelukast sodium 10 mg on airway response to methacholine chloride-induced bronchoconstriction.METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover trial was performed in 12...

  14. Determination of neutronics parameters of the Ghana MNSR using the diffusion code REBUS-PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutronics plays a major role in nuclear reactor analysis and the prediction, operation and safety of nuclear reactors. Neutronics also plays a major role when it comes to coupling of neutronics and thermal hydraulics codes which is the current trend in nuclear engineering. This thesis presents an investigative study into the determination of some neutronics parameters such as cross-section, neutron flux, power peaking factors, control rod, shutdown margin and safety reactivity factor of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor(MNSR) of Ghana using the diffusion code REBUS-PC. Neutron cross-sections and their group constants were generated by WIMS and the results used as input file for REBUS-PC. The REBUS-PC input deck was modified to cater for control rod insertions and withdrawals and the various neutronics parameters calculated. Comparisons were made of the values of power peaking factors, control rod worth versus axial position, safety reactivity factor, axial neutron flux versus axial distances and shutdown margin determined by REBUS-PC and MCNP-5. An average neutron flux of 1.13 x 1012n cm-2 s-1 was reported which was 13% higher than the experimentally quoted value of 1.0x12n cm-2s -1 when REBUS-PC was used. A k-effective of 1.00426±0.00001 which corresponded to 0.026% higher than the experimental value of 1.0040 ± 0.00000 and an excess reactivity of 4.24 mk which also corresponds to 24% higher than the experimental value of 4.00 mk were determined when REBUS-PC was used for the simulation. A control rod worth value of 6.92 mk was also calculated which corresponded to 8% higher than the experimental value of 7.00 mk, whiles a shutdown margin of 2.68 which also corresponds to 32% higher than the experimental value of 3.00 were calculated. These determined neutronics parameters showed remarkable agreement with experimental data and hence will ensure safe operation of the reactor (GHARR-1). (au)

  15. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubha Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome wide association studies (GWAS for fasting glucose (FG and insulin (FI have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7 evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF=1.5% influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1% influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D, the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights.

  16. Protective effect of lithium chloride against hypoglycemia-induced apoptosis in neuronal PC12 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuzhen; Wang, Qian; Li, Dongsheng; Wu, Zhenghua; Li, Dawei; Lu, Kaili; Zhao, Yuwu; Sun, Yongning

    2016-08-25

    Hypoglycemia is defined by an arbitrary plasma glucose level lower than 3.9mmol/L and is a most common and feared adverse effect of treatment of diabetes mellitus. Emerging evidences demonstrated that hypoglycemia could induce enhanced apoptosis. Lithium chloride (LiCl), a FDA approved drug clinically used for treatment of bipolar disorders, is recently proven having neuroprotection against various stresses in the cellular and animal models of neural disorders. Here, we have established a hypoglycemia model in vitro and assessed the neuroprotective efficacy of LiCl against hypoglycemia-induced apoptosis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Our studies showed that LiCl protects against hypoglycemia-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. Exposure to hypoglycemia results in enhanced apoptosis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms involved inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by decreasing wnt3a levels, β-catenin levels and increasing GSK-3β levels, which was confirmed by the use of Wnt-specific activator LiCl. Hypoglycemia-induced apoptosis were significantly reversed by LiCl, leading to increased cell survival. LiCl also alters the expression/levels of the Wnt pathway genes/proteins, which were reduced due to exposed to hypoglycemia. Overall, our results conclude that LiCl provides neuroprotection against hypoglycemia-induced apoptosis via activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:27241942

  17. PC-based criticality code use at an open-quotes isolated siteclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personal computer (PC)-based codes were used to conduct evaluations for subcriticality of fissile material in staging areas at the Pantex plant. The calculations, whose results were used in safety analysis reports (SARS) and a radiological hazards analysis (RHA), were performed by an individual practitioner located off-site. The Pantex evaluations addressed plutonium-metal components, modeling them as identical generic units. The model is conservative for criticality safety purposes in assuming a spherical shell with increased mass and reduced radius, while the plutonium content is treated as if it is all 239Pu. The computer codes KEN05APC (with 16-group Hansen-Roach cross sections) and MCNP4 (in a package with grouped cross sections) were obtained from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC). Calculations were performed for arrays of units in various numbers and arrangements with a variety of moderations and reflection conditions and with and without containers

  18. Slow strain rate behavior of TiCode 12 (ASTM Gr.12) in aqueous chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slow strain rate testing has shown that the macroscopic tensile properties of mill-annealed TiCode 12 are not affected by exposure to either a synthetic seawater or high chloride brine environment. However, microscopic examination indicates that the fracture mode may be sensitive to environment. This sensitivity appears to be related to hydrogen ingress during prolonged exposure

  19. NUSTART: A PC code for NUclear STructure And Radiative Transition analysis and supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUSTART is a computer program for the IBM PC/At. It is designed for use with the nuclear reaction cross-section code STAPLUS, which is a STAPRE-based CRAY computer code that is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NUSTART code was developed to handle large sets of discrete nuclear levels and the multipole transitions among these levels; it operates in three modes. The Data File Error Analysis mode analyzes an existing STAPLUS input file containing the levels and their multipole transition branches for a number of physics and/or typographical errors. The Interactive Data File Generation mode allows the user to create input files of discrete levels and their branching fractions in the format required by STAPLUS, even though the user enters the information in the (different) format used by many people in the nuclear structure field. In the Branching Fractions Calculations mode, the discrete nuclear level set is read, and the multipole transitions among the levels are computed under one of two possible assumptions: (1) the levels have no collective character, or (2) the levels are all rotational band heads. Only E1, M1, and E2 transitions are considered, and the respective strength functions may be constants or, in the case of E1 transitions, the strength function may be energy dependent. The first option is used for nuclei closed shells; the bandhead option may be used to vary the E1, M1, and E2 strengths for interband transitions. K-quantum number selection rules may be invoked if desired. 19 refs

  20. Beta.-glucosidase coding sequences and protein from orpinomyces PC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong; Ximenes, Eduardo A.

    2001-02-06

    Provided is a novel .beta.-glucosidase from Orpinomyces sp. PC2, nucleotide sequences encoding the mature protein and the precursor protein, and methods for recombinant production of this .beta.-glucosidase.

  1. Theoretical and user's manual for pc-PRAISE: A probabilistic fracture mechanics computer code for piping reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to collect under one cover and update the documentation related to the PRAISE Computer Code. pc-PRAISE is the most recent version of the code, which is a probabilistic fracture mechanics code that has recently been modified to run on an IBM personal computer to evaluate the reliability of welds in nuclear power plant piping systems. pc-PRAISE was adapted from the PRAISE Computer Code, which was originally developed in 1980--81 by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under funding from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for assessment of the influence of seismic events on the failure probability of piping in pressurized water reactors. PRAISE is an acronym for Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events, and has been significantly expanded in recent years to allow consideration of both crack initiation and growth in a variety of piping materials in pressurized and boiling water reactors. PRAISE has a deterministic basis in fracture mechanics. Some of the inputs, such as initial crack size and inspection detection probability, are considered to be random variables, and failure probability versus time for a given weldment is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. Complex realistic stress histories can be treated by the code, and sets of random material properties for representative piping materials are built into the code. This document provides a comprehensive summary of the deterministic basis of the code, along with description of statistical distributions of random variables. Code inputs are described and an extensive set of sample problems is provided along with descriptions of representative outputs

  2. Description and validation of ANTEO, an optimised PC code the thermalhydraulic analysis of fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the description of a Personal Computer oriented subchannel code, devoted to the steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor fuel bundles. The development of such a code was made possible by two facts: firstly, the increase, in the computing power of the desk machines; secondly, the fact that several years of experience into operate subchannels codes have shown how to simplify many of the physical models without a sensible loss of accuracy. For sake of validation, the developed code was compared with a traditional subchannel code, the COBRA one. The results of the comparison show a very good agreement between the two codes. (author)

  3. User instructions for levelized power generation cost codes using an IBM-type PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    Programs for the calculation of levelized power generation costs using an IBM or compatible PC are described. Cost calculations for nuclear plants and coal-fired plants include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. 7 refs., 36 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. User instructions for levelized power generation cost codes using an IBM-type PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programs for the calculation of levelized power generation costs using an IBM or compatible PC are described. Cost calculations for nuclear plants and coal-fired plants include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. 7 refs., 36 figs., 4 tabs

  5. PEQAG: A PC version of fully pre-equilibrium computer code with gamma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A PC version for exciton model calculation of angle-integrated nucleon and γ energy spectra is presented. All the emissions are treated consistently within the pre-equilibrium approach based on the master equations of the model and multiple particle and/or multiple γ emissions are included. 11 refs

  6. Development of environmental dose assessment system (EDAS) code of PC version

    CERN Document Server

    Taki, M; Kobayashi, H; Yamaguchi, T

    2003-01-01

    A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are 'Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor', 'Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor' and 'Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor'. This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are also prepared. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessme...

  7. Improvements in the Monte Carlo code for simulating 4πβ(PC)–γ coincidence system measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M.S., E-mail: msdias@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takeda, M.N. [Universidade Santo Amaro, UNISA Rua Prof. Enéas da Siqueira Neto 340, 04829-300 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Toledo, F.; Brancaccio, F.; Tongu, M.L.O.; Koskinas, M.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-11

    A Monte Carlo simulation code known as ESQUEMA has been developed by the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (Laboratório de Metrologia Nuclear—LMN) in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares—IPEN) to be used as a benchmark for radionuclide standardization. The early version of this code simulated only β−γ and ec−γ emitters with reasonably high electron and X-ray energies. To extend the code to include other radionuclides and enable the code to be applied to software coincidence counting systems, several improvements have been made and are presented in this work. -- Highlights: ► Improvements to the Monte Carlo code ESQUEMA are described. ► The experimental extrapolation curve was compared to Monte Carlo simulation. ► Eu-152 was standardized by 4π(PC)β-γ coincidence system and compared to Monte Carlo simulation. ► 4π proportional counter gamma-ray efficiency was calculated by MCNPX and compared with experiment. ► X-ray and positron decay emitters were included in the simulation.

  8. Development of environmental dose assessment system (EDAS) code of PC version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Mitsumasa; Kikuchi, Masamitsu; Kobayashi, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Takenori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    A computer code (EDAS) was developed to assess the public dose for the safety assessment to get the license of nuclear reactor operation. This code system is used for the safety analysis of public around the nuclear reactor in normal operation and severe accident. This code was revised and composed for personal computer user according to the Nuclear Safety Guidelines reflected the ICRP1990 recommendation. These guidelines are revised by Nuclear Safety Commission on March, 2001, which are 'Weather analysis guideline for the safety assessment of nuclear power reactor', 'Public dose around the facility assessment guideline corresponding to the objective value for nuclear power light water reactor' and 'Public dose assessment guideline for safety review of nuclear power light water reactor'. This code has been already opened for public user by JAERI, and English version code and user manual are also prepared. This English version code is helpful for international cooperation concerning the nuclear safety assessment with JAERI. (author)

  9. Cancer risk assessment for Tehran research reactor and radioisotope laboratory with CAP88-PC code (Gaussian plume model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Impact of Tehran's reactor and radioisotope laboratory stacks has been studied. → Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model and laboratory analyses were used. → Glass-fiber filters were used in the exclusion area in different direction. → The released radionuclide concentration was calculated by the code and measurements. → Dose calculations best compared to procedures presented in the Regulatory Guide. - Abstract: The amount of released radionuclide from Tehran's research reactor and radioisotope laboratory stacks and their impact have been studied. The aim of this work is to determine the amount and type of radioactive materials and to estimate their risk once they are released into the environment. To perform the above two tasks, CAP88-PC computer code which simulates Gaussian dispersion air transport Plume Model and laboratory analysis of air samples around the site were used. Computer code input data are provided by the Safety Analysis Report and Reactor Annual Reports. Air samples were collected using the filter and sampling pumps and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy counter. Results of computer program showed that the risk of cancer death (lifetime risk) is below the regulatory limit. Results of analysis of available radionuclide in the air samples also showed that concentrations are close to the background and confirm the code results.

  10. PC/FRAM: A code for the nondestructive measurement of the isotopic composition of actinides for safeguards applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, T.E.; Kelley, T.A.

    1996-12-01

    The Nuclear Safeguards Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed and fielded techniques for the gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of the isotopic composition of plutonium and other actinides for over 20 years, ever since Parker and Reilly first proposed a practical method for the measurement of the arbitrary sample. Their procedures, incorporating internal (to the measured gamma-ray spectrum) or {open_quotes}intrinsic{close_quotes} self-determination of the relative efficiency function of the sample-detector measurement system, are widely applied today. The PC/FRAM code is the most recent and most highly-developed Los Alamos code developed specifically for the nuclear safeguards applications of this technique. We will describe the measurement principles that allow accurate measurements to be taken on samples of arbitrary size, shape, and measurement geometry- and of arbitrary physical and chemical composition-through the use of known nuclear decay data (half-lives and branching intensities). Subsequently, we will describe the analysis methodology, which is driven by an easily edited parameter file that frees the user from dependence on a dedicated programmer for analyses of special cases. This methodology relies on internal gamma-ray peaks from the spectrum under analysis to self-calibrate the unknown spectrum for energy and peak shape (energy dependence of full width at half maximum (FWHM) and tailing parameters). The program uses these parameters to calculate response functions that are fit to the analysis peaks requested in the parameter file. The structure of the code and its Windows 3.1 user interface allows use with equal ease by the experienced spectroscopist or operator-level personnel in a working facility.

  11. PC communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  12. Mild KCC2 hypofunction causes inconspicuous chloride dysregulation that degrades neural coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eDoyon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinhibition caused by Cl- dysregulation is implicated in several neurological disorders. This form of disinhibition, which stems primarily from impaired Cl- extrusion through the co-transporter KCC2, is typically identified by a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential (EGABA. Here we show, using computer simulations, that intracellular [Cl-] exhibits exaggerated fluctuations during transient Cl- loads and recovers more slowly to baseline when KCC2 level is even modestly reduced. Using information theory and signal detection theory, we show that increased Cl- lability and settling time degrade neural coding. Importantly, these deleterious effects manifest after less KCC2 reduction than needed to produce the gross changes in EGABA required for detection by most experiments, which assess KCC2 function under weak Cl- load conditions. By demonstrating the existence and functional consequences of occult Cl- dysregulation, these results suggest that modest KCC2 hypofunction plays a greater role in neurological disorders than previously believed.

  13. Approach to corrosion mechanisms for a carbon steel in a solution of sodium chloride at 3 pc and its inhibition by means of organic molecules. Compared benefit of the use of stationary and transient electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the context of an increased use of seawater as coolant in various industrial installations, this research thesis had two main objectives: the search for inhibitor organic compounds with optimal efficiency, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of corrosion inhibition by the best compounds within the considered organic compounds. After having reported a bibliographical study on carbon steel corrosion in seawater or in a sodium chloride solution at 3 pc, and on the inhibition of this corrosion, the author presents the experimental conditions (materials and methods). He reports the use of stationary and un-stationary electrochemical methods for the study of the steel-solution interface without inhibitor in order to get a better knowledge of corrosion electrochemical processes and to determine more precisely the corrosion rate. The last part addresses the study of the same interface but in presence of various inhibitors

  14. Simulation of radiation dose rate distributions around casks in ships and vehicles by using QBF code for PC-9801 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present report is to show that the behavior of the spatial distribution of the radiation dose rate in a wide region can be easily visualized in various aspects of cask shipment even by personal computers which are very popular today, and that the QBF code system is a useful tool to perform this simulation. A great merit of using this code system is that one can easily analyze, with high reliability, roles of various important factors such as shielding structures and cask positions in the behavior of dose rate distributions. (J.P.N.)

  15. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The ORIGNATE processor for ORIGEN-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. ORIGNATE is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the ORIGEN-S isotopic generation and depletion code. It is designed to assist an ORIGEN-S user in preparing an input file for execution of light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel depletion and decay cases. ORIGNATE generates an input file that may be used to execute ORIGEN-S in SCALE-4. ORIGNATE features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up an ORIGEN-S input file and perform error checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  16. FORTDMPL - A program to prepare plot-codes in DMP language to drive Houston instruments PC plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program FORTDMPL was written in FORTRAN. This is a conversational program that generates DMPL codes to plot xy data on either A4 or A3 size paper. Usual requirements of linear/log axes, continuous/dashed lines, symbols, pen selection, curve smoothing, titles, legends etc. are incorporated. A tested version available at present can plot up to 10 curves on a frame each with up to 2000 points

  17. Genetic Immunization of BALB/c mice with a Plasmid Bearing the Gene Coding for a Hybrid Merozoite Surface Protein 1-Hepatitis B Virus Surface Protein Fusion Protects Mice against Lethal Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi PC1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderlich, Gerhard; Moura, Ivan C.; del Portillo, Hernando A

    2000-01-01

    The genetic immunization of rodents with a plasmid coding for a Plasmodium chabaudi merozoite surface protein 1 (C terminus)-hepatitis B virus surface fusion protein (pPcMSP119-HBs) provided protection of mice against subsequent lethal challenge with P. chabaudi chabaudi PC1-infected red blood cells. The percentage of survivor mice was higher in DNA-immunized mice than in animals immunized with a recombinant rPcMSP119– glutathione S-transferase fusion protein administered in Freund adjuvant. ...

  18. OFFSCALE: A PC input processor for the SCALE code system. The CSASIN processor for the criticality sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OFFSCALE is a suite of personal computer input processor programs developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide an easy-to-use interface for modules in the SCALE-4 code system. CSASIN (formerly known as OFFSCALE) is a program in the OFFSCALE suite that serves as a user-friendly interface for the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) available in SCALE-4. It is designed to assist a SCALE-4 user in preparing an input file for execution of criticality safety problems. Output from CSASIN generates an input file that may be used to execute the CSAS control module in SCALE-4. CSASIN features a pulldown menu system that accesses sophisticated data entry screens. The program allows the user to quickly set up a CSAS input file and perform data checking. This capability increases productivity and decreases the chance of user error

  19. PC Pricer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The PC Pricer is a tool used to estimate Medicare PPS payments. The final payment may not be precise to how payments are determined in the Medicare claims...

  20. ELIPGRID-PC: Upgraded version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating the need for and the effectiveness of remedial cleanup at waste sites often includes finding average contaminant concentrations and identifying pockets of contamination called hot spots. The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID code of singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM reg-sign personal computer (PC) or compatible. A new version of ELIPGRID-PC, incorporating Monte Carlo test results and simple graphics, is herein described. Various examples of how to use the program for both single and multiple hot spot cases are given. The code for an American National Standards Institute C version of the ELIPGRID algorithm is provided, and limitations and further work are noted. This version of ELIPGRID-PC reliably meets the goal of moving Singer's ELIPGRID algorithm to the PC

  1. Instrumentation And Control System Using PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces instrumentation and control system using PC such as an example of instrumentation and control system, composition of computer system form of PC and control, and characteristic of PC control, machine code for instrumentation and control by PC like comparison machine language with Basic, interface of machine code and Basic, and assemble grammar and practice, digital IC and OP amp, Z-80 CPU, including basic composition, basic operation, peripheral device circuit of CPU, introduction of interface, practice of PC instrumentation and control system, and application technology.

  2. Dosimetric study of radium-223 chloride and 153Sm-EDTMP for treatment of bone metastases using MCNPX code and available experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium-223 chloride is an alpha emitter radiopharmaceutical which recently has been used for treatment of bone metastases. Absorbed and equivalent doses of 223RaCl2 were studied using MCNPX Monte Carlo code in a phantom consisted of bone marrow, bone and soft tissue. 153Sm-EDTMP as a beta emitter was also simulated for comparison with 223RaCl2. Results show that by injection of 100 µCi 223RaCl2 against 70 mCi 153Sm-EDTMP to a 70 kg adult man, equivalent dose of metastatic bone can be increased about six times without significant increase in delivered dose to healthy tissues. These results demonstrated acceptable agreement with experimental data. (author)

  3. Scale-PC shielding analysis sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCALE computational system is a modular code system for analyses of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. With the release of SCALE-PC Version 4.3, the radiation shielding analysis community now has the capability to execute the SCALE shielding analysis sequences contained in the control modules SAS1, SAS2, SAS3, and SAS4 on a MS- DOS personal computer (PC). In addition, SCALE-PC includes two new sequences, QADS and ORIGEN-ARP. The capabilities of each sequence are presented, along with example applications

  4. PC-SPES (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of PC-SPES as a complementary and alternative treatment for cancer? Most of the herbs in PC-SPES have ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  5. Monte Carlo tests of the ELIPGRID-PC algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID computer code of Singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM reg-sign PC. However, no known independent validation of the ELIPGRID algorithm exists. This document describes a Monte Carlo simulation-based validation of a modified version of the ELIPGRID-PC code. The modified ELIPGRID-PC code is shown to match Monte Carlo-calculated hot-spot detection probabilities to within ±0.5% for 319 out of 320 test cases. The one exception, a very thin elliptical hot spot located within a rectangular sampling grid, differed from the Monte Carlo-calculated probability by about 1%. These results provide confidence in the ability of the modified ELIPGRID-PC code to accurately predict hot-spot detection probabilities within an acceptable range of error

  6. PC clusters at CERN's PC farm

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    These Linux-based PC clusters are mainly used for batch and interactive data processing. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDS 20 km tall, so high quality processing is required. To further facilitate this the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) has been set up to share processing power between facilities around the world.

  7. The PC graphics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2003-01-01

    Part I - Graphics Fundamentals PC GRAPHICS OVERVIEW History and Evolution Short History of PC Video PS/2 Video Systems SuperVGA Graphics Coprocessors and Accelerators Graphics Applications State-of-the-Art in PC Graphics 3D Application Programming Interfaces POLYGONAL MODELING Vector and Raster Data Coordinate Systems Modeling with Polygons IMAGE TRANSFORMATIONS Matrix-based Representations Matrix Arithmetic 3D Transformations PROGRAMMING MATRIX TRANSFORMATIONS Numeric Data in Matrix Form Array Processing PROJECTIONS AND RENDERING Perspective The Rendering Pipeline LIGHTING AND SHADING Lightin

  8. A PC based thin film dosimeter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.; Hargittai, P.; Kovacs, A.

    2000-01-01

    A dosimeter system based on the Riso B3 dosimeter film, an office scanner for use with PC and the associated software is presented. The scanned image is analyzed either with standard software (Paint Shop Pro 5 or Excel) functions or with the computer code "Scanalizer" that allows presentation...

  9. Leo II PC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LEO II is a second-generation software system developed for use on the PC, which is designed to convert location references accurately between legal descriptions...

  10. PC Controlled Home Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Soni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With advancement of technology things are becoming simpler and easier for us. Automated systems are being preferred over manual system. PC based control systems are highly reliable, accurate and time saving systems. They provide number of features like quick data storage, transfer data and data securities which helps in industries to work in sufficient manner. A microcontroller based controller is designed to control a number of electrical equipment. To control and monitor connected equipment through the PC.

  11. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  12. Troubleshoot PC problems yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Most tasks on a modern PC are within the abilities of the ordinary user: more D-I-Y than Hi-Tech. and can be carried out with a single screwdriver and standard software tools. Get a kick-start with this little book which will give you just enough to get you going...

  13. PC-cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new personal computer based system has been developed at NRPB under contract to the European Commission, Directorate General XI. This system, PC-CREAM, can be used to assess the radiological impact of radionuclides released under normal operations from virtually any type of installation. The package contains a number of interlinked models which describe the transfer of radionuclides through the environment, the pathways by which people may be exposed to radiation and the resulting radiation doses. (author)

  14. POISSON/SUPERFISH on PC compatibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have adapted the POISSON/SUPERFISH codes to run on 486 or 386 PCs. The PC version includes features not found in the standard version, including programs for automatically tuning RFQ, DTL, and CCL cavities; a complex version of the rf field solver; memory allocation for temporary data; many line regions for dividing the mesh into fine or coarse sections; full support for multiple-cell DTL cavities; plotting of resonance-search and transit-time data; and on-line documentation. They modified AUTOMESH to generate self-consistent logical and physical coordinates. This new, more robust code greatly reduces the number of crashes in LATTICE caused by ill-formed mesh triangles along boundaries. The codes solve arbitrarily large problems. Each program allows free-format entry of CON array elements, and provides error checking of user entries. Standard release 4 now uses their root finder and convergence criteria

  15. Demand for PC Increases Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ PC (polycarbonate) is an engineering thermoplastic with excellent comprehensive properties. It has the advantages of great strength, high toughness, good heat resistance,light weight, excellent workability and stable color and is therefore extensively used in several sectors:automotive, electronic/electric,construction, office equipment,packaging, sports ware, medical/health care and household utensils.PC can also be used to make PC copolymers or alloyed with other monomers or resins to improve its properties.

  16. On the graphic simulation of severe accidents using IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some methods of developing a graphical simulation system using IBM PC and MELCOR code were discussed. Most TH codes, which can calculate the severe accident phenomena parameters, are now running on workstations or supercomputers, to meet the complicated calculations. But the recent progress in computer engineering including personal computers make it possible to run TH codes in small microprocessor environments. Therefore we have surveyed some technical aspects in developing a severe accident graphical simulation system using IBM PC and MELCOR code. Especially noticing the complicated calculation results and the difficulties in obtaining continuous data due to the large data size, which are main defects of TH codes, we also surveyed the graphical methods to overcome these problems. The proposed methods are expected to play important roles in developing our graphic simulation system of severe accidents

  17. Conical Nanopore PC Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Template synthesis can be considered an alternative to conventional lithography methods. It is one way of providing a panel of nanoscale metallic wires, tubes or organic polymeric devices. Our interest is focused on track-etched membranes produced from swift heavy ions bombardment of polymer films. In comparison with self-assembly of block copolymers, this bottom-up approach has the advantage of being economic, it is not time-consuming and it allows track formation of diverse geometries. Tailoring of the conical nanopore tip opening would have a tremendous impact on sensing domain, as well as on fundamental understanding of perpendicular giant magneto Resistance properties observed in metallic multilayered cylindrical nanowires. By combining low-energy heavy ion beam radiation effects with asymmetric etching, the etching temperature and time can be tuned to prepare conical nanopores of controlled geometry from 0.5 to 1μm at the base to a few nanometers at the top. Asymmetric etching onto PC films was pH-monitored at various temperatures in the range of 65 degree to 80 degree. Fluence impact onto track etch pores was also investigated. The pore shape characterization was achieved by electronic microscopy measurements on membrane surfaces and on electrodeposited nanowires. We have also observed a difference in the conical shape of replicated nanowires. Some showed sting shapes and others displayed shell shapes depending on whether a neutralizing agent was used during etching or not

  18. NASA PC software evaluation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kuan, Julie C.

    1986-01-01

    The USL NASA PC software evaluation project is intended to provide a structured framework for facilitating the development of quality NASA PC software products. The project will assist NASA PC development staff to understand the characteristics and functions of NASA PC software products. Based on the results of the project teams' evaluations and recommendations, users can judge the reliability, usability, acceptability, maintainability and customizability of all the PC software products. The objective here is to provide initial, high-level specifications and guidelines for NASA PC software evaluation. The primary tasks to be addressed in this project are as follows: to gain a strong understanding of what software evaluation entails and how to organize a structured software evaluation process; to define a structured methodology for conducting the software evaluation process; to develop a set of PC software evaluation criteria and evaluation rating scales; and to conduct PC software evaluations in accordance with the identified methodology. Communication Packages, Network System Software, Graphics Support Software, Environment Management Software, General Utilities. This report represents one of the 72 attachment reports to the University of Southwestern Louisiana's Final Report on NASA Grant NGT-19-010-900. Accordingly, appropriate care should be taken in using this report out of context of the full Final Report.

  19. Identification of Two Nickel Ion-Induced Genes, NCI16 and PcGST1, in Paramecium caudatum

    OpenAIRE

    Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Haga, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Ikuo; Nakano, Takanari; Ikeda, Masaaki; Katayama, Shigehiro; Awata, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe the isolation of two nickel-induced genes in Paramecium caudatum, NCI16 and PcGST1, by subtractive hybridization. NCI16 encoded a predicted four-transmembrane domain protein (∼16 kDa) of unknown function, and PcGST1 encoded glutathione S-transferase (GST; ∼25 kDa) with GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Exposing cells to cobalt chloride also caused the moderate upregulation of NCI16 and PcGST1 mRNAs. Both nickel sulfate and cobalt chloride dose dependently indu...

  20. PC-PRAISE, BWR Piping Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: PC-PRAISE is a probabilistic fracture mechanics computer code developed for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers to estimate probabilities of leak and break in nuclear power plant cooling piping. 2 - Method of solution: PC-PRAISE considers the initiation and/or growth of crack-like defects in piping weldments. The initiation analyses are based on the results of laboratory studies and field observations in austenitic piping material operating under boiling water reactor conditions. The considerable scatter in such results is quantified and incorporated into a probabilistic model. The crack growth analysis is based on (deterministic) fracture mechanics principles, in which some of the inputs (such as initial crack size) are considered to be random variables. Monte Carlo simulation, with stratified sampling on initial crack size, is used to generate weldment reliability results. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: There is essentially no limitation with PC-PRAISE but for large number of replications used in the Monte Carlo simulation scheme, computation time may become prohibitive

  1. Parallelization of the PC Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Læsø; Jensen, Frank; Salmerón, Antonio; Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a parallel version of the PC algorithm for learning the structure of a Bayesian network from data. The PC algorithm is a constraint-based algorithm consisting of five steps where the first step is to perform a set of (conditional) independence tests while the remaining four....... The proposed parallel PC algorithm is evaluated on data sets generated at random from five different real- world Bayesian networks. The results demonstrate that significant time performance improvements are possible using the proposed algorithm....

  2. Qualification plan for the Genmod-PC computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genmod-PC is an internal dosimetry code that uses Microsoft Windows operating system, and that currently calculates radionuclide doses and intakes for an adult male. This report provides a plan for specifying the quality assurance measures that conform to the recommendations of the Canadian Standards Association, as well as AECL procedural requirements for a legacy computer program developed at AECL. (author)

  3. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth and...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  4. ELIPGRID-PC: A PC program for calculating hot spot probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program has been developed to provide easy access to Singer's 1972 ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of hit versus cost data for graphing with spread-sheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer's published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the original ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program

  5. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...... marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  6. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roni Permana Saputra; Anwar Muqorobin; Arif Santoso; Teguh Pudji Purwanto

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC) using personal computer (PC) implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM). NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of th...

  7. Evaluating PcGets and RETINA as Automatic Model Selection Algorithms.

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Castle

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes two automatic model selection algorithms, RETINA and PcGets, briefly discussing how the algorithms work and what their performance claims are. RETINA's Matlab implementation of the code is explained, then the program is compared with PcGets on the data in Perez-Amaral, Gallo and White (2005, Econometric Theory, Vol. 21, pp. 262-277), "A Comparison of Complementary Automatic Modelling Methods: RETINA and PcGets", and Hoover and Perez (1999, Econometrics Journal, Vol. 2, pp....

  8. VIDEO-PC, SVGA Routines for FORTRAN on PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: These primitives are the lowest level routines needed to perform super VGA graphics on a PC. A sample main program is included that exercises the primitives. Both Lahey and Microsoft FORTRAN's have graphics libraries. However, the libraries do not support 256 color graphics at resolutions greater than 320x200. The primitives bypass these libraries while still conforming to standard usage of BIOS. The supported graphics modes depend upon the PC graphics card and its memory. Super VGA resolutions of 640x480 and 800x600 have been tested on an ATI VGA Wonder card with 512 K memory and on several 80486 PC's (unknown manufacturers) at retail stores. 2 - Method of solution: Both Lahey and Microsoft primitives depend upon sending the correct parameters to the PC BIOS (basic input output system) as discussed in the references. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The primitives were developed for 256 color VGA applications. It is known, for instance, that some CGA and 16 color VGA video modes will not operate correctly using these primitives. Potential users should try the test program on their PC/video card combination to determine applicability

  9. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project C programming standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of programming standards intended to promote reliability, readability, and portability of C programs written for PC research and development projects is established. These standards must be adhered to except where reasons for deviation are clearly identified and approved by the PC team. Any approved deviation from these standards must also be clearly documented in the pertinent source code.

  10. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  11. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  12. ICAN - INTEGRATED COMPOSITE ANALYZER (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) is a computer program designed to carry out a comprehensive linear analysis of multilayered fiber composites. The analysis contains the essential features required to effectively design structural components made from fiber composites. ICAN includes the micromechanical design features of the Intraply Hybrid Composite Design (INHYD) program to predict ply level hygral, thermal, and mechanical properties. The laminate analysis features of the Multilayered Filamentary Composite Analysis (MFCA) program are included to account for interply layer effects. ICAN integrates these and additional features to provide a comprehensive analysis capability for composite structures. Additional features unique to ICAN include the following: 1) ply stress-strain influence coefficients, 2) microstresses and microstrain influence coefficients, 3) concentration factors around a circular hole, 4) calculation of probable delamination locations around a circular hole, 5) Poisson's ratio mismatch details near a straight edge, 6) free-edge stresses, 7) material card input for finite element analysis using NASTRAN (available separately from COSMIC) or MARC, 8) failure loads based on maximum stress criterion, and laminate failure stresses based on first-ply failures and fiber breakage criteria, 9) transverse shear stresses, normal and interlaminar stresses, and 10) durability/fatigue type analyses for thermal as well as mechanical cyclic loads. The code can currently assess degradation due to mechanical and thermal cyclic loads with or without a defect. ICAN includes a dedicated data bank of constituent material properties, and allows the user to build a database of material properties of commonly used fibers and matrices so the user need only specify code names for constituents. Input to ICAN includes constituent material properties (or code names), factors reflecting the fabrication process, and composite geometry. ICAN performs micromechanics

  13. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  14. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  15. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  16. Machines and Cutters: Stellaris PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2014-01-01

    The Stellaris PC (Bausch & Lomb) is a versatile platform that allows surgeons to perform both anterior segment and posterior segment surgeries. It was developed based on the Stellaris microincision cataract surgery system and can therefore perform coaxial or bimanual microincision cataract surgery in combination with posterior segment surgery. Similar to Millenium, its predecessor, the Stellaris PC has an open architecture with modular design that allows products and instruments manufactured by other companies to be used with the system. Vitrectomy can be performed using the traditional 20-gauge system or with microincision 23- or 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy systems. The special design of the vitreous cutter with increased port area, improved fluidics, and optimized port open time makes the Stellaris PC an efficient system for performing microincision vitrectomy surgery. This article will describe the design, features, and details of various components of the Stellaris PC, including machine controls, entry site alignment trocar/cannula system, fluidics, and high-speed vitreous cutter, as well as its unique illumination system. PMID:25196746

  17. Junior PC-Kørekort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala; Mathiasen, H.

    udviklingsprojekt med forsøg med DANSK IT's Junior PC-kørekort® som metode og redskab til at evaluere og dokumentere elevernes IT-kompetencer. Projektet blev gennemført i perioden fra 2002-2003 og afsluttet i foråret 2003. Rapporten er baseret på kvalitative case studier af elever og læreres arbejde med Junior PC......-kørekort® prøverne. DANSK IT's Junior PC-kørekort® kan betragtes som et forsøg på at etablere en bestemt fælleskulturel tilgang til elevernes IT-kompetencer i folkeskolen. Ud fra et situeret læringsperspektiv problematiserer rapporten anvendelsen af de standardiserede prøver som metode til at dokumentere og evaluere...... elevernes IT-kompetencer. Rapporten (2MB) fylder 80 sider ekskl. bilag. Bemærk, at forskningsrapporten handler om Dansk IT's Junior PC-kørekort - ikke at forveksle med det IT-bevis for folkeskolens elever, som Undevisningsministeriet har udviklet. Dette IT-bevis koncept skiftede navn i januar 2004, hvor...

  18. Geniposide inhibits CoCl_2-induced PC12 cells death via the mitochondrial pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li-xia; LIU Jian-hui; XIA Zhi-ning

    2009-01-01

    Background A number of studies have shown that oxidative stress and mitochondrial involvement are major triggering factors in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Cobalt chloride (CoCl_2)-induced cell death in PC12 cells may serve a simple and convenient in vitro model of hypoxia-induced neuronal cytotoxicity. To explore the effect of geniposide on CoCl_2 which induced cytotoxicity and mitochondrial function in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, we analyzed the influence of geniposide on the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Methods PC12 cells and RNAi PC12 cells were treated with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 μmol/L geniposide for 12 hours and then exposure to 400 μmol/L CoCl_2 for 12 hours. Cell viability, cell morphology, and expression of Bcl-2, Bax, P53 and caspase-9 were determined using Western blotting. Results Pretreatment with geniposide markedly improved the cells viability and morphology, decreased the expression of Bax, P53 and caspase-9, and increased the expression of Bcl-2 in PC12 cells challenged by CoCl_2. However, in the RNAi PC12 cells, geniposide had no significant effect on the expression of these proteins. Conclusion Geniposide protects PC12 cells from CoCl_2 involved in mitochondrial mediated apoptosis, and GLP-1 R might play a critical role in the neuroprotection of geniposide in PC12 cells.

  19. PC to mainframe connection: IBM PC 3270 Emulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, John D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide nontechnical information concerning microcomputer to mainframe connectivity utilizing terminal emulation. The focus is on IBM, and IBM compatible, microcomputers and on IBM 3270 Terminal Emulation. An appendix to this thesis is a User's Manual for the IBM PC 3270 Emulation Program, version 3.00. This manual is intended for use in the Administrative Sciences Department microcomputer labs of the Naval Postgraduate School. Keywords: Computer connectivity;...

  20. Phenomenology of Pc(4380)+, Pc(4450)+ and related states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pc(4380)+ and Pc(4450)+ states recently discovered at LHCb have masses close to several relevant thresholds, which suggests they can be described in terms of meson-baryon degrees of freedom. This article explores the phenomenology of these states, and their possible partners, from this point of view. Competing models can be distinguished by the masses of the neutral partners which have yet to be observed, and the existence or otherwise of further partners with different isospin, spin, and parity. Future experimental studies in different decay channels can also discriminate among models, using selection rules and algebraic relations among decays. Among the several possible meson-baryon pairs which could be important, one implies that the states are mixtures of isospins 1/2 and 3/2, with characteristic signatures in production and decay. A previous experimental study of a Cabibbo-suppressed decay showed no evidence for the states, and further analysis is required to establish the significance of this non-observation. Several intriguing similarities suggest that Pc(4450)+ is related to the X(3872) meson. (orig.)

  1. Protective effect of Xanthoceraside on injuried PC12 cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Tian-yan; WANG Ying; JIAO Qing; WANG Li-hua; YANG Bai-zhen; ZOU Li-Bo

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effect of Xanthoceraside on various injured PC12 cells models and to indicate the mechanism of Xanthoceraside therapying dementia. Methods Four injured PC12 models induced by glutamate, hydrosulfurous sodium, sodium nitroprusside and potassium chloride accordingly were used to assay the effect of Xanthoceraside on PC12 cells by using morphological examination and MTT assay. In addition, in the model of glutamate injury, the Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by a spectrophotometric method, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured with flow cytometry. Results It was found that Xanthoceraside could obviously increase the viability of PC12 cells injured by four injury models. Xanthoceraside could also decerase the levels of LDH release, MDA production, and ROS generation induced by glutamate. Conclusions These data indicate that Xanthoceraside may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).

  2. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 Tmelting). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ dk with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author)

  3. Mass transport in aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaist, D.G.

    1986-09-01

    Conductimetric and diaphragm cell techniques have been used to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride solutions at 25/sup 0/C. At low concentrations where Zn/sup 2 +/ is the major zinc-transporting species, the diffusion-induced electric field along zinc chloride concentration gradients drives large co-current flows of potassium chloride. In concentrated solutions where a large proportion of zinc diffusses as anionic ZnCl/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ complexes, flow of zinc chloride generates counterflow of potassium chloride. If a sharp zinc chloride is formed in an otherwise uniform solution of potassium chloride, coupled diffusion can concentrate potassium ions within the diffusion boundary. Equations are developed to predict multicomponent transport coefficients for zinc chloride in supporting electrolytes.

  4. User's guide for an interactive fault tree editor, PC-CREFTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support the core damage frequency evaluation in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants, a personal computer (PC) based level-1 program package named PC-REFT (PC-Based Reliability Analysis with Event Tree and Fault Tree Techniques) is being developed at JAERI. This report provides a user's guide for a fault tree editor, PC-CREFTS, which is a member program of PC-REFT. PC-CREFTS is a PC-based program for editing fault trees interactively and has the following capabilities and features. (1) Interactively constructing/updating fault trees and assigning failure rate data to basic events on a given fault tree : This capability enhances efficiency in building and modifying fault trees. (2) Checking the logical structure of a given fault tree and lack of failure rates for basic events : This capability can eliminate data errors in preparing input data for the fault tree analysis. (3) Creating input data files for the fault tree analysis codes, FTA-J and CUT-TD, which were developed at JAERI and run on a main-frame computer : This capability can reduce manual efforts in preparing input data for these codes. (4) Printing a given fault tree : This capability assists the analyst in documenting the fault tree analysis. In addition, PC-CREFTS gives the user-friendly graphic interface, making it easier for the users to edit the fault tree and to manage the data files. (author)

  5. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  6. Data acquisition techniques using PC

    CERN Document Server

    Austerlitz, Howard

    1991-01-01

    Data Acquisition Techniques Using Personal Computers contains all the information required by a technical professional (engineer, scientist, technician) to implement a PC-based acquisition system. Including both basic tutorial information as well as some advanced topics, this work is suitable as a reference book for engineers or as a supplemental text for engineering students. It gives the reader enough understanding of the topics to implement a data acquisition system based on commercial products. A reader can alternatively learn how to custom build hardware or write his or her own software.

  7. Synthesis of phosphatidylcholine: an improved method without using the cadmium chloride complex of sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Iwasaki, Hitomi; Ueda, Kaori; Takizawa, Ryoko; Naito, Hideko; Tomosugi, Mitsuhiro

    2005-10-01

    An improved safe method that does not contaminate the environment with cadmium chloride, a toxic heavy metal salt, was developed for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). PC was synthesized from sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC) and fatty acid in one step under mild conditions without the use of cadmium chloride. GPC was prepared from egg yolk PC and adsorbed by kieselguhr in a Teflon vessel. The GPC on kieselguhr was acylated with fatty acid in the presence of two reagents, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide for synthesis of fatty acid anhydride and 4-dimethylaminopyridine as an acylating catalyst, at 30 degrees C overnight. The PC thus produced was purified by silica gel column chromatography. The yield of dioleoyl PC was 90% based on the starting material, GPC. PMID:16054615

  8. PC driven integrated vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monitoring of industrial plants by virtual instrumentation represents the most modern trend in the domain of electronic equipment. The integrated vacuum system presented here has several facilities, including the automated data storing of measurement results on hard disk and providing warning messages for operators when the measured parameters are lower or higher upper than the fixed values. The system can also work stand-alone, receiving the commands from the keyboards placed on his front panel but, when it is included in a automation complex system, a remote control from PC is necessary . Both parts of the system, power supply unit for turbo-molecular pump and the vacuum gage, are controlled by an 80C31 microcontroller. Because this microcontroller has a built-in circuitry for a serial communication, we established a serial communication between the PC and the power supply unit for turbo-molecular pump and the vacuum gage, according to the RS-232 hardware standard. As software, after careful evaluation of several options, we chose to develop a hybrid software packing using two different software development tools: LabVIEW, and assembly language. We chose LabVIEW because it is dedicated to data acquisition and communications, containing libraries for data collection, analysis, display and storage. (authors)

  9. PC based vibration monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health of large rotating machinery gets reflected in the vibration signature of the rotor and supporting structures and proper recording of these signals and their analysis can give a clear picture of the health of the machine. Using these data and their trending, it is possible to predict an impending trouble in the machine so that preventive action can be taken in time and catastrophic failure can be avoided. Continuous monitoring and analysis can give quick warning and enable operator to take preventive measures. Reactor Control Division, BARC is developing a PC based Vibration monitoring system for turbo generator machinery. The System can acquire 20 vibration signals at a rate of 5000 samples per second and also 15 process signals at a rate of 100 samples/ sec. The software for vibration monitoring system includes acquisition modules, analysis modules and Graphical User Interface module. The acquisition module involves initialization, setting of required parameters and acquiring the data from PC-based data acquisition cards. The acquired raw vibration data is then stored for analysis using various software packages. The display and analysis of acquired data is done in LabVIEW 7.0 where the data is displayed in time as well as frequency domain along with the RMS value of the signal. (author)

  10. SI PC104 Performance Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo, S

    2005-12-16

    The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

  11. Computer code ANISN multiplying media and shielding calculation 2. Code description (input/output)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new code CCC-0514-ANISN/PC is described, as well as a ''GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ANISN/PC code''. In addition to the ANISN/PC code, the transmittal package includes an interactive input generation programme called APE (ANISN Processor and Evaluator), which facilitates the work of the user in giving input. Also, a 21 group photon cross section master library FLUNGP.LIB in ISOTX format, which can be edited by an executable file LMOD.EXE, is included in the package. The input and output subroutines are reviewed. 6 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  13. Conversion from 8800 to 8800PC - Evaluation and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though a final version of the software is pending the 8800PC operating system host computer is a welcomed change from the old Digital (DEC) host computer. The 8800PC host computer uses the Windows NT operating system and has proven to be very user friendly. Descriptive window messages replace the cryptic coding of the DEC host. Though numerous electrical components were replaced, system calibration remained constant. Calibrated Thermoluminescent (TL) output from a randomly selected 8815 field card was measured before and after the upgrade. The % difference, when comparing calibrated output from an upgraded reader to the non upgraded reader, ranged from 0.2 to 3%. The most disappointing aspect of the upgrade experience was the lag time between hardware installation and software completion

  14. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  15. Time-course of hemispheric preference for processing contralateral relevant shapes: P1pc, N1pc, N2pc, N3pc

    OpenAIRE

    Verleger, Rolf; Żurawska vel Grajewska, Blandyna; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A most sensitive and specific electrophysiological indicator of selective processing of visual stimuli is the N2pc component. N2pc is a negative EEG potential peaking 250 ms after stimulus onset, recorded from posterior sites contralateral to relevant stimuli. Additional deflections preceding or following N2pc have been obtained in previous studies, possibly produced by specific stimulus features or specific prime-target sequences. To clarify the entire time-course of the contralateral- ipsil...

  16. Green PC Saves Human Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Shaik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently. This give idea about reduce the use of hazardous materials maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote recyclability. Green computing can be broadly defined as the problem of reducing the overall carbon footprint of computing and communication infrastructure, such as data centers, by using energy-efficient design and operations. As the environmentalists and energy conservationists ponder over the issue of conserving environment, technologists have come out with a simple solution to let you contribute to the “Go Green” campaign- with the help of Green PCs. By using green computing practices; you can improve energy management, increase energy efficiency, reduce e-waste, and save money. Taking into consideration the popular use of information technology industry, it has to lead a revolution of sorts by turning green in a manner no industry has ever done before. It is worth emphasizing that this “green technology” should not be just about sound bytes to impress activists but concrete action and organizational policy. The plan towards Green PC should include new electronic products and services with optimum efficiency and all possible options towards energy savings and technical issues in high-performance green computing span the spectrum from green infrastructure like energy-efficient buildings, intelligent cooling systems, green power sources for green hardware multi-core computing systems, energy-efficient server design, energy-efficient solid-state storage for green software and applications.

  17. PC Cluster Machine Equipped with High-Speed Communication Software

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, M

    2004-01-01

    A high performance Beowulf (PC cluster) machine installed with Linux operating system and MPI (Message Passing Interface) for interprocessor communications has been constructed using Gigabit Ethernet and the communication software GAMMA (Genoa Active Message Machine), instead of the standard TCP/IP protocol. Fast C/Fortran compilers have been exploited with the GAMMA communication libraries. This method has eliminated large communication overhead of TCP/IP and resulted in significant increase in the computational performance of real application programs including the first-principle molecular dynamics simulation code. (Keywords: non TCP/IP, active messages, small latency, fast C/Fortran compilers, materials science, first-principle molecular dynamics)

  18. Hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Qi Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P21/n structure. The results indicate that PC61BM combines into C–H⋯Od bonded molecular chains, where Od denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C–H⋯Os bonds, where Os denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC61BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure, we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P21/n PC61BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C–H⋯Od bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC61BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC61BM.

  19. Hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P21/n) structure. The results indicate that PC61BM combines into C–H⋯Od bonded molecular chains, where Od denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C–H⋯Os bonds, where Os denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC61BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P21/n) PC61BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C–H⋯Od bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC61BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC61BM

  20. Monte Carlo simulations on a 9-node PC cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulation methods are frequently used in the fields of medical physics, dosimetry and metrology of ionising radiation. Nevertheless, the main drawback of this technique is to be computationally slow, because the statistical uncertainty of the result improves only as the square root of the computational time. We present a method, which allows to reduce by a factor 10 to 20 the used effective running time. In practice, the aim was to reduce the calculation time in the LNHB metrological applications from several weeks to a few days. This approach includes the use of a PC-cluster, under Linux operating system and PVM parallel library (version 3.4). The Monte Carlo codes EGS4, MCNP and PENELOPE have been implemented on this platform and for the two last ones adapted for running under the PVM environment. The maximum observed speedup is ranging from a factor 13 to 18 according to the codes and the problems to be simulated. (orig.)

  1. Computation of USGS Soil UHS and Comparison to NEHRP and PC 1 Seismic Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.C.

    2000-04-26

    Recently, new site-specific seismic design response spectra were developed for Savannah River Site (SRS) performance category (PC) 1,2,3 and 4 structures, systems and components (SSCs) (WSRC, 1997, 1998) in accordance with DOE Standards. The lower performance categories (PC1 and PC2) site-specific design basis were not compatible with the response spectrum generated if building code guidelines were used (National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Building, (NEHRP), 1997). These differences in criteria and approach should be documented and understood. Thus, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) initiated this study to evaluate the difference between the building code hazard assessment (NEHRP) and the site-specific hazard evaluations used for SRS design.

  2. PC based film badge dosemeter reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dedicated stand alone film badge dosemeter reader based on a PC is designed for existing personnel monitoring films, kept in a multifilter cassette. The system is designed using a conventional, in use, single beam densitometer, with a little change in its hardware as an input device and all the features of the system are incorporated through PC software. The output of densitometer is fed to PC through an interface which controls the entire operation of the system. Details of the design and its performance are described. (author). 6 refs

  3. 2004—A Year for Business PC Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Looking back into China's PC industry last year, we find that during the rise of sales volume and fall of price, the originally meager profit of the PC manufacturer was again reduced little by little.In facing the cruel and fierce competition of PC market, how shall China's PC manufacturers remold PC and gain a bright future?

  4. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  5. 进口PC-E500机应谨慎%Importing PC-E500 with caution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹来发

    1994-01-01

    @@ SHARP PC-1500机自1982年初问世以来,型号已发展为PC-1200系列PC-1300系列、PC-1400系列;1986年开始,日本SHARP公司推出了多CPU的PC-1600和PC-1600K型,后者带有日本一级汉字;1988年,又推出了Z80 CPU的PC-E200和现在的PC-E500,以及PC-3000计算机.

  6. A PC-based telemetry system for acquiring and reducing data from multiple PCM streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, D. A.; Butterfield, C. P.

    1991-07-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Wind Research Program is using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Telemetry Data-Acquisition Systems to study horizontal-axis wind turbines. Many PCM systems are combined for use in test installations that require accurate measurements from a variety of different locations. SERI has found them ideal for data-acquisition from multiple wind turbines and meteorological towers in wind parks. A major problem has been in providing the capability to quickly combine and examine incoming data from multiple PCM sources in the field. To solve this problem, SERI has developed a low-cost PC-based PCM Telemetry Data-Reduction System (PC-PCM System) to facilitate quick, in-the-field multiple-channel data analysis. The PC-PCM System consists of two basic components. First, PC-compatible hardware boards are used to decode and combine multiple PCM data streams. Up to four hardware boards can be installed in a single PC, which provides the capability to combine data from four PCM streams directly to PC disk or memory. Each stream can have up to 62 data channels. Second, a software package written for use under DOS was developed to simplify data-acquisition control and management. The software, called the Quick-Look Data Management Program, provides a quick, easy-to-use interface between the PC and multiple PCM data streams. The Quick-Look Data Management Program is a comprehensive menu-driven package used to organize, acquire, process, and display information from incoming PCM data streams. The paper describes both hardware and software aspects of the SERI PC-PCM system, concentrating on features that make it useful in an experiment test environment to quickly examine and verify incoming data from multiple PCM streams. Also discussed are problems and techniques associated with PC-based telemetry data-acquisition, processing, and real-time display.

  7. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships. PMID:15768716

  8. [Functions of prion protein PrPc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazaubon, Sylvie; Viegas, Pedro; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier

    2007-01-01

    It is now well established that both normal and pathological (or scrapie) isoforms of prion protein, PrPc and PrPsc respectively, are involved in the development and progression of various forms of neurodegenerative diseases, including scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or "mad cow disease") and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in human, collectively known as prion diseases. The protein PrPc is highly expressed in the central nervous system in neurons and glial cells, and also present in non-brain cells, such as immune cells or epithelial and endothelial cells. Identification of the physiological functions of PrPc in these different cell types thus appears crucial for understanding the progression of prion diseases. Recent studies highlighted several major roles for PrPc that may be considered in two major domains : (1) cell survival (protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis) and (2) cell adhesion. In association with cell adhesion, distinct functions of PrPc were observed, depending on cell types : neuronal differentiation, epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity, transendothelial migration of monocytes, T cell activation. These observations suggest that PrPc functions may be particularly relevant to cellular stress, as well as inflammatory or infectious situations. PMID:17875293

  9. Permutation codes

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Slepians permutation codes are investigated in detail. In particular we optimize the initial vector and derive all dominating codes in dimension n 2 6. With the exception of the simplex and biorthogonal codes - which are always included as special cases of permutation codes - there are probably no further good codes in higher dimensions.

  10. Intracranial artery velocity measurement using 4D PC MRI at 3 T: comparison with transcranial ultrasound techniques and 2D PC MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Stephan [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Leitner, Lorenz; Schubert, Tilman [University Hospital Basel, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Bonati, Leo H.; Lyrer, Philippe [University Hospital Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); Santini, Francesco [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiological Physics, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Stalder, Aurelien F. [Xuanwu Hospital - Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Chicago (United States); Wetzel, Stephan G. [Neuroradiology, Swiss Neuro Institute, Klinik Hirslanden, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    4D phase contrast MR imaging (4D PC MRI) has been introduced for spatiotemporal evaluation of intracranial hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular diseases. However, it still lacks validation with standards of reference. Our goal was to compare blood flow quantification derived from 4D PC MRI with transcranial ultrasound and 2D PC MRI. Velocity measurements within large intracranial arteries [internal carotid artery (ICA), basilar artery (BA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] were obtained in 20 young healthy volunteers with 4D and 2D PC MRI, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD). Maximum velocities at peak systole (PSV) and end diastole (EDV) were compared using regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation of 4D PC MRI measured velocities was higher in comparison with TCD (r = 0.49-0.66) than with TCCD (0.35-0.44) and 2D PC MRI (0.52-0.60). In mid-BA and ICA C7 segment, a significant correlation was found with TCD (0.68-0.81 and 0.65-0.71, respectively). No significant correlation was found in carotid siphon. On average over all volunteers, PSVs and EDVs in MCA were minimally underestimated compared with TCD/TCCD. Minimal overestimation of velocities was found compared to TCD in mid-BA and ICA C7 segment. 4D PC MRI appears as valid alternative for intracranial velocity measurement consistent with previous reference standards, foremost with TCD. Spatiotemporal averaging effects might contribute to vessel size-dependent mild underestimation of velocities in smaller (MCA), and overestimation in larger-sized (BA and ICA) arteries, respectively. Complete spatiotemporal flow analysis may be advantageous in anatomically complex regions (e.g. carotid siphon) relative to restrictions of ultrasound techniques. (orig.)

  11. Intracranial artery velocity measurement using 4D PC MRI at 3 T: comparison with transcranial ultrasound techniques and 2D PC MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    4D phase contrast MR imaging (4D PC MRI) has been introduced for spatiotemporal evaluation of intracranial hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular diseases. However, it still lacks validation with standards of reference. Our goal was to compare blood flow quantification derived from 4D PC MRI with transcranial ultrasound and 2D PC MRI. Velocity measurements within large intracranial arteries [internal carotid artery (ICA), basilar artery (BA), and middle cerebral artery (MCA)] were obtained in 20 young healthy volunteers with 4D and 2D PC MRI, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), and transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD). Maximum velocities at peak systole (PSV) and end diastole (EDV) were compared using regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Correlation of 4D PC MRI measured velocities was higher in comparison with TCD (r = 0.49-0.66) than with TCCD (0.35-0.44) and 2D PC MRI (0.52-0.60). In mid-BA and ICA C7 segment, a significant correlation was found with TCD (0.68-0.81 and 0.65-0.71, respectively). No significant correlation was found in carotid siphon. On average over all volunteers, PSVs and EDVs in MCA were minimally underestimated compared with TCD/TCCD. Minimal overestimation of velocities was found compared to TCD in mid-BA and ICA C7 segment. 4D PC MRI appears as valid alternative for intracranial velocity measurement consistent with previous reference standards, foremost with TCD. Spatiotemporal averaging effects might contribute to vessel size-dependent mild underestimation of velocities in smaller (MCA), and overestimation in larger-sized (BA and ICA) arteries, respectively. Complete spatiotemporal flow analysis may be advantageous in anatomically complex regions (e.g. carotid siphon) relative to restrictions of ultrasound techniques. (orig.)

  12. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  13. Lipid vesicles loading aluminum phthalocyanine chloride: Formulation properties and disaggregation upon intracellular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calori, Italo Rodrigo; Tedesco, Antonio Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) is a second-generation photodynamic therapy (PDT) photosensitizer characterized for its high hydrophobicity and self-aggregation tendency in aqueous media, which hamper its potential application. Aiming at AlClPc solubilization we proposed here the use of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) at different proportions to form mixed lipid vesicles (LVs) as a drug delivery system. LVs were prepared by ethanol injection method and formed nano-sized vesicles (about 100nm) with suitable polydispersity index, negative zeta potential, and stable in aqueous medium for at least 50days. AlClPc strongly interacts with LV (high binding constant values), especially due to aluminum-phosphate specific interactions, which gives a surface localization to AlClPc molecules as demonstrated by fluorescence quenching data. Anisotropy, static and time-resolved fluorescence measurements corroborated with these results and demonstrated that AlClPc self-aggregation occurred even in the liposomes. However, formulation uptake by oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) the AlClPc was distributed in cellular organelles and suffered a disaggregation process demonstrated by fluorescence life-time imaging microscopy. This amazing behavior is new and increases the scientific knowledge about the intracellular mechanism of action of PDT photosensitizers. In addition, these results open a new perspective to the potential use of AlClPc-LV formulations for photodynamic treatment. PMID:27130963

  14. ENDF utility codes version 6.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description and operating instructions are given for a package of utility codes operating on evaluated nuclear data files in the formats ENDF-5 and ENDF-6. Included are the data checking codes CHECKER, FIZCON, PSYCHE; the code INTER for retrieving thermal cross-sections and some other data; graphical plotting codes PLOTEF, GRALIB, graphic device interface subroutine library INTLIB; and the file maintenance and retrieval codes LISTEF, SETMDC, GETMAT, STANEF. This program package which is designed for CDC, IBM, DEC and PC computers, can be obtained on magnetic tape or floppy diskette, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  15. PC/104 Asyn drivers at Jefferson lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asyn Driver was applied for PC/104 IOC serial communication systems at Jefferson Lab. We chose the ines GPIB-PC/104-XL as the GPIB interface module and developed a low lever device driver that is compatible with the Asyn Driver. Instrument device support was created to provide access to the operating parameters of GPIB devices. A Low level device driver for the serial communication board Model 104-COM-8SM was also developed to run under Asyn Driver. This serial interface board contains eight independent ports and provides effective RS-485, RS-422 and RS-232 multipoint communication. StreamDevice protocols were applied for the serial communications. The Asyn Driver in PC/104 IOC applications provides a standard interface between the high level device support and hardware level device drivers. This makes it easy to develop the GPIB and serial communication applications for PC/104 IOCs. A number of applications have been written to use the PC/104 Asyn driver in our control system at Jefferson Lab. (authors)

  16. PC based 8-parameter data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiparameter data acquisition (MPA) systems which analyse nuclear events with respect to more than one property of the event are essential tools for the study of some complex nuclear phenomena requiring analysis of time coincident spectra. For better throughput and accuracy each parameter is digitized by its own ADC. A stand alone low cost IBM PC based 8-parameter data acquisition system developed by the authors makes use of Address Recording technique for acquiring data from eight 12 bit ADC's in the PC Memory. Two memory buffers in the PC memory are used in ping-pong fashion so that data acquisition in one bank and dumping of data onto PC disk from the other bank can proceed simultaneously. Data is acquired in the PC memory through DMA mode for realising high throughput and hardware interrupt is used for switching banks for data acquisition. A comprehensive software package developed in Turbo-Pascal offers a set of menu-driven interactive commands to the user for setting-up system parameters and control of the system. The system is to be used with pelletron accelerator. (author). 5 figs

  17. Coding and transformations in the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naoshige; Poo, Cindy; Haddad, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    How is sensory information represented in the brain? A long-standing debate in neural coding is whether and how timing of spikes conveys information to downstream neurons. Although we know that neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) exhibit rich temporal dynamics, the functional relevance of temporal coding remains hotly debated. Recent recording experiments in awake behaving animals have elucidated highly organized temporal structures of activity in the OB. In addition, the analysis of neural circuits in the piriform cortex (PC) demonstrated the importance of not only OB afferent inputs but also intrinsic PC neural circuits in shaping odor responses. Furthermore, new experiments involving stimulation of the OB with specific temporal patterns allowed for testing the relevance of temporal codes. Together, these studies suggest that the relative timing of neuronal activity in the OB conveys odor information and that neural circuits in the PC possess various mechanisms to decode temporal patterns of OB input. PMID:24905594

  18. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  19. Stimulatory effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on norepinephrine secretion in cultured pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TSAI Chin-Chuan; L1U I-Min; CHENG Juei-Tang

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde (CNMA) on the release of norepinephrine (NE) from nerve terminal was investigated using rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC-12) cells. METHODS: The amount of NA released from PC-12 cells incubated with CNMA or related substances was quantified by high performance fiquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrochemical detection. The lipophilic anion bisoxonol was used to monitor the effect of CNMA on the membrane potential. RESULTS: CNMA stimulated the secretion of NE in a concentration-dependent manner from 5μmol/L to 50 μmol/L, while the value of lactate dehydrogenase in the incubated medium was not influenced by CNMA. However, acetaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamoyl chloride and cinnamamide failed to produce similar effect. The action of CNMA can thus be considered specific. The depolarizing effect of CNMA on the membrane potential was also illustrated by a concentration-dependent increase in the fluorescence of bisoxonol, a potential-sensitive dye. Saxitoxin attenuated the depolarizing action of CNMA at concentrations sufficient to block sodium channels. Besides, the effect of CNMA to depolarize the membrane potential in PC-12 cells is greater than that of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The action of CNMA on NE releasing depends on extmcellular Ca2 + and is attenuated by 8-bromo-cAMP at concentrations sufficient to inhibit the action of cyclic AMP. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CNMA can depolarize the membrane to result in a Cas+-dependent and cyclic AMP-related release of NE from PC-12 cells.

  20. Self-assembled IKVAV Peptide Nanofibers Promote Adherence of PC12 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yongchao; ZHENG Qixin; DU Jingyuan; SONG Yulin; WU Bin; GUO Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    Lack of biocompatibility and bioactivity is a big problem for the synthetic materials that have been generated for neural tissue engineering. To get around the problem and generate better scaffold for neural tissue repair, we intended to generate nano-fibers by self-assembly of polypeptide IKVAV. Bioactive IKVAV Peptide-Amphiphile (IKVAV-PA) was first synthesized and purified, the property of which was analyzed and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)and mass spectrometry (MS). Then, by addition of hydrogen chloride (HCl), self-assembly of IKVAV-PA was induced in vitro and nano-fibers formed as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of IKVAV nanofibers on adherence of PC12 cells was assayed in cell culture and the results showed that the rates of adherence of PC12 increased significantly when the density of IKVAV was within a certain range (0.58 μg/cm2 to 15.6 μg/cm2). However, its effect on the rates of adherence did not significantly alter with time, whether after 1 hour or 3 hours of culture. In general,we showed that IKVAV-PA can successfully self-assemble to form nanofiber, and promote rapid and stable adherence of PC12 cells, and the effect of the self-assembled IKVAV to promote PC12 cells adherence is dosage-dependent within a certain range of densities.

  1. Population dose assessment: characteristics of PC CREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main features of the PC CREAM, a program for performing radiological impact assessments due to radioactive discharges into the environment during the operation of radioactive and nuclear facilities. PC CREAM is a suite of six programs that can be used to estimate individual and collective radiation doses. The methodology of PC CREAM is based on updated environmental and dosimetric models, including ICRP 60 recommendations. The models include several exposure pathways and the input files are easy to access. The ergonomics of the program improves the user interaction and makes easier the input of local data. This program is useful for performing sensitivity analysis, siting studies and validation of model comparing the activity concentration output data with environmental monitoring data. The methodology of each module is described as well as the output data. (author)

  2. PC'eren på arbejde. 3. udgave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Povl Erik Rostgård

    En generel og ikke-programspecifik introduktion til edb-området med speciel fokus på pc'er og pc-programmel.......En generel og ikke-programspecifik introduktion til edb-området med speciel fokus på pc'er og pc-programmel....

  3. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501... DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is... publicize to all PC Postage customers the following payment options (listed in order of preference):...

  4. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Kothaneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint. Results indicate that if used correctly, the tablet PC can be used across different learning styles to enrich the educational experience.

  5. Installation and implementation of PC COSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSYMA is a probabilistic reactor accident consequence assessment model developed in the 1980's by the research institutes of the EC countries, primarily by NRPB and KfK. In 1993 a simplified version of the program was released to be implemented on a PC. In the study the PC COSYMA program was applied to calculate as the end points nuclide concentrations, doses received, numbers of health effects, areas affected by countermeasures and other results related to countermeasure strategies. Some results are compared with the results obtained by the ARANO program developed by VTT Energy (Technical Research Centre of Finland) to quarantee proper interpretation of the application. (15 refs.)

  6. Building a PC in easy steps

    CERN Document Server

    Yarnold, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Written for those who want more than what the standard pre-built PCs offer. Pre-built systems are often, a compromise between what the manufacturers want to sell you and what you want to buy. One solution is to build it yourself. Acquiring a copy of Building a PC in easy steps is the first step in the right direction to build a PC. Written in concise and easy-to-understand style, this book will take you by the hand and walk you through all the stages of building and setting up a computer: Buying the parts and avoiding sales scams; mastering and installing each component (CPU, memory, video, et

  7. Collaborative Simulation Grid: Multiscale Quantum-Mechanical/Classical Atomistic Simulations on Distributed PC Clusters in the US and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Ogata, Shuji; Kouno, Takahisa; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Tsuruta, Kanji; Saini, Subhash; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, collaborative simulation has been performed on a Grid of geographically distributed PC clusters. The multiscale simulation approach seamlessly combines i) atomistic simulation backed on the molecular dynamics (MD) method and ii) quantum mechanical (QM) calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT), so that accurate but less scalable computations are performed only where they are needed. The multiscale MD/QM simulation code has been Grid-enabled using i) a modular, additive hybridization scheme, ii) multiple QM clustering, and iii) computation/communication overlapping. The Gridified MD/QM simulation code has been used to study environmental effects of water molecules on fracture in silicon. A preliminary run of the code has achieved a parallel efficiency of 94% on 25 PCs distributed over 3 PC clusters in the US and Japan, and a larger test involving 154 processors on 5 distributed PC clusters is in progress.

  8. Found a USB stick? Go and infect your PC!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Err. Wait. Please no! USB sticks are not innocent little things. They can quickly mutate into malicious nasty beasts! Just in the recent past, at least two physics experiments were suffering as their control and data acquisition PCs, respectively, were infected by USB sticks holding malicious code. A bit longer ago, a series of laptops were infected at a 2008 computing conference as an infected USB stick made its tour around. Bad luck for those who ran a Windows operating system and inserted that stick…   So, you found a USB stick in the cafeteria? Take care. If this were a lollipop, you wouldn’t just pick it up and lick it, would you? So beware of USB sticks whose origin or previous usage you don’t know. They might infect your PC once plugged in. In order to be on the safe side, accept and share only USB sticks whose owner you trust. Run up-to-date anti-virus software on your PC, make sure that its operating system is patched...

  9. Source Code Interaction on Touchscreens

    OpenAIRE

    Raab, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Direct interaction with touchscreens has become a primary way of using a device. This work seeks to devise interaction methods for editing textual source code on touch-enabled devices. With the advent of the “Post-PC Era”, touch-centric interaction has received considerable attention in both research and development. However, various limitations have impeded widespread adoption of programming environments on modern platforms. Previous attempts have mainly been successful by simplifying or con...

  10. Desain dan Implementasi Sistem Kendali CNC Router Menggunakan PC untuk Flame Cutting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Permana Saputra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on design of router control systems based on computer numerical control (CNC using personal computer (PC implemented in flame cutting machine (FCM. NC-Code entered into the computer translated to be a command signal sent by the PC to a microcontroller to control the end effector’s movement alongthe X and Y axis simultaneously based on linear and circular interpolations calculation on the PC. This control system is implemented on FCM by connecting the output control of the microcontroller with the driver actuator of the FCM in the form of a DC motor. The obtained result is in the form of a CNC router control system prototype to be implemented in the FCM which is capable to perform linear interpolation and circular interpolation. 

  11. Channel coding techniques for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Deergha Rao, K

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses modern channel coding techniques for wireless communications such as turbo codes, low-density parity check (LDPC) codes, space–time (ST) coding, RS (or Reed–Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Many illustrative examples are included in each chapter for easy understanding of the coding techniques. The text is integrated with MATLAB-based programs to enhance the understanding of the subject’s underlying theories. It includes current topics of increasing importance such as turbo codes, LDPC codes, Luby transform (LT) codes, Raptor codes, and ST coding in detail, in addition to the traditional codes such as cyclic codes, BCH (or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem) and RS codes and convolutional codes. Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) communications is a multiple antenna technology, which is an effective method for high-speed or high-reliability wireless communications. PC-based MATLAB m-files for the illustrative examples are provided on the book page on Springer.com for free dow...

  12. Stretch Your PC Dollars--Buy Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, John

    1986-01-01

    Relates how the story of how San Francisco State University evaluated IBM PC look-alikes, considered some of the risks involved, and decided to purchase over 100 of them. Questions of compatibility, vendor longevity, support, and other risk management issues are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  13. Experience using EPICS on PC platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of implementations have used UNIX workstations as clients, and VME- or VXI-based processors for distributed input output controllers. Recently, a significant portion of EPICS has been ported to personal computer (PC) hardware platforms running Microsoft's operating systems, and also Wind River System's real time vxWorks operating system. This development should significantly reduce the cost of deploying EPICS systems, and the prospect of using EPICS together with the many high quality commercial components available for PC platforms is also encouraging. A hybrid system using both PC and traditional platforms is currently being implemented at LANL for LEDA, the low energy demonstration accelerator under construction as part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. To illustrate these developments the authors compare their recent experience deploying a PC-based EPICS system with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional (UNIX-hosted) EPICS hardware and software platforms

  14. Brugervejledning til pc-programmet STLRAMME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhelt, M.

    Pc-programmet STLRAMME supplerer SBI-anvisning 187, 'Simple stålrammebygninger. Dimensionering og udførelse'. Programmet kan anvendes til dimensionering af stålrammebygninger med andre mål end dem, der er medtaget i anvisningens tabeller; men det erstatter kun stålramme- og åsetabellerne, ikke...

  15. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  16. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  17. COMPPAP - COMPOSITE PLATE BUCKLING ANALYSIS PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Composite Plate Buckling Analysis Program (COMPPAP) was written to help engineers determine buckling loads of orthotropic (or isotropic) irregularly shaped plates without requiring hand calculations from design curves or extensive finite element modeling. COMPPAP is a one element finite element program that utilizes high-order displacement functions. The high order of the displacement functions enables the user to produce results more accurate than traditional h-finite elements. This program uses these high-order displacement functions to perform a plane stress analysis of a general plate followed by a buckling calculation based on the stresses found in the plane stress solution. The current version assumes a flat plate (constant thickness) subject to a constant edge load (normal or shear) on one or more edges. COMPPAP uses the power method to find the eigenvalues of the buckling problem. The power method provides an efficient solution when only one eigenvalue is desired. Once the eigenvalue is found, the eigenvector, which corresponds to the plate buckling mode shape, results as a by-product. A positive feature of the power method is that the dominant eigenvalue is the first found, which is this case is the plate buckling load. The reported eigenvalue expresses a load factor to induce plate buckling. COMPPAP is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77. Two machine versions are available from COSMIC: a PC version (MSC-22428), which is for IBM PC 386 series and higher computers and compatibles running MS-DOS; and a UNIX version (MSC-22286). The distribution medium for both machine versions includes source code for both single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The PC version includes source code which has been optimized for implementation within DOS memory constraints as well as sample executables for both the single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The double precision versions of COMPPAP have been successfully implemented on an IBM PC 386 compatible running

  18. Speech coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersho, Allen

    1990-05-01

    Recent advances in algorithms and techniques for speech coding now permit high quality voice reproduction at remarkably low bit rates. The advent of powerful single-ship signal processors has made it cost effective to implement these new and sophisticated speech coding algorithms for many important applications in voice communication and storage. Some of the main ideas underlying the algorithms of major interest today are reviewed. The concept of removing redundancy by linear prediction is reviewed, first in the context of predictive quantization or DPCM. Then linear predictive coding, adaptive predictive coding, and vector quantization are discussed. The concepts of excitation coding via analysis-by-synthesis, vector sum excitation codebooks, and adaptive postfiltering are explained. The main idea of vector excitation coding (VXC) or code excited linear prediction (CELP) are presented. Finally low-delay VXC coding and phonetic segmentation for VXC are described.

  19. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  20. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  1. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  2. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  3. Theoretical Study of the Kinetics of the Pyrolytic Elimination Reaction of Ethyl Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Isaiah Ajibade Adejoro; Emmanuel Ekeh

    2010-01-01

    The products of the gas-phase elimination of ethyl chloride are hydrogen chloride and ethane. Using AM1, MNDO and PM3 Hamiltonians of quantum mechanical computer code called MOPAC, a procedure for the kinetics and computation of the Arrhenius parameters for the pyrolytic elimination reaction of ethyl chloride was devised in order to evaluate the predictive ability of the three Hamiltonians used. The first-order rate coefficient for the three Hamiltonians are 1.15x10-8s-1, 4.55x10-15s-1 and 5....

  4. Development of GIFT-PC: the software with multi-drawing functions of three dimensional geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Combinatorial Geometry (CG) is a general-purpose geometry package used on radiation transport simulation codes. It is quite useful to illustrate the CG geometries on a simulation code because the visible information of the CG geometries used in a calculation can avoid some mistakes in the case of complicated data, and make it easier to understand the calculation models in the case of presentations. GIFT code (Geographic Information For Target) hsa been developed at Ballistic Research Laboratory, US, for the purpose of illustrating the components of a target from any point of view, calculating a projected area or volume and checking the correctness of the geometry description. Using the drawing functions of GIFT code, perspective or isometric views of a target can be obtained from various points of view. The present report describes the overview of GIFT code and the development of GIFT-PC. GIFT-PC, based on GIFT code, has been developed for easier drawings of three-dimensional geometries using the GUI (Graphical User Interface) system of personal computers, and can be used in various fields as a useful drawing tool for CG geometries. (author)

  5. code {poems}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishac Bertran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available "Exploring the potential of code to communicate at the level of poetry," the code­ {poems} project solicited submissions from code­writers in response to the notion of a poem, written in a software language which is semantically valid. These selections reveal the inner workings, constitutive elements, and styles of both a particular software and its authors.

  6. Formation of monomer residues in PS, PC, PA-6 and PVC upon γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food packaging polymers, polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), polyamide-6 (PA-6), and polyvinylchloride (PVC), were irradiated with dose in the range 5-200 kGy. The quantities of corresponding monomer residues (styrene monomer, bisphenol-A, ε-caprolactam, vinyl chloride) released from target materials were analyzed using a SIM mode of GC/MSD. Styrene monomer in PS showed a slight increase from 740 to 777 ppm at 5-30 kGy and then decreased as the dose increased from 30 to 200 kGy. Bisphenol-A in PC was dose independent at the low doses, 5, 10 and 30 kGy, but its level increased from 173 to 473 ppm at 30 kGy and thereafter remained unchanged through 200 kGy. ε-Caprolactam in PA-6 was also dose independent, in the range of 5-200 kGy, but its level (122-164 ppm) was found to be higher than those (71 ppm) of non-irradiated sample. As for PVC, the quantity of vinyl chloride tended to increase from 8 to 18 ppm at 5-200 kGy

  7. Pc3 pulsations during variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    Full Text Available Pc3 geomagnetic field fluctuations detected at low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy during the passage of a high velocity solar wind stream, characterized by variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, are analyzed. Higher frequency resonant fluctuations and lower frequency phenomena are simultaneously observed; the intermittent appearance and the variable frequency of the longer period modes can be well interpreted in terms of the variable IMF elements; moreover their polarization characteristics are consistent with an origin related to external waves propagating in antisunward direction. A comparison with simultaneous observations performed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica provides additional evidence for a clear relationship between the IMF and Pc3 pulsations also at very high latitudes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  8. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  9. Tablet PC Support of Students' Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Shreya Kothaneth; Ashley Robinson; Catherine Amelink

    2012-01-01

    In the context of rapid technology development, it comes as no surprise that technology continues to impact the educational domain, challenging traditional teaching and learning styles. This study focuses on how students with different learning styles use instructional technology, and in particular, the tablet PC, to enhance their learning experience. The VARK model was chosen as our theoretical framework as we analyzed responses of an online survey, both from a quantitative and qualitative s...

  10. PC imaging system for reactor NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PC-based systems have been given recent attention by EPRI to organize and manage inspection data (RP-2405-15, TestPro system); integrate with larger, mainframe computers to maintain dialogue for on-site and remote applications; and, in this project, to aid the operator in providing guidance to render decisions on the data. The PC system configuration for this project consisted of a central processing unit (CPU), a hard disk and a floppy disk, 640K bytes of system memory, a high-resolution graphics card and compatible color monitor, and a mouse for operator interaction with software. The software package was written in FORTRAN under the PC Disk Operating System (PC-DOS) and utilized a graphics package for image display. Application of this package to crack-counterbore discrimination in piping welds was investigated. Present automatic techniques utilize signal features from single, A-scan data to render a decision on whether the reflector is benign (i.e., counterbore, weld root) or a crack. However, experienced manual operators in the field make reliable decisions based on the integrated response from the reflector as the transducer is scanned past the suspicious region. Since this software package could display and manipulate ensemble A-scans, spatial features - similar to those used by experts - were developed as discriminants. Ultrasonic responses from intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) were discovered to vary both in time-of-flight and in their amplitude, whereas counterbore responses were more consistent. The software package contains methods for viewing and quantifying these spatial features

  11. COSYMA, a mainframe and PC program package for assessing the consequences of hypothetical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSYMA (Code System from MARIA) is a program package for assessing the off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to atmosphere, developed as part of the European Commission's MARIA programme (Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents). COSYMA represents a fusion of ideas and modules from the Forschungszetrum Karlsruhe program system UFOMOD, the National Radiological Protection Board program MARC and new model developments together with data libraries from other MARIA contractors. Mainframe and PC versions of COSYMA are distributed to interested users by arrangement with the European Commission. The system was first released in 1990, and has subsequently been updated. The program system uses independent modules for the different parts of the analysis, and so permits a flexible problem-oriented application to different sites, source terms, emergency plans and the needs of users in the various parts of Europe. Users of the mainframe system can choose the most appropriate combination of modules for their particular application. The PC version includes a user interface which selects the required modules for the endpoints specified by the user. This paper describes the structure of the mainframe and PC versions of COSYMA, and summarises the models included in them. The mainframe or PC versions of COSYMA have been distributed to more than 100 organisations both inside and outside the European Union, and have been used in a wide variety of applications. These range from full PRA level 3 analyses of nuclear power and research reactors to investigations on advanced containment concepts and the preplanning of off-site emergency actions. Some of the experiences from these applications are described in the paper. An international COSYMA user group has been established to stimulate communication between the owners, developers and users of the code and to serve as a reference point for questions relating to the code. The group produces

  12. Simulation with PC-based-p-cat package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PWR Core And Thermohydraulics (P-CAT) package is the first engineering grade real-time simulation code developed to take advantage of today's PC power. The package consists of three important products: CAST (Control And Simulation Tool) system, MACK (Micro-node Analysis of Core Kinetics) model and TPFN (Two Phase Flow Network) thermal hydraulics model. The CAST system offers database management, module scanning, interactive debugging, real-time executives, super graphics, etc. This paper reports that the 3-D MACK model is a FLARE type model, with the major difference of dropping the adiabatic approach. This micro-node model, with 193 (one for each fuel assembly) radial nodes and 6 axial nodes (a total of 158 nodes) for a typical Westinghouse PWR core, was recently completed and benchmarked. The major achievements of the code are its accuracy and time-efficiency. The MACK model is much more accurate than the coarse node (typically 100-200 nodes) models, especially during asymmetrical rod movements. The TPFN model is an engineering thermal hydraulics model. Drift flux formulations are used to faithfully simulate the single phase and two phase phenomena. Presence of noncondensibles can also be simulated. The model uses a unique numerical method that computes the nodal flow rates and the system pressure at the same time. TPFN model has been applied to the simulation of the RCS and steam generators of a Westinghouse plant and integrated with the MACK core model

  13. PC8 [corrected], a new member of the convertase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzaniti, A; Goodge, K; Jay, P; Taviaux, S A; Lam, M H; Berta, P; Martin, T J; Moseley, J M; Gillespie, M T

    1996-03-15

    A novel subtilisin-like protein, PC8, was identified by PCR using degenerate primers to conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic region of members of the prohormone convertase family. PC8 was predicted to be 785 residues long and was structurally related to the mammalian convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2, sharing more than 50% amino acid identity over the catalytic region with these family members. PC8 possessed the catalytically important Asp, His, Asn and Ser amino acids, the homo B domain of this family of enzymes and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence indicative of a transmembrane domain. Structurally, PC8 is more related to furin and PACE4 than to PC1 or PC2. Like furin and PACE4, PC8 mRNA was found to be widely expressed; this is in contrast with PC1 and PC2, which have a restricted distribution. Two transcripts, of 4.5 and 3.5 kb, were detected in both human cell lines and rat tissues. Unlike furin and PACE4, both of which map to chromosome 15, PC8 maps to chromosome 11q23-11q24, suggesting that this gene may have resulted from an ancient gene duplication event from either furin or PACE4, or conversely that these genes arose from PC8. PMID:8615762

  14. PC-SAFT Modeling of CO2 Solubilities in Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubeir, Lawien F; Held, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele; Kroon, Maaike C

    2016-03-10

    Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT), a physically based model that accounts for different molecular interactions explicitly, was applied to describe for the first time the phase behavior of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with CO2 at temperatures from 298.15 to 318.15 K and pressures up to 2 MPa. DESs are mixtures of two solid compounds, a hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and a hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA), which form liquids upon mixing with melting points far below that of the individual compounds. In this work, the HBD is lactic acid and the HBAs are tetramethylammonium chloride, tetraethylammonium chloride, and tetrabutylammonium chloride. Two different modeling strategies were considered for the PC-SAFT modeling. In the first strategy, the so-called pseudo-pure component approach, a DES was considered as a pseudo-pure compound, and its pure-component parameters were obtained by fitting to pure DES density data. In the second strategy, the so-called individual-component approach, a DES was considered to consist of two individual components (HBA and HBD), and the pure-component parameters of the HBA and HBD were obtained by fitting to the density of aqueous solutions containing only the individual compounds of the DES. In order to model vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) of DES + CO2 systems, binary interaction parameters were adjusted to experimental data from the literature and to new data measured in this work. It was concluded that the individual-component strategy allows quantitative prediction of the phase behavior of DES + CO2 systems containing those HBD:HBA molar ratios that were not used for kij fitting. In contrast, applying the pseudo-pure component strategy required DES-composition specific kij parameters. PMID:26814164

  15. Ultrasonic Control of welded joints by using specific PC generated AVG diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an algoritm easy to be implemented in a modern personnel computer (PC), which can be used to obtain the specific AVG diagrams required during the ultrasonic control of welded joints by the AVG method. The algoritm is illustrated by means of the derivation of some specific diagrams corresponding to given inspection testing. Also some results and standard practices given in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used to overcome common problems founded during the practical use of the AVG method with conventional shear wave ultrasonic transducers

  16. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  17. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  18. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. CFARMHD -- A MathCAD PC program to evaluate performance and economics of CFARII fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a PC computer program ''CFARMHD'', developed to evaluate the performance (MHD cycle efficiency) and economics (Cost-of-Electricity CoE) for pulsed fusion reactors using the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance of Plant (BoP). The CFARII concept to which this code applies is generic to any fusion driver which can be characterized by an assumed yield Y (GJ), target gain G, and unit cost ($/joule driver). The CFARMHD code models the sizes, masses, energies, mass flows and powers corresponding to the physical systems and optimizes them to minimize CoE for given Y, G, $/joule, and choice of material for the working fluid (cast as solid spherical shells around the target). A description of the models used in the CFARMHD code is given in Section 11, and the CoE minimization procedure used in the code is described in Section III

  20. Manganese oxidation state mediates toxicity in PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the manganese (Mn) oxidation state on cellular Mn uptake and toxicity is not well understood. Therefore, undifferentiated PC12 cells were exposed to 0-200 μM Mn(II)-chloride or Mn(III)-pyrophosphate for 24 h, after which cellular manganese levels were measured along with measures of cell viability, function, and cytotoxicity (trypan blue exclusion, medium lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 8-isoprostanes, cellular ATP, dopamine, serotonin, H-ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) protein levels). Exposures to Mn(III) >10 μM produced 2- to 5-fold higher cellular manganese levels than equimolar exposures to Mn(II). Cell viability and ATP levels both decreased at the highest Mn(II) and Mn(III) exposures (150-200 μM), while Mn(III) exposures produced increases in LDH activity at lower exposures (≥50 μM) than did Mn(II) (200 μM only). Mn(II) reduced cellular dopamine levels more than Mn(III), especially at the highest exposures (50% reduced at 200 μM Mn(II)). In contrast, Mn(III) produced a >70% reduction in cellular serotonin at all exposures compared to Mn(II). Different cellular responses to Mn(II) exposures compared to Mn(III) were also observed for H-ferritin, TfR, and MnSOD protein levels. Notably, these differential effects of Mn(II) versus Mn(III) exposures on cellular toxicity could not simply be accounted for by the different cellular levels of manganese. These results suggest that the oxidation state of manganese exposures plays an important role in mediating manganese cytotoxicity

  1. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property custodian (PC... Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the... required on all actions affecting the personal property within his jurisdiction. The designation as PC...

  2. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islets of Langerhans isolated from rat pancreata were incubated with [14C]choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDP choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDPcholine pathway. Recovery of [14C]PC in islet membranes was time-related, and stimulated by glucose (17mM) during 60 min. The rate of PC synthesis was constant during 60 min with glucose stimulation. In contrast, the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (2 mM) reduced the recovery of [14C]choline in PC, and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (5 mM) did not significantly affect [14C]PC recovery. Incubation of islets in Ca2+-free medium enhanced glucose-stimulated recovery of [14C]choline-labeled PC due to the inhibition of phospholipase and phospholipid hydrolysis. Inhibition of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase with 5-deoxy-5'-isobutylthioadenosine (SIBA) reduced [14C]PC levels and insulin release in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with SIBA also reduced Mg2+-dependent Ca2+-ATPase activity in islet microsomes. Quantitation of membrane PC showed that glucose stimulation did not alter islet P levels. Thus, islet PC biosynthesis is linked to glucose stimulation and contributes to the maintenance of PC levels in membranes undergoing exocytosis and phospholipid hydrolysis. Adequate PC levels support Ca2+ pump activity and secretory mechanisms

  3. Synthesis and Protective Effect of New Ligustrazine-Benzoic Acid Derivatives against CoCl2-Induced Neurotoxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin Lei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel ligustrazine-benzoic acid derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their protective effect against cobalt chloride-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Combining hematoxylin and eosin staining, we found compound that (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethyl 3-methoxy-4-[(3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-ylmethoxy]benzoate (4a displayed promising protective effect on the proliferation of the injured PC12 cells (EC50 = 4.249 µM. Structure-activity relationships are briefly discussed.

  4. Improved permeation performance and fouling-resistance of Poly(vinyl chloride/Polycarbonate blend membrane with added Pluronic F127

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supateekan Pacharasakoolchai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare and characterize poly(vinyl chloride (PVC/polycarbonate (PC blend membranes for use in ultrafiltration. Pluronic F127 was used as an additive to modify the membrane surface of the PVC/PC blended membranes. The PVC/PC blend membrane was first prepared using the phase inversion method from a casting solution of PVC with small amount of PC in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP and water as the non-solvent. The morphologies structure and properties, such as tensile strength, water flux, and bovine serum albumin (BSA rejection of the blend membrane were studied. Increased amounts of PC resulted in an increase in the water flux and ability to reject protein. A concentration of 0.75 wt% PC provided the best improvement in tensile strength of blend membrane. Addition of different amounts of pluronic F127 to the casting solution of PVC/PC with a PC concentration of 0.75 wt% resulted in a decrease in the water contact angle that demonstrated the improvement of hydrophilicity of blend membrane. Scanning electron microscopy photographs showed that the modified PVC/PC membranes had a bigger pore volume in the porous sub-layer compared to the PVC/PC control membrane. The PVC/PC membrane with added Pluronic F127 exhibited a much higher flux and rejection of BSA in a protein filtration experiment than the PVC/PC membrane. An increase in flux recovery ratio of PVC/PC/pluronic 127 blend membrane indicated that the modified membranes could reduce membrane fouling useful for ultrafiltration.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer cell lines labled with manganese chloride in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and security of prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) labeled with manganese chloride (MnCl2) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vitro. Methods: The PC-3 that purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) were recovered, cultured and amplified. The PC-3 were cultured in F-12 HAM'S medium with different concentrations of MnCl2 in cell incubator and collected for MRI after 1 hour. The labeled cells were also collected for MRI in different amount and different time after labeling. The labeled cells were incubated with verapamil for 4 hours and the changes of the labeled cellular signal intensities were recorded in different time. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to determine the activities of the labeled cells. Results: The PC-3 labeled with MnCl2 were high signal intensities on T1-weighted MRI. There were statistically significant differences between labeled cells and unlabeled cells (P2. The signal intensity obviously decreased after 24 hours and became to normal signal intensity of unlabeled PC-3 after 72 hours. The PC-3 labeled with 1.0 mM MnCl2 solution showed high signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI with the minimum cell amount of 5.0 x 105 and lasted to 72 hours after a 4 hours incubation with verapamil. After 4 hours labeling, except the concentration of 0.1 mM, the other concentrations of MnCl2 (>0.1 mM) had a certain toxicity on PC-3 (P0.05). Conclusion: The PC-3 could be labeled with MnCl2 and appears high signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI. The PC-3 can be safety labeled with MnCl2 in concentrations which were equal or less than 1.0 mM, but the duration of Mn+2 in PC-3 is shorter. Calcium channel blocker (verapamil) may be extend the duration of PC-3 labeled with MnCl2. (authors)

  6. A TDC-PC interface for DPAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a standard DPAC (time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation) setup the time measuring is mostly done by a TAC (time-to-amplitude converter) connected through an ADC to a computer or MCA. Accelerator on-line techniques more often use a TDC (time-to-digital converter) which eliminates nonlinearities and noise in the analog part of the TAC-ADC combination. The authors briefly describe an interface for the LeCroy 4201 TDC to an IBM-PC. The system is dedicated to the DPAC technique, but can easily be modified for other applications, e.g. μSR and DPAD. 2 figs

  7. Real-time Crane Control via PC

    OpenAIRE

    Arm, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, creation of SCADA system, which controls and monitors model of gantry crane in real time, is described. This crane will be controlled via process station communicating with PC via Modbus TCP protocol. Moreover, HTTP server will be created to monitor crane state over intranet. On this work, the difference between real-time and fast execution will be described and it will be shown on the built system that the fast execution system can behave like a real-time system under specific...

  8. Cybernet空间节省型PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    你是否有计算过你租用的Office费用占整个办公成本的几成?是否有发现辛苦赚来的钱除去房租物业所剩无几?不能怪你,只能怪目前高档办公志气的租金太高。有什么办法吗?试试Cybernet出品的空间节省型PC-ZPC-900,它将电脑主机整合到一个标准的104键键盘里,

  9. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  10. Captor of Iodine coupled to PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement - detection system (DETEC -PC) is presented to be used in Iodine Thyroid Uptake Studies. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind measurement module and the application software. The measurement module communicates trough a RS-232 serial interface to the Personal Computer where the application software (DETEC ) resides. The software was designed according to the principles of Object oriented programming using C++ language. It automatically fixes spectrometric measurement parameters and besides patient measurement also performs statistical analysis of a batch of samples. It possesses a PARADOX database with all information of measured patients and an 'on line' help with the system options

  11. Guest Foreword by Lord Phillips KG PC

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas A. Phillips

    2012-01-01

    The Rt Hon The Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG PC, President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ambition and excellence. Those two words epitomize Qatar. Under the leadership of his Highness the Emir, this small State has set out to make an impact on the world that belies its size. Ambitious was the plan to have an international broadcasting station. Ambitious was the plan to build from scratch a Museum of Islamic Art. Ambitious was the bid – ...

  12. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and software...

  13. Code Cactus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This code handles the following problems: -1) Analysis of thermal experiments on a water loop at high or low pressure; steady state or transient behavior; -2) Analysis of thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of water-cooled and moderated reactors, at either high or low pressure, with boiling permitted; fuel elements are assumed to be flat plates: - Flowrate in parallel channels coupled or not by conduction across plates, with conditions of pressure drops or flowrate, variable or not with respect to time is given; the power can be coupled to reactor kinetics calculation or supplied by the code user. The code, containing a schematic representation of safety rod behavior, is a one dimensional, multi-channel code, and has as its complement (FLID), a one-channel, two-dimensional code. (authors)

  14. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  15. Comparative biosynthesis, covalent post-translational modifications and efficiency of prosegment cleavage of the prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2: glycosylation, sulphation and identification of the intracellular site of prosegment cleavage of PC1 and PC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjannet, S; Rondeau, N; Paquet, L; Boudreault, A; Lazure, C; Chrétien, M; Seidah, N G

    1993-09-15

    We present herein the pulse-chase analysis of the biosynthesis of the prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the endocrine GH4C1 cells infected with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing these convertases. Characterization of the pulse-labelled enzymes demonstrated that pro-PC1 (88 kDa) is cleaved into PC1 (83 kDa) and pro-PC2 (75 kDa) into PC2 (68 kDa). Secretion of glycosylated and sulphated PC1 (84 kDa) occurs about 30 min after the onset of biosynthesis, whereas glycosylated and sulphated PC2 (68 kDa) is detected in the medium after between 1 and 2 h. Furthermore, in the case of pro-PC2 only, we observed that a fraction of this precursor escapes glycosylation. A small proportion (about 5%) of the intracellular glycosylated pro-PC2 (75 kDa) is sulphated, and it is this glycosylated and sulphated precursor that is cleaved into the secretable 68 kDa form of PC2. Major differences in the carbohydrate structures of PC1 and PC2 are demonstrated by the resistance of the secreted PC1 to endoglycosidase H digestion and sensitivity of the secreted PC2 to this enzyme. Inhibition of N-glycosylation with tunicamycin caused a dramatic intracellular degradation of these convertases within the endoplasmic reticulum, with the net effect of a reduction in the available activity of PC1 and PC2. These results emphasize the importance of N-glycosylation in the folding and stability of PC1 and PC2. Pulse-labelling experiments in uninfected mouse beta TC3 and rat Rin m5F insulinoma cells, which endogenously synthesize PC2, showed that, as in infected GH4C1 cells, pro-PC2 predominates intracellularly. In order to define the site of prosegment cleavage, pulse-chase analysis was performed at low temperature (15 degrees C) or after treatment of GH4C1 cells with either brefeldin A or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. These results demonstrated that the onset of the conversions of pro-PC1 into PC1 and non-glycosylated pro-PC2 into PC2 (65 kDa) occur in a pre-Golgi compartment

  16. The 1996 ENDF pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codes are named 'the Pre-processing' codes, because they are designed to pre-process ENDF/B data, for later, further processing for use in applications. This is a modular set of computer codes, each of which reads and writes evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF/B format. Each code performs one or more independent operations on the data, as described below. These codes are designed to be computer independent, and are presently operational on every type of computer from large mainframe computer to small personal computers, such as IBM-PC and Power MAC. The codes are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge upon request. (author)

  17. The Orbit of Asteroid 1994 PC1

    CERN Document Server

    Balkoski, Sophia Jane; Wang, Milly KeQi

    2011-01-01

    Near-Earth Asteroids can be hazardous to the Earth, due to their orbital characteristics and proximity to inner Solar System planets. Using three sets of CCD images collected in June and July 2011, the orbital elements of asteroid 1994 PC1 were determined at solar opposition. The body's specific right ascension and declination were calculated through least squares plate reduction (taking parallax into account) and compared to those of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These data were then used to find 1994 PC1's orbital elements, as well as any statistical uncertainty. This research points to an eccentricity of 0.3272 (+0.00009 or -0.0005), a semi major axis of 1.3401 AU (+0.0001 AU or -0.0004 AU), an inclination angle of 33.30^{\\circ} (+0.05^{\\circ} or -0.01^{\\circ}), a longitude of the ascending node of 118.01^{\\circ} (+0.09^{\\circ} or -0.02^{\\circ}), an argument of perihelion of 47.14^{\\circ} (+0.005^{\\circ} or -0.08^{\\circ}), and a time of last perihelion of JD 2455642.88 (+0.007 or -0.03).

  18. Neutron diffraction study of aluminum chloride imidazolium chloride molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Saboungi, M.L.; Suzuya, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Koura, N. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1994-02-01

    The structure of molten mixtures of (AlCl{sub 3}){sub x}(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride){sub 1-x} was investigated by neutron diffraction techniques for x=0.46, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.67. Results derived from earlier ab initio molecular orbital (6-31G* basis set) computations for AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}}, and EMI{sup +} were used to calculate the diffraction patterns; the calculated contributions of each species are thus obtained and overall results are in good agreement with measurements.

  19. MARS Code in Linux Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-phase system analysis code MARS has been incorporated into Linux system. The MARS code was originally developed based on the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and COBRA-TF. The 1-D module which evolved from RELAP5 alone could be applied for the whole NSSS system analysis. The 3-D module developed based on the COBRA-TF, however, could be applied for the analysis of the reactor core region where 3-D phenomena would be better treated. The MARS code also has several other code units that could be incorporated for more detailed analysis. The separate code units include containment analysis modules and 3-D kinetics module. These code modules could be optionally invoked to be coupled with the main MARS code. The containment code modules (CONTAIN and CONTEMPT), for example, could be utilized for the analysis of the plant containment phenomena in a coupled manner with the nuclear reactor system. The mass and energy interaction during the hypothetical coolant leakage accident could, thereby, be analyzed in a more realistic manner. In a similar way, 3-D kinetics could be incorporated for simulating the three dimensional reactor kinetic behavior, instead of using the built-in point kinetics model. The MARS code system, developed initially for the MS Windows environment, however, would not be adequate enough for the PC cluster system where multiple CPUs are available. When parallelism is to be eventually incorporated into the MARS code, MS Windows environment is not considered as an optimum platform. Linux environment, on the other hand, is generally being adopted as a preferred platform for the multiple codes executions as well as for the parallel application. In this study, MARS code has been modified for the adaptation of Linux platform. For the initial code modification, the Windows system specific features have been removed from the code. Since the coupling code module CONTAIN is originally in a form of dynamic load library (DLL) in the Windows system, a similar adaptation method

  20. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``BOAST-VHS for the PC``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  1. Cerebrolysin protects PC12 cells from CoCl2-induced hypoxia employing GSK3β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Kerstin; Fackler, Viktoria; Jaksch-Bogensperger, Heidi; Winter, Stefan; Furtner, Tanja; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Meier, Dieter; Moessler, Herbert; Aigner, Ludwig

    2014-11-01

    Cerebrolysin (EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH, Austria) is a peptidergic drug indicated for clinical use in stroke, traumatic brain injury and dementia. The therapeutic effect of Cerebrolysin is thought to ensure from its neurotrophic activity, which shares some properties with naturally occurring neurotrophic factors. However, the exact mechanism of action of Cerebrolysin is yet to be fully deciphered. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Cerebrolysin in a widely used in vitro model of hypoxia-induced neuronal cytotoxicity, namely cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-treatment of PC12 cells. CoCl2-cytotoxicity was indicated by a reduced cell-diameter, cell shrinkage, increased pro-apoptotic Caspase-activities and a decreased metabolic activity. Cerebrolysin maintained the cell-diameter of CoCl2-treated naïve PC12 cells, decreased the activation of Caspase 3/7 in CoCl2-stressed naïve PC12 cells and restored the cells' metabolic activity in CoCl2-impaired naïve and differentiated PC12 cells. Cerebrolysin treatment also decreased the levels of superoxide observed after exposure to CoCl2. Investigating the mechanism of action, we could demonstrate that Cerebrolysin application to CoCl2-stressed PC12 cells increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β, resulting in the inhibition of GSK3β. This might become clinically relevant for Alzheimer's disease, since GSK3β activity has been linked to the production of amyloid beta. Taken together, Cerebrolysin was found to have neuroprotective effects in CoCl2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. PMID:25093704

  2. AKPLOT- A PLOTTER ROUTINE FOR THE IBM PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The AKPLOT routine was designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as an integral part of their documentation. AKPLOT allows the user to generate a graph and edit its appearance on a CRT. This graph may undergo many interactive alterations before it is finally screen dumped to a printer for a hard copy plot. The finished AKPLOT graph may be stored in a file for future use. Features available in AKPLOT include: multiple curves on a single plot; combinations of linear and logarithmic scale axes; Lagrange interpolation of selected curves; shrink, expand, zoom, and tilt; ten different symbols and four different colors for curves; and three different grid types. AKPLOT enables the user to perform least squares fitting of all or selected curves with polynomials of up to 99 degrees and examine the least squares coefficients. The user must provide the data points to be plotted by one of two methods: 1) supplying an external file of X-Y values for all curves, or 2) computing the X-Y vectors by either placing BASIC code describing the relation in a designated section of the AKPLOT code or dynamically entering a one line function. Using either technique, the X-Y values are input to the computer only once, as the iterative graph edit loop bypasses the data input step for faster execution. AKPLOT is written in BASIC for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. AKPLOT requires a graphics board and a color monitor. This program was originally developed in 1986 and later revised in 1987.

  3. GPIB interface of IBM-PC compatible microcomputer and multimeter HP3457A for the automatization of temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of temperature distribution of the beam transport devices, utilized in the IEAv linac, takes several hours to be completed. At the beam transport laboratory, these experiments are controlled with the help of a MS-quick BASIC code denominated TERMOJ. This code uses the software of STD-8410 plate to promote the communication between an IBM-PC compatible microcomputer and the programmable multimeter HP3457A via GPIB interface. This work presents information for the automation of experiments using thermocouples to obtain temperature distributions with the TERMOJ code. Also, suggestions of how modify the algorithm of the program for the specific situations are indicated. (author)

  4. COBRA-IV PC: A personal computer version of COBRA-IV-I for thermal-hydraulic analysis of rod bundle nuclear fuel elements and cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COBRA-IV PC is a modified version of COBRA-IV-I, adapted for use with most IBM PC and PC-compatible desktop computers. Like COBRA-IV-I, COBRA-IV PC uses the subchannel analysis approach to determine the enthalpy and flow distribution in rod bundles for both steady-state and transient conditions. The steady-state and transient solution schemes used in COBRA-IIIC are still available in COBRA-IV PC as the implicit solution scheme option. An explicit solution scheme is also available, allowing the calculation of severe transients involving flow reversals, recirculations, expulsions, and reentry flows, with a pressure or flow boundary condition specified. In addition, several modifications have been incorporated into COBRA-IV PC to allow the code to run on the PC. These include a reduction in the array dimensions, the removal of the dump and restart options, and the inclusion of several code modifications by Oregon State University, most notably, a critical heat flux correlation for boiling water reactor fuel and a new solution scheme for cross-flow distribution calculations. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  5. The SEDA computer code and its utilization for Angra 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of SEDA 2.0 computer code, developed at Ezeiza Atomic Center, Argentine for Angra 1 reactor is described. The SEDA code gives an estimate for radiological consequences of nuclear accidents with release of radiactive materials for the environment. This code is now available for an IBM PC-XT. The computer environment, the files used, data, the programining structure and the models used are presented. The input data and results for two sample case are described. (author)

  6. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of SixZry intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  7. PC based systems for measurements in reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of applications was developed, utilizing the advantages of coupling acquisition cards to PCs, fructifying the experience in reactor physics measurements. The main objectives were: on-line work with advanced codes of gamma spectra analysis, performing on-line corrections for neutron detectors with complex dynamics and dynamic processing of signals from ratemeter and frequency-meter lines. The advanced date processing is carried out at foreground level while the data acquisition and primary processing are carried out at background level. The achieved software covers pulse-height analyzers, ratemeters, frequency meters, multichannel counting ratemeters and noise analysis. By making use of a simple hardware and by increasing the weight of software we improved the performance of generally used acquisition cards, fulfilling, at the same time, the requirements for reactor physics accurate measurements. In-reactor experiments or experiments using neutron sources were used for testing the PC based systems as well as for adjusting their parameters. Extensions to reactor control/safety systems are conceived as developing models systems, because they proved to be versatile tools for testing physics and safety principles. Thus, this work represents an interface between reactor physics and reactor instrumentation and control engineering

  8. The white dwarf population within 40 pc of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, S

    2016-01-01

    The white dwarf luminosity function is an important tool to understand the properties of the Solar neighborhood, like its star formation history, and its age. Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population within 40~pc from the Sun, and compare the results of this study with the properties of the observed sample. We use a state-of-the-art population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, that incorporates the most recent and reliable white dwarf cooling sequences, an accurate description of the Galactic neighborhood, and a realistic treatment of all the known observational biases and selection procedures. We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. In particular, our simulations reproduce a previously unexplained feature of the bright branch of the white dwarf luminosity function, which we argue is due to a recent episode of star formation. We also derive the age of the Solar neighborhood employing the position of the observed cut-off of ...

  9. Materials accounting system for an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have adapted the Los Alamos MASS accounting system for use on an IBM PC/AT at the Fuels Manufacturing Facility (FMF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-WEST) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Cost of hardware and proprietary software was less than $10,000 per station. The system consists of three stations between which accounting information is transferred using floppy disks accompanying special nuclear material shipments. The programs were implemented in dBASEIII and were compiled using the proprietary software CLIPPER. Modifications to the inventory can be posted in just a few minutes, and operator/computer interaction is nearly instantaneous. After the records are built by the user, it takes 4 to 5 seconds to post the results to the database files. A version of this system was specially adapted and is currently in use at the FMF facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls. Initial satisfaction is adequate and software and hardware problems are minimal

  10. [Report on the VDÄPC Fellowship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantopoulos, E

    2016-04-01

    "Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano" ("You should pray for a healthy mind in a healthy body"). This phrase is a shortened citation from the satirical work of the Roman poet Juvenal. It highlights the significant role of physical as well as mental health. Aesthetic ideals have existed since the Archaic age, but they are not necessarily the same in different continents. Being familiar with aesthetic ideals in different cultures might help to accommodate patients' needs and wishes in today's globalised world. Therefore, fellowship programs such as the program organised by the Association of German Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons ("VDÄPC") are very important for young plastic surgeons who are interested in improving their surgical skills and experience. After all, aesthetic surgery is a dynamic specialty, which requires aesthetic plastic surgeons to undergo continued medical education. PMID:27096212

  11. Graphical programming harnesses multicore PC technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    National Instruments

    2007-01-01

    @@ Multicore processing is generating considerable buzz within the PC industry,largely because both Intel and AMD have released initial versions of their own multicore processors.These first multicore processors contain two cores,or computing engines,located in one physical processor-hence the name dual-core processors.Processors with more than two cores also are on the horizon.Dualcore processors can simultaneously execute two computing tasks.This is advantageous in multitasking environments,such as Windows XP,in which you simultaneously run multiple applications.Two applications-National instruments LabVIEW and Microsoft Excel,for exampleeach can access a separate processor core at the same time,thus improving overall performance for applications such as data logging.

  12. Chaos A Program Collection for the PC

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Hans Jürgen; Hartmann, Timo

    2008-01-01

    This new edition strives yet again to provide readers with a working knowledge of chaos theory and dynamical systems through parallel introductory explanations in the book and interaction with carefully-selected programs supplied on the accompanying diskette. The programs enable readers, especially advanced-undergraduate students in physics, engineering, and math, to tackle relevant physical systems quickly on their PCs, without distraction from algorithmic details. For the third edition of Chaos: A Program Collection for the PC, each of the previous twelve programs is polished and rewritten in C++ (both Windows and Linux versions are included). A new program treats kicked systems, an important class of two-dimensional problems, which is introduced in Chapter 13. Each chapter follows the structure: theoretical background; numerical techniques; interaction with the program; computer experiments; real experiments and empirical evidence; reference. Interacting with the many numerical experiments have proven to h...

  13. A study of Pc-5 ULF oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Hudson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of Pc-5 magnetic pulsations using data from the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES was carried out. Three-component dynamic magnetic field spectrograms have been used to survey ULF pulsation activity for the approximate fourteen month lifetime of CRRES. Two-hour panels of dynamic spectra were examined to find events which fall into two basic categories: 1 toroidal modes (fundamental and harmonic resonances and 2 poloidal modes, which include compressional oscillations. The occurence rates were determined as a function of L value and local time. The main result is a comparable probability of occurence of toroidal mode oscillations on the dawn and dusk sides of the magnetosphere inside geosynchronous orbit, while poloidal mode oscillations occur predominantly along the dusk side, consistent with high azimuthal mode number excitation by ring current ions.

    Pc-5 pulsations following Storm Sudden Commencements (SSCs were examined separately. The spatial distribution of modes for the SSC events was consistent with the statistical study for the lifetime of CRRES. The toroidal fundamental (and harmonic resonances are the dominant mode seen on the dawn-side of the magnetosphere following SSCs. Power is mixed in all three components. In the 21 dusk side SSC events there were only a few examples of purely compressional (two or radial (one power in the CRRES study, a few more examples of purely toroidal modes (six, with all three components predominant in about half (ten of the events.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics – Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities

  14. A MEMS stronglink with multi-try function used for PC startup in authentication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-yong; CHEN Wen-yuan; ZHANG Wei-ping; XIAO Qi-jun; TAN Shun-yi; FENG Min-hua

    2009-01-01

    The stronglink with multi-try function based on MEMS technology and the PC startup in authentication system have been designed and fabricated. The generation principle and structure of UQS code are introduced, which consists of two groups of metal counter-meshing gears, two pawl/ratchet mechanisms, two driving micromotors and two resetting micromotors. The energy-coupling element is a photoelectric sensor with a circular and notched plate. It is fabricated using the UV-LiGA process and precision mechanical engineering. The PC startup authentication system is controlled by BIOS program, which is written into the chip according with special format. The program in BIOS output signals controls the running of stronglink to finish the process of authentication. The device can run more than 10000 times before a stop. The driving voltage is 12 V, and the normal decoding time is 3 s.

  15. Optimal codes as Tanner codes with cyclic component codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando; Zeng, Peng

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study a class of graph codes with cyclic code component codes as affine variety codes. Within this class of Tanner codes we find some optimal binary codes. We use a particular subgraph of the point-line incidence plane of A(2,q) as the Tanner graph, and we are able to describe ...

  16. Cooper hydrometallurgy and extraction from chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of copper hydrometallurgy is presented and various processes proposed for copper recovery from sulphide concentrates are discussed. Leaching, extraction and stripping are considered, including reagents and processes. The extraction of copper from chloride solutions is discussed. Various extractants are presented and their use for copper transfer from chloride solutions to the organic phase and back to chloride and to sulphate solutions is discussed. (author) 4 refs

  17. Characteristics of CoPc/CdS hybrid diode device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Murat Çalişkan; Serço Serkis Yeşilkaya; Mevlüde Canlica

    2015-09-01

    CdS/CoPc hybrid heterojunctions were fabricated and characterized. CdS films were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates and CoPc films coated on CdS by chemical precipitation. Ag contact metal deposited on CoPc by e-beam evaporation and glass/ITO/CdS/ CoPc/Ag structures were fabricated. Rectification ratio, ideality factor, barrier height and junction parameters of the devices were determined. It is shown that device has diode characteristics with the ideality factor (n) of 4.8, rectification ratio of 4.5 and the built-in voltage (b) of 0.48 V. Absorption energy for CoPc was found as 1.57 eV. The results encourage utilizing CoPc as absorber organic material for solar cells.

  18. PC application in DIII-D neutral beam operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An IBM PC/AT has been implemented to improve operation of the DIII-D neutral beams. The PC system provides centralization of all beam data with reasonable access for online shot-to-shot control and analysis. The PC hardware was configured to interface all four neutral beam host mini-computers, support multi-tasking, and provide storage for approximately one month's accumulation of beam data. The PC software is composed of commercial packages used for performance and statistical analysis (i.e. LOTUS 123, PC PLOT, etc.) host communications software (i.e. PCLINK, KERMIT, etc.) and applications developed software utilizing FORTRAN and BASIC. The objectives of this paper are to describe the implementation of the PC system, the methods of integrating the various software packages, and the scenario for online control and analysis

  19. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C2HCl3 and CH2Cl2. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C2HCl3 was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C2HCl3 was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C2HCl3 and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl2 and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl2, CO and CO2 were formed. CH2Cl2 was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl2, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH3+ and CH4 were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH2Cl2. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  20. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  1. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  2. Molecular organization in the thin films of gallium(III) phthalocyanine chloride and its μ-(oxo)dimer: Optical spectroscopy and XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Gallium phthalocyanine films were studied by X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopies. • Molecular arrangement in gallium phthalocyanine thin films was determined. • μ-(oxo)Dimers are formed via the reaction of gallium phthalocyanine chloride with water. - Abstract: Molecular arrangement in the thin films of gallium(III) phthalocyanine chloride (PcGaCl) and its μ-(oxo)dimer (μ-(oxo)bis[phthalocyaninato] gallium(III), (PcGa)2O) has been studied using complementary spectroscopic techniques: viz., X-ray photoelectron and optical (polarized Raman and UV-vis) spectroscopies, as well as atomic force microscopy. The former films grown by physical vapor deposition on ITO substrates transformed into the films of the latter μ-(oxo)dimer upon thermal annealing at 300 °C under controlled environmental conditions. The polarized Raman spectroscopy revealed that both films are well organized, and the mean tilt angle between the molecular planes and the substrate surface increases from 53 ± 5° (PcGaCl) to 85 ± 5° ((PcGa)2O). All intense bands in the experimental Raman spectra of PcGaCl and (PcGa)2O were assigned using density functional theory calculations. The theoretically predicted wavenumbers are in a good agreement with the experimental values

  3. Online Instructional Design Approaches Utilizing a Tablet PC

    OpenAIRE

    Pam Lowry

    2009-01-01

    Online students can experience what instructional strategies can be utilized using a Tablet PC in online courses. This paper summarizes how inking in Word, Powerpoint, and Windows Journal can be effective in an online course both asynchronously and synchronously. Approaches concerning assignments, discussion boards, presentations, note taking are discussed and how they can be more effective for faculty members and students using a Tablet PC. Students actually experience how a Tablet PC can be...

  4. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  5. PC CREAM: a PC package to assess the consequences of radioactive discharges due to normal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PC CREAM is a Windows based software package which implements CREAM (Consequences of Releases to the Environment Assessment Methodology). CREAM was developed to assess the consequence of radioactive discharges as a result of normal operations, a description of the methodology was published by the European Commission (EC) The methodology consists of a series of interlinked models which describe the transfer of radionuclides through the atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic environments, the pathways by which people may be exposed to radiation and the resulting health detriment. The package contains models for the following processes; atmospheric dispersion; external irradiation from activity in air; transfer through foodchains; resuspension of deposited activity; external irradiation from deposited activity; dispersion in the marine environment; discharge to river systems; external irradiation from both marine and freshwater sediments. PC CREAM has been developed to calculate radiation exposure to individuals as well as the collective dose to specific population groups. (author)

  6. A Pc-interface module has been developed that provides an easy way to interface PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pc-interface module has been developed that provides an easy way to interface PC with I/O devices. This MSC51 micro controller based module accepts series of commands from a personal computer through a serial port. The commands are defined to easily control 24 I/O lines available on the module. These lines can be individually used as either input or output that make the module very verstile. A command is received by the module on ASCII string basis. Each character sent to the module will give an interrupt. The firmware's interrupt handler will store the character in a buffer until end of command character arrives. The firmware then parses and interpreters the command and responses accordingly

  7. Ellipsometric study of the optical transitions of PC60BM and PC70BM thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We determine the optical properties of two fullerene derivatives using ellipsometry. • Multisample analysis is applied to verify the uniqueness of the model. • The energy position of the oscillators used are compared with ones present in the parent molecules. - Abstract: Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to determine the optical properties and to extract electronic transitions of PC60BM and PC70BM thin films in the UV–Visible range. By means of a sum of Gaussian oscillators, the imaginary parts of dielectric functions of both materials are modeled. The physical meaning of each model is checked by comparing the energy position of the oscillators with known optical transitions of the C60 and C70 molecules as revealed in literature by others techniques. It is shown that spectroscopic ellipsometry is a powerful technique to investigate the electronic structure of pi-conjugated molecules

  8. Design of multichannel counting system for IBM PC and compatibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Multichannel Counting System (MCCS), based on IBM-PC and compatible computer systems have been designed. The MCCS consists of a Multichannel Counting System plug-in interface card (MCCS-PC) for IBM PC and compatibles and a NIM-BIN module (MCCS-NB). The MCCS-PC provides simultaneous monitoring of upto seven independent SCA type inputs. An on board programmable timer provides elapsed time measurement. A menu-driven program for data acquisition and timer control has also been developed. (author) 8 figs

  9. The 1992 ENDF Pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes the 1992 version of the ENDF pre-processing codes which are required for processing evaluated nuclear data coded in the format ENDF-4, ENDF-5, or ENDF-6. Included are the codes CONVERT, MERGER, LINEAR, RECENT, SIGMA1, LEGEND, FIXUP, GROUPIE, DICTION, MIXER, VIRGIN, COMPLOT, EVALPLOT, RELABEL. Some of the functions of these codes are: to calculate cross-sections from resonance parameters; to calculate angular distributions, group average, mixtures of cross-sections, etc; to produce graphical plottings and data comparisons. The codes are designed to operate on virtually any type of computer including PC's. They are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge upon request, on magnetic tape or a set of HD diskettes. (author)

  10. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  11. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  12. Computer code ONEBFP. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final product of Task 10, the computer code ONEBFP, was delivered to the customer on 28 July 1995. ONEBFP is a newly written transport module specifically designed for use in the BOXIEMP code system. ONEBFP uses advanced transport methods and should provide better accuracy than the existing transport module in BOXIEMP. ONEBFP was designed for ease of maintenance and replaces an existing transport module consisting of over 100,000 lines of code. ONEBFP consists of 6632 lines of Fortran code, of which 3412 are comment lines used for documentation. Dynamic memory storage is used for all data arrays. Three methods are available; one is chosen at installation time. They are Fortran 90 automatic arrays, Fortran 90 Allocate/Deallocate, or the Allocate/Deallocate extension to Fortran 77 allowed in the Microsoft Fortran Powerstation product for IBM PC compatibles. ONEBFP requires two input files, a binary cross section input file and a text file of controls and other specifications. Two output files are produced, the first is a report file that regurgitates the input from the text input and a summary of how the calculation progressed and the second contains detailed pointwise and angular quantifies such as the flux that are the results of the calculation. This second file serves as the interface to the postprocessing modules of the BOXIEMP code

  13. NSURE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSURE stands for Near-Surface Repository code. NSURE is a performance assessment code. developed for the safety assessment of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Part one of this report documents the NSURE model, governing equations and formulation of the mathematical models, and their implementation under the SYVAC3 executive. The NSURE model simulates the release of nuclides from an engineered vault, their subsequent transport via the groundwater and surface water pathways tot he biosphere, and predicts the resulting dose rate to a critical individual. Part two of this report consists of a User's manual, describing simulation procedures, input data preparation, output and example test cases

  14. Comparison Studies of Dielectric and AC Conduction of PbPc and CuPc Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivamalar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thin film of Lead Phthalocyanine (PbPc and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc on glass are prepared by Vacuum deposition method. Deposition of PbPc and CuPc on pre-cleaned glass substrates under the pressure of 10-6 Torr are achieved by slowly varying current of 20 Volt. The rate of evaporation is properly controlled and maintained constant during all the evaporations. The thicknesses of the films are 150 nm, 300 nm and 450 nm on glass substrate. Dielectric and AC conduction studies of Lead Phthalocyanine and Cupper Phthalocyanine thin films have been studied. The variations of capacitance with frequency at different, permittivity with temperature, capacitance with temperature and ac conductance with frequency at different temperatures of PbPc and CuPc have been studied. The activation energies have been determined from the slope of 1000/T vs. log Gp curves at different frequencies (where Gp= -Eg/RT.

  15. The Aster code; Code Aster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, J.M

    1999-07-01

    The Aster code is a 2D or 3D finite-element calculation code for structures developed by the R and D direction of Electricite de France (EdF). This dossier presents a complete overview of the characteristics and uses of the Aster code: introduction of version 4; the context of Aster (organisation of the code development, versions, systems and interfaces, development tools, quality assurance, independent validation); static mechanics (linear thermo-elasticity, Euler buckling, cables, Zarka-Casier method); non-linear mechanics (materials behaviour, big deformations, specific loads, unloading and loss of load proportionality indicators, global algorithm, contact and friction); rupture mechanics (G energy restitution level, restitution level in thermo-elasto-plasticity, 3D local energy restitution level, KI and KII stress intensity factors, calculation of limit loads for structures), specific treatments (fatigue, rupture, wear, error estimation); meshes and models (mesh generation, modeling, loads and boundary conditions, links between different modeling processes, resolution of linear systems, display of results etc..); vibration mechanics (modal and harmonic analysis, dynamics with shocks, direct transient dynamics, seismic analysis and aleatory dynamics, non-linear dynamics, dynamical sub-structuring); fluid-structure interactions (internal acoustics, mass, rigidity and damping); linear and non-linear thermal analysis; steels and metal industry (structure transformations); coupled problems (internal chaining, internal thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling, chaining with other codes); products and services. (J.S.)

  16. Beyond Stabilizer Codes II: Clifford Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Knill introduced a generalization of stabilizer codes, in this note called Clifford codes. It remained unclear whether or not Clifford codes can be superior to stabilizer codes. We show that Clifford codes are stabilizer codes provided that the abstract error group has an abelian index group. In particular, if the errors are modelled by tensor products of Pauli matrices, then the associated Clifford codes are necessarily stabilizer codes.

  17. MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids

  18. ANIMAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  19. A low cost PC controlled thermoluminescence reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) Reader is an important basic equipment for any Luminescence researcher. It can be used to study and characterize TL of materials in different forms (Powder, Crystals and discs). By considering the requirement for a Low Cost integral TL Reader, Nucleonix Systems has taken up the task and developed a Low cost PC Controlled TL Reader by integrating complete electronics hardware circuits (comprising of Power Electronics, Low/High voltage supplies, Temperature controller, Microcontroller based data acquisition circuits having serial counter, ADC, DAC, EEPROM, PMT, PMT housing, sample heating system, drawer assembly etc.,) in to a single enclosure. This Integral TL Reader unit gets connected to the personal computer system through serial port (RS232C). The user interface to the system is through front-end VB software defined Graphics User Interface (GUI). The primary objective of this development has been not only to reduce the cost but also a simple reliable system and there by make it affordable to many of the University Researchers and other users in India and other Asian countries. (author)

  20. 100 pc renewable energies: the last obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As some countries or territories have set a target of 100 pc of renewable energies by 2015, a first article discusses the different components of a scenario corresponding to this objective: reduction of primary energy consumption, sobriety, efficiency, electricity and heat production, mobility, development of exchanges and solidarities between territories, new roles for the different actors. A second article briefly presents the situation of different cities and territories in terms of production of renewable energies and of energy savings (Vancouver, Costa Rica, Canaries Islands, the region of Thouars in France, Denmark, Frankfurt, and Bangladesh). Two persons belonging either to a company or to a public body, both committed in energy efficiency issues, give their opinion on issues of governance and innovation. The next article outlines that, despite the content of the law on energy transition, there is still much to be done to develop the empowerment of local communities or, in other words, to introduce an energetic decentralisation. A researcher then outlines the need to introduce a strong tax system in relationship with carbon emission to support the development of renewable energies. An article then describes the example of the Vendee district which has been developing since 2012 an infrastructure of charging points for electric vehicles. The last article outlines the role of training organisations which will have to adapt themselves to new professions in various sectors

  1. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after a...

  2. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  3. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements are...

  4. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  5. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics...

  6. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.)

  7. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance–voltage (C–V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  8. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  9. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  10. Anti- CC-Groups and Anti-PC-Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Russo

    2007-01-01

    subgroup H of G. An anti-PC group G is a group in which each nonfinitely generated subgroup K has the quotient group G/coreG(NG(K which is a polycyclic-by-finite group. Anti-CC groups and anti-PC groups are the subject of the present article.

  11. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2012-01-01

    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2...

  12. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  13. PC Assisted Anatomical Measurements in 3D Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Mogens; Pedersen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton.......To assess facilities and applications of a programme for a PC based CT measurements in 3D of anatomical angelse in the skeleton....

  14. Hydrogen bonds in PC{sub 61}BM solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Organosilicon Chemistry and Material Technology of Ministry of Education, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121 (China); Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian, E-mail: phylihn@mail.zju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-09-15

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC{sub 61}BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) structure. The results indicate that PC{sub 61}BM combines into C–H⋯O{sub d} bonded molecular chains, where O{sub d} denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC{sub 61}BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C–H⋯O{sub s} bonds, where O{sub s} denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC{sub 61}BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC{sub 61}BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) PC{sub 61}BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C–H⋯O{sub d} bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC{sub 61}BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC{sub 61}BM.

  15. Pulsating proton aurora caused by rising tone Pc1 waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Omura, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M.

    2016-02-01

    We found rising tone emissions with a dispersion of ˜1 Hz per several tens of seconds in the dynamic spectrum of a Pc1 geomagnetic pulsation (Pc1) observed on the ground. These Pc1 rising tones were successively observed over ˜30 min from 0250 UT on 14 October 2006 by an induction magnetometer at Athabasca, Canada (54.7°N, 246.7°E, magnetic latitude 61.7°N). Simultaneously, a Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms panchromatic (THEMIS) all-sky camera detected pulsations of an isolated proton aurora with a period of several tens of seconds, ˜10% variations in intensity, and fine structures of 3° in magnetic longitudes. The pulsations of the proton aurora close to the zenith of ATH have one-to-one correspondences with the Pc1 rising tones. This suggests that these rising tones scatter magnetospheric protons intermittently at the equatorial region. The radial motion of the magnetospheric source, of which the isolated proton aurora is a projection, can explain the central frequency increase of Pc1, but not the shorter period (tens of seconds) frequency increase of ˜1 Hz in Pc1 rising tones. We suggest that EMIC-triggered emissions generate the frequency increase of Pc1 rising tones on the ground and that they also cause the Pc1 pearl structure, which has a similar characteristic time.

  16. Membrane chloride transport measured using a chloride-sensitive fluorescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of chloride across cell membranes through exchange, cotransport, or conductive pathways is a subject of great biological importance. Current methods of measurement are restricted in their sensitivity, time resolution, and applicability. A new transport measurement technique has been developed on the basis of the fluorescence quenching by chloride of the dye 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium (SPQ). SPQ fluorescence quenching by chloride is rapid and sensitive, with a greater than 50% decrease in fluorescence at 10 mM chloride. SPQ fluorescence is not altered by other physiological anions or by pH and can be used to measure both neutral and conductive transport processes. The high water solubility and membrane permeability properties of SPQ make it ideal for use in both membrane vesicles and cells. Chloride transport determined with SPQ was validated by measurement of erythrocyte chloride/anion exchange and membrane vesicle chloride conductance using 35SO4 uptake

  17. CANAL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANAL code presented here optimizes a realistic iron free extraction channel which has to provide a given transversal magnetic field law in the median plane: the current bars may be curved, have finite lengths and cooling ducts and move in a restricted transversal area; terminal connectors may be added, images of the bars in pole pieces may be included. A special option optimizes a real set of circular coils

  18. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  19. A TDC-PC based DPAC spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spectroscopies like muon spin rotation or the time differential perturbed angular correlation method the experimentally determined quantity is a time interval between two events. The transformation of this time into a physically handy signal has in most cases been performed by a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). The resulting voltage has been digitized in a separate analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and entered some type of multichannel analyser (MCA). Apart from not being very convenient the systems have some significant weaknesses: The available size of the total spectrum area is limited due to the MCA. Nonlinearities in TACs and ADCs and noise in the analog part are well known complications. There is no way to see the experimental result, besides the raw data, during the course of the experiment. Here a new type of data collecting system is described. The basic idea, is to substitute the TAC and EDC for a time-to-digital converter (TDC), that is coupled to a personal computer (PC). The computer, used here, is with 256 kbyte of memory, which is sufficient for both the data collection and for the TDC controlling and data treating program DEPACK. The spectrum area is variable, with a predefined standard size of 8 * 2048 channels. On-line data treatment can be performed with the DEPACK program. With the choice of a TDC all problems related to analog parts in the equipment can be circumvented. The TDC can measure both positive and negative times, which enables in a standard 4 detector setup, the simultaneous collection of 8 spectra. If not objected for other reasons, all fast circuit start and stop signals may access the TDC. Since the maximum conversion frequency of the module is 1 MHz an overload protection is not required

  20. PC/FRAM, Version 3.2 User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descenies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S 'chn' and 'SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument

  1. The AQUAREJ2.3 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (I.P.S.N.) in the frame of dosimetric impact estimation of releases from nuclear facilities in usual operation, evaluates the contamination transfer by the continental aquatic medium, then by the food chain up to man. To do it, I.P.S.N. has the AQUAREJ 2.3 computer code for the evaluation of dosimetric consequences of liquid radioactive effluents releases in the rivers. A comparison is made with the PC-CREAM computer code. (N.C.)

  2. DORT-PC, 2-D Discrete Ordinates Transport System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: This version of DORT (ORNL Mod 5, 12 Oct 89, INEL Ver 2.1) was derived from the Cray UNICOS version distributed in CCC-543/TORT, which was developed at ORNL under Defense Nuclear Agency sponsorship. DORT is directly based on the earlier DOT codes. DORT-PC determines the fluence of particles throughout one- or two-dimensional geometric systems due to sources either generated as a result of particle interaction with the medium or incident upon the system from extraneous sources. The principal application is to the deep-penetration transport of neutrons and photons. Criticality (k-type and search) problems can also be solved. Numerous printed edits of the results are available, and results can be transferred to output files for subsequent analysis. 2 - Method of solution: The Boltzmann transport equation is solved, using either the method of discrete ordinates or diffusion theory approximation. In the discrete ordinates method, the primary mode of operation, balance equations are solved for the flow of particles moving in a set of discrete directions in each cell of a space mesh and in each group of a multigroup energy structure. Iterations are performed until all implicitness in the coupling of cells, directions, groups, and source regeneration has been resolved. Several methods are available to accelerate convergence. Anisotropic cross sections can be expressed in a Legendre expansion of arbitrary order. Output data sets can be used to provide an accurate restart of a previous problem or to deliver information to other codes. Several techniques are available to remove the effects of negative fluxes caused by the finite difference approximation and of negative scattering sources due to truncation of the cross-section expansion. The space mesh can be described such that the number of first-dimensional (i) intervals varies with the second dimension (j). The number of discrete directions can vary across the space mesh and with

  3. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  4. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  5. Predictive coding as a model of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, M W

    2016-08-01

    Previous work has shown that predictive coding can provide a detailed explanation of a very wide range of low-level perceptual processes. It is also widely believed that predictive coding can account for high-level, cognitive, abilities. This article provides support for this view by showing that predictive coding can simulate phenomena such as categorisation, the influence of abstract knowledge on perception, recall and reasoning about conceptual knowledge, context-dependent behavioural control, and naive physics. The particular implementation of predictive coding used here (PC/BC-DIM) has previously been used to simulate low-level perceptual behaviour and the neural mechanisms that underlie them. This algorithm thus provides a single framework for modelling both perceptual and cognitive brain function. PMID:27118562

  6. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  7. ISTUM PC: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.

    1984-09-01

    A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-PC) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a PC has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

  9. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  10. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Kizek; Petr Babula; Jaromir Hubalek; Vojtech Adam; Libuse Trnkova

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the mo...

  11. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  12. From concatenated codes to graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2004-01-01

    We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing in...

  13. Concatenated codes with convolutional inner codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Thommesen, Christian; Zyablov, Viktor

    1988-01-01

    The minimum distance of concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon outer codes and convolutional inner codes is studied. For suitable combinations of parameters the minimum distance can be lower-bounded by the product of the minimum distances of the inner and outer codes. For a randomized ensemble of...... concatenated codes a lower bound of the Gilbert-Varshamov type is proved...

  14. A PC based seismic data transcription system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Yong; Chung, Bu Heung; Jang, Seong Hyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Old seismic data recorded on magnetic tapes is often difficult to read because of the tape sticking problem known as the `sticky syndrome`. It has to be transcribed to other suitable media using dedicated multiple systems during the whole project years. The first system requirement is the capability of reading gapless magnetic tape, which is peculiar to the old seismic data tapes. The second requirement would be the availability of storage devices with compact and huge capacity. The system must be cheap enough compared to the total cost of the data being transcribed. We introduce a PC based seismic data transcribing system. The system is equipped with an tape drive which can handle 800, 1600, 3200, and 6250 BPI densities. Well known storage devices such as 8mm Exabyte, 4mm DDS-2, and the SCSI CD recorder, are selected for the output devices. These output media should provide more durability, compactness, and portability than the original. Linux is chosen for the operating system. Unfortunately, the Linux, like other Unix systems, is subject to the limit in maximum i/o block size. The maximum block size of the SCSI tape driver is fixed to 32 KB, which is far less than the requirements in SEG-A, B, and C seismic tapes. A kernel patch is written to extend such a limit up to 2048 KB. Input and output programs are written to handle the tape data in variable block mode. A unique disk file format is designed to preserve the IBG(inter-block gap) within the disk copy. A utility program is also provided to manipulate the disk copy and to convert to SU(Seismic Unix) compatible SEG-Y file. Of the total two months of the transcription period, we spend most of the time in reading the sticky magnetic tapes. The seismic tapes had to be `baked` to dry out the moisture before reading. It took nine days to burn the all 85 diskettes. Writing two sets of 8mm Exabytes took only one day. It is considered that 8mm Exabyte can be the optimum output media for the main seismic data storage

  15. Influence of the binder nature and the temperature on the chloride transport through cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to document the effect of the temperature on the chloride diffusion through cement-based materials. The chloride diffusion coefficient, the penetration profiles and the chloride interactions with the solid phase were highlighted. The materials were CEM I and CEM V/A mortars and pastes. They were cured in wet room (21 ± 2 C, 90% relative humidity) for 1 month in the case of CEM I and 3 months in the case of CEM V before the experiments started. The temperature levels were 5, 21, 35 and 80 C.In addition, microstructure analyses were carried on using X-rays diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. The experimental results were then used to continue to develop the numerical code, MsDiff, developed in our research group. A good agreement between the numerical concentration profiles and the experimental ones was found. (author)

  16. PC Farms for Offline Event Reconstruction at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab is investigating the use of PC's for HEP computing. As a first step we have built a full offline environment under Linux on a set of Pentium (P5) and Pentium Pro (P6) machines (the ''PC Farm''). The Pythia simulation has been ported to run serially and in parallel (using CPS) on the PC Farm. Fermilab software products and CDF offline packages have also been ported to Linux. Run 1 CDF data has been analyzed on both Linux and SGI (Irix) with essentially identical results. The performance of the system is compared to results with commercial UNIX systems

  17. Crack propagation analysis of WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) components using the LIFE2 computer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.; Schluter, Larry L.

    1988-06-01

    The LIFE2 code is a fatigue/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind energy conversion system components. It is a PC-compatible FORTRAN code that is written in a top-down, modular format. This paper discusses the additions to the code that permit WECS components to be analyzed using linear fracture mechanics. To illustrate the capabilities of the numerical techniques employed here, two example problems are presented.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of an arc therapy treatment by means of a PC distribution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It would be always desirable to have an independent assessment of a planning system. Monte Carlo (MC) offers an accurate way of checking dose distribution in non homogeneous volumes. Nevertheless, its main drawback is the long processing times needed. A distribution model to simulate arc-therapy treatments with Monte Carlo techniques has been developed. This model divides the individual tasks with a physical sense. In this way, not only the CPU time is substantially reduced but a detailed analysis can be achieved. A distribution program modifies the input parameters in the code to send a different task to each processor. This model has been installed on a PC network without any resident software. This model works independently of the operating system pre-installed. The PC acting as a server exports the required operating system (Linux), the MC code and the input data, as well as it stores all the results. Some very complex radiosurgery treatments simulated using this model leads a CPU time about one hour. (orig.)

  19. Quantum Cyclic Code

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sagarmoy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we define and study \\emph{quantum cyclic codes}, a generalisation of cyclic codes to the quantum setting. Previously studied examples of quantum cyclic codes were all quantum codes obtained from classical cyclic codes via the CSS construction. However, the codes that we study are much more general. In particular, we construct cyclic stabiliser codes with parameters $[[5,1,3

  20. Abnormal expression and processing of the proprotein convertases PC1 and PC2 in human colorectal liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The family of proprotein convertases has been recently implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis in animal models. However, these studies have not yet been completely corroborated in human tumors. Using RT PCR, immunoblot and immunohistochemistry we assessed the presence and the processing patterns of the convertases PC1 and PC2 as well as the PC2 specific chaperone 7B2 in human liver metastases originating from colorectal cancer and compared them to unaffected and normal liver. Furthermore, we assessed the presence and processing profiles of PC1, PC2 and 7B2 in primary colon cancers. mRNA, protein expression, and protein cleavage profiles of proprotein convertases 1 and 2 are altered in liver colorectal metastasis, compared to unaffected and normal liver. Active PC1 protein is overexpressed in tumor, correlating with its mRNA profile. Moreover, the enhanced PC2 processing pattern in tumor correlates with the overexpression of its specific binding protein 7B2. These results were corroborated by immunohistochemistry. The specific and uniform convertase pattern observed in the metastases was present only in a fraction of primary colon cancers. The uniformly altered proprotein convertase profile in liver metastases is observed only in a fraction of primary colon cancers, suggesting possible selection processes involving PCs during metastasis as well as an active role of PCs in liver metastasis. In addition, the exclusive presence of 7B2 in metastatic tumors may represent a new target for early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment

  1. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies to the apical chloride channel in Necturus gallbladder inhibit the chloride conductance.

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, A L; Tsai, L M; Falk, R J

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The...

  3. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  4. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  5. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  6. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  7. 肌苷减少高浓度锌损伤的PC12细胞坏死而不是凋亡%Inosine attenuates necrosis, but not apoptosis, of zinc-injured PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史明; 郑春霞; 游思维

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore the death types of PC12 cells injured by a high concentration of zinc, and effects of inosine on the types of zinc-induced cell death. Methods MTT assay was used to assess the viability of PC12 cells treated with different concentrations of zinc chloride (50, 100,200,400 μmoL/L) or inosine (0.1,0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol/L) for 12 h. Hoechst 33342 / PI double staining, Annexin-V binding assay and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis were employed to investigate the death forms of PC12 cells with treatment of 200 μmol/L zinc chloride or 2.0 mmol/L inosine for 12 h. Results Zinc at 100 μ mol/L and more reduced cell viability significantly. After treatment with 200 μmoL/L zinc,56.5, 24.4 and 19.1% of total PC12 cells were necrotic, survival and apoptotic. Inosine, from the concentration of 0.5 mmol/L, markedly increased cell viability of zinc-induced PC12 cells. However, additional exposure to 2.0 mmol/L inosine, necrotic, survival and apoptotic cells were 27.9, 33.8 and 38.4% of the total PC12 cells that were injured by zinc.Conclusion The viability of PC12 cells decreases when the concentration of zinc increases, and inosine protects zinc-induced PC12 cells at a dose-dependent manner. A high concentration of zinc causes both necrosis and apoptosis, and inosine attenuates necrosis, but not apoptosis, of zinc-injured PC12 cells.%目的探讨高浓度锌损伤后PC12细胞的死亡类型和肌苷对该死亡类型的影响.方法用MTT比色法测定不同浓度氯化锌(50、100、200、400 μmol/L)或肌苷(0.1、0.5、1.0、2.0 mmol/L)作用PC12细胞12 h后的存活率;用Hoechst33342/PI荧光双染色、Annexin-V结合实验及DNA琼脂糖凝胶电泳等方法检测200μmol/L氯化锌、2.0 mmol/L肌苷作用PC12细胞12 h后细胞死亡类型的变化.结果锌从100 μmol/L作用浓度开始可明显降低细胞存活率;200 μmol/L锌可引起(56.5±7.2)%坏死、(24.4±2.5)%的正常和(19.1±7.6)%的细胞凋亡.肌苷从0.5 mmol/L作用浓度开

  8. Guest Foreword by Lord Phillips KG PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Phillips

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rt Hon The Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG PC, President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ambition and excellence. Those two words epitomize Qatar. Under the leadership of his Highness the Emir, this small State has set out to make an impact on the world that belies its size. Ambitious was the plan to have an international broadcasting station. Ambitious was the plan to build from scratch a Museum of Islamic Art. Ambitious was the bid – the successful bid to host the World Cup in 2022. Ambitious is the bid to stage the Olympic Games in 2020. Qatar not merely has ambitions, it realizes its ambitions. And when it does so it is not enough to say that the result is ‘world class’, for Qatar sets out to be a world leader in whatever it puts its hand to. Excellence is the norm. Al Jazeera has established itself as the broadcasting station of choice for many throughout the world. The Doha Museum of Islamic Art is recognized as being second to none. In addition, the scale and standard of development in Doha itself is setting new standards of excellence in the fields of architecture and civil engineering. Thus when Qatar focuses its energies on education and the law, high achievements are expected. I shall have the honour of helping to achieve those expectations when I succeed Lord Woolf as President of Qatar’s new and impressive Civil and Commercial Court. The College of Law at Qatar University is already achieving excellence in the field of legal education. So, naturally, all expect great things of this new International Review of Law and I am delighted to have been invited to welcome it by this foreword. The range of the first edition is both international and topical. Those countries that have experienced the turbulence of the Arab Spring are settling new constitutions, and other countries are bent on constitutional reform designed to avoid such turbulence. So an erudite article on

  9. NEW CONCEPT FOR DETERMINING THE ORDERS OF SAC AND PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Baodian; Liu Dongsu; Ma Wenping; Wang Xinmei

    2004-01-01

    The autocorrelation of a Boolean function possesses the capability to reflect such characteristics as linear structure, Strict Avalanche Criterion(SAC) and Propagation Criterion(PC)of degree k. But it can do nothing in determining the order of SAC or PC. A calculating table for the autocorrelation is constructed in this paper so as to show what is beyond the autocorrelation and how the three cryptographic characteristics are exhibited. A deeper study on the calculating table in a similar way has helped us to develop a new concept, named as the general autocorrelation, to address efficiently the problem how to determine the orders of SAC and PC. The application on the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) shows the SAC and PC characteristics of Boolean functions of AES S-box.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Compatibilizer TLCP-b-PC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ru; JIN Shu-wen; ZHANG Yue-ting; WU Cheng-xun

    2002-01-01

    The compatibilizer (TLCP-b-PC) of 60PHB/PET thermotropic liquid crystal polymer (TLCP) and polycarbonate (PC) blend system was prepared. The synthesis and characterization of the compatibilizer as well as its effects on the microscopic morphology and the mechanical properties of the TLCP/PC blend system were studied with a series of analysis ways, such as Soxhlet extraction, infrared absorption spectroscopy,electron microscopy, etc. It is shown that the ideal reaction condition for preparing the compatibilizer is:the reaction temperature of 275℃, the reaction time of 20minutes and without catalyst. And the compatibilizer can improve the compatibility of the blending system of 60PHB/PET and PC.

  11. PC-SPES (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  12. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  13. Application of PC-SAFT to glycol containing systems - PC-SAFT towards a predictive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenner, Andreas; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas;

    2007-01-01

    For equations of state of the SAFT type a major limitation is the procedure of obtaining pure compound parameters using saturated vapor pressure and liquid density data. However, for complex compounds such data are often not available. One solution is to develop a group contribution scheme for...... general pure compound parameters were obtained for PC-SAFT which are able to perform well for both vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE). Linear trends of non-association parameters were obtained with respect to the molar mass. However, identical values for the association...... +water, hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbon, methane, N-2 and CO2. To improve correlations for mixtures containing glycol and aromatic hydrocarbons solvation was explicitly accounted for. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Liquid Level Indikator Dan Liquid Level Controller Dengan Pengendali PC

    OpenAIRE

    Barata, Bayu

    2011-01-01

    The designed by a appliance to able control and monitor height of dilution in a tank. This appliance use sensor as detection of height dilution and mikrokontroller as brain from overall of system and also PC as monitoring system height of dilution. While system of intrefacing between mikrokontroller and PC use method delivery of serial data This appliance can detection and monitoring height of dilution than better and easy to be used. Weakness of this appliance is used censor still very s...

  15. Economic Perspectives on Software Design: PC Operating Systems and Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J. Davis; Jack MacCrisken; Kevin M. Murphy

    2001-01-01

    Improvements in the software that provides hardware management, user interface and platform functions have played a central role in the growth and transformation of the personal computer (PC) industry. Several forces shape the design of these 'operating system' products and propel their evolution over time, including: A. The need to efficiently manage the interacting components of PC systems so as to keep pace with rapid advances in computer technologies the development of applications softwa...

  16. Porovnání platformy Apple a PC

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor work, Apple and PC Platform Comporasion is devided into four sections. First part shows evolution of Apple and gives a representation of development following operating systems: Mac OS and Windows. Second part contains definition of the main differences between Mac and PC platforms. Third part tells about comparaison of the most modern operation systems from Apple and Microsoft. In fourth part operation systems will be compared with respect to speed and performance. Comparais...

  17. Mapping of the oat crown rust resistance gene Pc91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, C A; Stonehouse, R G; Rossnagel, B G; Eckstein, P E; Scoles, G J; Zatorski, T; Beattie, A D; Chong, J

    2011-02-01

    Crown rust is an important disease of oat caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks. Crown rust is efficiently and effectively managed through the development of resistant oat varieties. Pc91 is a seedling crown rust resistance gene that is highly effective against the current P. coronata population in North America. The primary objective of this study was to develop DNA markers linked to Pc91 for purposes of marker-assisted selection in oat breeding programs. The Pc91 locus was mapped using a population of F7-derived recombinant inbred lines developed from the cross 'CDC Sol-Fi'/'HiFi' made at the Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan. The population was evaluated for reaction to P. coronata in field nurseries in 2008 and 2009. Pc91 mapped to a linkage group consisting of 44 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. DArTs were successfully converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Five robust SCARs were developed from three non-redundant DArTs that co-segregated with Pc91. SCAR markers were developed for different assay systems, such that SCARs are available for agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism detection. The SCAR markers accurately postulated the Pc91 status of 23 North American oat breeding lines. PMID:20862449

  18. Effect of Scopoletin on PC3 Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXue-li; ZhangLiang; FuXin-lu; ChenKai; QianBo-chu

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of scopoletin on cell proliferation and apoptosis of PC3 cells.Methods Cell growm curve,MMT assay,and acid phosphatase activity (ACP)were used to determine cell proliferation.Coomassie brillient blue assay was used to measure the content of protein in cells.Light microscope,transmission electronmicroscope,and fluorescence microscope were used to observe scopoletin-induced morphological changes. Apoptosis rate and cell cycle distribution were dctermined by flow cytometry.Results The IC50 of scopoletin for inhibiting PC3,PAA,and Hela cell proliferation was (157±25), (154±51),and (294±100)mg/L,respectively.Scopoletin induced a marked time and concentration-dependent inhibition of PC3 cell proliferation.Scopoletin reduced the protein content and decreased the ACP level in PC3 cells in a concentration dependent manlier.Cells treated by scopoletin showedtypical morphologic changes of apoptosis by light microscope,fluorescence microscope, and transmission electronmicroscope.Apoptosis rate was 0.3%,2.1%,9.3%and 35%for scopoletin 0,100,200,and 400 mg/L,respectively,and cells in G2 phase decreased markedly after being treated with scopoletin.Conclusion Scopoletin inhibited PC3 proliferation by inducing apoptosis of PC3 cells.

  19. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  1. Regulation of Shaker-type potassium channels by hypoxia. Oxygen-sensitive K+ channels in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about the molecular composition of the O2-sensitive K+ (Ko2) channels. The possibility that these channels belong to the Shaker subfamily (Kv1) of voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels has been raised in pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells. Numerous findings suggest that the Ko2 channel in PC12 cells is a Kv1 channel, formed by the Kv1.2 alpha subunit. The Ko2 channel in PC12 cells is a slow-inactivating voltage-dependent K+ channel of 20 pS conductance. Other Kv channels, also expressed in PC12 cells, are not inhibited by hypoxia. Selective up-regulation by chronic hypoxia of the Kv1.2 alpha subunit expression correlates with an increase O2-sensitivity of the K+ current. Other Kv1 alpha subunit genes encoding slow-inactivating Kv channels, such as Kv1.3, Kv2.1, Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 are not modulated by chronic hypoxia. The Ko2 current in PC12 cells is blocked by 5 mM externally applied tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) and by charydbotoxin (CTX). The responses of the Kv1.2 K+ channel to hypoxia have been studied in the Xenopus oocytes and compared to those of Kv2.1, also proposed as Ko2 channel in PA smooth muscle cells. Two-electrode voltage clamp experiments show that hypoxia induces inhibition of K+ current amplitude only in oocytes injected with Kv1.2 cRNA. These data indicate that Kv1.2 K+ channels are inhibited by hypoxia. PMID:10849667

  2. CoPc and CoPcF16 on gold: Site-specific charge-transfer processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini Petraki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interface properties of cobalt(II phthalocyanine (CoPc and cobalt(II hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (CoPcF16 to gold are investigated by photo-excited electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES. It is shown that a bidirectional charge transfer determines the interface energetics for CoPc and CoPcF16 on Au. Combined XPS and XAES measurements allow for the separation of chemical shifts based on different local charges at the considered atom caused by polarization effects. This facilitates a detailed discussion of energetic shifts of core level spectra. The data allow the discussion of site-specific charge-transfer processes.

  3. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  4. Quantum Convolutional BCH Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Aly, S A; Klappenecker, A; Roetteler, M; Sarvepalli, P K; Aly, Salah A.; Grassl, Markus; Klappenecker, Andreas; Roetteler, Martin; Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2007-01-01

    Quantum convolutional codes can be used to protect a sequence of qubits of arbitrary length against decoherence. We introduce two new families of quantum convolutional codes. Our construction is based on an algebraic method which allows to construct classical convolutional codes from block codes, in particular convolutional BCH codes. These codes have the property that they contain their Euclidean, respectively Hermitian, dual codes. Hence, they can be used to define quantum convolutional codes by the stabilizer code construction. We compute BCH-like bounds on the free distances which can be controlled as in the case of block codes, and establish that the codes have non-catastrophic encoders.

  5. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  6. AERO2S - SUBSONIC AERODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF WINGS WITH LEADING- AND TRAILING-EDGE FLAPS IN COMBINATION WITH CANARD OR HORIZONTAL TAIL SURFACES (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    necessary only to add an identification record and the namelist data that are to be changed from the previous run. This code was originally developed in 1989 in FORTRAN V on a CDC 6000 computer system, and was later ported to an MS-DOS environment. Both versions are available from COSMIC. There are only a few differences between the PC version (LAR-14458) and CDC version (LAR-14178) of AERO2S distributed by COSMIC. The CDC version has one main source code file while the PC version has two files which are easier to edit and compile on a PC. The PC version does not require a FORTRAN compiler which supports NAMELIST because a special INPUT subroutine has been added. The CDC version includes two MODIFY decks which can be used to improve the code and prevent the possibility of some infrequently occurring errors while PC-version users will have to make these code changes manually. The PC version includes an executable which was generated with the Ryan McFarland/FORTRAN compiler and requires 253K RAM and an 80x87 math co-processor. Using this executable, the sample case requires about four hours to execute on an 8MHz AT-class microcomputer with a co-processor. The source code conforms to the FORTRAN 77 standard except that it uses variables longer than six characters. With two minor modifications, the PC version should be portable to any computer with a FORTRAN compiler and sufficient memory. The CDC version of AERO2S is available in CDC NOS Internal format on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape. The PC version is available on a set of two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. IBM AT is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. CDC is a registered trademark of Control Data Corporation. NOS is a trademark of Control Data Corporation.

  7. Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Corrosion-Resistant Rebars in Concrete Structures Under Chloride Ion Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nedal; Boulfiza, Mohamed; Evitts, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Corrosion of reinforced concrete is the most challenging durability problem that threatens reinforced concrete structures, especially structures that are subject to severe environmental conditions (i.e., highway bridges, marine structures, etc.). Corrosion of reinforcing steel leads to cracking and spalling of the concrete cover and billions of dollars are spent every year on repairing such damaged structures. New types of reinforcements have been developed to avoid these high-cost repairs. Thus, it is important to study the corrosion behavior of these new types of reinforcements and compare them to the traditional carbon steel reinforcements. This study aimed at characterizing the corrosion behavior of three competing reinforcing steels; conventional carbon steel, micro-composite steel (MMFX-2) and 316LN stainless steel, through experiments in carbonated and non-carbonated concrete exposed to chloride-laden environments. Synthetic pore water solutions have been used to simulate both cases of sound and carbonated concrete under chloride ions attack. A three-electrode corrosion cell is used for determining the corrosion characteristics and rates. Multiple electrochemical techniques were applied using a Gamry PC4™ potentiostat manufactured by Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). DC corrosion measurements were applied on samples subjected to fixed chloride concentration in the solution.

  8. Concatenated Conjugate Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, M

    2006-01-01

    A conjugate code pair is defined as a pair of linear codes either of which contains the dual of the other. A conjugate code pair represents the essential structure of the corresponding Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) quantum code. It is known that conjugate code pairs are applicable to (quantum) cryptography. We give a construction method for efficiently decodable conjugate code pairs.

  9. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  10. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  11. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  12. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl3liquid + H2O → FeOClsolid + 2 HClgas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOClsolid + H2O → Fe2O3solid + 2 HClgas. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  13. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  14. User's guide and documentation manual for BOAST-VHS for the PC''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  15. Study of nuclear computer code maintenance and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software maintenance is one of the most important problems since late 1970's.We wish to develop a nuclear computer code system to maintenance and manage KAERI's nuclear software. As a part of this system, we have developed three code management programs for use on CYBER and PC systems. They are used in systematic management of computer code in KAERI. The first program is embodied on the CYBER system to rapidly provide information on nuclear codes to the users. The second and the third programs were embodied on the PC system for the code manager and for the management of data in korean language, respectively. In the requirement analysis, we defined each code, magnetic tape, manual and abstract information data. In the conceptual design, we designed retrieval, update, and output functions. In the implementation design, we described the technical considerations of database programs, utilities, and directions for the use of databases. As a result of this research, we compiled the status of nuclear computer codes which belonged KAERI until September, 1988. Thus, by using these three database programs, we could provide the nuclear computer code information to the users more rapidly. (Author)

  16. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that under certain solar wind (SW/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle the occurrence of ground-level Pc3–4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock. Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through

  17. REPRISK-PC, Radioactive Waste Storage Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A - Description of program or function: REPRISK-PC is a PC version of the REPRISK model used in the modelling of long-term radionuclide releases and population health effects resulting from disposal of high level radioactive wastes in mined geological repositories. REPRISK is a set of computer programs and databases that models the transport of radionuclides from the repository through the environment to exposed human populations and estimates the resulting health impact. B - Method of solution: Various natural processes or human activities could lead to radionuclide releases from a geological repository after it has been closed. These perturbations happen according to some frequency or probability. REPRISK-PC incorporates the characteristics of these perturbations and their associated probability. REPRISK-PC models four release scenarios: (1) direct impact of a waste package - releases to air and land surface (volcano, meteorite, drilling/direct hit); (2) direct impact of a waste package - releases to an aquifer (faulting, breccia pipes); (3) disruption of the repository - releases to land (drilling/no hit); (4) disruption of the repository - releases to an aquifer (normal groundwater flow, faulting, breccia pipes, drilling/no hit). C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: REPRISK-PC does not model the differences in radionuclide-specific velocities, which may control the travel time from repository to the accessible environment. It is not a good model for time periods greater than 10,000 years when radium daughters become important

  18. Combining sulfate electrowinning with chloride leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, A. W.; Sudderth, R. B.; Olafson, S. M.

    1991-08-01

    Although the chloride leaching of copper sulfide concentrates has proved highly efficient, electrowinning from chloride solutions presents many difficulties, notably in cell design and the handling of the powder product. Sulfate electrowinning,on the other hand, continues to improve and has played a significant part in the widespread adoption of the solvent extraction-electrowinning process for copper recovery from low-grade ores. It has been found that the two steps can be combined by introducing a novel solvent extraction process after chloride leaching. This article presents the results of laboratory tests to prove the feasibility of this approach and discusses how it can be integrated into a commercially viable flow sheet.

  19. Twisted Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Neil I.; Praeger, Cheryl E.; Spiga, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We introduce twisted permutation codes, which are frequency permutation arrays analogous to repetition permutation codes, namely, codes obtained from the repetition construction applied to a permutation code. In particular, we show that a lower bound for the minimum distance of a twisted permutation code is the minimum distance of a repetition permutation code. We give examples where this bound is tight, but more importantly, we give examples of twisted permutation codes with minimum distance...

  20. Transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes

    OpenAIRE

    Mogilnykh, I. Yu.; Solov'eva, F. I.

    2014-01-01

    A code is called transitive if its automorphism group (the isometry group) of the code acts transitively on its codewords. If there is a subgroup of the automorphism group acting regularly on the code, the code is called propelinear. Using Magma software package we establish that among 201 equivalence classes of transitive perfect codes of length 15 from \\cite{ost} there is a unique nonpropelinear code. We solve the existence problem for transitive nonpropelinear perfect codes for any admissi...

  1. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  2. Thermal Conductivity behavior of MWCNT based PMMA and PC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Girija; Jindal, Prashant; Bhandari, Rajiv; Dhiman, Neha; Bajaj, Chetan; Jindal, Vijay

    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polycarbonate (PC) are low cost polymer materials which can be easily transformed into desired shapes for various applications. However they have poor mechanical, thermal and electrical properties which are required to be enhanced to widen their scope of applications specifically where along with high strength, rapid heat transfer is essential. Multi Walled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are excellent new materials having extraordinary mechanical and transport properties. We will report results of fabricating composites of varying compositions of MWCNTs with PMMA and PC and their thermal conductivity behaviour using simple transient heat flow methods. The samples in disk shapes of around 2 cm diameters and 0.2 cm thickness with MWCNT compositions varying up to 10 wt% were fabricated. We found that both PMMA and PC measured high thermal conductivity with increase in the composition of CNTs. The thermal conductivity of 10wt% MWCNT/PMMA composite increased by nearly two times in comparison to pure PMMA.

  3. Do the $P_c^+$ Pentaquarks Have Strange Siblings?

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    The recent LHCb discovery of states $P_c^+(4380)$, $P_c^+(4450)$, believed to be $c\\bar c uud$ pentaquark resonances, begs the question of whether equivalent states with $c\\bar c \\to s\\bar s$ exist, and how they might be produced. The precise analogue to the $P_c^+$ discovery channel $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi \\, K^- \\! p$, namely, $\\Lambda_c \\to \\phi \\pi^0 \\! p$, is feasible for this study and indeed is less Cabibbo-suppressed, although its limited phase space suggests that evidence of a $s\\bar s uud$ resonance $P_s^+$ would be confined to the kinematic endpoint region.

  4. Group Contribution sPC-SAFT Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tihic, Amra

    2008-01-01

    Modellering af termodynamiske egenskaber og faseligevægte er en udfordring for den kemiske industri. Forenklet Perturbed Chains-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (sPC-SAFT) er en tilstandsligning med udbredt anvendelse i en række industrielle sammenhænge. Modellen anvender tre parametre: segment...... muligt at frembringe eksperimentelle data til at fitte parametrene. Dette projekt har ført til udvikling af en gruppebidragsbaseret (GC) udgave af sPC-SAFT tilstandsligningen, hvor modelparametrene beregnes ud fra flere niveauer af veldefinerede funktionelle grupper og deres individuelle bidrag. Metoden...... parametersæt for komplekse stoffer har gjort sPC-SAFT tilstandsligningen til et attraktivt ingeniørværktøj til brug ifm. design og udvikling af komplicerede produkter, som fx. ingredienser til vaskemidler og fødevarer, farmaceutiske stoffer og specialkemikalier....

  5. Monte Carlo Simulation for Neptun 10 PC medical linear accelerator and calculations of electron beam parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, cancer has been one of the main ever increasing causes of death in developed countries. In order to fulfill the aforementioned considerations different techniques have been used, one of which is Monte Carlo simulation technique. High accuracy of the Monte Carlo simulation has been one of the main reason for its wide spread application. In this study, MCNP-4C code was employed to simulate electron mode of the Neptun 10 PC Linac, dosimetric quantities for conventional fields have also been both measured and calculated. Although Neptun 10 PC Linac is no longer licensed for installation in European and some other countries but regrettably nearly 10 of them have been installed in different centers around the country and are in operation. Therefore, in this circumstance, to improve the accuracy of treatment planning, Monte Carlo simulation for Neptun 10 PC was recognized as a necessity. Simulated and measured values of depth dose curves, off axis dose distributions for 6 , 8 and 10 MeV electrons applied for four different size fields, 6 x 6 cm2, 10 x 10 cm2, 15 x 15 cm2 and 20 x 20 cm2 were obtained. The measurements were carried out by a Welhofer-Scanditronix dose scanning system, Semiconductor Detector and Ionization Chamber. The results of this study have revealed that the values of two main dosimetric quantities depth dose curves and off axis dose distributions, acquired by MCNP-4C simulation and the corresponding values achieved by direct measurements are in a very good agreement (within 1% to 2% difference). In general, very good consistency of simulated and measured results, is a good proof that the goal of this work has been accomplished. In other word where measurements of some parameters are not practically achievable, MCNP-4C simulation can be implemented confidently. (author)

  6. Homological stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev’s toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev’s toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: ► We show that Kitaev’s toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. ► We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. ► We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. ► We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  7. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  8. Hydrogenation of Tasmanian alginite in the presence of tin (II) chloride and zinc chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.J.

    1981-10-01

    A Mersey River (Tasmanian) algnite concentrate was heated (3 Cmin$SUP$-$SUP$1 to temperatures of 200-480 C in a small capacity, high-pressure, single-cell differential thermal analysis, batch autoclave under nitrogen or hydrogen (initial pressure 9.8 MPa) with or without 10 wt% zinc chloride or tin (II) chloride. An organic solvent (vehicle) was not used in these experiments. Although there is an almost complete conversion of alginite to gaseous and liquid products between 425 and 450 C, the compositions of the autoclave gas samples, the yields and compositions of the hexane-soluble material derived from the autoclave products, and the optical properties of the hexane-soluble residues, reflect the experimental conditions, in particular the influence of the metal chlorides. Principal phases of hydrogen uptake by alginite occur at different temperatures in a hydrogen atmosphere depending on the presence and nature of the metal chloride. The autoclave gas compositions reveal a clear distinction between the uncatalysed and catalysed experiments. The hydrocarbon gas ratios permit a distinction to be made between catalytic (carbonium ion mechanism) reactions and thermal (free radical mechanism) reactions; at higher temperatures the latter are dominant, even in the catalysed experiments. The metal chlorides lower the organic sulphur and nitrogen contents of the hexane-soluble material; zinc chloride being more effective than tin (II) chloride. Incident light fluorescence microscopy suggests that zinc chloride and tin (II) chloride give rise to different hydrogenation reactions between 300 and 425 C. Incident light fluorescence microscopy is a most useful method of studying the petrography of alignite in the hexane-insoluble residues. (28 refs.)

  9. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  10. PC-based digital feedback control for scanning force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, most digital feedback implementation for scanned-probe microscope were based on a digital signal processor (DSP). At present DSP plug-in card with the input-output interface module is still expensive compared to a fast pentium PC motherboard. For a magnetic force microscope (MFM) digital feedback has an advantage where the magnetic signal can be easily separated from the topographic signal. In this paper, a simple low-cost PC-based digital feedback and imaging system for Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) is presented. (Author)

  11. ISO-PC Version 1.98: User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes how to use Version 1.98 of the shielding program named ISO-PC. Version 1.98 corrects all known errors in ISOSHLD-II. In addition, a few numeric problems have been eliminated. There are three new namelist variables, 25 additional shielding materials, and 5 more energy groups. The two major differences with the original ISOSHLD-II are the removal of RIBD(radioisotope buildup and decay) source generator, and the removal of the non-uniform source distribution parameter, SSV1. This version of ISO-PC works with photon energies from 10 KeV to 10 MeV using 30 energy groups

  12. Various Schemes to Speed up the PC during Virus Scan

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Bishnoi,; Prof. S.S Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    The current threat landscape is changing and we have seen a large volume of new viruses captured by security vendors each day. Customers always complain that anti-virus software slow down their computers by consuming much of PC memory and resources. Antivirus developers have to keep on inserting new virus signatures into their databases as variety of zero-day threats over the internet are becoming more popular. Due to this large database anti-virus soft ware slows down the PC. However, the in...

  13. CC-3 CAMAC crate controller for IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specifications and implementation details of CAMAC Crate Controller CC-3 for IBM-PC compatible as a host computer, having capability to transfer high speed data with direct memory access (DMA) scheme and logic to execute CAMAC cycles directly from the crate controller, to implement the block algorithms specified in ANSI/IEEE Std. 683-1976 (Reaff-1981) are described. The maximum data transfer rate measured with 8 bit interface of PC-AT is 240K byte per second. This work is carried out under Seventh Five Year Plan Project on Modernisation of reactor Control Instrumentation and Development of CAMAC and Fastbus Instrumentation. (author). 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 appendixes

  14. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NO(sub x) emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during the quarter included completion of the equipment fabrication and installation efforts for the 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Selection and procurement of the first two test coals and preliminary selection of the final two test coals were completed. Shakedown and commissioning activities were finished and PC Preheat pilot scale tests commenced with PRB coal

  15. STATUS OF THE LINUX PC CLUSTER FOR BETWEEN-PULSE DATA ANALYSES AT DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OAK-B135 Some analyses that survey experimental data are carried out at a sparse sample rate between pulses during tokamak operation and/or completed as a batch job overnight because the complete analysis on a single fast workstation cannot fit in the narrow time window between two pulses. Scientists therefore miss the opportunity to use these results to guide experiments quickly. With a dedicated Beowulf type cluster at a cost less than that of a workstation, these analyses can be accomplished between pulses and the analyzed data made available for the research team during the tokamak operation. A Linux PC cluster comprises of 12 processors was installed at DIII-D National Fusion Facility in CY00 and expanded to 24 processors in CY01 to automatically perform between-pulse magnetic equilibrium reconstructions using the EFIT code written in Fortran, CER analyses using CERQUICK code written in IDL and full profile fitting analyses (ne, Te, Ti, Vr, Zeff) using IDL code ZIPFIT. This paper reports the current status of the system and discusses some problems and concerns raised during the implementation and expansion of the system

  16. Status of the Linux PC cluster for between-pulse data analyses at DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some analyses that survey experimental data are carried out at a sparse sample rate between pulses during tokamak operation and/or completed as a batch job overnight because the complete analysis on a single fast workstation cannot fit in the narrow time window between two pulses. Scientists therefore miss the opportunity to use these results to guide experiments quickly. With a dedicated Beowulf type cluster at a cost less than that of a workstation, these analyses can be accomplished between pulses and the analyzed data made available for the research team during the tokamak operation. A Linux PC cluster comprised of 12 processors was installed at DIII-D National Fusion Facility in CY00 and expanded to 24 processors in CY01 to automatically perform between-pulse magnetic equilibrium reconstructions using the EFIT code written in FORTRAN, CER analyses using CERQUICK code written in interactive data language (IDL) and full profile fitting analyses (ne, Te, Ti, Vr, Zeff) using IDL code ZIPFIT. This paper reports the current status of the system, the details of the between-pulse profile fitting analyses, and discusses some problems and concerns raised during the implementation and expansion of the system

  17. The code system COROUT: Radioactive inventory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The code system COROUT is devoted to the evaluation of nuclear reactor out-of-core radioactive inventory for the sake of the nuclear power plant decommissioning problem. The code includes calculations of the neutron flux distributions and activation kinetics in the consistent way. Only thermal neutrons are taken into consideration in the present code version. Code is divided into three steps. The first step prepares the necessary data file containing data on reactor geometry, core flux, reactor operational history and data on elements in the out-of-core zones. The main part of calculations are performed during the second step. Here the thermal neutron flux distribution in the out-of-core area is calculated for two-dimensional cylindrical geometry and the system of gain-loss equations and the activation kinetics is solved for the elements in the different out-of-core shells. The Vladimirov's method of iterations on the spatial grid is used for the neutron flux calculations. The kinetic equations are solved by the operational method. The change of neutron field due to activation during reactor campaign is taken into account. The third part of COROUT code system allows to prepare plots of flux and activity distribution for different shells. All steps could be initiated independently using the results stored at the previous steps. The code is destined for the personal computers and has been written on the base of 32-bit FORTRAN language for IBM PC. 4 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  18. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. Adaptation of reservoir engineering software to a DOS/Linux PC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emanuel, A.S.; Jones, R.C.; McWilliams, R.S.; Tsaio, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    Recent publications have described the implementation of state-of-the-art reservoir engineering applications based on integrated networks of mainframe, workstation, and desktop computers. These facilities provide excellent resources for geologic and engineering applications, but at the cost of substantial investment in computer hardware, network installation, and systems staffing. This paper describes an adaptation of similar state-of-the-art applications to a desktop platform that minimizes the required hardware and system investment. The platform is an Intel 486 or Pentium-based PC with two hard drives and 32 to 64 MB of memory. One disk is partitioned to a standard DOS/Windows environment. The other disk is partitioned to the Linux operating system. Linux is a freely available clone of Unix for the 80386/80486 CPU, which is supported by a worldwide volunteer effort. A machine of this type can be constructed from components for $4,000 to $8,000, depending on CPU and memory. A number of proprietary modeling codes have been ported over so that the PC can provide much of the capability of the network systems.

  20. Model Children's Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  1. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Jiansheng, E-mail: jsliang@yzu.edu.cn [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liang, Changyong, E-mail: cyliang@yzu.edu.cn [College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  2. Measure of 1/f noise using the sound card of a PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlà, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    An experimental setup is described to measure 1/f noise (pink noise) in conductors using a PC equipped with a sound card functioning as a spectrum analyzer. A simple auxiliary analog electronic circuit with three operational amplifiers has been assembled to yield the required amplification, to match the sound card signal levels, and to implement a bridge configuration to improve dynamical range. Test experiments and data analysis have been conducted using commonly available software, together with some custom scripts and C code. The whole setup is technically accessible and economical for both the high school and undergraduate levels. Results are reported for pink noise of vintage carbon resistors spanning seven frequency decades, from 1 mHz to 10 kHz.

  3. Proposal for Using of a PC for Data Acquisition, Signal Processing and Control of Egyptor Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a system to replace the outdated and faulty computer associated with Egyptor Tokamak by a conventional PC and I/O card to restore its automatic data acquisition and control. VisSim S/W with real-time add-on and Advantech PCL-812 PG compatible ACL-812 PG data acquisition card are employed to achieve this purpose. Digital channels of the card are buffered to drive the Tokamak associated circuits. A multi-mode program for data acquisition and control is designed and implemented in VisSim environment. Data analysis is also included in the program. The program can be distributed with VisSim viewer or through generated C code from VisSim block diagram. The proposed system is tested on Tokamak successfully for working relay and thyristor driving circuits

  4. A PC-based computer program for simulation of containment pressurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that a PC-based computer program has been developed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment during various transients. This containment model is capable of determining pressure and temperature history of a PWR containment in the event of a loss of coolant accident, as well as main steam line breaks inside the containment. Conservation of mass and energy equations are applied to the containment model. Development of the program is based on minimization of input specified information and user friendliness. Maximization of calculation efficiency is obtained by superseding the traditional trial and error procedure for determination of the state variables and implementation of an explicit solution for pressure. The program includes simplified models for active heat removal systems. The results are in close agreement between the present model and CONTEMPT-MOD5 computer code for pressure and temperature inside the containment

  5. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  6. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  7. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C10H21NH3Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer

  8. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  9. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on...

  10. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  11. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408. ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  12. Determination of chloride in uranium solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danse, A.; Stoch, H.; Steele, T.W.

    1967-05-15

    Thiocyanate is first removed by precipitation with a small excess of a copper solution, and the cations are removed by passing the filtrate through a cation-exchange resin. The chloride is determined in the eluate by a potentiometric titration in which silver nitrate solution is used.

  13. Polyvinyl chloride filled with bismuth oxychloride powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášková, M.; Sedláček, T.; Kharlamov, Alexander; Pivokonský, Radek; Saha, P.

    Larnaca : Polymer Processing Society, 2009, s. 242. [Polymer Processing Society Europe/Africa Regional Meeting. Larnaca (GR), 18.10.2009-21.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : olyvinyl chloride * bismuth oxychloride * radiopaque agents Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  14. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  15. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  16. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and crystallized. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  17. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors....

  18. Differential localization of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in two distinct types of secretory granules in rat pituitary gonadotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M; Yaoi, Y; Suzuki, M; Takata, K; Tanaka, S

    2001-04-01

    Prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 are endoproteases involved in prohormone cleavage at pairs of basic amino acids. There is a report that prohormone convertase exists in the rat anterior pituitary gonadotrophs, where it had previously been considered that proprotein processing does not take place. In addition to luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, rat pituitary gonadotrophs contain chromogranin A (CgA) and secretogranin II (SgII), two members of the family of granin proteins, which have proteolytic sites in their molecules. In the present study we examined whether there is a close correlation between subcellular localization of prohormone convertases and granin proteins. Ultrathin sections of rat anterior pituitary were immunolabeled with anti-PC1 or -PC2 antisera and then stained with immunogold. Immunogold particles for PC1 were exclusively found in large, lucent secretory granules, whereas those for PC2 were seen in both large, lucent and small, dense granules. The double-immunolabeling also demonstrated colocalization of PC2 and SgII in small, dense granules and of PC1, PC2, and CgA in large, lucent granules. These immunocytochemical results suggest that PC2 may be involved in the proteolytic processing of SgII and that both PC1 and PC2 may be necessary to process CgA. PMID:11383885

  19. PC1-RC4 and PC2-RC4 Algorithms: Pragmatic Enrichment Algorithms to Enhance RC4 Stream Cipher Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Pardeep; Pushpendra Kumar Pateriya

    2012-01-01

    This paper is introduced the new self enrichment stream cipheralgorithms named as “PC1-RC4” and “PC2-RC4”, to improvethe security of the RC4 algorithm and proposed to use over theinternet Network and for internet applications like: E-CommerceApplication where RC4 algorithm already applied forconfidentiality. The RC4 stream cipher algorithm is most usedalgorithm to provide the confidentiality over the differentnetworks. The different networks like: Sensor, wireless, Internet,Mobile and so on, ...

  20. Progress on DART code optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work consists about the progress made on the design and development of a new optimized version of DART code (DART-P), a mechanistic computer model for the performance calculation and assessment of aluminum dispersion fuel. It is part of a collaboration agreement between CNEA and ANL in the area of Low Enriched Uranium Advanced Fuels. It is held by the Implementation Arrangement for Technical Exchange and Cooperation in the Area of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, signed on October 16, 1997 between US DOE and the National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic. DART optimization is a biannual program; it is operative since February 8, 1999 and has the following goals: 1. Design and develop a new DART calculation kernel for implementation within a parallel processing architecture. 2. Design and develop new user-friendly I/O routines to be resident on Personal Computer (PC)/WorkStation (WS) platform. 2.1. The new input interface will be designed and developed by means of a Visual interface, able to guide the user in the construction of the problem to be analyzed with the aid of a new database (described in item 3, below). The new I/O interface will include input data check controls in order to avoid corrupted input data. 2.2. The new output interface will be designed and developed by means of graphical tools, able to translate numeric data output into 'on line' graphic information. 3. Design and develop a new irradiated materials database, to be resident on PC/WS platform, so as to facilitate the analysis of the behavior of different fuel and meat compositions with DART-P. Currently, a different version of DART is used for oxide, silicide, and advanced alloy fuels. 4. Develop rigorous general inspection algorithms in order to provide valuable DART-P benchmarks. 5. Design and develop new models, such as superplasticity, elastoplastic feedback, improved models for the calculation of fuel deformation and the evolution of the fuel microstructure for

  1. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  2. Experiences with NJOY and ENDF pre-processing system on PC-486 and benchmarks of WIMS library generated from ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study is to develop WIMS-CITATION computation system using PC-486 for nuclear analysis of advanced Pressurized Water Reactors, whose burnups are designed to achieve more than 60,000 MWD/MTU, and CANDU reactors. In order to achieve the objective, it is essential to generate the proper WIMS library. The possibility of employing NJOY code and ENDF Pre-Processing System are under investigation. In order to verify the acceptability of the WIMS library generated from ENDF/B-VI on PC-486, new libraries are generated and compared with the libraries generated using CYBER and SUN Work Station for testing benchmark results of five light water and five heavy water lattices. The result shows that PC-486-based WIMS library is acceptable even though there exist some minor problems. (author). 11 refs, 16 figs, 9 tabs

  3. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC-PC

  4. What's Under Your PC's 'Hood': A Primer for Today's Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Mills, Joyce White

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to decide what type of computer to buy for a small academic library, based on software requirements, staff and patron use, and PC technology. Topics include the central processing unit; types of memory; storage devices; ports; multimedia capabilities; modems; operating systems; and monitors. (LRW)

  5. PC version of PRIS (Power Reactor Information System)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been collecting operating experience data on nuclear power plants in the Member States since 1970. In 1980 a computerized database was established, the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). To make PRIS data available to the Member States in a more convenient format, the development of a PC version of PRIS started in 1989

  6. Data Acquisition and Display for Electrophysiology: PC Oscilloscopes

    OpenAIRE

    George, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The PC oscilloscope, an external data acquisition unit connected to a laptop computer, is an option worth considering for neuroscience teaching labs that include electrophysiology. This article describes the available technology and reviews products on the market as of mid-2006.

  7. Data Acquisition and Display for Electrophysiology: PC Oscilloscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The PC oscilloscope, an external data acquisition unit connected to a laptop computer, is an option worth considering for neuroscience teaching labs that include electrophysiology. This article describes the available technology and reviews products on the market as of mid-2006. PMID:23493990

  8. Data Communication PC/NaI-borehole probe (Hardware & Software)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch

    Development of new hard- & software to a NaI borehole probe on a PC. Save data from the probe each 10'th sec, handle the data from the probe and make calculations every 10'th sec and show the results on the monitor....

  9. High availability cluster system using Linux-PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KEK electron/positron linac provides its beams to four rings. As its operation time exceeds 7000 hours per year, recently, the stable operation is very important. The availability of the control system is essential. In order to achieve high availability, two kinds of cluster computer systems based on the Linux-PC technology was introduced and evaluated. (author)

  10. IBM/PC-based system development for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific feature of such system are both crate controller which is used for CAMAC-IBM PC interfacing and spectroscopy controller which is used for spectrum acquisition. The multilevel and multiprocessing systems can be developed from such a basic system by means of AC's linked with another computer

  11. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  12. Affine Grassmann codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Beelen, Peter; Ghorpade, Sudhir Ramakant

    2010-01-01

    We consider a new class of linear codes, called affine Grassmann codes. These can be viewed as a variant of generalized Reed-Muller codes and are closely related to Grassmann codes.We determine the length, dimension, and the minimum distance of any affine Grassmann code. Moreover, we show that...... affine Grassmann codes have a large automorphism group and determine the number of minimum weight codewords....

  13. Rateless feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept called rateless feedback coding. We redesign the existing LT and Raptor codes, by introducing new degree distributions for the case when a few feedback opportunities are available. We show that incorporating feedback to LT codes can significantly decrease both the...... coding overhead and the encoding/decoding complexity. Moreover, we show that, at the price of a slight increase in the coding overhead, linear complexity is achieved with Raptor feedback coding....

  14. Molecular cloning and expression of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the pituitary gland of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-09-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding PC1 and PC2 from a cDNA library constructed for the anterior pituitary gland of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and sequenced them. The bullfrog PC1 cDNA consisted of 2972 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 2208 bp and encoded a protein of 736 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. The protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC1 (95.1%) and mammalian PC1 (72.6%). The bullfrog PC2 cDNA consisted of 2242 bp with an open reading frame of 1914 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids. This protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC2 (95.5%) and mammalian PC2 (84.8%). The catalytic triad of serine proteinases of the subtilisin family was found at Asp-168, His-209, and Ser-383 in the PC1 protein and at Asp-167, His-208, and Ser-384 in the PC2 protein. In situ hybridization staining revealed that PC2 mRNA was detected in corticotrope cells of the tadpoles, but not in those of the adults. In the adult, only PC1 mRNA was detected in the pars distalis but both PC1 and PC2 mRNAs were detected in the pars intermedia. The data also showed that PC1 mRNA was expressed in gonadotrope cells. PMID:14578575

  15. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiwen [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Bijie Pilot Area Research Institute of Bijie University, Bijie 551700 (China); Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  16. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity

  17. Advanced video coding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive and accessible text/reference presents an overview of the state of the art in video coding technology. Specifically, the book introduces the tools of the AVS2 standard, describing how AVS2 can help to achieve a significant improvement in coding efficiency for future video networks and applications by incorporating smarter coding tools such as scene video coding. Topics and features: introduces the basic concepts in video coding, and presents a short history of video coding technology and standards; reviews the coding framework, main coding tools, and syntax structure of AV

  18. Polyphase alternating codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Markkanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

  19. Coding for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on exercises help you learn to code like a pro No coding experience is required for Coding For Dummies,your one-stop guide to building a foundation of knowledge inwriting computer code for web, application, and softwaredevelopment. It doesn't matter if you've dabbled in coding or neverwritten a line of code, this book guides you through the basics.Using foundational web development languages like HTML, CSS, andJavaScript, it explains in plain English how coding works and whyit's needed. Online exercises developed by Codecademy, a leading online codetraining site, help hone coding skill

  20. Combination Treatment of Hydrogen Peroxide and X-Rays Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Methods and Materials: At 4h before the irradiation, PC-3 cells were exposed to 10mM ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) concentrations. Subsequently, cells were exposed to 0.1mM H2O2 just before the irradiations, which were administered with 10-MV X-rays at doses of 10Gy. Results: The percentage of apoptotic cells at 48h after X-irradiation alone, H2O2 alone, and combined X-irradiation and H2O2 was 1.85%, 4.85%, and 28.4%, respectively. With use of combined X-irradiation and H2O2, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurred 4h after the irradiation. This resulted in lysosomal rupturing, mitochondrial fragmentation, and the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm from the mitochondria. In contrast, when cells were exposed to NH4Cl before the X-irradiation and H2O2 administration, apoptosis was almost completely suppressed, ROS production did not occur, lysosomal rupture and mitochondrial fragmentation were blocked, and cytochrome c was not released. Conclusions: Hydrogen peroxide strongly enhanced lysosome-dependent radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. A combined use of X-rays and H2O2 can also injure the mitochondrial cytoplasmic organelles and lead to the production of ROS that in and of itself might possibly induce apoptosis.

  1. Membrane depolarization in PC-12 cells during hypoxia is regulated by an O2-sensitive K+ current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W H; Conforti, L; Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Millhorn, D E

    1996-08-01

    The effects of hypoxia on K+ current (IK), resting membrane potential, and cytosolic free Ca2+ in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells were studied. Whole cell voltage- and current-clamp experiments were performed to measure IK and membrane potential, respectively. Cytosolic free Ca2+ level was measured using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye fura 2. Depolarizing voltage steps to +50 mV from a holding potential of -90 mV elicited a slowly inactivating, tetraethylammonium chloride-sensitive, and Ca(2+)-insensitive IK that was reversibly inhibited by reduced O2 tension. Graded reduction in PO2 (from 150 to 0 mmHg) induced a graded inhibition of O2-sensitive IK [IK(O2)] up to 46% at 0 mmHg. Moreover, hypoxia induced a 19-mV membrane depolarization and a twofold increase in cytosolic free Ca2+. In Ca(2+)-free condition, inhibition of IK(O2) induced an 8-mV depolarization, suggesting that inhibition of IK(O2) was responsible for initiating depolarization. The effect of reduced PO2 on the current-voltage relationship showed a reduction of outward current and a 14-mV shift in the reversal potential comparable with the amount of depolarization measured in current clamp experiments. Neither Ca(2+)-activated IK nor inwardly rectifying IK are responsible for the hypoxia-induced depolarization. In conclusion, PC-12 cells express an IK(O2), inhibition of which leads to membrane depolarization and increased intracellular Ca2+, making the PC-12 clonal cell line a useful model for studying the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that mediate O2 chemosensitivity. PMID:8770007

  2. LERC-SLAM - THE NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER SATELLITE LINK ATTENUATION MODEL PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    antenna required to establish a link with the satellite, the statistical parameters that characterize the rainrate process at the terminal site, the length of the propagation path within the potential rain region, and its projected length onto the local horizontal. The IBM PC version of LeRC-SLAM (LEW-14979) is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC for an IBM PC compatible computer with a monitor and printer capable of supporting an 80-column format. The IBM PC version is available on a 5.25 inch MS-DOS format diskette. The program requires about 30K RAM. The source code and executable are included. The Macintosh version of LeRC-SLAM (LEW-14977) is written in Microsoft Basic, Binary (b) v2.00 for Macintosh II series computers running MacOS. This version requires 400K RAM and is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette, which includes source code only. The Macintosh version was developed in 1987 and the IBM PC version was developed in 1989. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.

  3. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyskocil, Ladislav, E-mail: Ladislav.Vyskocil@ujv.cz; Macek, Jiri

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent.

  4. Coupling CFD code with system code and neutron kinetic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet was created. • Athlet code is internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. • Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains was used. • A coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent codes was successfully tested on a real case. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop the coupling interface between CFD code Fluent and system code Athlet internally coupled with neutron kinetic code Dyn3D. The coupling interface is intended for simulation of complex transients such as Main Steam Line Break scenarios, which cannot be modeled separately first by system and neutron kinetic code and then by CFD code, because of the feedback between the codes. In the first part of this article, the coupling method is described. Explicit coupling of overlapped computational domains is used in this work. The second part of the article presents a demonstration simulation performed by the coupled system of Athlet/Dyn3D and Fluent. The “Opening a Steam Dump to the Atmosphere” test carried out at the Temelin NPP (VVER-1000) was simulated by the coupled system. In this simulation, the primary and secondary circuits were modeled by Athlet, mixing in downcomer and lower plenum was simulated by Fluent and heat generation in the core was calculated by Dyn3D. The results of the simulation with Athlet/Dyn3D+Fluent were compared with the experimental data and the results from a calculation performed with Athlet/Dyn3D without Fluent

  5. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  6. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  7. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbikay, M.; Seidah, N.G.; Chretien, M. [Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei) F{sub 1} x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-Mullerian hormone) locus; in a human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipoacortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previoulsy mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2 Pc heterojunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khasan S. Karimov; Zubair Ahmad; Farid Touati; M. Mahroof-Tahir; M. Muqeet Rehman; S. Zameer Abbas

    2015-01-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H2Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H2Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 µm. For the current–voltage (I–V ) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases∼80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior.

  9. Seismic Adequacy Review of PC012 SCEs that are Potential Seismic Hazards with PC3 SCEs - CVD Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides seismic adequacy review of PCO12 Systems, Components L Equipment anchorage that are potential seismic interaction hazards with PC3 SCEs during a Design Basis Earthquake. The PCO12 items are identified in the Safety Equipment List as 3/1 SCEs

  10. PC-based probabilistic safety assessment study for a geological waste repository placed in a bedded salt formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic safety assessment study is performed for a repository placed in a bedded salt formation using a fault tree analysis approach and the capabilities of IRRAS-PC code. The sensitive areas in repository safety are identified, and results for different risk importance measures are reported. Two release scenarios based upon human intrusion are also studied. The impact of both intact and degraded institutional control on risks to future generations is assessed. As a result of this analysis, the important events for future investigations are identified as faulting, groundwater movement, human activities, and erosion. 23 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Teseo code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report some validation tests for the TESEO code are described. The TESEO code was developed at ENEA - Clementel Center in the framework of the C2RV code sequence. This code sequence produces multigroup resonance cross sections for fast reactor analysis. It consists of the codes TESEO, MC2-II, GERES, ANISN, MEDIL. The TESEO code processes basic nuclear data in ENDF-B format and produces an ultrafine group (2082 groups) cross section library for the MC2-II code. To validate the TESEO algorithms, the data produced by TESEO code were compared with the data produced by other well-tested codes which use different algorithms. No substantial differences was found between these data and the data produced by TESEO code. TESEO algorithms showed high reliability. A detailed study of TESEO calculation options was carried out. Their use and functions are shown to inform the user of the code

  12. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION WITH CLIPSITS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, , .

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  13. Calculations of angular momentum coupling coefficients on a computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients, 3j symbols, Racah coefficients, Wigner's 6j and 9j symbols were calculated by a prepared computer code of COEFF. The computer program COEFF is described which calculates angular momentum coupling coefficients and expresses them as quotient of two integers multiplied by the square root of the quotient of two integers. The program includes subroutines to encode an integer into its prime factors, to decode of prime factors back into an integer , to perform basic arithmetic operations on prime-coded numbers, as well as subroutines which calculate the coupling coefficients themselves. The computer code COEFF had been prepared to run on a VAX. In this study we rearranged the code to run on PC and tested it successfully. The obtained values in this study, were compared with the values of other computer programmes. A pretty good agreement is obtained between our prepared computer code and other computer programmes

  14. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  15. Revised Model of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Bridge by Considering Complex Action of Load and Chloride Binding Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Yiqiang; Guo, DongMei

    2014-01-01

    Coastal concrete bridges will suffer from deterioration of RC structural performance and resistance attenuation because of the chloride penetration and other environment factors. This article discusses current different chloride diffusion models and puts forward the revised model of chloride diffusion in concrete bridge by considering the complex action of load influence and chloride-binding capacity. Comparison of numerical predicted values and relative experimental tests show the presented ...

  16. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  17. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  18. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient; the...

  19. Locally Orderless Registration Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  20. Decentralized Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Fragouli, C.; Soljanin, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes deterministic algorithms for decentralized network coding. Decentralized coding allows to locally specify the coding operations at network nodes without knowledge of the overall network topology, and to accommodate future changes in the network such as addition of receivers. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first deterministic decentralized algorithms proposed for network coding.

  1. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 500C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  2. Acylation of Toluene with Isobutyryl Chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Klisáková, Jana; Žilková, Naděžda; Červený, L.

    Cape Town, 2004 - ( Steen van, E.), s. 2717-2723 ISBN 0-958-46636-X. [International Zeolite Conference /14./. Cape Town (ZA), 25.04.2004-30.04.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : acylation of toluene * isobutyryl chloride * zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete mixtures aretested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures.Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP wa...

  4. Gasometric titration for dimethylaluminum chloride analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Maligres, Peter; Eckenroad, Kyle; Simmons, Bryon

    2016-06-01

    A gasometric titration method was developed to quantitate active alkylaluminum content in dimethylaluminum chloride solution to perform the stoichiometry calculation for the reaction charge. The procedure was reproducible with good precision, and the results showed good correlation with ICP-MS method. The gasometric titration is a simple, inexpensive alternative to analysis via ICP-MS which provides more selective analysis of methylaluminum species without the need for inertion. PMID:27017569

  5. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  6. Electrodeposition of Zinc from Chloride Solution

    OpenAIRE

    NAIK, Yanjerappa Arthoba; VENKATESHA, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2002-01-01

    The electroplating of zinc is carried out in the presence of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy benzaldehyde from a chloride bath. The bath constituents are optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density are also optimized. The current efficiency and throwing power are measured at different current densities. Polarization study is carried out under galvanostatic conditions. Corrosion resistance test indicated good protection of steel by the ...

  7. Electrochemical behaviours of scandium in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical behaviour of scandium(3) ions in an eutectic melt of NaCl-KCl-CsCl at 810-850 K is studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The process of cathodic reduction of scandium complex ions in chloride melts is found to proceed according to the scheme: Sc(3) → Sc(0) and to be controlled by the rate of ScCl63- complex dissociation

  8. (tert-Butyl(2-hydroxyethylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title molecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl−, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5 (2°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100.

  9. Manganese laser using manganese chloride as lasant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A manganese vapor laser utilizing manganese chloride as a lasant has been observed and investigated. Lasing is attained by means of two consecutive electrical discharges. The maximum laser output is obtained at a vapor pressure of about 3 torr, a temperature of 680 C, and a time delay between electrical discharges of 150 microsec. The maximum energy density is 1.3 microjoule per cu cm.

  10. The Aesthetics of Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    code, etc.). The presentation relates this artistic fascination of code to a media critique expressed by Florian Cramer, claiming that the graphical interface represents a media separation (of text/code and image) causing alienation to the computer’s materiality. Cramer is thus the voice of a new ‘code...... discusses code as the artist’s material and, further, formulates a critique of Cramer. The seductive magic in computer-generated art does not lie in the magical expression, but nor does it lie in the code/material/text itself. It lies in the nature of code to do something – as if it was magic: in the...

  11. Chloride Channel Myotonia: Study of Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghofrani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channel Myotonia is a form of channelopathy, and Myotonia is its manifestation. Myotonia may be defined as delayed relaxation of skeletal muscle after its contraction. Decreased chloride conductance across the transverse tubular system, renders the muscle membrane hyper-excitable and leads to repetitive firing, creating Myotonia. Myotonia congenital is another name for chloride channel Myotonia. Myotonia congenital appears in autosomal dominant type called Thomson disease, autosomal recessive type called Becker disease, and a type with sporadic occurrence. Symptoms appear in the first or second decade of life. Repeated muscle contraction, the so called warm up, result in resolution of the Myotonia stiffness. Muscle stiffness and hypertrophy is another finding at physical examination. In this study we report on 5 patients, which had clinical and electrical signs of Myotonia. Muscle hypertrophy and warm up phenomena were present in all cases. CPK measurement of all cases were normal. 2 patients underwent muscle biopsy that showed only atrophy and increased central nuclei. In three cases autosomal recessive inheritance (Becker, in one case autosomal dominant inheritance (Thomsen and in one case sporadic occurrence was suggested. With respect to successful results of carbamazepine therapy in 4 patients, and being excellent in one of them, we suggest carbamazepine for the first choice of Myotonia treatment.

  12. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327

  13. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl2–N2 mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated

  14. Microwave spectrum and structure of nitrosyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave spectra of 15N isotopic species of nitrosyl chloride, 15NO35Cl and 15NO37Cl, have been assigned between 8 and 26 GHz, and the following rotational constants have been obtained: A = 81600 MHz, B = 5693.80 MHz, and C = 5322.44 MHz for 15NO35Cl, A = 81520 MHz, B = 5556.07 MHz, and C = 5201.56 MHz for 15NO37Cl. The microwave spectra of the normal species of nitrosyl chloride as well as the 37Cl species and the 18O species have already been measured by Millen et al. (1961). An analysis of both the rotational constants obtained in this study and the constants by Millen et al. has given the following bond lengths and angle as the complete r sub(s) structural parameters of nitrosyl chloride. r(N-O) = 1.143 +- 0.006 A, r(N-Cl) = 1.973 +- 0.003 A, and 0 +- 0.50. The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in the N-Cl bond axis system of 15NO35Cl are X sub(zz) = -57.8 MHz and eta = -0.311. (author)

  15. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS. PMID:10624900

  16. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  17. Solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments up to 20 MPa and 475 C. These experiments were carried out using a dynamic method where deionized steam was passed through a packed bed of salt crystals in a 500 mL Hastelloy autoclave. The residence time of the steam in the salt bed was sufficient to saturate the steam with the salt. The steam samples were cooled and analyzed by ion chromatography. Correlations based on temperature and density were selected to describe the solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam. The density dependence is much stronger than the temperature dependence. By using these correlations, it is possible to estimate the solubility of salt in steam at lower densities than those used in the experiments. Enthalpy-entropy diagrams are given that show the steam expansion line in turbines, including curves for constant concentration of sodium chloride solubility in steam. These can be used to analyze where in the steam cycle this salt may deposit. (orig.)

  18. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.)

  19. Usefulness of bone marrow magnetic resonance imaging and indium-111-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy in patients with various hematological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Chikayama, Satoshi [Osaka General Hospital of West Japan Railway Compapy (Japan)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and indium-111 chloride (In-111) scintigraphy to assess bone marrow in various hematological lesions. The subjects were 7 with aplastic anemia (AA), 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 3 with polycythemia (PC), 3 with essential thrombocythemia (ET), 2 with multiple myeloma (MM), 2 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), 3 with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), one with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and one with secondary anemia due to chronic inflammation (SA). Bone marrow cellularity was assessed on MR images and both uptake and tissue distribution were assessed on In-111 scintigraphy. Hypo-cellularity was seen in all AA patients, but not seen in any other patient in each group. On the other hand, hyper-cellularity was seen in 3 MDS, one PC, all 3 ET, one ALL, and one SA patients. In the group of MM, the vertebral body was seen as heterogenous signal intensity on MR images. Bone marrow was seen as iso-intensity in one MDS, 2 PC, all 2 MGUS, and all 3 ITP patients. In-111 scintigraphy showed decrease or disappearance of tracer uptake and decreased tissue distribution in all 7 AA, one MDS, one PC, and one ALL patients. Increased tracer uptake and enlarged tissue distribution were seen in one MDS, one PC, and one SA patients. One MDS, one ET, all 2 MM, all 2 MGUS, all 3 ITP patients had tracer uptake and tissue distribution that were equal to those in the normal tissues. Since MR imaging and In-111 scintigraphy provided qualitatively different information, the combination of both modalities would contribute to the understanding of bone marrow condition in hematopoietic diseases. (N.K.).

  20. CLIPS 6.0 - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM, VERSION 6.0 (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, B.

    1994-01-01

    COOL (that is, a rule can pattern match on objects created using COOL). CLIPS 6.0 provides the capability to define functions, overloaded functions, and global variables interactively. In addition, CLIPS can be embedded within procedural code, called as a subroutine, and integrated with languages such as C, FORTRAN and Ada. CLIPS can be easily extended by a user through the use of several well-defined protocols. CLIPS provides several delivery options for programs including the ability to generate stand alone executables or to load programs from text or binary files. CLIPS 6.0 provides support for the modular development and execution of knowledge bases with the defmodule construct. CLIPS modules allow a set of constructs to be grouped together such that explicit control can be maintained over restricting the access of the constructs by other modules. This type of control is similar to global and local scoping used in languages such as C or Ada. By restricting access to deftemplate and defclass constructs, modules can function as blackboards, permitting only certain facts and instances to be seen by other modules. Modules are also used by rules to provide execution control. The CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) utility included with previous version of CLIPS is no longer supported. The capabilities provided by this tool are now available directly within CLIPS 6.0 to aid in the development, debugging, and verification of large rule bases. COSMIC offers four distribution versions of CLIPS 6.0: UNIX (MSC-22433), VMS (MSC-22434), MACINTOSH (MSC-22429), and IBM PC (MSC-22430). Executable files, source code, utilities, documentation, and examples are included on the program media. All distribution versions include identical source code for the command line version of CLIPS 6.0. This source code should compile on any platform with an ANSI C compiler. Each distribution version of CLIPS 6.0, except that for the Macintosh platform, includes an executable for the

  1. Qscilloscope: A Pc-Based Real Time Oscilloscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Dhanshri Damodar Patil,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The scenery of this paper is to design a PC- based Real Time Oscilloscope, called “Qscilloscope”. Qscilloscope is capable to connect a computer with a small device via universal serial bus (USB port for voltage signal waveform display and alteration. It detects maximum +20V to minimum -20V with the input frequency range from 0.1Hz - 1 kHz. Furthermore, it interfaces with host PC via the USB port from 9.6k to 115.2k baud rate. Qscilloscope Software Application is constructed by using Visual Basic .Net for user to interface the device with a well designed Graphic User Interface. It consists of several embedded features such as open, save and print waveform. By changing the scaling properties and graphic properties, users are allowed to modify the input signal to a desired output waveform.

  2. A PC based control system for the CERN ISOLDE separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control system of the two isotope separators of CERN, named ISOLDE, is being completely redesigned with the goal of having a flexible, high performance and inexpensive system. A new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware available for the huge Personal Computer (PC) market is being implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the separators. 8 MS-DOSTM i386-based PCs with about 80 acquisition/control boards are used to access the equipments while 3 other PCs running Microsoft WindowsTM and Microsoft ExcelTM are used as consoles, the whole through a NovellTM Local Area Network with a PC Disk Server used as a database. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming work load and costs that are expected to build the system before the start of the separators in March 1992. (author)

  3. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Nitha V; Kumar, A Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature) and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC). Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements. PMID:26884757

  4. Radioimmunoassay data processing program for IBM PC computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Medical Applications Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has previously developed several programs for use on the Hewlett-Packard HP-41C programmable calculator to facilitate better quality control in radioimmunoassay through improved data processing. The program described in this document is designed for off-line analysis using an IBM PC (or compatible) for counting data from standards and unknown specimens (i.e. for analysis of counting data previously recorded by a counter), together with internal quality control (IQC) data both within and between batch. The greater computing power of the IBM PC has enabled the imprecision profile and IQC control curves which were unavailable on the HP-41C version. It is intended that the program would make available good data processing capability to laboratories having limited financial resources and serious problems of quality control. 3 refs

  5. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  6. Remarks on the $P_c$ structures and triangle singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Nieves, Juan; Yang, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    It was proposed that the narrow $P_c(4450)$ structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction $\\Lambda_b\\to J/\\psi p K$ might be due to a triangle singularity around the $\\chi_{c1}$--proton threshold at 4.45~GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the $J/\\psi p$ invariant mass distribution for the decay $\\Lambda_b\\to J/\\psi p \\pi$, which could explain the bump around 4.45~GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the $P_c$ structures.

  7. PC communication world and Yiyagi 5.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of four parts about Yiyagi 5.3. It describes how to use Yiyagi 5.3 : the way to save 5.3 into floppy disk and Hard disk, to store modem, how to communicate with Hitel and PC-serve in the first part, how to use the various function : function key, control key, alt key, text editor of Yiyagi 5.3 and mouse in the second part, to be good at using communication : Modem, screen control, RS-232C and Null Modem, script and Multitasking in the third part. It has an appendix about compression and decompression of file, BBS list, PC application such as VGA graphic, UNIX/ XENIX and DOS, RS-232C and Modem and GR.exe.

  8. Large-Scale PC Management and Configuration for SNS Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project's diagnostics group has begun its implementation of more than 300 PC-based Network Attached Devices (NADs). An implementation of this size creates many challenges, such as distribution of patches and software upgrades; virus/worm potentials; and the configuration management, including interaction with the SNS relational database. As part of the initial solution, a base operating system (OS) configuration has been determined and computer management software has been implemented. Each PC requires a unique configuration, but all are based on a common OS and supporting applications. The diagnostics group has started with an implementation of an XP Embedded (XPe) OS and uses Altiris registered eXpress Deployment SolutionTM. The use of XPe and Altiris gives the diagnostics group the ability to easily configure, distribute, and manage software on a large scale. This paper describes the initial experience and discusses plans for the future

  9. Studies on molecular interactions between puerarin and PC liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence emission spectra, FTIR spectra, zeta potential measurements, and ab initio quantum calculation are used to study the interaction between puerarin and membranes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposome. The hydrophobic interactions cause the puerarin molecule to partition into lipid bilayers with its B-ring, and favor the displacement of acid-base equilibrium of puerarin towards the base form. Due to the hydrogen bond formation between the puerarin hydroxyl groups and polar groups of PC molecules on the water/membrane interface, puerarin can easily intercalate into the organized structure of phospholipids and modulate the membrane function. Our results reveal that the liposome membrane integrity is significantly higher compared with that of empty liposome.

  10. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha V. Panicker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC. Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements.

  11. Metal Detector By Using PIC Microcontroller Interfacing With PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Min Theint

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This system proposes metal detector by using PIC microcontroller interfacing with PC. The system uses PIC microcontroller as the main controller whether the detected metal is ferrous metal or non-ferrous metal. Among various types of metal sensors and various types of metal detecting technologies concentric type induction coil sensor and VLF very low frequency metal detecting technology are used in this system. This system consists of two configurations Hardware configuration and Software configuration. The hardware components include induction coil sensors which senses the frequency changes of metal a PIC microcontroller personal computer PC buzzer light emitting diode LED and webcam. The software configuration includes a program controller interface. PIC MikroCprogramming language is used to implement the control system. This control system is based on the PIC 16F887 microcontroller.This system is mainly used in mining and high security places such as airport plaza shopping mall and governmental buildings.

  12. PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maître, Olivier Le

    2015-03-01

    A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads to the definition of a hierarchy of stochastic differential equations governing the evolution of the PC modes. Under the mild assumption that the Wiener and uncertain parameters can be treated as independent random variables, it is also shown that the Galerkin formalism naturally separates parametric uncertainty and stochastic forcing dependences. This enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the process variance, and consequently identify contributions arising from the uncertainty in parameters, the stochastic forcing, and a coupled term. Insight gained from this decomposition is illustrated in light of implementation to simplified linear and non-linear problems; the case of a stochastic bifurcation is also considered.

  13. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley Power's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter work completed the securing the proper disposition of all PC Preheat experimental equipment at the PSCF and CBTF and completing negotiations with AES Westover (a power plant in Johnson City, New York) to accept 130 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. The coal transport to Westover occurred at the end of August. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; immediate efforts are focused on completing a draft final report, which is due in October 31, 2005 and the final report in December.

  14. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  15. A embedded Linux system based on PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors will introduce a Embedded Linux System based on PowerPC as well as the base method on how to establish the system. The goal of the system is to build a test system of VMEbus device. It also can be used to setup the small data acquisition and control system. Two types of compiler are provided by the developer system according to the features of the system and the Power PC. At the top of the article some typical embedded Operation system will be introduced and the features of different system will be provided. And then the method on how to build a embedded Linux system as well as the key technique will be discussed in detail. Finally a successful read-write example will be given based on the test system. (authors)

  16. A embedded Linux system based on powerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we will introduce a Embedded Linux System based on PowerPC as well as the base method on how to establish the system. The goal of the system is to build a test system of VMEbus device. It also can be used to setup the small data acquisition and control system. Two types of compiler are provided by the developer system according to the features of the system and the PowerPC. At the top of the article some typical embedded Operation system will be introduced and the features of different system will be provided. And then the method on how to build a embedded Linux system as well as the key technique will be discussed in detail. Finally a successful real-write example will be given based on the test system. (authors)

  17. QR Codes 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  18. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  19. Constructing quantum codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum error correcting codes are indispensable for quantum information processing and quantum computation.In 1995 and 1996,Shor and Steane gave first several examples of quantum codes from classical error correcting codes.The construction of efficient quantum codes is now an active multi-discipline research field.In this paper we review the known several constructions of quantum codes and present some examples.

  20. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv

    2003-01-01

    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  1. PCNuDAT a PC Nuclear Data program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PC program PCNuDat is described which displays nuclear radioactive decay data and thermal cross section data. It requires 45 Megabytes (reduced version of PCNuDat requires 3 Megabytes) of disc space and can be obtained through Internet FTP or WWW from U.S. Nuclear Data Center or Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA. It can be obtained also on CD-ROM upon request sent to Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  2. Neurosecretory habituation in PC12 cells: modulation during parallel habituation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, P.T.; Koshland, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    PC12 cells habituate during repetitive stimulation with acetylcholine, bradykinin, or high potassium. Interspersing these stimulants did not affect the rate of habituation of the others, but it could modulate the amplitude of the norepinephrine secretion each could achieve. Stimulation with acetylcholine inhibited norepinephrine secretion caused by high potassium and bradykinin stimulation, while high potassium had no effect on acetylcholine or bradykinin, and bradykinin increased secretion c...

  3. A PC- Based Transient Method for Thermal Conductivity Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Singh

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indigenously developed thermal probe has been interfaced with a PC for automated measurement of thermal conductivity (K . The developed system has been calibrated and standardised by measuring K of glycerol. The maximum percentage error, for repeated sets of observations, was within 7.29 per cent of standard value reported for glycerol. This methodology has been successfully employed for measuring K of propellant oxidisers, additives, binders, etc.

  4. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  5. IA-2 modulates dopamine secretion in PC12 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Takuya; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Yafang, Hu; Notkins, Abner Louis

    2009-01-01

    The secretion of the hormone insulin from beta cells is modulated by the expression of the dense core vesicle transmembrane protein IA-2. Since IA-2 is found in neuroendocrine cells throughout the body, the present experiments were initiated to determine whether the expression of IA-2 also modulates the secretion of neurotransmitters. Using the dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, we found that the overexpressions of IA-2 increased the cellular content and secretion of dopamine...

  6. Photo- and Electroproduction of $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ exotics

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, A M; Afanasev, Andrei; Page, Philip R.

    1998-01-01

    We estimate the kinematic dependence of the exclusive photo-- and electroproduction of $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ exotic mesons due to $\\pi$ exchange. We show that the kinematic dependence is largely independent of the exotic meson form factor, which is explicitly derived for a $1^{-+}$ isovector hybrid meson in the flux-tube model of Isgur and Paton. The relevance to experiments currently planned at Jefferson Lab is indicated.

  7. Teaching mathematics in the PC lab - the students' viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karsten; Köhler, Anke

    2013-04-01

    The Matrix Algebra portion of the intermediate mathematics course at the Schmalkalden University Faculty of Business and Economics has been moved from a traditional classroom setting to a technology-based setting in the PC lab. A Computer Algebra System license was acquired that also allows its use on the students' own PCs. A survey was carried out to analyse the students' attitudes towards the use of technology in mathematics teaching.

  8. PC Based Display for Sonar Applications: A Design Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Miny

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to standardise the hardware and the software used for the sonar display systems. The idea of standardise hardware suggested itself in using an IBM-compatible PC AT which configures with an Intel 80386 CPU and a standard VGA display adapter card. The software consists of Intel assembly procedures embedded in a PASCAL (turbo 4.0 environment.

  9. A Low Cost PC-Controlled Electronic-Display Board

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Golam Faruque; Shamim Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a computer controlled electronic display-board by using a low cost older personal computer (PC) that has become almost unusable otherwise. This display system is capable to display the information as an independent system in the manner that can be dynamically programmed by the computer. A local control system, memory-subsystem has been developed to make it to work as an independent system.

  10. Metal Detector By Using PIC Microcontroller Interfacing With PC

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Min Theint; Myo Maung Maung; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This system proposes metal detector by using PIC microcontroller interfacing with PC. The system uses PIC microcontroller as the main controller whether the detected metal is ferrous metal or non-ferrous metal. Among various types of metal sensors and various types of metal detecting technologies concentric type induction coil sensor and VLF very low frequency metal detecting technology are used in this system. This system consists of two configurations Hardware configuration and Sof...

  11. A scalable PC-based parallel computer for lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z; Papp, G

    2002-01-01

    A PC-based parallel computer for medium/large scale lattice QCD simulations is suggested. The Eotvos Univ., Inst. Theor. Phys. cluster consists of 137 Intel P4-1.7GHz nodes. Gigabit Ethernet cards are used for nearest neighbor communication in a two-dimensional mesh. The sustained performance for dynamical staggered(wilson) quarks on large lattices is around 70(110) GFlops. The exceptional price/performance ratio is below $1/Mflop.

  12. LysoPC acyltransferase/PC transacylase activities in plant plasma membrane and plasma membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjellström Henrik

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phospholipids of the plant plasma membrane are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The majority of these lipids reach the plasma membrane independently of the secretory vesicular pathway. Phospholipid delivery to the mitochondria and chloroplasts of plant cells also bypasses the secretory pathway and here it has been proposed that lysophospholipids are transported at contact sites between specific regions of the ER and the respective organelle, followed by lysophospholipid acylation in the target organelle. To test the hypothesis that a corresponding mechanism operates to transport phospholipids to the plasma membrane outside the secretory pathway, we investigated whether lysolipid acylation occurs also in the plant plasma membrane and whether this membrane, like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, is in close contact with the ER. Results The plant plasma membrane readily incorporated the acyl chain of acyl-CoA into phospholipids. Oleic acid was preferred over palmitic acid as substrate and acyl incorporation occurred predominantly into phosphatidylcholine (PC. Phospholipase A2 stimulated the reaction, as did exogenous lysoPC when administered in above critical micellar concentrations. AgNO3 was inhibitory. The lysophospholipid acylation reaction was higher in a membrane fraction that could be washed off the isolated plasma membranes after repeated freezing and thawing cycles in a medium with lowered pH. This fraction exhibited several ER-like characteristics. When plasma membranes isolated from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing green fluorescent protein in the ER lumen were observed by confocal microscopy, membranes of ER origin were associated with the isolated plasma membranes. Conclusion We conclude that a lysoPC acylation activity is associated with plant plasma membranes and cannot exclude a PC transacylase activity. It is highly plausible that the enzyme(s resides in a fraction of the ER, closely

  13. Electronic transitions and band offsets in C60:SubPc and C60:MgPc on MoO3 studied by modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic transitions at interfaces between MoO3 layers and organic layers of C60, SubPc, MgPc, and nano-composite layers of SubPc:C60 and MgPc:C60 have been studied by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. For all systems, time dependent and modulated SPV signals pointed to dissociation of excitons at the MoO3/organic layer interfaces with a separation of holes towards MoO3. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps (EHL) of C60, SubPc, and MgPc and the effective EHL of SubPc:C60 and MgPc:C60 were measured. The offsets between the LUMO (ΔEL) or HOMO (ΔEH) bands were obtained with high precision and amounted to 0.33 or 0.73 eV for SubPc:C60, respectively, and to −0.33 or 0.67 eV for MgPc:C60, respectively. Exponential tails below EHL and most pronounced sub-bandgap transitions were characterized and ascribed to disorder and transitions from HOMO bands to unoccupied defect states

  14. Electronic transitions and band offsets in C60:SubPc and C60:MgPc on MoO3 studied by modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, S.; Dittrich, Th.; Rusu, M.

    2015-07-01

    Electronic transitions at interfaces between MoO3 layers and organic layers of C60, SubPc, MgPc, and nano-composite layers of SubPc:C60 and MgPc:C60 have been studied by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. For all systems, time dependent and modulated SPV signals pointed to dissociation of excitons at the MoO3/organic layer interfaces with a separation of holes towards MoO3. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps (EHL) of C60, SubPc, and MgPc and the effective EHL of SubPc:C60 and MgPc:C60 were measured. The offsets between the LUMO (ΔEL) or HOMO (ΔEH) bands were obtained with high precision and amounted to 0.33 or 0.73 eV for SubPc:C60, respectively, and to -0.33 or 0.67 eV for MgPc:C60, respectively. Exponential tails below EHL and most pronounced sub-bandgap transitions were characterized and ascribed to disorder and transitions from HOMO bands to unoccupied defect states.

  15. Tablet PC interaction with digital micromirror device (DMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Dahshan, Mostafa H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Digital light processing (DLP) is an innovative display technology that uses an optical switch array, known as a digital micromirror device (DMD), which allows digital control of light. To date, DMDs have been used primarily as high-speed spatial light modulators for projector applications. A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile PC. Its touch screen or digitizing tablet technology allows the user to operate the notebook with a stylus or digital pen instead of using a keyboard or mouse. In this paper, we describe an interface solution that translates any sketch on the tablet PC screen to an identical mirror-copy over the cross-section of the DMD micromirrors such that the image of the sketch can be projected onto a special screen. An algorithm has been created to control each single micromirror of the hundreds of thousands of micromirrors that cover the DMD surface. We demonstrate the successful application of a DMD to a high-speed two-dimensional (2D) scanning environment, acquiring the data from the tablet screen and launching its contents to the projection screen; with very high accuracy up to 13.68 μm x 13.68 μm of mirror pitch.

  16. The reactor physics computer programs in PC's era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of reactor physics analysis is the evaluation of flux and power distribution over the reactor core. For CANDU reactors sophisticated computer programs, such as FMDP and RFSP, were developed 20 years ago for mainframe computers. These programs were adapted to work on workstations with UNIX or DOS, but they lack a feature that could improve their use and that is 'user friendly'. For using these programs the users need to deal with a great amount of information contained in sophisticated files. To modify a model is a great challenge. First of all, it is necessary to bear in mind all the geometrical dimensions and accordingly, to modify the core model to match the new requirements. All this must be done in a line input file. For a DOS platform, using an average performance PC system, could it be possible: to represent and modify all the geometrical and physical parameters in a meaningful way, on screen, using an intuitive graphic user interface; to reduce the real time elapsed in order to perform complex fuel-management analysis 'at home'; to avoid the rewrite of the mainframe version of the program? The author's answer is a fuel-management computer package operating on PC, 3 time faster than on a CDC-Cyber 830 mainframe one (486DX/33MHz/8MbRAM) or 20 time faster (Pentium-PC), respectively. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  17. PHASE STRUCTURE AND COMPATIBILITY OF LADDERLIKE POLYPHENYLSILSESQUIOXANE (PPSQ)/POLYCARBONATE (PC) BLENDS PREPARED BY SOLUTION CASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-zhi Li; Liang-he Shi

    1999-01-01

    Blends of PC and PPSQ (A) with high Mw and good ladderlike regularity or PPSQ(B) with low Mw and more defective Si-atoms in its structure have been prepared by solution casting. The dispersed spheres (PPSQ(A)-rich) are unevenly dispersed in the continuous PC-rich phase and there is no phase-inversion as PPSQ(A) content increases when the percentage of PPSQ(A) is not more than70%. PPSQ(B)-rich spheres are evenly dispersed in the continuous phase (PC-rich) and phaseinversion occurs when PPSQ(B) percentage is up to 70%. Tg of PPSQ(A)/PC or PPSQ(B)/PC at some compositions are lower than that of pure PC due to the enlarged free-volume of PC-rich phase because some spheres of rigid PPSQ chains are included in the PC-rich phase. PC and PPSQ(A) or PPSQ(B)are partially compatible. The compatibility of PC and PPSQ(B) is better than that of PC and PPSQ(A)with high Mw and good ladderlike regularity. Heat history has some influence on the TgS and compatibility of PPSQ(A)/PC and PPSQ(B)/PC blends.

  18. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...... systems could be explained as secondary effects due to a primary interaction with the sodium transport mechanisms. A correlation was found between the clamping current recorded during hyperpolarization and the efflux of chloride under short circuit conditions with chloride Ringer's on both sides. On the...

  19. Vibrational spectroscopic analysis of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride. experimental and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, I. M.; El-Nahass, M. M.; Eid, Kh. M.; Ammar, H. Y.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl). The FT-IR and Raman spectra of AlPcCl were recorded and analyzed. The density functional theory (DFT) computations have been performed at B3LYP/6-31g and B3LYP/6-311g to derive equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers, intensity and NLO properties. All the observed vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations on the basis of our DFT calculations as a primary source of attribution and also by comparison with the previous results for similar compounds. The natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations were performed to study the atomic charge distribution of the investigated compound. The calculated results showed that dipole moment of the investigated compound was 4.68 Debye and HOMO-LUMO energy gap was 2.14 eV. The lowering of frontier orbital gap appears to be the cause of its enhanced charge transfer interaction.

  20. UV dosimeter based on polyamide woven fabric and nitro blue tetrazolium chloride as an active compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the preparation and features of a UV light dosimeter composed of nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) and polyamide woven fabric. This textile dosimeter is based on the conversion reaction of NBT into formazan, which was initially examined in aerated aqueous solutions through steady state UV irradiation. Irradiated solutions change their colour as a consequence of the formation of polydisperse NBT formazan particles. This was analysed in relation to the absorbed dose of UV light through UV-VIS spectrophotometry and dynamic laser light scattering measurements. When NBT substrate molecules are embedded in polyamide textile, UV irradiation leads to similar effects as in solution. However, the tinge intensity changes at much lower absorbed doses. The dependence of the tinge intensity on the absorbed dose was followed by measurements of the remission of light from the NBT-polyamide samples. Consequently, the calibration parameters were calculated such as the dose sensitivity, dose range, and quasi-linear dose range. An improvement of the NBT-polyamide samples by application of a colour levelling agent and improvement of their resistance to humidity is presented. Finally, the samples were used for estimation of absorbed UV energy distribution showing their capability as new dosimeters for in-plane high resolution radiation dose measurements. - Highlights: → Preparation of a textile dosimeter with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride is shown. → The dosimeter responds to UV light by a colour change. → 2D radiation dose measurements are possible. → PC scanners can be employed for measurements of the dosimeter.

  1. UV dosimeter based on polyamide woven fabric and nitro blue tetrazolium chloride as an active compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozicki, Marek, E-mail: mkozicki@mitr.p.lodz.pl [Institute of Architecture of Textiles, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); European Centre of Bio- and Nano-Technology (ECBNT), Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Sasiadek, Elzbieta [Institute of Architecture of Textiles, Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); European Centre of Bio- and Nano-Technology (ECBNT), Technical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    This paper reports on the preparation and features of a UV light dosimeter composed of nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) and polyamide woven fabric. This textile dosimeter is based on the conversion reaction of NBT into formazan, which was initially examined in aerated aqueous solutions through steady state UV irradiation. Irradiated solutions change their colour as a consequence of the formation of polydisperse NBT formazan particles. This was analysed in relation to the absorbed dose of UV light through UV-VIS spectrophotometry and dynamic laser light scattering measurements. When NBT substrate molecules are embedded in polyamide textile, UV irradiation leads to similar effects as in solution. However, the tinge intensity changes at much lower absorbed doses. The dependence of the tinge intensity on the absorbed dose was followed by measurements of the remission of light from the NBT-polyamide samples. Consequently, the calibration parameters were calculated such as the dose sensitivity, dose range, and quasi-linear dose range. An improvement of the NBT-polyamide samples by application of a colour levelling agent and improvement of their resistance to humidity is presented. Finally, the samples were used for estimation of absorbed UV energy distribution showing their capability as new dosimeters for in-plane high resolution radiation dose measurements. - Highlights: > Preparation of a textile dosimeter with nitro blue tetrazolium chloride is shown. > The dosimeter responds to UV light by a colour change. > 2D radiation dose measurements are possible. > PC scanners can be employed for measurements of the dosimeter.

  2. The construction and proliferative effects of a lentiviral vector capable of stably overexpressing SPINK1 gene in human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Dongmei; Hu, Na; Wang, Qian; Yu, Shanice; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to design and generate recombinant lentiviral vector containing the complete coding sequence (CDS) region of human serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 gene (SPINK1) and establish a human pancreatic cancer cell line (AsPC-1) stably overexpressing SPINK1. Then, to assess the proliferative and oncogenic effects of upregulated SPINK1 gene on pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells using different methods. Initially, the target coding sequence (CDS) of SPINK1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the synthesized product was subsequently subcloned into the lentiviral vector. The construction of recombinant SPINK1 gene was verified by the restriction digestion and sequencing analysis. The lentiviral particles carrying SPINK1 gene were produced by co-transfection of the recombination lentiviral vector and the packaging mix plasmids into 293 T cells and filtered and concentrated before AsPC-1 cells were infected by the virus particles. The cells transduced were differentially selected with puromycin, and the clones that highly expressed SPINK1 were chosen by real-time PCR and confirmed by Western blot after 7 weeks. The stably transduced AsPC-1 cell line showed significantly increased metabolic and proliferative capability using CCK-8 and Trypan Blue assays (P < 0.001). Cell cycle and DNA content analysis by flow cytometry showed that upregulated SPINK1 elicited significant increase in the percentage of AsPC-1 cells in the S and G2/M phase (P < 0.001). Clone formation assay demonstrated that the number of the colonies formed in the experimental group was greater than that in the control parental cells (P < 0.001). It was concluded that a stable AsPC-1 cell line capable of overexpressing SPINK1 had been successfully created, and that the proliferative capacity of AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells was significantly raised by SPINK1 upregulation as well as the ability of a single AsPC-1 cell to grow into a colony. PMID:26586397

  3. pRNAm-PC: Predicting N(6)-methyladenosine sites in RNA sequences via physical-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi; Xiao, Xuan; Yu, Dong-Jun; Jia, Jianhua; Qiu, Wang-Ren; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-03-15

    Just like PTM or PTLM (post-translational modification) in proteins, PTCM (post-transcriptional modification) in RNA plays very important roles in biological processes. Occurring at adenine (A) with the genetic code motif (GAC), N(6)-methyldenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most common and abundant PTCMs in RNA found in viruses and most eukaryotes. Given an uncharacterized RNA sequence containing many GAC motifs, which of them can be methylated, and which cannot? It is important for both basic research and drug development to address this problem. Particularly with the avalanche of RNA sequences generated in the postgenomic age, it is highly demanded to develop computational methods for timely identifying the N(6)-methyldenosine sites in RNA. Here we propose a new predictor called pRNAm-PC, in which RNA sequence samples are expressed by a novel mode of pseudo dinucleotide composition (PseDNC) whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross covariance transformations. It was observed via a rigorous jackknife test that, in comparison with the existing predictor for the same purpose, pRNAm-PC achieved remarkably higher success rates in both overall accuracy and stability, indicating that the new predictor will become a useful high-throughput tool for identifying methylation sites in RNA, and that the novel approach can also be used to study many other RNA-related problems and conduct genome analysis. A user-friendly Web server for pRNAm-PC has been established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/pRNAm-PC, by which users can easily get their desired results without needing to go through the mathematical details. PMID:26748145

  4. Insulin like growth factor-1 prevents 1-mentyl-4-phenylphyridinium-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopaminergic neurons are lost mainly through apoptosis in Parkinson's disease. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) inhibits apoptosis in a wide variety of tissues. Here we have shown that IGF-1 protects PC12 cells from toxic effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP+). Treatment of PC12 cells with recombinant human IGF-1 significantly decreased apoptosis caused by MPP+ as measured by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. IGF-1 treatment induced sustained phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) as shown by western blot analysis. The anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-1 was abrogated by LY294002, which indirectly inhibits phosphorylation of GSK-3beta. Lithium chloride (LiCl), a known inhibitor of GSK-3beta, also blocked MPP+-induced apoptosis. Finally, although IGF-1 enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and 2 (ERK1/2), PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2, did not alter the survival effect of IGF-1. Thus, our findings indicate that IGF-1 protects PC12 cells exposed to MPP+ from apoptosis via the GSK-3beta signaling pathway.

  5. Static and Dynamic Energetic Disorders in the C60, PC61BM, C70, and PC71BM Fullerenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Zheng, Zilong; Aziz, Saadullah G; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-17

    We use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetic disorder in fullerene systems. We show that the energetic disorder evaluated from an ensemble average contains contributions of both static origin (time-independent, due to loose packing) and dynamic origin (time-dependent, due to electron-vibration interactions). In order to differentiate between these two contributions, we compare the results obtained from an ensemble average approach with those derived from a time average approach. It is found that in both amorphous C60 and C70 bulk systems, the degrees of static and dynamic disorder are comparable, while in the amorphous PC61BM and PC71BM systems, static disorder is about twice as large as dynamic disorder. PMID:26722738

  6. Ellipsometric study of the optical transitions of PC{sub 60}BM and PC{sub 70}BM thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencheikh Aboura, Fatima, E-mail: fatima.bencheikh-aboura@im2np.fr; Duché, D.; Simon, J.J.; Escoubas, L.

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • We determine the optical properties of two fullerene derivatives using ellipsometry. • Multisample analysis is applied to verify the uniqueness of the model. • The energy position of the oscillators used are compared with ones present in the parent molecules. - Abstract: Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to determine the optical properties and to extract electronic transitions of PC{sub 60}BM and PC{sub 70}BM thin films in the UV–Visible range. By means of a sum of Gaussian oscillators, the imaginary parts of dielectric functions of both materials are modeled. The physical meaning of each model is checked by comparing the energy position of the oscillators with known optical transitions of the C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} molecules as revealed in literature by others techniques. It is shown that spectroscopic ellipsometry is a powerful technique to investigate the electronic structure of pi-conjugated molecules.

  7. Static and Dynamic Energetic Disorders in the C 60 , PC 61 BM, C 70 , and PC 71 BM Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2015-09-17

    We use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetic disorder in fullerene systems. We show that the energetic disorder evaluated from an ensemble average contains contributions of both static origin (time-independent, due to loose packing) and dynamic origin (time-dependent, due to electron-vibration interactions). In order to differentiate between these two contributions, we compare the results obtained from an ensemble average approach with those derived from a time average approach. It is found that in both amorphous C60 and C70 bulk systems, the degrees of static and dynamic disorder are comparable, while in the amorphous PC61BM and PC71BM systems, static disorder is about twice as large as dynamic disorder. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  8. CBP Phase I Code Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown and Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown and Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface

  9. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was

  10. Efficient Techniques for Formal Verification of PowerPC 750 Executables Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will develop an efficient tool for formal verification of PowerPC 750 executables. The PowerPC 750 architecture is used in the radiation-hardened RAD750...

  11. Strong decay mode J /ψ p of hidden charm pentaquark states Pc+(4380 ) and Pc+(4450 ) in ΣcD¯* molecular scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qi-Fang; Dong, Yu-Bing

    2016-04-01

    We study the strong decay channels Pc+(4380 )→J /ψ p and Pc+(4450 )→J /ψ p under a ΣcD¯* molecular state ansatz. With various spin-parity assignments, the partial decay widths of the J /ψ p final state are calculated. Our results show that all the P wave ΣcD¯* assignments are excluded, while S wave ΣcD¯* pictures for Pc(4380 ) and Pc(4450 ) are both allowed by present experimental data. The JP=3 /2- Σc*D ¯ and Σc*D¯* molecules are also discussed in the heavy quark limit, and we find that the Σc*D ¯ system for Pc(4380 ) is possible. More experimental information on spin parities and partial decay widths and theoretical investigations on other decay modes are needed to clarify the nature of the two Pc states.

  12. Polyphase alternating codes

    OpenAIRE

    M. Markkanen; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p–1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p–1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We ...

  13. Feasibility study of BES data processing and physics analysis on a PC/Linux platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a feasibility study of off-line BES data processing (data reconstruction and Detector simulation) on a PC/Linux platform and an application of the PC/Linux system in D/Ds physics analysis. The authors compared the results obtained from the PC/Linux with that from HP workstation. It shows that PC/Linux platform can do BES data offline analysis as good as UNIX workstation do, but it is much powerful and economical

  14. A PC-based data acquisition system for enhanced reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A PC-based data acquisition system, developed at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor facility (RTP), has proven to be a versatile tool in improving both operational and research capabilities. The system consists of a 16-bit personal computer with plug-in input/output board that captures analog signals and converts them to digital form with 12-bit accuracy. Direct memory access within the board enables fast communication through the host PC buslines. Built-in micro-coded commands were combined with the BASIC-language software. At the signal end, isolation amplifiers were installed for protection against ground disturbances and loops. Applications of the system include computerized rod and power calibrations. Menu-driven software and computerized data logging has increased accuracy at minimal manpower costs. For reactor operation monitoring, up to 16 single-ended input channels were available with a maximum sampling capability of 13,700 samples per second. Analog signals such as reactor power, fuel temperature and control rod positions were tapped from the instrumentation channels and sequentially multiplexed and digitized, then displayed on a monitor which serves as additional operator support. Data continuously monitored can be easily stored and retrieved, enabling rapid access and efficient management. The data acquisition system has also been used for work on reactor noise analysis. Signals from the fission chamber of the linear power channel were sampled in various operating modes at different power levels to identify noise signatures and sources. Software development centered on frequency and time domain analysis, file management and plotting routines. The initial language used was FORTRAN 1.0 but this was rewritten in PASCAL 2.0 to enhance calculation speed and reduce storage space. Results show that the technique was capable of detecting core disturbances caused by control rod oscillation and uneven distribution of samples in the specimen rotary rack during operation

  15. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  16. 78 FR 8611 - WINCO Investment Partnership 2008 L.P. and Winstead PC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... COMMISSION WINCO Investment Partnership 2008 L.P. and Winstead PC; Notice of Application January 31, 2013... of eligible current and former equity shareholders of Winstead PC from certain provisions of the Act... PC (together with any entity that results from a reorganization of such firm into a different type...

  17. 76 FR 39473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1120-PC, U.S. Property and...: 1545-1027. Form Number: Form 1120-PC. Abstract: Property and casualty insurance companies are...

  18. Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis by vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    In 1974 vinyl chloride (VC), a gas used in the plastics industry, was shown to be a human carcinogen, inducing a very rare type of tumor, angiosarcoma of the liver. The same type of tumor was induced in rodents exposed to VC thus providing an excellent model for mechanistic studies. Here, we review the numerous studies on the mechanism of action of VC with particular emphasis on the DNA products induced by this strong alkylating agent. In particular, the genotoxicity, repair mechanisms, in vivo formation and tumor mutation spectra by etheno-adducts will be analysed and possible approaches for future research suggested. PMID:17033136

  19. Solidification of supercooled molten zinc chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodová, Miroslava; Cihlář, Antonín; Nitsch, Karel

    Bratislava: x, 2005 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 5-9 ISBN 80-89088-42-2. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2005 /15./. Kežmarské Žĺaby (SK), 05.09.2005-09.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : molten zinc chloride * thermal analysis * crystallization * glass formation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  20. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  1. Construction of Codes for Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Elsenhans, Andreas-Stephan; Wassermann, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    Based on ideas of K\\"otter and Kschischang we use constant dimension subspaces as codewords in a network. We show a connection to the theory of q-analogues of a combinatorial designs, which has been studied in Braun, Kerber and Laue as a purely combinatorial object. For the construction of network codes we successfully modified methods (construction with prescribed automorphisms) originally developed for the q-analogues of a combinatorial designs. We then give a special case of that method which allows the construction of network codes with a very large ambient space and we also show how to decode such codes with a very small number of operations.

  2. TIPONLINE Code Table

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coded items are entered in the tiponline data entry program. The codes and their explanations are necessary in order to use the data

  3. Balanced Permutation Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrys, Ryan; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by charge balancing constraints for rank modulation schemes, we introduce the notion of balanced permutations and derive the capacity of balanced permutation codes. We also describe simple interleaving methods for permutation code constructions and show that they approach capacity

  4. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  5. A computerized energy systems code and information library at Soreq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the contractual agreement between the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure and the Division of Nuclear Engineering of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, both Soreq-NRC and Ben-Gurion University have agreed to establish, in 1991, a code center. This code center contains a library of computer codes and relevant data, with particular emphasis on nuclear power plant research and development support. The code center maintains existing computer codes and adapts them to the ever changing computing environment, keeps track of new code developments in the field of nuclear engineering, and acquires the most recent revisions of computer codes of interest. An attempt is made to collect relevant codes developed in Israel and to assure that proper documentation and application instructions are available. En addition to computer programs, the code center collects sample problems and international benchmarks to verify the codes and their applications to various areas of interest to nuclear power plant engineering and safety evaluation. Recently, the reactor simulation group at Soreq acquired, using funds provided by the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, a PC work station operating under a Linux operating system to give users of the library an easy on-line way to access resources available at the library. These resources include the computer codes and their documentation, reports published by the reactor simulation group, and other information databases available at Soreq. Registered users set a communication line, through a modem, between their computer and the new workstation at Soreq and use it to download codes and/or information or to solve their problems, using codes from the library, on the computer at Soreq (authors)

  6. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  7. Development of visualization software for McCARD code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The McCARD (Monte Carlo Code for Advanced Reactor Design and analysis) is a Monte Carlo neutron transport code using continuous energy nuclear data library. Arbitrary system geometry can be handled by dividing it into three-dimensional unit cells that are defined using surfaces.In order to confirm geometrical modeling of input file of the McCARD code, a 2D visualization program with a 3D modeling has been developed. It requires lots of mathematical operations and advanced technologies for design graphical program of complicated geometries. It also provides a display function for the flux and power of the core. The software is coded with the visual C++ language and run under the Windows PC environment

  8. A description of the ENIGMA fuel performance code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the main features and characteristics of the ENIGMA code developed by BNFL and CEGB is given. A general description as well as some specific sub-models are presented. One of the characteristics of this code is its fully-modular conception. Each submodel treats a well identified basic mechanism. This detailed, semi-empirical formulation of physical models contributes to reducing the number of tuning parameters. The advantage of such a modular construction is the easy replacement of a model if a less empirical one becomes available, or if shortcomings in current models are discovered. The code can be run on a PC equipped with a transputer. An extensive programme of code assessment is currently underway. (author). 9 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  9. Unfolding the color code

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni; Pastawski, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the ...

  10. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors and for the......-Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...

  11. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes;

    2005-01-01

    increasing focus on the need for modeling the ingress of chloride into cracked concrete. Present models quantify chloride ingress in static cracks only, although several structural applications display dynamic loading conditions in an environment containing chlorides, e.g. marine structures and car parks....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected to a...... load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces was...

  12. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  13. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-05-13

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

  14. Informal control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  15. Informal Control code logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    General definitions as well as rules of reasoning regarding control code production, distribution, deployment, and usage are described. The role of testing, trust, confidence and risk analysis is considered. A rationale for control code testing is sought and found for the case of safety critical embedded control code.

  16. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow the...

  17. ENDF utility codes release 6.10. Description and operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description and operating instructions are given for a package of utility codes operating on evaluated nuclear data files in the formats ENDF-6 (and ENDF-5). Included are the data checking codes CHECKER, FIZCON, PSYCHE; the code INTER for retrieving thermal cross-sections and some other data; graphical plotting subroutines PLOTEF, GRALIB, INTLIB; and the file maintenance and retrieval codes LISTEF, SETMDC, GETMAT, STANEF. This program package which is designed for CDC, IBM, DEC and PC computers, can be obtained on magnetic tape or floppy diskette, free of charge, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  18. Plataforma docente de automatización industrial con PC

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero Moral, Elcides

    2011-01-01

    El present projecte te com objectiu el disseny i muntatge d’una plataforma docent d’automatització industrial amb PC, així com el d’una estació pràctica o maqueta (en aquest cas s’ha escollit una cruïlla de semàfors) que podrà ser comandada amb la plataforma docent, i ser utilitzada en un futur a les sessions de pràctiques de l’Escola.

  19. Upgrading and fixing a PC in easy steps

    CERN Document Server

    Yarnold, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Upgrading and Fixing a PC in Easy Steps enables readers to keep their computers at the cutting-edge by explaining how to replace components and add new ones. Its simple, illustrated instructions and sidebars teach users to identify, locate, and install the relevant parts to make their PCs faster, more versatile, and more powerful. Both a learning tool and an investment, this guide even provides a money-saving tutorial on various buying options and a separate chapter on troubleshooting nasty problems.

  20. A 60 pc counter-rotating core in NGC 4621

    OpenAIRE

    Wernli, Fabien; Emsellem, Eric; Copin, Yannick

    2002-01-01

    We present adaptive optics assisted OASIS integral field spectrography of the S0 galaxy NGC 4621. Two-dimensional stellar kinematical maps (mean velocity and dispersion) reveal the presence of a 60 pc diameter counter-rotating core (CRC), the smallest observed to date. The OASIS data also suggests that the kinematic center of the CRC is slightly offset from the center of the outer isophotes. This seems to be confirmed by archival HST/STIS data. We also present the HST/WFPC2 V-I colour map, wh...

  1. Ionospheric duct propagation and Pc 1 pulsation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed study of two Pc 1 hydromagnetic emission events observed at Great Whale River, Quebec: Boulder, Colorado; and College, Alaska, indicates that emission energy propagated westward in an ionospheric duct from an extended source region east of Great Whale River with duct velocities ranging from 500 to 2500 km s-1. Sources located using both triangulation direction of arrival and polarization techniques were found to be generally consistent. Autocorrelation measurements of fine structure element spacing within the events show that dispersion increased with longitudinal distance from the source

  2. PC interfacing using Centronics, RS232 and game ports

    CERN Document Server

    An, Pei

    1998-01-01

    The main links with your PC and the outside world are the centronic port, used for connecting the printer, the RS232 port, used for the mouse, and the games port for a joystick. This book explores how these input/output (I/O) ports can be put to use through a range of other interfacing applications. This is especially useful for laptop and palmtop PCs which cannot be fitted with internal I/O cards. A novel approach is taken by this book, combining the hardware through which the ports can be explored, and the software programming needed to carry out a range of experiments.Circuits are p

  3. Compressional Pc 4 pulsations observed at synchronous orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka, Tonegawa

    1982-01-01

    Magnetic oscillations of Pc 4 type ULF waves in the period range from 40 to 180s are examined using the ATS-6 magnetometer data during the period from June 1 to August 31,1974. During this period the satellite was located at a magnetic latitude of 10°. It is found that there are two typical types of waves; compressional (meridionally polarized) and transverse (azimuthally polarized) waves. The transverse waves occur mainly in the early morning hours, while the compressional waves occur in the...

  4. PC Games, Financial Gains and Consumers: An Issue of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dali, Birita í, 1987

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems faced by a struggling PC game industry and discusses how the level of control affects the ability of users to add value to the industry. In addition, the paper views reasons for why control is required, how it is currently being executed and where it fares poorly. The research question is: “Can firms increase profits by reducing control?” and is split into sub-questions which are answered throughout the paper. Chapter 1 explains the current state of th...

  5. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Measles Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the measles effect observed in WFPC observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Look for changes in measle numbers/characteristics 2. Have before/after images in place for decontaminations. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every two weeks. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  6. ARC Code TI: CODE Software Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CODE is a software framework for control and observation in distributed environments. The basic functionality of the framework allows a user to observe a...

  7. ARC Code TI: ROC Curve Code Augmentation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve Code Augmentation was written by Rodney Martin and John Stutz at NASA Ames Research Center and is a modification of...

  8. Interactions between chloride ingress and carbonation in cementitious materials

    OpenAIRE

    SAILLIO, Mickael; BARBERON, Fabien; BAROGHEL BOUNY, Véronique; GEGOUT, Philippe; PLATRET, Gérard; D'ESPINOSE DE LA CAILLERIE, JB

    2011-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride attacks are the major causes of reinforced concrete (RC) structure deterioration by initiation of steel rebar corrosion. These attacks are usually studied separately in the literature. Chloride-induced corrosion takes place mainly in marine environment or in the case of contact with deicing salts, while carbonation is systematically present in all RC structures at a variable degree. Since carbonation leads to significant microstructure changes, the effect of chloride ...

  9. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Kaifeng Tang; Dong Pan; Zongru Lei; Weilun Wang; Feng Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions...

  10. The Procions` code; Le code Procions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, D.; Samba, G.

    1994-12-19

    This paper presents a new code to simulate plasmas generated by inertial confinement. This multi-kinds kinetic code is done with no angular approximation concerning ions and will work in plan and spherical geometry. First, the physical model is presented, using Fokker-Plank. Then, the numerical model is introduced in order to solve the Fokker-Plank operator under the Rosenbluth form. At the end, several numerical tests are proposed. (TEC). 17 refs., 27 figs.

  11. Comparison of CAP88 PC Ver. 3.0 and MAXDOSE dose assessment models involving co-located stack releases at the Savannah River site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Eduardo; Jannik, G Timothy; Lee, Patricia; Powell, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's Environmental Dosimetry Group performs dosimetry assessments for Savannah River Site (SRS) radionuclide air emissions utilizing the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88) code (CAP88 PC Ver. 3.0) and the MAXDOSE-SR Ver. 2011 code, which is an SRS-specific version of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's MAXIGASP code. CAP88 PC and MAXDOSE-SR are used at SRS for demonstrating compliance with Environmental Protection Agency dose standards for radionuclide emissions to the atmosphere and Department of Energy Order 458.1 dose standards, respectively. During a routine comparison of these two assessment models, it was discovered that CAP88 PC Ver. 3.0 was not producing the expected results when using multiple co-located stacks in a single run. Specifically, if the stack heights are considered separately, the results for several radionuclides (but not all) differ from the combined run [i.e., 1 + 2 does not equal (1+2)]. Additionally, when two or more stack heights are considered in a run, the results depend on the order of the selected stack heights. For example, for a two stack-height run of 0 meter and 61 m input produces different results from a 61 m and 0 m input run. This study presents a comparison of CAP88 PC Ver. 3.0 and MAXDOSE-SR Ver. 2011 based on SRS input data and on two-stack release scenarios. The selected radionuclides for this study included gases/vapors (H, C, Kr, and I) and particulates (Sr, Cs, Pu, and Am) commonly encountered at SRS. PMID:23803669

  12. PrPC displays an essential protective role from oxidative stress in an astrocyte cell line derived from PrPC knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PrPC in solution acts as a radical scavenger. ► PrPC reduces hydrogen peroxide toxicity in astrocytes. ► Increase in ROS disrupted the cell cycle in the PrPC-knockout astrocytes. ► PrPC prevents the cell death independently of an SOD-like activity. -- Abstract: The PrPC protein, which is especially present in the cellular membrane of nervous system cells, has been extensively studied for its controversial antioxidant activity. In this study, we elucidated the free radical scavenger activity of purified murine PrPC in solution and its participation as a cell protector in astrocytes that were subjected to treatment with an oxidant. In vitro and using an EPR spin-trapping technique, we observed that PrPC decreased the oxidation of the DMPO trap in a Fenton reaction system (Cu2+/ascorbate/H2O2), which was demonstrated by approximately 70% less DMPO/OH·. In cultured PrPC-knockout astrocytes from mice, the absence of PrPC caused an increase in intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation during the first 3 h of H2O2 treatment. This rapid increase in ROS disrupted the cell cycle in the PrPC-knockout astrocytes, which increased the population of cells in the sub-G1 phase when compared with cultured wild-type astrocytes. We conclude that PrPC in solution acts as a radical scavenger, and in astrocytes, it is essential for protection from oxidative stress caused by an external chemical agent, which is a likely condition in human neurodegenerative CNS disorders and pathological conditions such as ischemia.

  13. Troubleshooting and Maintaining Your PC All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining a PC is important, and troubleshooting a PC can be a challenge. Dan Gookin is great at explaining how to handle common PC problems, and he's provided a complete, plain-English manual in Troubleshooting & Maintaining Your PC All-in-One For Dummies. Liberally laced with Dan's famous humor and clear instructions, Troubleshooting & Maintaining Your PC All-in-One For Dummies is divided into six minibooks covering hardware, software, laptops, Internet, networking, and maintenance. Each one gives you some background on what causes common problems, to help you understand what's wrong as we

  14. PC-ICICLE : an interactive color integrated circuit layout editor for personal computers

    OpenAIRE

    Harimoto, Seiyu

    1987-01-01

    An interactive color graphics layout editor for VLSI has been implemented on the IBM PC. The software, PC-ICICLE, is written in Microsoft PASCAL and the 8086/88 Assembly Language under the DOS 2.0 environment. The basic hardware requirement is the standard configuration of the IBM PC with 256K bytes, and color graphics monitor and adapter. Without the need for any special hardware, PC-ICICLE makes layout editors more readily available to VLSI chip designers. PC-ICICLE has...

  15. Effect of thermoplastic polyurethane content on properties of PC/TPU blend filled with Montmorillonite

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Shashidhara; S. H. Kameshwari Devi; Shreyas D. K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was taken up to investigate the effect of addition of Montmorillonite (MMT) to Polycarbonate/Thermoplastic polyurethane (PC/TPU) blends. A master batch of PC/MMT (70/30) was prepared using Hake Rheomixer and PC/TPU blends filled with MMT of different compositions (90/10/5, 80/20/5, 70/30/5) were prepared by melt mixing using required quantities of master batch, PC and TPU in a twin screw extruder (TSE). Blends of PC/TPU of similar compositions (without MMT) were also pre...

  16. Tokamak plasma power balance calculation code (TPC code) outline and operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a detailed description on the TPC code, that calculates the power balance of a tokamak plasma according to the ITER guidelines. The TPC code works on a personal computer (Macintosh or J-3100/ IBM-PC). Using input data such as the plasma shape, toroidal magnetic field, plasma current, electron temperature, electron density, impurities and heating power, TPC code can determine the operation point of the fusion reactor (Ion temperature is assumed to be equal to the electron temperature). Supplied flux (Volt · sec) and burn time are also estimated by coil design parameters. Calculated energy confinement time is compared with various L-mode scaling laws and the confinement enhancement factor (H-factor) is evaluated. Divertor heat load is predicted by using simple scaling models (constant-χ, Bohm-type-χ and JT-60U empirical scaling models). Frequently used data can be stored in a 'device file' and used as the default values. TPC code can generate 2-D mesh data and the POPCON plot is drawn by a contour line plotting program (CONPLT). The operation manual about CONPLT code is also described. (author)

  17. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  18. Radiolytic preparation of anhydrous tin (2) chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Anhydrous tin (2) chloride (SnCl2) is prepared by radiolysis with high energy electrons of a tin (4) chloride (SnCl4) solution in heptane. The SnCl4 is reduced to insoluble SNCl2. The energy yield, G(SnCl2), molecules of SnCl2, produced per 100 eV, increases with SnCl4 concentration from 1.6 at 0.15 M SnCl4 to 3.1 at 3.0 M SnCl4. Other parameters such as temperature total dose and beam current have little influence on G(SnCl2). The method may be used to prepare other metal halides if the higher valence, more covalent metal halide is soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lower more ionic metal halide is insoluble. The reaction mechanism is discussed; the radiolysis of both heptane and SnCl4 is involved. At high SnCl4 concentration G(SnCl2) appears to be limited by the yield of SnC13 radicals.

  19. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  20. Cobalt electrodeposition using urea and choline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of Co(II) in urea-choline chloride-CoCl2 melt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 373 K. The results show that the reaction of Co(II) to Co is irreversible and it proceeds via a one-step two electrons transfer process. The diffusion coefficient of Co(II) was estimated to be 1.7 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 at 373 K. Electrodeposition of cobalt was studied at different cathodic potentials (-0.80 to -0.95 V) and at different temperatures (353 to 383 K) in eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (1:2 molar ratio). The deposits were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images show that uniform, dense, and compact deposits were obtained at -0.80 V within a temperature range of 353 K to 373 K. EDS and XRD analysis confirm that high-purity metallic Co deposits were obtained