WorldWideScience

Sample records for chloride monolithic column

  1. Counterflow isotachophoresis in a monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingwen; Cong, Yongzheng; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2014-09-01

    This study describes stationary counterflow isotachophoresis (ITP) in a poly(acrylamide-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide) monolithic column as a means for improving ITP processing capacity and reducing dispersion. The flow profile in the monolith was predicted using COMSOL's Brinkman Equation application mode, which revealed that the flow profile was mainly determined by monolith permeability. As monolith permeability decreases, the flow profile changes from a parabolic shape to a plug shape. An experimental monolithic column was prepared in a fused-silica capillary using an ultraviolet-initiated polymerization method. A monolithic column made from 8% (wt.) monomer was chosen for the stationary counterflow ITP experiments. Counterflow ITP in the monolithic column showed undistorted analyte zones with significantly reduced dispersion compared to the severe dispersion observed in an open capillary. Particularly, for r-phycoerythrin focused by counterflow ITP, its zone width in the monolithic column was only one-third that observed in an open capillary. These experiments demonstrate that stationary counterflow ITP in monoliths can be a robust and practical electrofocusing method. PMID:24935025

  2. Preparation and characterization of poly-(methacrylatoethyl trimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Malis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A polymer monolithic column, poly-(methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate or poly-(MATE-co-VBC-co-EDMA was successfully prepared in the current study by one-step thermally initiated in situ polymerization, confined in a steel tubing of 0.5 mm i.d. and 1/16” o.d. The monoliths were prepared from methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MATE and vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC as monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA as crosslinker using a binary porogen system of 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The inner wall of steel tubing was pretreated with 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MAPS. In order to obtain monolith with adequate column efficiency and low flow resistance, some parameters such as total monomer concentration (%T and crosslinker concentration (%C were optimized. The morphology of this monolith was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The properties of the monolithic column, such as permeability, binding capacity, and pore size distribution were also characterized in detail. From the results of the characterization of all monolith variation, monolith with %T 30 %C 50 and %T 35 %C 50 give the best characteristic. These monoliths have high permeability, adequate molecular recognition sites (represented with binding capacity value of over 20 mg/mL, and have over 80% flow through pores in their pore structure contribute to low flow resistance. The resulted monolithic columns have promising potential for dual mode liquid chromatography. MATE may contribute for anion-exchange while VBC may responsible for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

  3. Pepsin-modified chiral monolithic column for affinity capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tingting; Chi, Cuijie; Ji, Yibing

    2014-11-01

    Pepsin-modified affinity monolithic capillary electrochromatography, a novel microanalysis system, was developed by the covalent bonding of pepsin on silica monolith. The column was successfully applied in the chiral separation of (±)-nefopam. Furthermore, the electrochromatographic performance of the pepsin-functionalized monolith for enantiomeric analysis was evaluated in terms of protein content, pH of running buffer, sample volume, buffer concentration, applied voltage, and capillary temperature. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) values of retention time (intraday implied that the affinity monolith used in this research opens a new path of exploring particularly versatile class of enzymes to develop enzyme-modified affinity capillary monolith for enantioseparation. PMID:25146884

  4. A novel ionic liquid monolithic column and its separation properties in capillary electrochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► ILs as functional monomer for capillary monolithic column. ► Separation of alkylbenzenes, thiourea analogues, and amino acids. ► The column generate a stable reversed EOF from pH 2.0 to 12.0. ► The column efficiency of 147,000 plates m−1 was obtained for thiourea. - Abstract: A novel ionic liquid (IL) monolithic capillary column was successfully prepared by thermal free radical copolymerization of IL (1-vinyl-3-octylimidazolium chloride, ViOcIm+Cl−) together with lauryl methacrylate (LMA) as the binary functional monomers and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker in binary porogen. The proportion of monomers, porogens and cross-linker in the polymerization mixture was optimized in detail. The resulting IL-monolithic column could not only generate a stable reversed electroosmotic flow (EOF) in a wide pH range (2.0–12.0), but also effectively eliminate the wall adsorption of the basic analytes. The obtained IL-monolithic columns were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). These results indicated that the IL-monolithic capillary column possessed good pore properties, mechanical stability and permeability. The column performance was also evaluated by separating different kinds of compounds, such as alkylbenzenes, thiourea and its analogues, and amino acids. The lowest plate height of ∼6.8 μm was obtained, which corresponded to column efficiency (theoretical plates, N) of ∼147,000 plates m−1 for thiourea. ILs, as a new type of functional monomer, present a promising option in the fabrication of the organic polymer-based monolithic columns in CEC.

  5. Chromatographic Properties of Silica-Based Monolithic HPLC Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jennifer Houston

    2002-01-01

    Silica-based monolithic HPLC columns contain a novel chromatographic support in which the traditional particulate packing has been replaced with a single, continuous network (monolith) of porous silica. The main advantage of such a network is decreased backpressure due to macropores (2 μm) throughout the network. This allows high flow rates, and hence fast analyses that are unattainable with traditional particulate columns. The Chromolith SpeedROD⠢ (EM Science, Gibbstown NJ) is a commercia...

  6. Purification of large plasmids with methacrylate monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Smrekar, Franci; Cerne, Jasmina; Raspor, Peter; Modic, Martina; Krgovic, Danijela; Strancar, Ales; Podgornik, Ales

    2009-08-01

    The rapid evolution of gene therapy and DNA vaccines results in an increasing interest in producing large quantities of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA. Most current clinical trials involve plasmids of 10 kb or smaller in size, however, future requirements for multigene vectors including extensive control regions may require the production of larger plasmids, e. g., 20 kb and bigger. The objective of this study was to examine certain process conditions for purification of large plasmids with the size of up to 93 kb. Since there is a lack of knowledge about production and purification of bigger plasmid DNA, cell lysis and storage conditions were investigated. The impact of chromatographic system and methacrylate monolithic column on the degradation of plasmid molecules under nonbinding conditions at different flow rates was studied. Furthermore, capacity measurements varying salt concentration in loading buffer were performed and the capacities up to 13 mg of plasmid per mL of the monolithic column were obtained. The capacity flow independence in the range from 130 to 370 cm/h was observed. Using high resolution monolithic column the separation of linear and supercoiled isoforms of large plasmids was obtained. Last but not least, since the baseline separation of RNA and pDNA was achieved, the one step purification on larger CIM DEAE 8 mL tube monolithic column was performed and the fractions were analyzed by CIM analytical monolithic columns. PMID:19598166

  7. On-chip cell lysis by antibacterial non-leaching reusable quaternary ammonium monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly Saad Aly, Mohamed; Gauthier, Mario; Yeow, John

    2016-02-01

    Reusable antibacterial non-leaching monolithic columns polymerized in microfluidic channels designed for on-chip cell lysis applications were obtained by the photoinitiated free radical copolymerization of diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) and ethylene glycol diacrylate (EGDA) in the presence of a porogenic solvent. The microfluidic channels were fabricated in cross-linked poly(methyl methacrylate) (X-PMMA) substrates by laser micromachining. The monolithic columns have the ability to inhibit the growth of, kill and efficiently lyse Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus (Schroeter) (ATCC 4698) and Kocuria rosea (ATCC 186), and Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 12633) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) by mechanically shearing the bacterial membrane when forcing the cells to pass through the narrow pores of the monolithic column, and simultaneously disintegrating the cell membrane by physical contact with the antibacterial surface of the column. Cell lysis was confirmed by off-chip PCR without the need for further purification. The influence of the cross-linking monomer on bacterial growth inhibition, leaching, lysis efficiency of the monolithic column and its mechanical stability within the microfluidic channel were investigated and analyzed for three different cross-linking monomers: ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 1,6-hexanediol dimethacrylate (1,6-HDDMA). Furthermore, the bonding efficiency of two X-PMMA substrates with different cross-linking levels was studied. The monolithic columns were shown to be stable, non-leaching, and reusable for over 30 lysis cycles without significant performance degradation or DNA carryover when they were back-flushed between lysis cycles. PMID:26671610

  8. Exploring the pressure resistance limits of monolithic silica capillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Desmet, Gert

    2016-05-13

    We report on an experimental approach to measure the pressure stability and mechanical strength of monolithic silica capillary columns with different diameters (50 and 100μm i.d.) and considering two different domain sizes, typical for the second generation monoliths or smaller. The approach consists of exposing the capillaries to ultra-high pressures (gradually stepwise increased from 20 to 80MPa), with intermediate measurements of the column efficiency, permeability and retention factors to check the mechanical stability of the bed. It was observed that all tested columns withstood the imposed pressure stress, i.e., all the tested parameters remained unaffected up till the maximal test pressure of 80MPa. The applied pressure gradient corresponded to 320MPa/m. The two 100μm i.d.-capillary columns were also exposed to pressures between 80 and 90MPa for a prolonged time (8h), and this did not cause any damage either. PMID:27086284

  9. Morphological and chromatographic characterization of molecularly imprinted monolithic columns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Širc, Jakub; Bosáková, Z.; Coufal, P.; Michálek, Jiří; Přádný, Martin; Hobzová, Radka; Hradil, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 117, - (2007), s. 1-15. ISSN 1618-7229 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : molecularly imprinted polymers * monolithic columns * morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2007

  10. Preparation and application of capillary silica-monolithic columns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Moravcová, Dana; Roth, Michal; Karásek, Pavel

    Rome : National Research Council, 2010. s. 89 [International Symposium on Separation Science /16./. 06.09.2010-10.09.2010, Rome] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1465; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : monolithic silica * sol- gel process * capillary column Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  11. Rapid Preparation of Monolithic Columns for Capillary Electrochromatography Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jun GONG; Yi Jun ZHANG; Yu Ping ZHANG; Seong Ho CHOI

    2006-01-01

    Fritless packed silica gel columns were prepared using sol-gel technology. The part of a75 μm i.d. capillary was filled with a mixture of methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, toluene and hydrochloric acid. Four different photoinitiators such as benzoin methyl ether, Irgacure 819,Irgacure 1700 and irgacure 1800 were added in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate during the polymerization process. The above eight solutions were irradiated at 365 nm about5-10 min to prepare the porous monolithic sol-gel columns by a one-step process.

  12. Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymeric capillary columns for isolation of aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Grzywiński, Damian; Prus, Wojciech; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2014-10-17

    Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers extraction columns have been prepared in fused-silica capillaries by UV or thermal polymerization in a two-step process. First, a poly-(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) (polyTRIM) core monolith was synthesized either by UV or thermal polymerization. Then it was grafted with the mixture of methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linking agent, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC) as an aflatoxin-mimicking template, toluene as a porogen solvent and 2,2-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator of the polymerization reaction. Different thermal condition of the photografting and different concentrations of the grafting mixture were tested during polymerization. The extraction capillary columns were evaluated in the terms of their hydrodynamic and chromatographic properties. Retention coefficients for aflatoxin B1 and DMC were used for assessment of the selectivity and imprinting factor. The obtained results indicate that the temperature of photografting and concentration of the grafting mixture are key parameters that determine the quality of the prepared MIPs. From the MIP columns characterized by the highest permeability the column of the highest imprinting factor was applied for isolation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 from the model aqueous sample followed by on-line chromatographic separation. The process was performed using a micro-MISPE-microLC-LIF system of a novel design, which allowed for detection of the eluates from the sample preparation part as well as from the chromatographic separation. PMID:25218633

  13. Recent Progress in Monolithic Silica Columns for High-Speed and High-Selectivity Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tohru; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Monolithic silica columns have greater (through-pore size)/(skeleton size) ratios than particulate columns and fixed support structures in a column for chemical modification, resulting in high-efficiency columns and stationary phases. This review looks at how the size range of monolithic silica columns has been expanded, how high-efficiency monolithic silica columns have been realized, and how various methods of silica surface functionalization, leading to selective stationary phases, have been developed on monolithic silica supports, and provides information on the current status of these columns. Also discussed are the practical aspects of monolithic silica columns, including how their versatility can be improved by the preparation of small-sized structural features (sub-micron) and columns (1 mm ID or smaller) and by optimizing reaction conditions for in situ chemical modification with various restrictions, with an emphasis on recent research results for both topics.

  14. A hybrid FIA/HPLC system incorporating monolithic column chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, Jacqui L. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Francis, Paul S. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia)], E-mail: psf@deakin.edu.au; Agg, Kent M. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Marshall, Graham D. [GlobalFIA, Fox Island, WA 98333 (United States); Barnett, Neil W. [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia)

    2007-09-26

    We have combined the generation of solvent gradients using milliGAT pumps, chromatographic separations with monolithic columns and chemiluminescence detection in an instrument manifold that approaches the automation and separation efficiency of HPLC, whilst maintaining the positive attributes of flow injection analysis (FIA), such as manifold versatility, speed of analysis and portability. As preliminary demonstrations of this hybrid FIA/HPLC system, we have determined six opiate alkaloids (morphine, pseudomorphine, codeine, oripavine, ethylmorphine and thebaine) and four biogenic amines (vanilmandelic acid, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid) in human urine, using tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) and acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

  15. A hybrid FIA/HPLC system incorporating monolithic column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have combined the generation of solvent gradients using milliGAT pumps, chromatographic separations with monolithic columns and chemiluminescence detection in an instrument manifold that approaches the automation and separation efficiency of HPLC, whilst maintaining the positive attributes of flow injection analysis (FIA), such as manifold versatility, speed of analysis and portability. As preliminary demonstrations of this hybrid FIA/HPLC system, we have determined six opiate alkaloids (morphine, pseudomorphine, codeine, oripavine, ethylmorphine and thebaine) and four biogenic amines (vanilmandelic acid, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid) in human urine, using tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) and acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection

  16. Isocratic and gradient separations on sulfoalkylbetaine monolithic capillary column

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav; Horká, Marie; Roth, Michal

    Messina : Chromaleont S.r.L, 2012 - (Sandra, P.; Mondello, L.). s. 239 [International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography /36./ and GC x GC Symposium /9./. 27.5.2012-01.06.2012, Riva del Garda] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : monolithic capillary column * LC separations * Candida parapsilosis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  17. Integration of monolithic frit into the particulate capillary (IMFPC) column in shotgun proteome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangjun; Dong, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

    2009-10-12

    Capillary column plays an important role in nano-flow liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for dealing with the high dynamic range and complexity of protein samples in shotgun proteome analysis. In this study, the integrated monolithic frit into the particulate capillary (IMFPC) column was prepared. By comparing the prepared IMFPC column with conventionally fritless capillary column, smaller size of packing materials could be easily packed into the capillary to achieve higher average peak capacity and proteome coverage. As the monolithic emitter was integrated onto this type of column, the void volume between packing particles and electrospray emitter was eliminated and the electrospray quality was improved. The prepared IMFPC column was applied to proteome analysis of mouse liver extracts, and it was observed that the number of identified proteins and peptides increased 14.9 and 12.9% as well as the peak capacity increased 11.6% by using IMFPC column over conventionally fritless capillary column. PMID:19786199

  18. Monolithic column incorporated with lanthanide metal-organic framework for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Shun; Du, Pei-Yao; Gu, Wen; Zhao, Qing-Li; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2016-08-26

    A new lanthanide metal-organic frameworks NKU-1 have successfully incorporated into poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monolith and evaluated by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks [Eu2(ABTC)1.5(H2O)3(DMA)] (NKU-1) were synthesized by self-assembly of Eu(III) ions and 3,3',5,5'-azo benzene tetracarboxylic acid ligands have been fabricated into poly(BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and N,N-dimethylformamide were developed as binary porogen obtaining homogeneous dispersibility for NKU-1 and high permeability for monolithic column. The successful incorporation of NKU-1 into poly(BMA-co-EDMA) was confirmed and characterized by FT-IR spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer area scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Separation ability of the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths was demonstrated by separating four groups of analytes in CEC, including alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, aniline series and naphthyl substitutes. Compared with bare monolithic (column efficiency of 100,000plates/m), the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths have displayed greater column efficiency (maximum 210,000plates/m) and higher permeability, as well as less peak tailing. The results showed that the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths are promising stationary phases for CEC separations. PMID:27432788

  19. Monolithic liquid-chromatography columns for protein analysisprotein digest separation and integrated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the research described in this thesis are to evaluate the applicability of both silica-based and polymeric monolithic columns for protein analysis. The first part describes investigations into the effects of column length and stationary-phase chemistry on the separation of protein

  20. Separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses on a protein A monolith column

    OpenAIRE

    Leblebici, P.; Leblebici, M.E.; Ferreira-da-Silva, F.; A.E. Rodrigues; Pais, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Monolithic columns have attracted significant attention for the purification of large biomolecules. In thepresent study, a step gradient elution method was evaluated for the separation of human immunoglobulinG (hIgG) into its subclasses on CIM (convective interaction media) r-protein A (recombinant protein A)monolithic column. hIgG was loaded onto the column and bound protein was eluted with a pH gra-dient. The subclass content of the eluted fractions was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbe...

  1. Recent Advances and Uses of Monolithic Columns for the Analysis of Residues and Contaminants in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Díaz-Bao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are gaining interest as excellent substitutes to conventional particle-packed columns. These columns show higher permeability and lower flow resistance than conventional liquid chromatography columns, providing high-throughput performance, resolution and separation in short run times. Monoliths possess also great potential for the clean-up and preparation of complex mixtures. In situ polymerization inside appropriate supports allows the development of several microextraction formats, such as in-tube solid-phase and pipette tip-based extractions. These techniques using porous monoliths offer several advantages, including miniaturization and on-line coupling with analytical instruments. Additionally, monoliths are ideal support media for imprinting template-specific sites, resulting in the so-called molecularly-imprinted monoliths, with ultra-high selectivity. In this review, time-saving LC columns and preparative applications applied to the analysis of residues and contaminants in food in 2010–2014 are described, focusing on recent improvements in design and with emphasis in automated on-line systems and innovative materials and formats.

  2. A monolithically fabricated gas chromatography separation column with an integrated high sensitivity thermal conductivity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monolithic integration of a high sensitivity detector with a gas chromatography (GC) separation column creates many potential advantages over the discrete components of a traditional chromatography system. In miniaturized high-speed GC systems, component interconnections can cause crucial errors and loss of fidelity during detection and analysis. A monolithically integrated device would eliminate the need to create helium-tight interconnections, which are bulky and labor intensive. Additionally, batch fabrication of integrated devices that no longer require expensive and fragile detectors can decrease the cost of micro GC systems through economies of scale. We present the design, fabrication and operation of a monolithic GC separation column and detector. Our device is able to separate nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide within 30 s. This method of device integration could be applied to the existing wealth of column geometries and chemistries designed for specialized applications.

  3. Recent advances in the preparation and application of monolithic capillary columns in separation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tingting; Yang, Xi; Xu, Yujing; Ji, Yibing

    2016-08-10

    Novel column technologies involving various materials and efficient reactions have been investigated for the fabrication of monolithic capillary columns in the field of analytical chemistry. In addition to the development of these miniaturized systems, a variety of microscale separation applications have achieved noteworthy results, providing a stepping stone for new types of chromatographic columns with improved efficiency and selectivity. Three novel strategies for the preparation of capillary monoliths, including ionic liquid-based approaches, nanoparticle-based approaches and "click chemistry", are highlighted in this review. Furthermore, we present the employment of state-of-the-art capillary monolithic stationary phases for enantioseparation, solid-phase microextraction, mixed-mode separation and immobilized enzyme reactors. The review concludes with recommendations for future studies and improvements in this field of research. PMID:27282747

  4. Monolithic liquid-chromatography columns for protein analysisprotein digest separation and integrated systems

    OpenAIRE

    van de Meent, M. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the research described in this thesis are to evaluate the applicability of both silica-based and polymeric monolithic columns for protein analysis. The first part describes investigations into the effects of column length and stationary-phase chemistry on the separation of protein digests. The second part is devoted to the development of LC based integrated systems for the separation and identification of protein mixtures.

  5. Application of monolithic affinity HPLC column for rapid determination of malt glycoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Benkovská, D. (Dagmar); Flodrová, D. (Dana); Bobálová, J. (Janette)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize separation and enrichment of barley malt glycoproteins on a monolithic ConA affinity HPLC column. ConA-bound proteins were separated on SDS-PAGE and identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS after chymotryptic digestion. Our proteomic analysis allowed successful determination of several putative malt glycoproteins.

  6. Evaluation of the clenbuterol imprinted monolithic column prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mamat Turson; Xiao Lei Zhuang; Hui Na Liu; Ping Jiang; Xiang Chao Dong

    2009-01-01

    To make more homogenous organic monolithic structure,reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer(RAFT)process was employed in the synthesis of the clenbuterol imprinted polymer.In the synthesis,the influence of synthetic conditions on the polymer structure and separation efficiency was studied.The result demonstrated that the imprinted columns prepared with RAFT process have higher column efficiency and selectivity than the columns prepared with conventional polymerization in the present study,which may result from the higher surface area,smaller pore size and the narrower globule size distribution in their structures.The result indicated that RAFT polymerization provided better conditions for the clenbuterol imprinted monolithic polymer preparation.

  7. Hexavalent chromium removal performance of anionic functionalized monolithic polymers: column adsorption, regeneration and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlik, Necla; Keskinler, Bülent; Kocakerim, M Muhtar

    2016-01-01

    Anionic functionalized monolithic macro-porous polymers were used for the removal of hexavalent chromium(VI) anions from aqueous solution in column experiments. At a flux of 1.0 cm min and 30 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) feed concentration, breakthrough capacity and apparent capacity were 0.066 g Cr(VI) g(-1) anionic monolith and 0.144 g Cr(VI) g(-1) anionic monolith, respectively. The degree of column utilization was found to lie in the range 41-46%. Two kinetic models, theoretical and Thomas models, were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic parameters of the column useful for process design. The simulation of the whole breakthrough curve was effective with the models. At a flux of 1.0 cm min and 30 mg Cr(VI) L(-1) feed concentration, the dispersion coefficient and adsorption equilibrium constant (K) were 3.14 × 10(-7) m s(-1) and 3,840, respectively. Also, Thomas model parameters k1 (rate constant of adsorption) and qm (equilibrium solid-phase concentration of sorbed solute) were 1.08 × 10(-3) L mg(-1) min(-1) and 0.124 g g(-1), respectively. After reaching equilibrium adsorption capacity, the monoliths were regenerated using 1 N HCl and were subsequently re-tested. It was found that the regeneration efficiency reduced from 98% after second usage to 97% after the third usage. PMID:27003067

  8. Multilayer chitosan-based open tubular capillary anion exchange column with integrated monolithic capillary suppressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Uses a multilayer chitosan–glutaraldehyde coating as anion exchanger. ► Uses a methacrylate-acrylic acid polymer monolith as suppressor. ► Demonstrates first integral suppressor open tubular anion chromatography. - Abstract: We describe a multilayered open tubular anion exchange column fabricated by alternately pumping solutions of chitosan and glutaraldehyde. The column is terminated in an integrally bonded monolithic suppressor cast around a mandrel of a tungsten wire, composed of an acrylic acid (AA)–ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) monolith that is made with sufficient porogen for the monolith to function as a membrane. For a 4.5 m long 75 μm bore column coated with 24 successive layers of the condensation polymer (estimated to contain ∼72 molecular layers) and coupled to 1 cm length of a suppressor fabricated with 55–60% AA, effective separation of several common anions (F−, Cl−, NO2−, Br−, NO3−, average number of theoretical plates ∼12,000) and adequate suppression of 1 mM KOH used as eluent was observed at a flow rate of 800 nL min−1 to obtain sub-picomol detection limits at an operating pressure of ∼1 bar. The separation is not time efficient but the system can be meritorious in unique niche applications where a small form factor is desired and liquid volume and power consumption are more important than separation speed.

  9. Recent Research and Development of Monolithic Column in Ion Chromatography%整体柱离子色谱的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩; 于泓

    2011-01-01

    Monolithic columns have been employed in low pressure, fast and high efficient separation, for their many excellent characteristics. When applied to ion chromatography field, monolithic columns can achieve more effective analysis than traditional columns. Therefore, the method of ion chromatography based on monolithic columns attracts increasing interests. In this paper, the sorts of ion chromatography, classification of monolithic stationary phases, preparation ways of monolithic columns, performances and features of monolithic columns were introduced. The application of conventional monolithic columns in ion chromatography and the utilization of capillary monolithic columns in capillary ion chromatography were summarized according to the different assortments and properties of monolithic columns and ion chromatography, which included silica-based monolithic stationary phase and organic polymer-based monolithic stationary phase. The development of ion chromatography based on monolithic columns in the future was reviewed and prospected.%该文介绍了离子色谱的分类,整体柱的分类、制备及特点,并以此为依据归纳总结了常规整体柱在离子色谱中的应用和毛细管整体柱在毛细管离子色谱中的应用,其中包括硅胶基质整体柱和聚合物基质整体柱,评述并展望了整体柱离子色谱的发展前景.

  10. Prediction of the Service Life of a Reinforced Concrete Column under Chloride Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad K. Alkam; Maha Alqam

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, service life of a reinforced concrete column exposed to chloride environment has been predicted. This study has been based on numerical simulation of chloride ion diffusion in a concrete column during its anticipated life span. The simulation process has included the concrete cover replacement whenever chloride ion concentration has reached the critical threshold value at the reinforcement surface. Repair scheduling of the concrete column under consideration has ...

  11. Modification of silica-based monolithic capillary columns for boronate affinity chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2011. P2-G-471-WE. ISBN 978-963-89335-0-8. [International Symposium on High - Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques /36./. 19.06.2011-23.06.2011, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701; GA MŠk LC06023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : silicagel monolithic column * boronate affinity chromatography Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  12. Zwitterionic silica-based monolithic capillary columns for isocratic and gradient hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1270, DEC 28 (2012), s. 178-185. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : HILIC * Monolithic silica column * Nucleoside separation * Nucleic acid base Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  13. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns - Effect of preparation temperature on separation efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Planeta, Josef; Moravcová, Dana; Roth, Michal; Karásek, Pavel; Kahle, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1217, č. 36 (2010), s. 5737-5740. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1465; GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk LC06023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : monolithic silica * capillary column efficiency * preparation temperature Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.194, year: 2010

  14. Pretreatment and separation of proteomic samples using monolithic column with splitless gradient elution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav; Vykydalová, Marie; Kubesová, Anna; Horká, Marie

    Frankfurt am Main, 2009 - (Dizdarevic, A.; Huber, C.). s. 212 ISBN 426019586 000 1. [International Symposium on High-Performance Liquid Separations and Related Techniques /34./. 28.06.2009-02.07.2009, Dresden] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06023; GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : proteomics * monolithic capillary columns * sample pre-treatment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. Separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses on a protein A monolith column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebici, Pelin; Leblebici, M Enis; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Pais, Luís S

    2014-07-01

    Monolithic columns have attracted significant attention for the purification of large biomolecules. In the present study, a step gradient elution method was evaluated for the separation of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) into its subclasses on CIM (convective interaction media) r-protein A (recombinant protein A) monolithic column. hIgG was loaded onto the column and bound protein was eluted with a pH gradient. The subclass content of the eluted fractions was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that separation of IgG3 from the other three subclasses can be successfully achieved with high selectivity (100%) and throughput on monolithic media. It was also revealed that enriched fractions of IgG1 and IgG2 could be obtained from purified hIgG in a 28min long chromatographic run. Three fractions with high IgG1 content (89.1%, 94.3% and 88.8%) were recovered. Furthermore, IgG2 was enriched to 64% successfully. A rapid step gradient elution scheme without any additives in buffers was proven to obtain enriched preparations of the two important subclasses with high throughput. The separation time can be reduced even more by increasing the flow rate without any loss in selectivity, which will be beneficial in industrial scale applications. PMID:24907548

  16. A fast way to make a monolithic column for a high pressure electroosmotic pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2010-01-01

    A simple way was proposed to make a monolithic column for a high pressure electroosmotic pump (EOP). It is in-situ synthesized inside the silica capillary from potassium silicate solution and no frit is required. Compared with common approaches to make columns for EOP, the present method is robust and fast (<4 h). For pure water, a stand-alone EOP operated at 15 kV applied voltage is capable of generating a flow rate of 3.1 microL/min and a maximum static pressure of approximately 5.4 MPa. PMID:20702950

  17. Adsorption equilibria of butyl- and amylbenzene on monolithic silica-based columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzini, Alberto; Bardin, Gregory; Kaczmarski, Krzystof; Szabelski, Paweł; Al-Bokari, Majed; Guiochon, Georges

    2002-05-31

    The adsorption isotherms of butyl- and amylbenzene on silica monolithic columns were measured by frontal analysis. The external, internal and total porosities of these columns were determined by inverse size-exclusion chromatography. The adsorption isotherms are concave upward in the entire concentration range investigated. They were fitted to the anti-Langmuir model, an unusual model in liquid-solid and liquid-liquid phase equilibria. Band profiles under overloaded conditions were recorded. They were in good agreement with the profiles calculated using th,e lumped pore diffusion model of chromatography and these adsorption isotherms. PMID:12113336

  18. Effect of polyethylene glycol on pore structure and separation efficiency of silica-based monolithic capillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takeshi; Desmet, Gert; Baron, Gino V; Minakuchi, Hiroyoshi; Eeltink, Sebastiaan

    2016-04-15

    Monolithic silica materials (first unclad monolith rods, then monolithic capillary columns) were prepared using various amounts of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) with different molecular weight (MW). The monolith rods were used to examine the mesoporosity by argon physisorption technique, and the macroporosity by mercury intrusion porosimetry. Subsequently, silica-based monolithic capillary columns with an inner diameter of 100 μm were produced using the same preparation conditions as used for the rods. The results obtained with the monolith rods showed the following important findings: (1) it is feasible to fabricate monolithic silica rods possessing macropore size of 0.5-1.4 μm by tuning the amount of PEGs (independently of the MW), whereas the macropore volume and the mesoporosity remain similar. (2) the smallest macropore size (0.5 μm) rod prepared with PEG having a MW=20,000g/mol provided a narrower macropore size distribution than with PEG with MW=10,000g/mol. The monolithic capillary columns produced with the different PEG type showed similar retention factors for hexylbenzene (k=2.3-2.4) and similar t0-based column permeability (Kv0=2.3-2.4×10(-14)m(2)) in 20:80% (v/v) water:methanol, as expected from the results obtained with the monolith rods. The column prepared with PEG of MW=20,000g/mol gave a plate height of H=4.0 μm for hexylbenzene at an optimal linear velocity of u0=2.6mm/s in 20:80% (v/v) water containing 0.1% formic acid:acetonitrile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest plate height ever recorded for a monolithic column. Comparing the kinetic performance at 30MPa shows that the best monolithic silica column obtained in the present study performs better than the second-generation monolithic silica columns developed up till now in the practically most relevant range of plate numbers (N≤40,000). In this range, the performance is now similar to that of 2.7 μm core-shell particle columns. PMID:26976349

  19. Graphene oxide decorated monolithic column as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Wang, Yuanchao; Cheng, Heyong; Shen, Yili

    2016-06-24

    In this work, GO bonded monolith (pAS-GO@PS-DVB) as the stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography was fabricated, which was achieved by a simple one-step in-situ copolymerization of styrene and vinylized GO in the presence of divinylbenzene as a cross-linker. GO functionalization was primarily completed using p-aminostyrene based on condensation reaction between amino and carboxyl groups. The characterization by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy proved the covalent bonding of GO on the monolith. The average pore diameter via Barrett-Joyner-Halenda, specific surface area and pore volume via Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation by nitrogen adsorption/desorption were determined to be 112.4nm, 485.8m(2)g(-1) and 1.4cm(3)g(-1), respectively. The pAS-GO@PS-DVB monolithic column gave effective separation for a wide range of aromatic compounds, which was based on hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions of GO with polar and/or non-polar organic compounds. The reproducibility in terms of the precisions of migration time, peak height and peak area was estimated below 6% using thiourea and other aromatic compounds. Furthermore, the differences of migration time, peak height and peak area between the first-week analysis and the forth-week analysis were less than 19%, indicating good stability of the proposed monolithic column in one month. The applicability of the pAS-GO@PS-DVB monolith was also demonstrated by baseline separation of three phenols and three anilines. PMID:27211861

  20. Miniaturized monolithic columns for the electrochromatographic separation and SERS detection of molecules of exobiological interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnier, Benjamin; Guerrouache, Mohamed

    Development of miniaturized separation and detection media represents one of the major challenges in the field of modern analytical chemistry dedicated to space exploration. To date, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been selected as the method of choice for exobiology flight experiments for seeking for organic molecules and especially potential chemical indicators of life. [1] Liquid phase separation methods have also been developed with for instance, the so-called Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchip.[2] Although CE offers the advantages of easy miniaturization and high separation efficiency it suffers from a lack of selectivity towards a broad range of analytes with varied chemical nature. In this respect, we propose the use of capillary columns filled with monolithic stationary phases for the electrochromatographic separation of organic molecules of exobiology interest. Polymer monoliths have attracted a great deal of interest in analytical science over the last years as (electro)chromatographic stationary phases [3], immunosensors [4]. Beyond the intrinsic properties of monolithic polymers, i.e. fast mass transport between the monolithic support and the surrounding fluid and high permeability, other major advantages are their easy in situ preparation and tuning of surface functionality. Indeed, monoliths can be simply prepared through free radical copolymerization of a homogeneous mixture made of monomers, cross-linkers, porogenic solvents and initiator. UV-initiation process has been exploited to the synthesis of a discrete section of monolith as a flow-through active element within the confines of micro channels [5,6] while two-step strategies have been reported for the design of varied adsorbent starting with a generic monolith [7,8]. Although a nearly limitless range of monolithic supports can be prepared by this traditional method, the resulting monoliths exhibit unique function. In this contribution, we describe an

  1. Measurement of the eddy diffusion term in chromatographic columns. I. Application to the first generation of 4.6mm I.D. monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

    2011-08-01

    The corrected heights equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) of three 4.6mm I.D. monolithic Onyx-C(18) columns (Onyx, Phenomenex, Torrance, CA) of different lengths (2.5, 5, and 10 cm) are reported for retained (toluene, naphthalene) and non-retained (uracil, caffeine) small molecules. The moments of the peak profiles were measured according to the accurate numerical integration method. Correction for the extra-column contributions was systematically applied. The peak parking method was used in order to measure the bulk diffusion coefficients of the sample molecules, their longitudinal diffusion terms, and the eddy diffusion term of the three monolithic columns. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum efficiency was 60,000 plates/m for retained compounds. The column length has a large impact on the plate height of non-retained species. These observations were unambiguously explained by a large trans-column eddy diffusion term in the van Deemter HETP equation. This large trans-rod eddy diffusion term is due to the combination of a large trans-rod velocity bias (≃3%), a small radial dispersion coefficient in silica monolithic columns, and a poorly designed distribution and collection of the sample streamlets at the inlet and outlet of the monolithic rod. Improving the performance of large I.D. monolithic columns will require (1) a detailed knowledge of the actual flow distribution across and along these monolithic rod and (2) the design of appropriate inlet and outlet distributors designed to minimize the nefarious impact of the radial flow heterogeneity on band broadening. PMID:21733524

  2. Iron oxide nanoparticle coating: New modification of organic polymer monolithic column for phosphopeptide enrichment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    2011. P2-G-467-WE. ISBN 978-963-89335-0-8. [International Symposium on High-Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques /36./. 19.06.2011-23.06.2011, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06023; GA ČR(CZ) GPP206/11/P004 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolithic column * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  3. Iron oxide nanoparticle coating of organic polymer-based monolithic columns for phosphopeptide enrichment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 34, 16-17 (2011), s. 2106-2112. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA ČR(CZ) GPP206/11/P004 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolithic column * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2011

  4. Bridged polysilsesquioxane-based wide bore monolithic capillary columns for hydrophilic interaction chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Šesták, Jozef; Křenková, Jana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal; Foret, František

    Veszprém : Hungarian Society for Separation Sciences, 2015. s. 75-75. ISBN 978-615-5270-18-5. [Balaton Symposium on High-Performance Separation Methods /10./. 02.09.2015-04.09.2015, Siófok] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06319S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : hybrid organic -silica monolithic columns * hydrophilic interaction chromatography * separation of glycans Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation

  5. Controlled ultraviolet (UV) photoinitiated fabrication of monolithic porous layer open tubular (monoPLOT) capillary columns for chromatographic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, David; Nesterenko, Ekaterina; Brabazon, Dermot; Paull, Brett

    2012-01-01

    An automated column fabrication technique that is based on a ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) array oven, and provides precisely controlled "in-capillary" ultraviolet (UV) initiated polymerization at 365 nm, is presented for the production of open tubular monolithic porous polymer layer capillary (monoPLOT) columns of varying length, inner diameter (ID), and porous layer thickness. The developed approach allows the preparation of columns of varying length, because of an automated c...

  6. Green approach using monolithic column for simultaneous determination of coformulated drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ali M; Mohamed, Heba M

    2016-06-01

    Green chemistry and sustainability is now entirely encompassed across the majority of pharmaceutical companies and research labs. Researchers' attention is careworn toward implementing the green analytical chemistry principles for more eco-friendly analytical methodologies. Solvents play a dominant role in determining the greenness of the analytical procedure. Using safer solvents, the greenness profile of the methodology could be increased remarkably. In this context, a green chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine, paracetamol, and guaifenesin in their ternary pharmaceutical mixture. The chromatographic separation was carried out using monolithic column and green solvents as mobile phase. The use of monolithic column allows efficient separation protocols at higher flow rates, which results in short time of analysis. Two-factor three-level experimental design was used to optimize the chromatographic conditions. The greenness profile of the proposed methodology was assessed using eco-scale as a green metrics and was found to be an excellent green method with regard to the usage and production of hazardous chemicals and solvents, energy consumption, and amount of produced waste. The proposed method improved the environmental impact without compromising the analytical performance criteria and could be used as a safer alternate for the routine analysis of the studied drugs. PMID:27062581

  7. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE 105K EAST BASIN ION EXCHANGE COLUMN MONOLITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 105-K East (KE) Basin Ion Exchange Column (IXC) cells, lead caves, and the surrounding vault are to be removed as necessary components in implementing ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order'' (Ecology et al. 2003) milestone M-034-32 (Complete Removal of the K East Basin Structure). The IXCs consist of six units located in the KE Basin, three in operating positions in cells and three stored in a lead cave. Methods to remove the IXCs from the KE Basin were evaluated in KBC-28343, ''Disposal of K East Basin Ion Exchange Column Evaluation''. The method selected for removal was grouting of the six IXCs into a single monolith for disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Grout will be added to the IXC cells, IXC lead caves containing spent IXCs, and in the spaces between to immobilize the contaminants, provide self-shielding, minimize void space, and provide a structurally stable waste form. The waste to be offered for disposal is the encapsulated monolith defined by the exterior surfaces of the vault and the lower surface of the underlying slab. This document presents a summary of the data quality objective (DQO) process establishing the decisions and data required to support decision-making activities for disposition of the IXC monolith. The DQO process is completed in accordance with the seven-step planning process described in EPA QA/G-4, ''Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process'', which is used to clarify and study objectives; define the appropriate type, quantity, and quality of data; and support defensible decision-making. The DQO process involves the following steps: (1) state the problem; (2) identify the decision; (3) identify the inputs to the decision; (4) define the boundaries of the study; (5) develop a decision rule (DR); (6) specify tolerable limits on decision errors; and (7) optimize the design for obtaining data

  8. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVE SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE 105 K EAST ION EXCHANGE COLUMN MONOLITH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 105-K East (KE) Basin Ion Exchange Column (IXC) cells, lead caves, and the surrounding vault are to be removed as necessary components in implementing ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (Ecology et al. 2003) milestone M-034-32 (Complete Removal of the K East Basin Structure). The IXCs consist of six units located in the KE Basin, three in operating positions in cells and three stored in a lead cave. Methods to remove the IXCs from the KE Basin were evaluated in KBC-28343, ''Disposal of K East Basin Ion Exchange Column Evaluation''. The method selected for removal was grouting the six IXCs into a single monolith for disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Grout will be added to the IXC cells, IXC lead caves containing spent IXCs, and in the spaces between the lead cave walls and metal skin, to immobilize the contaminants, provide self-shielding, minimize void space, and provide a structurally stable waste form. The waste to be offered for disposal is the encapsulated monolith defined by the exterior surfaces of the vault and the lower surface of the underlying slab. This document presents summary of the data quality objective (DQO) process establishing the decisions and data required to support decision-making activities for the disposition of the IXC monolith. The DQO process is completed in accordance with the seven-step planning process described in EPA QA/G-4, ''Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process'', which is used to clarify and study objectives; define the appropriate type, quantity, and quality of data; and support defensible decision-making. The DQO process involves the following steps: (1) state the problem; (2) identify the decision; (3) identify the inputs to the decision; (4) define the boundaries of the study; (5) develop a decision rule (DR); (6) specify tolerable limits on decision errors; and (7) optimize the design for obtaining data

  9. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE 105K EAST BASIN ION EXCHANGE COLUMN MONOLITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOCHEN, R.M.

    2007-02-07

    The 105-K East (KE) Basin Ion Exchange Column (IXC) cells, lead caves, and the surrounding vault are to be removed as necessary components in implementing ''Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consert Order'' (Ecology et al. 2003) milestone M-034-32 (Complete Removal of the K East Basin Structure). The IXCs consist of six units located in the KE Basin, three in operating positions in cells and three stored in a lead cave. Methods to remove the IXCs from the KE Basin were evaluated in KBC-28343, ''Disposal of K East Basin Ion Exchange Column Evaluation''. The method selected for removal was grouting of the six IXCs into a single monolith for disposal at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Grout will be added to the IXC cells, IXC lead caves containing spent IXCs, and in the spaces between to immobilize the contaminants, provide self-shielding, minimize void space, and provide a structurally stable waste form. The waste to be offered for disposal is the encapsulated monolith defined by the exterior surfaces of the vault and the lower surface of the underlying slab. This document presents a summary of the data quality objective (DQO) process establishing the decisions and data required to support decision-making activities for disposition of the IXC monolith. The DQO process is completed in accordance with the seven-step planning process described in EPA QA/G-4, ''Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process'', which is used to clarify and study objectives; define the appropriate type, quantity, and quality of data; and support defensible decision-making. The DQO process involves the following steps: (1) state the problem; (2) identify the decision; (3) identify the inputs to the decision; (4) define the boundaries of the study; (5) develop a decision rule (DR); (6) specify tolerable limits on decision errors; and (7) optimize the design for obtaining data.

  10. Determination of tetracyclines in food samples by molecularly imprinted monolithic column coupling with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangli; He, Xiwen; Zhang, Yukui; Chen, Langxing

    2009-08-15

    A novel solid phase extraction (SPE) method for determination of tetracyclines (TCs) in milk and honey samples by molecularly imprinted monolithic column was developed. Using tetracycline (TC) as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, methanol as the solvent, cyclohexanol and dodecanol as the mixed porogenic solvents, a TC imprinted monolithic column was prepared by in situ molecular imprinting technique for the first time, and the optimal synthesis conditions and the selectivity of TC imprinted monolithic column were investigated. The interfering substances in food samples and TCs can be separated successfully on imprinted column. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) coupling with C18 column was used to determinate the TCs in milk and honey. The recoveries of this method for six tetracyclines antibiotics such as tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), minocycline (MINO), chlortetracycline (CTC), metacycline (MTC) and doxycycline (DTC) were investigated, and high recoveries of 73.3-90.6% from milk samples and 62.6-82.3% from honey samples were obtained. A method for determination of TCs at low concentration level in milk and honey samples was successfully developed by using the monolithic column as the precolumn for solid phase extraction of six TCs compounds. PMID:19576466

  11. Monolithic octadecylsilyl-silica gel column for the high-speed ion chromatographic determination of acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qun; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masanobu; Helaleh, Murad I H; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Toada, Hiroshi

    2003-05-16

    A monolithic ODS-silica gel column modified by saturating it with lithium dodecylsulfate (Li-DS) was used to demonstrate the high-speed separation of H+ from other mono- and divalent cations, such as Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ using ion chromatography (IC). Using a 5 mM EDTA-2K solution containing 0.10 mM Li-DS (pH 4.80) as eluent, H+ was eluted with a sharp and symmetrical peak within 1.0 min before other cations at a flow-rate of 1.5 ml min(-1). The rapid elution of H+ and its conductimetric detection could be attributed to the presence of EDTA (HY2-), which can convert H+ ions as anions. i.e. H(+) + H2Y(2-) --> H3Y(-). The acidity of rainwater and deionized water samples was determined using this IC system with satisfactory results. PMID:12830891

  12. ZIC-HILIC monolithic capillary column coupled with MALDI-MS: A tool for glycan analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Křenková, Jana; Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav

    Brno : Institute of Analytical Chemistry AS CR, 2014 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Drobníková, I.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.), s. 384-386 ISBN 978-80-904959-2-0. [CECE 2014. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /11./. Brno (CZ), 20.10.2014-22.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0182; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06319S; GA MV VG20102015023 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : MALDI-MS * glycoproteins * monolithic capillary column Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.ce-ce.org/CECE2014/CECE%202014%20proceedings_full.pdf

  13. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified by liposomes for characterization of analyte–liposome interactions by capillary liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1317, SI (2013), s. 159-166. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : monolithic silica capillary column * immobilized liposomes * biomimicking stationary phase Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.258, year: 2013

  14. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified by liposomes for characterization of analyte-liposome interactions by capillary liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2013. P-269-W. [International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography /37./ and GC×GC Symposium /10./. 12.05.2013-16.05.2013, Palm Springs] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : monolithic silica capillary column * immobilized liposomes * biomimicking stationary phase Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  15. Experimental study of the operation of the bolt joint of a bearerwith a column in precast-monolithic ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyankin Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Precast-monolithic construction is becoming an increasingly popular form of housing. The wide distribution of this type of construction is explained by the possibility to successfully combine the advantages of precast and monolithic construction, at the same time reducing their disadvantages. Though there is a significant lack of data, including experimental data, for objective assessment of the stress-strain state of precast-monolithic floor structures. In order to investigate the structural reliability of the bolt joint of a bearer with a column in a precast-monolithic building a series of experimental investigations were carried out in the laboratory of testing the building structures of the Siberian Federal University.One of the main conclusions is that the bolt joint of a bearer with a column is characterized by sufficient rigidity, crack resistance and bearing capacity. The results of the given work have proved the data obtained in previously conducted investigations on a fragment of a precast-monolithic ceiling.

  16. Separation of proteins by cation-exchange sequential injection chromatography using a polymeric monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2016-02-01

    Since sequential injection chromatography (SIC) emerged in 2003, it has been used for separation of small molecules in diverse samples, but separations of high molar mass compounds such as proteins have not yet been described. In the present work a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (GMA-co-EDMA) monolithic column was prepared by free radical polymerization inside a 2.1-mm-i.d. activated fused silica-lined stainless steel tubing and modified with iminodiacetic acid (IDA). The column was prepared from a mixture of 24% GMA, 16% EDMA, 20% cyclohexanol, and 40% 1-dodecanol (all% as w/w) containing 1% of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) (in relation to monomers). Polymerization was done at 60 °C for 24 h. The polymer was modified with 1.0 M IDA (in 2 M Na2CO3, pH 10.5) at 80 °C for 16 h. Separation of myoglobin, ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme was achieved at pH 7.0 (20 mM KH2PO4/K2HPO4) using a salt gradient (NaCl). Myoglobin was not retained, and the other proteins were separated by a gradient of NaCl created inside the holding coil (4 m of 0.8-mm-i.d. PTFE tubing) by sequential aspiration of 750 and 700 μL of 0.2 and 0.1 M NaCl, respectively. As the flow was reversed toward the column (5 μL s(-1)) the interdispersion of these solutions created a reproducible gradient which separated the proteins in 10 min, with the following order of retention: ribonuclease A < cytochrome C < lysozyme. The elution order was consistent with a cation-exchange mechanism as the retention increased with the isoelectric points. PMID:26677024

  17. Preparation and evaluation of poly(alkyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic columns for separating polar small molecules by capillary liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to increase hydrophilicity of polymeric monoliths. • Fast separation of phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min using MAA-incorporated column. • Separations of aflatoxins and phenicol antibiotics were achieved using MAA-incorporated column. - Abstract: In this study, methacrylic acid (MAA) was incorporated with alkyl methacrylates to increase the hydrophilicity of the synthesized ethylene dimethacrylate-based (EDMA-based) monoliths for separating polar small molecules by capillary LC analysis. Different alkyl methacrylate–MAA ratios were investigated to prepare a series of 30% alkyl methacrylate–MAA–EDMA monoliths in fused-silica capillaries (250-μm i.d.). The porosity, permeability, and column efficiency of the synthesized MAA-incorporated monolithic columns were characterized. A mixture of phenol derivatives is employed to evaluate the applicability of using the prepared monolithic columns for separating small molecules. Fast separation of six phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min with gradient elution using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. In addition, the effect of acetonitrile content in mobile phase on retention factor and plate height as well as the plate height-flow velocity curves were also investigated to further examine the performance of the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. Moreover, the applicability of prepared polymer-based monolithic column for potential food safety applications was also demonstrated by analyzing five aflatoxins and three phenicol antibiotics using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column

  18. Preparation and evaluation of poly(alkyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic columns for separating polar small molecules by capillary liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wu, Yu-Ru; Lin, Tzuen-Yeuan; Fuh, Ming-Ren, E-mail: msfuh@scu.edu.tw

    2015-04-29

    Highlights: • Methacrylic acid (MAA) was used to increase hydrophilicity of polymeric monoliths. • Fast separation of phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min using MAA-incorporated column. • Separations of aflatoxins and phenicol antibiotics were achieved using MAA-incorporated column. - Abstract: In this study, methacrylic acid (MAA) was incorporated with alkyl methacrylates to increase the hydrophilicity of the synthesized ethylene dimethacrylate-based (EDMA-based) monoliths for separating polar small molecules by capillary LC analysis. Different alkyl methacrylate–MAA ratios were investigated to prepare a series of 30% alkyl methacrylate–MAA–EDMA monoliths in fused-silica capillaries (250-μm i.d.). The porosity, permeability, and column efficiency of the synthesized MAA-incorporated monolithic columns were characterized. A mixture of phenol derivatives is employed to evaluate the applicability of using the prepared monolithic columns for separating small molecules. Fast separation of six phenol derivatives was achieved in 5 min with gradient elution using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. In addition, the effect of acetonitrile content in mobile phase on retention factor and plate height as well as the plate height-flow velocity curves were also investigated to further examine the performance of the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column. Moreover, the applicability of prepared polymer-based monolithic column for potential food safety applications was also demonstrated by analyzing five aflatoxins and three phenicol antibiotics using the selected poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-MAA-co-EDMA) monolithic column.

  19. Polystyrene-co-Divinylbenzene PolyHIPE Monoliths in 1.0 mm Column Formats for Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidratul Choudhury

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The reversed phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC separation of small molecules using a polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene (PS-co-DVB polyHIPE stationary phases housed within 1.0 mm i.d. silcosteel columns is presented within this study. A 90% PS-co-DVB polyHIPE was covalently attached to the walls of the column housing by prior wall modification with 3-(trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate and could withstand operating backpressures in excess of 200 bar at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Permeability studies revealed that the monolith swelled slightly in 100% acetonitrile relative to 100% water but could nevertheless be used to separate five alkylbenzenes using a flow rate of 40 µL/min (linear velocity: 0.57 mm/s. Remarkable column-to-column reproducibility is shown with retention factor variation between 2.6% and 6.1% for two separately prepared columns.

  20. Rapid determination of Papaver somniferum alkaloids in process streams using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have combined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations using a monolithic column with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection in a rapid and highly sensitive method to monitor the process of extracting opiate alkaloids from Papaver somniferum. Due to the high flow rates allowed with the monolithic column and the inherent selectivity of the chemiluminescence reactions, the four predominant alkaloids - morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine - were determined in less than 2 min. The results obtained with numerous process samples compared favourable with those of the standard HPLC methodology. Limits of detection were 1 x 10-10 M, 5 x 10-10 M, 5 x 10-10 M and 1 x 10-9 M, for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine, respectively

  1. Separation of nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides using two zwitterionic silica-based monolithic capillary columns coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Haapala, M.; Planeta, Josef; Hyötyläinen, T.; Kostiainen, R.; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1373, Dec (2014), s. 90-96. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : HILIC separation * ESI–MS * Monolithic silica column Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0242051

  2. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified by liposomes for characterization of analyte-liposome interactions by capillary liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedmer, S. K.; Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef

    2013. s. 164-164. [HPLC 2013 AMSTERDAM. International Symposium on High Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques /39./. 16.06.2013-20.06.2013, Amsterdam] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : biomimicking stationary phase * immobilized liposomes * silica monolithic column Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  3. Synthesis of a specific monolithic column with artificial recognition sites for L-glutamic acid via cryo-crosslinking of imprinted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktürk, Ilgım; Üzek, Recep; Uzun, Lokman; Denizli, Adil

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a new molecular imprinting (MIP)-based monolithic cryogel column was prepared using chemically crosslinked molecularly imprinted nanoparticles, to achieve a simplified chromatographic separation (SPE) for a model compound, L-glutamic acid (L-Glu). Cryogelation through crosslinking of imprinted nanoparticles forms stable monolithic cryogel columns. This technique reduces the leakage of nanoparticles and increases the surface area, while protecting the structural features of the cryogel for stable and efficient recognition of the template molecule. A non-imprinted monolithic cryogel column (NIP) was also prepared, using non-imprinted nanoparticles produced without the addition of L-Glu during polymerization. The molecularly imprinted monolithic cryogel column (MIP) indicates apparent recognition selectivity and a good adsorption capacity compared to the NIP. Also, we have achieved a significant increase in the adsorption capacity, using the advantage of high surface area of the nanoparticles. PMID:25749280

  4. Analysis of Aflatoxin B1 in Iranian Foods Using HPLC and a Monolithic Column and Estimation of its Dietary Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; FOROUTAN, SEYED MOHSEN; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean up on an immunoaffinity column. The method was validated for analysis of AFB1 in rice, bread, puffed corn snack, wheat flour and peanut samples. The average recoveries for AFB1 in different foods ranged from 94.4 to 102.5% with the coefficient of variation lower than 10% for all foods. Limit of detection was 0.01 ng/g. A survey of AFB1 wa...

  5. Facile preparation of SiO2/TiO2 composite monolithic capillary column and its application in enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Ting; Wang, Meng-Ya; Su, Xin; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-09-18

    A novel SiO(2)/TiO(2) composite monolithic capillary column was prepared by sol-gel technology and successfully applied to enrich phosphopeptides as a metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) material. For the monolith preparation, tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT) were used as silica and titania source, respectively, and glycerol was introduced to attenuate the activity of titanium precursor, which provided a mild synthetic condition. The prepared monolith was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results revealed an approximate 1/2 molar ratio of titanium to silica as well as an atom-scale homogeneity in the framework. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results demonstrated an excellent anchorage between the column and the inner capillary wall, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments showed a bimodal porosity with a narrow mesopore distribution around 3.6 nm. The prepared monolith was then applied for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from the digestion mixture of phosphoproteins and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as well as human blood serum, nonfat milk, and egg white using an in-tube solid phase microextraction (SPME) system. Our results showed that SiO(2)/TiO(2) composite monolithic capillary column could efficiently enrich the phosphopeptides from complex matrixes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt for preparing the silica-metal composite monolithic capillary column, which offers the promising application of the monolith on phosphoproteomics study. PMID:22900475

  6. [Rapid determination of trace iodate using monolithic column ion-pair chromatography coupled with direct conductivity detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuzhen; Yu, Hong; Li, Siwen

    2011-10-01

    A method was developed on a monolithic column for the fast determination of trace iodate (IO(3)- ) by ion-pair chromatography with direct conductivity detection. The analytes were separated using a mobile phase of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBA)-phthalic acid-acetonitrile on a reversed-phase silica-based monolithic column. The effects of eluent, flow rate and column temperature on the retention of iodate were investigated. The optimized chromatographic conditions for the determination of the anion were as follows: 0. 25 mmol/L TBA-0. 18 mmol/L phthalic acid-3% acetonitrile (pH 5.5) as mobile phase, a flow rate of 4.0 mL/min and a column temperature of 30 degrees C. Under the optimal conditions, retention time of iodate was less than 0. 5 min and the baseline separation of iodate was achieved without any interference by other anions (Cl-, NO , SO4(2)-, I- ). The detection limit (S/N= 3) was 0.36 mg/L for IO(3)- . Relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) of chromatographic peak area and retention time were 0. 35% and 0. 28%, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace iodate in iodized medicine. The spiked recovery of iodate was 96. 4%. The method is rapid, simple, accurate, reliable, and practical. PMID:22268363

  7. Fast determination of prominent carotenoids in tomato fruits by CEC using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalid, Ana Maria; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Roselló, Salvador; Maquieira, Angel; Nuez, Fernando

    2007-11-01

    In this study, the major carotenoids (beta-carotene and lycopene) present in tomato fruits were analyzed by CEC with a methacrylate ester-based monolithic column. The effects of the porogenic solvent ratio, and the hydrophobicity of bulk monomer employed were examined on carotenoids separations. A fast separation of these analytes was achieved in less than 5.0 min in a mobile phase containing 35% THF, 30% ACN, 30% methanol, and 5% of a 5 mM Tris aqueous buffer, pH 8, with lauryl methacrylate-based monoliths. The CEC method was evaluated in terms of detection limit and reproducibility (retention time, area, and column preparation) with values below 1.6 microg/mL and 7.2%, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of both carotenoids in fruits of several tomato-related species and its usefulness to analyze large series of samples for nutritional quality screening trials in tomato breeding programs is demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first work that exploits the powerful and user-friendly monolithic technology for quality breeding and germplasm evaluation program purposes. PMID:17960534

  8. Determination of nutrients in the presence of high chloride concentrations by column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, P; Caselli, M; de Gennaro, G; De Tommaso, B; Lastella, G; Mastrolitti, S

    2003-06-27

    Determination of inorganic anions in waters of high salinity is one of the most difficult task in analytical chemistry. A simple column-switching method, based on an original chromatographic set-up, for the determination of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite and phosphate) in chloride rich aqueous matrices is presented. A pre-separation system (made of two in line pre-columns, Dionex AG9-HC 4 mm) connected to an analytical column (Dionex AS9-HC 4 mm) by a four way pneumatic valve, allows chloride to be eluted off into the waste and nutrients to be separated and detected by a conductimeter and/or a UV spectrophotometer. Neither chemical pre-treatment nor sample dilution are required; sample matrices presenting a large range of chloride concentrations can be investigated. Moreover by using this technology, automation for routine analysis, low analysis time and low costs can be achieved. LODs of 100, 300, 1000 microg/l for nitrate, nitrite and phosphate, respectively, have been obtained by spiking a synthetic sea water sample containing 20,000 mg/l of chloride and 3000 mg/l of sulphate. Analyte calibration curves of analytes are linear (r>0.99) in the range between the LODs and 60 mg/l. This method was applied to nutrients determination in sea water samples collected near a river outlet. PMID:12899303

  9. FIXED BED COLUMN STUDY FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM RAW WATER

    OpenAIRE

    D. Allwin*, S. Mathan Kumar, R. Muthu Uthayan

    2016-01-01

    The responsible for increase in freshwater demand is due to rapid growth of population, industrialization and modern agriculture practices. The aim of the study tends to carry out a column study for the removal of chloride from raw water. Raw water is natural water found in environment such as rainwater, groundwater and water from bodies like lakes and rivers. Water samples were collected from Valliar River, AVM Canal and Periyakulam Pond from kanyakumari district. Soil used for the study is ...

  10. Rapid and simultaneous determination of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography using a monolithic column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huang; Hong Yu; Ying Jie Dong

    2012-01-01

    A method for rapid and simultaneous determination of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed.Chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed-phase silica-based monolithic column using 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium-acetonitrile as mobile phase.The effects of ion-pair reagent and acetonitrile concentration on retention of the cations were investigated.The retention times of the cations accord with carbon number rule.The method has been successfully applied to the determination of four ionic liquids synthesized by organic chemistry laboratory.

  11. HILIC separation of AETMA-labeled glycans on a wide bore silica-based monolithic capillary column

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Křenková, Jana; Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2015 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Drobníková, I.; Klepárník, K.), s. 195-198 ISBN 978-80-904959-3-7. [CECE 2015. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /12./. Brno (CZ), 21.09.2015-23.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06319S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : monolithic capillary column Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.ce-ce.org/CECE2015/CECE%202015%20proceedings_full.pdf

  12. 3D printed titanium micro-bore columns containing polymer monoliths for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vipul; Talebi, Mohammad; Deverell, Jeremy; Sandron, Sara; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Heery, Brendan; Thompson, Fletcher; Beirne, Stephen; Wallace, Gordon G; Paull, Brett

    2016-03-01

    The potential of 3D selective laser melting (SLM) technology to produce compact, temperature and pressure stable titanium alloy chromatographic columns is explored. A micro bore channel (0.9 mm I.D. × 600 mm long) was produced within a 5 × 30 × 30 mm titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) cuboid, in form of a double handed spiral. A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic stationary phase was thermally polymerised within the channel for application in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The prepared monolithic column was applied to the liquid chromatographic separation of intact proteins and peptides. Peak capacities of 69-76 (for 6-8 proteins respectively) were observed during isothermal separation of proteins at 44 °C which were further increased to 73-77 using a thermal step gradient with programmed temperature from 60 °C to 35 °C using an in-house built direct-contact heater/cooler platform based upon matching sized Peltier thermoelectric modules. Rapid temperature gradients were possible due to direct-contact between the planar metal column and the Peltier module, and the high thermal conductivity of the titanium column as compared to a similar stainless steel printed column. The separation of peptides released from a digestion of E.coli was also achieved in less than 35 min with ca. 40 distinguishable peaks at 210 nm. PMID:26873472

  13. Preparation of an aptamer based organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with gold nanoparticles as an intermediary for the enrichment of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Cheng; Zhu, Qing-Yun; Zhao, Ling-Yu; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of an aptamer based organic-inorganic hybrid affinity monolithic column was developed successfully using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as an intermediary for a sandwich structure to realize the functional modification of the surface of the monolithic matrix. This monolithic matrix was facilely pre-synthesized via one-step co-condensation. Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of GNPs and the large specific surface area of the hybrid matrix, the average coverage density of aptamers on the hybrid monolith reached 342 pmol μL(-1). With the combination of an aptamer based hybrid affinity monolithic column and enzymatic chromogenic assay, the quantitation and detection limits of thrombin were as low as 5 nM and 2 nM, respectively. These results indicated that the GNPs attached monolith provided a novel technique to immobilize aptamers on an organic-inorganic hybrid monolith and it could be used to achieve highly selective recognition and determination of trace proteins. PMID:27307035

  14. Property evaluations and application for separation of small molecules of a nanodiamond-polymer composite monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengqing; Wei, Aile; Wang, Xixi; Liu, Haiyan; Bai, Ligai; Yan, Hongyuan

    2016-07-01

    A nanodiamond-polymer composite monolithic column was first prepared successfully with modified nanodiamond (ND) as monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker, 1-dodecanol as porogenic agent and benzoyl peroxide/dimethylacetamide (BPO/DMA) as initiator at 35°C for 2.5h. There was a sharp increase of specific surface area with ND added about 22 times from 0mg (3.90m(2)/g) to 7mg (81.2m(2)/g) determined with BET. Characterizations including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier-transform infrared spectra (FIRT) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) were used to determine the microstructure, group composition, pore size distribution (≃1.56μm) and porosity (≃0.7484μm) of the monolith. An excellent column stability was confirmed by permeability (1.258x10(-10)cm(2)) and good linearity (R(2)=0.998) corresponding to backpressures measured at different flow rates. The highest swelling ability of the composite was about (5%) and classical RPLC of the column obtained occurred with the acetonitrile concentration increasing from 20% to 85% in the mobile phase, above which another retention model of normal-phase chromatography appeared. The items of the eddy dispersion and the absorption-release kinetics were the decisional factors of the composite column compared with the factors of longitudinal diffusion, and the skeleton-eluent mass transfer resistance due to the finite diffusivity. Good separation of neutral and basic small molecules was obtained (24,350 plates/m for neutral molecules and 22,300 plates/m for basic ones) with the hydrophobicity retention mechanism, but not for the acidic ones except to regulate the pH of the mobile phase. PMID:27154670

  15. Application of capillary monolithic column for sample preparation in protein fingerprinting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Šťavíková, Lenka; Vykydalová, Marie; Růžička, F.

    Salzburg : Society of Analytical Chemistry, 2014. [ISC 2014. International Symposium on Chromatography /30./. 14.09.2014-18.09.2014, Salzburg] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : monolithic capillary * MALDI-TOF-MS * Staphylococcus aureus Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  16. Improvement of separation efficiencies of anion-exchange chromatography using monolithic silica capillary columns modified with polyacrylates and polymethacrylates containing tertiary amino or quaternary ammonium groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuta; Ikegami, Tohru; Horie, Kanta; Hara, Takeshi; Jaafar, Jafariah; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2009-10-30

    Anion-exchange (AEX) columns were prepared by on-column polymerization of acrylates and methacrylates containing tertiary amino or quaternary ammonium groups on monolithic silica in a fused silica capillary modified with anchor groups. The columns provided a plate height (H) of less than 10 microm at optimum linear velocity (u) with keeping their high permeability (K=9-12 x 10(-14) m2). Among seven kinds of AEX columns, a monolithic silica column modified with poly(2-hydroxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl methacrylates) (HMPMA) showed larger retentions and better selectivities for nucleotides and inorganic anions than the others. The HMPMA column of 410 mm length produced 42,000-55,000 theoretical plates (N) at a linear velocity of 0.97 mm/s with a backpressure of 3.8 MPa. The same column could be employed for a fast separation of inorganic anions in 1.8 min at a linear velocity of 5.3 mm/s with a backpressure of 20 MPa. In terms of van Deemter plot and separation impedance, the HMPMA column showed higher performance than a conventional particle-packed AEX column. The HMPMA column showed good recovery of a protein, trypsin inhibitor, and it was applied to the separation of proteins and tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a gradient elution, to provide better separation compared to a conventional particle-packed AEX column. PMID:19683243

  17. Automated dual two-dimensional liquid chromatography approach for fast acquisition of three-dimensional data using combinations of zwitterionic polymethacrylate and silica-based monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Tomáš; Jandera, Pavel; Staňková, Magda; Česla, Petr

    2016-05-13

    A monolithic sulfobetaine polymethacrylate micro-column BIGDMA-MEDSA designed in our laboratory, shows dual retention mechanism: In acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, hydrophilic interactions control the retention (HILIC system), whereas in more aqueous mobile phases the column shows essentially reversed-phase behavior with major role of hydrophobic interactions. The zwitterionic polymethacrylate micro-column can be used in the first dimension of two-dimensional LC in alternating reversed-phase (RP) and HILIC modes, coupled with an alkyl-bonded core-shell or silica-based monolithic column in the second dimension, for HILIC×RP and RP×RP comprehensive two-dimensional separations. During the HILIC×RP period, a gradient of decreasing acetonitrile gradient is used for separation in the first dimension, so that at the end of the gradient the polymeric monolithic micro-column is equilibrated with a highly aqueous mobile phase and is ready for repeated sample injection, this time for separation under reversed-phase gradient conditions with increasing concentration of acetonitrile in the first dimension. The fast repeating reversed-phase gradients on a short silica-monolithic or core-shell column in the second dimension can be optimized independently of the actual running first-dimension gradient program. As the alternating HILIC and RP separations on the first-dimension zwitterionic methacrylate column are based on complementary retention mechanisms, the instrumental setup essentially represents two coupled two-dimensional systems. It is first time that such an automated dual LCxLC approach is reported. The novel system allows obtaining three-dimensional data in a relatively short time and can be applied not only to multidimensional gradient separations of flavones and related polyphenolic compounds. PMID:27083260

  18. Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Rajamanickam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths.

  19. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins in chilli, peanut and rice using silica based monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayoon, Wejdan Shakir; Saad, Bahruddin; Lee, Tien Ping; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2012-07-15

    A simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic with fluorescence detection method for the determination of the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanuts, rice and chilli was developed. The sample was extracted using acetonitrile:water (90:10, v/v%) and then purified by using ISOLUTE® multimode solid phase extraction. After the pre-column derivatisation, the analytes were separated within 3.7 min using Chromolith® performance RP-18e (100-4.6mm) monolithic column. To assess the possible effects of endogenous components in the food items, matrix-matched calibration was used for the quantification and validation. The recoveries of aflatoxins that were spiked into food samples were 86.38-104.5% and RSDs were aflatoxins in peanut (9), rice (5) and chilli (10) samples. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis using triple quadruple analyser and operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes on the contaminated samples was performed for confirmation. PMID:25683424

  20. Preparation of poly(trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith and its application in solid phase microextraction of brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting-ting; Zhou, Lin-feng; Qiao, Jun-qin; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ge, Xin; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2013-05-24

    A capillary poly(trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith was in situ synthesized by thermally initiated free radical co-polymerization using trimethyl-2-methacroyloxyethylammonium chloride (MATE) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as functional monomer and cross-linker, respectively. N,N-dimethylformamide and polyethylene glycol 6000 were used as solvent and porogen, respectively. The morphology and porous structure of the resulting monoliths were assessed by scanning electron microscope. In order to prepare practically useful poly(MATE-co-EGDMA) monoliths with low flow resistance and good mechanical strength, some parameters such as PEG-6000 to DMF ratio, total monomer to porogen ratio, and crosslinker to monomer ratio were optimized systematically. Moreover, the extraction mechanism was evaluated using two series of compounds, alkylbenzenes and weak acids, as model compounds on poly(MATE-co-EGDMA) monoliths as liquid chromatographic stationary phase. Finally, the monoliths were applied as the solid phase microextraction medium, and a simple off-line method for simultaneous determination of three brominated flame retardants, 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and 4,4'-dibrominated diphenyl ether (DBDPE), in environmental waters was developed by coupling the polymer monolith microextraction to HPLC with UV detection. The regression equations for these three brominated flame retardants showed good linearity from their limit of quantification to 5000ng/mL. The limits of detection were 0.20, 0.15 and 0.10ng/mL for TBP, TBBPA and DBDPE, respectively. The recovery of the proposed method was 78.7-106.1% with intra-day relative standard deviation of 1.3-4.4%. PMID:23602644

  1. Molecularly imprinted coated graphene oxide solid-phase extraction monolithic capillary column for selective extraction and sensitive determination of phloxine B in coffee bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new GO-MISPE monolithic capillary column was prepared. • The column showed ability of impurities removal and excellent selectivity. • Phloxine B existed in real sample was enriched more than 90 times. • The GO-MISPE column presented good recovery and high stability. • The method was prospered to analyze phloxine B and LOD achieved 0.3 ng g−1. - Abstract: A method was developed to sensitively determine phloxine B in coffee bean by molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) coated graphene oxide (GO) solid-phase extraction (GO-MISPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and laser-induced fluorescence detection (HPLC–LIF). The GO-MISPE capillary monolithic column was prepared by water-bath in situ polymerization, using GO as supporting material, phloxine B, methacrylic acid (MAA), and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. The properties of the homemade GO-MISPE capillary monolithic column, including capacity and specificity, were investigated under optimized conditions. The GO-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mean recoveries of phloxine B in coffee bean ranged from 89.5% to 91.4% and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values all ranged from 3.6% to 4.7%. Good linearity was obtained over 0.001–2.0 μg mL−1 (r = 0.9995) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.075 ng mL−1. Under the selected conditions, enrichment factors of over 90-fold were obtained and extraction on the monolithic column effectively cleaned up the coffee bean matrix. The results demonstrated that the proposed GO-MISPE HPLC–LIF method can be applied to sensitively determine phloxine B in coffee bean

  2. Molecularly imprinted coated graphene oxide solid-phase extraction monolithic capillary column for selective extraction and sensitive determination of phloxine B in coffee bean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Haiyun, E-mail: zhaihaiyun@126.com [College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Su, Zihao [College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen, Zuanguang, E-mail: chenzg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Zhenping; Yuan, Kaisong; Huang, Lu [College of Pharmacy, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • A new GO-MISPE monolithic capillary column was prepared. • The column showed ability of impurities removal and excellent selectivity. • Phloxine B existed in real sample was enriched more than 90 times. • The GO-MISPE column presented good recovery and high stability. • The method was prospered to analyze phloxine B and LOD achieved 0.3 ng g{sup −1}. - Abstract: A method was developed to sensitively determine phloxine B in coffee bean by molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) coated graphene oxide (GO) solid-phase extraction (GO-MISPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and laser-induced fluorescence detection (HPLC–LIF). The GO-MISPE capillary monolithic column was prepared by water-bath in situ polymerization, using GO as supporting material, phloxine B, methacrylic acid (MAA), and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. The properties of the homemade GO-MISPE capillary monolithic column, including capacity and specificity, were investigated under optimized conditions. The GO-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The mean recoveries of phloxine B in coffee bean ranged from 89.5% to 91.4% and the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) values all ranged from 3.6% to 4.7%. Good linearity was obtained over 0.001–2.0 μg mL{sup −1} (r = 0.9995) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.075 ng mL{sup −1}. Under the selected conditions, enrichment factors of over 90-fold were obtained and extraction on the monolithic column effectively cleaned up the coffee bean matrix. The results demonstrated that the proposed GO-MISPE HPLC–LIF method can be applied to sensitively determine phloxine B in coffee bean.

  3. Monolithic spin column: a new extraction device for analysis of drugs in urine and serum by GC/MS and HPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namera, Akira; Nagao, Masakata; Nakamoto, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Shota; Saito, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A monolithic spin column was developed for the extraction of analytes from biological materials. This column was constructed by packing a monolithic silica disk into a spin column. Sample loading, washing, and elution of the target drugs were accomplished simply by centrifugation of the column. Opiates and benzodiazepines are abused throughout the world. Identification and quantification of these drugs is very important to solve crimes or the cause of death. Three opiates (morphine, codeine, and dihydrocodeine) were extracted from urine and serum by using the column. After conversion to trimethylsilyl derivatives of the opiates by vigorous mixing with the derivatizing reagent, the solution was subjected to GC/MS. A linear curve was observed for opiates from 10 to 2500 ng/mL in urine and 5 to 1200 ng/mL in serum, respectively (correlation coefficient > 0.996). For benzodiazepines, the hydroxyl metabolites of triazolam and etizolam were extracted from urine using the column, and the eluate was directly analyzed by HPLC/MS without evaporation. The LOD values were at the ppb level, with RSD values lower than 15%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to clinical and forensic cases, and good agreement of results was obtained compared to conventional methods. PMID:21797004

  4. Analysis of aflatoxin b1 in Iranian foods using HPLC and a monolithic column and estimation of its dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Zarghi, Afshin; Shafaati, Ali Reza; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Aboul-Fathi, Farshid; Khoddam, Arash; Nazari, Firoozeh; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in foods using a monolithic column with sample clean up on an immunoaffinity column. The method was validated for analysis of AFB1 in rice, bread, puffed corn snack, wheat flour and peanut samples. The average recoveries for AFB1 in different foods ranged from 94.4 to 102.5% with the coefficient of variation lower than 10% for all foods. Limit of detection was 0.01 ng/g. A survey of AFB1 was performed on 90 samples collected from Tehran retail market in June 2005. The results showed that none of the bread and wheat flour samples were contaminated with AFB1. The mean AFB1 levels in rice, puffed corn snack and peanut samples were 4.17, 0.11, and 1.97 ng/g, respectively. The level of contamination of 3 samples (one rice sample and two peanuts samples) to AFB1 was found to be higher than 5 ng/g. Although all food samples had mean concentration of AFB1 below the maximum tolerated level in Iran, the mean intake of AFB1 from rice was estimated 3.49 times higher than the guidance value of 1 ng AFB1/Kg body weight/day. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to monitor AFB1 in foods, especially in rice, in Iran. This is the first study on exposure assessment of Iranian population to AFB1. PMID:24250676

  5. Rapid tea catechins and caffeine determination by HPLC using microwave-assisted extraction and silica monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, A A; Nofrizal, S; Saad, Bahruddin

    2014-03-15

    A rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method using a monolithic column for the determination of eight catechin monomers and caffeine was developed. Using a mobile phase of water:acetonitrile:methanol (83:6:11) at a flow rate of 1.4 mL min(-1), the catechins and caffeine were isocratically separated in about 7 min. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.11-0.29 and 0.33-0.87 mg L(-1), respectively. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained (94.2-105.2 ± 1.8%) for all samples when spiked at three concentrations (5, 40 and 70 mg L(-1)). In combination with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), the method was applied to the determination of the catechins and caffeine in eleven tea samples (6 green, 3 black and 2 oolong teas). Relatively high levels of caffeine were found in black tea, but higher levels of the catechins, especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found in green teas. PMID:24206716

  6. Enantioseparation of N-derivatized amino acids by micro-liquid chromatography/laser induced fluorescence detection using quinidine-based monolithic columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huihui; Wang, Qiqin; Ruan, Meng; Peng, Kun; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Han, Hai; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-03-20

    A novel carbamoylated quinidine based monolith, namely poly(O-9-[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethylcarbamoyl]-10,11-dihydroquinidine-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(MQD-co-EDMA)), was prepared for the micro-LC enantioseparation of N-derivatized amino acids. The influence of the mobile phase composition, including the organic modifier proportion, the apparent pH and the buffer concentration, on the enantioresolution of N-derivatized amino acids was systematically investigated. Satisfactory column performance in terms of permeability, efficiency and reproducibility was obtained in most cases. The majority of the enantiomers of the tested N-protected amino acids, including 3,5-DNB, 3,5-DClB, FMOC, 3,5-DMB, p-NB, m-ClB, p-ClB and B derivatives, could be baseline separated on the poly(MQD-co-EDMA) monolithic column within 25min. A self-assembled laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detector was employed to improve sensitivity when analyzing 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD) derivatives of amino acids. Ten NBD-derivatized amino acids, including arginine and histidine whose enantioseparation on quinidine carbamate based CSPs has not been reported so far, were enantioresolved on the poly(MQD-co-EDMA) monolith column. It is worth noting that the d-enantiomers of NBD-derivatized amino acids eluted first, except in the case of glutamic acid. The LOD values obtained with the LIF detector were comparable to those reported using conventional LC-FL methods. The prepared poly(MQD-co-EDMA) monolithic column coupled with the LIF detector opens up interesting perspectives to the determination of trace d-amino acids in biological samples. PMID:26732881

  7. HPLC determination of betamethasone and prednisolone in urine samples using monolithic column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast and reliable HPLC method is reported for the separation and quantification of betamethasone and prednisolone in urine samples using Chromolith at the rate of Performance RP-l8e (100 mm x 4.6 mm) column. The separation and detection was achieved using an isocratic mobile phase composed of methanol:water (44:56 v/v) at 2.0 mL/min and wavelength of 254 nm. After successful optimisation of method parameters, it was applied to the urine samples. Solid phase extraction technique was used to clean the sample before analysis. The developed method was validated for the system suitability, precision and accuracy. The limits of defection for the prednisolone and betamethasone are 0.11 ng and 0.075 ng/10 macro L injection, respectively allowing their determination in human urine samples. Recovery for spiked urine samples was in the range of 97-103 %. The method offers a valuable alternative to the methodologies currently employed for separation and quantification of prednisolone and betamethasone in urine samples. A fast and reliable HPLC method is reported for the separation and quantification of betamethasone and prednisolone in urine samples using Chromolith at the rate of Performance RP-l8e (100 mm x 4.6 mm) column. The separation and detection was achieved using an isocratic mobile phase composed of methanol:water (44:56 v/v) at 2.0 mL/min and wavelength of 254 nm. After successful optimisation of method parameters, it was applied to the urine samples. Solid phase extraction technique was used to clean the sample before analysis. The developed method was validated for the system suitability, precision and accuracy. The limits of defection for the prednisolone and betamethasone are 0.11 ng and 0.075 ng/10 macro L injection, respectively allowing their determination in human urine samples. Recovery for spiked urine samples was in the range of 97-103 %. The method offers a valuable alternative to the methodologies currently employed for separation and quantification

  8. Determination of Sudan dyes in chili pepper powder by online solid-phase extraction with a butyl methacrylate monolithic column coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Wang, Man-Man; Ai, Lian-Feng; Zhang, Chang-Kun; Li, Xin; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column was fabricated and used as a novel sorbent for online solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder. The prepared columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and pressure drop measurements. Online solid-phase extraction was performed on the synthesized monolithic column using 10 mM ammonium acetate solution as the loading solution with the aid of an online cleanup chromatography system. The desorption of Sudan I-IV was achieved with acetonitrile as the eluting solution at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The extracted analytes were subsequently eluted into a C18 analytical column for chromatographic separation using a mixture of 10% acetonitrile/90% formic acid (0.5%) solution as the mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method had linear range of 1.0-50 μg/kg, a detection limit of 0.3 μg/kg, and a quantification limit of 1.0 μg/kg for each analyte. The intraday and interday recoveries of Sudan I-IV in chili pepper powder samples ranged from 94.8 to 100.9% and 94.9 to 99.4%, respectively. The intraday and interday precision were between 3.37-7.01% and 5.01-7.68%, respectively. PMID:24723310

  9. Evaluation of glycidyl methacrylate-based monolith functionalized with weak anion exchange moiety inside 0.5 mm i.d. column for liquid chromatographic separation of DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Nur Tasfiyati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the organic polymer monolith was developed as a weak anion exchanger column in high performance liquid chromatography for DNA separation. Methacrylate-based monolithic column was prepared in microbore silicosteel column (100 × 0.5 mm i.d. by in-situ polymerization reaction using glycidyl methacrylate as monomer; ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinker; 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water as porogenic solvents, with the presence of initiator α,α′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN. The monolith matrix was modified with diethylamine to create weak anion exchanger via ring opening reaction of epoxy groups. The morphology of the monolithic column was studied by SEM. The properties of the monolithic column, such as permeability, mechanical stability, binding capacity and pore size distribution, were characterized in detail. From the results of the characterization, monoliths poly-(GMA-co-EDMA with total monomer percentage (%T 40 and crosslinker percentage (%C 25 was found to be the ideal composition of monomer and crosslinker. It has good mechanical stability and high permeability, adequate molecular recognition sites (represented with binding capacity value of 36 mg ml−1, and has relatively equal proportion of flow-through pore and mesopores (37.2% and 41.1% respectively. Poly-(GMA-co-EDMA with %T 40 and %C 25 can successfully separate oligo(dT12–18 and 50 bp DNA ladder with good resolution.

  10. Iron oxide nanoparticle coating of organic polymer based monolithic columns for phosphopeptide enrichment and off-line MALDI/MS or LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Nováková, K.; Zdráhal, Z.; Foret, František

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR v. v. i., 2011 - (Foret, F.). s. 47 ISBN 978-80-904959-0-6. [International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /8./. 03.11.2011-04.11.2011, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk LC06023 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : iron oxide nanoparticles * monolithic column * phosphopeptide enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  11. Comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification by affinity zirconium oxide-silica composite monolithic column online solid-phase microextraction - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Chu, Jie-Mei; Lan, Meng-Dan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-01

    More than 140 modified ribonucleosides have been identified in RNA. Determination of endogenous modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive disease diagnostic strategy. However, detection of the modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids is challenging, especially for the low abundant modified ribonucleosides due to the serious matrix interferences of biological fluids. Here, we developed a facile preparation strategy and successfully synthesized zirconium oxide-silica (ZrO2/SiO2) composite capillary monolithic column that exhibited excellent performance for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Compared with the boronate-based affinity monolith, the ZrO2/SiO2 monolith showed ∼2 orders of magnitude higher extraction capacity and can be used under physiological pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Using the prepared ZrO2/SiO2 composite monolith as the trapping column and reversed-phase C18 column as the analytical column, we further established an online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPME-LC-MS/MS) analysis for the comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification in human urine. Our results showed that 68 cis-diol-containing ribosylated compounds were identified in human urine, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest numbers of cis-diol-containing compounds were determined in a single analysis. It is worth noting that four modified ribonucleosides were discovered in the human urine for the first time. In addition, the quantification results from the pooled urine samples showed that compared to healthy controls, the contents of sixteen ribose conjugates in the urine of gastric cancer, eleven in esophagus cancer and seven in lymphoma increased more than two folds. Among these ribose conjugates, four ribose conjugates increased more than two folds in both gastric cancer and esophagus cancer; three ribose conjugates increased more than two

  12. C18 silica packed capillary columns with monolithic frits prepared with UV light emitting diode: usefulness in nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore

    2012-04-01

    In this paper the potential of fused silica capillaries packed with RP18 silica particles entrapped with monolithic frits using both nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was investigated. Frits were prepared after removing a short part of the polyimide layer on the capillary wall and irradiating the polymerization mixture with an UV-light emitter diode (LED) at 370 nm. The capillary, was rotated during the polymerization procedure in order to obtain a homogeneous monolith. The distance of the LED from the capillary and the exposure time to UV light were studied in order to obtain frits with good porosity and high robustness. A mixture containing five alkylbenzenes was selected as sample and analyzed by both nano-LC and CEC. The standard mixture was baseline separated with good efficiency in the range 78,000-93,000 and 99,000-113,000 plates/m in nano-LC and CEC, respectively. The columns resulted to be very robust and the prepared monolithic frits allowed working with backpressure as high as 400 bar (nano-LC). In addition high voltages were applied in CEC (25-30 kV) without bubbles formation in absence of pressure assistance during runs. PMID:22189300

  13. A fluorous porous polymer monolith photo-patterned chromatographic column for the separation of a flourous/fluorescently labeled peptide within a microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenpo; Oleschuk, Richard D

    2014-02-01

    A fluorous porous polymer stationary phase is photo-patterned within a glass microfluidic chip to conduct CEC. During free radical-initiated polymerization, extraneous polymer forms and contributes to excessive microfluidic channel clogging. Nitrobenzene is explored as free radical quencher to limit clogging by minimizing extraneous polymer formation and a number of initiator to quencher ratios are explored with a 0.5:1 quencher (nitrobenzene): initiator (benzoin methyl ether) molar ratio shown to be optimal. The microchip patterned with a fluorous monolith was used to carry out the electrochromatographic analysis of a mixture containing fluorescent and fluorous labeling products. The fluorous monolithic column shows fluorous selectivity for compounds labeled with perfluoromethylene tags and a custom peptide is synthesized that possesses functional groups that can be both fluorescently and fluorously labeled. MALDI MS was used to identify the labeled fragments and microchip based electrochromatography was used to analyze the resulting labeling mixture. This is the first report to our knowledge that uses fluorous porous polymer monolith within a microchip to separate analytes using fluorous-fluorous interactions. PMID:24170603

  14. Preparation and Characterization of a Polymeric Monolithic Column for Use in High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindis, Michael P.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.

    2011-01-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiment, most often done in the undergraduate analytical instrumentation laboratory course, generally illustrates reversed-phase chromatography using a commercial C[subscript]18 silica column. To avoid the expense of periodic column replacement and introduce a choice of columns with different…

  15. Radical-mediated step-growth: Preparation of hybrid polymer monolithic columns with fine control of nanostructural and chromatographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Filipa; Nischang, Ivo

    2015-09-18

    The currently most successful type of porous polymer monoliths utilized in chromatography is prepared by free-radical cross-linking (co)polymerization in porogenic solvents and a single-step molding process. Though such types of materials are well-recognized in the scientific community, they suffer from their multi-scale heterogeneity originating from the nanoscale through to their microscale and ultimately limited performance on their macroscale. This is in particular true when estimating their performance under equilibrium (i.e. isocratic) elution conditions for retained compounds. In this contribution, we study a new concept in the preparation of porous monolithic hybrid materials based on polyhedral oligomeric vinylsilsesquioxanes which undergo radical mediated step-growth cross-linking with thiol-linkers. Fundamental characterization of this new entry of materials is performed via a variety of characterization approaches including infrared and Raman spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, gel fraction, dry-state surface area analysis, and visualization of the capillary-scale porous structure by scanning electron microscopy. This characterization identifies that a rational choice of experimental conditions in monolith preparation leads to destined and desirable materials' properties, in particular with experimentally accessible near-ideal nanoscale network structures. With the obtained structural informations at hand, we finally evidence the monoliths' tailored chromatographic performance by isocratic elution experiments of structurally similar small molecules under reversed-phase type of chromatographic conditions. This validates the fundamental origin for an improved performance of these types of monolithic materials under solvated conditions that has its foundation established in the creation of near-ideal nanoscale networks of material. This identified ideality is manifested in an enhanced and almost retention-insensitive performance in liquid

  16. Monolithic silica spin column extraction and simultaneous derivatization of amphetamines and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines in human urine for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Akihiro [Scientific Investigation Laboratory, Hiroshima Prefectural Police Headquarters, Kohnan 2-26-3, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0825 (Japan); Nishida, Manami [Hiroshima University Technical Center, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Shimokasuya 143, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1143 (Japan); Kishiyama, Izumi; Miyazaki, Shota [GL Sciences Inc., Sayamagahara 237-2, Iruma, Saitama 358-0032 (Japan); Murakami, Katsunori [Scientific Investigation Laboratory, Hiroshima Prefectural Police Headquarters, Kohnan 2-26-3, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0825 (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Namura, Akira, E-mail: namera@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)

    2010-02-19

    A simple, sensitive, and specific method with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous extraction and derivatization of amphetamines (APs) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs) in human urine by using a monolithic silica spin column. All the procedures, such as sample loading, washing, and elution were performed by centrifugation. APs and MDAs in urine were adsorbed on the monolithic silica and derivatized with propyl chloroformate in the column. Methamphetamine-d{sub 5} was used as an internal standard. The linear ranges were 0.01-5.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 0.02-5.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for amphetamine (AP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (coefficient of correlation {>=}0.995). The recovery of APs and MDAs in urine was 84-94%, and the relative standard deviation of the intra- and interday reproducibility for urine samples containing 0.1, 1.0, and 4.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of APs and MDAs ranged from 1.4% to 13.6%. The lowest detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio {>=} 3) in urine was 5 ng mL{sup -1} for MA and MDMA and 10 ng mL{sup -1} for AP and MDA. The proposed method can be used to perform simultaneous extraction and derivatization on spin columns that have been loaded with a small quantity of solvent by using centrifugation.

  17. Rapid and simultaneous determination of tetrafluoroborate, thiocyanate and hexafluorophosphate by high-performance liquid chromatography using a monolithic column and direct conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Yu, Hong; Wang, Yaqin

    2010-01-01

    A method was developed for fast and simultaneous determination of tetrafluoroborate (BF(4)(-)), thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and hexafluorophosphate (PF(6)(-)) by high-performance liquid chromatography using a silica-based monolithic column and direct (non-suppressed) conductivity detection. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Chromolith Speed ROD RP-18e column with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBA) + citric acid + acetonitrile as eluent. The effects of the types of eluent, TBA concentration, acetonitrile volume fraction, eluent pH, column temperature and flow rate on the retention of anions were investigated. The optimized chromatographic conditions were selected. Under the optimal conditions, the baseline separation of BF(4)(-), SCN(-) and PF(6)(-) was achieved without any interference by other anions (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO(3)(-), ClO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-)). The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.42, 0.46 and 1.42 mg L(-1) for BF(4)(-), SCN(-) and PF(6)(-), respectively. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of BF(4)(-), SCN(-) and PF(6)(-) in ionic liquids. PMID:20702939

  18. Application of Tin(II Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of heterogeneous solid acid catalysts in biodiesel production has become popular and gained significant attention over the last few years. It is since these types of catalysts hold the benefits in terms of easy separation from the product, reusability of the catalyst, high selectivity of the reaction. They are also considered sustainable and powerful particularly in organic synthesis. This work studied the use of tin(II chloride as solid Lewis acid catalyst to promote the esterification reaction of high Free Fatty Acid (FFA jatropha oil in continuous reactive distillation column. To obtain the optimum condition, the influences of reaction time, molar ratio of the reactant, and catalyst were investigated. It was revealed that the optimum condition was achieved at the molar ratio of methanol to FFA at 1:60, catalyst concentration of 5%, and reaction temperature of 60°C with the reaction conversion of 90%. This result was significantly superior to the identical reaction performed using batch reactor. The esterification of high FFA jatropha oil using reactive distillation in the presence of tin(II chloride provided higher conversion than that of Amberlyst-15 heterogeneous catalyst and was comparable to that of homogenous sulfuric acid catalyst, which showed 30 and 94.71% conversion, respectively. The esterification reaction of high FFA jatropha oil was subsequently followed by transesterification reaction for the completion of the biodiesel production. Transesterification was carried out at 60 °C, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 1:6, NaOH catalyst of 1%, and reaction time of one hour. The jatropha biodiesel product resulted from this two steps process could satisfy the ASTM and Indonesian biodiesel standard in terms of ester content (97.79 %, density, and viscosity. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 10th November 2015; Revised: 4th February 2016; Accepted: 4th February 2016 How to Cite: Kusumaningtyas

  19. Effect of pore water velocities and solute input methods on chloride transport in the undisturbed soil columns of Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, BeiBei; Wang, QuanJiu

    2016-04-01

    Studies on solute transport under different pore water velocity and solute input methods in undisturbed soil could play instructive roles for crop production. Based on the experiments in the laboratory, the effect of solute input methods with small pulse input and large pulse input, as well as four pore water velocities, on chloride transport in the undisturbed soil columns obtained from the Loess Plateau under controlled condition was studied. Chloride breakthrough curves (BTCs) were generated using the miscible displacement method under water-saturated, steady flow conditions. Using the 0.15 mol L-1 CaCl2 solution as a tracer, a small pulse (0.1 pore volumes) was first induced, and then, after all the solution was wash off, a large pulse (0.5 pore volumes) was conducted. The convection-dispersion equation (CDE) and the two-region model (T-R) were used to describe the BTCs, and their prediction accuracies and fitted parameters were compared as well. All the BTCs obtained for the different input methods and the four pore water velocities were all smooth. However, the shapes of the BTCs varied greatly; small pulse inputs resulted in more rapid attainment of peak values that appeared earlier with increases in pore water velocity, whereas large pulse inputs resulted in an opposite trend. Both models could fit the experimental data well, but the prediction accuracy of the T-R was better. The values of the dispersivity, λ, calculated from the dispersion coefficient obtained from the CDE were about one order of magnitude larger than those calculated from the dispersion coefficient given by the T-R, but the calculated Peclet number, Pe, was lower. The mobile-immobile partition coefficient, β, decreased, while the mass exchange coefficient increased with increases in pore water velocity.

  20. Bamboo charcoal as adsorbent for SPE coupled with monolithic column-HPLC for rapid determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiping; Li, Mo; Li, Jinhua; Rui, Cuijie; Xin, Yanping; Xue, Qinzhao; Chen, Lingxin

    2011-10-01

    The coupling of solid-phase extraction (SPE) using bamboo charcoal (BC) as an adsorbent with a monolithic column-high performance liquid chromatography (MC-HPLC) method was developed for the high-efficiency enrichment and rapid determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. Key influence factors, such as the type and the volume of the elution solvent, and the flow rate and the volume of the sample loading, were optimized to obtain a high SPE recovery and extraction efficiency. BC as an SPE adsorbent presented a high extraction efficiency due to its large specific surface area and high adsorption capacity; MC as an HPLC column accelerated the separation within 8 min because of its high porosity, fast mass transfer, and low-pressure resistance. The calibration curves for the PAHs extracted were linear in the range of 0.2-15 µg/L, with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) between 0.9970-0.9999. This method attained good precisions (relative standard deviation, RSD) from 3.5 to 10.9% for the standard PAHs I aqueous solutions at 5 µg/L; the method recoveries ranged in 52.6-121.6% for real spiked river water samples with 0.4 and 4 µg/L. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) of the method were determined from 11 and 87 ng/L. The developed method was demonstrated to be applicable for the rapid and sensitive determination of 16 PAHs in real environmental water samples. PMID:22586244

  1. Separation and determination of coumarins in Fructus cnidii extracts by pressurized capillary electrochromatography using a packed column with a monolithic outlet frit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danxia; Wang, Jiajing; Jiang, Yunyun; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Yutian

    2009-12-01

    The pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC) was utilized for the separation and determination of coumarins in Fructus cnidii extracts from 12 different regions. After a thorough study of analytical parameters such as acetonitrile content of the mobile phase, the concentration and pH of the buffer, and the applied voltage, a methodology was proposed to separate and determine six coumarins of F. cnidii extracts in less than 15 min. The experiments were performed in an in-house packed column with a monolithic outlet frit under the optimal conditions: pH 4.0 ammonium acetate buffer at 10 mM containing 50% acetonitrile at -6kV applied voltage. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 10.0-100.0 microg/mL for bergapten, 20.0-200.0 microg/mL for imperatorin, 5.0-400.0 microg/mL for osthole, 10.0-100.0 microg/mL for 2'-acetylangelicin, 10.0-200.0 microg/mL for oroselone, and 10.0-200.0 microg/mL for O-acetylcolumbianetin. The correlation coefficients were between 0.9967 and 0.9995. With this pCEC system, fingerprints of F. cnidii extracts were preliminarily established to distinguish three types of coumarins by characteristic peaks, and the quality of various sources of raw materials was evaluated by determining the contents of six coumarins. PMID:19608371

  2. Comparison of Stability-Indicating LC Methods Using Light Scattering and Photodiode Array Detection with Monolithic Column for Determination of Quinapril and Hydrochlorothiazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Marta; Godoy, Ricardo; Mennickent, Sigrid; Vergara, Carola; Charnock, Henry; Hernández, Camilo

    2016-09-01

    Rapid stability-indicating LC methods for simultaneous analysis of quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide were developed, validated and compared using evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) and diode array detection (DAD). For the separation of quinapril, hydrochlorothiazide and its major degradation products, a monolithic column was used and the analytes were eluted within 7 min, applying gradient mobile phase in both methods. Quinapril was subjected to hydrolytic, oxidative, thermal, humidity and photolytic stress conditions. Degradation products were well resolved from main peaks and from each other, proving the stability-indicating power of the methods. The response with DAD was linear and the response with ELSD was fitted to a power function, for quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide concentrations of 20-160 and 12.5-100 µg mL(-1), respectively. DAD method achieved better precision than ELSD method, the LOQ of DAD was lower and the accuracy of the methods was similar. Quinapril degrade by hydrolysis and thermal stress, showing the formation of quinaprilat and quinapril diketopiperazine as degradants, which were identified by MS-MS. The methods were successfully applied to quantify quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide in commercial tablets. LC-DAD and LC-ELSD methods are suitable to assess the stability and routine analysis of quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27165572

  3. Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2007-07-01

    Today it is common to find samples with various additives from several families. This is the case of sweeteners, preservatives and antioxidants. We have selected a set of additives broadly used in foods and cosmetics with an ample variety of polarities, namely: aspartame (AS), acesulfame (AK)/saccharin (SA), methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), propylgallate (PG) and butylhydroxyanisole (BA). The monolithic column used as separative system is a 5 mm commercial precolumn of silica C18 coupled to a flow injection manifold working with a peristaltic pump. The mixture was separated in only 400 s with resolution factors greater than 1.1 in all cases. To achieve the separation in the FIA system we used two carriers: first, a mixture of ACN/water buffered with 10 mM pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and second, a methanol:water mixture to improve the carrier strength and speed up the more apolar analytes at 3.5 mL min(-1). Detection is accomplished by means of a diode array spectrometer at the respective wavelength of each compound. The comparison of the analytical parameters obtained for this procedure with a standard HPLC method validates our new method, obtaining a method that is quick, with high repeatability and reproducibility and with good resolution between analytes. We have successfully applied the method to real food and cosmetics samples. PMID:17586119

  4. 基于整体柱的超灵敏表面增强拉曼检测%Ultra Sensitive Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Detection Based on Monolithic Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青青; 杜一平; 唐慧容; 汪宣; 陈贵平; 王文明

    2012-01-01

    A novel Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) detection method based on monolithic column which is commonly used in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was developed in the present study. The probe molecules were mixed with silver colloid before spread onto the monolithic column surface. In this study, SERS signals of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) at a concentration as low as 10-18 mol/L and p-aminothiophenol (PATP) at a concentration as low as 10-16 mol/L could be obtained through the use of monolithic column material. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were utilized to characterize the silver colloid and the monolithic column. It suggested that the surface morphology and the pore size do effectively assist the silver colloid in generating "hot spots".%本文提出了一种全新的基于整体柱材料的SERS检测方法.通过将探针分子和银溶胶混合后滴加在整体柱上,我们可以得到浓度低至10-18 mol/L的罗丹明6G (R6G)及10-16 mol/L的对巯基苯胺(PATP)的SERS信号.利用原子力显微镜(AFM)和扫描电镜(SEM)对银溶胶及整体柱材料进行了表征.通过实验结果可以初步推测,整体柱材料的表面形态和孔结构可以促进银溶胶产生“热点”.

  5. Separation of N-derivatized di- and tri-peptide stereoisomers by micro-liquid chromatography using a quinidine-based monolithic column - Analysis of l-carnosine in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiqin; Sánchez-López, Elena; Han, Hai; Wu, Huihui; Zhu, Peijie; Crommen, Jacques; Marina, Maria Luisa; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a new analytical methodology was developed enabling the enantiomeric determination of N-derivatized di- and tri-peptides in dietary supplements using chiral micro-LC on a monolithic column consisting of poly(O-9-[2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethylcarbamoyl]-10,11-dihydroquinidine-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(MQD-co-HEMA-co-EDMA)). After optimization of the mobile phase conditions, a baseline resolution of the stereoisomers of 24 out of 53 N-derivatized di- and tri-peptides was obtained. 3,5-Dinitrobenzoyl- and 3,5-dichlorobenzoyl-peptide stereoisomers were separated with exceptionally high selectivity and resolution. The monolithic column was then applied to the quantitative analysis of l-carnosine and its enantiomeric impurity in three different commercial dietary supplements. Method validation demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification. The determined amounts of l-carnosine in commercial formulations were in agreement with the labeled content for all analyzed samples, and the enantiomeric impurity was found to be below the limit of detection (LOD), showing the potential of the poly(MQD-co-HEMA-co-EDMA) monolithic column as a reliable tool for the quality control of l-carnosine in dietary supplements by micro-LC. PMID:26410182

  6. 丙烯胺-β-环糊精电色谱整体柱的性能评价及应用%Evaluation and application of allylamine-β-cyclodextrin chiral monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英杰; 王立娜; 吕仁江; 吴婧; 丁莉; 张福祥

    2012-01-01

    以丙烯胺-β-环糊精(Allylamine-β-CD)为功能单体,采用一步键合法制备毛细管电色谱手性整体柱,并考察了整体柱的制备条件.在毛细管电色谱(CEC)模式下,以苯丙氨酸为对象,考察了整体柱的分离能力,同时考察缓冲溶液pH,柱温,分离电压对拆分的影响.苯丙氨酸的拆分达到了基线分离,并在优化条件下,应用整体柱对盐酸去甲苯福林和愈创甘油醚对映体进行拆分,均达到基线分离.同时,以硫脲为电渗流标记物,测得整体柱的理论塔板数达87488板/m,并且可持续使用16 h,可间歇使用3个月以上,仍具有良好的柱效.%β-cyclodextrin chiral monolithic capillary electrochromatographic column was prepared by one-step reaction with allylamine-β-cyclodextrin as a functional monomer. In capillary electrochromatography ( CEC) mode, the as-prepared monolithic column was evaluated by separating DL-Phenylalanine. The influences of buffer pH value, temperature and voltage on separation were investigated. Under the optimal CEC conditions, norfenefrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin have reached baseline separation. At the same time, theoretical plate number of the column was more than 87 488 plates/m with thiourea as an electricity seepage marker. The monolithic column was used for continuous 16 h and intermittent 3 months with keeping good column efficiency.

  7. Evaluation of fused-core and monolithic versus porous silica-based C18 columns and porous graphitic carbon for ion-pairing liquid chromatography analysis of catecholamines and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirita, Raluca-Ioana; Finaru, Adriana-Luminita; Elfakir, Claire

    2011-03-15

    This paper evaluates the performances of reversed-phase (RPLC) and ion-pairing chromatography (IPLC) coupled with UV detection for the analysis of a set of 12 catecholamines and related compounds. Different chromatographic columns (porous C18-silica, perfluorinated C18-silica, porous graphitic carbon, monolithic and fused-core silica-based C18 columns) were tested using semi-long perfluorinated carboxylic acids as volatile ion-pairing reagents. Much more promising results were obtained by IPLC than by RPLC and important improvements in analytes peak symmetry and separation resolution were observed when using the "fast chromatography" columns (monolithic and fused-core C18) under IPLC conditions. For UV detection, a satisfactory separation of the 12 selected analytes was achieved in less than 20 min by using a fused-core particles column (Halo C18) and a mobile phase composed of a 1.25 mM nonafluoropentanoic acid aqueous solution and methanol under gradient elution mode. The chromatographic method developed can be directly coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in positive ionization mode and 10 solutes among those selected can be observed. The presence of the acidic ion-pairing reagent in the mobile phase makes this system incompatible with negative ionization mode and thus unable to detect the two acidic compounds that only responded in negative mode. In terms of MS detection, Monolithic C18 column proved to be the best one to reach the lowest detection limits (LODs) (from 0.5 ngmL(-1) to 10 ngmL(-1) depending on the neurotransmitter). The applicability of the optimized LC-MS/MS method to a "real world" sample was finally evaluated. The presence of the matrix leads to signal suppression for several solutes and thus to higher LODs. PMID:21345749

  8. Rapid fabrication of ionic liquid-functionalized monolithic column via in-situ urea-formaldehyde polycondensation for pressurized capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabin; Wu, Fangling; Xia, Ruirui; Zhao, Qi; Lin, Xucong; Xie, Zenghong

    2016-06-01

    A novel strategy for rapidly fabricating ionic liquid (IL)-bonded multifunctional monolithic stationary phase has been developed by an in-situ polycondensation of urea-formaldehyde (UF) and a lab-made acylamino-functionalized IL (1-acetylamino-propyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [AAPMIm]Br). Two polycondensation processes of UF with 1-amino-propyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide or [AAPMIm]Br were evaluated. Several parameters including mass ratio of urea-formaldehyde, amount of [AAPMIm]Br, polycondensation time and reaction temperature were optimized, and the [AAPMIm]Br-bonded monolithic stationary phase could be rapidly synthesized in 10min with a satisfactory permeability and mechanical stability. Used for pressurized capillary electrochromatography (pCEC), a typical hydrophilic interaction (HI) retention could be obtained in the resultant [AAPMIm]Br-bonded monolith when the content of acetonitrile (ACN) in mobile phase exceeded 20%. Multiple retention mechanisms such as hydrophilic interaction (HI), hydrogen bond (HH), anion-exchange and cation-exclude interactions, were acheived in the [AAPMIm]Br-bonded monolith. Various polar compounds including phenols, benzoic acid and its homologues, and enkephalins have been well separated and thus demonstrated a satisfactory separation performance of the obtained monolith. A facile access is lighted for rapid preparation of ionic liquid-bonded monoliths with multiple retention mechanisms for pCEC. PMID:27156751

  9. Green synthesis of polymer monoliths incorporated with carbon nanotubes in room temperature ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Shun; Gao, Shu-Ping; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    In this work, an efficient method to prepare polymer monoliths with incorporated carbon nanotubes in a mixture of room temperature ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvents was developed. With assistance of the binary green solvent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and choline chloride/ethylene glycol, single-walled carbon nanotubes were dispersed successfully in pre-polymerization mixture without need of oxidative cutting of carbon nanotubes, which may allow depletion of the emission of volatile organic compounds into environment. The novel single-walled carbon nanotubes monolith was evaluated by capillary electrochromatography. Compared with the monolith made without single-walled carbon nanotubes, the monolith with the incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotubes exhibited high column efficiency (251,000plates/m) in the chromatographic separation. The morphology of the monolith can be tuned by the composition of mixture of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents to afford good column permeability and excellent separation ability for small molecules of alkyl phenones and alkyl benzenes. The results demonstrated that the method is a green strategy for the fabrication of multifunctional polymer monoliths. PMID:27154683

  10. Application of Tin(II) Chloride Catalyst for High FFA Jatropha Oil Esterification in Continuous Reactive Distillation Column

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas; Imam Novrizal Aji; Hadiyanto Hadiyanto; Arief Budiman

    2016-01-01

    The application of heterogeneous solid acid catalysts in biodiesel production has become popular and gained significant attention over the last few years. It is since these types of catalysts hold the benefits in terms of easy separation from the product, reusability of the catalyst, high selectivity of the reaction. They are also considered sustainable and powerful particularly in organic synthesis. This work studied the use of tin(II) chloride as solid Lewis acid catalyst to promote the est...

  11. Evaluation of interactions between metal ions and nonionic surfactants in high-concentration HCl using low-pressure high-performance liquid chromatography with low-flow-resistance polystyrene-based monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tomohiko; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime; Kinoshita, Takehiko; Ishigaki, Yuzo; Shibata, Nobuyuki; Nii, Susumu

    2013-10-01

    A method for evaluating the interactions between metal ions and nonionic surfactants in aqueous solutions containing high-concentration HCl, using gas pressure-driven low-pressure high-performance liquid chromatography (LP-HPLC) as a highly acid-resistant HPLC system, was developed. To construct the LP-HPLC for this purpose, poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene)-based low-flow-resistance monolithic columns tolerant to highly acidic conditions were prepared using low-conversion thermal polymerization. Thermal polymerization at 65 °C for 1.5 h (monomer conversions, 33% for styrene and 59% for divinylbenzene) allowed preparation of a column with both high separation efficiency (around 60,000 plates m(-1) for alkylbenzenes) and a quite low back pressure of 0.14 MPa at a linear flow rate of 1 mm s(-1) (2.8 × 10(-13) m(2) in permeability). The base column prepared under the above conditions was coated with a nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether (PONPE, average oxyethylene unit numbers (n) = 3, 7.5, 15, and 20), and used for evaluation of the interactions between PONPEs and metal ions in 6 M HCl. The interactions between PONPEs and Au(III), Ga(III), Fe(III), Zn(II), and Cu(II) were successfully evaluated using both breakthrough and chromatographic methods. Furthermore, a study of the effect of the polyoxyethylene (POE) chain length revealed that the use of PONPE with the longer POE moiety enhanced the magnitude of the interaction together with the increase in the amount of oxyethylene (OE) units coated on the monolith. Moreover, the interactions of metal ions with a single OE unit were almost constant in the range of n = 7.5-20, whereas the suppression of the interaction between Au(III) with the shortest PONPE chain (n = 3) was also observed. PMID:23884474

  12. Speciation of human serum proteins based on trace metal mapping analysis by CIM monolithic disk column HPLC/ICP-MS in complement with off-line MALDI-TOF-MS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiply hyphenated HPLC/UV/ICP-MS system equipped with a fraction collection valve for subsequent MALDI-TOF-MS analysis was constructed, and its applicability to the speciation of metalloproteins in human serum was evaluated. A weak anion-exchange CIM monolithic disk column was employed for protein separation, in which gradient elution of proteins with volatile salts was carried out while taking into account the compatibility with ICP-MS instrument. As a result of optimization, representative serum proteins, such as γ-globulin (γGb), albumin (Ab), ceruloplasmin (Cp), transferrin (Tf), and α2-macroglobulin (α2Mgb), were separated on the disk column with a linear concentration gradient of CH3COONH4 in 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4). These proteins, which were primarily assigned by UV absorption at 280 nm, were clearly identified with on-line multielement detection using ICP-MS as well as with off-line MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of each successive fraction collected. It was concluded that the present multiply hyphenated system will be useful for identifying proteins in biological samples. (author)

  13. Modified monolithic silica capillary for preconcentration of catecholamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Preconcentration of catecholamines by the modified monolithic silica in the capillary was investigated in this study. In order to achieve a microchip-based method for determining catecholamines in the saliva,the monolithic silica was fabricated in the capillary and the monolithic silica was chemically modified by on-column reaction with phenylboronate. Different modified methods were compared. The concentration conditions were optimized. This study indicates the applicability of the modified monolithic sili...

  14. Modified monolithic silica capillary for preconcentration of catecholamines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chang; Tusyo-shi Komazu

    2009-01-01

    Preconcentration of catecholamines by the modified monolithic silica in the capillary was investigated in this study. In order to achieve a microchip-based method for determining catecholamines in the saliva, the monolithic silica was fabricated in the capillary and the monolithic silica was chemically modified by on-column reaction with phenylboronate. Different modified methods were compared. The concentration conditions were optimized. This study indicates the applicability of the modified monolithic silica capillary when it was used to concentrate catecholamines.

  15. Determination of rimantadine in human urine by HPLC using a monolithic stationary phase and on-line post-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharis, Constantinos K; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Vlessidis, Athanasios G

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we propose the first HPLC method coupled to postcolumn derivatization for the determination of rimantadine in human urine samples. The analyte and amantadine (internal standard) were isocratically separated using an RP monolithic stationary phase (100 × 4.6 mm id) with a mobile phase consisting of CH3OH/phosphate buffer (25 mmol/L, pH 3.0) at a volume ratio of 50:50. Postcolumn derivatization involved on-line reaction with o-phthalaldehyde (20 mmol/L) and N-acetyl-cysteine (5 mmol/L) at alkaline medium (100 mmol/L borate pH 11.0). Spectrofluorimetric detection at λ(ex)/λ(em) = 340/455 nm enabled the selective and sensitive determination of rimantadine in urine samples at a range of 50-500 ng/mL with an LOD of 5 ng/mL. Human urine samples were analyzed successfully after SPE using hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced RP cartridges (30 mg/mL, Oasis HLB). Recoveries ranged between 89.7 and 102.7%. PMID:23650193

  16. Monolithic ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbell, Thomas P.; Sanders, William A.

    1992-01-01

    A development history and current development status evaluation are presented for SiC and Si3N4 monolithic ceramics. In the absence of widely sought improvements in these materials' toughness, and associated reliability in structural applications, uses will remain restricted to components in noncritical, nonman-rated aerospace applications such as cruise missile and drone gas turbine engine components. In such high temperature engine-section components, projected costs lie below those associated with superalloy-based short-life/expendable engines. Advancements are required in processing technology for the sake of fewer and smaller microstructural flaws.

  17. Development of erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns for selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Yüksel; Rainer, Matthias; Messner, Christoph B; Hussain, Shah; Meischl, Florian; Sasse, Michael; Tessadri, Richard; Bonn, Günther K

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a novel method for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides using erbium phosphate doped poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) spin columns is presented. Erbium phosphate was synthesized by precipitation from boiling phosphoric acid and incubated overnight in erbium chloride solutions. The resulting powder was embedded in a monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate) polymer. The monolith was synthesized in a spin column by radical polymerization. Erbium phosphate demonstrated a high affinity and selectivity for phosphopeptides due to the strong interaction of trivalent erbium ions with the phosphate groups of phosphopeptides. The high selectivity and performance of the designed spin columns were demonstrated by successfully enriching phosphopeptides from tryptically digested protein mixtures containing the model phosphoproteins α- and β-casein, bovine milk, and human saliva. By the implementation of several washing steps, unspecific components were removed and the enriched phosphopeptides were effectively eluted from the spin columns under alkaline conditions. The selective performance of the presented method was further demonstrated by the enrichment of two synthetic phosphopeptides, which were spiked in tryptically digested and dephosphorylated HeLa cell lysates at low ratios. Finally, the presented approach was compared to conventional phosphopeptide enrichment by titanium oxide and revealed higher recoveries for the erbium phosphate doped monoliths. PMID:25645427

  18. The passivation of calcite by acid mine water. Column experiments with ferric sulfate and ferric chloride solutions at pH 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Column experiments, simulating the behavior of passive treatment systems for acid mine drainage, have been performed. Acid solutions (HCl or H2SO4, pH 2), with initial concentrations of Fe(III) ranging from 250 to 1500 mg L-1, were injected into column reactors packed with calcite grains at a constant flow rate. The composition of the solutions was monitored during the experiments. At the end of the experiments (passivation of the columns), the composition and structure of the solids were measured. The dissolution of calcite in the columns caused an increase in pH and the release of Ca into the solution, leading to the precipitation of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxysulfates (Fe(III)-SO4-H+ solutions) or Fe-oxyhydroxychlorides (Fe(III)-Cl-H+ solutions). The columns worked as an efficient barrier for some time, increasing the pH of the circulating solutions from 2 to ∼6-7 and removing its metal content. However, after some time (several weeks, depending on the conditions), the columns became chemically inert. The results showed that passivation time increased with decreasing anion and metal content of the solutions. Gypsum was the phase responsible for the passivation of calcite in the experiments with Fe(III)-SO4-H+ solutions. Schwertmannite and goethite appeared as the Fe(III) secondary phases in those experiments. Akaganeite was the phase responsible for the passivation of the system in the experiments with Fe(III)-Cl-H+ solutions

  19. Assessing the performance of curtain flow first generation silica monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliven, Arianne; Foley, Dominic; Pereira, Luisa; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew; Cabrera, Karin; Ritchie, Harald; Edge, Tony

    2014-07-18

    Analytical scale active flow technology first generation silica monolithic columns kitted out in curtain flow mode of operation were studied for the first time. A series of tests were undertaken assessing the column efficiency, peak asymmetry and detection sensitivity. Two curtain flow columns were tested, one with a fixed outlet ratio of 10% through the central exit port, the other with 30%. Tests were carried out using a wide range in inlet flow segmentation ratios. The performance of the curtain flow columns were compared to a conventional monolithic column. The gain in theoretical plates achieved in the curtain flow mode of operation was as much as 130%, with almost Gaussian bands being obtained. Detection sensitivity increased by as much as 250% under optimal detection conditions. The permeability advantage of the monolithic structure together with the active flow technology makes it a priceless tool for high throughput, sensitive, low detection volume analyses. PMID:24906299

  20. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  1. Porous Monoliths: Stationary Phases of Choice for High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Various Formats%用于高效液相色谱的不同形式的多孔整体固定相

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SVEC Frantisek

    2005-01-01

    Modern porous monoliths have been conceived as a new class of stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in classical columns in the early 1990s and later extended to the capillary format. These monolithic materials are prepared using simple processes carried out in an external mold (inorganic monoliths) or within the confines of the column (organic monoliths and all capillary columns). These methods afford macroporous materials with large through-pores that enable applications in a rapid flow-through mode. Since all the mobile phase must flow through the monolith, the convection considerably accelerates mass transport within the monolithic separation medium and improves the separations. As a result, the monolithic columns perform well even at very high flow rates. The applications of monolithic capillary columns are demonstrated on numerous separations in the HPLC mode.

  2. Feasibility of the preparation of silica monoliths for gas chromatography: fast separation of light hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Imadeddine; Essoussi, Anouar; Fleury, Joachim; Haudebourg, Raphael; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jerome

    2015-02-27

    The preparation conditions of silica monoliths for gas chromatography were investigated. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns based on sol-gel process were tested in the course of high-speed gas chromatographic separations of light hydrocarbons mixture (C1-C4). The impact of modifying the amount of porogen and/or catalyst on the monolith properties were studied. At the best precursor/catalyst/porogen ratio evaluated, a column efficiency of about 6500 theoretical plates per meter was reached with a very good resolution (4.3) for very light compounds (C1-C2). The test mixture was baseline separated on a 70cm column. To our knowledge for the first time a silica-based monolithic capillary column was able to separate light hydrocarbons from methane to n-butane at room temperature with a back pressure in the range of gas chromatography facilities (under 4.1bar). PMID:25622518

  3. Porous layer open tubular columns with immobilized trypsin for protein digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Knob, R.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a monolithic porous layer open tubular (PLOT) column with immobilized trypsin for protein digestion. The PLOT column was prepared in a 10 (mikro)m ID fused silica capillary. Trypsin was immobilized on the monolithic surface and the developed enzyme reactor was used for protein digestion followed by on-line ESI/MS analysis.

  4. Allyl-silica Hybrid Monoliths For Chromatographic Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenjuan

    Column technology continues to be the most investigated topics in the separation world, since the column is the place where the chromatographic separation happens, making it the heart of the separation system. Allyl-silica hybrid monolithic material has been exploited as support material and potential stationary phases for liquid chromatography; the stationary phase anchored to the silica surface by Si-C bond, which is more pH stable than traditional stationary phase. First, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the sol in the synthesis of allyl-silica hybrid monoliths. Allyl-trimethoxysilane (allyl-TrMOS), dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) have been served as co-precursors in the sol-gel synthesis of organo-silica hybrid monolithic columns for liquid chromatography (LC). 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 1H NMR spectroscopy were employed to monitor reaction profiles for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and initial condensation reactions of the individual precursor and the hybrid system. 29Si-NMR has also been used to identify different silane species formed during the reactions. The overall hydrolysis rate has been found to follow the trend DMDMOS > allyl-TrMOS > TMOS, if each precursor is reacted individually (homo-polymerization). Precursors show different hydrolysis rate when reacted together in the hybrid system than they are reacted individually. Cross-condensation products of TMOS and DMDMOS (QD) arise about 10 minutes of initiation of the reaction. The allyl-silica monolithic columns for capillary liquid chromatography can only be prepared in capillaries with 50 im internal diameter with acceptable performance. One of the most prominent problems related to the synthesis of silica monolithic structures is the volume shrinkage. The synthesis of allylfunctionalized silica hybrid monolithic structures has been studied in an attempt to reduce the volume shrinkage during aging, drying and heat treatment

  5. Preparation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based hybrid monolith by ring-opening polymerization and post-functionalization via thiol-ene click reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongshan; Ou, Junjie; Lin, Hui; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-05-16

    A polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) hybrid monolith was simply prepared by using octaglycidyldimethylsilyl POSS (POSS-epoxy) and cystamine dihydrochloride as monomers via ring-opening polymerization. The effects of composition of prepolymerization solution and polycondensation temperature on the morphology and permeability of monolithic column were investigated in detail. The obtained POSS hybrid monolithic column showed 3D skeleton morphology and exhibited high column efficiency of ∼71,000 plates per meter in reversed-phase mechanism. Owing to this POSS hybrid monolith essentially possessing a great number of disulfide bonds, the monolith surface would expose thiol groups after reduction with dithiothreitol (DTT), which supplied active sites to functionalize with various alkene monomers via thiol-ene click reaction. The results indicated that the reduction with DTT could not destroy the 3D skeleton of hybrid monolith. Both stearyl methylacrylate (SMA) and benzyl methacrylate (BMA) were selected to functionalize the hybrid monolithic columns for reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), while [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide (MSA) was used to modify the hybrid monolithic column in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). These modified hybrid monolithic columns could be successfully applied for separation of small molecules with high efficiency. It is demonstrated that thiol-ene click reaction supplies a facile way to introduce various functional groups to the hybrid monolith possessing thiol groups. Furthermore, due to good permeability of the resulting hybrid monoliths, we also prepared long hybrid monolithic columns in narrow-bore capillaries. The highest column efficiency reached to ∼70,000 plates using a 1-m-long column of 75μm i.d. with a peak capacity of 147 for isocratic chromatography, indicating potential application in separation and analysis of complex biosamples. PMID:24725471

  6. A monolithic white laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Turkdogan, Sunay; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, C. Z.

    2015-09-01

    Monolithic semiconductor lasers capable of emitting over the full visible-colour spectrum have a wide range of important applications, such as solid-state lighting, full-colour displays, visible colour communications and multi-colour fluorescence sensing. The ultimate form of such a light source would be a monolithic white laser. However, realizing such a device has been challenging because of intrinsic difficulties in achieving epitaxial growth of the mismatched materials required for different colour emission. Here, we demonstrate a monolithic multi-segment semiconductor nanosheet based on a quaternary alloy of ZnCdSSe that simultaneously lases in the red, green and blue. This is made possible by a novel nanomaterial growth strategy that enables separate control of the composition, morphology and therefore bandgaps of the segments. Our nanolaser can be dynamically tuned to emit over the full visible-colour range, covering 70% more perceptible colours than the most commonly used illuminants.

  7. Capillary electrochromatography enantiomeric separation of guaifenesin by allyl-β-cyclodextrin monolithic column%烯丙基-β-环糊精毛细管电色谱整体柱分离愈创甘油醚对映体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英杰; 李芳; 张春雨; 高晴; 吕仁江

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To develop a method for enantiomeric separation of guaifenesin in capillary electrochromatography. Methods : Under capillary electrochromatography mode, guaifenesin enantiomers were separated by the prepared allyl -β - cyclodextrin chiral capillary monolithic column. The influences of mobile phase ratio , background buffer pH , temperature and applied voltage were investigated. Result : In the optimal conditions, guaifenesin enantiomers were separated by based - line. Conclusion : The capillary electrochromatography is simple, quick and suitable for the first separation of guaifenesin.%目的:建立一种用毛细管电色谱拆分愈创甘油醚对映体的方法.方法:采用制备的烯丙基-β-环糊精手性毛细管整体柱,在电色谱模式下,对愈创甘油醚对映体进行手性分离,考察了流动相配比、背景电解质溶液pH、柱温及分离电压等因素对分离的影响.结果:在优化的实验条件下,愈创甘油醚对映体达到基线分离.结论:毛细管电色谱首次分离愈创甘油醚对映体,该方法操作简单,分离效果好.

  8. Column flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohmuench, J.N.; Norrgran, D.A.; Luttrell, E.; Luttrell, G.H. [Virginia Tech. (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Over the last decade, column flotation has been recognised in the industry to be most efficient and economical means of recovering fine coal while maximizing product grade. When designed properly, flotation columns provide a high combustible recovery while maintaining a low product ash. The paper looks at the benefits of using column flotation for fine coal recovery. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Microfluidic Precolumn Derivatization of Environmental Phenols with Coumarin-6-Sulfonyl Chloride and HPLC Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, FakhrEldin O; Al-Busaidi, Jihad N; Al-Lawati, Hiader A J; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z

    2015-09-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and versatile method for the analysis of phenols in water is proposed using microfluidic precolumn derivatization with the fluorogenic label coumarin-6-sulfonyl chloride (C6SCl) and HPLC separation on monolithic columns. Phenols react with C6SCl within 3.0 min in the microreactor at ambient temperature to produce phenol-coumarin sulphonamides derivatives which were separated in reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by postcolumn ring-opening and fluorescence detection at λexc = 360 nm and λem = 460 nm. The optimum conditions for the derivatization, separation and ring-opening reaction have been established. The calibration curves were linear for the studied phenols in the range of 0.75-12.5 mg L(-1). The application of the method to environmental samples was demonstrated by analyzing tap and fountain water samples spiked with the phenolic compounds. PMID:25809998

  10. Embedded-monolith armor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  11. Silica-based polypeptide-monolithic stationary phase for hydrophilic chromatography and chiral separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Licong; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2016-05-13

    Glutathione (GSH)-, somatostatin acetate (ST)- and ovomucoid (OV)-functionalized silica-monolithic stationary phases were designed and synthesized for HILIC and chiral separation using capillary electrochromatography (CEC). GSH, ST and OV were covalently incorporated into the silica skeleton via the epoxy ring-opening reaction between their amino groups and the glycidyl moiety in γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) together with polycondensation and copolymerization of tetramethyloxysilane and GPTMS. Not only could the direction and electroosmotic flow magnitude on the prepared GSH-, ST- and OV-silica hybrid monolithic stationary phases be controlled by the pH of the mobile phase, but also a typical HILIC behavior was observed so that the nucleotides and HPLC peptide standard mixture could be baseline separated using an aqueous mobile phase without any acetonitrile during CEC. Moreover, the prepared monolithic columns had a chiral separation ability to separate dl-amino acids. The OV-silica hybrid monolithic column was most effective in chiral separation and could separate dl-glutamic acid (Glu) (the resolution R=1.07), dl-tyrosine (Tyr) (1.57) and dl-histidine (His) (1.06). Importantly, the chiral separation ability of the GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column could be remarkably enhanced when using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to fabricate an AuNP-mediated GSH-AuNP-GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column. The R of dl-Glu, dl-Tyr and dl-His reached 1.19, 1.60 and 2.03. This monolithic column was thus applied to separate drug enantiomers, and quantitative separation of all four R/S drug enantiomers were achieved with R ranging from 4.36 to 5.64. These peptide- and protein-silica monolithic stationary phases with typical HILIC separation behavior and chiral separation ability implied their promise for the analysis of not only the future metabolic studies, but also drug enantiomers recognition. PMID:27083263

  12. A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolith as the sorbent for in-tube solid-phase microextraction of acidic food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hui; Ma, Jun-Feng; Hu, Min-Jie; Li, Ying; Fang, Jiang-Hua; Gao, Hao-Qi

    2014-08-01

    A novel ionic liquid-modified organic-polymer monolithic capillary column was prepared and used for in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of acidic food additives. The primary amino group of 1-aminopropyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was reacted with the epoxide group of glycidyl methacrylate. The as-prepared new monomer was then copolymerized in situ with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 and PEG-10,000 as porogens. The extraction performance of the developed monolithic sorbent was evaluated for benzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-cinnamic acid. Such a sorbent, bearing hydrophobic and anion-exchange groups, had high extraction efficiency towards the test compounds. The adsorption capacities for the analytes dissolved in water ranged from 0.18 to 1.74 μg cm(-1). Good linear calibration curves (R(2) > 0.99) were obtained, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the analytes were found to be in the range 1.2-13.5 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of five acidic food additives spiked in Coca-Cola beverage samples ranged from 85.4 % to 98.3 %, with RSD less than 6.9 %. The excellent applicability of the ionic liquid (IL)-modified monolithic column was further tested by the determination of benzoic acid content in Sprite samples, further illustrating its good potential for analyzing food additives in complex samples. PMID:24939131

  13. Monolithic catalytic igniters

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, R.; Tuffias, R. H.; Jang, Q.

    1993-01-01

    Catalytic igniters offer the potential for excellent reliability and simplicity for use with the diergolic bipropellant oxygen/hydrogen as well as with the monopropellant hydrazine. State-of-the-art catalyst beds - noble metal/granular pellet carriers - currently used in hydrazine engines are limited by carrier stability, which limits the hot-fire temperature, and by poor thermal response due to the large thermal mass. Moreover, questions remain with regard to longevity and reliability of these catalysts. In this work, Ultramet investigated the feasibility of fabricating monolithic catalyst beds that overcome the limitations of current catalytic igniters via a combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) iridium coatings and chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) refractory ceramic foams. It was found that under all flow conditions and O2:H2 mass ratios tested, a high surface area monolithic bed outperformed a Shell 405 bed. Additionally, it was found that monolithic catalytic igniters, specifically porous ceramic foams fabricated by CVD/CVI processing, can be fabricated whose catalytic performance is better than Shell 405 and with significantly lower flow restriction, from materials that can operate at 2000 C or higher.

  14. Bioaffinity chromatography on monolithic supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Affinity chromatography on monolithic supports is a powerful analytical chemical platform because it allows for fast analyses, small sample volumes, strong enrichment of trace biomarkers and applications in microchips. In this review, the recent research using monolithic materials in the field of bi

  15. Review of recent advances in the preparation of organic polymer monoliths for liquid chromatography of large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrua, R Dario; Talebi, Mohammad; Causon, Tim J; Hilder, Emily F

    2012-08-13

    In recent years the use of monolithic polymers in separation science has greatly increased due to the advantages these materials present over particle-based stationary phases, such as their relative ease of preparation and good permeability. For these reasons, these materials present high potential as stationary phases for the separation and purification of large molecules such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids and cells. An example of this is the wide range of commercial available polymer-based monolithic columns now present in the market. This review summarizes recent developments in the synthesis of monolithic polymers for separation science, such as the incorporation of nanostructures in the polymeric scaffold as well as the preparation of hybrid structures. The different methods used in the surface functionalization of monolithic columns are also reviewed. Finally, we critically discuss the recent applications of this column technology in the separation of large molecules under different chromatographic mode. PMID:22790694

  16. Silver-coated monolithic columns for separation in radiopharmaceutical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, Ondřej; Kučka, Jan; Švec, F.; Hrubý, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2014), s. 798-802. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/2078; GA MPO FR-TI4/625 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200501201 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : capture * Iodide * Iodine Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.737, year: 2014

  17. Separation of human immunoglobulin G subclasses using monolithic column

    OpenAIRE

    Leblebici, P.; Rodrigues, A. E.; Pais, L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), constitutes an important therapeutic antibody for a number of diseases. (1) There is an increasing demand for highly purified hIgG and its sublasses since wide range of potential application in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy was found. (2) hIgG consists of four subclasses (IgGI, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that show differences in some of their physicochemical characteristics and biological properties.

  18. SOI monolithic pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, T.; Ahmed, M. I.; Arai, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Ikemoto, Y.; Takeda, A.; Tauchi, K.

    2014-05-01

    We are developing monolithic pixel detector using fully-depleted (FD) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel process technology. The SOI substrate is high resistivity silicon with p-n junctions and another layer is a low resistivity silicon for SOI-CMOS circuitry. Tungsten vias are used for the connection between two silicons. Since flip-chip bump bonding process is not used, high sensor gain in a small pixel area can be obtained. In 2010 and 2011, high-resolution integration-type SOI pixel sensors, DIPIX and INTPIX5, have been developed. The characterizations by evaluating pixel-to-pixel crosstalk, quantum efficiency (QE), dark noise, and energy resolution were done. A phase-contrast imaging was demonstrated using the INTPIX5 pixel sensor for an X-ray application. The current issues and future prospect are also discussed.

  19. Monolithic freeform element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiontke, Sven R.

    2015-09-01

    For 10 years there has been the asphere as one of the new products to be accepted by the market. All parts of the chain design, production and measurement needed to learn how to treat the asphere and what it is helpful for. The aspheric optical element now is established and accepted as an equal optical element between other as a fast growing part of all the optical elements. Now we are focusing onto the next new element with a lot of potential, the optical freeform surface. Manufacturing results will be shown for fully tolerance optic including manufacturing, setup and optics configurations including measurement setup. The element itself is a monolith consisting of several optical surfaces that have to be aligned properly to each other. The freeform surface is measured for surface form tolerance (irregularity, slope, Zernike, PV).

  20. Column: lef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reep, Frans van der

    2012-01-01

    1e alinea column: Ook in je beleggingsbeslissingen is het voor echte performance wellicht tijd om eens voorbij best practices (dan word je namelijk hoogstens tweede) te kijken naar next practices. Als je op zeker speelt, verdien je weinig geld. Want anderen gingen je al voor. Maar kun je nog meer op

  1. Organic monolith frits encased in polyether ether ketone tubing with improved durability for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-09-01

    This study introduces a preparation method for polymer-encased monolith frits with improved durability for liquid chromatography columns. The inner surface of the polyether ether ketone tubing is pretreated with sulfuric acid in the presence of catalysts (vanadium oxide and sodium sulfate). The tubing was rinsed with water and acetone, flushed with nitrogen, and treated with glycidyl methacrylate. After washing, the monolith reaction mixture composed of lauryl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, initiator, and porogenic solvent was filled in the tubing and subjected to in situ polymerization. The tubing was cut into thin slices and used as frits for microcolumns. To check their durability, the frit slices were placed in a vial and a heavy impact was applied on the vial by a vortex mixer for various periods. The frits made in the presence of catalysts were found to be more durable than those made without catalysts. Furthermore, when the monolith-incorporated tubing was used as a chromatography column, the column prepared in the presence of catalysts resulted in a better separation efficiency. The separation performance of the columns installed with the polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits was comparable to that of the columns installed with the commercial stainless-steel screen frits. PMID:26097071

  2. Optoelectronic devices toward monolithic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergia, V.

    1992-12-01

    Starting from the present state of tl art of discrete devices up to the on going realization of monolithic semicorxtuctor integrated prototypes an overview ofoptoelectronic devices for telecom applications is given inchiding a short classification of the different kind of integrated devices. On the future perspective of IBCN distribution network some economica of hybrid and monolithic forms of integration are attempted. lnaflyashoitpresentationoftheactivitiesperformedintbefieldofmonolithic integration by EEC ESPR1T and RACE projects is reported. 1.

  3. A monolithically-integrated μGC chemical sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Bauer, Joseph M; Moorman, Matthew W; Sanchez, Lawrence J; Anderson, John M; Whiting, Joshua J; Porter, Daniel A; Copic, Davor; Achyuthan, Komandoor E

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) is used for organic and inorganic gas detection with a range of applications including screening for chemical warfare agents (CWA), breath analysis for diagnostics or law enforcement purposes, and air pollutants/indoor air quality monitoring of homes and commercial buildings. A field-portable, light weight, low power, rapid response, micro-gas chromatography (μGC) system is essential for such applications. We describe the design, fabrication and packaging of μGC on monolithically-integrated Si dies, comprised of a preconcentrator (PC), μGC column, detector and coatings for each of these components. An important feature of our system is that the same mechanical micro resonator design is used for the PC and detector. We demonstrate system performance by detecting four different CWA simulants within 2 min. We present theoretical analyses for cost/power comparisons of monolithic versus hybrid μGC systems. We discuss thermal isolation in monolithic systems to improve overall performance. Our monolithically-integrated μGC, relative to its hybrid cousin, will afford equal or slightly lower cost, a footprint that is 1/2 to 1/3 the size and an improved resolution of 4 to 25%. PMID:22163970

  4. A Monolithically-Integrated μGC Chemical Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Copic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatography (GC is used for organic and inorganic gas detection with a range of applications including screening for chemical warfare agents (CWA, breath analysis for diagnostics or law enforcement purposes, and air pollutants/indoor air quality monitoring of homes and commercial buildings. A field-portable, light weight, low power, rapid response, micro-gas chromatography (μGC system is essential for such applications. We describe the design, fabrication and packaging of mGC on monolithically-integrated Si dies, comprised of a preconcentrator (PC, μGC column, detector and coatings for each of these components. An important feature of our system is that the same mechanical micro resonator design is used for the PC and detector. We demonstrate system performance by detecting four different CWA simulants within 2 min. We present theoretical analyses for cost/power comparisons of monolithic versus hybrid μGC systems. We discuss thermal isolation in monolithic systems to improve overall performance. Our monolithically-integrated μGC, relative to its hybrid cousin, will afford equal or slightly lower cost, a footprint that is 1/2 to 1/3 the size and an improved resolution of 4 to 25%.

  5. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics. PMID:25777338

  6. Assessment of the Grouted IXC Monolith in Support of K East Basin Hazard Categorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Steven M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Alzheimer, James M.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2007-10-12

    Addendum to original report updating the structural analysis of the I-beam accident to reflect a smaller I-beam than originally assumed (addendum is 2 pages). The K East Basin currently contains six ion exchange columns (IXCs) that were removed from service over 10 years ago. Fluor Hanford plans to immobilize the six ion exchange columns (IXCs) in place in a concrete monolith. PNNL performed a structural assessment of the concrete monolith to determine its capability to absorb the forces imposed by postulated accidents and protect the IXCs from damage and thus prevent a release of radioactive material. From this assessment, design specifications for the concrete monolith were identified that would prevent a release of radioactive material for any of the postulated hazardous conditions.

  7. Covalent attachment of polymeric monolith to polyether ether ketone (PEEK) tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chunguang; Heiter, Jaana; Haljasorg, Tõiv; Leito, Ivo

    2016-08-17

    A new method of reproducible preparation of vinylic polymeric monolithic columns with a key step of covalently anchoring the monolith to PEEK surface is described. In order to chemically attach the polymer monolith to the tube wall, methacrylate functional groups were introduced onto PEEK surface by a three-step procedure, including surface etching, surface reduction and surface methacryloylation. The chemical state of the modified tubing surface was characterized by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. It was found that the etching step is the key to successfully modifying the PEEK tubing surface. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) monoliths were in situ synthesized by thermally initiated free radical copolymerization within the confines of surface-vinylized PEEK tubings of dimensions close to ones conventionally used in HPLC and UHPLC (1.6 mm internal diameter, 10.0-12.5 cm length). Adhesion test was done by measuring the operating pressure drop, which the prepared stationary phases can withstand. Good pressure resistance, up to 140 bar/10 cm (flow rate 0.5 mL min(-1), acetonitrile as a mobile phase), indicates strong bonding of monolith to the tubing wall. The monolithic material was proven to have a permeability of 1.7 × 10 (-14) m(2), applying acetonitrile-water 70:30 (v/v) as a mobile phase. The column performance was reproducible from column to column and was evaluated via the isocratic separation of a series of alkylbenzenes in the reversed-phase mode (acetonitrile-water 70:30, v/v). The numbers of plates per meter at optimal flow rate were found to be between 26 000 and 32 000 for the different analytes. PMID:27286776

  8. Enhancing the separation performance of the first-generation silica monolith using active flow technology: parallel segmented flow mode of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliven, Arianne; Foley, Dominic; Pereira, Luisa; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew; Cabrera, Karin; Ritchie, Harald; Edge, Tony

    2014-03-21

    Active flow technology (AFT) columns are designed to minimise inefficient flow processes associated with the column wall and radial heterogeneity of the stationary phase bed. This study is the first to investigate AFT on an analytical scale 4.6mm internal diameter first-generation silica monolith. The performance was compared to a conventional first-generation silica monolith and it was observed that the AFT monolith had an increase in efficiency values that ranged from 15 to 111%; the trend demonstrating efficiency gains increasing as the volumetric flow to the detector was decreased, but with no loss in sensitivity. PMID:24565232

  9. Influence of the linking spacer length and type on the enantioseparation ability of β-cyclodextrin functionalized monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jialiang; Xiao, Yuan; Lin, Yuanjing; Zhang, Qiaoxuan; Chang, Yiqun; Crommen, Jacques; Jiang, Zhengjin

    2016-05-15

    In order to investigate the effect of the linking spacer on the enantioseparation ability of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized polymeric monoliths, three β-CD-functionalized organic polymeric monoliths with different spacer lengths were prepared by using three amino-β-CDs, i.e. mono-6-amino-6-deoxy-β-CD, mono-6-ethylenediamine-6-deoxy-β-CD, mono-6-hexamethylenediamine-6-deoxy-β-CD, as starting materials. These amino-β-CDs reacted with glycidyl methacrylate to produce functional monomers which were then copolymerized with ethylene dimethacrylate. The enantioseparation ability of the three monoliths was evaluated using 14 chiral acidic compounds, including mandelic acid derivatives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, N-derivatized amino acids, and chiral herbicides under optimum chromatographic conditions. Notably, the poly(GMA-NH2-β-CD-co-EDMA) column provides higher enantioresolution and enantioselectivity than the poly(GMA-EDA-β-CD-co-EDMA) and poly(GMA-HDA-β-CD-co-EDMA) columns for most tested chiral analytes. Furthermore, the enantioseparation performance of triazole-linker containing monoliths was compared to that of ethylenediamine-linker containing monoliths. The results indicate that the enantioselectivity of β-CD monolithic columns is strongly related to the length and type of spacer tethering β-CD to the polymeric support. PMID:26992519

  10. Preparation of porous polymer monoliths featuring enhanced surface coverage with gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Yongqin

    2012-10-01

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths with enhanced coverage of pore surface with gold nanoparticles has been developed. First, a generic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith was reacted with cystamine followed by the cleavage of its disulfide bonds with tris(2-carboxylethyl)phosphine, which liberated the desired thiol groups. Dispersions of gold nanoparticles with sizes varying from 5 to 40. nm were then pumped through the functionalized monoliths. The materials were then analyzed using both energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. We found that the quantity of attached gold was dependent on the size of nanoparticles, with the maximum attachment of more than 60. wt% being achieved with 40. nm nanoparticles. Scanning electron micrographs of the cross sections of all the monoliths revealed the formation of a non-aggregated, homogenous monolayer of nanoparticles. The surface of the bound gold was functionalized with 1-octanethiol and 1-octadecanethiol, and these monolithic columns were used successfully for the separations of proteins in reversed phase mode. The best separations were obtained using monoliths modified with 15, 20, and 30. nm nanoparticles since these sizes produced the most dense coverage of pore surface with gold. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. UV-LED photopolymerised monoliths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abele, S.; Nie, F.; Foret, František; Paull, B.; Macka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 7 (2008), s. 864-866. ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : photopolymerisation * UV- LED * polymethacrylate monolith Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2008

  12. Formation of bimodal porous silica-titania monoliths by sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica-titania monoliths with micrometer-scale macroporous and nanometer-scale mesoporous structure and high titania contents are prepared by sol-gel process and phase separation. Titanium alkoxide precursor was not effective in the preparation of high titania content composites because of strong decrease in phase separation tendency. Bimodal porous gels with high titania content were obtained by using inorganic salt precursors such as titanium sulfate and titanium chloride. Various characterization techniques, including SEM, XRD, Hg porosimetry and N2 adsorption have been carried out to investigate the formation process and physical-chemical properties of silica-titania monoliths. The characterization results show that the silica-titania monoliths possess a bimodal porous structure with well-dispersed titania inside silica network. The addition of titania in silica improves the thermal stability of both macroporous and mesoporous structures.

  13. In situ Fabrication of Monolithic Copper Azide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Wu, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication and characterization of monolithic copper azide were performed. The monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) with interconnected pores and nanoparticles was prepared by decomposition and sintering of the ultrafine copper oxalate. The preferable monolithic NPC can be obtained through decomposition and sintering at 400°C for 30 min. Then, the available monolithic NPC was in situ reacted with the gaseous HN3 for 24 h and the monolithic NPC was transformed into monolithic copper azide. Additionally, the copper particles prepared by electrodeposition were also reacted with the gaseous HN3 under uniform conditions as a comparison. The fabricated monolithic copper azide was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  14. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  15. Open-celled polymeric foam monoliths for heavy metal separations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Open-celled polymeric foam monoliths prepared by high internal phase emulsion polymerization (HIPE) are being investigated as improved materials for separation of heavy metals. In column flow studies, the foam monoliths have high flow rates and are durable up to at least 40 psi. A 4-vinylpyridine functionality has been incorporated into vinylbenzylchloride/styrene copolymer foams by graft-polymerization of vinylpyridine. The open structure of the foam and the flexible graft-polymerized ion-exchange chains result in improved kinetics in metal uptake. Iron uptake kinetics were greatly increased in the grafted foams over resin beads of similar structure. Plutonium uptake kinetics were moderately increased in the foams. (author)

  16. Porous polymer monoliths functionalized through copolymerization of a C60 fullerene-containing methacrylate monomer for highly efficient separations of small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Chambers, Stuart D.

    2011-12-15

    Monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) and poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) capillary columns, which incorporate the new monomer [6,6]-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate ester, have been prepared and their chromatographic performance have been tested for the separation of small molecules in the reversed phase. While addition of the C60-fullerene monomer to the glycidyl methacrylate-based monolith enhanced column efficiency 18-fold, to 85 000 plates/m at a linear velocity of 0.46 mm/s and a retention factor of 2.6, when compared to the parent monolith, the use of butyl methacrylate together with the carbon nanostructured monomer afforded monolithic columns with an efficiency for benzene exceeding 110 000 plates/m at a linear velocity of 0.32 mm/s and a retention factor of 4.2. This high efficiency is unprecedented for separations using porous polymer monoliths operating in an isocratic mode. Optimization of the chromatographic parameters affords near baseline separation of 6 alkylbenzenes in 3 min with an efficiency of 64 000 plates/m. The presence of 1 wt % or more of water in the polymerization mixture has a large effect on both the formation and reproducibility of the monoliths. Other factors such as nitrogen exposure, polymerization conditions, capillary filling method, and sonication parameters were all found to be important in producing highly efficient and reproducible monoliths. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  17. Determination of Energy Characteristic and Microporous Volume by Immersion Calorimetry in Carbon Monoliths

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Piraján, Juan Carlos; Giraldo, Liliana; Vargas, Diana P.

    2012-01-01

    Activated carbon monoliths disc and honeycomb type were prepared by chemical activation of coconut shell with zinc chloride at different concentrations, without using a binder. The structures were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K and immersion calorimetry into benzene. The experimental results showed that the activation with zinc chloride produces a wide microporous development, with micropore volume between 0,38 and 0,79 cm3g-1, apparent BET surface area between 725 and 1523 m2g-1 and ...

  18. Preparation of Silica Monoliths with Macropores and Mesopores and of High Specific Surface Area with Low Shrinkage using a Template Induced Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jianyu [Shanghai Normal Univ., Shanghai (China); Lu, Yan [Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai (China); Whiting, Roger [AUT Univ., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2013-02-15

    In this study we report a new method for the synthesis of a silica monolithic column bed with bimodal pores (throughpores and mesopores). The template induced synthesis method was used to direct bimodal pores simultaneously instead of the usual post base-treating method. Block polymer Pluronic F127 was chosen as a dual-function template to form hierarchically porous silica monolith with both macropores and mesopores. This is a simplification of the method of monolithic column preparation. Poly(ethylene glycol) was used as a partial substitute for F127 can effectively prevent shrinkage during the monolith aging process without losing much surface area (944 m{sup 2}/g to 807 m{sup 2}/g). More importantly, the resultant material showed a much narrower mesopore size (centered at 6 nm) distribution than that made using only F127 as the template reagent, which helps the mass transfer process. The solvent washing method was used to remove the remaining organic template, and it was proved to be effective enough. The new synthesis method makes the fabrication of the silica monolithic column (especially capillary column) much easier. All the structure parameters indicate that monolith PFA05 prepared by the above method is a good material for separation, with the merits of much higher surface area than usual commercial HPLC silica particles, suitable mesopore volume, narrow mesopore size distribution, low shrinkage and it is easily prepared.

  19. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.vazquez@dcu.ie [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Dublin (Ireland); Paull, Brett, E-mail: brett.paull@dcu.ie [Irish Separation Science Cluster, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-06-04

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed.

  20. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed.

  1. Experimental characterization of the transport phenomena, adsorption, and elution in a protein A affinity monolithic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herigstad, M Omon; Dimartino, Simone; Boi, Cristiana; Sarti, Giulio C

    2015-08-14

    A commercially available convective interaction media (CIM) Protein A monolithic column was fully characterized in view of its application for the affinity capture of IgG in monoclonal antibody production processes. By means of moment analysis, the interstitial porosity and axial dispersion coefficient were determined. The frontal analysis method of characteristic points was employed, for the first time with monolithic media, to determine the dynamic binding capacity. The effects of the flow rate and pH on the total recovery of polyclonal IgG and elution profile were evaluated. A comparison with literature data for Protein A chromatography beads demonstrate the superior bed utilization of monolithic media, which gave better performance at lower residence times. PMID:26143608

  2. Monolithic cell for frequency conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the successful design, assembly, and operation of a single cell for frequency conversion of Nd:glass laser radiation from lambda = 1054 nm to lambda = 351 nm. Our approach combines the highly energy-efficient polarization mismatch scheme previously conceived and developed with the simplicity of the tandem crystal approach recently demonstrated. The resultant monolithic conversion cell consists of two KDP Type II crystals, assembled with tuning axes orthogonal and contained between a single pair of windows. An index-matching liquid is used to eliminate reflections from all internal surfaces. In this paper we describe a simple birefringence-sensitive method for marking and orienting circular doubler and mixer crystals with tuning axes orthogonal to better than 60 seconds of arc. The monolithic cell design is described, with emphasis on the chemical compatibility of component materials (crystals, spacers, seals, and metal surfaces) with index-matching liquids. A comparison between Halocarbon and Koolase index-matching fluids, after several months of operation (greater than 400 shots), shows the latter to exhibit better long-term, photochemical stability. The performance of the monolithic cell is superior to that of separate doubler and mixer cells. It exhibits better long-term pointing stability and produces a cleaner 3 #betta# beam

  3. Hydrodynamics of a Monolithic Stirrer Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzinger, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Monolithic Stirrer Reactor (MSR) is a novel concept for heterogeneously catalyzed reactors and is presented as an alternative device to slurry reactors. It uses a modified stirrer on which structured catalyst supports (monoliths) are fixed to form permeable blades. The monoliths consist of small square parallel channels on which a layer of catalytic material can be applied. The stirrer now has both a catalytic and a mixing function. The main advantage of this reactor type is the ease of t...

  4. Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

    2000-09-20

    Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

  5. Enantioseparation of basic chiral drugs on a carbamoylated erythromycin-zirconia hybrid monolith using capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shuchi; Park, Jung Hag

    2015-10-16

    An organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column was prepared within the confines of a capillary via a single-step in situ sol-gel approach using zirconium tetrabutoxide as a precursor to compose the inorganic backbone and 3-triethoxysilylpropyl carbamoylated derivative of erythromycin (TEOSPC-ERY) as a co-precursor to introduce the organic chiral selector moiety in the zirconia backbone. The resulting carbamoylated ERY-zirconia hybrid monolith (ERY-ZHM) showed homogeneous morphology with well-defined through pores and was tightly connected with the inner wall of the capillary. The column was employed for capillary electrochromatographic enantioseparation of six basic chiral drugs in mobile phases (MPs) consisting of acetonitrile (ACN) and triethylammonium acetate (TEAA) buffer. The effects of composition of MP and applied voltage on chiral separation were investigated by using propranolol as a representative analyte. The highest resolution (Rs=3.33) was obtained with a MP consisting of 10/90 (v/v) ACN/TEAA buffer (10mM, pH 7), 10 kV applied voltage and 25°C capillary temperature. The relative standard deviations for resolution values regarding run to run, day to day, column to column and batch to batch repeatability were 0.41%, 0.89%, 1.80% and 2.26% (for n=3), respectively, indicating satisfactory stability of columns and reproducibility of column preparation process. PMID:26372443

  6. Determination of azithromycin residue in pork using a molecularly imprinted monolithic microcolumn coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Haicui; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Qingying; Song, Xuqin; He, Limin; Fang, Binghu; Meng, Chenying

    2016-04-01

    Using spiramycin as a dummy template, a molecularly imprinted polymer monolithic micro-column with high selection to azithromycin was prepared in a micropipette tip. The imprinting factor of the monolithic micro-column prepared was approximately 2.67 and the morphological structure of the polymers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. A simple, sensitive, and reproducible method based on the imprinted monolithic micro-column coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for determining the residues of azithromycin in pork. Pork samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up under the optimal monolithic micro-column conditions, and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.50-50 μg/L with the correlation coefficient (r(2) ) above 0.99. In the three spiking levels of 0.50, 1.0, and 10 μg/kg, the average recoveries of azithromycin from pork samples were between 85.8 and 96.5% with a relative standard deviation below 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 μg/kg, respectively. PMID:26854282

  7. Phosphatidylcholine covalently linked to a methacrylate-based monolith as a biomimetic stationary phase for capillary liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Carrasco-Correa, E. J.; Planeta, Josef; Lämmerhofer, M.; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1402, JUL (2015), s. 27-35. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Capillary LC * analyte–membrane interaction * monolithic column * phospholipids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0247268

  8. Aptamer functionalized hydrophilic polymer monolith with gold nanoparticles modification for the sensitive detection of human α-thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanbo; Deng, Nan; Wu, Ci; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Bo; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-07-01

    Low abundant proteins of body fluids participate nearly all physiological processes and indicate various kinds of diseases. The development of specific enrichment techniques is the key to identify and quantify the low abundant proteins. Herein, a novel kind of aptamer functionalized hydrophilic polymer monolith was developed for the specific enrichment and detection of human α-thrombin from the human plasma. Human α-thrombin aptamer, with thiol group modified at the 5' terminal, was immobilized on the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) monolithic column, with the binding capacity of 277.1μmol/L. Due to the hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) as the cross-linking monomer, the detection recovery of the aptamer-functionalized hydrophilic polymer monolithic column could reach to 92.6±5.2% (n=3) and the dynamic range could reach 0.5-300ng/μL (S/N>10) with on-line UV detection. Meanwhile, the column could run over 100 times, because the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) stability structure and the AuNPs improved the stability of the matrix material. Furthermore, this column could even capture the target α-thrombin, which was spiked in 1000 folds of original human plasma. All these results demonstrated the great potential of the prepared aptamer functionalized hydrophilic polymer monolith for the recognition of the trace proteins in the biological samples. PMID:27154714

  9. Phosphatidylcholine covalently linked to a methacrylate-based monolith as a biomimetic stationary phase for capillary liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedmer, S. K.; Moravcová, Dana; Carrasco-Correa, E. J.; Planeta, Josef; Lämmerhofer, M.

    2015. s. 274-274. ISBN N. [HPLC 2015. International Symposium on High Performance Liquid Phase Separations and Related Techniques /43./. 21.09.2015-25.09.2015, Beijing] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary LC * immobilized artificial membrane * monolithic column * phospholipid Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.hplc2015-beijing.org/upload/absrarctbook.pdf

  10. Interactions of bupivacaine with a molecularly imprinted polymer in a monolithic format studied by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Julien; Fischer, Gerd; Schauff, Siri; Albert, Klaus; Irgum, Knut

    2006-01-15

    A trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate-based monolith of dimensions carefully chosen to fit exactly in a standard 4-mm solid-state CP/MAS NMR rotor was photopolymerized and subsequently molecularly imprinted with bupivacaine using a grafting protocol with methacrylic acid and ethylene dimethacrylate as monomers. As no crushing or grinding of the monolith was necessary, additional unspecific surface area was not created. This procedure ascertains that differences observed between imprinted and nonimprinted polymers are due only to graft imprinted surfaces and give therefore better results in NMR spectroscopy due to less unspecific interactions between analyte and monolith. This improves the comparability to chromatographic evaluations where uncrushed monolithic columns are also used. To track interactions between analyte and stationary phase, the saturation transfer difference (STD) technique was applied on the polymer in the suspended state using the same solvent as in the chromatographic evaluation. This relatively new NMR method has to our knowledge not been used on chromatographic materials before. By using STD NMR on pristine monoliths, it was possible to measure large differences between the imprinted or nonimprinted polymers and the analyte indicating significant differences in the interaction mechanisms. These could be directly correlated with retention differences observed in chromatographic evaluations. PMID:16408943

  11. Fracture Analysis of Debonded Sandwich Columns Under Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, A.; Avilés, F.; Berggreen, Christian

    monolithic structures of the same weight. The vast range of applications of such materials includes wind turbines, marine, and aerospace industries. In this work, geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis is conducted to investigate the fracture parameters and debond propagation of sandwich columns...... increased core stiffness and was nearly independent of the debond size. The model predicts debond propagation shortly after buckling instability, consistent with experimental observations. The critical loads predicted by this analysis compare reasonably to experimental buckling loads measured by other...

  12. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  13. Assessment of dynamic surface leaching of monolithic surface road materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Hélène; Schick, Joachim; Poirier, Jean-Eric

    2016-07-01

    Construction materials have to satisfy, among others, health and environment requirements. To check the environmental compatibility of road construction materials, release of hazardous substances into water must be assessed. Literature mostly describes the leaching behaviour of recycled aggregates for potential use in base or sub-base layers of roads. But little is known about the release of soluble substances by materials mixed with binders and compacted for intended use on road surface. In the present study, we thus performed a diffusion test with sequential renewal of water during a 64 day period according to CEN/TS 16637-2 specifications, on asphalt concretes and hydraulically bound monoliths, two common surface road materials. It is shown that release of dangerous substances is limited in these hydrodynamic conditions. It was particularly true for asphalt concrete leachates where no metallic trace element, sulphate, chloride or fluoride ion could be quantified. This is because of the low hydraulic conductivity and the low polarity of the petroleum hydrocarbon binder of these specimens. For hydraulically bound materials around 20,000 mg/m(2) of sulphate diffused from the monoliths. It is one order of magnitude higher than chloride diffusion and two orders of magnitude higher than fluoride release. No metallic trace element, except small quantities of copper in the last eluate could be quantified. No adverse effect is to be expected for human and environmental health from the leachates of these compacted surface road construction materials, because all the measured parameters were below EU (Council Directive 98/83/EC) or WHO guidelines for drinking water standards. PMID:27039367

  14. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth and...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  15. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, Anson V.; Sommer, Gregory j.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  16. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  17. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...... marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  18. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  19. Monolithic Time Delay Integrated APD Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the proposed program by Epitaxial Technologies is to develop monolithic time delay integrated avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays with sensitivity...

  20. Activated carbon monoliths for methane storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chada, Nagaraju; Romanos, Jimmy; Hilton, Ramsey; Suppes, Galen; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The use of adsorbent storage media for natural gas (methane) vehicles allows for the use of non-cylindrical tanks due to the decreased pressure at which the natural gas is stored. The use of carbon powder as a storage material allows for a high mass of methane stored for mass of sample, but at the cost of the tank volume. Densified carbon monoliths, however, allow for the mass of methane for volume of tank to be optimized. In this work, different activated carbon monoliths have been produced using a polymeric binder, with various synthesis parameters. The methane storage was studied using a home-built, dosing-type instrument. A monolith with optimal parameters has been fabricated. The gravimetric excess adsorption for the optimized monolith was found to be 161 g methane for kg carbon.

  1. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daojing; Yang, Peidong; Kim, Woong; Fan, Rong

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  2. Monolithic JFET preamplifier for ionization chamber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monolithic charge sensitive preamplifier using exclusively n-channel diffused JFETs has been designed and is now being fabricated by INTERFET Corp. by means of a dielectrically isolated process which allows preserving as much as possible the technology upon which discrete JFETs are based. A first prototype built by means of junction isolated process has been delivered. The characteristics of monolithically integrated JFETs compare favorably with discrete devices. First results of tests of a preamplifier which uses these devices are reported

  3. Monolithically integrated waveguide-coupled silica microtoroids

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Jens; Witzens, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of a new type of microtoroid high-Q silica resonators monolithically coupled to on-chip silicon nanowire waveguides. In order to enable monolithic waveguide coupling, the microtoroid geometry is inverted such that the resonator is formed by thermal reflow at the circumference of a hole etched in a suspended SiO2 membrane. This configuration is shown to be conducive to integration with a fully functional Silicon Photonics technology platform.

  4. Methacrylate Polymer Monoliths for Separation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Groarke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the development of methacrylate-based polymer monoliths for separation science applications. An introduction to monoliths is presented, followed by the preparation methods and characteristics specific to methacrylate monoliths. Both traditional chemical based syntheses and emerging additive manufacturing methods are presented along with an analysis of the different types of functional groups, which have been utilized with methacrylate monoliths. The role of methacrylate based porous materials in separation science in industrially important chemical and biological separations are discussed, with particular attention given to the most recent developments and challenges associated with these materials. While these monoliths have been shown to be useful for a wide variety of applications, there is still scope for exerting better control over the porous architectures and chemistries obtained from the different fabrication routes. Conclusions regarding this previous work are drawn and an outlook towards future challenges and potential developments in this vibrant research area are presented. Discussed in particular are the potential of additive manufacturing for the preparation of monolithic structures with pre-defined multi-scale porous morphologies and for the optimization of surface reactive chemistries.

  5. Ionic liquids as porogens in the microwave-assisted synthesis of methacrylate monoliths for chromatographic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singco, Brenda; Lin, Chen-Lan; Cheng, Yi-Jie; Shih, Yung-Han [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology, CYCU (Chung Yuan Christian University), 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsi-Ya, E-mail: hyhuang@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanotechnology, CYCU (Chung Yuan Christian University), 200 Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 320, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient and cleaner monoliths preparation utilizing ionic liquids in conjunction with microwave Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These ionic liquids with varied cation alkyl chain and anion type successfully tuned the morphology of different alkyl methacrylates Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small molecules and peptide digests separated well in these monoliths. - Abstract: Several imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with varying cation alkyl chain length (C{sub 4}-C{sub 10}) and anion type (tetrafluoroborate ([BF{sub 4}]{sup -}), hexafluorophosphate ([PF{sub 6}]{sup -}) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Tf{sub 2}N]{sup -})) were used as reaction media in the microwave polymerization of methacrylate-based stationary phases. Scanning electron micrographs and backpressures of poly(butyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) monoliths synthesized in the presence of these ionic liquids demonstrated that porosity and permeability decreased when cation alkyl chain length and anion hydrophobicity were increased. Performance of these monoliths was assessed for their ability to separate parabens by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Intra-batch precision (n = 3 columns) for retention time and peak area ranged was 0.80-1.13% and 3.71-4.58%, respectively. In addition, a good repeatability of RSD{sub Retentiontime} = <0.30% and {approx}1.0%, RSD{sub Peakarea} = <1.30% and <4.3%, and RSD{sub Efficiency} = <0.6% and <11.5% for intra-day and inter-day, respectively exemplify monolith performance reliability for poly(BMA-EDMA) fabricated using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C{sub 6}mim][BF{sub 4}]) porogen. This monolith was also tested for its potential in nanoLC to separate protein digests in gradient mode. ILs as porogens also fabricated different alkyl methacrylate (AMA) (C4-C18) monoliths. Furthermore, employing binary IL porogen mixture such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

  6. Room temperature ionic liquid-mediated molecularly imprinted polymer monolith for the selective recognition of quinolones in pork samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangli; He, Jia; Cai, Guorui; Lin, Anqing; Zheng, Wenjie; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Langxing; He, Xiwen; Zhang, Yukui

    2010-12-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer monolith was prepared by the room temperature ionic liquid-mediated in situ molecular imprinting technique, using norfloxacin (NOR) as the template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The optimal synthesis conditions and recognition properties of NOR-imprinted monolithic column were investigated. The results indicated that the imprinted monoliths exhibited good ability of selective recognition against the template and its structural analog. Using the fabricated material as solid-phase extraction sorbent, a sample pre-treatment procedure of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupling with HPLC was developed for determination of trace quinolone residues in animal tissues samples. The recoveries ranging from 78.16 to 93.50% for eight quinolones antibiotics such as marbofloxacin, NOR, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin were obtained. PMID:21082676

  7. Solid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters in water sample using different activated carbon-polymer monoliths as adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Stephen; Fu, Chung-Wei; Lin, Jhih-Yun; Hsu, Meng-Ju; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-07-13

    In this study, the application of different activated carbon-polymer (AC-polymer) monoliths as adsorbents for the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of phthalate esters (PAEs) in water sample were investigated. The activated carbon (AC) was embedded in organic polymers, poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) or poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (poly(STY-DVB)), via a 5-min microwave-assisted or a 15-min water bath heating polymerization. Preliminary investigation on the performance of the native poly(BMA-EDMA) and poly(STY-DVB) demonstrated remarkable adsorption efficiencies for PAEs. However, due to the strong hydrophobic, π-π, and hydrogen bonding interactions between the analytes and polymers, low extraction recoveries were achieved. In contrast, the presence of AC in native polymers not only enhanced the adsorption efficiencies but also assisted the PAE desorption, especially for AC-poly(STY-DVB) with extraction recovery ranged of 76.2-99.3%. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction recoveries for intra-, inter-day and column-to-column were in the range of 76.5-100.8% (DVB) monolithic column showed good mechanical stability, which can be reused for more than 30 extraction times without any significant loss in the extraction recoveries of PAEs. The AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column was successfully applied in SPME of PAEs in water sample with extraction recovery ranged of 78.8%-104.6% (<5.5% RSDs). PMID:27237837

  8. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  9. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  10. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  11. Metal organic framework–organic polymer monolith stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography and nano-liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Microwave-assisted synthesis of hybrid metal organic framework (MOF)–polymer monolith. •MOF–polymer monolith was applied to CEC, nano-UHPLC and nano-LC–MS2. •Excellent separation for isomers, aromatic acids and PAHs were achieved. •High sequence coverage for the nano-LC separation tryptic digested BSA peptides. -- Abstract: In this study, metal organic framework (MOF)–organic polymer monoliths prepared via a 5-min microwave-assisted polymerization of ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) with the addition of various weight percentages (30–60%) of porous MOF (MIL-101(Cr)) were developed as stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) and nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms of these MOF–organic polymer monoliths showed the presence of the inherent characteristic peaks and the nano-sized pores of MIL-101(Cr), which confirmed an unaltered crystalline MIL-101(Cr) skeleton after synthesis; while energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and micro-FT-IR spectra suggested homogenous distribution of MIL-101(Cr) in the MIL-101(Cr)–poly(BMA–EDMA) monoliths. This hybrid MOF–polymer column demonstrated high permeability, with almost 800-fold increase compared to MOF packed column, and efficient separation of various analytes (xylene, chlorotoluene, cymene, aromatic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trypsin digested BSA peptides) either in CEC or nano-LC. This work demonstrated high potentials for MOF–organic polymer monolith as stationary phase in miniaturized chromatography for the first time

  12. Metal organic framework–organic polymer monolith stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography and nano-liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hsi-Ya, E-mail: hyhuang@cycu.edu.tw; Lin, Cheng-Lan; Wu, Cheng-You; Cheng, Yi-Jie; Lin, Chia-Her, E-mail: chiaher@cycu.edu.tw

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Microwave-assisted synthesis of hybrid metal organic framework (MOF)–polymer monolith. •MOF–polymer monolith was applied to CEC, nano-UHPLC and nano-LC–MS{sup 2}. •Excellent separation for isomers, aromatic acids and PAHs were achieved. •High sequence coverage for the nano-LC separation tryptic digested BSA peptides. -- Abstract: In this study, metal organic framework (MOF)–organic polymer monoliths prepared via a 5-min microwave-assisted polymerization of ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) with the addition of various weight percentages (30–60%) of porous MOF (MIL-101(Cr)) were developed as stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) and nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms of these MOF–organic polymer monoliths showed the presence of the inherent characteristic peaks and the nano-sized pores of MIL-101(Cr), which confirmed an unaltered crystalline MIL-101(Cr) skeleton after synthesis; while energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and micro-FT-IR spectra suggested homogenous distribution of MIL-101(Cr) in the MIL-101(Cr)–poly(BMA–EDMA) monoliths. This hybrid MOF–polymer column demonstrated high permeability, with almost 800-fold increase compared to MOF packed column, and efficient separation of various analytes (xylene, chlorotoluene, cymene, aromatic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trypsin digested BSA peptides) either in CEC or nano-LC. This work demonstrated high potentials for MOF–organic polymer monolith as stationary phase in miniaturized chromatography for the first time.

  13. Development of high internal phase emulsion polymeric monoliths for highly efficient enrichment of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from large-volume water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Nie, Honggang; Xie, Ting; Zheng, Yanjie; Du, Fuyou; Li, Jianping

    2015-07-31

    In this work, polymerized high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) monoliths were prepared and applied as monolithic adsorbent materials for proconcentration of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from large-volume water samples. The monolithic polyHIPE columns were prepared by in situ polymerization of the continuous phase of a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing styrene (STY), divinylbenzene (DVB) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) in pipette tips, and the resulting STY/DVB/GMA polyHIPE monoliths exhibited highly interconnected porosity and large surface areas, making them excellent candidates as adsorbents for enrichment of trace aromatic compounds. The prepared STY/DVB/GMA polyHIPE monoliths were applied to the determination of trace PAHs in environmental water samples by combing with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the polyHIPE monoliths could effectively enrich trace 13 PAHs from 500mL of water samples, the mean recoveries at four spiked levels were ranged from 80.7% to 115.0% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 14%, and the detection limits (LODs) were ranged from 4.0 to 228pg/L. In addition, the prepared polyHIPE monolith was stable enough for more than 200 replicate extraction cycles without measurable loss of performance on the enrichment of PAHs, and good column-to-column repeatability was obtained with RSD less than 13%. The proposed method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 13 PAHs in water samples with satisfactory recoveries. PMID:26077972

  14. Multiplexing strategies for monolithic crystal PET detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reduce the number of output channels and associated cost in PET detectors, strategies to multiplex the signal channels have been investigated by several researchers. This work aims to find an optimal multiplexing strategy for detector modules consisting of a monolithic LYSO scintillator coupled to a 64-channel PMT. We apply simulated multiplexing strategies to measured data from two continuous miniature crystal element (cMiCE) detector modules. The strategies tested include standard methods such as row column summation and its variants, as well as new data-driven methods involving the principal components of measured data and variants of those components. The detector positioning resolution and bias are measured for each multiplexing strategy and the results are compared. The mean FWHM over the entire detector was 1.23 mm for no multiplexing (64 channels). Using 16 principal component channels yielded a mean FWHM resolution of 1.21 mm, while traditional row/column summation (16 channels) yielded 1.28 mm. Using 8 principal component output channels resulted in a resolution of 1.30 mm. Using the principal components of the calibration data to guide the multiplexing scheme appears to be a viable method for reducing the number of output data channels. Further study is needed to determine if the depth-of-interaction resolution can be preserved with this multiplexing scheme. (paper)

  15. Slender CRC Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    CRC is a high-performance steel fibre reinforced concrete with a typical compressive strength of 150 MPa. Design methods for a number of structural elements have been developed since CRC was invented in 1986, but the current project set out to further investigate the range of columns for which...... current design guides can be used. The columns tested had a slenderness varying from 1.11 to 12.76 and a reinforcement ratio (area of rebar to area of concrete) ranging from 0 to 8.8 %. A total of 77 tests were carried out - 61 columns were tested in ambient conditions and 16 columns were tested in...... standard fire conditions. The tests showed good correlation between test results and results calculated according to established deisgn guides. The fire tests demonstrate that the load capacity of slender columns can be reduced very quickly due to thermal stresses and a reduction of stiffness - also in...

  16. Purification and reconstitution of chloride channels from kidney and trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride channels mediate absorption and secretion of fluid in epithelia, and the regulation of these channels is now known to be defective in cystic fibrosis. Indanyl-oxyacetic acid 94 (IAA-94) is a high-affinity ligand for the chloride channel, and an affinity resin based on that structure was developed. Solubilized proteins from kidney and trachea membranes were applied to the affinity matrix, and four proteins with apparent molecular masses of 97, 64, 40, and 27 kilodaltons were eluted from the column by excess IAA-94. A potential-dependent 36Cl- uptake was observed after reconstituting these proteins into liposomes. Three types of chloride channels with single-channel conductances of 26, 100, and 400 picosiemens were observed after fusion of these liposomes with planar lipid bilayers. Similar types of chloride channels have been observed in epithelia

  17. Fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia molar crowns with reduced thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Harada, A.; Inagaki, R.; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Y; Milleding, Percy; Ørtengren, Ulf Thore

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between fracture load of monolithic zirconia crowns and axial/occlusal thickness, and to evaluate the fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns with reduced thickness in comparison with that of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns with regular thickness. Materials and methods. Monolithic zirconia crowns (Lava Plus Zirconia, 3M/ESPE) with specified axial/occlusal thicknesses and lithium disilica...

  18. Mass transport in aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaist, D.G.

    1986-09-01

    Conductimetric and diaphragm cell techniques have been used to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride solutions at 25/sup 0/C. At low concentrations where Zn/sup 2 +/ is the major zinc-transporting species, the diffusion-induced electric field along zinc chloride concentration gradients drives large co-current flows of potassium chloride. In concentrated solutions where a large proportion of zinc diffusses as anionic ZnCl/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ complexes, flow of zinc chloride generates counterflow of potassium chloride. If a sharp zinc chloride is formed in an otherwise uniform solution of potassium chloride, coupled diffusion can concentrate potassium ions within the diffusion boundary. Equations are developed to predict multicomponent transport coefficients for zinc chloride in supporting electrolytes.

  19. Cyclic performance and simplified pushover analyses of precast segmental concrete bridge columns with circular section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhanyu; Guo, Jian; Zheng, Rongyue; Song, Jianwei; Lee, George C.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, precast segmental concrete bridge columns became prevalent because of the benefits of accelerated construction, low environmental impact, high quality and low life cycle costs. The lack of a detailed configuration and appropriate design procedure to ensure a comparable performance with monolithic construction has impeded this structural system from being widely used in areas of high seismicity. In this study, precast segmental bridge column cyclic loading tests were conducted to investigate the performance of unbonded post-tensioned segmental bridge columns. One monolithic and two precast segmental columns were tested. The precast segmental column exhibited minor damage and small residual displacement after the maximum 7% cyclic drift; energy dissipation (ED) can be enhanced byadding ED bars. The experimental results were modeled by a simplified pushover method (SPOM), as well as a fiber model (FIBM) finite element method. Forty-five cases of columns with different aspect ratios, axial load ratios and ED bar ratios were analyzed with the SPOM and FIBM, respectively. Using these parametric results, a simplified design method was suggested by regressive analysis. Satisfactory correlation was found between the experimental results and the simplified design method for precast segmental columns with different design parameters.

  20. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  1. UPDATE ON MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue; G. A. Moore; N. P. Hallinan; B. H. Park; D. E. Burkes

    2006-10-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Progress at INL has led to fabrication of hot isostatic pressed uranium-molybdenum bearing monolithic fuel plates. These miniplates are part of the RERTR-8 miniplate irradiation test. Further progress has also been made on friction stir weld processing which has been used to fabricate full size fuel plates which will be irradiated in the ATR and OSIRIS reactors.

  2. Monolithic JFET preamplifier for ionization chamber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monolithic charge sensitive preamplifier using exclusively n-channel diffused JFETs has been designed and is now being fabricated by INTERFET Corp. by means of a dielectrically isolated process which allows preserving as much as possible the technology upon which discrete JFETs are based. A first prototype built by means of junction isolated process has been delivered. The characteristics of monolithically integrated JFETs compare favorably with discrete devices. First results of tests of a preamplifier which uses these devices are reported. 4 refs

  3. Design of zirconium tetra chloride purification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of zirconium tetrachloride purification apparatus was done. The purification was done by sublimation and desublimation of zirconium tetrachloride compound. Zirconium tetrachloride,which was produced by the chlorination processes, was sublimated at 600oC then was desublimated at 331oC. The impurities could be separated. Zirconium tetra chloride was put at the tray in the column heated by the furnace, so that it sublimated. Ferri and Chromi salt was reduced to be ferro and chromo which could not be sublimated. Desublimation, was done in the cooler from pipe which was flowed by water. Cooler mode from 6 pieces of pipe, 1/4 inch in diameter and 30 cm in length. The water flow was 2.8 l/minute. Air was entered in the annulus surrounding the column. From the 80 cm length of the column, 50 cm was used for sublimation, and 30 cm for desublimation. Heat requirement was supplied by a furnace outside of the column. Heat flux could be arranged by the controller. (author)

  4. Gold nanoparticles immobilized hydrophilic monoliths with variable functional modification for highly selective enrichment and on-line deglycosylation of glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Wu, Ci; Zhao, Qun; Wu, Qi; Jiang, Bo; Weng, Yejing; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2015-11-01

    The poly (glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate) monoliths modified with gold nanoparticles, with advantages of enhanced reactive sites, good hydrophilicity and facile modification, were prepared as the matrix, followed by variable functionalization with cysteine and PNGase F for glycopeptide enrichment and on-line deglycosylation respectively. By the cysteine functionalized monolithic column, glycopeptides could be efficiently and selectively enriched with good reproducibility based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). Furthermore, the enrichment was specially achieved in weak alkaline environment, with 10 mM NH4HCO3 as the elution buffer, compatible with deglycosylation conditions. Therefore, the glycopeptides could be on-line deglycosylated with high efficiency and throughput by directly coupling the PNGase F functionalized monolithic column with the enrichment column during elution without the requirement of buffer exchange and pH adjustment. By such a method, within only 70-min pretreatment, 196 N-linked glycopeptides, corresponding to 122 glycoproteins, could be identified from 5 μg of human plasma with 14 high-abundant proteins removed, and the N-linked glycopeptides occupied 81% of all identified peptides, achieving to the best of our knowledge, the highest selectivity of HILIC-based methods. All the results demonstrated the high efficiency, selectivity and throughput of our proposed strategy for the large scale glycoproteome analysis. PMID:26572842

  5. Immobilized enzyme reactor chromatography: Optimization of protein retention and enzyme activity in monolithic silica stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besanger, Travis R. [Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4M1 (Canada); Hodgson, Richard J. [Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4M1 (Canada); Green, James R.A. [Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4M1 (Canada); Brennan, John D. [Department of Chemistry, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4M1 (Canada)]. E-mail: brennanj@mcmaster.ca

    2006-03-30

    Our group recently reported on the application of protein-doped monolithic silica columns for immobilized enzyme reactor chromatography, which allowed screening of enzyme inhibitors present in mixtures using mass spectrometry for detection. The enzyme was immobilized by entrapment within a bimodal meso/macroporous silica material prepared by a biocompatible sol-gel processing route. While such columns proved to be useful for applications such as screening of protein-ligand interactions, significant amounts of entrapped proteins leached from the columns owing to the high proportion of macropores within the materials. Herein, we describe a detailed study of factors affecting the morphology of protein-doped bioaffinity columns and demonstrate that specific pH values and concentrations of poly(ethylene glycol) can be used to prepare essentially mesoporous columns that retain over 80% of initially loaded enzyme in an active and accessible form and yet still retain sufficient porosity to allow pressure-driven flow in the low {mu}L/min range. Using the enzyme {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase ({gamma}-GT), we further evaluated the catalytic constants of the enzyme entrapped in capillary columns with different silica morphologies as a function of flowrate and backpressure using the enzyme reactor assay mode. It was found that the apparent activity of the enzyme was highest in mesoporous columns that retained high levels of enzyme. In such columns, enzyme activity increased by {approx}2-fold with increases in both flowrate (from 250 to 1000 nL/min) and backpressure generated (from 500 to 2100 psi) during the chromatographic activity assay owing to increases in k {sub cat} and decreases in K {sub M}, switching from diffusion controlled to reaction controlled conditions at ca. 2000 psi. These results suggest that columns with minimal macropore volumes (<5%) are advantageous for the entrapment of soluble proteins for bioaffinity and bioreactor chromatography.

  6. Enhancing mass transfer and ethanol production in syngas fermentation of Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 through a monolithic biofilm reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Syngas fermentation process is limited by gas-to-liquid mass transfer. • A novel monolithic biofilm reactor (MBR) for efficient mass transfer was developed. • MBR with slug flow resulted in higher kLa than bubble column reactor (BCR). • MBR enhanced ethanol productivity by 53% compared to BCR. • MBR was demonstrated as a promising reactor configuration for syngas fermentation. - Abstract: Syngas fermentation is a promising process for producing fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Currently syngas fermentation faces several engineering challenges, with gas-to-liquid mass transfer limitation representing the major bottleneck. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a monolithic biofilm reactor (MBR) as a novel reactor configuration for syngas fermentation. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) of the MBR was evaluated in abiotic conditions within a wide range of gas flow rates (i.e., gas velocity in monolithic channels) and liquid flow rates (i.e., liquid velocity in the channels). The kLa values of the MBR were higher than those of a controlled bubble column reactor (BCR) in certain conditions, due to the slug flow pattern in the monolithic channels. A continuous syngas fermentation using Clostridium carboxidivorans P7 was conducted in the MBR system under varying operational conditions, with the variables including syngas flow rate, liquid recirculation between the monolithic column and reservoir, and dilution rate. It was found that the syngas fermentation performance – measured by such parameters as syngas utilization efficiency, ethanol concentration and productivity, and ratio of ethanol to acetic acid – depended not only on the mass transfer efficiency but also on the biofouling or abrading of the biofilm attached on the monolithic channel wall. At a condition of 300 mL/min of syngas flow rate, 500 mL/min of liquid flow rate, and 0.48 day−1 of dilution rate, the MBR produced much higher syngas

  7. Effective Diffusivities and Pore-Transport Characteristics of Washcoated Monolith for Automotive Catalytic Converter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, T.; Šolcová, Olga; Schneider, Petr; Marek, M.; Schejbal, M.

    Praha : Procesní inženýrství, 2005 - (Bočková, J.; Halfar, R.), s. 125 ISBN 80-86059-42-1. [Konference chemického a procesního inženýrství CHISA 2005 /52./. Srní, Šumava (CZ), 17.10.2005-20.10.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : single pellet-string column * effective diffusivity * monolith catalyst Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  8. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  9. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  10. Development of a novel monolith frit-based solid-phase microextraction method for determination of hexanal and heptanal in human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Yan, Zhihua; Song, Dandan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a polypropylene frit with porous network structure and high area-to-thickness ratio (4.8 mm diameter, 1.6 mm thickness, 20 mm pore size) was utilized as a mould of monolith. Poly(methacrylic acid-ethlyene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-EGDMA) monolith was in situ synthesized in the micro-channel of frit by photopolymerization. A monolith frit-based solid-phase microextraction method (SPME) was developed for the determination of hexanal and heptanal in serum samples by combining with high-performance liquid chromatography. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) as the derivatizing reagent was absorbed on a monolith frit, then its derivatization reaction with aldehydes and the absorption of formed hydrazones on the monolith disk occurred simultaneously. The condition parameters for polymerization, derivatization and extraction were optimized systematically. Under the optimum conditions, rigid structure, low back-pressure and high column capacity were achieved for the monolith frit. The limits of detection for hexanal and heptanal were 1.86 and 1.38 nmol/L, respectively. The inter- and intra-day relative standard deviations were less than 7.7% (n = 6). This method was applied successfully to aldehydes analysis in human serum samples. The method possesses advantages such as simplicity, efficiency, low cost and good biocompatibility. It provides an alternative approach for quantification of aldehydes in complex biological samples. PMID:22271665

  11. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  12. Development of oxide fibrous monolith systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goretta, K. C.

    1999-03-02

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics generally have a cellular structure that consists of a strong cell surrounded by a weaker boundary phase [1-5]. Fibrous monoliths (FMs) are produced from powders by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques, such as extrusion [1,2]. When properly engineered, they exhibit fail gracefully [3-5]. Several compositions of ceramics and cermets have been processed successfully in fibrous monolithic form [4]. The most thoroughly investigated fibrous monolith consists of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells and a BN cell-boundary phase [3-5]. Through appropriate selection of initial powders and extrusion and hot-pressing parameters, very tough final products have been produced. The resultant high toughness is due primarily to delamination during fracture along textured platelike BN grains. The primary objectives of our program are to develop: (1) Oxide-based FMs, including new systems with improved properties; (2) FMs that can be pressureless sintered rather than hot-pressed; (3) Techniques for continuous extrusion of FM filaments, including solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for net-shape fabrication of FMs; (4) Predictive micromechanical models for FM design and performance; and (5) Ties with industrial producers and users of FMs.

  13. Chemical routes to monolithic hydroxyapatite formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Of the inorganic materials used to replace hard tissues only hydroxyapatite is biologically familiar. The biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite is well documented, making it an attractive candidate for a hard tissue analog provided the needed mechanical properties can be realized. In selecting analogs of hard tissues, it is highly desirable to eliminate the need for preforms, thereby allowing implanted materials to accommodate to the shapes of defects. This can be accomplished if the implanted material hardens in vivo. When produced in monolithic form at physiological temperature, HAp may have the mechanical integrity required to emulate the functions of hard tissues and serve as substrata on which cellular functions can proceed. If HAp can be formed in vivo, the surgeon does not need to rely on preforms. Therefore, HAp formed in this manner can serve a variety of needs in medicine and dentistry. Because of these clinical advantages, this presentation addresses hydroxyapatite capable of being formed in vivo. A variety of reactions can be used to produce hydroxyapatite monoliths under conditions compatible with those in the body. Those reactions have features in common and their enumeration will be the basis for the presentation. In particular, the mechanistic path to HAp formation is similar to that of cements used in civil engineering. Calcium phosphate precursors undergo dissolution in aqueous solutions and precipitate HAp. In common with cement-like reactions, HAp monoliths produced in this way accommodate to physical dimensions of their forms (e.g. bone defects). Porosity becomes distributed throughout the monolith and the monolith does not undergo shrinkage as occurs during sintering. HAp formed in this way will be discussed in terms of multicomponent phase behavior, kinetics of the reactions, and mechanical properties that can be realized. (orig.)

  14. Connection Between Liquid Distribution and Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer in Monolithic Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许闽; 刘辉; 李成岳; 周媛; 季生福

    2011-01-01

    With a particular focus on the connection between liquid flow distribution and gas-liquid mass transfer in monolithic beds in the Taylor flow regime, hydrodynamic and gas-liquid mass transfer experiments were carriedout in a column with a monolithic bed of cell density of 50 cpsi with trio different distributors (nozzle and packed bed distributors). Liquid saturation in individual channels was measured by using self-made micro-conductivity probes. A mal-distribution factor was used to evaluate uniform degree of phase distribution in monoliths. Overall bed pressure drop and mass transfer coefficients were measured. For liquid flow distribution and gas-liquid masstransfer, it is found that the superficial liquid velocity is a crucial factor and the packed bed distributor is better than the nozzle distributor. A semi-theoretical analysis using single channel models shows that the packed bed distributor always yields shorter and uniformly distributed liquid slugs compared to the nozzle distributor, which in turn ensures a better mass transfer performance. A bed scale mass transfer model is proposed by employing the single channel models in individual channels and incorporating effects of non-uniform liquid distribution along the bedcross-section. The model predicts the overall gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient wig a relative error within +30%.

  15. Polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits made of polyether ether ketone tubing with a 0.25 mm opening resulting in an improved separation performance in liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin Young; Cheong, Won Jo

    2016-05-01

    Tiny polyether ether ketone encased monolith frits have been prepared by modified catalytic sulfonation of the inner surface of polyether ether tubing (1.6 mm od, 0.25 mm id) followed by modified formation of organic monolith and cutting of the tubing into slices. The frit was placed below the central hole of the column outlet union and supported by a combination of a silica capillary (0.365 mm od, 0.05 mm id) and a polyether ether ketone sleeve (1.6 mm od, 0.38 mm id) tightened with a nut and a ferrule when the column was packed to prevent sinking of the frit element into the union hole (0.25 mm opening) otherwise. The column packed this way with the frits investigated in this study has shown better separation performance owing to the reduced frit volume in comparison to the column packed with a commercial stainless-steel screen frit. This study establishes the strategy of disposable microcolumns in which cheap disposable frits are used whenever the column is re-packed to yield columns of even better chromatographic performance than the columns with commercial frits. PMID:26910135

  16. Slender CRC Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    CRC is a high-performance steel fibre reinforced concrete with a typical compressive strength of 150 MPa. Design methods for a number of structural elements have been developed since CRC was invented in 1986, but the current project set out to further investigate the range of columns for which current design guides can be used. The columns tested had a slenderness varying from 1.11 to 12.76 and a reinforcement ratio (area of rebar to area of concrete) ranging from 0 to 8.8 %. A total of 77 te...

  17. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  18. Application-specific architectures of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelezniak, Michal; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Colledani, Claude; Degerli, Yavuz; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Deveaux, Michael; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Fourches, Nicolas; Goffe, Mathieu; Grandjean, Damien; Guilloux, Fabrice; Heini, Sebastien; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne; Pellicioli, Michel; Shabetai, Alexandre; Valin, Isabelle; Winter, Marc

    2006-11-01

    Several development directions intended to adapt and optimize monolithic active pixel sensors for specific applications are presented in this work. The first example, compatible with the STAR microvertex upgrade, is based on a simple two-transistor pixel circuitry. It is suited for a long integration time, room-temperature operation and minimum power dissipation. In another approach for this application, a specific readout method is proposed, allowing optimization of the integration time independently of the full frame-readout time. The circuit consists of an in-pixel front-end voltage amplifier, with a gain on the order of five, followed by two analog memory cells. The extended version of this scheme, based on the implementation of more memory cells per pixel, is the solution considered for the outer layers of a microvertex detector at the international linear collider. For the two innermost layers, a circuit allowing fast frame scans together with on-line, on-chip data sparsification is proposed. The first results of this prototype demonstrate that the fixed pattern dispersion is reduced below a noise level of 15 e -, allowing the use of a single comparator or a low-resolution ADC per pixel column. A common element for most of the mentioned readout schemes is a low-noise, low power consumption, layout efficient in-pixel amplifier. A review of possible solutions for this element together with some experimental results is presented.

  19. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W

    2013-01-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio ( Q / C ). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q / C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining suf fi cient Q / C , collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  20. Comparison of soil-monolith extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, R.; Rupp, H.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    In the international literature the term „lysimeter" is used for different objectives, e.g. suction cups, fluxmeters, etc. According to our understanding it belongs to the direct methods to measure water and solute fluxes in soil. Depending on the scientific task the shape and dimensions of the lysimeter as well as the type of filling (disturbed or undisturbed) and the specific instrumentation can be different. In any case where water dynamics or solute transport in natural soil is considered, lysimeters should be filled with 'undisturbed' monoliths which are large enough to contain the small scale heterogeneity of a site since flow and transport is highly sensitive to soil structure. Furthermore, lysimeters with vegetation should represent the natural crop inventory and the maximum root penetration depth should be taken into account. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview about different methods for obtaining undisturbed soil monoliths, in particular about i) techniques for the vertical and ii) for the horizontal extraction and iii) to evaluate the most frequently used procedures based on X-ray tomography images. Minimal disturbance of the soil monolith during extraction and subsequence filling of the lysimeter vessel is of critical importance for establishing flow and transport conditions corresponding approximately to natural field conditions. In the past, several methods were used to extract and fill lysimeter vessels vertically - including hand digging, employing sets of trihedral scaffold with lifting blocks and ballast, or using heavy duty excavators, which could shear and cut large blocks of soil. More recently, technologies have been developed to extract cylindrical soil monoliths by using ramming equipment or screw presses. One of the great disadvantages of the mentioned methods is the compaction or settling of soil that occurs during the "hammering" or "pressing". For this reason a new technology was developed, which cuts the outline of

  1. Monolithic Optical-To-Electronic Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, Richard; Mactaggert, Ross

    1994-01-01

    Monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit converts multiplexed digital optical signals into electrical signals, separates, and distributes them to intended destinations. Developed to deliver phase and amplitude commands to monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) at elements of millimeter-wave phased-array antenna from single optical fiber driven by external array controller. Also used in distribution of high-data-rate optical communications in local-area networks (LAN's). Notable features include options for optical or electrical clock inputs; outputs for raw data, addresses, and instructions for diagnosis; and optical-signal-detection circuit used to reduce power consumption by 80 percent between data-transmission times. Chip fabricated by processes available at many major semiconductor foundries. Distribution of digital signals in aircraft, automobiles, and ships potential application.

  2. Ground Organic Monolith Particles Having a Large Volume of Macropores as Chromatographic Separation Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reaction mixture was developed for formation of soft organic monolith that was easily smashed, rinsed, refluxed, filtered, and dried to give monolith particles having high pore volume of macropores. This phase was almost without mesopores. The reaction mixture was composed of methacrylic acid, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, polyethylene glycol (porogen), and an initiator in a mixed solvent of toluene and isooctane. The selection of porogen and its amount was carefully carried out to obtain the optimized separation efficiency of the resultant phase. The median macropore size was 1.6 μm, and the total pore volume was 3.0-3.4 mL/g. The median particle size (volume based) was 15 μm, and the range of particle size distribution was very broad. Nevertheless the column (1 Χ 300 mm) packed with this phase showed good separation efficiency (N∼10,000-16,000) comparable to that of a commercial column packed with 5 μm C18 silica particles

  3. Column: Job crafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reep, Frans van der

    2012-01-01

    1e alinea column: Organisaties dienen tegenwoordig randvoorwaarden te creëren waarbij ook behoeftes van de medewerkers aan autonomie, identificatie en zingeving worden vervuld. In organisaties die dit snappen geven de medewerkers zelf vorm aan eigen functie zodat die voldoet aan de behoeftes van de

  4. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges for...

  5. Solgel-derived photosensitive germanosilicate glass monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, A D; Erdogan, T

    2000-12-15

    We demonstrate volume gratings written in solgel-derived, Ge-doped silica monoliths. Glass was fabricated both with and without germanium oxygen deficient center (GODC) defects. The UV absorption and UV-induced index changes of these glasses, with and without hydrogen loading, are reported. The presence of GODC defects greatly enhances the photosensitivity of Ge-doped silica with and without the presence of hydrogen. PMID:18066337

  6. Aluminum chloride restoration of in-situ leached uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    During in-situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other elements (uranium and selenium) that are mobilized during the leaching process, have also been found in post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and, thus, greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid increase in permeability.

  7. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  8. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability.

  9. Characterization of SOI monolithic detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monolithic active pixel sensor for charged particle tracking was developed. This research is performed within the framework of an R and D project called TRAPPISTe (Tracking Particles for Physics Instrumentation in SOI Technology) whose aim is to evaluate the feasibility of developing a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) with Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. Two chips were fabricated: TRAPPISTe-1 and TRAPPISTe-2. TRAPPISTe-1 was produced at the WINFAB facility at the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Belgium, in a 2μm fully depleted (FD-SOI) CMOS process. TRAPPISTe-2 was fabricated with the LAPIS 0.2μm FD-SOI CMOS process. The electrical characterization on single transistor test structures and of the electronic readout for the TRAPPISTe series of monolithic pixel detectors was carried out. The behavior of the prototypes’ electronics as a function of the back voltage was studied. Results showed that both readout circuits exhibited sensitivity to the back voltage. Despite this unwanted secondary effect, the responses of TRAPPISTe-2 amplifiers can be improved by a variation in the circuit parameters

  10. Performance of monolithic concrete waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes can be made into concrete or cement waste form that can be poured into a concrete vault forming a monolith. The waste isolation performance of monolithic concrete waste forms or vaults is generally dominated by the influence of cracks through the structure. In relation to water flow rate and crack spacing, monolithic concrete vaults have three general regions of performance. At extremely low flow rates, release is strictly diffusionally limited. In most situations, flow rates will not be low enough to ensure diffusional release. At slightly greater flow rates (the magnitude of which is dependent upon the diffusion coefficients and crack spacing), release is controlled by the flow rate of water through cracks in the structure with release rate approximately proportional to Darcy flow. In this region, release is not sensitive to block size and the vault behaves as an equivalent porous medium from a mass transport perspective. At higher flow rates, release rate is controlled by diffusion out of intact blocks of waste form. In this situation the release rate is very sensitive to block size (crack spacing) but independent of flow. (author)

  11. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95 reg-sign, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%

  12. Effects of column dimensions on uranium mill tailings leach curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted using different sized columns filled with uranium mill tailings and leached with laboratory-prepared groundwater. The data generated were used to evaluate the effects of length-to-diameter ratios on leach curves. These different column sizes and flow rates provided: different solution/solid contact times, and different column volumes (scaling) and thus allowed us to address the question, Can laboratory results be scaled up to apply to real world disposal conditions. The results showed that the leach curves were similar for all the columns for all elements except chloride and calcium. The general shape of the leach curves for each constituent versus effluent volume was a rapidly decreasing curve from very high concentrations down to the groundwater concentration within about four to six pore volumes. Chloride elution was affected by mechanical dispersion, causing effluent concentrations to reach influent concentrations sooner for the columns with longer residence times. The calcium concentrations remained nearly constant or only slightly decreased over the duration of the experiments and were assumed to be controlled by the dissolution of gypsum. Aside from the chloride data, over the range of residence times and scaling factors studied, we conclude that laboratory data on uranium mill tailings leaching can be used to predict long-term movement of contaminants from actual tailings impoundments. The main reactions tha control contaminant leaching from tailings are the displacement of residual mill process liquor and the redissolution of readily soluble evaporites and moderately soluble gypsum. These processes occur quite rapidly and therefore laboratory experiments with relatively short residence times are still accurate; i.e., lab residence times are long enough to transcend any short-term kinetic effects that could lead to erroneous predictions. 8 references, 6 figures, 3 tables

  13. 2-Methacryloyloxyethyl phosporylcholine-functionalized monolithic silica capillary columns for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    Veszprém : Hungarian Society for Separation Sciences, 2013. s. 102. ISBN 978-963-89335-2-2. [Balaton Symposium on High-Performance Separation Methods /9./. 04.09.2013-06.09.2013, Siofók] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : hilic * capillary chromatography * nucleotide Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  14. Microchip-based monolithic column for high performance liquid chromatography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fabricate the microchannels using DDL facilities. Develop a process for in situ polymerization inside the microchannels and optimize the chemistry Perform...

  15. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified to zwitterionic stationary phase for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Kahle, Vladislav; Horká, Marie; Roth, Michal

    Brno : Ústav analytické chemie AV ČR, v. v. i, 2012 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.; Boček, P.), s. 300-303 ISBN 978-80-904959-1-3. [CECE 2012. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /9./. Brno (CZ), 01.11.2012-02.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20112015021; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : zwitterionic stationary phase * HILIC * phenolic acids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0215358

  16. Preparation and Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Monolithic Column for Felodipine in Micro-liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Liang DENG; Zhi Hong LUN; Chao YAN; Ru Yu GAO

    2005-01-01

    This study concentrated on the production of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as highly selective sorbents for felodipine (FLD), a representive dihydropyridine calcium antagonists.Demonstrated chromatographically through a selection factor, these MIPs showed high selectivity for the template molecule among a group of structurally similar compounds. The recognition was found to correlate with structural similarity to the template compound.

  17. Batch and Column Experiments on Fluoride Removal from Waters Using Modified Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    High fluoride groundwater occurs widely in China, presenting a quite serious environmental problem. Zeolite from Xinyang, China was tested as the fluoride-removing adsorbent. Batch and column experiments on fluoride removal using modified zeolites treated with hydrochloric acid,sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and ferric chloride, respectively show that 0. 1 mol/L HCImodified zeolite can be used as an adsorbent for fluoride, with an adsorption capacity of 173. 16mg/kg.

  18. Decoding the Pantheon Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Gerd Grasshoff; Christian Berndt

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study has been to reconstruct the design principles underlying the construction of the Pantheon’s portico columns as well as to demonstrate how digital investigation methods and models can be used to improve our understanding of ancient architectural knowledge. Thanks to the data of the Bern Digital Pantheon Model, a synthesis of all the scanned surface points obtained during a digitization campaign of the Karman Center for Advanced Studies in the Humanities of the University...

  19. Development and validation of polymerized high internal phase emulsion monoliths coupled with HPLC and fluorescence detection for the determination of trace tetracycline antibiotics in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyou; Zheng, Xian; Sun, Lin; Qin, Qun; Guo, Lin; Ruan, Guihua

    2015-11-01

    A polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolith was used as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection for the determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, and chlorotetracycline in environmental water samples. The polymerized high internal phase emulsion monolithic column was prepared by the in situ polymerization of the continuous phase of a high internal phase emulsion containing glycidyl methacrylate, styrene, and divinylbenzene in pipette tips, and then functionalized with iminodiacetic acid. The resulting monolith exhibited highly interconnected porosity and large surface areas, making it an excellent candidate as an solid-phase extraction sorbent for the enrichment of trace tetracycline antibiotics. Several factors affecting the extraction performance of polymerized high internal phase emulsion monoliths, including the pH of sample solution, the eluting solvents, the sample loading flow rate and volume, were investigated, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the mean recoveries of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, and chlorotetracycline spiked in pond and farm wastewater samples ranged from 78.1 to 119.3% with relative standard deviation less than 15%. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of the proposed method were in the range of 51-137 pg/mL. This study demonstrated that the monolithic polymerized high internal phase emulsion would be promising solid-phase extraction sorbents in the extraction and proconcentration of trace analytes from complex samples. PMID:26331390

  20. Selective oxidation of cyclohexene through gold functionalized silica monolith microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed T.; Taylor, Martin J.; Liu, Dan; Beaumont, Simon K.; Kyriakou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Two simple, reproducible methods of preparing evenly distributed Au nanoparticle containing mesoporous silica monoliths are investigated. These Au nanoparticle containing monoliths are subsequently investigated as flow reactors for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene. In the first strategy, the silica monolith was directly impregnated with Au nanoparticles during the formation of the monolith. The second approach was to pre-functionalize the monolith with thiol groups tethered within the silica mesostructure. These can act as evenly distributed anchors for the Au nanoparticles to be incorporated by flowing a Au nanoparticle solution through the thiol functionalized monolith. Both methods led to successfully achieving even distribution of Au nanoparticles along the length of the monolith as demonstrated by ICP-OES. However, the impregnation method led to strong agglomeration of the Au nanoparticles during subsequent heating steps while the thiol anchoring procedure maintained the nanoparticles in the range of 6.8 ± 1.4 nm. Both Au nanoparticle containing monoliths as well as samples with no Au incorporated were tested for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene under constant flow at 30 °C. The Au free materials were found to be catalytically inactive with Au being the minimum necessary requirement for the reaction to proceed. The impregnated Au-containing monolith was found to be less active than the thiol functionalized Au-containing material, attributable to the low metal surface area of the Au nanoparticles. The reaction on the thiol functionalized Au-containing monolith was found to depend strongly on the type of oxidant used: tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) was more active than H2O2, likely due to the thiol induced hydrophobicity in the monolith.

  1. Behavior of Columns During Earthquakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The behavior of columns during earthquakes is very important since column failures may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building...

  2. Determination of Two Columns Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    When protein is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the selection of column is one of the most important factors. There are four quality control parameters for the column, which are theoretical plates n, capacity facto

  3. Nanoparticle modified monolithic materials for phosphopeptide enrichment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    Caparica : Proteomass Scientific Society, 2014 - (Lodeiro, C.; Capelo, J.; Santos, H.; Oliveira, E.; Nunez-Glez, C.; Araújo, J.; Lodeiro, A.). s. 31 ISBN 978-989-98793-9-3. [Caparica Christmas Conference on Sample Treatment 2014 /1./. 08.12.2014-10.12.2014, Caparica - Almada] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06319S Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311201 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : nanoparticles * monolith * phsophopeptides Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  4. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  5. Monolithic fabrication of millimeter-scale machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon-based MEMS techniques dominate sub-millimeter scale manufacturing, while a myriad of conventional methods exist to produce larger machines measured in centimeters and beyond. So-called mesoscale devices, existing between these length scales, remain difficult to manufacture. We present a versatile fabrication process, loosely based on printed circuit board manufacturing techniques, for creating monolithic, topologically complex, three-dimensional machines in parallel at the millimeter to centimeter scales. The fabrication of a 90 mg flapping wing robotic insect demonstrates the sophistication attainable by these techniques, which are expected to support device manufacturing on an industrial scale. (paper)

  6. Thiol-ene-based monolithic microreactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Jakub; Lafleur, J. P.; Kutter, J. P.

    Brno : Institute of Analytical Chemistry AS CR, 2014 - (Foret, F.; Křenková, J.; Drobníková, I.; Guttman, A.; Klepárník, K.), s. 53-55 ISBN 978-80-904959-2-0. [CECE 2014. International Interdisciplinary Meeting on Bioanalysis /11./. Brno (CZ), 20.10.2014-22.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : thiol-ene * monolith * enzyme immobilization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://www.ce-ce.org/CECE2014/CECE%202014%20proceedings_full.pdf

  7. Purification of influenza deoxyribonucleic acid-based vaccine using agmatine monolith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, D; Caramelo-Nunes, C; Sousa, A; Sousa, F; Queiroz, J A; Tomaz, C T

    2016-02-15

    Lately, researchers have made several efforts to improve vaccine production to fight highly contagious respiratory diseases like influenza. One of the most promising options for reducing the impact of this virus is DNA vaccination. However, a large quantity of highly pure plasmid DNA (pDNA) is necessary to attain this goal. The present work describes the production and purification of the plasmid NTC7482-41H-VA2HA expressing influenza virus hemagglutinin using an agmatine monolith. This ligand was chosen to purify supercoiled (sc) pDNA from complex lysates because of its versatile multimodal character. Its natural intervention in several biological systems together with its similarity with the highly studied arginine ligand allowed the development of a simpler and more specific purification process. Agmatine works under two strategies: descending ammonium sulfate gradient and ascending sodium chloride gradient. Furthermore, pH manipulation revealed an important role in pDNA isoforms selectivity. Dynamic binding capacity (DBC) experiments were performed varying different parameters and showed an increase with pDNA concentration, while high flow rate and high pH had the opposite effect. Sc pDNA was purified with high yield and was efficient with respect to cell transfection and cell viability. This monolith showed to be appropriate to purify the plasmid NTC7482-41H-VA2HA, providing a valuable tool for pDNA influenza vaccines preparation. PMID:26827278

  8. Media Presentation Synchronisation for Non-monolithic Rendering Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaishnavi, I.; Bulterman, D.C.A.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Gao, B.

    2007-01-01

    Non-monolithic renderers are physically distributed media playback engines. Non-monolithic renderers may use a number of different underlying network connection types to transmit media items belonging to a presentation. There is therefore a need for a media based and inter-network- type synchronizat

  9. Fibrous monoliths: Economic ceramic matrix composites from powders [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark; Sutaria, Manish; Mulligan, Anthony; Creegan, Peter; Cipriani, Ron

    1999-05-26

    The project was to develop and perform pilot-scale production of fibrous monolith composites. The principal focus of the program was to develop damage-tolerant, wear-resistant tooling for petroleum drilling applications and generate a basic mechanical properties database on fibrous monolith composites.

  10. Design considerations for monolithic unidirectional planar ring oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Bao, Guojun; Ge, Yi; Wang, Zhongming; He, Anzhi; Tao, Hailin

    1996-09-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of monolithic unidirectional planar ring oscillator (PROs) are analyzed, and design criteria for PROs with low thresholds and large nonreciprocities are expounded on the basis of the eigenpolarization theory of monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators. A Nd:BGO PRO is designed to take advantage of its large Verdet coefficient.

  11. A Monolithic Perovskite Structure for Use as a Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini; Clemens, Frank; Menon, Mohan; Nielsen, Pernille Hedemark; Brodersen, Karen; Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Smith, Anders

    2011-01-01

    A La0.67Ca0.26Sr0.07Mn1.05O3 (LCSM) perovskite was prepared for the first time as a ceramic monolithic regenerator used in a regenerative magnetic refrigeration device. The parameters influencing the extrusion process and the performance of the regenerator, such as the nature of the monolith paste...

  12. Reactive transport experiments of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in laboratory soil columns

    OpenAIRE

    Boluda Botella, Nuria; Cases López, Vicente; León León, Victor Manuel; Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Prats Rico, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory column experiments aids in the understanding of hydrogeochemistry dynamics of different linear alkylbenzene sulfonate homologues when they interact with different sand/soil proportions. Previously it was necessary to characterize the soil columns with a tracer. In this paper, the method to obtain breakthrough curves for the conductivity and chloride concentration of a tracer is verified, and also permits the calculation of transport parameters with an easy-to-use interface, ACUAINT...

  13. Effect of PET Wrapping on Shear Performance of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dawei; Zhao, Yuxi; Jin, Weiliang; Ueda, Tamon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study is presented on the influence of PET warping on shear performance, such as diagonal shear cracking load, peak load, and energy dissipation of RC columns with stirrup corrosion before strengthening. The experimental program involved an electrochemical process to accelerate the migration of chlorides from an external electrolyte into the tested columns, a wetting–drying cycle process with a controlled current to speed up the corrosion of the stirrup in the t...

  14. Column and Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch and column experiments were performed to determine the Cu(II binding capacity of silica-immobilized humin biomass. For column studies, 500 bed volumes of a 0.1 mM Cu(II solution were passed through humin packed columns at the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mL/min. The biopolymer showed an average Cu binding capacity of 12 ± 1.5 mg/g and a Cu recovery of about 96.5 % ± 1.5. The breakthrough points for Cu(II alone were approximately 420, 390, 385, and 300 bed volumes for the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mL/min, respectively. The interference studies demonstrated that at low concentrations, the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II did not seem to represent a major interference on Cu(II binding to the humin biopolymer. The selectivity showed by this biopolymer was Cu(II>Ca(II>Mg(II. On the other hand, batch experiments showed that Ca(II + Mg(II at 100mM each reduced the Cu(II binding to 73 %. However, 1000 mM concentrations of Ca(II and Mg(II, separately and in mixture, reduced the Cu(II binding to 47 %, 44 % and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that immobilized humin in a silica matrix could represent an inexpensive bio-source for Cu removal from contaminated water, even in the presence of low concentrations of the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II.

  15. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  16. Column: Every Last Byte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance powder is the name that was given to poisons, especially arsenic, that were commonly used in the 17th and early 18th centuries to hasten the death of the elderly. For most of the 17th century, arsenic was deadly but undetectable, making it nearly impossible to prove that someone had been poisoned. The first arsenic test produced a gas—hardly something that a scientist could show to a judge. Faced with a growing epidemic of poisonings, doctors and chemists spent decades searching for something better.(see PDF for full column

  17. High-internal-phase-emulsion polymeric monolith coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for enrichment and sensitive detection of trace cytokinins in plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyou; Sun, Lin; Zhen, Xian; Nie, Honggang; Zheng, Yanjie; Ruan, Guihua; Li, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    High-internal-phase-emulsion polymers (polyHIPEs) show great promise as solid-phase-extraction (SPE) materials because of the tremendous porosity and highly interconnected framework afforded by the high-internal-phase-emulsion (HIPE) technique. In this work, polyHIPE monolithic columns as novel SPE materials were prepared and applied to trace enrichment of cytokinins (CKs) from complex plant samples. The polyHIPE monoliths were synthesized via the in-situ polymerization of the continuous phase of a HIPE containing styrene (STY) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in a stainless column, and revealed highly efficient and selective enrichment ability for aromatic compounds. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a method using a monolithic polyHIPE column combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and sensitive determination of trans-zeatin (tZ), meta-topolin (mT), kinetin (K), and kinetin riboside (KR). The proposed method had good linearity, with correlation coefficients (R (2)) from 0.9957 to 0.9984, and low detection limits (LODs, S/N = 3) in the range 2.4-47 pg mL(-1) for the four CKs. The method was successfully applied to the determination of CKs in real plant samples, and obtained good recoveries ranging from 68.8 % to 103.0 % and relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 16 %. PMID:26025552

  18. Research and Development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Detection of the Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to develop high spatial resolution and readout speed vertex detectors for the future International Linear Collider (ILC), fast CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are studied on this work. Two prototypes of MAPS, MIMOSA 8 and MIMOSA 16, based on the same micro-electronic architecture were developed in CMOS processes with different thickness of epitaxial layer. The size of pixel matrix is 32 x 128: 8 columns of the pixel array are readout directly with analog outputs and the other 24 columns are connected to the column level auto-zero discriminators. The Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) structures are successfully implemented inside pixel and discriminator. The photo diode type pixels with different diode sizes are used in these prototypes. With a 55Fe X-ray radioactive source, the important parameters, such as Temporal Noise, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor (CVF) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE), are studied as function of readout speed and diode size. For MIMOSA 8, the effect of fast neutrons irradiation is also. Two beam tests campaigns were made: at DESY with a 5 GeV electrons beam and at CERN with a 180 GeV pions beam. Detection Efficiency and Spatial Resolution are studied in function of the discriminator threshold. For these two parameters, the influences of diode size and SNR of the central pixel of a cluster are also discussed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the digital outputs, a very compact (25 μm x 1 mm) and low consumption (300 μW) column level ADC is designed in AMS 0.35 μm OPTO process. Based on successive approximation architecture, the auto-offset cancellation structure is integrated. A new column level auto-zero discriminator using static latch is also designed. (author)

  19. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  20. On monolithic stability and reinforcement analysis of high arch dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Qiang; CHEN; YingRu; LIU; YaoRu

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic stability safety and reinforcement based on monolithic stability are very important for arch dam design.In this paper,the issue is addressed based on deformation reinforcement theory.In this approach,plastic complementary energy norm can be taken as safety Index for monolithic stability.According to deformation reinforcement theory,the areas where unbalanced force exists require reinforcement,and the required reinforcement forces are just the unbalanced forces with opposite direction.Results show that areas with unbalanced force mainly concentrate in dam-toes,dam-heels and faults.

  1. A decoupled monolithic projection method for natural convection problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaomin; Kim, Kyoungyoun; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il

    2016-06-01

    We propose an efficient monolithic numerical procedure based on a projection method for solving natural convection problems. In the present monolithic method, the buoyancy, linear diffusion, and nonlinear convection terms are implicitly advanced by applying the Crank-Nicolson scheme in time. To avoid an otherwise inevitable iterative procedure in solving the monolithic discretized system, we use a linearization of the nonlinear convection terms and approximate block lower-upper (LU) decompositions along with approximate factorization. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed method is more stable and computationally efficient than other semi-implicit methods, preserving temporal second-order accuracy.

  2. Determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural using derivatization combined with polymer monolith microextraction by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Yuan; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2009-05-27

    A simple and sensitive method for the determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in coffee, honey, beer, Coke, and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is presented. This method is based on the formation of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of HMF and subsequent polymer monolith microextraction (PMME) of this derivative. A poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-co-EGDMA) monolithic capillary column was selected as the extraction medium. Several parameters affecting the derivatization of HMF with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) followed by extraction of the derivative were optimized. The procedure is simple and offers high sensitivity and specificity since the derivative of HMF is well preconcentrated by PMME with poly(MAA-co-EGDMA) monolith and well separated from the other components of the samples under examination. The recoveries in coffee, honey, beer, Coke, and urine samples were in the range of 83.9-110.8% spiked at different levels with HMF. The inter- and intraday precisions were less than 10%. The LOD (S/N = 3) and LOQ (S/N = 10) for HMF were 1.0 ng/mL and 3.4 ng/mL, respectively. PMID:19397264

  3. Monolithic fuel injector and related manufacturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-05-22

    A monolithic fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle includes a substantially hollow vesicle body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween, an internal baffle plate extending radially outwardly from a downstream end of the bore, terminating short of the peripheral wall, thereby defining upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body, in fluid communication by way of a radial gap between the baffle plate and the peripheral wall. A plurality of integral pre-mix tubes extend axially through the upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body and through the baffle plate, with at least one fuel injection hole extending between each of the pre-mix tubes and the upstream fuel plenum, thereby enabling fuel in the upstream plenum to be injected into the plurality of pre-mix tubes. The fuel injection head is formed by direct metal laser sintering.

  4. Present status of the MONOLITH project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MONOLITH is a proposed massive (34 kt) magnetized tracking calorimeter at the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, optimized for the detection of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The main goal is to establish (or reject) the neutrino oscillation hypothesis through an explicit observation of the full first oscillation swing. The Δm2 sensitivity range for this measurement comfortably covers the complete Super-Kamiokande allowed region. Other measurements include studies of matter effects, the NC up/down ratio, ν bar / ν ratio, the study of cosmic ray muons in the multi-TeV range, and auxiliary measurements from the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. Depending on approval, data taking with the part of the detector could start towards the end of 2004

  5. A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.

  6. HgCdTe monolithic infrared detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakushev, Maxim V.; Dvoretsky, Sergei A.; Kozlov, Alexander I.; Sabinina, Irina V.; Sidorov, Yu.G.; Sorochkin, Alexander V.; Fomin, Boris I.; Aseev, Alexander L. [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-06-15

    We report the processes of fabricating monolithic 32 x 32 infrared detector based on (310) HgCdTe/CdTe/ZnTe/ Si photosensitive heterostructure which was grown by a molecular-beam epitaxy technique in the free surface of ROIC cells. Optimum parameters of the technological processes were determined. The minimum temperature of preepitaxial thermal annealing in vacuum of ROIC was determined as 450 C. The dark and photo current-voltage characteristics were measured and analyzed. A good sensitivity of diodes was observed. The product R{sub 0} x A {proportional_to} 10{sup 5} Ohm x cm{sup 2}. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Liquid-liquid contractor columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid-liquid contactor column has a solvent input and an aqueous phase input. Lighter phase liquid is discharged and heavier phase is moved by an air lift to a receiver. The air supply line to the air lift includes valve and a pressure sensing transducer senses pressure in line and sends electric signals to signal processing unit which may for example close down operation of the column, or effect other changes to maintain operating characteristics of the column. The column could be pulsed by means which also send signals to unit, and could deliver to an external settler. (author)

  8. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  9. Nanoparticle-modified monolithic pipette tips for phosphopeptide enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Křenková, J. (Jana); Foret, F. (František)

    2013-01-01

    We have developed monolithic materials modified by either iron oxide or hydroxyapatite nanoparticles within polypropylene pipette tips. The developed materials were used for selective and efficient enrichment of phosphopeptides.

  10. Plant oil-based shape memory polymer using acrylic monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the synthesis of a plant oil-based material using acrylic monolith. An acrylic monolith bearing oxirane groups was prepared via simple technique that involved the dissolution of poly(glycidyl methacrylate-comethyl methacrylate (PGMA in ethanolic – aqueous solution by heating and subsequent cooling. The PGMA monolith had topologically porous structure, which was attributed to the phase separation of the polymer solution. The PGMA monolith was impregnated by epoxidized soybean oil (ESO containing thermally-latent catalyst, and the subsequent curing produced a crosslinked material with relatively good transparency. The Young’s modulus and the tensile strength of polyESO/PGMA increased compared with the ESO homopolymer. The strain at break of polyESO/PGMA was larger than that of the ESO homopolymer and crosslinked PGMA. Furthermore, polyESO/PGMA exhibited good shape memory-recovery behavior.

  11. Monolithic Rare Earth Doped PTR Glass Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a monolithic solid state laser on the basis of PTR glass co-doped with luminescent rare earth...

  12. Hierarchical Porous Polystyrene Monoliths from PolyHIPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinjia; Tan, Liangxiao; Xia, Lingling; Wood, Colin D; Tan, Bien

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical porous polystyrene monoliths (HCP-PolyHIPE) are obtained by hypercrosslinking poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monoliths prepared by polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (PolyHIPEs). The hypercrosslinking is achieved using an approach known as knitting which employs formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (FDA) as an external crosslinker. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms that the macroporous structure in the original monolith is retained during the knitting process. By increasing the amount of divinylbenzene (DVB) in PolyHIPE, the BET surface area and pore volume of the HCP-PolyHIPE decrease, while the micropore size increases. BET surface areas of 196-595 m(2) g(-1) are obtained. The presence of micropores, mesopores, and macropores is confirmed from the pore size distribution. With a hierarchical porous structure, the monoliths reveal comparable gas sorption properties and potential applications in oil spill clean-up. PMID:26178423

  13. Monolithic CMOS pixel detector for international linear collider vertex detection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J E Brau; O Igonkina; N Sinew; D Strom; C Baltay; W Emmet; H Neal; D Rabinowitz

    2007-12-01

    A monolithic CMS pixel detector is under development for an ILC experiment. This chronopixel array provides a time stamp resolution of one bunch crossing, a critical feature for background suppression. The status of this effort is summarized.

  14. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jung, H. B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  15. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Non-Silica Monolithic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bartłomiej Gaweł; Kamila Gaweł; Gisle Øye

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic materials have become very popular because of various applications, especially within chromatography and catalysis. Large surface areas and multimodal porosities are great advantages for these applications. New sol-gel preparation methods utilizing phase separation or nanocasting have opened the possibility for preparing materials of other oxides than silica. In this review, we present different synthesis methods for inorganic, non-silica monolithic materials. Some examples of appl...

  16. Monolithic arrays of surface emitting laser NOR logic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Song, J.-I-; Lee, Y. H.; Yoo, J. Y.; Shin, J H; Scherer, A.; Leibenguth, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic, cascadable, laser-logic-device arrays have been realized and characterized. The monolithic surface-emitting laser logic (SELL) device consists of an AlGaAs superlattice lasing around 780 nm connected to a heterojunction phototransistor (HPT) in parallel and a resistor in series. Arrays up to 8×8 have been fabricated, and 2×2 arrays show uniform characteristics. The optical logic output is switched off with 40 μW incident optical input.

  17. Microwaves integrated circuits: hybrids and monolithics - fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of microwave integrated circuits are presented together with comments about technologies and fabrication processes; advantages and disadvantages in their utilization are analysed. Basic structures, propagation modes, materials used and major steps in the construction of hybrid thin film and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are described. Important technological applications are revised and main activities of the microelectronics lab. of the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) in the field of hybrid and monolithic microwave integrated circuits are summarized. (C.L.B.)

  18. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  19. Preparation of a pipette tip-based molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction monolith by epitope approach and its application for determination of enkephalins in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Li, Dan

    2015-11-10

    In this study, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith for highly selective extraction of enkephalins was synthesized and prepared in a micropipette tip using epitope imprinting technique. The synthesized MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction (MISPME) method was developed for extraction of enkephalins in aqueous solutions. The parameters affecting MISPME were optimized. The results indicated that this MIP monolith exhibited specific recognition capability, high enrichment efficiency and excellent reusability for enkephalins. MALDI-TOF MS analysis demonstrated that this MIP monolith can act as a useful tool for highly selective purification and enrichment of enkephalin, a kind of low abundance protein, from high-abundance proteins in human cerebrospinal fluids (CSF). Employed this MIP monolith as solid-phase microextraction column, quantitative assay of enkephalins in human CSF was developed by HPLC-ultraviolet (UV) detection in this work. The detection limits were 0.05-0.08nM. This MISPME/HPLC-UV method was used to quantify Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin levels in the CSF of patients with cancer pain. PMID:26263061

  20. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  1. Aluminum based metal-organic framework-polymer monolith in solid-phase microextraction of penicillins in river water and milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Stephen; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chen-Lan; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-01-01

    In this study, aluminum based metal-organic framework (Al-MOF)-organic polymer monoliths were prepared via microwave-assisted polymerization of ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA) with different weight percentages of Al-MOF (MIL-53; 37.5-62.5%) and subsequently utilized as sorbent in solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of penicillins (penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin). The Al-MOF-polymer was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to clarify the retained crystalline structure well as the homogeneous dispersion of Al-MOF (MIL-53) in polymer monolith. The developed Al-MOF-polymer (MIL-53) monolithic column was evaluated according to its extraction recovery of penicillins. Several parameters affecting the extraction recoveries of penicillins using fabricated Al-MOF-polymer (MIL-53) monolithic column including different MIL-53 weight percentages, column length, pH, desorption solvent, and mobile phase flow rate were investigated. For comparison, different Al-based MOFs (MIL-68, CYCU-4 and DUT-5) were fabricated using the optimized condition for MIL-53-polymer (sample matrix at pH 3, 200μL desorption volume using methanol, 37.5% of MOF, 4-cm column length at 0.100mLmin(-1) flow rate). Among all the Al-MOF-polymers, MIL-53(Al)-polymer still afforded the best extraction recovery for penicillins ranging from 90.5 to 95.7% for intra-day with less than 3.5% relative standard deviations (RSDs) and inter-day precision were in the range of 90.7-97.6% with less than 4.2% RSDs. Meanwhile, the recoveries for column-to-column were in the range of 89.5-93.5% (<3.4% RSDs) while 88.5-90.5% (<5.8% RSDs) for batch-to-batch (n=3). Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detections were in the range of 0.06-0.26μgL(-1) and limit of quantifications between 0.20 and 0.87

  2. Biasable, Balanced, Fundamental Submillimeter Monolithic Membrane Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John; Velebir, James; Tsang, Raymond; Dengler, Robert; Lin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This device is a biasable, submillimeter-wave, balanced mixer fabricated using JPL s monolithic membrane process a simplified version of planar membrane technology. The primary target application is instrumentation used for analysis of atmospheric constituents, pressure, temperature, winds, and other physical and chemical properties of the atmospheres of planets and comets. Other applications include high-sensitivity gas detection and analysis. This innovation uses a balanced configuration of two diodes allowing the radio frequency (RF) signal and local oscillator (LO) inputs to be separated. This removes the need for external diplexers that are inherently narrowband, bulky, and require mechanical tuning to change frequency. Additionally, this mixer uses DC bias-ability to improve its performance and versatility. In order to solve problems relating to circuit size, the GaAs membrane process was created. As much of the circuitry as possible is fabricated on-chip, making the circuit monolithic. The remainder of the circuitry is precision-machined into a waveguide block that holds the GaAs circuit. The most critical alignments are performed using micron-scale semiconductor technology, enabling wide bandwidth and high operating frequencies. The balanced mixer gets superior performance with less than 2 mW of LO power. This can be provided by a simple two-stage multiplier chain following an amplifier at around 90 GHz. Further, the diodes are arranged so that they can be biased. Biasing pushes the diodes closer to their switching voltage, so that less LO power is required to switch the diodes on and off. In the photo, the diodes are at the right end of the circuit. The LO comes from the waveguide at the right into a reduced-height section containing the diodes. Because the diodes are in series to the LO signal, they are both turned on and off simultaneously once per LO cycle. Conversely, the RF signal is picked up from the RF waveguide by the probe at the left, and flows

  3. Stability of column-supported steel cylinders with engaged columns

    OpenAIRE

    DOERICH, Cornelia; Vanlaere, Wesley; Lagae, Guy; Rotter, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    p. 2535-2546 Steel silos are often supported on a small number of columns to facilitate emptying operations. The connection between these columns and an elevated cylindrical metal silo shell is a long-standing difficult problem in shell analysis. The presence of local supports beneath a cylinder leads to stress concentrations in the cylindrical wall just above the supports, which can cause buckling or plastic collapse and consequently failure of the entire structure. Engaged co...

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent concerns liquid-liquid extraction columns in which solute transfer across the liquid-liquid interface sets up Marangoni instabilities which give rise to interfacial turbulence. The phenomenon has been observed to occur in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous nitric phase using tributyl phosphate with odourless kerosens. The invention provides a method of quantifying the degree of Marangoni instabilities in a column-type liquid-liquid extraction column, and determining a value for the solute free characteristic velocity parameter. The method also gives a measure of the extent to which the characteristic velocity is modified by the Marangoni instability. (U.K.)

  5. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, W.; Lonie, S.J.; Thompson, P.J.; Thornton, J.D.

    1987-11-11

    The patent concerns liquid-liquid extraction columns in which solute transfer across the liquid-liquid interface sets up Marangoni instabilities which give rise to interfacial turbulence. The phenomenon has been observed to occur in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous nitric phase using tributyl phosphate with odourless kerosens. The invention provides a method of quantifying the degree of Marangoni instabilities in a column-type liquid-liquid extraction column, and determining a value for the solute free characteristic velocity parameter. The method also gives a measure of the extent to which the characteristic velocity is modified by the Marangoni instability. (U.K.).

  6. Monolithic JFET preamplifier for ionization chamber calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype preamplifier circuit is presented for use in SSC ionization chamber calorimeters. It consists of a new type of silicon integrated circuit comprised of very low noise junction FET (JFET) components. Presently, monolithic preamplifier circuits for use in highly segmented detectors are made of implanted channel JFETs or MOS devices. While such circuits solve the density problems, they do not perform to the same level of low noise characteristics as found in discrete JFET components. The JFETs which comprise this new integrated circuit preserve the excellent low noise performance normally found only in discrete JFETs. JFETs also are much more radiation resistant and less prone to damage by electromagnetic discharges than MOS transistors. Two innovative fabrication processes are discussed. They solve the difficult gate-to-gate isolation problem needed to manufacture JFET integrated circuits. Both allow the use of an epitaxially formed channel and a diffused gate, as in standard discrete JFET processing. This, presumably, results in JFETs which exhibit lower noise than those made with implanted channels. 11 refs., 9 figs

  7. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  8. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  9. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  10. Monolithic supports with unique geometries and enhanced mass transfer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of natural gas has been the topic of much research over the past decade. Interest in this technology results from a desire to decrease or eliminate the emissions of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOX) from gas turbine power plants. A low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic monolith, is ideal for this high-temperature, high-flow application. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. 'Robocasting' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low pressure drops. This report details the mass transfer effects for novel 3-dimensional robocast monoliths, traditional honeycomb-type monoliths, and ceramic foams. The mass transfer limit is experimentally determined using the probe reaction of CO oxidation over a Pt / {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, and the pressure drop is measured for each monolith sample. Conversion versus temperature data is analyzed quantitatively using well-known dimensionless mass transfer parameters. The results show that, relative to the honeycomb monolith support, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application.

  11. Water Column Sonar Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The collection and analysis of water column sonar data is a relatively new avenue of research into the marine environment. Primary uses include assessing biological...

  12. Practical design of stepped columns

    OpenAIRE

    Girao Coelho, A.M.; Simao, P.D.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with buckling aspects of the design of stepped columns in heavy mill buildings. In these structures, columns have to carry significant axial loads that usually act eccentrically and strength reducing bending moments due to lateral loads. A simple physical model for buckling behaviour analysis is proposed and formulated using the differential equations of equilibrium. The exact solution of the governing equations is found by using symbolic computation. Effective buckling lengt...

  13. Considerations on influence of charge distribution on determination of biomolecules and microorganisms and tailoring the monolithic (continuous bed) materials for bioseparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Jarmalaviciene, Reda; Maruska, Audrius; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2007-02-23

    The importance of continuous beds (monoliths) as separation materials is connected with their better chromatographic properties and easier preparation in comparison to particulate-packed columns. Moreover the tuning of porosity as well as surface chemistry can lead to obtaining of highly selective materials, especially useful in separation of biologically important compounds or even microorganisms. To obtain high selectivity for such analytes as e.g. proteins, it is often important to have a knowledge about their shape, size, charge and finally charge distribution. This article presents our considerations on the charge distribution on the monolithic stationary phase and surface of such species as proteins or microorganisms as well as its eventual influence on the separation or sample preparation processes and tuning of their selectivity. PMID:17137631

  14. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  15. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  16. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  17. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We review and critically discuss the current understanding of galaxy formation and evolution limited to Early Type Galaxies (ETGs as inferred from the observational data and briefly contrast the hierarchical and quasi-monolithic paradigms of formation and evolution. Since in Cold Dark Matter (CDM cosmogony small scale structures typically collapse early and form low-mass haloes that subsequently can merge to assembly larger haloes, galaxies formed in the gravitational potential well of a halo are also expected to merge thus assembling their mass hierarchically. Mergers should occur all over the Hubble time and large mass galaxies should be in place only recently. However, recent observations of high redshift galaxies tell a different story: massive ETGs are already in place at high redshift. To this aim, we propose here a revision of the quasi-monolithic scenario as an alternative to the hierarchical one, in which mass assembling should occur in early stages of a galaxy lifetime and present recent models of ETGs made of Dark and Baryonic Matter in a Λ-CDM Universe that obey the latter scheme. The galaxies are followed from the detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20 down to the stage of nearly complete assembly of the stellar content (z ∼ 2 − 1 and beyond.  It is found that the total mass (Mh = MDM + MBM and/or initial over-density of the proto-galaxy drive the subsequent star formation histories (SFH. Massive galaxies (Mh ~ _1012M⊙ experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥ 103M⊙/yr at early epochs, consistently with observations, with a weak dependence on the initial over-density; intermediate mass haloes (Mh~_ 1010 − 1011M⊙ have star formation histories that strongly depend on their initial over-density; finally, low mass haloes (Mh ~_ 109M⊙ always have erratic, burst-like star forming histories. The present-day properties (morphology, structure, chemistry and photometry of the

  18. Separation of Rare Earth Elements from Monazite Ore Decomposition Process by Ion Exchange Column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of rare earth elements from monazite ore decomposition process was studied by using ion exchange columns filled with Dowex 50 WX8 resin. Mixed rare earth chloride from monazite composed of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Y, Sm, Gd and Dy was adsorbed by resin in the column and 0.015 M EDTA was used to elute adsorbed rare earth elements through columns of Cu+2 adsorbed resin at linear flow rate of 0.636 and 0.212 cm/min. It was found that rare earth elements were eluted respectively by their atomic weight from heavy to light elements except Y which are Dy, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd, Pr, Ce and La. Ion exchange column has shown a potential method in separation and purification of individual rare earth elements

  19. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  20. Monolithic fuel plate development at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial fabrication results of U-Mo dispersion fuel have shown a practical uranium loading limit below that required to successfully convert some of the targeted research reactors to low-enriched uranium. In addition, irradiation tests have shown that U-Mo dispersion fuel suffers from interaction between the fuel and the aluminum matrix at higher temperatures. A potential solution to mitigate these phenomena is to use a fuel alloy foil in place of the fuel-aluminum dispersion. This monolithic fuel provides a lower fuel-matrix interfacial surface area and a much higher uranium density than dispersion type fuel. Lacking the compliant matrix of dispersion fuel types, monolithic fuel production requires the development of new fabrication methods. Research efforts at Argonne National Laboratory have resulted in the demonstration of a viable monolithic fuel plate production method, which is described in this paper. (author)

  1. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials. PMID:26110926

  2. 102 W monolithic single frequency Tm-doped fiber MOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Si, Lei

    2013-12-30

    We demonstrate a high power all-fiber single frequency Tm-doped fiber amplifier. The maximum output power reached 102 W and the central wavelength was 1.97 μm. The single frequency laser signal from a seed laser was amplified based on a monolithic master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The slope efficiency was about 50% against the absorbed pump power. Neither parasitic lasing nor nonlinear effect was observed in the monolithic fiber amplifier. The SBS threshold of the single frequency Tm-doped fiber amplifier was analyzed and estimated. The output power is not limited by the SBS threshold and could be further improved by increasing the pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of average power exceeding 100 W from monolithic all-fiber laser near 2 μm wavelength. PMID:24514831

  3. Design of Monolithic Integrator for Strain-to-Frequency Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Mohd. Khairi Tuan Mat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Strain-to-Frequency converter (SFC is a one of the analog conditioner tools that converts any strain signal to the frequency signal. The basic concept of SFC is by detecting any changing of strains, then converting the strain to the voltage signal and converting the voltage signal to the frequency signal. This tool consists of 3 main  components which are strain gauge, differential integrator and comparator. This paper presents the designing and analysis of monolithic integrator that to be used in the Strain-toFrequency converter. The primary goal is to design and simulate the performance of monolithic integrator for SFC using GATEWAY Silvaco Electronic Design Automation (S EDA tools and EXPERT software. The performances of SFC using the designed monolithic integrator are also investigated.

  4. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  5. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. Facile "one-pot" synthesis of poly(methacrylic acid)-based hybrid monolith via thiol-ene click reaction for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xumei; Tan, Wangming; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yingzhuang; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-07-01

    A novel sol-gel "one-pot" approach in tandem with a radical-mediated thiol-ene reaction for the synthesis of a methacrylic acid-based hybrid monolith was developed. The polymerization monomers, tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS), were hydrolyzed in high-concentration methacrylic acid solution that also served as a hydrophilic functional monomer. The resulting solution was then mixed with initiator (2, 2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamide) dihydrochloride) and porogen (urea, polyethylene glycol 20,000) in a capillary column and polymerized in water bath. The column had a uniform porous structure and a good permeability. The evaluation of the monolith was performed by separation of small molecules including nucleosides, phenols, amides, bases and Triton X-100. The calibration curves for uridine, inosine, adenosine and cytidine were determined. All the calibration curves exhibited good linear regressions (R(2)≥0.995) within the test ranges of 0.5-40μg/mL for four nucleosides. Additionaliy, atypical hydrophilic mechanism was proved by elution order from low to high according to polarity retention time increased with increases in the content of the organic solvent in the mobile phase. Further studies indicated that hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions existed between the polar analytes and the stationary phase. This was the mechanism of retention. The excellent separation of the BSA digest showed good hydrophility of the column and indicated the potential in separation of complex biological samples. PMID:27264742

  7. Paladin Enterprises: Monolithic particle physics models global climate.

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Paladin Enterprises presents a monolithic particle model of the universe which will be used by them to build an economical fusion energy system. The model is an extension of the work done by James Clerk Maxwell. Essentially, gravity is unified with electro-magnetic forces and shown to be a product of a closed loop current system, i.e. a particle - monolithic or sub atomic. This discovery explains rapid global climate changes which are evident in the geological record and also provides an explanation for recent changes in the global climate.

  8. Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New monolithic pixel detectors integrating CMOS electronics and sensor on the same silicon substrate are currently explored for particle tracking in future HEP experiments, most notably at the LHC . The innovative concept of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) is based on high resistive silicon bulk material enabling full substrate depletion and the application of an electrical drift field for fast charge collection, while retaining full CMOS capability for the electronics. The technology (150 nm) used offers quadruple wells and allows to implement the pixel electronics with independently isolated N- and PMOS transistors. Results of initial studies on the charge collection and sensor performance are presented

  9. Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, T.; Havranek, M.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Kishishita, T.; Krüger, H.; Marinas, C.; Wermes, N.

    2015-03-01

    New monolithic pixel detectors integrating CMOS electronics and sensor on the same silicon substrate are currently explored for particle tracking in future HEP experiments, most notably at the LHC . The innovative concept of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) is based on high resistive silicon bulk material enabling full substrate depletion and the application of an electrical drift field for fast charge collection, while retaining full CMOS capability for the electronics. The technology (150 nm) used offers quadruple wells and allows to implement the pixel electronics with independently isolated N- and PMOS transistors. Results of initial studies on the charge collection and sensor performance are presented.

  10. A Monolithic Oxide-Based Transversal Thermoelectric Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, S.; Bochmann, A.; Reimann, T.; Schulz, T.; Dreßler, C.; Udich, S.; Töpfer, J.

    2016-03-01

    We report the fabrication and properties of a monolithic transversal thermoelectric energy harvester based on the combination of a thermoelectric oxide and a metal. The fabrication of the device is done with a ceramic multilayer technology using printing and co-firing processes. Five transversal devices were combined to a meander-like thermoelectric generator. Electrical measurements and finite element calculations were performed to characterize the resulting thermoelectric generator. A maximum experimental electrical power output of 30.2 mW at a temperature difference of {Δ }T = 208 K was found. The prepared monolithic thermoelectric generator provides at {Δ }T = 35 K sufficient energy to drive a simple electronic sensor application.

  11. Dense carbon monoliths for supercapacitors with outstanding volumetric capacitances

    OpenAIRE

    Kunowsky, Mirko; García Gómez, Alejandra; Barranco, V.; Rojo, José M.; Ibáñez Ulargui, Joaquín; Carruthers, James Donald; Linares Solano, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    A commercially available dense carbon monolith (CM) and four carbon monoliths obtained from it have been studied as electrochemical capacitor electrodes in a two-electrode cell. CM has: (i) very high density (1.17 g cm−3), (ii) high electrical conductivity (9.3 S cm−1), (iii) well-compacted and interconnected carbon spheres, (iv) homogeneous microporous structure and (v) apparent BET surface area of 957 m2g−1. It presents interesting electrochemical behaviors (e.g., excellent gravimetric capa...

  12. NOx retention in scrubbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the UO2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NOx are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special columns. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scubber columns containing H2O or diluted HNO3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NOx evalution before and after scrubbing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO2 oxidation with maximum adsorption in the scrubber columns. (author)

  13. Polyurea-Based Aerogel Monoliths and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Kyun

    2012-01-01

    aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection for government and commercial applications. The rubbery polyureabased aerogel exhibits little dustiness, good flexibility and toughness, and durability typical of the parent polyurea polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with aerogels. The thermal conductivity values of polyurea-based aerogels at lower temperature under vacuum pressures are very low and better than that of silica aerogels. Flexible, rubbery polyurea-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogels, including polyisocyanurate aerogels, which are generally prepared with the one similar component to polyurethane rubber aerogels. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structures, the polyurea rubber-based aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. The aerogel materials also demonstrate good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven to be one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible, silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain application environments. Although the cross - linked organic aerogels, such as resorcinol- formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels, show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient radiation shielding materials due

  14. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  15. Determination of urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine by capillary electrophoresis with molecularly imprinted monolith in-tube solid phase microextraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) is an excellent marker of oxidative DNA damage.In this study,employing guanosine as dummy template a novel molecularly imprinted(MIP) monolithic capillary column had been synthesized,and that was used as medium of in-tube solid phase microextraction(SPME).Coupled with capillary electrophoresis-electrochemical detection(CE-ECD),the system of extraction and detection of 8-OHdG in urinary sample had been developed.Because of its greater phase ratio combined with c...

  16. Column Holdup Formula of Soil Solute Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The shortcomings of the present two formulae for describing column holdup are analyzed and deductions are made to find a new formula. The column holdup, Hw, described by the new formula is dimensional,and related to soil solute transport kinesis and column physical properties. Compared with the other two column holdups, Hw is feasible to describe dimensional column holdup during solute transport process. The relationships between Hw and retardation factor, R, in different solute transport boundary conditions are established.

  17. A hydrometallurgical process for recovering total metal values from waste monolithic ceramic capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabaharan, G; Barik, S P; Kumar, B

    2016-06-01

    A hydrometallurgical process for recovering the total metal values from waste monolithic ceramic capacitors was investigated. The process parameters such as time, temperature, acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and other reagents (amount of zinc dust and sodium formate) were optimized. Base metals such as Ba, Ti, Sn, Cu and Ni are leached out in two stages using HCl in stage 1 and HCl with H2O2 in stage 2. More than 99% of leaching efficiency for base metals (Cu, Ni, Ba, Ti and Sn) was achieved. Precious metals such as Au and Pd are leached out using aquaregia and nitric acid was used for the leaching of Ag. Base metals (Ba, Ti, Sn, Cu and Ni) are recovered by selective precipitation using H2SO4 and NaOH solution. In case of precious metals, Au and Pd from the leach solution were precipitated out using sodium metabisulphite and sodium formate, respectively. Sodium chloride was used for the precipitation of Ag from leach solution. Overall recovery for base metals and precious metals are 95% and 92%, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, a process flow diagram was proposed for commercial application. PMID:27084106

  18. Studies on Acetone Powder and Purified Rhus Laccase Immobilized on Zirconium Chloride for Oxidation of Phenols

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Lu; Tetsuo Miyakoshi

    2012-01-01

    Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ...

  19. Nanoparticle-modified monolithic pipette tips for phosphopeptide enrichment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenková, Jana; Foret, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 405, č. 7 (2013), s. 2175-2183. ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Grant ostatní: Jihomoravský kraj(CZ) 2SGA2721 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : nanoparticles * monolith * phosphopeptide Enrichment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.578, year: 2013

  20. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described.

  1. Morphosynthesis of cubic silver cages on monolithic activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Lai, Yijian; Liu, Siyu; Zhao, Binyuan; Ning, Yuesheng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2013-11-14

    Cubic silver cages were prepared on monolithic activated carbon (MAC) pre-absorbed with Cl(-), SO4(2-), or PO4(3-) anions. Silver insoluble salts served as templates for the morphosynthesis of silver cages. The silver ions were reduced by reductive functional groups on MAC micropores through a galvanic cell reaction mechanism. PMID:24080952

  2. Wavelength conversion by optimized monolithic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Durhuus, Terji;

    1996-01-01

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers have been monolithic integrated in a passive symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer to form a compact polarization insensitive all-optical wavelength converter operating at up to 10 Gb/s. A simple method for reducing the impact of input power variations is proposed...

  3. A semiconductor laser with monolithically integrated dynamic polarization control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, B M; Naeem, M A; Hutchings, D C; Marsh, J H; Kelly, A E

    2012-08-27

    We report the first demonstration of a semiconductor laser monolithically integrated with an active polarization controller, which consists of a polarization mode converter followed by an active, differential phase shifter. High speed modulation of the device output polarization is demonstrated via current injection to the phase shifter section. PMID:23037101

  4. Wavelength conversion by optimized monolithic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Durhuus, Terji; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian; Vodjdani, N.; Ratovelomanana, F.; Enard, A.; Glastre, G.; Rondi, D.; Blondeau, R.

    1996-01-01

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers have been monolithic integrated in a passive symmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer to form a compact polarization insensitive all-optical wavelength converter operating at up to 10 Gb/s. A simple method for reducing the impact of input power variations is proposed that increases the input power dynamic range from 4-8 dB.

  5. Monolithic HTGR - reformer design and cost summary: thermochemical pipeline application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary report updates conceptual designs and cost estimates for monolithic High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) plants used as a source of process heat. The GFY 82 studies summarized in this report address design improvements and cost reductions for High Temperature Process Heat Systems selected in GFY 81. The GFY 81 studies consisted primarily of evaluating various configurations for a single (monolithic) HTGR rated at 1170 MWt used as part of a Thermochemical Pipeline (TCP) System. In the TCP concept, a helium-heated reformer produces syngas which can be transported up to 100 miles via pipeline to a methanation plant, where it is converted to methane. This exothermic process generates high-temperature steam for nearby process steam users. The methane is then returned to the nuclear plant site for conversion to syngas in the reformers. The work performed in GFY 82 on the monolithic HTGR-R plants is described. The results of the cost improvement studies are reviewed. A cost evaluation of the HTGR-R plants incorporating the GFY 82 changes is included. Recommendations for follow-on work on the HTGR-R monolithic plants are provided

  6. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia.

  7. Nanosized Cobalt Oxides over Aluminum Monoliths for VOC Oxidation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirátová, Květa; Kovanda, F.; Klempa, Jan; Balabánová, Jana

    Poznań: Poznan Science and Technology Park, 2016, P61. ISBN N. [Designing New Heterogeneous Catalysts: Faraday Discussion. London (GB), 04.04.2016-06.04.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-13750S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : cobalt oxides * Al monoliths * catalyst layer Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  8. Monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser with photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate a monolithic stable SESAM-modelocked self-starting Yb-fiber laser. A novel PM all-solid photonic bandgap fiber is used for intra-cavity of dispersion management. The ex-cavity final pulse compression is performed in a spliced-on PM hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The laser...

  9. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit with integral array antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monolithic microwave integrated circuit including an integral array antenna. The system includes radiating elements, feed network, phasing network, active and/or passive semiconductor devices, digital logic interface circuits and a microcomputer controller simultaneously incorporated on a single substrate by means of a controlled fabrication process sequence

  10. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): developments and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Turchetta; A. Fant; P. Gasiorek; C. Esbrand; J.A. Griffiths; M.G. Metaxas; G.J. Royle; R. Speller; C. Venanzi; P.F. van der Stelt; H.G.C. Verheij; G. Li; S. Theodoridis; H. Georgiou; D. Cavouras; G. Hall; M. Noy; J. Jones; J. Leaver; D. Machin; S. Greenwood; M. Khaleeq; H. Schulerud; J.M. Østby; F. Triantis; A. Asimidis; D. Bolanakis; N. Manthos; R. Longo; A. Bergamaschi

    2007-01-01

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end app

  11. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): developments and future outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Turchetta; A. Fant; P. Gasiorek; C. Esbrand; J.A. Griffiths; M.G. Metaxas; G.J. Royle; R. Speller; C. Venanzi; P.F. van der Stelt; H.G.C. Verheij; G. Li; S. Theodoridis; H. Georgiou; D. Cavouras; G. Hall; M. Noy; J. Jones; J. Leaver; D. Machin; S. Greenwood; M. Khaleeq; H. Schulerud; J.M. Østby; F. Triantis; A. Asimidis; D. Bolanakis; N. Manthos; R. Longo; A. Bergamaschi

    2006-01-01

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end app

  12. Monolithic Yb-fiber femtosecond laser using photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, an environmentally stable monolithic all-PM modelocked femtosecond Yb-fiber laser, with laser output pulse compressed in a spliced-on low-loss hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Our laser provides direct fiber-end delivery of 4 nJ pulses of...

  13. Neutron diffraction study of aluminum chloride imidazolium chloride molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Saboungi, M.L.; Suzuya, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Koura, N. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1994-02-01

    The structure of molten mixtures of (AlCl{sub 3}){sub x}(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride){sub 1-x} was investigated by neutron diffraction techniques for x=0.46, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.67. Results derived from earlier ab initio molecular orbital (6-31G* basis set) computations for AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}}, and EMI{sup +} were used to calculate the diffraction patterns; the calculated contributions of each species are thus obtained and overall results are in good agreement with measurements.

  14. Residual Strength Analyses of Monolithic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forth, Scott (Technical Monitor); Ambur, Damodar R. (Technical Monitor); Seshadri, B. R.; Tiwari, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Finite-element fracture simulation methodology predicts the residual strength of damaged aircraft structures. The methodology uses the critical crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion to characterize the fracture behavior of the material. The CTOA fracture criterion assumes that stable crack growth occurs when the crack-tip angle reaches a constant critical value. The use of the CTOA criterion requires an elastic- plastic, finite-element analysis. The critical CTOA value is determined by simulating fracture behavior in laboratory specimens, such as a compact specimen, to obtain the angle that best fits the observed test behavior. The critical CTOA value appears to be independent of loading, crack length, and in-plane dimensions. However, it is a function of material thickness and local crack-front constraint. Modeling the local constraint requires either a three-dimensional analysis or a two-dimensional analysis with an approximation to account for the constraint effects. In recent times as the aircraft industry is leaning towards monolithic structures with the intention of reducing part count and manufacturing cost, there has been a consistent effort at NASA Langley to extend critical CTOA based numerical methodology in the analysis of integrally-stiffened panels.In this regard, a series of fracture tests were conducted on both flat and curved aluminum alloy integrally-stiffened panels. These flat panels were subjected to uniaxial tension and during the test, applied load-crack extension, out-of-plane displacements and local deformations around the crack tip region were measured. Compact and middle-crack tension specimens were tested to determine the critical angle (wc) using three-dimensional code (ZIP3D) and the plane-strain core height (hJ using two-dimensional code (STAGS). These values were then used in the STAGS analysis to predict the fracture behavior of the integrally-stiffened panels. The analyses modeled stable tearing, buckling, and crack

  15. Evaluation of translucency of monolithic zirconia and framework zirconia materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, İlkin; Üşümez, Aslıhan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The opacity of zirconia is an esthetic disadvantage that hinders achieving natural and shade-matched restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translucency of non-colored and colored framework zirconia and monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The three groups tested were: non-colored framework zirconia, colored framework zirconia with the A3 shade according to Vita Classic Scale, and monolithic zirconia (n=5). The specimens were fabricated in the dimensions of 15×12×0.5 mm. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the contrast ratio, which is indicative of translucency. Three measurements were made to obtain the contrast ratios of the materials over a white background (L*w) and a black background (L*b). The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen from each group was chosen for scanning electron microscope analysis. The determined areas of the SEM images were divided by the number of grains in order to calculate the mean grain size. RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed among all groups (P<.05). Non-colored zirconia had the highest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.75, while monolithic zirconia had the lowest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.8. The mean grain sizes of the non-colored, colored, and monolithic zirconia were 233, 256, and 361 nm, respectively. CONCLUSION The translucency of the zirconia was affected by the coloring procedure and the grain size. Although monolithic zirconia may not be the best esthetic material for the anterior region, it may serve as an alternative in the posterior region for the bilayered zirconia restorations. PMID:27350851

  16. The effects of column dimensions on uranium mill tailings leach curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were conducted using different sized columns filled with uranium mill tailings and leached with laboratory-prepared groundwater. The data generated were used to evaluate the effects of length-to-diameter ratios on leach curves. These different column sizes and flow rates provided: 1) different solutions/solid contact times (residence times) and 2) different column volumes (scaling) and thus allowed us to address the question, Can laboratory results be scaled up to apply to real world disposal conditions. The results showed that the leach curves were similar for all the columns (no matter what the residence time or size) for all elements except chloride and calcium. The general shape of the leach curves for each constituent versus effluent volume was a rapidly decreasing curve from very high concentrations down to the groundwater concentration within about four to six pore volumes. Chloride elution was affected by mechanical dispersion, causing effluent concentrations to reach influent concentrations sooner for the columns with longer residence times. The calcium concentrations remained nearly constant or only slightly decreased over the duration of the experiments and were assumed to be controlled by the dissolution of gypsum. Aside from the chloride data, over the range of residence times and scaling factors studied, we conclude that laboratory data on uranium mill tailins leaching can be used to predict long-term movement of contaminants from actual tailings impoundments. The main reactions that control contaminant leaching from tailings are the displacement of residual mill process liquor and the redissolution of readily soluble evaporites and moderately soluble gypsum. These processes occur quite rapidly and therefore laboratory experiments with relatively short residence times are still accurate; i.e., lab residence times are long enough to transcend any short-term kinetic effects that could lead to erroneous predictions

  17. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of SixZry intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  18. The study of method of removing chloride ion in the solution of MIPR (medical isotopes production reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By prepare the silver impregnated alumina adsorbents under the different ignition temperature to research and explore its capacity of remove chloride ions in this article. The result show the adsorbent can remove chloride ion effectively under the conditions of neutral at 700 degree C. And study the adsorbents' capacity of remove chloride ions and silver ions in nitric acid system. The result show that on 0.02 mol/L nitrate system the effect of Dechlorination column to remove the chloride ions is the best, and in the uranium samples in addition to the simulation the effect of in addition to Yinzhu to remove the silver ions is very good, almost all removed. (authors)

  19. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  20. SPEEDUPtrademark ion exchange column model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUptrademark software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLigtrademark ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete

  1. Cooper hydrometallurgy and extraction from chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of copper hydrometallurgy is presented and various processes proposed for copper recovery from sulphide concentrates are discussed. Leaching, extraction and stripping are considered, including reagents and processes. The extraction of copper from chloride solutions is discussed. Various extractants are presented and their use for copper transfer from chloride solutions to the organic phase and back to chloride and to sulphate solutions is discussed. (author) 4 refs

  2. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C2HCl3 and CH2Cl2. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C2HCl3 was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C2HCl3 was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C2HCl3 and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl2 and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl2, CO and CO2 were formed. CH2Cl2 was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl2, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH3+ and CH4 were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH2Cl2. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  3. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  4. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanada S. Khanolkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM. Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2 through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites.

  5. A 512x512 CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with integrated ADCs for space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, CMOS sensors have become widely used for consumer applications, but little has been done for scientific instruments. In this paper we present the design and experimental characterisation of a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) intended for a space science application. The sensor incorporates a 525x525 array of pixels on a 25 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a detector together with three transistors that are used for pixel reset, pixel selection and charge-to-voltage conversion. The detector consists of four n-well/p-substrate diodes combining optimum charge collection and low noise performance. The array readout is column-parallel with adjustable gain column amplifiers and a 10-bit single slope ADC. Data conversion takes place simultaneously for all the 525 pixels in one row. The ADC slope can be adjusted in order to give the best dynamic range for a given brightness of a scene. The digitised data are output on a 10-bit bus at 3 MHz. An on-chip state machine generates all of the control signals needed for the readout. All of the bias currents and voltages are generated on chip by a DAC that is programmable through an I2C compatible interface. The sensor was designed and fabricated on a standard 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The overall die size is 16.7 mmx19.9 mm including the associated readout electronics and bond pads. Preliminary test results show that the full-scale design works well, meeting the Star Tracker requirements with less than 1-bit noise, good linearity and good optical performance

  6. A 512×512 CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with integrated ADCs for space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prydderch, M. L.; Waltham, N. J.; Turchetta, R.; French, M. J.; Holt, R.; Marshall, A.; Burt, D.; Bell, R.; Pool, P.; Eyles, C.; Mapson-Menard, H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last few years, CMOS sensors have become widely used for consumer applications, but little has been done for scientific instruments. In this paper we present the design and experimental characterisation of a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) intended for a space science application. The sensor incorporates a 525×525 array of pixels on a 25 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a detector together with three transistors that are used for pixel reset, pixel selection and charge-to-voltage conversion. The detector consists of four n-well/p-substrate diodes combining optimum charge collection and low noise performance. The array readout is column-parallel with adjustable gain column amplifiers and a 10-bit single slope ADC. Data conversion takes place simultaneously for all the 525 pixels in one row. The ADC slope can be adjusted in order to give the best dynamic range for a given brightness of a scene. The digitised data are output on a 10-bit bus at 3 MHz. An on-chip state machine generates all of the control signals needed for the readout. All of the bias currents and voltages are generated on chip by a DAC that is programmable through an I 2C compatible interface. The sensor was designed and fabricated on a standard 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The overall die size is 16.7 mm×19.9 mm including the associated readout electronics and bond pads. Preliminary test results show that the full-scale design works well, meeting the Star Tracker requirements with less than 1-bit noise, good linearity and good optical performance.

  7. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  8. Leaching of Salmonella Senftenberg and Cryptosporidium Parvum in Intact Clay Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, T. B.; Forslund, A.; Dalsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, O.; Jacobsen, C. S.

    2008-12-01

    Manure application on land has been associated with both environmental and public health problems, even when management is within the current guidelines. Outbreaks of infection have been associated with water or food, including processed fruits and vegetables, contaminated with animal manure. A wide range of pathogenic microorganisms can be found in animal waste, including bacteria, protozoan, and viruses. When animal waste is disposed on agricultural land different factors will influence the risk for contaminating the groundwater. 1) Animal waste application method, rate, volume and frequency will have an effect on contamination. 2) Survival of the pathogens in the soil will e.g. depend on soil water content, temperature and pH. Salmonella species can survive up to 332 days and Cryptosporidium species can remain viable for several years in the soil environment. In the present study we compared the transport between the pathogenic bacteria S. senftenberg and the pathogenic protozoan C. parvum in intact clay columns. Furthermore, we compared the effect from surface and sub-surface manure application on the transport potential. 15 intact clay columns were placed in an outdoor multi-column lysimeter for 36 days. Manure inoculated with S. senftenberg, C. parvum and chloride was added to the soil surface or injected 8 cm into the columns. Drainage water was collected from the soil columns and DNA was extracted to quantify S. senftenberg and C. parvum by quantitative PCR. In addition S. senftenberg was enumerated by plate counting. Acid yellow was applied to selected columns to visualize the pathway down through the soil column. The highest concentration of S. senftenberg was in the first drainage sample ranging from 100-10000 CFU/ml. Breakthrough curves for chloride and S. senftenberg indicates the importance of preferential flow as well as a faster transport for the bacteria compared to chloride. C. parvum is retained to a higher degree in the soil but is still found

  9. Application of column tests and electrical resistivity methods for leachate transport monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wychowaniak Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the human civilization leads to the pollution of environment. One of the contamination which are a real threat to soil and groundwater are leachates from landfills. In this paper the solute transport through soil was considered. For this purpose, the laboratory column tests of chlorides tracer and leachates transport on two soil samples have been carried out. Furthermore, the electrical resistivity method was applied as auxiliary tool to follow the movements of solute through the soil column what allowed to compare between the results obtained with column test method and electrical resistivity measurements. Breakthrough curves obtained by conductivity and resistivity methods represents similar trends which leads to the conclusion about the suitability of electrical resistivity methods for contamination transport monitoring in soil-water systems.

  10. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  11. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  12. An Exact Algorithm for IP Column Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderbeck, François; Wolsey, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    An exact column generation algorithm for integer programs with a large (implicit) number of columns is presented. The family of problems that can be treated includes not only standard partitioning problems such as bin packing and certain vehicle routing problems in which the columns generated have 0 - 1 components and a right hand side vector of 1 's, but also the cutting stock problem in which the columns and right hand side are nonnegative integer vectors. We develop a combined branching an...

  13. FRP rupture strains in FRP wrapped columns

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiqing

    2012-01-01

    Applying lateral confinement to concrete columns using fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is a very promising technique. FRP rupture is the typical failure mode of FRP wrapped columns under axial compression. numerous experiments have shown that the FRP rupture strain in an FRP wrapped circular column is significantly lower than the FRP ultimate rupture strain determined from flat coupon test of FRP. Despite a large number of studies on the application of FRP confined columns, the mech...

  14. Voltage-assisted capillary LC of peptides using monolithic capillary columns prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Pavla; Mikšík, Ivan; Gatschelhofer, Ch.; Sinner, F. M.; Buchmeiser, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 13 (2007), s. 2219-2222. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2539; GA ČR GA203/06/1044; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : ROMP * voltage-assisted capillary LC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2007

  15. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  16. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talley, W.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Luhmann, N.C. [Univ. of California at Davis, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-03-12

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band ({approximately}8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies.

  17. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  18. Stretchable Superhydrophobicity from Monolithic, Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Wrinkles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Kyu; Jung, Woo-Bin; Nagel, Sidney R; Odom, Teri W

    2016-06-01

    We report the design of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical wrinkle substrates that can maintain their superhydrophobicity even after being repeatedly stretched. Monolithic poly(dimethysiloxane) with multiscale features showed wetting properties characteristic of static superhydrophobicity with water contact angles (>160°) and very low contact angle hysteresis (superhydrophobicity was maintained as the substrate was stretched, we investigated the dynamic wetting behavior of bouncing and splashing upon droplet impact with the surface. On hierarchical wrinkles consisting of three different length scales, superhydrophobic bouncing was observed. The substrate remained superhydrophobic up to 100% stretching with no structural defects after 1000 cycles of stretching and releasing. Stretchable superhydrophobicity was possible because of the monolithic nature of the hierarchical wrinkles as well as partial preservation of nanoscale structures under stretching. PMID:27144774

  19. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina

    work has considered the role of the combined ultrafast gain and absorption dynamics in MLLs as a main factor limiting laser performance. An independent optimization of MLL amplifier and saturable absorber active materials was performed. Two promising approaches were considered: quantum dot (QD) or......This thesis is devoted to the materials engineering for semiconductor monolithic passively mode-locked lasers (MLLs) as a compact energy-efficient source of ultrashort optical pulses. Up to the present day, the achievement of low-noise sub-picosecond pulse generation has remained a challenge. This...... single quantum well (QW) amplifier in tandem with a fast multi-QW electroabsorption modulator (EAM) based on the InP/AlGaInAs/InGaAsP platform for operation in the 1.55 μm telecommunications range.  A butt-joint MOVPE regrowth technique was established for monolithic integration showing high crystalline...

  20. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-05

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  1. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2016-03-22

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  2. Highly efficient monolithic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cells (M-DSSCs) provide an effective way to reduce the fabrication cost of general DSSCs since they do not require transparent conducting oxide substrates for the counter electrode. However, conventional monolithic devices have low efficiency because of the impediments resulting from counter electrode materials and spacer layers. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient M-DSSCs featuring a highly conductive polymer combined with macroporous polymer spacer layers. With M-DSSCs based on a PEDOT/polymer spacer layer, a power conversion efficiency of 7.73% was achieved, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency for M-DSSCs to date. Further, PEDOT/polymer spacer layers were applied to flexible DSSCs and their cell performance was investigated. PMID:23432389

  3. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band (∼8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies

  4. Monolithic AlGaAs second-harmonic nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gili, V F; Locatelli, A; Rocco, D; Finazzi, M; Ghirardini, L; Favero, I; Gomez, C; Lemaître, A; Celebrano, M; De Angelis, C; Leo, G

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate monolithic aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) optical anoantennas. Using a selective oxidation technique, we fabricate such epitaxial semiconductor nanoparticles on an aluminum oxide substrate. Second harmonic generation from an AlGaAs nanocylinder of height h=400 nm and varying radius pumped with femtosecond pulses delivered at 1554-nm wavelength has been measured, revealing a peak conversion efficiency exceeding 10-5 for nanocylinders with an otpimized geometry.

  5. Porous polyacrylamide monoliths in hydrophilic interaction capillary electrochromatography of oligosaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guryča, Vilém; Mechref, Y.; Palm, A. K.; Michálek, Jiří; Pacáková, V.; Novotny, M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 1 (2007), s. 3-13. ISSN 0165-022X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Grant ostatní: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services(US) GM24349 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyacrylamide monoliths * analytical glycobiology * capillary electrochromatography Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2007

  6. Advances in Silicon Based Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Chih Yeh; Ching-Chau Chiong; Ming-Tang Chen; Huei Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the advances of the silicon-based millimeter-wave (MMW) monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs) are reported. The silicon-based technologies for MMW MMICs are briefly introduced. In addition, the current status of the MMW MMICs is surveyed and novel circuit topologies are summarized. Some representative MMW MMICs are illustrated as design examples in the categories of their functions in a MMW system. Finally, there is a conclusion and description of the future trend of the devel...

  7. Monolithic mm-wave ICs for smart weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, T. L.

    1988-04-01

    An approach to developing a low-cost mm-wave transceiver with application to a broad range of smart weapons systems is described. The proposed transceiver technology consists of monolithic mm-wave integrated circuits on GaAs substrates. The relevant transceiver configurations, FET material, and electron beam lithography are discussed. The types of devices to which the approach is applicable are addressed, emphasizing the use of three-terminal devices for all active elements.

  8. Monolithic model of continuous induction hardening of a steel mandrel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karban, P.; Doležel, Ivo; Ulrych, B.; Barglik, J.

    Stevenage: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2011, s. 122-123. ISBN 978-1-84919-468-6. [International Conference on Computation in Electromagnetics CEM 2001 /8./. Wroclaw (PL), 11.04.2011-14.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction hardening * coupled problem * monolithic formulation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Clinical assessment of enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Schwindling, F S; Schmitter, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure enamel wear caused by antagonistic monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia full molar crowns were placed in 20 patients. Patients with high activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were excluded. For analysis of wear, vinylpolysiloxane impressions were prepared after crown incorporation and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists, and of two contralateral natural antagonists (control teeth) was measured by use of plaster replicas and a 3D laser-scanning device. Differences of wear between the zirconia crown antagonists and the control teeth were investigated by means of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. After 2 years, mean vertical loss was 46 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 19-26 μm for contralateral control teeth and 14 μm for zirconia crowns. Maximum vertical loss was 151 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 75-115 μm for control teeth and 60 μm for zirconia crowns. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between wear of enamel by zirconia-opposed teeth and by control teeth. Gender, which significantly affected wear, was identified as a possible confounder. Monolithic zirconia crowns generated more wear of opposed enamel than did natural teeth. Because of the greater wear caused by other dental ceramics, the use of monolithic zirconia crowns may be justified. PMID:27198539

  10. Applications of monolithic fiber interferometers and actively controlled fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Rugeland, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop applications of monolithic fiber devices and actively controlled fibers. A special twin-core fiber known as a ‘Gemini’ fiber was used to construct equal arm-length fiber interferometers, impervious to temperature and mechanical perturbations. A broadband add/drop multiplexer was constructed by inscribing fiber Bragg gratings in the arms of a Gemini Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A broadband interferometric nanosecond switch was constructed from a micr...

  11. Picosecond electrical spectroscopy using monolithic GaAs circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Y; Kamegawa, M.; Case, M; Yu, R.; Rodwell, M. J. W.; York, R A; Rutledge, D. B.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes an experimental apparatus for free-space mm-wave transmission measurements (spectroscopy). GaAs nonlinear transmission lines and sampling circuits are used as picosecond pulse generators and detectors, with planar monolithic bowtie antennas with associated substrate lenses used as the radiating and receiving elements. The received pulse is 270 mV amplitude and 2.4 ps rise time. Through Fourier transformation of the received pulse, 30–250 GHz measurements are demonstrate...

  12. Performance Analysis of 3-D Monolithic Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Bobba, Shashikanth; Chakraborthy, Ashutosh; Olivier THOMAS (LEREPS-GRES); Batude, Perrine; Pavlidis, Vasileios; Micheli, Giovanni De

    2010-01-01

    3-D monolithic integration (3DMI), also termed as sequential integration, is a potential technology for future gigascale circuits. Since the device layers are processed in sequential order, the size of the vertical contacts is similar to traditional contacts unlike in the case of parallel 3-D integration with through silicon vias (TSVs). Given the advantage of such small contacts, 3DMI supports stacking active layers such that fine-grain integration of 3-D circuits can be implemented. This pa...

  13. A monolithic radiaiton-tolerant charge-sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier based on N-channel junction field-effect transistors (NJFETs) and P-channel MOS (PMOS) has been realized for applications with multielectrode detectors in elementary particle physics. Radiation resistance tests carried out with the preamplifier exposed to γ-rays emitted by a 60Co source have shown no degradation in equivalent noise charge up to 150 krad absorbed dose. (orig.)

  14. A monolithic radiaiton-tolerant charge-sensitive preamplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, W. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Mikroelektronische Schaltungen und Systeme, Duisburg (Germany, F.R.)); Citterio, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)); Lutz, G. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-07-01

    A monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier based on N-channel junction field-effect transistors (NJFETs) and P-channel MOS (PMOS) has been realized for applications with multielectrode detectors in elementary particle physics. Radiation resistance tests carried out with the preamplifier exposed to {gamma}-rays emitted by a {sup 60}Co source have shown no degradation in equivalent noise charge up to 150 krad absorbed dose. (orig.).

  15. Monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for microwave photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Balakier, K.; Fice, M. J.; Ponnampalam, L.; Seeds, A. J.; Renaud, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of the critical design aspects of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loops (OPLLs). OPLL design procedures and OPLL parameters are discussed. A technique to evaluate the gain of the closed loop operating system is introduced and experimentally validated for the first time. A dual-OPLL system, when synchronised to an optical frequency comb generator without any prior filtering of the comb lines, allows generation of high spectral purity signals at any desired freq...

  16. Dynamic response of monolithic and laminate/particulate reactive mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chung-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Two dynamic compression methods were applied to a monolithic metal and reactive mixtures to investigate their responses: (a) Dynamic experiments using a split Hopkinson pressure bar were applied to reactive mixtures densified by explosive consolidation in order to establish their mechanical response and failure mechanisms. (b) Laser compression and release, which can impart high stresses, up to hundreds GPa, in times of nanoseconds and fractions thereof, was applied to establish the spalling ...

  17. DESIGN OF ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE: TOWARDS MONOLITHIC CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Qing Liang; Spiesz Przemek; Brouwers Jos

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the development of ultra-lightweight concrete. A moderate strength and an excellent thermal conductivity of the lightweight concrete are set as the design targets. The designed lightweight aggregates concrete is targeted to be used in monolithic concrete façade structure, performing as both load bearing element and thermal insulator. The developed lightweight concrete shows excellent thermal properties, with a low thermal conductivity of about 0.12 W/(m·K); and moderate m...

  18. Design of Monolithic Integrator for Strain-to-Frequency Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Mohd. Khairi Tuan Mat; Chew Sue Ping; Akram Abdul Azid

    2012-01-01

    Strain-to-Frequency converter (SFC) is a one of the analog conditioner tools that converts any strain signal to the frequency signal. The basic concept of SFC is by detecting any changing of strains, then converting the strain to the voltage signal and converting the voltage signal to the frequency signal. This tool consists of 3 main  components which are strain gauge, differential integrator and comparator. This paper presents the designing and analysis of monolithic integrator that to be u...

  19. Smart Bolometer: Toward Monolithic Bolometer with Smart Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Matthieu, Denoual; Olivier, de Sagazan; Patrick, Attia; Gilles, Allègre

    2012-01-01

    The content of this chapter refers to uncooled resistive bolometers amd the challenge that consists in their integration into monolithic devices exhibiting smart functions. Uncooled resistive bolometers are the essential constitutive element of the majority of existing uncooled infrared imaging systems; they are referred to as microbolometer pixels in that type of application where matrixes of such elementary devices are used. uncooled bolometers represent more than 95% of the market of infra...

  20. Tannin-based monoliths from emulsion-templating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Efficient preparation procedures are presented for new and “green” tannin-based organic polyHIPEs. • Highest homogeneity and strength are obtained at an oil fraction near the close-packing value. • Structural and mechanical properties abruptly change above such critical value. - Abstract: Highly porous monoliths prepared by emulsion-templating, frequently called polymerised High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) in the literature, were prepared from “green” precursors such as Mimosa bark extract, sunflower oil and ethoxylated castor oil. Various oil fractions, ranging from 43 to 80 vol.%, were used and shown to have a dramatic impact on the resultant porous structure. A critical oil fraction around 70 vol.% was found to exist, close to the theoretical values of 64% and 74% for random and compact sphere packing, respectively, at which the properties of both emulsions and derived porous monoliths changed. Such change of behaviour was observed by many different techniques such as viscosity, electron microscopy, mercury intrusion, and mechanical studies. We show and explain why this critical oil fraction is the one leading to the strongest and most homogeneous porous monoliths

  1. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  2. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10–20 µm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption

  3. Monolithic preamplifier employing epitaxial N-channel JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results obtained in the research program oriented to the realisation of a monolithic preamplifier for calorimetry applications at high luminosity colliders. The main purpose of the program is to arrive at a monolithic realisation with a performance as close as possible to that of discrete preamplifiers. The junction field-effect transistors employed in discrete preamplifiers have an epitaxial channel and a very heavily doped gate diffused onto it. They present the best noise and radiation tolerance characteristics. The first step in the program implementation was, accordingly, the search for a process able to make the integration of epitaxial-channel. JFETs on a monolithic substrate possible. The integration has been accomplished on the basis of a buried-layer approach to device isolation. Individual JFETs and a complete preamplifier employing only N-channel JFETs have been realised. The characterisation of the individual devices has shown that their behaviour in terms of small signal and noise parameters is very close to that of their discrete equivalents. This result, along with the very good noise performances of the preamplifier, seems to point out that the buried layer process has fulfilled the task for which it was developed

  4. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  5. A radiation hard bipolar monolithic front-end readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast bipolar monolithic charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP), implemented in the monolithic 2 μm BiCMOS technology (called HF2CMOS) was designed and built in a quad monolitic chip. Studies of radiation effects in the CSP performance, from non-irradiated and up to neutron irradiation of 5.3x1014 n/cm2, have confirmed that the use of bipolar npn transistors is suitable for the radiation level of the future LHC collider environment. The CSP presents a new circuit solution for obtaining adequate slew rate performances which results in an integral linearity better than 0.8% on 5 V at 20 ns of shaping time, regardless of the bias current selected for the CSP. This way the bias current of the CSP can be set for optimizing the power dissipation with respect to series and parallel noise, especially useful when the CSP is put in a radiation environment. A prototype test with a novel monolithic 20 ns time constant RC-CR shaper, capable to sum up four inputs has been also realized, featuring good integral linearity

  6. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after a...

  7. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  8. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements are...

  9. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  10. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics...

  11. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.)

  12. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  13. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  14. Oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions for porous monolithic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Krajnc, Peter; Štefanec, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Porous monolithic polymers are objects of many studies recently due to their wide applicability. Especially in separation methods use of monoliths is growing. Usually, porous monoliths are prepared by bulk polymerisation with the use of porogenic solvents. An alternative way of preparation is to polymerise the continuous phase of an emulsion. When the volume fraction of the internal phase exceeds 74%, the emulsion is called a HIPE (high internal phase emulsion), and a polymer derived from it,...

  15. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Jiri; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2011-01-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimet...

  16. Application of Monolithic Zirconia Ceramics in Dental Practice: A Case History Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Monolithic zirconia restorations increasingly have been used in dental practice in recent years and demonstrate superior mechanical performance compared with porcelain-veneered zirconia restorations. Recent advances in manufacturing technology have made possible the fabrication of translucent monolithic zirconia ceramics. This case report describes three clinical examples of monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses being used in the anterior and posterior regions and exhibiting acceptable esthetic results. PMID:27611758

  17. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechet, Jean M. J.; Svec, Frantisek; Rohr, Thomas

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  18. Membrane chloride transport measured using a chloride-sensitive fluorescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of chloride across cell membranes through exchange, cotransport, or conductive pathways is a subject of great biological importance. Current methods of measurement are restricted in their sensitivity, time resolution, and applicability. A new transport measurement technique has been developed on the basis of the fluorescence quenching by chloride of the dye 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium (SPQ). SPQ fluorescence quenching by chloride is rapid and sensitive, with a greater than 50% decrease in fluorescence at 10 mM chloride. SPQ fluorescence is not altered by other physiological anions or by pH and can be used to measure both neutral and conductive transport processes. The high water solubility and membrane permeability properties of SPQ make it ideal for use in both membrane vesicles and cells. Chloride transport determined with SPQ was validated by measurement of erythrocyte chloride/anion exchange and membrane vesicle chloride conductance using 35SO4 uptake

  19. A new anionic exchange stir bar sorptive extraction coating based on monolithic material for the extraction of inorganic anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Lin, Jianbing; Yuan, Dongxing

    2010-07-23

    A novel anionic exchange stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coating based on poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic material for the extraction of inorganic anion was prepared. The effect of preparation conditions such as ratio of functional monomer to cross-linker, content of porogenic solvent on the extraction efficiencies were investigated in detailed. The monolithic material was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In order to investigate the extraction capacity of the new coating for inorganic anion, the new SBSE was combined with ionic chromatography with conductivity detection, Br-, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) were selected as detected solutes. Several extractive parameters, including pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix, desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time were optimized. The results showed that strongly ionic strength did not favor the extraction of anlaytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) and quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target anions were achieved within the range of 0.92-2.62 and 3.03-9.25 microg/L, respectively. The method also showed good linearity, simplicity, practicality and low cost for the extraction inorganic anions. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect the two different trademarks of commercial purified water with satisfactory recovery in the range of 70.0-92.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to use SBSE to enrich inorganic anions. PMID:20576270

  20. Axisymmetric collapses of granular columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Gert; Huppert, Herbert E.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Hallworth, Mark A.

    2004-06-01

    Experimental observations of the collapse of initially vertical columns of small grains are presented. The experiments were performed mainly with dry grains of salt or sand, with some additional experiments using couscous, sugar or rice. Some of the experimental flows were analysed using high-speed video. There are three different flow regimes, dependent on the value of the aspect ratio a {=} h_i/r_i, where h_i and r_i are the initial height and radius of the granular column respectively. The differing forms of flow behaviour are described for each regime. In all cases a central, conically sided region of angle approximately 59(°) , corresponding to an aspect ratio of 1.7, remains undisturbed throughout the motion. The main experimental results for the final extent of the deposit and the time for emplacement are systematically collapsed in a quantitative way independent of any friction coefficients. Along with the kinematic data for the rate of spread of the front of the collapsing column, this is interpreted as indicating that frictional effects between individual grains in the bulk of the moving flow only play a role in the last instant of the flow, as it comes to an abrupt halt. For a {<} 1.7, the measured final runout radius, r_infty, is related to the initial radius by r_infty {=} r_i(1 {+} 1.24a); while for 1.7 {<} a the corresponding relationship is r_infty {=} r_i(1 {+} 1.6a(1/2) ). The time, t_infty, taken for the grains to reach r_infty is given by t_infty {=} 3(h_i/g)(1/2} {=} 3(r_i/g)({1/2}a^{1/2)) , where g is the gravitational acceleration. The insights and conclusions gained from these experiments can be applied to a wide range of industrial and natural flows of concentrated particles. For example, the observation of the rapid deposition of the grains can help explain details of the emplacement of pyroclastic flows resulting from the explosive eruption of volcanoes.

  1. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  2. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  3. Oscillating water column structural model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  4. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and

  5. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  6. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

  7. Data quality objectives summary report for the 105-N monolith off-gas issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 105-N Basin hardware waste with radiation exposure rates high enough to make above-water handling and packaging impractical has been designated high exposure rate hardware (HERH) waste. This material, consisting primarily of irradiated reactor components, is packaged underwater for subsequent disposal as a grout-encapsulated solid monolith. The third HERH waste package that was created (Monolith No. 3) was not immediately removed from the basin because of administrative delays. During a routine facility walkdown, Monolith No. 3 was observed to be emitting bubbles. Mass spectroscopic analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 indicated that the gas was 85.2% hydrogen along with a trace of fission gases (stable isotopes of xenon). Gamma energy analysis of a gas sample from Monolith No. 3 also identified trace quantities of 85Kr. The monolith off-gas Data Quality Objective (DQO) process concluded the following: Monolith No. 3 and similar monoliths can be safely transported following installation of spacers between the lids of the L3-181 transport cask to vent the hydrogen gas; The 85Kr does not challenge personnel or environmental safety; Fumaroles in the surface of gassing monoliths renders them incompatible with Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements unless placed in a qualified high integrity container overpack; and Gassing monoliths do meet Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria requirements. This DQO Summary Report is both an account of the Monolith Off-Gas DQO Process and a means of documenting the concurrence of each of the stakeholder organizations

  8. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Kizek; Petr Babula; Jaromir Hubalek; Vojtech Adam; Libuse Trnkova

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the mo...

  9. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  10. The Chemical Evolution of the Universe I High Column Density Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Mathlin, G P; Churches, D K; Edmunds, M G

    2000-01-01

    We construct a simple, robust model of the chemical evolution of galaxies from high to low redshift, and apply it to published observations of damped Lyman-alpha quasar absorption line systems (DLAs). The elementary model assumes quiescent star formation and isolated galaxies (no interactions, mergers or gas flows). We consider the influence of dust and chemical gradients in the galaxies, and hence explore the selection effects in quasar surveys. We fit individual DLA systems to predict some observable properties of the absorbing galaxies, and also indicate the expected redshift behaviour of chemical element ratios involving nucleosynthetic time delays. Despite its simplicity, our `monolithic collapse' model gives a good account of the distribution and evolution of the metallicity and column density of DLAs, and of the evolution of the global star formation rate and gas density below redshifts z 3. However, from the comparison of DLA observations with our model, it is clear that star formation rates at higher...

  11. Crystal structure of tetraethylammonium chloride 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Viger-Gravel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Equimolar quantities of tetraethylammonium chloride (Et4NCl and 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene (o-DITFB or o-C6F4I2 have been co-crystallized in a solution of dichloromethane yielding a pure halogen-bonded compound, 3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,2-diiodobenzene–tetraethyl ammonium chloride (2/1, Et4N+·Cl−·2C6F4I2, in the form of translucent needles. [(Et4NCl(o-C6F4I22] packs in the C2/c space group. The asymmetric unit includes one molecule of DITFB, one Et4N+ cation located on a twofold rotation axis, and one chloride anion also located on a twofold rotation symmetry axis. This compound has an interesting halogen-bonding environment surrounding the halide. Here, the chloride anion acts as a tetradentate halogen bond acceptor and forms a distorted square-pyramidal geometry, with I...Cl−...I angles of 80.891 (6 and 78.811 (11°, where two crystallographically distinct iodine atoms form halogen bonds with the chloride anion. Resulting from that square-pyramidal geometry are short contacts between some of the adjacent F atoms. Along the b axis, the halogen-bonding interaction results in a polymeric network, producing a sheet in which the two closest chloride ions are 7.8931 (6 Å apart. The Et4N+ cation alternates in columns with the halide ion. The expected short contacts (shorter than the sum of their van der Waals radii are observed for the halogen bonds [3.2191 (2 and 3.2968 (2 Å], as well as almost linear angles [170.953 (6 and 173.529 (6°].

  12. Cryogenic gas separation with liquid exchanging columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An arrangement of distillation columns is disclosed for subambient distillative separation of 2 mixture of non-condensable gases wherein two columns which exchange liquid achieve a given level of separation over a smaller temperature range than that required by a single column producing the same separation. The arrangement is useful for air separation to produce medium purity (90 to 99%) O2 and/or N2

  13. Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns

    OpenAIRE

    Pastenes, Javier,; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, in spite of the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct obse...

  14. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations. Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to...

  15. Transverse Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramblička, Štefan; Veróny, Peter

    2013-11-01

    In the article we are dealing with the influence of transverse reinforcement to the resistance of a cross-section of the reinforced concrete columns and also with the effective detailing of the column reinforcement. We are verifying the correctness of design guides for detailing of transverse reinforcement. We are also taking into account the diameter of stirrups and its influence over transverse deformation of column.

  16. Mode beating and heterodyning of monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiyu

    Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers (SRLs) are attractive optical sources for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) because they do not require any feedback elements, do not have parts exposed to external ambient, and can operate in a traveling-wave mode. They are promising candidates for wavelength filtering, unidirectional traveling-wave operation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing applications. Ring lasers can also be used as ultrashort pulse generators using various mode-locking schemes and as active gyro components. However, the SRL is a very complicated dynamic system, which requires more investigations to understand the performance regarding details of the design and fabrication. As a part of NASA-supported project "Monolithically Integrated Semiconductor Ring Laser Gyro for Space Applications", this dissertation research was focused on design and characterization of a novel monolithically integrated rotation sensor based on two large-size independent SRLs. Numerical modeling based on the beam propagation method (BPM) was used to design the fabrication parameters for the single-mode ridge-waveguide ring cavity and directional coupler waveguides. The mode internal coupling in single lateral-mode laser diodes with InGaAs/GaAs material system was investigated by optical experiments and numerical modeling. To gain the understanding of the SRL performance, optical and electrical characterization was performed on fabricated SRLs. Particular emphasis was placed on the study of optical and radio frequency (RF) beating spectra of longitudinal modes of ring lasers. RF measurements provide high accuracy in the diagnosis of laser oscillation parameters by purely electronic means, particularly in the measurement of the group index and its dependence on current and temperature. Theoretical analysis based on the effective index method provides good agreement between the experimental data and numerical calculations. Finally, optical heterodyning spectra

  17. Monolithic passively Q-switched Cr:Nd:GSGG microlaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Randal L.

    2005-09-01

    Optical firing sets need miniature, robust, reliable pulsed laser sources for a variety of triggering functions. In many cases, these lasers must withstand high transient radiation environments. In this paper we describe a monolithic passively Q-switched microlaser constructed using Cr:Nd:GSGG as the gain material and Cr4+:YAG as the saturable absorber, both of which are radiation hard crystals. This laser consists of a 1-mm-long piece of undoped YAG, a 7-mm-long piece of Cr:Nd:GSGG, and a 1.5-mm-long piece of Cr4+:YAG diffusion bonded together. The ends of the assembly are polished flat and parallel and dielectric mirrors are coated directly on the ends to form a compact, rugged, monolithic laser. When end pumped with a diode laser emitting at ~807.6 nm, this passively Q-switched laser produces ~1.5-ns-wide pulses. While the unpumped flat-flat cavity is geometrically unstable, thermal lensing and gain guiding produce a stable cavity with a TEM00 gaussian output beam over a wide range of operating parameters. The output energy of the laser is scalable and dependent on the cross sectional area of the pump beam. This laser has produced Q-switched output energies from several μJ per pulse to several 100 μJ per pulse with excellent beam quality. Its short pulse length and good beam quality result in high peak power density required for many applications such as optically triggering sprytrons. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of this monolithic laser as well as energy scaling of the laser up to several 100 μJ per pulse.

  18. Monolithic passively Q-switched Cr:Nd:GSGG microlaser.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Randal L.

    2005-07-01

    Optical firing sets need miniature, robust, reliable pulsed laser sources for a variety of triggering functions. In many cases, these lasers must withstand high transient radiation environments. In this paper we describe a monolithic passively Q-switched microlaser constructed using Cr:Nd:GSGG as the gain material and Cr{sup 4+}:YAG as the saturable absorber, both of which are radiation hard crystals. This laser consists of a 1-mm-long piece of undoped YAG, a 7-mm-long piece of Cr:Nd:GSGG, and a 1.5-mm-long piece of Cr{sup 4+}:YAG diffusion bonded together. The ends of the assembly are polished flat and parallel and dielectric mirrors are coated directly on the ends to form a compact, rugged, monolithic laser. When end pumped with a diode laser emitting at -807.6 nm, this passively Q-switched laser produces -1.5-ns-wide pulses. While the unpumped flat-flat cavity is geometrically unstable, thermal lensing and gain guiding produce a stable cavity with a TEM{sub 00} gaussian output beam over a wide range of operating parameters. The output energy of the laser is scalable and dependent on the cross sectional area of the pump beam. This laser has produced Q-switched output energies from several {micro}J per pulse to several 100 {micro}J per pulse with excellent beam quality. Its short pulse length and good beam quality result in high peak power density required for many applications such as optically triggering sprytrons. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of this monolithic laser as well as energy scaling of the laser up to several 100 {micro}J per pulse.

  19. Reinforced concrete columns of variable cross section

    OpenAIRE

    Brant, N.F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a series of 19 full scale tests carried out on pin-ended reinforced concrete columns are reported. The columns tested had either tapered rectangular sections along the length or octagonal cross sections. All columns, except the last 6, were subjected to uniaxial eccentricities at one of the ends (the stronger end), and a nominally concentric load at the other end. For the case of the last six columns the loading applied at the stronger end was biaxially eccentric. For each of t...

  20. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Advances in Silicon Based Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chih Yeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the advances of the silicon-based millimeter-wave (MMW monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs are reported. The silicon-based technologies for MMW MMICs are briefly introduced. In addition, the current status of the MMW MMICs is surveyed and novel circuit topologies are summarized. Some representative MMW MMICs are illustrated as design examples in the categories of their functions in a MMW system. Finally, there is a conclusion and description of the future trend of the development of the MMW ICs.

  2. Monolithic Model of a Thermoelastic Friction Clutch with Permanent Magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlan, V.; Doležel, Ivo; Karban, P.; Ulrych, B.

    Funchal - Madeira: A.P.D.E.E. Associação Portuguesa para a Promoção e Desenvolvimento da Engenharia Electrotécnica, 2011 - (Antunes, C.; Wiak, S.), s. 1-8 ISBN 978-972-8822-24-8. [International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields in Mechatronics, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, ISEF2011 /15./. Funchal - Madeira (PT), 01.09.2011-03.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction heating * monolithic model * magnetic field Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://www.apdee.org

  3. Modeling of simultaneous induction hardening in monolithic formulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karban, P.; Doležel, Ivo; Ulrych, B.

    Barcelona : International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE),, 2011 - (Papadrakakis, M.; Onate, E.; Schrefler, B.), s. 1167-1175 ISBN 978-84-89925-78-6. [International Conference on Computational Methods for Coupled Problems in Science and Engineering, COUPLED PROBLEMS 2011 /4./. Kos (GR), 20.06.2011-22.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/0498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction hardening * nonlinear coupled problem * monolithic formulation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  4. Microveneering technique for esthetic enhancement of monolithic zirconia restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The importance of monolithic ceramic restorations is growing, given the safe and cost-effective options for fabrication of such dental crowns and fixed dental prostheses. The optical characteristics of traditional zirconia do not suffice for this purpose. Improved restorative materials that can achieve satisfactory results in posterior restorations have been proposed to solve the problem. In the anterior region, however, even "esthetic" zirconia ceramic is unable to attain results comparable to those of glass-ceramic. Microveneering is a simple, reliable, and timesaving solution. Minimal reduction and veneering can significantly improve the results. A characteristic case is presented here. PMID:27274564

  5. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a...

  6. Monolithic Gyroidal Mesoporous Mixed Titanium–Niobium Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium–niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  7. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic semiconductor chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Rolf T.; Kolenderski, Piotr; Kang, Dongpeng;

    2013-01-01

    Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built...... filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design...

  8. Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser and Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Gottfried Strasser; Werner Schrenk; Aaron Maxwell Andrews; Tobias Zederbauer; Hermann Detz; Peter Reininger; Benedikt Schwarz

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the monolithic integration of a mid-infrared laser and detector utilizing a bi-functional quantum cascade active region. When biased, this active region provides optical gain, while it can be used as a detector at zero bias. With our novel approach we can measure the light intensity of the laser on the same chip without the need of external lenses or detectors. Based on a bound-to-continuum design, the bi-functional active region has an inherent broad electro-luminescence spect...

  9. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors. MAPS are developed in a standard CMOS technology. In the imaging field, where the technology found its first applications, they are also known as CMOS Image Sensors. The use of MAPS as a detector for particle physics was first proposed at the end of 1999. Since then, their good performance in terms of spatial resolution, efficiency, radiation hardness have been demonstrated and work is now well under way to deliver the first MAPS-based vertex detectors

  10. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  11. Monolithically integrated twin ring diode lasers for rotation sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiński, Marek; Cao, Hongjun; Liu, Chiyu; Eliseev, Petr G.

    2006-02-01

    Design, fabrication, and characterization of monolithically integrated ring diode lasers (RDLs) with relatively large size are reported. Fully functional optoelectronic integrated circuits containing integrated unidirectional RDLs, photodetectors, and coupling waveguides are demonstrated. Multiple switching of lasing direction is observed in RDL with quantum-well active regions, and an S-section or spiral absorbers are used to suppress directional switching and to obtain a more stable unidirectional operation. Unidirectionality of the RDL operation is greatly improved in lasers with quantum-dot active regions.

  12. Development of highly sensitive monolithic interferometer for infrared planet search

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang P.; Lee B; Wan X.; Ge J; Wang J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication and testing of a highly sensitive monolithic interferometer for InfraRed Exoplanet Tracker (IR-ET). This interferometer is field-compensated, thermal-stable for working in the wavelength range between 0.8 and 1.35 μm. Two arms of the interferometer creates a fixed delay of 18.0 mm, which is optimized to have the best sensitivity for radial velocity measurements of slow-rotating M dwarfs for planet detection. IR-ET is aiming to reach 3–20 m/s Doppler precisio...

  13. Calibration Designs for Non-Monolithic Wind Tunnel Force Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas H.; Parker, Peter A.; Landman, Drew

    2010-01-01

    This research paper investigates current experimental designs and regression models for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances of non-monolithic design. Such calibration methods are necessary for this class of balance because it has an electrical response that is dependent upon the sign of the applied forces and moments. This dependency gives rise to discontinuities in the response surfaces that are not easily modeled using traditional response surface methodologies. An analysis of current recommended calibration models is shown to lead to correlated response model terms. Alternative modeling methods are explored which feature orthogonal or near-orthogonal terms.

  14. 0.18μm CMOS, MONOLITHIC MSTP ASIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Peng; Jin Depeng; Zeng Lieguang

    2006-01-01

    A highly integrated monolithic Multi-Service Transport Platform (MSTP) Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) MSEOSX8-6 has been fabricated with 0.18μm CMOS technology incorporating 26×106 transistors. The chip is designed to provide standard framing and mapping of 10/100/1000Mbit/s Ethernet, Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) and E1 traffics into protected Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) STM-1 transport payloads using hitless rate adaptation for optimum bandwidth utilization. It consumes 4W of power on average and utilizes 756 pin enhanced BGA package.

  15. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetta, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors. MAPS are developed in a standard CMOS technology. In the imaging field, where the technology found its first applications, they are also known as CMOS Image Sensors. The use of MAPS as a detector for particle physics was first proposed at the end of 1999. Since then, their good performance in terms of spatial resolution, efficiency, radiation hardness have been demonstrated and work is now well under way to deliver the first MAPS-based vertex detectors.

  16. Monolithic active-passive 16 × 16 optoelectronic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, R; Albores-Mejia, A; Williams, K A

    2012-11-15

    We present what is to our knowledge the first active-passive monolithically integrated 16×16 switch. The active InP/InGaAsP elements provide semiconductor optical amplifier gates in a multistage rearrangeably nonblocking switch design. Thirty-two representative connections, including the shortest, longest, and comprehensive range of intermediate paths have been assessed across the switch circuit. The 10 Gb/s signal routing is demonstrated with an optical signal-to-noise ratio up to 28.3 dB/0.1 nm and a signal extinction ratio exceeding 50 dB. PMID:23164873

  17. A monolithic (Si) massively broadband non-reverberant monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel monolithic implementation of a Wu–King profiled antenna intended for use in critical time-domain/UWB/imaging applications is presented. The simulated device was fabricated on a high-resistivity Si substrate on top of which a layer of GaAs is grown, segmented and patterned to serve as the radiating element. The device's measured return loss indicates a −10 dB BW > 50 GHz and time-domain measurements using a 500 pS input pulse prove that the device is practically non-reverberant in air

  18. Ultracompact 100 Gbps coherent receiver monolithically integrated on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhijuan; Gong, Pan; Zhou, Zhiping; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-04-01

    This work describes an ultracompact coherent receiver monolithically integrated on silicon. The coherent receiver integrates one 1D grating coupler, one 2D grating coupler, two 90° hybrids, and eight Ge photodetectors in an area of only 1.3 × 1.4 mm2, which is about half the size of the smallest previously reported receiver. The design and performances of the components and the integrated coherent receiver are presented. The receiving of 100 Gbps polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signals is also successfully demonstrated.

  19. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  20. Fibrous monoliths: Economic ceramic matrix composites from powders[Final report]; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was to develop and perform pilot-scale production of fibrous monolith composites. The principal focus of the program was to develop damage-tolerant, wear-resistant tooling for petroleum drilling applications and generate a basic mechanical properties database on fibrous monolith composites

  1. Monitoring catalysts at work in their final form: spectroscopic investigations on a monolithic catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren B.; Bañares, Miguel A.; Bazin, Philippe;

    2012-01-01

    A monolithic vanadia–titania based catalyst has been subjected to studies with in situ FTIR spectroscopy coupled with mass spectrometry, during the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) reaction. A device based on a transmission reactor cell for monolithic samples was constructed, dedicated to the...

  2. Monolithic junction field-effect transistor charge preamplifier for calorimetry at high luminosity hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outstanding noise and radiation hardness characteristics of epitaxial-channel junction field-effect transistors (JFET) suggest that a monolithic preamplifier based upon them may be able to meet the strict specifications for calorimetry at high luminosity colliders. Results obtained so far with a buried layer planar technology, among them an entire monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier, are described

  3. Punching Shear Behavior of RC Slab-Column Connections with Nonrectangular Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wenting; Huang Chengkui; Zhang Ruihe

    2005-01-01

    This paper present an experimental study on the RC slab-column connections with nonrectangular columns, namely cross-shaped column, T-shaped column and L-shaped column. The punching shear deformation and strength characteristics of slab-column connections with nonrectangular columns under punching shear load are investigated. Nine specimens with the three kinds of nonrectangular columns and two reference specimens with square columns are tested. The tested ultimate loads, deformations, and failure modes of specimens are presented and discussed. Test results reveal that the punching shear strength and ductility of the connections with nonrectangular columns are higher than those of the corresponding connections with square columns, and also prove that the application of nonrectangular columns to flat-plate structure was feasible. Based on the test results, one method of calculating punching shear strength of connections with nonrectangular columns is proposed, which conforms with the current design practice of China. The test results on the punching shear strength are compared with the predictions of the formulas proposed by codes of several different countrie; and the predictions given by ACI code and China code are found to be conservative as the reinforcement ratio is increased.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to the apical chloride channel in Necturus gallbladder inhibit the chloride conductance.

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, A L; Tsai, L M; Falk, R J

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The...

  5. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  6. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  7. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  8. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  9. Impact on the Spatial Resolution Performance of a Monolithic Crystal PET Detector Due to Different Sensor Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Lockhart, Cate; Lewellen, Tom K; Miyaoka, Robert S

    2009-10-24

    The performance characteristics of a monolithic crystal PET detector utilizing a novel sensor on the entrance surface (SES) design is reported. To facilitate this design, we propose to utilize a 2D silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array device. SiPMs are a form of Geiger-Muller mode avalanche photodiodes (GMAPD) that can provide signal gain similar to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Since these devices are still under active development, their performance parameters are changing. Using a multi-step simulation process, we investigated how different SiPM parameters affect the performance of a monolithic crystal PET detector. These parameters include gain variability between different channels; gain instability; and dark count noise. The detector simulated was a 49.6 mm by 49.6 mm by 15 mm LYSO crystal detector readout by a 16 by 16 array of 2.8 mm by 2.8 mm SiPM elements. To reduce the number of signal channels that need to be collected, the detector utilizes row-column summing. A statistics based positioning method is used for event positioning and depth of interaction (DOI) decoding. Of the variables investigated, the dark count noise had the largest impact on the intrinsic spatial resolution. Gain differences of 5-10% between detector calibration and detector testing had a modest impact on the intrinsic spatial resolution performance and led to a slight bias in positioning. There was no measurable difference with a gain variability of up to 25% between the individual SiPM channels. Based upon these results we are planning to cool our detectors below room temperature to reduce dark count noise and to actively control the temperature of the SiPMs to reduce drifts in gain over time. PMID:20806058

  10. Performance analysis of monolith photoreactor for CO2 reduction with H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • TiO2 supported microchannel monolith was tested for CO2 photoreduction with H2. • CO2 was converted to CO and C1–C3 hydrocarbons fuels using TiO2 supported monolith. • CH4 was produced in batch process while continuous process favored CO production. • CH4 yield rate was 6-fold high over TiO2 supported monolith than TiO2 cell photoreactor. • Quantum efficiency for CH4 production in monolith was 12-fold high than cell reactor. - Abstract: In this study a monolith photoreactor was compared with a cell type for testing photocatalytic CO2 reduction with H2 as a reducing agent. The monolith channels were dip-coated with TiO2 nanoparticles and were characterized using XRD, SEM, BET and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The performance of monolith photoreactor for CO2 photoreduction was much higher in the presence of H2 as a reducing agent than H2O with cell density of 200 CPSI. The CO2/H2 molar ratio of 1.5 was optimum at which higher CO evolution was observed. The efficiency of monolith photoreactor in batch process for CH4 production was 6 times higher than TiO2 dispersed in a cell reactor. The production rates were in the following order: monolith-CH4 (69 μmole g−1 h−1) > monolith-CO (59 μmole g−1 h−1) > Cell-CH4 (12 μmole g−1 h−1) > Cell-CO (6 μmole g−1 h−1). The higher yield rates in monolith photoreactor were due to the larger illuminated surface area of its multiple microchannels and efficient light utilization compared to the cell type reactor. More importantly, the quantum efficiency for CH4 production over TiO2 supported monolith was much higher (0.042%) than the cell type reactor (0.0038%). The significantly improved quantum efficiency indicated higher photonic efficiency in the microchannel monolith photoreactor. On the other hand, CO was the main product in the continuous monolith photoreactor with lesser yield rate compared to a batch process. The higher yield rate in batch process was obviously due to accumulation of

  11. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  12. Studies on acetone powder and purified rhus laccase immobilized on zirconium chloride for oxidation of phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Rhus laccase was isolated and purified from acetone powder obtained from the exudates of Chinese lacquer trees (Rhus vernicifera) from the Jianshi region, Hubei province of China. There are two blue bands appearing on CM-sephadex C-50 chromatography column, and each band corresponding to Rhus laccase 1 and 2, the former being the major constituent, and each had an average molecular weight of approximately 110 kDa. The purified and crude Rhus laccases were immobilized on zirconium chloride in ammonium chloride solution, and the kinetic properties of free and immobilized Rhus laccase, such as activity, molecular weight, optimum pH, and thermostability, were examined. In addition, the behaviors on catalytic oxidation of phenols also were conducted. PMID:22545205

  13. On-line gas chromatography of Mo, W and U (oxy)chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Group 6 elements are known to form volatile chlorides and oxychlorides. These compounds are therefore suited for separations with the on-line gaschemistry apparatus OLGA, a device which is able to isolate volatile species at a maximum temperature of 500 C. OLGA has previously been used to study the group 4 and 5 halides. In preparation of experiments with element 106 (Sg seaborgium), a member of group 6, first, a literature survey on the thermochemical properties of chlorides and oxychlorides of Mo and W as well as of the pseudo-group 6 element U was made. Second, OLGA experiments were performed with short-lived isotopes of Mo, W and U, using Cl2, saturated with SOCl2 for chlorination, and different partial pressures of O2. Under such conditions, these elements formed species, which were volatile in quartz chromatography columns at temperatures ≤ 250 C. (orig.)

  14. Sorption method for scandium (3) chloride purification from zirconium (4) impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of Zr4+ sorption on cationite KRF-20t-60 in H-form containing phosphonic functional groups from ScCl3 solution under dynamic conditions was studied for scandium (3) chloride purification from zirconium (4) impurity. It is shown that at initial concentration of scandium chloride in solution equal to 3 g/l and zirconium impurity concentration of about 3 mg/l, sorption column height to diameter ratio equal to 10:1 and solution flow rate 0.4 ml/min · cm2, the method mentioned provides purification factor of about 50. Variants of the sorbent regeneration using 5% solution of ammonium fluoride or 10% solution of potassium carbonate at room temperature were proposed

  15. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances

    OpenAIRE

    R. Kohlhepp; Ruhnke, R.; M. P. Chipperfield; De Mazière, M.; Notholt, J.; S. Barthlott; Batchelor, R.L.; R. D. Blatherwick; Blumenstock, Th.; Coffey, M. T.; Demoulin, P.; Fast, H.; Feng, W.; Goldman, A.; Griffith, D. W. T.

    2012-01-01

    Time series of total column abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl), chlorine nitrate (ClONO2), and hydrogen fluoride (HF) were determined from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra recorded at 17 sites belonging to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) and located between 80.05° N and 77.82° S. By providing such a near-global overview on ground-based measurements of the two major stratospheric chlorine reservoir species, HCl ...

  16. Synthesis and methane storage of binder-free porous graphene monoliths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing Ning; Hao Wang; Xiaoxin Zhang; Chenggen Xu; Guangjin Chen; Jinsen Gao

    2013-01-01

    Nanomesh graphene (NMG) obtained by template chemical vapor deposition was used to synthesize the binder-free graphene monoliths by simple tablet pressing.The stacking manner of the NMG sheets was crucial to the cohesion interaction between the graphene sheets,only the NMG materials with a loosely stacking manner could be pressed into binder-free monoliths.At the tableting pressure of 2-8 MPa,both the bulk densities and the specific surface areas of the monoliths keep nearly constant as the tableting pressure increases,indicating that the NMG monoliths have obvious elasticity and a porous structure due to the large corrugations and the mesh structures of the graphene sheets.As a result,an extraordinary methane storage capacity of 236 (v/v) at 9MPa was obtained in the graphene monolith prepared by tableting at 4 MPa.

  17. Column flotation in an oilsand application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiwchar, K.; Dang, L.; Marks, A.; Mbaja, E. [Suncor Energy Inc. Oil Sands, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Furey, J. [Canadian Process Technologies Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In March 2003, Suncor Energy Inc. began pilot operation of a flotation column designed by Canadian Process Technologies Inc. (CPT). Oilsands from the Suncor mine are mixed with hot process water and the bitumen is slurried in a pipeline. Large separation cells float off the bitumen product, which is then steam or static deaerated and sent to a secondary extraction plant for further cleaning. The tailings flotation froth product is processed at the final tails pumphouse where it is recycled to the oilsand feed. This pilot operation tested the performance of the CPT column against the performance of scavenger banks that use middlings streams. It was determined that if the flotation column recovery results surpassed the scavenger banks, columns would replace the Denver scavenger banks used in existing extraction plants. Pilot scale tests used a CPT 4 foot diameter flotation column. Previous bench scale tests at the University of Alberta were based on 2.4 inch and 20 inch diameter columns. The columns received middlings stream feed from deep cone separation cells. The column operates in parallel with a set of WEMCO flotation cells. The evaluation compared the recovery, tails losses, and concentrate quality of the two systems. All types of mine ore grades were tested. In order to optimize recovery and final product quality, adjustments were made to wash water flow and temperature, sparger nozzle size and location, sparger air/water flow rates, and column residence time. Column flotation is typically used in the final stages of sulphide cleaning and flotation of phosphate or iron ore. Preliminary results indicate that the use of the CPT flotation column in an oilsand application was successful and may prove to be an inexpensive method to recover bitumen from a middlings stream and to produce a product suitable for froth treatment. 2 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  19. CFD simulation of bubble column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekambara, K., E-mail: ekambara@ualberta.c [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, 536 CME Building, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2G6 (Canada); Dhotre, M.T. [Thermal-Hydraulics Laboratory, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    Three-dimensional simulations of gas-liquid flow in the bubble column using the Euler-Euler approach is presented. The attempt is made to assess the performance and applicability of different turbulence models namely, k-epsilon, k-epsilon RNG, k-omega, Reynolds stress model (RSM) and large eddy simulation (LES) using a commercial code (ANSYS-CFX). For this purpose, the predictions are compared against the experimental data of . Performance of the turbulence models is assessed on basis of comparison of axial liquid velocity, fractional gas hold-up, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent eddy dissipation rate. All the non-drag (turbulent dispersion, virtual mass and lift force) and drag force were incorporated in the model. The low-Reynolds number treatment of the k-omega yields a better qualitative prediction than the k-epsilon model. The RSM predictions are comparable with LES results and seemed to give better prediction near the sparger, where the flow is more anisotropic and gives a clue why RANS approaches fails to predict the flow in this region. However, the large eddy simulations showed good agreement with the experimental data, but requires higher computational time than RSM.

  20. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  1. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  2. Squeezed light from a diamond-turned monolithic cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Brieussel, A; Campbell, G; Guccione, G; Janousek, J; Hage, B; Buchler, B C; Treps, N; Fabre, C; Fang, F Z; Li, X Y; Symul, T; Lam, P K

    2016-01-01

    For some crystalline materials, a regime can be found where continuous ductile cutting is feasible. Using precision diamond turning, such materials can be cut into complex optical components with high surface quality and form accuracy. In this work we use diamond-turning to machine a monolithic, square-shaped, doubly-resonant $LiNbO_3$ cavity with two flat and two convex facets. When additional mild polishing is implemented, the Q-factor of the resonator is found to be limited only by the material absorption loss. We show how our monolithic square resonator may be operated as an optical parametric oscillator that is evanescently coupled to free-space beams via birefringent prisms. The prism arrangement allows for independent and large tuning of the fundamental and second harmonic coupling rates. We measure $2.6\\pm0.5$ dB of vacuum squeezing at 1064 nm using our system. Potential improvements to obtain higher degrees of squeezing are discussed.

  3. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifeng Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs, electroabsorption modulators (EAMs, and laser diodes (LDs, and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.

  4. Monolithically Integrated High-β Nanowire Lasers on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B; Janker, L; Loitsch, B; Treu, J; Kostenbader, T; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Morkötter, S; Kaniber, M; Abstreiter, G; Gies, C; Koblmüller, G; Finley, J J

    2016-01-13

    Reliable technologies for the monolithic integration of lasers onto silicon represent the holy grail for chip-level optical interconnects. In this context, nanowires (NWs) fabricated using III-V semiconductors are of strong interest since they can be grown site-selectively on silicon using conventional epitaxial approaches. Their unique one-dimensional structure and high refractive index naturally facilitate low loss optical waveguiding and optical recirculation in the active NW-core region. However, lasing from NWs on silicon has not been achieved to date, due to the poor modal reflectivity at the NW-silicon interface. We demonstrate how, by inserting a tailored dielectric interlayer at the NW-Si interface, low-threshold single mode lasing can be achieved in vertical-cavity GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NW lasers on silicon as measured at low temperature. By exploring the output characteristics along a detection direction parallel to the NW-axis, we measure very high spontaneous emission factors comparable to nanocavity lasers (β = 0.2) and achieve ultralow threshold pump energies ≤11 pJ/pulse. Analysis of the input-output characteristics of the NW lasers and the power dependence of the lasing emission line width demonstrate the potential for high pulsation rates ≥250 GHz. Such highly efficient nanolasers grown monolithically on silicon are highly promising for the realization of chip-level optical interconnects. PMID:26618638

  5. Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest scintillation photons can be recorded by each of the photosensor pixels every time a gamma interaction occurs. Generally, the time stamps are used to determine the gamma interaction time while the light intensities are used to estimate the 3D position of the interaction point. In this work we show that the spatio-temporal distribution of the time stamps also carries information on the location of the gamma interaction point and thus the time stamps can be used as explanatory variables for position estimation. We present a model for the spatial resolution obtainable when the interaction position is estimated using exclusively the time stamp of the first photon detected on each of the photosensor pixels. The model is shown to be in agreement with experimental measurements on a 16 mm  ×  16 mm  ×  10 mm LSO : Ce,0.2%Ca crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array where a spatial resolution of 3 mm (root mean squared error) is obtained. Finally we discuss the effects of the main parameters such as scintillator rise and decay time, light output and photosensor single photon time resolution and pixel size. (paper)

  6. Adsorbed Methane Film Properties in Nanoporous Carbon Monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Yuchoong; Chada, Nagaraju; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Carbon briquetting can increase methane storage capacity by reducing the useless void volume resulting in a better packing density. It is a robust and efficient space-filling form for an adsorbed natural gas vehicle storage tank. To optimize methane storage capacity, we studied three fabrication process parameters: carbon-to-binder ratio, compaction temperature, and pyrolysis temperature. We found that carbon-to-binder ratio and pyrolysis temperature both have large influences on monolith uptakes. We have been able to optimize these parameters for high methane storage. All monolith uptakes (up to 260 bar) were measured by a custom-built, volumetric, reservoir-type instrument. The saturated film density and the film thickness was determined using linear extrapolation on the high pressure excess adsorption isotherms. The saturated film density was also determined using the monolayer Ono-Kondo model. Film densities ranged from ca. 0.32 g/cm3 - 0.37 g/cm3.The Ono-Kondo model also determines the binding energy of methane. Binding energies were also determined from isosteric heats calculated from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and compared with the Ono-Kondo model method. Binding energies from Ono-Kondo were ca. 7.8 kJ/mol - 10 kJ/mol. Work funded by California Energy Commission Contract #500-08-022.

  7. Monolithic crystals for PET devices: Optical coupling optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a method to efficiently collect scintillation light when using monolithic scintillator crystals. The acceptance angle of the scintillation light has been reduced by means of optical devices reducing the border effect which typically affects continuous crystals. We have applied this procedure on gamma detectors for PET systems using both position sensitive PMTs and arrays of SiPMs. In the case of using SiPMs, this approach also helps to reduce the photosensor active area. We evaluated the method using PMTs with a variety of different crystals with thicknesses ranging from 10 to 24 mm. We found that our design allows the use of crystal blocks with a thickness of up to 18 mm without degrading the spatial resolution caused by edge effects and without a significant detriment to the energy resolution. These results were compared with simulated data. The first results of monolithic LYSO crystals coupled to an array of 256 SiPMs by means of individual optical light guides are also presented. -- Highlights: •Acceptance angle reduction decreases border effect in continuous crystals. •Experimental measurements with PMTs correlate well with simulated data. •Optical devices called faceplates serve to control the scintillation light angle. •Simulation on the light propagation for SiPMs requires exhaustive modeling

  8. Supercapacitor Electrodes from Activated Carbon Monoliths and Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolah, B. N. M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Deraman, M.; Basri, N. H.; Farma, R.; Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    Binderless monoliths of supercapacitor electrodes were prepared by the carbonization (N2) and activation (CO2) of green monoliths (GMs). GMs were made from mixtures of self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) of fibers from oil palm empty fruit bunches and a combination of 5 & 6% KOH and 0, 5 & 6% carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by weight. The electrodes from GMs containing CNTs were found to have lower specific BET surface area (SBET). The electrochemical behavior of the supercapacitor fabricated using the prepared electrodes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). In general an addition of CNTs into the GMs reduces the equivalent series resistance (ESR) value of the cells. A cell fabricated using electrodes from GM with 5% CNT and 5% KOH was found to have the largest reduction of ESR value than that from the others GMs containing CNT. The cell has steeper Warburg's slope than that from its respective non-CNT GM, which reflect the smaller resistance for electrolyte ions to move into pores of electrodes despite these electrodes having largest reduction in specific BET surface area. The cell also has the smallest reduction of specific capacitance (Csp) and maintains the specific power range despite a reduction in the specific energy range due to the CNT addition.

  9. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Binder, Andrew; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 μgL⁻¹). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N’-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. The preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  10. Time-based position estimation in monolithic scintillator detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchini, Valerio; Borghi, Giacomo; Schaart, Dennis R

    2015-07-21

    Gamma-ray detectors based on bright monolithic scintillation crystals coupled to pixelated photodetectors are currently being considered for several applications in the medical imaging field. In a typical monolithic detector, both the light intensity and the time of arrival of the earliest scintillation photons can be recorded by each of the photosensor pixels every time a gamma interaction occurs. Generally, the time stamps are used to determine the gamma interaction time while the light intensities are used to estimate the 3D position of the interaction point. In this work we show that the spatio-temporal distribution of the time stamps also carries information on the location of the gamma interaction point and thus the time stamps can be used as explanatory variables for position estimation. We present a model for the spatial resolution obtainable when the interaction position is estimated using exclusively the time stamp of the first photon detected on each of the photosensor pixels. The model is shown to be in agreement with experimental measurements on a 16 mm  ×  16 mm  ×  10 mm LSO : Ce,0.2%Ca crystal coupled to a digital photon counter (DPC) array where a spatial resolution of 3 mm (root mean squared error) is obtained. Finally we discuss the effects of the main parameters such as scintillator rise and decay time, light output and photosensor single photon time resolution and pixel size. PMID:26133784

  11. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  12. Immobilization of trypsin on sub-micron skeletal polymer monolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new kind of immobilized trypsin reactor based on sub-micron skeletal polymer monolith has been developed. Covalent immobilization of trypsin on this support was performed using the epoxide functional groups in either a one- or a multi-step reaction. The proteolytic activity of the immobilized trypsin was measured by monitoring the formation of N-α-benzoyl-L-arginine (BA) which is the digestion product of a substrate N-α-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE). Results showed that the digestion speed was about 300 times faster than that performed in free solution. The performance of such an enzyme reactor was further demonstrated by digesting protein myoglobin. It has been found that the protein digestion could be achieved in 88 s at 30 deg. C, which is comparable to 24 h digestion in solution at 37 oC. Furthermore, the immobilized trypsin exhibits increased stability even after continuous use compared to that in free solution. The present monolithic enzyme-reactor provides a promising platform for the proteomic research.

  13. Novel monolithic electrochemically promoted catalytic reactor for environmentally important reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balomenou, S.; Tsiplakides, D.; Katsaounis, A.; Vayenas, C.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Caratheodory 1 St., GR-26504 Patras (Greece); Thiemann-Handler, S.; Cramer, B. [Robert Bosch GmbH Stuttgart, FV/FLC, PF 10 60 50, 70 049 Stuttgart (Germany); Foti, G.; Comninellis, Ch. [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2004-09-28

    A novel dismantlable monolithic-type electrochemically promoted catalytic reactor and 'smart' sensor-catalytic reactor unit has been constructed and tested for hydrocarbon oxidation and NO reduction by C{sub 2}H{sub 4} in presence of O{sub 2}. In this novel reactor, thin (=20-40nm) porous catalyst films made of two different materials are sputter-deposited on opposing surfaces of thin (0.25mm) parallel solid electrolyte plates supported in the grooves of a ceramic monolithic holder and serve as sensor or electropromoted catalyst elements. Using Rh/YSZ/Pt-type catalyst elements, the 22-plate reactor operated with apparent Faradaic efficiency exceeding 25 achieving near complete fuel and NO conversion at 300C in presence of up to 1.1% O{sub 2} in the feed at gas flow rates exceeding 1.3l/min. The metal catalyst dispersion was of the order of at least 15%. The novel reactor design requires only two external electrical connections and permits easy practical utilization of the electrochemical promotion of catalysis.

  14. Monolithic Cylindrical Fused Silica Resonators with High Q Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yao; Wang, Dongya; Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Suyong; Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Luo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The cylindrical resonator gyroscope (CRG) is a typical Coriolis vibratory gyroscope whose performance is determined by the Q factor and frequency mismatch of the cylindrical resonator. Enhancing the Q factor is crucial for improving the rate sensitivity and noise performance of the CRG. In this paper, for the first time, a monolithic cylindrical fused silica resonator with a Q factor approaching 8 × 10⁵ (ring-down time over 1 min) is reported. The resonator is made of fused silica with low internal friction and high isotropy, with a diameter of 25 mm and a center frequency of 3974.35 Hz. The structure of the resonator is first briefly introduced, and then the experimental non-contact characterization method is presented. In addition, the post-fabrication experimental procedure of Q factor improvement, including chemical and thermal treatment, is demonstrated. The Q factor improvement by both treatments is compared and the primary loss mechanism is analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, the work presented in this paper represents the highest reported Q factor for a cylindrical resonator. The proposed monolithic cylindrical fused silica resonator may enable high performance inertial sensing with standard manufacturing process and simple post-fabrication treatment. PMID:27483263

  15. SU8 diaphragm micropump with monolithically integrated cantilever check valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezkerra, Aitor; Fernández, Luis José; Mayora, Kepa; Ruano-López, Jesús Miguel

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a SU8 unidirectional diaphragm micropump with embedded out-of-plane cantilever check valves. The device represents a reliable and low-cost solution for integration of microfluidic control in lab-on-a-chip devices. Its planar architecture allows monolithic definition of its components in a single step and potential integration with previously reported PCR, electrophoresis and flow-sensing SU8 microdevices. Pneumatic actuation is applied on a PDMS diaphragm, which is bonded to the SU8 body at wafer level, further enhancing its integration and mass production capabilities. The cantilever check valves move synchronously with the diaphragm, feature fast response (10ms), low dead volume (86nl) and a 94% flow blockage up to 300kPa. The micropump achieves a maximum flow rate of 177 μl min(-1) at 6 Hz and 200 kPa with an effective area of 10 mm(2). The device is reliable, self-priming and tolerant to particles and big bubbles. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first micropump in SU8 with monolithically integrated cantilever check valves. PMID:21853192

  16. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  17. Off-line hyphenation of boronate affinity monolith-based extraction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for efficient analysis of glycoproteins/glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Zijun; Chen, Yang; Li, Hengye; Wu, Ronghu; Liu, Zhen

    2014-06-27

    Boronate affinity materials have attracted increasing attentions as sample enrichment platforms for glycoproteomic analysis in recent years. However, most of the boronate affinity materials that have already employed for proteomic analysis are suffering from apparent disadvantages, such as alkaline pH for binding, weak affinity, and relatively poor selectivity. Benzoboroxoles are a unique class of boronic acids which have showed excellent binding properties for the recognition of cis-diol-containing compounds. Recently, a 3-carboxy-benzoboroxole-functionalized monolithic column had been reported and it had exhibited the best selectivity and affinity as well as the lowest binding pH among all reported boronate affinity monolithic columns. In this study, an off-line hyphenation of this boronate affinity monolithic column-based extraction with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was developed and the powerfulness of this hyphenated approach in the analysis of glycoproteins and glycopeptides in complex samples was investigated. The approach was first applied to the analysis of glycopeptides in the tryptic digest of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Totally 22 glycopeptides were identified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best performance among all the boronic acid-functionalized materials. We further employed this approach to the analysis of intact proteins in human saliva. Totally 6 intact glycoproteins were successfully identified. As comparison, when the samples were analyzed without extraction, only a few glycopeptides were identified from the tryptic digest of HRP while no glycoproteins were found from the saliva samples. PMID:24928239

  18. Rasch models with exchangeable rows and columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    The article studies distributions of doubly infinite binary matrices with exchangeable rows and columns which satify the further property that the probability of any $m \\times n$ submatrix is a function of the row- and column sums of that matrix. We show that any such distribution is a (unique...

  19. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  20. How to Calculate Molecular Column Density

    CERN Document Server

    Mangum, Jeffrey G

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of the molecular column density from molecular spectral (rotational or ro-vibrational) transition measurements is one of the most basic quantities derived from molecular spectroscopy. Starting from first principles where we describe the basic physics behind the radiative and collisional excitation of molecules and the radiative transfer of their emission, we derive a general expression for the molecular column density. As the calculation of the molecular column density involves a knowledge of the molecular energy level degeneracies, rotational partition functions, dipole moment matrix elements, and line strengths, we include generalized derivations of these molecule-specific quantities. Given that approximations to the column density equation are often useful, we explore the optically thin, optically thick, and low-frequency limits to our derived general molecular column density relation. We also evaluate the limitations of the common assumption that the molecular excitation temperature is con...

  1. Modeling of column apparatuses: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doichinova, M., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com; Popova-Krumova, P., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. St.Angelov str., Bl. 103, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper presents a review of the modeling method on the base of the physical approximations of the mechanics of continua, which have been developed for processes in column apparatuses. This method includes diffusion type of model for modeling of mass transfer with chemical reaction in column apparatuses with and without circulation zones. The diffusion type of model is used for modeling of scale effect in column apparatuses too. The study concluded that the proposal method is possibility for investigation the influence of radial non uniformity of the velocity distribution on the process efficiency, influence of zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column. The method of the column apparatuses modeling can be used for modeling of physical and chemical absorption, chemical adsorption, homogeneous and heterogeneous (catalytic) chemical reactions, airlift reactors for chemical and photochemical reactions.

  2. Pressure Drop Measurements on Distillation Columns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.J. Cai; M.R. Resetarits

    2011-01-01

    Pressure drops are of major importance for distillation/absorption columns. This paper mainly discusses how to correctly measure, interpret and use pressure drop data. The possible causes of incorrect pressure drop measurements are studied including the effects of pressure tap dimensions, locations, and vapor condensation etc. The effect of the static head of vapor on the pressure drop data and column pressures is evaluated. Variations of sectional pressure drops along the column are investigated based on the experimental data obtained from commercial size distillation columns at Fractionation Research, Inc. (FRI). For a packed column, it is found that the spacing between the liquid distributor and the top of the bed affects the overall pressure drop measurements, which is confirmed by a fundamental fluid dynamics analysis.

  3. Separation studies of molybdate and tellurate ions on charcoal impregnated with tin(IV) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New charcoal impregnated with tin(IV) chloride adsorbent was prepared. Comparative studies for the adsorption behaviour of Mo(VI) and Te(VI) tracers in HCl and/or HNO3 solutions on activated and impregnated charcoal were carried out using batch technique. The distribution data of Mo(VI) and Te(VI) were discussed and a mechanism for the adsorption of Mo(VI) on impregnated charcoal was suggested. Chromatographic separation of 99Mo(VI) and *Te(VI) from each other with high radiochemical purity was experimentally proved using columns of impregnated charcoal. (orig.)

  4. Investigation on technetium species in ground water and migration through caly columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speciation of technetium in ground water has been studied for understanding the migration behaviour of this radionuclide in deep geological formations. A combination of free-liquid electromigration, ion exchange, solvent extraction, coprecipitation and dialysis methods has been applied. Both oxic and anoxic conditions have been employed. Systems studied include leaching of sodium borosilicate glass spiked with 99Tc and sup(95m)Tc followed by its passage through glauconitic sand columns, and dialysis of TcO2 with ground water, sodium chloride, and humic acid solutions. Results indicate the presence of the pertechnetate, TcO4-, ion as the dominating species. (author)

  5. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  6. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  7. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  8. FIRST DETECTION OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE TOWARD PROTOSTELLAR SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first detection of hydrogen chloride in a protostellar shock by observing the fundamental transition at 626 GHz with the HIFI spectrometer. We detected two of the three hyperfine lines from which we derived a line opacity ≤1. Using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium large velocity gradient code, we constrained the HCl column density, temperature, and density of the emitting gas. The hypothesis that the emission originates in the molecular cloud is ruled out because it would imply a very dense gas. Conversely, assuming that the emission originates in the 10''-15'' size shocked gas previously observed at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we obtain N(HCl) = 0.7-2 × 1013 cm–2, temperature >15 K, and density >3 × 105 cm–3. Combining these with the Herschel HIFI CO(5-4) observations allows us to further constrain the gas density and temperature, 105-106 cm–3 and 120-250 K, respectively, as well as the HCl column density, 2 × 1013 cm–2, and, finally, the abundance ∼3-6 × 10–9. The estimated HCl abundance is consistent with that previously observed in low- and high-mass protostars. This puzzling result in the L1157-B1 shock, where species from volatile and refractory grain components are enhanced, suggests either that HCl is not the main reservoir of chlorine in the gas phase, which goes against previous chemical model predictions, or that the elemental chlorine abundance is low in L1157-B1. Astrochemical modeling suggests that HCl is in fact formed in the gas phase at low temperatures prior to the occurrence of the shock; the latter does not enhance its abundance.

  9. FIRST DETECTION OF HYDROGEN CHLORIDE TOWARD PROTOSTELLAR SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codella, C.; Vasta, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Faure, A.; Wiesenfeld, L. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E. [Universite de Toulouse (France); UPS-OMP, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, BP 44346, F-31028 (France); Salez, M.; Cabrit, S. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Meudon (France); Viti, S., E-mail: codella@rcetri.astro.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-10

    We present the first detection of hydrogen chloride in a protostellar shock by observing the fundamental transition at 626 GHz with the HIFI spectrometer. We detected two of the three hyperfine lines from which we derived a line opacity {<=}1. Using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium large velocity gradient code, we constrained the HCl column density, temperature, and density of the emitting gas. The hypothesis that the emission originates in the molecular cloud is ruled out because it would imply a very dense gas. Conversely, assuming that the emission originates in the 10''-15'' size shocked gas previously observed at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we obtain N(HCl) = 0.7-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, temperature >15 K, and density >3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}. Combining these with the Herschel HIFI CO(5-4) observations allows us to further constrain the gas density and temperature, 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} and 120-250 K, respectively, as well as the HCl column density, 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, and, finally, the abundance {approx}3-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. The estimated HCl abundance is consistent with that previously observed in low- and high-mass protostars. This puzzling result in the L1157-B1 shock, where species from volatile and refractory grain components are enhanced, suggests either that HCl is not the main reservoir of chlorine in the gas phase, which goes against previous chemical model predictions, or that the elemental chlorine abundance is low in L1157-B1. Astrochemical modeling suggests that HCl is in fact formed in the gas phase at low temperatures prior to the occurrence of the shock; the latter does not enhance its abundance.

  10. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl3liquid + H2O → FeOClsolid + 2 HClgas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOClsolid + H2O → Fe2O3solid + 2 HClgas. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  11. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  12. Agglomerated polymer monoliths with bimetallic nano-particles as flow-through micro-reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer monoliths in capillary format have been prepared as solid supports for the immobilisation of platinum/palladium bimetallic nano-flowers. Optimum surface coverage of nano-flowers was realised by photografting the monoliths with vinyl azlactone followed by amination with ethylenediamine prior to nano-particle immobilisation. Field emission SEM imaging was used as a characterisation tool for evaluating nano-particle coverage, together with BET surface area analysis to probe the effect of nano-particle immobilisation upon monolith morphology. Ion exchange chromatography was also used to confirm the nature of the covalent attachment of nano-flowers on the monolithic surface. In addition, EDX and ICP analyses were used to quantify platinum and palladium on modified polymer monoliths. Finally the catalytic properties of immobilised bimetallic Pd/Pt nano-flowers were evaluated in flow-through mode, exploiting the porous interconnected flow-paths present in the prepared monoliths (pore diameter ∼ 1-2 μm). Specifically, the reduction of Fe (III) to Fe (II) and the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ were selected as model redox reactions. The use of a porous polymer monolith as an immobilisation substrate (rather than aminated micro-spheres) eliminated the need for a centrifugation step after the reaction. (author)

  13. A new SERS substrate based on silver nanoparticle functionalized polymethacrylate monoliths in a capillary, and it application to the trace determination of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple, sensitive and practical substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It consists of a column material that is obtained by modifying the surface of (glycidyl methacrylate)-co-(ethylene dimethacrylate) capillary monoliths with silver nanoparticles. This new SERS column substrate was applied to the determination of 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy) and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) to give detection limits as low as 100 and 10 pM, respectively. The calculated enhancement factor is approximately 1.2 × 108. This represents a substantial improvement over conventional colloidal substrates. The new substrate was applied to the determination of residues of the pesticide phosmet and gave a detection limit of 3 μg∙L−1, with a linear response in the 3 to 1000 μg∙L−1 concentration range (R2 = 0.995). Additionally, 0.2 mg∙kg−1 of phosmet on apples and oranges, and of 0.5 mg∙kg−1 on tea leaves were detectable via SERS using this column along with a simple extraction process. The above LODs are well below the tolerance level prescribed by National Standard of China. Thus, this simple method is highly efficient, sensitive, and affordable and introduces a SERS–based trace detection suitable for real-world applications, especially for the determination of pesticides. (author)

  14. Microwaves Scattering by Underdense Inhomogeneous Plasma Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Ouyang, Jiting

    2016-03-01

    The scattering characteristics of microwaves (MWs) by an underdense inhomogeneous plasma column have been investigated. The plasma column is generated by hollow cathode discharge (HCD) in a glass tube filled with low pressure argon. The plasma density in the column can be varied by adjusting the discharge current. The scattering power of X-band MWs by the column is measured at different discharge currents and receiving angles. The results show that the column can affect the properties of scattering wave significantly regardless of its plasma frequency much lower than the incident wave frequency. The power peak of the scattering wave shifts away from 0° to about ±15° direction. The finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method is employed to analyze the wave scattering by plasma column with different electron density distributions. The reflected MW power from a metal plate located behind the column is also measured to investigate the scattering effect on reducing MW reflectivity of a metal target. This study is expected to deepen the understanding of plasma-electromagnetic wave interaction and expand the applications concerning plasma antenna and plasma stealth.

  15. Silicon-based optoelectronics: Monolithic integration for WDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Matthew Richard T.

    2000-10-01

    This thesis details the development of enabling technologies required for inexpensive, monolithic integration of Si-based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) components and photodetectors. The work involves the design and fabrication of arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator (SOI), the development of advanced SiGe photodetectors capable of photodetection at 1.55 mum wavelengths, and the development of a low cost fabrication technique that enables the high volume production of Si-based photonic components. Arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) demultiplexers were designed and fabricated in SOI. The fabrication of AWGs in SOI has been reported in the literature, however there are a number of design issues specific to the SOI material system that can have a large effect on device performance and design, and have not been theoretically examined in earlier work. The SOI AWGs presented in this thesis are the smallest devices of this type reported, and they exhibit performance acceptable for commercial applications. The SiGe photodetectors reported in the literature exhibit extremely low responsivities at wavelengths near 1.55 mum. We present the first use of three dimensional growth modes to enhance the photoresponse of SiGe at 1.55 mum wavelengths. Metal semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors were fabricated using this undulating quantum well structure, and demonstrate the highest responsivities yet reported for a SiGe-based photodetector at 1.55 mum. These detectors were monolithically integrated with low-loss SOI waveguides, enabling integration with nearly any Si-based passive WDM component. The pursuit of inexpensive Si-based photonic components also requires the development of new manufacturing techniques that are more suitable for high volume production. This thesis presents the development of a low cost fabrication technique based on the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS), a standard processing technique used for Si integrated circuits

  16. Recovery of active anti TNF-α ScFv through matrix-assisted refolding of bacterial inclusion bodies using CIM monolithic support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, Krishnan; Bilgimol, Chuvappumkal Joseph; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A; Satheeshkumar, Padikara Kutty

    2012-04-01

    Anti TNF-α molecules are important as therapeutic agents for many of the autoimmune diseases in chronic stage. Here we report the expression and purification of a recombinant single chain variable fragment (ScFv) specific to TNF-α from inclusion bodies. In contrast to the conventional on column refolding using the soft gel supports, an efficient methodology using monolithic matrix has been employed. Nickel (II) coupled to convective interaction media (CIM) support was utilized for this purpose with 6M guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) as the chaotropic agent. The protein purified after solubilization and refolding proved to be biologically active with an IC₅₀ value of 15 μg. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the application of methacrylate based chromatographic supports for matrix-assisted refolding and purification of Escherichia coli inclusion bodies. The results are promising to elaborate the methodology further to exploit the potential positive features of monoliths in protein refolding science. PMID:22386363

  17. Redesigned Air-Column Resonance Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurbax; Graf, Erlend H.

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a redesigned air-column resonance apparatus that offers several advantages over the traditional one.2 It does away with water or the long rod to vary the length of the air column. Instead a specially designed piston is moved inside a plastic or glass tube by external magnets to vary the length of the air column. Plastic tubes of various sizes are commercially available,3 but we salvaged one from an old commercial resonance apparatus. The tube has 2.85-cm inner and 3.15-cm outer diameter, respectively. The redesigned resonance apparatus can be operated in either the horizontal or the vertical position.

  18. COLUMN-ORIENTED DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, l.O.; National Aviation University, Kyiv

    2012-01-01

    In the following thesis I will present column-oriented database. Among other things, I will answer on a question why there is a need for a column-oriented database. In recent years there have been a lot of attention regarding a column-oriented database, even if the existence of a columnar database management systems dates back in the early seventies of the last century. I will compare both systems for a database management – a colum-oriented database system and a row-oriented database system ...

  19. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  20. Buckling driven debonding in sandwich columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    A compression loaded sandwich column that contains a debond is analyzed using a geometrically non-linear finite element model. The model includes a cohesive zone along one face sheet/core interface whereby the debond can extend by interface crack growth. Two geometrical imperfections are introduced......; a global imperfection of the sandwich column axis and a local imperfection of the debonded face sheet axis. The model predicts the sandwich column to be very sensitive to the initial debond length and the local face sheet imperfection. The study shows that the sensitivity to the face sheet...