Sample records for chloride mass-balance approach

  1. Reconnaissance Estimates of Recharge Based on an Elevation-dependent Chloride Mass-balance Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles E. Russell; Tim Minor


    Significant uncertainty is associated with efforts to quantity recharge in arid regions such as southern Nevada. However, accurate estimates of groundwater recharge are necessary to understanding the long-term sustainability of groundwater resources and predictions of groundwater flow rates and directions. Currently, the most widely accepted method for estimating recharge in southern Nevada is the Maxey and Eakin method. This method has been applied to most basins within Nevada and has been independently verified as a reconnaissance-level estimate of recharge through several studies. Recharge estimates derived from the Maxey and Eakin and other recharge methodologies ultimately based upon measures or estimates of groundwater discharge (outflow methods) should be augmented by a tracer-based aquifer-response method. The objective of this study was to improve an existing aquifer-response method that was based on the chloride mass-balance approach. Improvements were designed to incorporate spatial variability within recharge areas (rather than recharge as a lumped parameter), develop a more defendable lower limit of recharge, and differentiate local recharge from recharge emanating as interbasin flux. Seventeen springs, located in the Sheep Range, Spring Mountains, and on the Nevada Test Site were sampled during the course of this study and their discharge was measured. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the springs were determined. Discharge and chloride concentrations from these springs were compared to estimates provided by previously published reports. A literature search yielded previously published estimates of chloride flux to the land surface. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios and discharge rates of the three largest springs in the Amargosa Springs discharge area were compiled from various sources. This information was utilized to determine an effective chloride concentration for recharging precipitation and its associated uncertainty via Monte Carlo simulations

  2. Recharge Estimation Using Water, Chloride and Isotope Mass Balances (United States)

    Dogramaci, S.; Firmani, G.; Hedley, P.; Skrzypek, G.; Grierson, P. F.


    Discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may elevate groundwater levels and alter the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers but it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid subtropical Hamersley Basin that has received continuous mine discharge for more than five years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 74 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.24‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ~ 65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ~35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the creek has not extended beyond 27 km from the discharge point. Our approach using a combination of hydrochemical and isotope methods coupled with classical surface flow hydraulic modelling allowed evaluation of components of water budget otherwise not possible in a highly dynamic system that is mainly driven by infrequent but large episodic

  3. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area with historical forest clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan


    Full Text Available Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water and chloride fluxes are locally in steady state, the CMB method is usually applied at a catchment scale owing to significant lateral flows in mountains. The applicability of the CMB method to several conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions is examined. The conceptualisation, combined with some local climate conditions, is shown to be useful in assessing whether or not a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced widespread historical forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match a type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream, with the ratios of stream chloride output (O over atmospheric chloride input (I, or catchment chloride O/I ratios, ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match a type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream, with catchment chloride O/I ratios about 0.5. For these type V and type VI catchments, the CMB method is not applicable. The results also suggest that neither a chloride O/I ratio less than one nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4 guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. A large chloride O/I value (above one and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride

  4. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Lyles, Brad F [DRI


    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  5. Chloride-mass-balance for predicting increased recharge after land-use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, G.W.; Zhang, Z.F.; Tyler, S.W.; Albright, W.H.; Singleton, M.J.


    The chloride-mass-balance (CMB) method has been used extensively to estimate recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Required data include estimates of annual precipitation, total chloride input (from dry fallout and precipitation), and pore-water chloride concentrations. Typically, CMB has been used to estimate ancient recharge but recharge from recent land-use change has also been documented. Recharge rates below a few mm/yr are reliably detected with CMB; however, estimates above a few mm/yr appear to be less reliable. We tested the CMB method against 26 years of drainage from a 7.6-m-deep lysimeter at a simulated waste-burial ground, located on the Department of Energy s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA where land-use change has increased recharge rates. Measured drainage from the lysimeter for the past 26 years averaged 62 mm/yr. Precipitation averaged 190 mm/yr with an estimated chloride input of 0.225 mg/L. Initial pore-water chloride concentration was 88 mg/L and decreased to about 6 mg/L after 26 years, while the drainage water decreased to less than 1 mg/L. A recharge estimate made using chloride concentrations in drain water was within 20 percent of the measured drainage rate. In contrast, recharge estimates using 1:1 (water: soil) extracts were lower than actual by factors ranging from 2 to 8 or more. The results suggest that when recharge is above a few mm/yr, soil water extracts can lead to unreliable estimates of recharge. For conditions of elevated recharge, direct sampling of pore water is the preferred method, because chloride concentrations are often 20 to 50 times higher in directly-sampled pore water than in pore-water extracts.

  6. Estimation of groundwater recharge using the chloride mass-balance method, Pingtung Plain, Taiwan (United States)

    Ting, Cheh-Shyh; Kerh, Tienfuan; Liao, Chiu-Jung

    Due to rapid economic growth in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan, the use of groundwater resources has changed dramatically. Over-pumping of the groundwater reservoir, which lowers hydraulic heads in the aquifers, is not only affecting the coastal area negatively but has serious consequences for agriculture throughout the plain. In order to determine the safe yield of the aquifer underlying the plain, a reliable estimate of groundwater recharge is desirable. In the present study, for the first time, the chloride mass-balance method is adopted to estimate groundwater recharge in the plain. Four sites in the central part were chosen to facilitate the estimations using the ion-chromatograph and Thiessen polygon-weighting methods. Based on the measured and calculated results, in all sites, including the mountain and river boundaries, recharge to the groundwater is probably 15% of the annual rainfall, excluding recharge from additional irrigation water. This information can improve the accuracy of future groundwater-simulation and management models in the plain. Résumé Du fait de la croissance économique rapide de la plaine de Pingtung à Taiwan, l'utilisation des ressources en eau souterraine s'est considérablement modifié. La surexploitation des aquifères, qui a abaissé le niveau des nappes, n'affecte pas seulement la région côtière, mais a de sérieuses répercutions sur l'agriculture dans toute la plaine. Afin de déterminer les ressources renouvelables de l'aquifère sous la plaine, une estimation précise de la recharge de la nappe est nécessaire. Dans cette étude, le taux de recharge de la nappe a d'abord été estimé au moyen d'un bilan de matière de chlorure. Quatre sites de la partie centrale ont été sélectionnés pour réaliser ces estimations, à l'aide d'un chromatographe ionique et de la méthode des polygones de Thiessen. A partir des résultats mesurés et calculés, à chaque site, et en prenant comme limites les montagnes et les rivi

  7. Evaluation of a mass-balance approach to determine consumptive water use in northeastern Illinois (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; Duncker, James J.; Over, Thomas M.; Marian Domanski,; ,; Engel, Frank


    A principal component of evaluating and managing water use is consumptive use. This is the portion of water withdrawn for a particular use, such as residential, which is evaporated, transpired, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by humans or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment. The amount of consumptive use may be estimated by a water (mass)-balance approach; however, because of the difficulty of obtaining necessary data, its application typically is restricted to the facility scale. The general governing mass-balance equation is: Consumptive use = Water supplied - Return flows.

  8. Paleohydrology on Mars constrained by mass balance and mineralogy of pre-Amazonian sodium chloride lakes (United States)

    Melwani Daswani, M.; Kite, E. S.


    Chloride-bearing deposits on Mars record high-elevation lakes during the waning stages of Mars' wet era (mid-Noachian to late Hesperian). The water source pathways, seasonality, salinity, depth, lifetime, and paleoclimatic drivers of these widespread lakes are all unknown. Here we combine reaction-transport modeling, orbital spectroscopy, and new volume estimates from high-resolution digital terrain models, in order to constrain the hydrologic boundary conditions for forming the chlorides. Considering a T = 0°C system, we find that (1) individual lakes were >100 m deep and lasted decades or longer; (2) if volcanic degassing was the source of chlorine, then the water-to-rock ratio or the total water volume were probably low, consistent with brief excursions above the melting point and/or arid climate; (3) if the chlorine source was igneous chlorapatite, then Cl-leaching events would require a (cumulative) time of >10 years at the melting point; and (4) Cl masses, divided by catchment area, give column densities 0.1-50 kg Cl/m2, and these column densities bracket the expected chlorapatite-Cl content for a seasonally warm active layer. Deep groundwater was not required. Taken together, our results are consistent with Mars having a usually cold, horizontally segregated hydrosphere by the time chlorides formed.

  9. Estimate of regional groundwater recharge rate in the Central Haouz Plain, Morocco, using the chloride mass balance method and a geographical information system (United States)

    Ait El Mekki, Ouassil; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Hanich, Lahoucine


    Located in the extreme northwest of Africa, the Kingdom of Morocco is increasingly affected by drought. Much of the country is characterised by an arid to semi-arid climate and the demand for water is considerably higher than the supply, particularly on the Haouz Plain in the centre of the country. The expansion of agriculture and tourism, in addition to industrial development and mining, have exacerbated the stress on water supplies resulting in drought. It is therefore necessary to adopt careful management practices to preserve the sustainability of the water resources in this region. The aquifer recharge rate in the piedmont region that links the High Atlas and the Central Haouz Plain was estimated using the chloride mass balance hydrochemical method, which is based on the relationship between the chloride concentrations in groundwater and rainwater. The addition of a geographical information system made it possible to estimate the recharge rate over the whole 400 km2 of the study area. The results are presented in the form of a map showing the spatialized recharge rate, which ranges from 13 to 100 mm/year and the recharge percentage of the total rainfall varies from 3 to 25 % for the hydrological year 2011-2012. This approach will enable the validation of empirical models covering areas >6200 km2, such as the Haouz nappe.

  10. The development of an efficient mass balance approach for the purity assignment of organic calibration standards. (United States)

    Davies, Stephen R; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Chan, Benjamin K H; Dang, Thao; Jones, Kai; Krishnaswami, Maya; Luo, Yawen; Mitchell, Peter S R; Moawad, Michael; Swan, Hilton; Tarrant, Greg J


    The purity determination of organic calibration standards using the traditional mass balance approach is described. Demonstrated examples highlight the potential for bias in each measurement and the need to implement an approach that provides a cross-check for each result, affording fit for purpose purity values in a timely and cost-effective manner. Chromatographic techniques such as gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV), combined with mass and NMR spectroscopy, provide a detailed impurity profile allowing an efficient conversion of chromatographic peak areas into relative mass fractions, generally avoiding the need to calibrate each impurity present. For samples analysed by GC-FID, a conservative measurement uncertainty budget is described, including a component to cover potential variations in the response of each unidentified impurity. An alternative approach is also detailed in which extensive purification eliminates the detector response factor issue, facilitating the certification of a super-pure calibration standard which can be used to quantify the main component in less-pure candidate materials. This latter approach is particularly useful when applying HPLC analysis with UV detection. Key to the success of this approach is the application of both qualitative and quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Quantifying in-stream retention of nitrate at catchment scales using a practical mass balance approach. (United States)

    Schwientek, Marc; Selle, Benny


    As field data on in-stream nitrate retention is scarce at catchment scales, this study aimed at quantifying net retention of nitrate within the entire river network of a fourth-order stream. For this purpose, a practical mass balance approach combined with a Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied and seasonally repeated to estimate daily in-stream net retention of nitrate for a 17.4 km long, agriculturally influenced, segment of the Steinlach River in southwestern Germany. This river segment represents approximately 70% of the length of the main stem and about 32% of the streambed area of the entire river network. Sampling days in spring and summer were biogeochemically more active than in autumn and winter. Results obtained for the main stem of Steinlach River were subsequently extrapolated to the stream network in the catchment. It was demonstrated that, for baseflow conditions in spring and summer, in-stream nitrate retention could sum up to a relevant term of the catchment's nitrogen balance if the entire stream network was considered.

  12. Comparison of a Mass Balance and an Ecosystem Model Approach when Evaluating the Carbon Cycling in a Lake Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Eva; Sobek, Sebastian


    Carbon budgets are frequently used in order to understand the pathways of organic matter in ecosystems, and they also have an important function in the risk assessment of harmful substances. We compared two approaches, mass balance calculations and an ecosystem budget, to describe carbon processing in a shallow, oligotrophic hardwater lake. Both approaches come to the same main conclusion, namely that the lake is a net auto trophic ecosystem, in spite of its high dissolved organic carbon and low total phosphorus concentrations. However, there were several differences between the carbon budgets, e.g. in the rate of sedimentation and the air-water flux of CO 2 . The largest uncertainty in the mass balance is the contribution of emergent macrophytes to the carbon cycling of the lake, while the ecosystem budget is very sensitive towards the choice of conversion factors and literature values. While the mass balance calculations produced more robust results, the ecosystem budget gave valuable insights into the pathways of organic matter transfer in the ecosystem. We recommend that when using an ecosystem budget for the risk assessment of harmful substances, mass balance calculations should be performed in parallel in order to increase the robustness of the conclusions

  13. A mass balance approach to investigate arsenic cycling in a petroleum plume. (United States)

    Ziegler, Brady A; Schreiber, Madeline E; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Crystal Ng, G-H


    Natural attenuation of organic contaminants in groundwater can give rise to a series of complex biogeochemical reactions that release secondary contaminants to groundwater. In a crude oil contaminated aquifer, biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is coupled with the reduction of ferric iron (Fe(III)) hydroxides in aquifer sediments. As a result, naturally occurring arsenic (As) adsorbed to Fe(III) hydroxides in the aquifer sediment is mobilized from sediment into groundwater. However, Fe(III) in sediment of other zones of the aquifer has the capacity to attenuate dissolved As via resorption. In order to better evaluate how long-term biodegradation coupled with Fe-reduction and As mobilization can redistribute As mass in contaminated aquifer, we quantified mass partitioning of Fe and As in the aquifer based on field observation data. Results show that Fe and As are spatially correlated in both groundwater and aquifer sediments. Mass partitioning calculations demonstrate that 99.9% of Fe and 99.5% of As are associated with aquifer sediment. The sediments act as both sources and sinks for As, depending on the redox conditions in the aquifer. Calculations reveal that at least 78% of the original As in sediment near the oil has been mobilized into groundwater over the 35-year lifespan of the plume. However, the calculations also show that only a small percentage of As (∼0.5%) remains in groundwater, due to resorption onto sediment. At the leading edge of the plume, where groundwater is suboxic, sediments sequester Fe and As, causing As to accumulate to concentrations 5.6 times greater than background concentrations. Current As sinks can serve as future sources of As as the plume evolves over time. The mass balance approach used in this study can be applied to As cycling in other aquifers where groundwater As results from biodegradation of an organic carbon point source coupled with Fe reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating recharge to an ephemeral dryland stream using a hydraulic model and water, chloride and isotope mass balance (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; Firmani, Giovanni; Hedley, Paul; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Grierson, Pauline F.


    Dewatering associated with mining below water table to achieve dry mining conditions may exert significant pressure on water balance in terms of lowering the water table and change in the dynamics of interactions between surface water and groundwater. The discharge of surplus mine water into ephemeral streams may also affect the water balance, by elevating groundwater levels and altering the exchange rate between streams and underlying aquifers. However, it is unclear whether volumes and recharge processes are within the range of natural variability. Here, we present a case study of an ephemeral creek in the semi-arid Hamersley Basin of northwest Australia that has received continuous mine discharge for more than six years. We used a numerical model coupled with repeated measurements of water levels, chloride concentrations and the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope composition (δ2H and δ18O) to estimate longitudinal evapotranspiration and recharge rates along a 27 km length of Weeli Wolli Creek. We found that chloride increased from 73 to 120 mg/L across this length, while δ18O increased from -8.2‰ to -7.00‰. Groundwater is directly connected to the creek for the first 13 km and recharge rates are negligible. Below this point, the creek flows over a highly permeable aquifer and water loss by recharge increases to a maximum rate of 4.4 mm/d, which accounts for ∼65% of the total water discharged to the creek. Evapotranspiration losses account for the remaining ∼35%. The calculated recharge from continuous flow due to surplus water discharge is similar to that measured for rainfall-driven flood events along the creek. Groundwater under the disconnected section of the creek is characterised by a much lower Cl concentration and more depleted δ18O value than mining discharge water but is similar to flood water generated by large episodic rainfall events. Our results suggest that the impact of recharge from continuous flow on the water balance of the creek

  15. Demonstration of isotope-mass balance approach for water budget analyses of El-burulus Lake, Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.A.


    The major elements of El-Burulus lake water system are rainfall, agricultural drainage discharge, groundwater, human activities, evaporation and water interaction between the lake and the Mediterranean sea. The principal input sources are agricultural drainage (8 drains at the southern borders of the lake), sea water as well as some contribution of precipitation, groundwater and human activities. Water is lost from the lake through evaporation and surface outflow. The present study has been conducted using isotopic / mass balance approach to investigate the water balance of El-Burulus lake and to emphasize the relative contribution of different input / output components which affect the environmental and hydrological terms of the system. An isotopic evaporation pan experiment was performed to estimate the parameters of relevance to water balance (isotopic composition of free air moisture and evaporating flux) and to simulate the isotopic enrichment of evaporation under atmospheric and hydraulic control. The isotopic mass balance approach employed herein facilitated the estimation of groundwater inflow to the lake, evaporated fraction of total lake inflow (E/I) and its fraction to outflow (E/O), ratio of surface inflow to surface outflow (I/O) as well as residence time of lake water. The isotopic mass balance approach has been validated by comparing the values of estimated parameters with the previous hydrological investigations; a quite good match has been indicated, the relevance of this approach is related to its integrative scale and the more simply implementation

  16. Impacts of invasive earthworms on soil mercury cycling: Two mass balance approaches to an earthworm invasion in a northern Minnesota forest (United States)

    Sona Psarska; Edward A. Nater; Randy Kolka


    Invasive earthworms perturb natural forest ecosystems that initially developed without them, mainly by consuming the forest floor (an organic rich surficial soil horizon) and by mixing the upper parts of the soil. The fate of mercury (Hg) formerly contained in the forest floor is largely unknown. We used two mass balance approaches (simple mass balance and geochemical...

  17. Estimating the ice thickness of mountain glaciers with an inverse approach using surface topography and mass-balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Picasso, Marco; Farinotti, Daniel; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin; Blatter, Heinz


    We present a numerical method to estimate the ice thickness distribution within a two-dimensional, non-sliding mountain glacier, given a transient surface geometry and a mass-balance distribution, which are relatively easy to obtain for a large number of glaciers. The inverse approach is based on the shallow ice approximation (SIA) of ice flow and requires neither filtering of the surface topography with a lower slope limit nor approximation of constant basal shear stress. We first address this problem for a steady-state surface geometry. Next, we use an apparent surface mass-balance description that makes the transient evolution quasi-stationary. Then, we employ a more elaborated fixed-point method in which the bedrock solution is iteratively obtained by adding the difference between the computed and known surface geometries at the end of the considered time interval. In a sensitivity study, we show that the procedure is much more susceptible to small perturbations in surface geometry than mass-balance. Finally, we present preliminary results for bed elevations in three space dimensions. (paper)

  18. Estimating Regional Mass Balance of Himalayan Glaciers Using Hexagon Imagery: An Automated Approach (United States)

    Maurer, J. M.; Rupper, S.


    Currently there is much uncertainty regarding the present and future state of Himalayan glaciers, which supply meltwater for river systems vital to more than 1.4 billion people living throughout Asia. Previous assessments of regional glacier mass balance in the Himalayas using various remote sensing and field-based methods give inconsistent results, and most assessments are over relatively short (e.g., single decade) timescales. This study aims to quantify multi-decadal changes in volume and extent of Himalayan glaciers through efficient use of the large database of declassified 1970-80s era Hexagon stereo imagery. Automation of the DEM extraction process provides an effective workflow for many images to be processed and glacier elevation changes quantified with minimal user input. The tedious procedure of manual ground control point selection necessary for block-bundle adjustment (as ephemeral data is not available for the declassified images) is automated using the Maximally Stable Extremal Regions algorithm, which matches image elements between raw Hexagon images and georeferenced Landsat 15 meter panchromatic images. Additional automated Hexagon DEM processing, co-registration, and bias correction allow for direct comparison with modern ASTER and SRTM elevation data, thus quantifying glacier elevation and area changes over several decades across largely inaccessible mountainous regions. As consistent methodology is used for all glaciers, results will likely reveal significant spatial and temporal patterns in regional ice mass balance. Ultimately, these findings could have important implications for future water resource management in light of environmental change.

  19. Geochemical modelling of Na-SO4 type groundwater at Palmottu using a mass balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.


    The mass balance chemical modelling technique has been applied to the groundwaters at the Palmottu analogue study site (in southwestern Finland) for radioactive waste disposal. The geochemical modelling concentrates on the evolution of Na-SO 4 type groundwater, which is spatially connected to the uranium mineralization. The results calculated along an assumed flow path are consistent with available field data and thermodynamic constraints. The results show that essential production of sulphides is unrealistic in the prevailing conditions. The increasing concentrations of Na, SO 4 and Cl along the evolution trend seem to have the same source and they could originate mainly from the leakage of fluid inclusions. Some mixing of relict sea water is also possible

  20. Linking chloride mass balance infiltration rates with chlorofluorocarbon and SF6 groundwater dating in semi-arid settings: potential and limitations. (United States)

    Stadler, Susanne; Osenbruck, Karsten; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus H M; Schwiede, Martin; Bottcher, Jurgen


    In the framework of the investigation of enrichment processes of nitrate in groundwater of the Kalahari of Botswana near Serowe, recharge processes were investigated. The thick unsaturated zone extending to up to 100 m of mostly unconsolidated sediments and very low recharge rates pose a serious challenge to study solute transport related to infiltration and recharge processes, as this extends past the conventional depths of soil scientific investigations and is difficult to describe using evidence from the groundwater due to the limitations imposed by available tracers. To determine the link between nitrate in the vadose zone and in the uppermost groundwater, sediment from the vadose zone was sampled up to a depth of 15-20 m (in one case also to 65 m) on several sites with natural vegetation in the research area. Among other parameters, sediment and water were analysed to determine chloride and nitrate concentration depth profiles. Using the chloride mass balance method, an estimation of groundwater infiltration rates produced values of 0.2-4 mm a(-1). The uncertainty of these values is, however, high. Because of the extreme thickness of the vadose zone, the travel time in the unsaturated zone might reach extreme values of up to 500 years and more. For investigations using groundwater, we applied the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-113, CFC-12, sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and tritium to identify potential recharge, and found indications for some advective transport of the CFCs and SF(6), which we accounted for as constituting potential active localised recharge. In our contribution, we show the potential and limitations of the applied methods to determine groundwater recharge and coupled solute transport in semi-arid settings, and compare travel time ranges derived from soil science and groundwater investigations.

  1. Comparison of surface mass balance of ice sheets simulated by positive-degree-day method and energy balance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bauer


    Full Text Available Glacial cycles of the late Quaternary are controlled by the asymmetrically varying mass balance of continental ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. Surface mass balance is governed by processes of ablation and accumulation. Here two ablation schemes, the positive-degree-day (PDD method and the surface energy balance (SEB approach, are compared in transient simulations of the last glacial cycle with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2. The standard version of the CLIMBER-2 model incorporates the SEB approach and simulates ice volume variations in reasonable agreement with paleoclimate reconstructions during the entire last glacial cycle. Using results from the standard CLIMBER-2 model version, we simulated ablation with the PDD method in offline mode by applying different combinations of three empirical parameters of the PDD scheme. We found that none of the parameter combinations allow us to simulate a surface mass balance of the American and European ice sheets that is similar to that obtained with the standard SEB method. The use of constant values for the empirical PDD parameters led either to too much ablation during the first phase of the last glacial cycle or too little ablation during the final phase. We then substituted the standard SEB scheme in CLIMBER-2 with the PDD scheme and performed a suite of fully interactive (online simulations of the last glacial cycle with different combinations of PDD parameters. The results of these simulations confirmed the results of the offline simulations: no combination of PDD parameters realistically simulates the evolution of the ice sheets during the entire glacial cycle. The use of constant parameter values in the online simulations leads either to a buildup of too much ice volume at the end of glacial cycle or too little ice volume at the beginning. Even when the model correctly simulates global ice volume at the last glacial maximum (21 ka, it is unable to simulate

  2. Mass balance modelling of contaminants in river basins: a flexible matrix approach. (United States)

    Warren, Christopher; Mackay, Don; Whelan, Mick; Fox, Kay


    A novel and flexible approach is described for simulating the behaviour of chemicals in river basins. A number (n) of river reaches are defined and their connectivity is described by entries in an n x n matrix. Changes in segmentation can be readily accommodated by altering the matrix entries, without the need for model revision. Two models are described. The simpler QMX-R model only considers advection and an overall loss due to the combined processes of volatilization, net transfer to sediment and degradation. The rate constant for the overall loss is derived from fugacity calculations for a single segment system. The more rigorous QMX-F model performs fugacity calculations for each segment and explicitly includes the processes of advection, evaporation, water-sediment exchange and degradation in both water and sediment. In this way chemical exposure in all compartments (including equilibrium concentrations in biota) can be estimated. Both models are designed to serve as intermediate-complexity exposure assessment tools for river basins with relatively low data requirements. By considering the spatially explicit nature of emission sources and the changes in concentration which occur with transport in the channel system, the approach offers significant advantages over simple one-segment simulations while being more readily applicable than more sophisticated, highly segmented, GIS-based models.

  3. Implications of elevated CO2 on pelagic carbon fluxes in an Arctic mesocosm study – an elemental mass balance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerny


    Full Text Available Recent studies on the impacts of ocean acidification on pelagic communities have identified changes in carbon to nutrient dynamics with related shifts in elemental stoichiometry. In principle, mesocosm experiments provide the opportunity of determining temporal dynamics of all relevant carbon and nutrient pools and, thus, calculating elemental budgets. In practice, attempts to budget mesocosm enclosures are often hampered by uncertainties in some of the measured pools and fluxes, in particular due to uncertainties in constraining air–sea gas exchange, particle sinking, and wall growth. In an Arctic mesocosm study on ocean acidification applying KOSMOS (Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulation, all relevant element pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were measured, using an improved experimental design intended to narrow down the mentioned uncertainties. Water-column concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic matter were determined daily. New approaches for quantitative estimates of material sinking to the bottom of the mesocosms and gas exchange in 48 h temporal resolution as well as estimates of wall growth were developed to close the gaps in element budgets. However, losses elements from the budgets into a sum of insufficiently determined pools were detected, and are principally unavoidable in mesocosm investigation. The comparison of variability patterns of all single measured datasets revealed analytic precision to be the main issue in determination of budgets. Uncertainties in dissolved organic carbon (DOC, nitrogen (DON and particulate organic phosphorus (POP were much higher than the summed error in determination of the same elements in all other pools. With estimates provided for all other major elemental pools, mass balance calculations could be used to infer the temporal development of DOC, DON and POP pools. Future elevated pCO2 was found to enhance net autotrophic community carbon

  4. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance (United States)

    Reeh, N.


    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  5. Development of a new certified reference material of diosgenin using mass balance approach and Coulometric titration method. (United States)

    Gong, Ningbo; Zhang, Baoxi; Hu, Fan; Du, Hui; Du, Guanhua; Gao, Zhaolin; Lu, Yang


    Certified reference materials (CRMs) can be used as a valuable tool to validate the trueness of measurement methods and to establish metrological traceability of analytical results. Diosgenin has been selected as a candidate reference material. Characterization of the material relied on two different methods, mass balance method and Coulometric titration method (CT). The certified value of diosgenin CRM is 99.80% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.37% (k=2). The new CRM of diosgenin can be used to validate analytical methods, improve the accuracy of measurement data and control the quality of diosgenin in relevant pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A semi-automated approach to derive elevation time-series and calculate glacier mass balance from historical aerial imagery (United States)

    Whorton, E.; Headman, A.; Shean, D. E.; McCann, E.


    Understanding the implications of glacier recession on water resources in the western U.S. requires quantifying glacier mass change across large regions over several decades. Very few glaciers in North America have long-term continuous field measurements of glacier mass balance. However, systematic aerial photography campaigns began in 1957 on many glaciers in the western U.S. and Alaska. These historical, vertical aerial stereo-photographs documenting glacier evolution have recently become publically available. Digital elevation models (DEM) of the transient glacier surface preserved in each imagery timestamp can be derived, then differenced to calculate glacier volume and mass change to improve regional geodetic solutions of glacier mass balance. In order to batch process these data, we use Python-based algorithms and Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry software to semi-automate DEM creation, and orthorectify and co-register historical aerial imagery in a high-performance computing environment. Scanned photographs are rotated to reduce scaling issues, cropped to the same size to remove fiducials, and batch histogram equalization is applied to improve image quality and aid pixel-matching algorithms using the Python library OpenCV. Processed photographs are then passed to Photoscan through the Photoscan Python library to create DEMs and orthoimagery. To extend the period of record, the elevation products are co-registered to each other, airborne LiDAR data, and DEMs derived from sub-meter commercial satellite imagery. With the exception of the placement of ground control points, the process is entirely automated with Python. Current research is focused on: one, applying these algorithms to create geodetic mass balance time series for the 90 photographed glaciers in Washington State and two, evaluating the minimal amount of positional information required in Photoscan to prevent distortion effects that cannot be addressed during co

  7. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: Mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis (United States)

    Courbet, Christelle; Rivière, Agnès; Jeannottat, Simon; Rinaldi, Sandro; Hunkeler, Daniel; Bendjoudi, Hocine; de Marsily, Ghislain


    , although TCE biodegradation seems to occur only in the upgradient part of the studied zone, DCE and VC dechlorination (originating from the initial TCE dechlorination) occurs along the entire flowpath. TCE reductase was not detected among the Dehalococcoides bacteria identified by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while DCE and VC reductases were present in the majority of the population. Reverse transcriptase PCR assays (rt-PCR) also indicated that bacteria and their DCE and VC reductases were active. Mass balance calculations showed moreover that 1,1-DCE was the predominant DCE isomer produced by TCE dechlorination in the upgradient part of the site. Consequently, coupling rt-PCR assays with isotope measurements removes the uncertainties inherent in a simple mass balance approach, so that when the three methods are used jointly, they allow the identification and quantification of natural biodegradation, even under apparently complex geochemical and hydraulic conditions.

  8. Complementing approaches to demonstrate chlorinated solvent biodegradation in a complex pollution plume: mass balance, PCR and compound-specific stable isotope analysis.


    Courbet Christelle; Rivière Agnès; Jeannottat Simon; Rinaldi Sandro; Hunkeler Daniel; Bendjoudi Hocine; De Marsily Ghislain


    This work describes the use of different complementing methods (mass balance polymerase chain reaction assays and compound specific stable isotope analysis) to demonstrate the existence and effectiveness of biodegradation of chlorinated solvents in an alluvial aquifer. The solvent contaminated site is an old chemical factory located in an alluvial plain in France. As most of the chlorinated contaminants currently found in the groundwater at this site were produced by local industries at vario...

  9. Quantifying canal leakage rates using a mass-balance approach and heat-based hydraulic conductivity estimates in selected irrigation canals, western Nebraska, 2007 through 2009 (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Andersen, Michael J.


    The water supply in areas of the North Platte River Basin in the Nebraska Panhandle has been designated as fully appropriated or overappropriated by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (NDNR). Enacted legislation (Legislative Bill 962) requires the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD) and the NDNR to develop an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) to balance groundwater and surface-water supply and demand in the NPNRD. A clear understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems is critical for the development of a successful IMP. The primary source of groundwater recharge in parts of the NPNRD is from irrigation canal leakage. Because canal leakage constitutes a large part of the hydrologic budget, spatially distributing canal leakage to the groundwater system is important to any management strategy. Surface geophysical data collected along selected reaches of irrigation canals has allowed for the spatial distribution of leakage on a relative basis; however, the actual magnitude of leakage remains poorly defined. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NPNRD, established streamflow-gaging stations at upstream and downstream ends from two selected canal reaches to allow a mass-balance approach to be used to calculate daily leakage rates. Water-level and sediment temperature data were collected and simulated at three temperature monitoring sites to allow the use of heat as a tracer to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of canal bed sediment. Canal-leakage rates were estimated by applying Darcy's Law to modeled vertical hydraulic conductivity and either the estimated or measured hydraulic gradient. This approach will improve the understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of canal leakage in varying geologic settings identified in capacitively coupled resistivity surveys. The high-leakage potential study reach of the Tri-State Canal had two streamflow-gaging stations and two temperature monitoring

  10. 14 CFR 27.659 - Mass balance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 27.659 Section 27.659... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 27.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotors... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  11. 14 CFR 29.659 - Mass balance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 29.659 Section 29.659... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Rotors § 29.659 Mass balance. (a) The rotor... flutter at any speed up to the maximum forward speed. (b) The structural integrity of the mass balance...

  12. 14 CFR 23.659 - Mass balance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mass balance. 23.659 Section 23.659 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.659 Mass balance. The supporting structure and the attachment of concentrated mass balance...

  13. A mass balance approach to investigating geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN (United States)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.


    Secondary water quality impacts can result from a broad range of coupled reactions triggered by primary groundwater contaminants. Data from a crude-oil spill research site near Bemidji, MN provide an ideal test case for investigating the complex interactions controlling secondary impacts, including depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated organic carbon, inorganic carbon, CH4, Mn, Fe, and other dissolved ions. To better understand these secondary impacts, this study began with an extensive data compilation of various data types, comprising aqueous, sediment, gas, and oil phases, covering a 260 m cross-sectional domain over 30 years. Mass balance calculations are used to quantify pathways that control secondary components, by using the data to constrain the sources and sinks for the important redox processes. The results show that oil constituents other than BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes), including n-alkanes and other aromatic compounds, play significant roles in plume evolution and secondary water quality impacts. The analysis underscores previous results on the importance of non-aqueous phases. Over 99.9% of the Fe2+ plume is attenuated by immobilization on sediments as Fe(II) and 85–95% of the carbon biodegradation products are outgassed. Gaps identified in carbon and Fe mass balances and in pH buffering mechanisms are used to formulate a new conceptual model. This new model includes direct out-gassing of CH4 and CO2 from organic carbon biodegradation, dissolution of directly produced CO2, and sorption with H+ exchange to improve pH buffering. The identification of these mechanisms extends understanding of natural attenuation of potential secondary impacts at enhanced reductive dechlorination sites, particularly for reduced Fe plumes, produced CH4, and pH perturbations.

  14. A mass balance approach to investigating geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN (United States)

    Ng, G.-H. Crystal; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.


    Secondary water quality impacts can result from a broad range of coupled reactions triggered by primary groundwater contaminants. Data from a crude-oil spill research site near Bemidji, MN provide an ideal test case for investigating the complex interactions controlling secondary impacts, including depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated organic carbon, inorganic carbon, CH4, Mn, Fe, and other dissolved ions. To better understand these secondary impacts, this study began with an extensive data compilation of various data types, comprising aqueous, sediment, gas, and oil phases, covering a 260 m cross-sectional domain over 30 years. Mass balance calculations are used to quantify pathways that control secondary components, by using the data to constrain the sources and sinks for the important redox processes. The results show that oil constituents other than BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes), including n-alkanes and other aromatic compounds, play significant roles in plume evolution and secondary water quality impacts. The analysis underscores previous results on the importance of non-aqueous phases. Over 99.9% of the Fe2 + plume is attenuated by immobilization on sediments as Fe(II) and 85-95% of the carbon biodegradation products are outgassed. Gaps identified in carbon and Fe mass balances and in pH buffering mechanisms are used to formulate a new conceptual model. This new model includes direct out-gassing of CH4 and CO2 from organic carbon biodegradation, dissolution of directly produced CO2, and sorption with H+ exchange to improve pH buffering. The identification of these mechanisms extends understanding of natural attenuation of potential secondary impacts at enhanced reductive dechlorination sites, particularly for reduced Fe plumes, produced CH4, and pH perturbations.

  15. Isotopic evidence and mass balance approach for quantifying paleorecharge condition to the pleistocene aquifer system of Wadi El assiuti basin,Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elewa, H.H.; Abd EI Samie, S.G.


    Revaluation of the groundwater resources of the Pleistocene aquifer in Wadi EI Assiuti area by the integration of the hydrogeological information with stable and radioactive isotopes, ions concentration, and the mass balance program, could change the old hypotheses of the renewability of the aquifers water from the River Nile. The new data obtained confirm that; paleogroundwater constitutes the main bulk of the aquifer water. The chemical constituents (ion species, ion ratios, saturation indices) indicate the marine origin of water at the center of the basin due to the presence of MgCl 2 ; whereas the meteoric water origin prevails at the boundary of the basin (Na 2 S0 4 ). Saturation indices indicate that water is saturated with respect to calcite and dolomite whereas anhydrite, gypsum and halite are below saturation level. The ions distribution constrained, to give a chemical evolution trend along the flow path from the NE to the SW direction due to the local variability's in each well. The isotopic results of δ 18 O and δD showed high depletion close to the isotopic signature of the Western Desert Nubian Sandstone water in most water samples extracted from the center of the basin. In the northeastern part of the basin it acquires slight enrichment by about 2.5%0 in δ 18 O. On the other hand water in the northwest direction showed gradual enrichment close to the value of the Nile water. Carbon-14 radioactive isotope affirmed the long age of water in the center of the basin (about 25,000 yBP) and about 10,000 yBP age of water in northeastern part of the basin near the highly mountainous front. The difference in water age between the center and the eastern boundary of the basin indicates :l relative recharge from the floodwater over the high altitude area. Based on the isotopic mass balance equations through the Net path model, the estimated percentage of paleowater in the center of the basin reaches about 80% and about 72% in NE direction. Variable amounts of

  16. Application of a contaminant mass balance method at an old landfill to assess the impact on water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Milosevic, Nemanja; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    linking soil and groundwater contamination to surface water pollution are required. This paper presents a method which provides an estimate of the contaminant mass discharge, using a combination of a historical investigation and contaminant mass balance approach. The method works at the screening level...... and could be part of a risk assessment. The study site was Risby Landfill, an old unlined landfill located in a clay till setting on central Zealand, Denmark. The contaminant mass discharge was determined for three common leachate indicators: chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium. For instance......, the mass discharge of chloride from the landfill was 9.4ton/year and the mass discharge of chloride to the deep limestone aquifer was 1.4ton/year. This resulted in elevated concentrations of leachate indicators (chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium) in the groundwater. The mass discharge...

  17. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach. (United States)

    Boxhammer, Tim; Taucher, Jan; Bach, Lennart T; Achterberg, Eric P; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Bellworthy, Jessica; Czerny, Jan; Esposito, Mario; Haunost, Mathias; Hellemann, Dana; Ludwig, Andrea; Yong, Jaw C; Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Anderson, Leif G


    Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden). We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days) in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2) and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1) A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2) A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3) A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen) that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  18. Enhanced transfer of organic matter to higher trophic levels caused by ocean acidification and its implications for export production: A mass balance approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Boxhammer

    Full Text Available Ongoing acidification of the ocean through uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is known to affect marine biota and ecosystems with largely unknown consequences for marine food webs. Changes in food web structure have the potential to alter trophic transfer, partitioning, and biogeochemical cycling of elements in the ocean. Here we investigated the impact of realistic end-of-the-century CO2 concentrations on the development and partitioning of the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica pools in a coastal pelagic ecosystem (Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. We covered the entire winter-to-summer plankton succession (100 days in two sets of five pelagic mesocosms, with one set being CO2 enriched (~760 μatm pCO2 and the other one left at ambient CO2 concentrations. Elemental mass balances were calculated and we highlight important challenges and uncertainties we have faced in the closed mesocosm system. Our key observations under high CO2 were: (1 A significantly amplified transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from primary producers to higher trophic levels, during times of regenerated primary production. (2 A prolonged retention of all three elements in the pelagic food web that significantly reduced nitrogen and phosphorus sedimentation by about 11 and 9%, respectively. (3 A positive trend in carbon fixation (relative to nitrogen that appeared in the particulate matter pool as well as the downward particle flux. This excess carbon counteracted a potential reduction in carbon sedimentation that could have been expected from patterns of nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes. Our findings highlight the potential for ocean acidification to alter partitioning and cycling of carbon and nutrients in the surface ocean but also show that impacts are temporarily variable and likely depending upon the structure of the plankton food web.

  19. Mass balance gradients and climatic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Hoogendoorn, N.C.


    It is generally assumed that the mass-balance gradient on glaciers is more or less conserved under climatic change. In studies of the dynamic response of glaciers to climatic change, one of the following assumptions is normally made: (i) the mass-balance perturbation is independent of altitude

  20. On the Mass Balance of Asphaltene Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments are pe......, and that the material in the second precipitation step was often of higher apparent molecular weight anti had an increased overall absorbance coefficient.......In the evaluation of experimental data as well as in calculation of phase equilibria the necessity of the application of mass balances is obvious. In the case of asphaltenes the colloidal nature of these compounds may highly affect the mass balance. In the present paper several experiments...... indicates that in temperature experiments as well as in solvent series experiments the precipitation of heavy asphaltenes affects the following precipitation of lighter asphaltenes. In both cases the mass balance using standard separation techniques cannot be closed, as less material is precipitated...


    White and Rasmussen (Mutation Res. 410:223-236) used a mass balance approach to demonstrate that over 85% of the total genotoxic loading to the St. Lawrence River at Montreal is non-industrial. To validate the mass balance approach and investigate the sources of genotoxins in sur...

  2. Midlatitude Forcing Mechanisms for Glacier Mass Balance Investigated Using General Circulation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichert, B.K.; Bengtsson, L.; Oerlemans, J.


    A process-oriented modeling approach is applied in order to simulate glacier mass balance for individual glaciers using statistically downscaled general circulation models (GCMs). Glacier-specific seasonal sensitivity characteristics based on a mass balance model of intermediate complexity are used

  3. Validating a mass balance accounting approach to using 7Be measurements to estimate event-based erosion rates over an extended period at the catchment scale (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.; Cogliandro, Vanessa; Callegari, Giovanni


    Use of the fallout radionuclides cesium-137 and excess lead-210 offers important advantages over traditional methods of quantifying erosion and soil redistribution rates. However, both radionuclides provide information on longer-term (i.e., 50-100 years) average rates of soil redistribution. Beryllium-7, with its half-life of 53 days, can provide a basis for documenting short-term soil redistribution and it has been successfully employed in several studies. However, the approach commonly used introduces several important constraints related to the timing and duration of the study period. A new approach proposed by the authors that overcomes these constraints has been successfully validated using an erosion plot experiment undertaken in southern Italy. Here, a further validation exercise undertaken in a small (1.38 ha) catchment is reported. The catchment was instrumented to measure event sediment yields and beryllium-7 measurements were employed to document the net soil loss for a series of 13 events that occurred between November 2013 and June 2015. In the absence of significant sediment storage within the catchment's ephemeral channel system and of a significant contribution from channel erosion to the measured sediment yield, the estimates of net soil loss for the individual events could be directly compared with the measured sediment yields to validate the former. The close agreement of the two sets of values is seen as successfully validating the use of beryllium-7 measurements and the new approach to obtain estimates of net soil loss for a sequence of individual events occurring over an extended period at the scale of a small catchment.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour


    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories. Underst......While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  5. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A.


    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance...

  6. A nitrogen mass balance for California (United States)

    Liptzin, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.


    , requires a net influx of N in feed to the state. In terms of exports, the riverine N loads are smaller than many more mesic climates. Because many of the large population centers are on the coast, N discharged directly from wastewater treatment plants into the ocean is almost four times greater than the N discharge of all of the watersheds in the state combined. Gas losses are estimated through a combination of bottom up approaches using field data, emissions inventories, and numerical models. The largest uncertainties are in emissions of N2 and NH3. Calculated by difference, groundwater N loading represents the largest loss term in the mass balance. Contamination of groundwater with nitrates is a serious concern in many areas of the state. Given the long residence time of groundwater in many aquifers like the Central Valley the current and past N inputs to groundwater pose a hazard to drinking water supplies for decades to come. These calculations along with the analysis of management and policy tools will help elucidate the spatial location or activities that would be best to target to reduce the negative consequences of human alteration of the nitrogen cycle.

  7. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (2003-2008) from ICESat data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Nielsen, Karina


    ICESat has provided surface elevation measurements of the ice sheets since the launch in January 2003, resulting in a unique dataset for monitoring the changes of the cryosphere. Here, we present a novel method for determining the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet, derived from ICESat...... studies of the Greenland ice sheet mass balance, based on different remote-sensing techniques....... altimetry data. Three different methods for deriving elevation changes from the ICESat altimetry dataset are used. This multi-method approach provides a method to assess the complexity of deriving elevation changes from this dataset. The altimetry alone can not provide an estimate of the mass balance...

  8. How many stakes are required to measure the mass balance of a glacier? (United States)

    Fountain, A.G.; Vecchia, A.


    Glacier mass balance is estimated for South Cascade Glacier and Maclure Glacier using a one-dimensional regression of mass balance with altitude as an alternative to the traditional approach of contouring mass balance values. One attractive feature of regression is that it can be applied to sparse data sets where contouring is not possible and can provide an objective error of the resulting estimate. Regression methods yielded mass balance values equivalent to contouring methods. The effect of the number of mass balance measurements on the final value for the glacier showed that sample sizes as small as five stakes provided reasonable estimates, although the error estimates were greater than for larger sample sizes. Different spatial patterns of measurement locations showed no appreciable influence on the final value as long as different surface altitudes were intermittently sampled over the altitude range of the glacier. Two different regression equations were examined, a quadratic, and a piecewise linear spline, and comparison of results showed little sensitivity to the type of equation. These results point to the dominant effect of the gradient of mass balance with altitude of alpine glaciers compared to transverse variations. The number of mass balance measurements required to determine the glacier balance appears to be scale invariant for small glaciers and five to ten stakes are sufficient.

  9. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.


    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...... these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in compost engineering and for establishing and running a successful composting facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the compost product. Use in agriculture is described in Chapter 9.10 and the use of compost in soil amendment...

  10. Miniature Piezoelectric Macro-Mass Balance (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Bonitz, Robert G.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph


    Mass balances usually use a strain gauge that requires an impedance measurement and is susceptible to noise and thermal drift. A piezoelectric balance can be used to measure mass directly by monitoring the voltage developed across the piezoelectric balance, which is linear with weight or it can be used in resonance to produce a frequency change proportional to the mass change (see figure). The piezoelectric actuator/balance is swept in frequency through its fundamental resonance. If a small mass is added to the balance, the resonance frequency shifts down in proportion to the mass. By monitoring the frequency shift, the mass can be determined. This design allows for two independent measurements of mass. Additionally, more than one sample can be verified because this invention allows for each sample to be transported away from the measuring device upon completion of the measurement, if required. A piezoelectric actuator, or many piezoelectric actuators, was placed between the collection plate of the sampling system and the support structure. As the sample mass is added to the plate, the piezoelectrics are stressed, causing them to produce a voltage that is proportional to the mass and acceleration. In addition, a change in mass delta m produces a change in the resonance frequency with delta f proportional to delta m. In a microgravity environment, the spacecraft could be accelerated to produce a force on the piezoelectric actuator that would produce a voltage proportional to the mass and acceleration. Alternatively, the acceleration could be used to force the mass on the plate, and the inertial effects of the mass on the plate would produce a shift in the resonance frequency with the change in frequency related to the mass change. Three prototypes of the mass balance mechanism were developed. These macro-mass balances each consist of a solid base and an APA 60 Cedrat flextensional piezoelectric actuator supporting a measuring plate. A similar structure with 3 APA

  11. Mass Balance of Novaya Zemlya Archipelago from 2002 to Present (United States)

    Ciraci, E.; Velicogna, I.; Fettweis, X.


    We employ satellite gravimetry from NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) using a least-squares fit mascon approach to evaluate the mass balance of the glaciers of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago (NZA) from 2002 to present. Our results reveal a mean mass loss 8±5 Gt/yr (gigatons per year), which makes NZA the largest contributor to sea level rise in the Russian Arctic (total Russian Arctic contributes 16±7Gt/yr). We then use Surface Mass Balance (SMB) estimates from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) and ice elevation change rates from NASA ICESat (2003-2009) and ESA CryoSat-2 (2010-present) altimetry data to gain insight about the physical processes driving the observed mass loss. We find that the inter-annual variability in SMB displays a significant correlation (0.6, p-val sea level rise. Elevation change from satellite altimetry reveals substantial thinning at low altitudes for both marine and land terminating glaciers. This result is consistent with the negative cumulative SMB values found at those sites. Yet, altimetry-derived thinning rates for the marine terminating glaciers are on average two times larger than those for land-terminating glaciers. We conclude that both SMB and ice dynamics play important roles in the regional ice mass loss.

  12. Greenland ice sheet mass balance: a review. (United States)

    Khan, Shfaqat A; Aschwanden, Andy; Bjørk, Anders A; Wahr, John; Kjeldsen, Kristian K; Kjær, Kurt H


    Over the past quarter of a century the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth, causing a profound impact on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to the rise in global sea level. The loss of ice can be partitioned into processes related to surface mass balance and to ice discharge, which are forced by internal or external (atmospheric/oceanic/basal) fluctuations. Regardless of the measurement method, observations over the last two decades show an increase in ice loss rate, associated with speeding up of glaciers and enhanced melting. However, both ice discharge and melt-induced mass losses exhibit rapid short-term fluctuations that, when extrapolated into the future, could yield erroneous long-term trends. In this paper we review the GrIS mass loss over more than a century by combining satellite altimetry, airborne altimetry, interferometry, aerial photographs and gravimetry data sets together with modelling studies. We revisit the mass loss of different sectors and show that they manifest quite different sensitivities to atmospheric and oceanic forcing. In addition, we discuss recent progress in constructing coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere models required to project realistic future sea-level changes.

  13. Reconstruction of specific mass balance for glaciers in Western ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinay Kumar Gaddam


    Jun 12, 2017 ... temperatures and precipitation estimates of ERA 20CM ensemble climate reanalysis datasets to reconstruct the specific mass balance for a period of 110 years, between 1900 and 2010. Mass balance estimates suggest that the Shaune Garang, Gor-Garang and Gara glaciers have experienced both ...

  14. Quantifying mass balance processes on the Southern Patagonia Icefield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, M.; Machguth, Horst; Falvey, M.


    We present surface mass balance simulations of the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI) driven by downscaled reanalysis data. The simulations were evaluated and interpreted using geodetic mass balances, measured point balances and a complete velocity field of the icefield for spring 2004. The high m...

  15. A reconciled estimate of ice-sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R; A, Geruo


    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agre...

  16. Mass balance re-analysis of Findelengletscher, Switzerland; benefits of extensive snow accumulation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo eSold


    Full Text Available A re-analysis is presented here of a 10-year mass balance series at Findelengletscher, a temperate mountain glacier in Switzerland. Calculating glacier-wide mass balance from the set of glaciological point balance observations using conventional approaches, such as the profile or contour method, resulted in significant deviations from the reference value given by the geodetic mass change over a five-year period. This is attributed to the sparsity of observations at high elevations and to the inability of the evaluation schemes to adequately estimate accumulation in unmeasured areas. However, measurements of winter mass balance were available for large parts of the study period from snow probings and density pits. Complementary surveys by helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR were conducted in three consecutive years. The complete set of seasonal observations was assimilated using a distributed mass balance model. This model-based extrapolation revealed a substantial mass loss at Findelengletscher of -0.43m w.e. a^-1 between 2004 and 2014, while the loss was less pronounced for its former tributary, Adlergletscher (-0.30m w.e. a^-1. For both glaciers, the resulting time series were within the uncertainty bounds of the geodetic mass change. We show that the model benefited strongly from the ability to integrate seasonal observations. If no winter mass balance measurements were available and snow cover was represented by a linear precipitation gradient, the geodetic mass balance was not matched. If winter balance measurements by snow probings and snow density pits were taken into account, the model performance was substantially improved but still showed a significant bias relative to the geodetic mass change. Thus the excellent agreement of the model-based extrapolation with the geodetic mass change was owed to an adequate representation of winter accumulation distribution by means of extensive GPR measurements.

  17. Trends in ice sheet mass balance, 1992 to 2017 (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.; Smith, B.; Velicogna, I.; Whitehouse, P. L.; Rignot, E. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Briggs, K.; Hogg, A.; Krinner, G.; Joughin, I. R.; Nowicki, S.; Payne, A. J.; Scambos, T.; Schlegel, N.; Moyano, G.; Konrad, H.


    The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a community effort, jointly supported by ESA and NASA, that aims to provide a consensus estimate of ice sheet mass balance from satellite gravimetry, altimetry and mass budget assessments, on an annual basis. The project has five experiment groups, one for each of the satellite techniques and two others to analyse surface mass balance (SMB) and glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The basic premise for the exercise is that individual ice sheet mass balance datasets are generated by project participants using common spatial and temporal domains to allow meaningful inter-comparison, and this controlled comparison in turn supports aggregation of the individual datasets over their full period. Participation is open to the full community, and the quality and consistency of submissions is regulated through a series of data standards and documentation requirements. The second phase of IMBIE commenced in 2015, with participant data submitted in 2016 and a combined estimate due for public release in 2017. Data from 48 participant groups were submitted to one of the three satellite mass balance technique groups or to the ancillary dataset groups. The individual mass balance estimates and ancillary datasets have been compared and combined within the respective groups. Following this, estimates of ice sheet mass balance derived from the individual techniques were then compared and combined. The result is single estimates of ice sheet mass balance for Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula. The participants, methodology and results of the exercise will be presented in this paper.

  18. Juneau Icefield Mass Balance Program 1946-2011 (United States)

    Pelto, M.; Kavanaugh, J.; McNeil, C.


    The annual surface mass balance records of the Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier observed by the Juneau Icefield Research Program are the longest continuous glacier annual mass balance data sets in North America. Annual surface mass balance (Ba) measured on Taku Glacier averaged +0.40 m a-1 from 1946-1985, and -0.08 m a-1 from 1986-2011. The recent annual mass balance decline has resulted in the cessation of the long-term thickening of the glacier. Mean Ba on Lemon Creek Glacier has declined from -0.30 m a-1 for the 1953-1985 period to -0.60 m a-1 during the 1986-2011 period. The cumulative change in annual surface mass balance is -26.6 m water equivalent, a 29 m of ice thinning over the 55 yr. Snow-pit measurements spanning the accumulation zone, and probing transects above the transient snow line (TSL) on Taku Glacier, indicate a consistent surface mass balance gradient from year to year. Observations of the rate of TSL rise on Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier indicate a comparatively consistent migration rate of 3.8 to 4.1 m d-1. The relationship between TSL on Lemon Creek Glacier and Taku Glacier to other Juneau Icefield glaciers (Norris, Mendenhall, Herbert, and Eagle) is strong, with correlations exceeding 0.82 in all cases. doi:10.5065/D6NZ85N3

  19. SEMIC: an efficient surface energy and mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krapp


    Full Text Available We present SEMIC, a Surface Energy and Mass balance model of Intermediate Complexity for snow- and ice-covered surfaces such as the Greenland ice sheet. SEMIC is fast enough for glacial cycle applications, making it a suitable replacement for simpler methods such as the positive degree day (PDD method often used in ice sheet modelling. Our model explicitly calculates the main processes involved in the surface energy and mass balance, while maintaining a simple interface and requiring minimal data input to drive it. In this novel approach, we parameterise diurnal temperature variations in order to more realistically capture the daily thaw–freeze cycles that characterise the ice sheet mass balance. We show how to derive optimal model parameters for SEMIC specifically to reproduce surface characteristics and day-to-day variations similar to the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, version 2 and its incorporated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT (Soil Ice Snow Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer. A validation test shows that SEMIC simulates future changes in surface temperature and surface mass balance in good agreement with the more sophisticated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT included in MAR. With this paper, we present a physically based surface model to the ice sheet modelling community that is general enough to be used with in situ observations, climate model, or reanalysis data, and that is at the same time computationally fast enough for long-term integrations, such as glacial cycles or future climate change scenarios.

  20. Mass balance at partial run of quartzite carbothermal reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Węgrzyn


    Full Text Available Mass balance for the process of incomplete carbothermal reduction of SiO2 to SiC thermogravimetric studies was presented. Tests were performed for the molar ratio of C/SiO2 = 3 at a temperature of 1 500 °C under an argon flow in the range from 0,1 to 3,4 dm3/min. Mass balance includes the loss due to escape of SiO and the mass of reactants C and SiO2 due to stopping the reaction. The weight gain of Al2O3 crucible was found and also the formation of crust layer on the surface of the samples. The crucible weight gain and the weight of crust layer created were taken into account in mass balance.

  1. Reconstruction of specific mass balance for glaciers in Western ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seasonal sensitivity characteristics (SSCs) were developed for Naradu, Shaune Garang, Gor Garang and Gara glaciers, Western Himalaya to quantify the changes in mean specific mass balance using monthly temperature and precipitation perturbations. The temperature sensitivities were observed high during summer ...

  2. Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass balance products from satellite gravimetry (United States)

    Horwath, Martin; Groh, Andreas; Horvath, Alexander; Forsberg, René; Meister, Rakia; Barletta, Valentina R.; Shepherd, Andrew


    Because of their important role in the Earth's climate system, ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has identified both the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Since respondents of a user survey indicated that the ice sheet mass balance is one of the most important ECV data products needed to better understand climate change, the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project provide Gravimetric Mass Balance (GMB) products based on satellite gravimetry data. The GMB products are derived from GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) monthly solutions of release ITSG-Grace2016 produced at TU Graz. GMB basin products (i.e. time series of monthly mass changes for the entire ice sheets and selected drainage basins) and GMB gridded products (e.g. mass balance estimates with a formal resolution of about 50km, covering the entire ice sheets) are generated for the period from 2002 until present. The first GMB product was released in mid 2016. Here we present an extended and updated version of the ESA CCI GMB products, which are freely available through data portals hosted by the projects (, Since the initial product release, the applied processing strategies have been improved in order to further reduce GRACE errors and to enhance the separation of signals super-imposed to the ice mass changes. While a regional integration approach is used by the AIS_cci project, the GMB products of the GIS_cci project are derived using a point mass inversion. The differences between both approaches are investigated through the example of the GIS, where an alternative GMB product was generated using the regional integration approach implemented by the AIS_cci. Finally, we present the latest mass balance estimates for both ice sheets as well as their corresponding contributions to global sea level rise.

  3. Simulation and reconstruction of parameters of streamflow and glacier mass balance in the Northern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Konovalov


    Full Text Available The work was aimed at numerical modeling of spatial-temporal variability of the river Terek seasonal (April to September streamflow characteristics and long-term fluctuations of components of annual glacier mass balances in this basin and on the adjacent territories. Mass balance of glaciers Djankuat and Garabashi was calculated. Simulation was performed by means of stochastic modeling and discrete data presenting fields of main meteorological parameters (precipitation, air temperature and humidity having effect on the streamflow. Realization of this approach is complicated by the fact that spatial representativeness of hydrological and meteorological sites are not corresponding one to another. Data on the runoff is clearly related to the total drainage area closed by a gauging station. And for this data we study a relationship with meteorological parameters which are measured at a non-regular observational network whose spatial representativeness is unknown. These stations are generally located beyond the area under investigation (Fig. 2. Similar problem exists when we analyze a relationship between components of the mass balance of individual glaciers (Djankuat and Garabashi and the above climate characteristics measured at some stations located on the whole Caucasus territory. The same takes place when long-term indices of width and density of tree annual rings obtained in upper reaches of the river Kuban’ are used for analysis of variations of the runoff and the glacier mass balance in the river Terek basin located at a distance of 100-150 km from the Kuban’ dendrologic sites.To solve the problem we used a wide number of factors which directly (various information about the climate or indirectly (indices of the climate dryness, wood ring characteristics characterize conditions of formation of annual and seasonal river runoff and components of glacier mass balance in the North Caucasus. Use of all obtained information made possible the

  4. Calibrating a surface mass-balance model for Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard (United States)

    Schuler, Thomas Vikhamar; Loe, Even; Taurisano, Andrea; Eiken, Trond; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kohler, Jack


    Austfonna (8120 km2) is by far the largest ice mass in the Svalbard archipelago. There is considerable uncertainty about its current state of balance and its possible response to climate change. Over the 2004/05 period, we collected continuous meteorological data series from the ice cap, performed mass-balance measurements using a network of stakes distributed across the ice cap and mapped the distribution of snow accumulation using ground-penetrating radar along several profile lines. These data are used to drive and test a model of the surface mass balance. The spatial accumulation pattern was derived from the snow depth profiles using regression techniques, and ablation was calculated using a temperature-index approach. Model parameters were calibrated using the available field data. Parameter calibration was complicated by the fact that different parameter combinations yield equally acceptable matches to the stake data while the resulting calculated net mass balance differs considerably. Testing model results against multiple criteria is an efficient method to cope with non-uniqueness. In doing so, a range of different data and observations was compared to several different aspects of the model results. We find a systematic underestimation of net balance for parameter combinations that predict observed ice ablation, which suggests that refreezing processes play an important role. To represent these effects in the model, a simple PMAX approach was included in its formulation. Used as a diagnostic tool, the model suggests that the surface mass balance for the period 29 April 2004 to 23 April 2005 was negative (-318 mm w.e.).

  5. A Reconciled Estimate of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Ivins, Erik R.; Geruo, A.; Barletta, Valentia R.; Bentley, Mike J.; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Briggs, Kate H.; Bromwich, David H.; Forsberg, Rene; Galin, Natalia; hide


    We combined an ensemble of satellite altimetry, interferometry, and gravimetry data sets using common geographical regions, time intervals, and models of surface mass balance and glacial isostatic adjustment to estimate the mass balance of Earth's polar ice sheets. We find that there is good agreement between different satellite methods-especially in Greenland and West Antarctica-and that combining satellite data sets leads to greater certainty. Between 1992 and 2011, the ice sheets of Greenland, East Antarctica, West Antarctica, and the Antarctic Peninsula changed in mass by -142 plus or minus 49, +14 plus or minus 43, -65 plus or minus 26, and -20 plus or minus 14 gigatonnes year(sup -1), respectively. Since 1992, the polar ice sheets have contributed, on average, 0.59 plus or minus 0.20 millimeter year(sup -1) to the rate of global sea-level rise.

  6. An Analysis of Mass Balance of Chilean Glaciers (United States)

    Ambinakudige, S.; Tetteh, L.


    Glaciers in Chile range from very small glacierets found on the isolated volcanoes of northern Chile to the 13,000 Southern Patagonian Ice Field. Regular monitoring of these glaciers is very important as they are considered as sensitive indicators of climate change. Millions of people's lives are dependent on these glaciers for fresh water and irrigation purpose. In this study, mass balances of several Chilean glaciers were estimated using Aster satellite images between 2007 and 2012. Highly accurate DEMs were created with supplementary information from IceSat data. The result indicated a negative mass balance for many glaciers indicating the need for further monitoring of glaciers in the Andes.

  7. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C.


    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g −1 to 3631 ng g −1 during the period of 1978–2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. - Highlights: • Introduced a mass balance model for soil PAHs accumulation with urbanization. • Reconstructed the historical data of PAH accumulation in soil of Beijing, China. • The soil PAH concentrations would be doubled in the following 40 years. • The composition of PAH emissions were shifting to light PAH species. - Introduced a regression modeling approach to predict the changes of PAH concentrations in urban soil

  8. Origin of howardites, diogenites and eucrites - A mass balance constraint (United States)

    Warren, P. H.


    Two petrogenetic models for the noncumulate-basaltic parts of howardite meteorites are discussed. A mass balance constraint is developed which indicates that more than half of the basaltic components in howardites formed as residual liquids from fractional crystallization of melts that had earlier produced diogentelike pyroxene cumulate components. Other model constriants involving scandium trends, clustering near olivine-pyroxene-plagioclase peritectic, and MgO/(MgO + FeO) ratios are discussed.

  9. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model. (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude


    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  10. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Buoys for Seasonal Sea Ice (United States)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Parno, J. T.; Elder, B. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.


    The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes and attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover can be accomplished by increasing temporal and spatial measurements. Mass balance information can be used to understand the ongoing changes in the Arctic sea ice cover and to improve predictions of future ice conditions. Thinner seasonal ice in the Arctic necessitates the deployment of Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) capable of long-term, in situ data collection in both ice and open ocean. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating IMB's that allow data collection in thick ice, thin ice, during times of transition, and even open water. The newest generation of SIMB aims to increase the number of reliable IMB's in the Arctic by leveraging inexpensive commercial-grade instrumentation when combined with specially developed monitoring hardware. Monitoring tasks are handled by a custom, expandable data logger that provides low-cost flexibility for integrating a large range of instrumentation. The SIMB features ultrasonic sensors for direct measurement of both snow depth and ice thickness and a digital temperature chain (DTC) for temperature measurements every 2cm through both snow and ice. Air temperature and pressure, along with GPS data complete the Arctic picture. Additionally, the new SIMB is more compact to maximize deployment opportunities from multiple types of platforms.

  11. Applying an orographic precipitation model to improve mass balance modeling of the Juneau Icefield, AK (United States)

    Roth, A. C.; Hock, R.; Schuler, T.; Bieniek, P.; Aschwanden, A.


    Mass loss from glaciers in Southeast Alaska is expected to alter downstream ecological systems as runoff patterns change. To investigate these potential changes under future climate scenarios, distributed glacier mass balance modeling is required. However, the spatial resolution gap between global or regional climate models and the requirements for glacier mass balance modeling studies must be addressed first. We have used a linear theory of orographic precipitation model to downscale precipitation from both the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and ERA-Interim to the Juneau Icefield region over the period 1979-2013. This implementation of the LT model is a unique parameterization that relies on the specification of snow fall speed and rain fall speed as tuning parameters to calculate the cloud time delay, τ. We assessed the LT model results by considering winter precipitation so the effect of melt was minimized. The downscaled precipitation pattern produced by the LT model captures the orographic precipitation pattern absent from the coarse resolution WRF and ERA-Interim precipitation fields. Observational data constraints limited our ability to determine a unique parameter combination and calibrate the LT model to glaciological observations. We established a reference run of parameter values based on literature and performed a sensitivity analysis of the LT model parameters, horizontal resolution, and climate input data on the average winter precipitation. The results of the reference run showed reasonable agreement with the available glaciological measurements. The precipitation pattern produced by the LT model was consistent regardless of parameter combination, horizontal resolution, and climate input data, but the precipitation amount varied strongly with these factors. Due to the consistency of the winter precipitation pattern and the uncertainty in precipitation amount, we suggest a precipitation index map approach to be used in combination with

  12. Modelling chloride penetration in concrete using electrical voltage and current approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lizarazo-Marriaga


    Full Text Available This paper reports a research programme aimed at giving a better understanding of the phenomena involved in the chloride penetration in cement-based materials. The general approach used was to solve the Nernst-Planck equation numerically for two physical ideal states that define the possible conditions under which chlorides will move through concrete. These conditions are named in this paper as voltage control and current control. For each condition, experiments and simulations were carried out in order to establish the importance of electrical variables such as voltage and current in modelling chloride transport in concrete. The results of experiments and simulations showed that if those electrical variables are included as key parameters in the modelling of chloride penetration through concrete, a better understanding of this complex phenomenon can be obtained.

  13. Ice-sheet mass balance and climate change. (United States)

    Hanna, Edward; Navarro, Francisco J; Pattyn, Frank; Domingues, Catia M; Fettweis, Xavier; Ivins, Erik R; Nicholls, Robert J; Ritz, Catherine; Smith, Ben; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Whitehouse, Pippa L; Zwally, H Jay


    Since the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report, new observations of ice-sheet mass balance and improved computer simulations of ice-sheet response to continuing climate change have been published. Whereas Greenland is losing ice mass at an increasing pace, current Antarctic ice loss is likely to be less than some recently published estimates. It remains unclear whether East Antarctica has been gaining or losing ice mass over the past 20 years, and uncertainties in ice-mass change for West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula remain large. We discuss the past six years of progress and examine the key problems that remain.

  14. Calibration of a surface mass balance model for global-scale applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, R. H.; Oerlemans, J.


    Global applications of surface mass balance models have large uncertainties, as a result of poor climate input data and limited availability of mass balance measurements. This study addresses several possible consequences of these limitations for the modelled mass balance. This is done by applying a

  15. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby

  16. Sugarcane bagasse pretreatment using three imidazolium-based ionic liquids; mass balances and enzyme kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzos Sergios


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective pretreatment is key to achieving high enzymatic saccharification efficiency in processing lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars, biofuels and value-added products. Ionic liquids (ILs, still relatively new class of solvents, are attractive for biomass pretreatment because some demonstrate the rare ability to dissolve all components of lignocellulosic biomass including highly ordered (crystalline cellulose. In the present study, three ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim]OAc are used to dissolve/pretreat and fractionate sugarcane bagasse. In these IL-based pretreatments the biomass is completely or partially dissolved in ILs at temperatures greater than 130°C and then precipitated by the addition of an antisolvent to the IL biomass mixture. For the first time mass balances of IL-based pretreatments are reported. Such mass balances, along with kinetics data, can be used in process modelling and design. Results Lignin removals of 10% mass of lignin in bagasse with [C4mim]Cl, 50% mass with [C2mim]Cl and 60% mass with [C2mim]OAc, are achieved by limiting the amount of water added as antisolvent to 0.5 water:IL mass ratio thus minimising lignin precipitation. Enzyme saccharification (24 h, 15FPU yields (% cellulose mass in starting bagasse from the recovered solids rank as: [C2mim]OAc(83% > >[C2mim]Cl(53% = [C4mim]Cl(53%. Composition of [C2mim]OAc-treated solids such as low lignin, low acetyl group content and preservation of arabinosyl groups are characteristic of aqueous alkali pretreatments while those of chloride IL-treated solids resemble aqueous acid pretreatments. All ILs are fully recovered after use (100% mass as determined by ion chromatography. Conclusions In all three ILs regulated addition of water as an antisolvent effected a polysaccharide enriched precipitate since some of the lignin

  17. Geodetic mass balance measurements on debris and clean-ice tropical glaciers in Ecuador (United States)

    La Frenierre, J.; Decker, C. R.; Jordan, E.; Wigmore, O.; Hodge, B. E.; Niederriter, C.; Michels, A.


    Glaciers are recognized as highly sensitive indicators of climate change in high altitude, low latitude environments. In the tropical Andes, various analyses of glacier surface area change have helped illuminate the manifestation of climate change in this region, however, information about actual glacier mass balance behavior is much more limited given the relatively small glaciers, difficult access, poor weather, and/or limited local resources common here. Several new technologies, including aerial and terrestrial LIDAR and structure-from-motion photogrammetry using small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), make mass balance measurements using geodetic approaches increasingly feasible in remote mountain locations, which can both further our understanding of changing climatic conditions, and improve our ability to evaluate the downstream hydrologic impacts of ice loss. At Volcán Chimborazo, Ecuador, these new technologies, combined with a unique, 5-meter resolution digital elevation model derived from 1997 aerial imagery, make possible an analysis of the magnitude and spatial patterns of mass balance behavior over the past two decades. Here, we evaluate ice loss between 1997 and 2017 at the tongues of two adjacent glaciers, one debris-covered and detached from its accumulation area (Reschreiter Glacier), and one debris-free and intact (Hans Meyer Glacier). Additionally, we incorporate data from 2012 and 2013 terrestrial LIDAR surveys to evaluate the behavior of the Reschreiter at a finer temporal resolution. We find that on the Hans Meyer, the mean surface deflation rate since 1997 at the present-day tongue has been nearly 3 m yr-1, while on the lower-elevation Reschreiter, the mean deflation rate has been approximately 1 m yr-1. However, the processes by which debris-covered ice becomes exposed results in highly heterogeneous patterns of ice loss, with some areas experiencing surface deflation rates approaching 15 m yr-1 when energy absorption is unimpeded.

  18. A synthesis of the Green Bay (Lake Michigan) mass balance project: Implications for environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, W.; Endicott, D.; Kreis, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Grosse Ile, MI (United States). Large Lakes Research Station


    The questions confronting environmental managers responsible for the Great Lakes are complex and regulatory action (or inaction) have major social, environmental and economical consequences. It has become evident that rational approaches must be found to address the issues, more clearly identify and quantitate problems, locate and quantitate sources of important chemicals, and arrive at optimal remedial programs. A scientifically based management framework has been implemented and prototyped within the Great Lakes community of mangers and scientists referred to as the Mass Balance Approach. The US Environmental Protection Agency, led by the Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) in cooperation with Office of Research and Development (ORD) and other state and academic organizations, has completed an intensive study of Green Bay (Lake Michigan) to test the feasibility of using the mass balance approach for managing toxic substances in the Great Lakes. This presentation will provide an overview of the project and the results. Conclusions and recommendations will be reviewed and implications for future policy based, scientific studies will be explored.

  19. Quantifying the resolution level where the GRACE satellites can separate Greenland's glacial mass balance from surface mass balance (United States)

    Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.


    Mass change over Greenland can be caused by either changes in the glacial dynamic mass balance (DMB) or the surface mass balance (SMB). The GRACE satellite gravity mission cannot directly separate the two physical causes because it measures the sum of the entire mass column with limited spatial resolution. We demonstrate one theoretical way to indirectly separate cumulative SMB from DMB with GRACE, using a least squares inversion technique with knowledge of the location of the glaciers. However, we find that the limited 60 × 60 spherical harmonic representation of current GRACE data does not provide sufficient resolution to adequately accomplish the task. We determine that at a maximum degree/order of 90 × 90 or above, a noise-free gravity measurement could theoretically separate the SMB from DMB signals. However, current GRACE satellite errors are too large at present to separate the signals. A noise reduction of a factor of 10 at a resolution of 90 × 90 would provide the accuracy needed for the interannual cumulative SMB and DMB to be accurately separated.

  20. Mass balance model parameter transferability on a tropical glacier (United States)

    Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Mölg, Thomas; Nicholson, Lindsey; Kaser, Georg


    The mass balance and melt water production of glaciers is of particular interest in the Peruvian Andes where glacier melt water has markedly increased water supply during the pronounced dry seasons in recent decades. However, the melt water contribution from glaciers is projected to decrease with appreciable negative impacts on the local society within the coming decades. Understanding mass balance processes on tropical glaciers is a prerequisite for modeling present and future glacier runoff. As a first step towards this aim we applied a process-based surface mass balance model in order to calculate observed ablation at two stakes in the ablation zone of Shallap Glacier (4800 m a.s.l., 9°S) in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Under the tropical climate, the snow line migrates very frequently across most of the ablation zone all year round causing large temporal and spatial variations of glacier surface conditions and related ablation. Consequently, pronounced differences between the two chosen stakes and the two years were observed. Hourly records of temperature, humidity, wind speed, short wave incoming radiation, and precipitation are available from an automatic weather station (AWS) on the moraine near the glacier for the hydrological years 2006/07 and 2007/08 while stake readings are available at intervals of between 14 to 64 days. To optimize model parameters, we used 1000 model simulations in which the most sensitive model parameters were varied randomly within their physically meaningful ranges. The modeled surface height change was evaluated against the two stake locations in the lower ablation zone (SH11, 4760m) and in the upper ablation zone (SH22, 4816m), respectively. The optimal parameter set for each point achieved good model skill but if we transfer the best parameter combination from one stake site to the other stake site model errors increases significantly. The same happens if we optimize the model parameters for each year individually and transfer

  1. Past and future sea-level change from the surface mass balance of glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion


    Full Text Available We present estimates of sea-level change caused by the global surface mass balance of glaciers, based on the reconstruction and projection of the surface mass balance of all the individual glaciers of the world, excluding the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. The model is validated using a leave-one-glacier-out cross-validation scheme against 3997 observed surface mass balances of 255 glaciers, and against 756 geodetically observed, temporally integrated volume and surface area changes of 341 glaciers. When forced with observed monthly precipitation and temperature data, the glaciers of the world are reconstructed to have lost mass corresponding to 114 ± 5 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE between 1902 and 2009. Using projected temperature and precipitation anomalies from 15 coupled general circulation models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 ensemble, they are projected to lose an additional 148 ± 35 mm SLE (scenario RCP26, 166 ± 42 mm SLE (scenario RCP45, 175 ± 40 mm SLE (scenario RCP60, or 217 ± 47 mm SLE (scenario RCP85 during the 21st century. Based on the extended RCP scenarios, glaciers are projected to approach a new equilibrium towards the end of the 23rd century, after having lost either 248 ± 66 mm SLE (scenario RCP26, 313 ± 50 mm SLE (scenario RCP45, or 424 ± 46 mm SLE (scenario RCP85. Up until approximately 2100, ensemble uncertainty within each scenario is the biggest source of uncertainty for the future glacier mass loss; after that, the difference between the scenarios takes over as the biggest source of uncertainty. Ice mass loss rates are projected to peak 2040 ∼ 2050 (RCP26, 2050 ∼ 2060 (RCP45, 2070 ∼ 2090 (RCP60, or 2070 ∼ 2100 (RCP85.

  2. Glacier Mass Changes of Lake-Terminating Grey and Tyndall Glaciers at the Southern Patagonia Icefield Derived From Geodetic Observations and Energy and Mass Balance Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S. Weidemann


    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrate how energy and mass fluxes vary in space and time for Grey and Tyndall glaciers at the Southern Patagonia Icefield (SPI. Despite the overall glacier retreat of most Patagonian glaciers, a recent increase in mass loss has been observed, but individual glaciers respond differently in terms of spatial and temporal changes. In this context, the detailed investigation of the effect of mass balance processes on recent glacier response to climate forcing still needs refinement. We therefore quantify surface energy-fluxes and climatic mass balance of the two neighboring glaciers, Grey and Tyndall. The COupled Snow and Ice energy and MAss balance model COSIMA is applied to assess recent surface energy and climatic mass balance variability with a high temporal and spatial resolution for a 16-year period between April 2000 and March 2016. The model is driven by downscaled 6-hourly atmospheric data derived from ERA-Interim reanalysis and MODIS/Terra Snow Cover and validated against ablation measurements made in single years. High resolution precipitation fields are determined by using an analytical orographic precipitation model. Frontal ablation is estimated as residual of climatic mass balance and geodetic mass balance derived from TanDEM-X/SRTM between 2000 and 2014. We simulate a positive glacier-wide mean annual climatic mass balance of +1.02 ± 0.52 m w.e. a−1 for Grey Glacier and of +0.68 ± 0.54 m w.e. a−1 for Tyndall Glacier between 2000 and 2014. Climatic mass balance results show a high year to year variability. Comparing climatic mass balance results with previous studies underlines the high uncertainty in climatic mass balance modeling with respect to accumulation on the SPI. Due to the lack of observations accumulation estimates differ from previous studies based on the methodological approaches. Mean annual ice loss by frontal ablation is estimated to be 2.07 ± 0.70 m w.e. a−1 for Grey Glacier and 3.26 ± 0

  3. Aquatic Exposure Predictions of Insecticide Field Concentrations Using a Multimedia Mass-Balance Model. (United States)

    Knäbel, Anja; Scheringer, Martin; Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf


    Highly complex process-driven mechanistic fate and transport models and multimedia mass balance models can be used for the exposure prediction of pesticides in different environmental compartments. Generally, both types of models differ in spatial and temporal resolution. Process-driven mechanistic fate models are very complex, and calculations are time-intensive. This type of model is currently used within the European regulatory pesticide registration (FOCUS). Multimedia mass-balance models require fewer input parameters to calculate concentration ranges and the partitioning between different environmental media. In this study, we used the fugacity-based small-region model (SRM) to calculate predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) for 466 cases of insecticide field concentrations measured in European surface waters. We were able to show that the PECs of the multimedia model are more protective in comparison to FOCUS. In addition, our results show that the multimedia model results have a higher predictive power to simulate varying field concentrations at a higher level of field relevance. The adaptation of the model scenario to actual field conditions suggests that the performance of the SRM increases when worst-case conditions are replaced by real field data. Therefore, this study shows that a less complex modeling approach than that used in the regulatory risk assessment exhibits a higher level of protectiveness and predictiveness and that there is a need to develop and evaluate new ecologically relevant scenarios in the context of pesticide exposure modeling.

  4. Improved constraints on in situ rates and on quantification of complete chloroethene degradation from stable carbon isotope mass balances in groundwater plumes (United States)

    Höhener, Patrick; Elsner, Martin; Eisenmann, Heinrich; Atteia, Olivier


    Spills of chloroethenes (CEs) at industrial and urban sites can create groundwater plumes in which tetrachloro- and trichloroethene sequentially degrade to dichloroethenes, vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene, or ethane under reducing conditions. For detoxification, degradation must go beyond VC. Assessments based on ethene and ethane, however, are difficult because these products are volatile, may stem from alternative sources, can be further transformed and are not always monitored. To alternatively quantify degradation beyond VC, stable carbon isotope mass balances have been proposed where concentration-weighted CE isotope ratios are summed up and compared to the original source isotope ratio. Reported assessments, however, have provided not satisfactorily quantified results entailing greatly differing upper and lower estimates. This work proposes an integrative approach to better constrain the extent of total chloroethene degradation in groundwater samples. It is based on fitting of measured concentration and compound-specific stable carbon isotope data to an analytical reactive transport equation simulating steady-state plumes in two dimensions using an EXCEL spreadsheet. The fitting also yields estimates of degradation rates, of source width and of dispersivities. The approach is validated using two synthetic benchmark cases where the true extent of degradation is well known, and using data from two real field cases from literature.

  5. Radiocarbon Mass Balance for a Magnox Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, M.P.; Mills, R.W.


    Nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom is based principally on graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors. The mass of irradiated graphite associated with these reactors, including material from associated experimental, prototype and production reactors, exceeds 96,000 tonnes. One of the principal long-lived radionuclides produced during graphite irradiation is radiocarbon (C-14), which has a half-life of 5730 ± 40 years. Decommissioning and graphite waste management strategies must take account of this radionuclide. In order to identify appropriate options for addressing the potential hazard of C-14, it is important that the production processes are understood and the distributions and concentrations of C-14 are characterised. In fact, C-14 precursors and their activation processes are well-known. However, there is ongoing debate over the relative importance of different C-14 precursors, which will determine the location of C-14 within graphite components and hence its mobility/response to treatment. A generally held misconception concerning C-14 in irradiated graphite is that generic statements can be made about its precursors and their location. C-14 location and activities will depend upon the composition of the original manufactured graphite (raw materials, impurities), the chemical environment of the graphite during service and the irradiation history of the graphite. So, while there may be some similarities across, for example, carbon dioxide cooled graphite moderated designs (Magnox, AGR, UNGG), any informed assessment of a core’s C-14 inventory would require more-precise characterisation. The analysis presented here focuses on a UK Magnox reactor core, Reactor 1 at Wylfa Nuclear Power Station. The objective of the analysis is to present a full C-14 mass balance over a selected period of operation for which there are accurate C-14 discharge records. The analysis presented here provides the first assessment of the principal C-14 activation pathways

  6. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  7. A mass balance study of the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene-contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew James, C.; Xin Gang; Doty, Sharon L.; Muiznieks, Indulis; Newman, Lee; Strand, Stuart E.


    A mass balance study was performed under controlled field conditions to investigate the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene (PCE) by hybrid poplar trees. Water containing 7-14 mg L -1 PCE was added to the test bed. Perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and cis-dichloroethylene were detected in the effluent at an average of 0.12 mg L -1 , 3.9 mg L -1 , and 1.9 mg L -1 , respectively. The total mass of chlorinated ethenes in the water was reduced by 99%. Over 95% of the recovered chlorine was as free chloride in the soil, indicating near-complete dehalogenation of the PCE. Transpiration, volatilization, and accumulation in the trees were all found to be minor loss mechanisms. In contrast, 98% of PCE applied to an unplanted soil chamber was recovered as PCE in the effluent water or volatilized into the air. These results suggest that phytoremediation can be an effective method for treating PCE-contaminated groundwater in field applications. - A chlorine balance performed on a planted test bed with PCE-contaminated water demonstrated VOC mass reduction of 99% and complete dechlorination.

  8. A mass balance study of the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew James, C. [University of Washington, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seattle, WA (United States); Xin Gang [Hydranautics, 401 Jones Rd., Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States); Doty, Sharon L.; Muiznieks, Indulis [University of Washington, College of Forest Resources, Seattle, WA (United States); Newman, Lee [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Biology Department, Upton, NY (United States); Strand, Stuart E., E-mail: sstrand@u.washington.ed [University of Washington, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seattle, WA (United States)


    A mass balance study was performed under controlled field conditions to investigate the phytoremediation of perchloroethylene (PCE) by hybrid poplar trees. Water containing 7-14 mg L{sup -1} PCE was added to the test bed. Perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and cis-dichloroethylene were detected in the effluent at an average of 0.12 mg L{sup -1}, 3.9 mg L{sup -1}, and 1.9 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. The total mass of chlorinated ethenes in the water was reduced by 99%. Over 95% of the recovered chlorine was as free chloride in the soil, indicating near-complete dehalogenation of the PCE. Transpiration, volatilization, and accumulation in the trees were all found to be minor loss mechanisms. In contrast, 98% of PCE applied to an unplanted soil chamber was recovered as PCE in the effluent water or volatilized into the air. These results suggest that phytoremediation can be an effective method for treating PCE-contaminated groundwater in field applications. - A chlorine balance performed on a planted test bed with PCE-contaminated water demonstrated VOC mass reduction of 99% and complete dechlorination.

  9. Mapping the spatial distribution of chloride deposition across Australia (United States)

    Davies, P. J.; Crosbie, R. S.


    to be reduced. Use of the derived chloride deposition map was demonstrated for a probabilistic estimation of groundwater recharge for the southeast of South Australia using the chloride mass balance method.

  10. Application of terrestrial photogrammetry for the mass balance calculation on Montasio Occidentale Glacier (Julian Alps, Italy) (United States)

    Piermattei, Livia; Carturan, Luca; Calligaro, Simone; Blasone, Giacomo; Guarnieri, Alberto; Tarolli, Paolo; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Vettore, Antonio


    Digital elevation models (DEMs) of glaciated terrain are commonly used to measure changes in geometry and hence infer the mass balance of glaciers. Different tools and methods exist to obtain information about the 3D geometry of terrain. Recent improvements on the quality and performance of digital cameras for close-range photogrammetry, and the development of automatic digital photogrammetric processing makes the 'structure from motion' photogrammetric technique (SfM) competitive for high quality 3D models production, compared to efficient but also expensive and logistically-demanding survey technologies such as airborn and terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The purpose of this work is to test the SfM approach, using a consumer-grade SLR camera and the low-cost computer vision-based software package Agisoft Photoscan (Agisoft LLC), to monitor the mass balance of Montasio Occidentale glacier, a 0.07km2, low-altitude, debris-covered glacier located in the Eastern Italian Alps. The quality of the 3D models produced by the SfM process has been assessed by comparison with digital terrain models obtained through TLS surveys carried out at the same dates. TLS technique has indeed proved to be very effective in determining the volume change of this glacier in the last years. Our results shows that the photogrammetric approach can produce point cloud densities comparable to those derived from TLS measurements. Furthermore, the horizontal and vertical accuracies are also of the same order of magnitude as for TLS (centimetric to decimetric). The effect of different landscape characteristics (e.g. distance from the camera or terrain gradient) and of different substrata (rock, debris, ice, snow and firn) was also evaluated in terms of SfM reconstruction's accuracy vs. TLS. Given the good results obtained on the Montasio Occidentale glacier, it can be concluded that the terrestrial photogrammetry, with the advantageous features of portability, ease of use and above all low costs

  11. Fe and Cu isotope mass balances in the human body (United States)

    Balter, V.; Albarede, F.; Jaouen, K.


    The ranges of the Fe and Cu isotope compositions in the human body are large, i.e. ~3% and ~2%, respectively. Both isotopic fractionations appear to be mainly controlled by redox conditions. The Fe and Cu isotope compositions of the tissues analyzed so far plot on a mixing hyperbolae between a reduced and an oxidized metals pools. The reduced metals pool is composed by erythrocytes, where Fe is bounded to hemoglobin as Fe(II) and Cu to superoxide-dismutase as Cu(I). The oxidized metals pool is composed by hepatocytes, where Fe and Cu are stored as Fe(III) ferritin and as Cu(II) ceruloplasmine, respectively. The position of each biological component in the δ56Fe-δ65Cu diagram therefore reflects the oxidation state of Fe and Cu of the predominant metal carrier protein and allows to quantify Fe and Cu fluxes between organs using mass balance calculations. For instance, serum and clot Fe and Cu isotope compositions show that current biological models of erythropoiesis violates mass conservation requirements, and suggest hidden Fe and Cu pathways during red blood cells synthesis. The results also show that a coupled Fe-Cu strong gender isotopic effect is observed in various organs. The isotopic difference between men and women is unlikely to be due to differential dietary uptake or endometrium loss, but rather reflects the effect of menstrual losses and a correlative solicitation of hepatic stores. We speculate that thorough studies of the metabolism of stable isotopes in normal conditions is a prerequisite for the understanding of the pathological dysregulations.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.


    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

  13. Radiocarbon mass balance for a Magnox nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, M.P.; Mills, R.W.


    Highlights: • First comprehensive assessment of C-14 arisings in a Magnox nuclear power station. • C-14 production in graphite and coolant gas quantified by activation modelling. • Principal C-14 production pathway is via C-13 with a small contribution from N-14. • C-14 mass balance model provides a basis for analyses on other reactors. - Abstract: Nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom is based principally on graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors. The mass of irradiated graphite associated with these reactors, including material from associated experimental, prototype and plutonium production reactors, exceeds 96,000 tonnes. One of the principal long-lived radionuclides produced during graphite irradiation is radiocarbon (C-14). Its potential as a hazard must be taken into account in decommissioning and graphite waste management strategies. While C-14 production processes are well-understood, radionuclide distributions and concentrations need to be characterised. A common misconception is that generic statements can be made about C-14 precursors and their location. In fact, the composition of the original manufactured material, the chemical environment of the graphite during service and its irradiation history will all influence C-14 levels. The analysis presented here provides the first assessment of the principal C-14 activation pathways for a UK Magnox reactor. Activation modelling has been used to predict C-14 production rates in both the graphite core and the carbon dioxide coolant over a selected period of operation and the results compared with monitored site C-14 discharges. Principal activation routes have been identified, which should inform future graphite waste management strategies relating to radiocarbon

  14. Characterization of methane oxidation in a simulated landfill cover system by comparing molecular and stable isotope mass balances. (United States)

    Schulte, Marcel; Jochmann, Maik A; Gehrke, Tobias; Thom, Andrea; Ricken, Tim; Denecke, Martin; Schmidt, Torsten C


    Biological methane oxidation may be regarded as a method of aftercare treatment for landfills to reduce climate relevant methane emissions. It is of social and economic interest to estimate the behavior of bacterial methane oxidation in aged landfill covers due to an adequate long-term treatment of the gas emissions. Different approaches assessing methane oxidation in laboratory column studies have been investigated by other authors recently. However, this work represents the first study in which three independent approaches, ((i) mass balance, (ii) stable isotope analysis, and (iii) stoichiometric balance of product (CO 2 ) and reactant (CH 4 ) by CO 2 /CH 4 -ratio) have been compared for the estimation of the biodegradation by a robust statistical validation on a rectangular, wide soil column. Additionally, an evaluation by thermal imaging as a potential technique for the localization of the active zone of bacterial methane oxidation has been addressed in connection with stable isotope analysis and CO 2 /CH 4 -ratios. Although landfills can be considered as open systems the results for stable isotope analysis based on a closed system correlated better with the mass balance than calculations based on an open system. CO 2 /CH 4 -ratios were also in good agreement with mass balance. In general, highest values for biodegradation were determined from mass balance, followed by CO 2 /CH 4 -ratio, and stable isotope analysis. The investigated topsoil proved to be very suitable as a potential cover layer by removing up to 99% of methane for CH 4 loads of 35-65gm -2 d -1 that are typical in the aftercare phase of landfills. Finally, data from stable isotope analysis and the CO 2 /CH 4 -ratios were used to trace microbial activity within the reactor system. It was shown that methane consumption and temperature increase, as a cause of high microbial activity, correlated very well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker


    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in g...

  16. Spatial patterns of North Atlantic Oscillation influence on mass balance variability of European glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion


    Full Text Available We present and validate a set of minimal models of glacier mass balance variability. The most skillful model is then applied to reconstruct 7735 individual time series of mass balance variability for all glaciers in the European Alps and Scandinavia. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of atmospheric variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO on the glaciers' mass balances.

    We find a spatial coherence in the glaciers' sensitivity to NAO forcing which is caused by regionally similar mechanisms relating the NAO forcing to the mass balance: in southwestern Scandinavia, winter precipitation causes a correlation of mass balances with the NAO. In northern Scandinavia, temperature anomalies outside the core winter season cause an anti-correlation between NAO and mass balances. In the western Alps, both temperature and winter precipitation anomalies lead to a weak anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO, while in the eastern Alps, the influences of winter precipitation and temperature anomalies tend to cancel each other, and only on the southern side a slight anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO prevails.

  17. Greenland surface mass-balance observations from the ice-sheet ablation area and local glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, Horst; Thomsen, Henrik H.; Weidick, Anker; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Abermann, Jakob; Andersen, Morten L.; Andersen, Signe B.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Box, Jason E.; Braithwaite, Roger J.; Bøggild, Carl E.; Citterio, Michele; Clement, Poul; Colgan, William; Fausto, Robert S.; Gleie, Karin; Gubler, Stefanie; Hasholt, Bent; Hynek, Bernhard; Knudsen, Niels T.; Larsen, Signe H.; Mernild, Sebastian H.; Oerlemans, Johannes; Oerter, Hans; Olesen, Ole B.; Smeets, C. J P Paul; Steffen, Konrad; Stober, Manfred; Sugiyama, Shin; Van As, Dirk; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.; Van De Wal, Roderik S W


    Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in

  18. Land motion due to 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Khan, S. A.


    Quantifying the contribution from ice sheets and glaciers to past sea level change is of great value for understanding sea level projections into the 21st century. However, quantifying and understanding past changes are equally important, in particular understanding the impact in the near-field where the signal is highest. We assess the impact of 20th century mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet on land motion using results from Kjeldsen et al, 2015. These results suggest that the ice sheet on average lost a minimum of 75 Gt/yr, but also show that the mass balance was highly spatial- and temporal variable, and moreover that on a centennial time scale changes were driven by a decreasing surface mass balance. Based on preliminary results we discuss land motion during the 20th century due to mass balance changes and the driving components surface mass balance and ice dynamics.

  19. Comparative glacio-climatological analysis of mass balance variability along the geographical margin of Europe (United States)

    Lehoczky, Annamária; Kern, Zoltán; Pongrácz, Rita


    Glacio-climatological studies recognise glacier mass balance changes as high-confident climate indicators. The climatic sensitivity of a glacier does not simply depend on regional climate variability but also influenced via large- and mesoscale atmospheric circulation patterns. This study focuses on recent changes in the mass balance using records from three border regions of Europe, and investigates the relationships between the seasonal mass balance components, regional climatic conditions, and distant atmospheric forcing. Since glaciers in different macro-climatological conditions (i.e., mid-latitudes or high-latitudes, dry-continental or maritime regions) may present strongly diverse mass balance characteristics, the three analysed regions were selected from different glacierised macroregions (using the database of the World Glacier Monitoring Service). These regions belong to the Caucasus Mountains (Central Europe macroregion), the Polar Ural (Northern Asia macroregion), and Svalbard (Arctic Islands macroregion). The analysis focuses on winter, summer, and annual mass balance series of eight glaciers. The climatic variables (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, precipitation) and indices of teleconnection patterns (e.g., North Atlantic Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation) are used from the gridded databases of the University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Center for Environmental Prediction. However, the period and length of available mass balance data in the selected regions vary greatly (the first full record is in 1958, Polar Ural; the last is in 2010, Caucasus Mountains), a comparative analysis can be carried out for the period of 1968-1981. Since glaciers from different regions respond to large- and mesoscale climatic forcings differently, and because the mass balance of glaciers within a region often co-vary, our specific objectives are (i) to examine the variability and the

  20. Modelling the contribution of supraglacial ice cliffs to the mass-balance of glaciers in the Langtang catchment, Nepalese Himalaya (United States)

    Buri, P.; Steiner, J. F.; Miles, E.; Ragettli, S.; Pellicciotti, F.


    Supraglacial cliffs are typical surface features of debris-covered glaciers worldwide, affecting surface evolution, and mass balance by providing a direct ice-atmosphere interface where melt rates can be very high. As a result, ice cliffs act as windows of energy transfer from the atmosphere to the ice, and enhance melt and mass losses of otherwise insulated ice. However, their contribution to glacier mass balance has never been quantified at the glacier scale, and all inference has been obtained from upscaling results of point-scale models or observations at select individual cliffs. Here we use a 3D, physically-based backwasting model to estimate the volume losses associated with the melting and backwasting of supraglacial ice cliffs for the entire debris-covered glacier area of the Langtang catchment. We estimate mass losses for the 2014 melt season and compare them to recent values of glacier mass balance determined from geodetic and numerical modelling approached. Cliff outlines and topography are derived from high-resolution stereo SPOT6-imagery from April 2014. Meteorological data to force the model are provided by automatic weather stations on- and off-glacier within the valley. The model simulates ice cliff backwasting by considering the cliff-atmosphere energy-balance, reburial by debris and the effects of adjacent ponds. In the melt season of 2014, cliffs' distribution and patterns of mass losses vary considerably from glacier to glacier, and we relate rates of volume loss to both glaciers' and cliffs' characteristics. Only cliffs with a northerly aspect account for substantial losses. Uncertainty in our estimates is due to the quality of the stereo DEM, uncertainties in the cliff delineation and the fact that we use a conservative approach to cliff delineation and discard very small cliffs and those for which uncertainty in topography is high. Despite these uncertainties, our work presents the first estimate of the importance of supraglacial ice

  1. Remote Sensing of Cryosphere: Estimation of Mass Balance Change in Himalayan Glaciers (United States)

    Ambinakudige, Shrinidhi; Joshi, Kabindra


    Glacial changes are an important indicator of climate change. Our understanding mass balance change in Himalayan glaciers is limited. This study estimates mass balance of some major glaciers in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) in Nepal using remote sensing applications. Remote sensing technique to measure mass balance of glaciers is an important methodological advance in the highly rugged Himalayan terrain. This study uses ASTER VNIR, 3N (nadir view) and 3B (backward view) bands to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the SNP area for the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005. Glacier boundaries were delineated using combination of boundaries available in the Global land ice measurement (GLIMS) database and various band ratios derived from ASTER images. Elevation differences, glacial area, and ice densities were used to estimate the change in mass balance. The results indicated that the rate of glacier mass balance change was not uniform across glaciers. While there was a decrease in mass balance of some glaciers, some showed increase. This paper discusses how each glacier in the SNP area varied in its annual mass balance measurement during the study period.

  2. Comparing Mass Balance and Adjoint-Based 4D-VAR Methods for Inverse Modeling of Nitrogen Dioxide Columns for Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (United States)

    Cooper, M.; Martin, R.; Henze, D. K.


    Nitrogen oxide (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) emission inventories can be improved through top-down constraints provided by inverse modeling of observed nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns. Here we compare two methods of inverse modeling for emissions of NOx from synthetic NO2 columns generated from known emissions using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. We treat the adjoint-based 4D-VAR approach for estimating top-down emissions as a benchmark against which to evaluate variations on the mass balance method. We find that the standard mass balance algorithm can be improved by using an iterative process and using finite difference to calculate the local sensitivity of a change in NO2 columns to a change in emissions, resulting in a factor of two reduction in inversion error. In a simplified case study to recover local emission perturbations, horizontal smearing effects due to NOx transport were better resolved by the adjoint-based approach than by mass balance. For more complex emission changes that reflect real world scenarios, the iterative finite difference mass balance and adjoint methods produce similar top-down inventories when inverting hourly synthetic observations, both reducing the a priori error by factors of 3-4. Inversions of data sets that simulate satellite observations from low Earth and geostationary orbits also indicate that both the mass balance and adjoint inversions produce similar results, reducing a priori error by a factor of 3. As the iterative finite difference mass balance method provides similar accuracy as the adjoint-based 4D-VAR method, it offers the ability to efficiently estimate top-down emissions using models that do not have an adjoint.

  3. Ranking of factors determining potassium mass balance in bicarbonate haemodialysis. (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Teutonico, Annalisa; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Lomonte, Carlo


    One of the most important pathogenetic factors involved in the onset of intradialysis arrhytmias is the alteration in electrolyte concentration, particularly potassium (K(+)). Two studies were performed: Study A was designed to investigate above all the isolated effect of the factor time t on intradialysis K(+) mass balance (K(+)MB): 11 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one standard (∼4 h) and one long-hour (∼8 h) bicarbonate haemodialysis (HD) session. The latter were pair-matched as far as the dialysate and blood volume processed (90 L) and volume of ultrafiltration are concerned. Study B was designed to identify and rank the other factors determining intradialysis K(+)MB: 63 stable prevalent Caucasian anuric patients underwent one 4-h standard bicarbonate HD session. Dialysate K(+) concentration was 2.0 mmol/L in both studies. Blood samples were obtained from the inlet blood tubing immediately before the onset of dialysis and at t60, t120, t180 min and at end of the 4- and 8-h sessions for the measurement of plasma K(+), blood bicarbonates and blood pH. Additional blood samples were obtained at t360 min for the 8 h sessions. Direct dialysate quantification was utilized for K(+)MBs. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for K(+) measurements. Study A: mean K(+)MBs were significantly higher in the 8-h sessions (4 h: -88.4 ± 23.2 SD mmol versus 8 h: -101.9 ± 32.2 mmol; P = 0.02). Bivariate linear regression analyses showed that only mean plasma K(+), area under the curve (AUC) of the hourly inlet dialyser diffusion concentration gradient of K(+) (hcgAUCK(+)) and AUC of blood bicarbonates and mean blood bicarbonates were significantly related to K(+)MB in both 4- and 8-h sessions. A multiple linear regression output with K(+)MB as dependent variable showed that only mean plasma K(+), hcgAUCK(+) and duration of HD sessions per se remained statistically significant. Study B: mean K(+)MBs were -86.7 ± 22.6 mmol

  4. Inter-comparison of ice sheet mass balance products from GRACE: ESA CCI Round Robin results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, A.; Horwath, M.; Horvath, A.

    -term satellite-based data products are generated for selected ECVs. Since ice sheet mass balance is an ECV parameter of highest interest, both the AIS_cci and the GIS_cci project will provide mass balance products based on satellite gravimetry data: (a) time series of monthly mass changes for individual drainage...... basins, and (b) gridded mass changes covering the entire ice sheet.Gravimetry Mass Balance (GMB) products are derived from data acquired by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission. Although GRACE data have the advantage of being directly sensitive to mass changes, their limited...... drainage basins the GMB time series are compared to independent mass balance products based on satellite altimetry and firn densification information from a regional climate model. This inter-comparison has aided the algorithm definition for the operational ECV production....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; Francis H. Chappelle; Tom O. Early; Claire H. Sink


    Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and enhanced attenuation (EA) are two environmental management strategies that rely on a variety of attenuation processes to degrade or immobilize contaminants and are implemented at appropriate sites by demonstrating that contaminant plumes have low risk and are stable or shrinking. The concept of a mass balance between the loading and attenuation of contaminants in a groundwater system is a powerful framework for conceptualizing and documenting the relative stability of a contaminant plume. As a result, this concept has significant potential to support appropriate implementation of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and enhanced attenuation (EA). For mass balance to be useful in engineering practice, however, it is necessary to quantify it in practical ways that facilitate overall site remediation and which are consistent with existing regulatory guidance. Two divergent philosophies exist for quantifying plume stability--empirical and deterministic. The first relies on historical contaminant concentration data and bulk geochemical information from a monitoring well network and documents plume stability using trend analysis and statistical tools. This empirical approach, when feasible, provides powerful and compelling documentation of plume behavior and mass balance. It provides an interpretation on a relevant scale under field conditions. It integrates the operative attenuation processes measured by observing their actual impact on the plume. The power of the empirical approach was recognized early in the development of MNA guidance and protocols and it is currently the basis of the three lines of evidence used in MNA studies. The empirical approach has some weaknesses, however. It requires a relatively long period of undisturbed historical data. Thus it cannot be effectively applied to sites where active remediation was initiated quickly and is currently operating. It cannot be used as a tool to determine how much source

  6. Determination of Interannual to Decadal Changes in Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Busalacchi, Antonioa J. (Technical Monitor)


    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the +/- 25% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to +/- 2 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. Although the overall ice mass balance and seasonal and inter-annual variations can be derived from time-series of ice surface elevations from satellite altimetry, satellite radar altimeters have been limited in spatial coverage and elevation accuracy. Nevertheless, new data analysis shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. In addition, observed seasonal and interannual variations in elevation demonstrate the potential for relating the variability in mass balance to changes in precipitation, temperature, and melting. From 2001, NASA's ICESat laser altimeter mission will provide significantly better elevation accuracy and spatial coverage to 86 deg latitude and to the margins of the ice sheets. During 3 to 5 years of ICESat-1 operation, an estimate of the overall ice sheet mass balance and sea level contribution will be obtained. The importance of continued ice monitoring after the first ICESat is illustrated by the variability in the area of Greenland surface melt observed over 17-years and its correlation with temperature. In addition, measurement of ice sheet changes, along with measurements of sea level change by a series of ocean altimeters, should enable direct detection of ice level and global sea level correlations.

  7. Comparison of direct and geodetic mass balances on a multi-annual time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fischer


    Full Text Available The geodetic mass balances of six Austrian glaciers over 19 periods between 1953 and 2006 are compared to the direct mass balances over the same periods. For two glaciers, Hintereisferner and Kesselwandferner, case studies showing possible reasons for discrepancies between the geodetic and the direct mass balance are presented. The mean annual geodetic mass balance for all periods is −0.5 m w.e. a−1, the mean annual direct mass balance −0.4 m w.e. a−1. The mean cumulative difference is −0.6 m w.e., the minimum −7.3 m w.e., and the maximum 5.6 m w.e. The accuracy of geodetic mass balance may depend on the accuracy of the DEMs, which ranges from 2 m w.e. for photogrammetric data to 0.02 m w.e. for airborne laser scanning (LiDAR data. Basal melt, seasonal snow cover, and density changes of the surface layer also contribute up to 0.7 m w.e. to the difference between the two methods over the investigated period of 10 yr. On Hintereisferner, the fraction of area covered by snow or firn has been changing within 1953–2006. The accumulation area is not identical with the firn area, and both are not coincident with areas of volume gain. Longer periods between the acquisition of the DEMs do not necessarily result in a higher accuracy of the geodetic mass balance. Trends in the difference between the direct and the geodetic data vary from glacier to glacier and can differ systematically for specific glaciers under specific types of climate forcing. Ultimately, geodetic and direct mass balance data are complementary, and great care must be taken when attempting to combine them.

  8. Modelled and observed mass balance of Rikha Samba Glacier, Nepal, Central Himalaya (United States)

    Gurung, T. R.; Kayastha, R. B.; Fujita, K.; Sinisalo, A. K.; Stumm, D.; Joshi, S.; Litt, M.


    Glacier mass balance variability has an implication for the regional water resources and it helps to understand the response of glacier to climate change in the Himalayan region. Several mass balance studies have been started in the Himalayan region since 1970s, but they are characterized by frequent temporal gaps and a poor spatial representatively. This study aims at bridging the temporal gaps in a long term mass balance series of the Rikha Samba glacier (5383 - 6475 m a.s.l.), a benchmark glacier located in the Hidden Valley, Mustang, Nepal. The ERA Interim reanalysis data for the period 2011-2015 is calibrated with the observed meteorological variables from an AWS installed near the glacier terminus. We apply an energy mass balance model, validated with the available in-situ measurements for the years 1998 and 2011-2015. The results show that the glacier is shrinking at a moderate negative mass balance rate for the period 1995 to 2015 and the high altitude location of Rikha Samba also prevents a bigger mass loss compared to other small Himalayan glaciers. Precipitation from July to January and the mean air temperature from June to October are the most influential climatic parameters of the annual mass balance variability of Rikha Samba glacier.

  9. Moisture and drug solid-state monitoring during a continuous drying process using empirical and mass balance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Gildemyn, Delphine; Peeters, Elisabeth


    of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools (Raman and NIR spectroscopy) and a mass balance approach. The six-segmented fluid bed drying system being part of a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line (ConsiGma™-25) was used for this study. A theophylline:lactose:PVP (30:67.5:2.5) blend......, the different size fractions of the dried granules obtained during different experiments (fines, yield and oversized granules) were compared separately, revealing differences in both solid state of theophylline and moisture content between the different granule size fractions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights...... reserved...

  10. Stable Isotope Mass Balance of the Laurentian Great Lakes to Constrain Evaporative Losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasechko, S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario and Alberta Innovates, Technology Futures, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Gibson, J. J. [Canada Alberta Innovates, Technology Futures, Victoria, British Columbia and Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Pietroniro, A. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Edwards, T.W D. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)


    Evaporation is an important yet poorly constrained component of the water budget of the Laurentian Great Lakes, but is known historically to have a significant impact on regional climate, including enhanced humidity and downwind lake effect precipitation. Sparse over lake climate monitoring continues to limit ability to quantify bulk lake evaporation and precipitation rates by physical measurements, impeded by logistical difficulties and costs of instrumenting large areas of open water (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} km2). Measurements of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water samples of precipitation and surface waters within the great lakes basin are used to better understand the controls on the region's water cycle. A stable isotope mass balance approach to calculate long term evaporation as a proportion of input to each lake is discussed. The approach capitalizes on the well understood systematic isotopic separation of an evaporating water body, but includes added considerations for internal recycling of evaporated moisture in the overlying atmosphere that should be incorporated for surface waters sufficiently large to significantly influence surrounding climate. (author)

  11. Delineating spring recharge areas in a fractured sandstone aquifer (Luxembourg) based on pesticide mass balance (United States)

    Farlin, J.; Drouet, L.; Gallé, T.; Pittois, D.; Bayerle, M.; Braun, C.; Maloszewski, P.; Vanderborght, J.; Elsner, M.; Kies, A.


    A simple method to delineate the recharge areas of a series of springs draining a fractured aquifer is presented. Instead of solving the flow and transport equations, the delineation is reformulated as a mass balance problem assigning arable land in proportion to the pesticide mass discharged annually in a spring at minimum total transport cost. The approach was applied to the Luxembourg Sandstone, a fractured-rock aquifer supplying half of the drinking water for Luxembourg, using the herbicide atrazine. Predictions of the recharge areas were most robust in situations of strong competition by neighbouring springs while the catchment boundaries for isolated springs were extremely sensitive to the parameter controlling flow direction. Validation using a different pesticide showed the best agreement with the simplest model used, whereas using historical crop-rotation data and spatially distributed soil-leaching data did not improve predictions. The whole approach presents the advantage of integrating objectively information on land use and pesticide concentration in spring water into the delineation of groundwater recharge zones in a fractured-rock aquifer.

  12. Reconstructing mass balance of Garabashi Glacier (1800–2005 using dendrochronological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolgova


    Full Text Available The exploration whether tree-ring data can be effectually applied for the mass balance reconstruction in Caucasus was the main goal of this research. Tree-ring width and maximum density chronologies of pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at seven high-elevation sites in Northern Caucasus were explored for this purpose. As well as in other places of the temperate zone tree- ring width has complex climate signal controlled both temperature and precipitation. Instrumental mass balance records of Garabashi Gglacier started at 1983s. It is well known that Caucasus glaciers intensively retreat in the last decades and according to instrumental data mass balance variations are mostly controlled by the ablation, i.e. summer temperature variations. Maximum density chronology has statistically significant correlation with mass balance due to summer temperature sensitivity and great input of ablation to total mass balance variations. To include in our reconstruction different climatically sensitive parameters, stepwise multiple regression model was used. The strongest relation (r = 0.88; r2 = 0.78; p < 0.05 between two ring-width and one maximum density chronologies was identified. Cross-validation test (r = 0.79; r2 = 0.62; p < 0.05 confirmed model adequacy and it allowed to reconstruct Garabashi Glacier mass balance for 1800–2005ss. Reconstructed and instrumental mass balance values coincide well except the most recent period in 2000s, when the reconstructed mass balance slightly underestimated the real values. However even in this period it remained negative as well as the instrumental records. The bias can be explained by the weak sensitivity of the chronologies to winter precipitation (i.e. accumulation. The tree-ring based mass balance reconstruction was compared with one based on meteorological data (since 1905s. Both reconstructions have good interannual agreement (r = 0.53; p < 0.05 particularly for the period between 1975 and 2005. According to the

  13. Remote Sensing Estimates of Glacier Mass Balance Changes in the Himalayas of Nepal (United States)

    Ambinakudige, S.; Joshi, K.


    Mass balance changes of glaciers are important indicators of climate change. There are only 30 'reference' glaciers in the world that have continuous mass balance data with world glacier monitoring service since 1976. Especially, Himalayan glaciers are conspicuously absent from global mass balance records. This shows the urgent need for mass balance data for glaciers throughout the world. In this study, we estimated mass balance of some major glaciers in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) in Nepal using remote sensing applications. The SNP is one of the densest glaciated regions in the Himalayan range consisting approximately 296 glacial lakes. The region has experienced several glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) in recent years, causing extensive damage to local infrastructure and loss of human life. In general, mass balance is determined at seasonal or yearly intervals. Because of the rugged and difficult terrain of the Himalayan region, there are only a few field based measurements of mass balance available. Moreover, there are only few cases where the applications of remote sensing methods were used to calculate mass balance of the Himalayan glaciers due to the lack of accurate elevation data. Studies have shown that estimations of mass balance using remote sensing applications were within the range of field-based mass balance measurements from the same period. This study used ASTER VNIR, 3N (nadir view) and 3B (backward view) bands to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the SNP area. 3N and 3B bands generate an along track stereo pair with a base-to-height (B/H) ratio of about 0.6. Accurate measurement of ground control points (GCPs), their numbers and distribution are important inputs in creating accurate DEMs. Because of the availability of topographic maps for this area, we were able to provide very accurate GCPs, in sufficient numbers and distribution. We created DEMs for the years 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005 using ENVI DEM extraction tool. Bands

  14. Radar Interferometry Studies of the Mass Balance of Polar Ice Sheets (United States)

    Rignot, Eric (Editor)


    The objectives of this work are to determine the current state of mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Our approach combines different techniques, which include satellite synthetic-aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), radar and laser altimetry, radar ice sounding, and finite-element modeling. In Greenland, we found that 3.5 times more ice flows out of the northern part of the Greenland Ice Sheet than previously accounted for. The discrepancy between current and past estimates is explained by extensive basal melting of the glacier floating sections in the proximity of the grounding line where the glacier detaches from its bed and becomes afloat in the ocean. The inferred basal melt rates are very large, which means that the glaciers are very sensitive to changes in ocean conditions. Currently, it appears that the northern Greenland glaciers discharge more ice than is being accumulated in the deep interior, and hence are thinning. Studies of temporal changes in grounding line position using InSAR confirm the state of retreat of northern glaciers and suggest that thinning is concentrated at the lower elevations. Ongoing work along the coast of East Greenland reveals an even larger mass deficit for eastern Greenland glaciers, with thinning affecting the deep interior of the ice sheet. In Antarctica, we found that glaciers flowing into a large ice shelf system, such as the Ronne Ice Shelf in the Weddell Sea, exhibit an ice discharge in remarkable agreement with mass accumulation in the interior, and the glacier grounding line positions do not migrate with time. Glaciers flowing rapidly into the Amudsen Sea, unrestrained by a major ice shelf, are in contrast discharging more ice than required to maintain a state of mass balance and are thinning quite rapidly near the coast. The grounding line of Pine Island glacier (see diagram) retreated 5 km in 4 years, which corresponds to a glacier thinning rate of 3.5 m/yr. Mass imbalance is even more negative

  15. Chloride Transport in Heterogeneous Formation (United States)

    Mukherjee, A.; Holt, R. M.


    The chloride mass balance (CMB) is a commonly-used method for estimating groundwater recharge. Observations of the vertical distribution of pore-water chloride are related to the groundwater infiltration rates (i.e. recharge rates). In CMB method, the chloride distribution is attributed mainly to the assumption of one dimensional piston flow. In many places, however, the vertical distribution of chloride will be influenced by heterogeneity, leading to horizontal movement of infiltrating waters. The impact of heterogeneity will be particularly important when recharge is locally focused. When recharge is focused in an area, horizontal movement of chloride-bearing waters, coupled with upward movement driven by evapotranspiration, may lead to chloride bulges that could be misinterpreted if the CMB method is used to estimate recharge. We numerically simulate chloride transport and evaluate the validity of the CMB method in highly heterogeneous systems. This simulation is conducted for the unsaturated zone of Ogallala, Antlers, and Gatuna (OAG) formations in Andrews County, Texas. A two dimensional finite element model will show the movement of chloride through heterogeneous systems. We expect to see chloride bulges not only close to the surface but also at depths characterized by horizontal or upward movement. A comparative study of focused recharge estimates in this study with available recharge data will be presented.

  16. Analysis of High Resolution Satellite imagery to acsees Glacier Mass Balance and Lake Hazards in Sikkim Himalayas (United States)

    Bhushan, S.; Shean, D. E.; Haritashya, U. K.; Arendt, A. A.; Syed, T. H.; Setiawan, L.


    Glacial lake outburst floods can impact downstream communities due to the sudden outflux of huge quantities of stored water. In this study, we develop a hazard assessment of the moraine dammed glacial lakes in Sikkim Himalayas by analyzing the morphometry of proglacial features, and the surface velocity and mass balance of glaciers. We generated high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) using the open-source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) and use other open-source tools to calculate surface velocity and patterns of glacier downwasting over time. Geodetic glacier mass balance is obtained for three periods using high-resolution WorldView/GeoEye stereo DEMs (8 m posting, 2014-2016), Cartosat-1 stereo DEMs (10 m, 2006-2008) and SRTM (30 m, 2000). Initial results reveal a region-wide mass balance of -0.31±0.13 m w.eq.a-1 for the 2007-2015 period, with some debris covered glaciers showing a very low mass loss rate. Additionally, 12 annual glacier velocity fields spanning from 1991 to 2017.derived from Landsat imagery are used to explore the relationship between glacier dynamics and changes in proglacial lakes. Multi-temporal glacial lake mapping is conducted using Landsat and Cartosat imagery. Avalanche and rockfall modeling are combined with morphometric analysis of the proglacial lake area to assess the likelihood of glacial lake dam failure. The above parameters are integrated into a decision tree approach enabling categorization of moraine-dammed lakes according to their potential for outburst events.

  17. Performance of the Fuel Conditioning Facility electronic in-cell mass balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orechwa, Y.; Bucher, R.G.


    An approach to error estimation and measurement control in the analysis of the balance measurements of mass standards on the in-cell electronic mass balances of the Fuel Conditioning Facility is presented. In light of measurement data from one year of operation, the algorithms proposed are evaluated. The need to take into account the effects of facility operations on the estimates of measurement uncertainty is demonstrated. In the case of a newly installed balance, where no historical data exists, an ad hoc procedure of adding a term which takes into account the operational variability is proposed. This procedure allows a sufficiently long operation so as to collect data for the estimate of the contribution of operational effects to the uncertainty estimate. An algorithm for systematically taking into account historical data is developed and demonstrated for two balances over two calibration periods. The algorithm, both asymptotically and in the two samples cases, has the necessary desirable properties for estimating the uncertainty in the measurements of the balances

  18. The mass balance of soil evolution on late Quaternary marine terraces, northern California (United States)

    Merritts, Dorothy J.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Hendricks, David M.; Brimhall, George H.; Lewis, Christopher J.


    Mass-balance interpretation of a soil chronosequence provides a means of quantifying elemental addition, removal, and transformation that occur in soils from a flight of marine terraces in northern California. Six soil profiles that range in age from several to 240,000 yr are developed in unconsolidated, sandy-marine, and eolian parent material deposited on bedrock marine platforms. Soil evolution is dominated by (1) open-system depletion of Si, Ca, Mg, K, and Na; (2) open-system enrichment of P in surface soil horizons; (3) relative immobility of Fe and Al; and (4) transformation of Fe, Si, and Al in the parent material to secondary clay minerals and sesquioxides. Net mass losses of bases and Si are generally uniform with depth and substantial, in some cases approaching 100 percent; however, the rate of loss of each element differs markedly, causing the ranking of each by relative abundance to shift with time. Loss of Si from the sand fraction by dissolution and particle-size diminution, from about 100 percent to less than 35 percent over 240 ky, mirrors a similar gain in the silt and clay size fractions. The Fe originally present in the sand fraction decreases from greater than 80 percent to less than 10 percent, whereas the amount of Fe present in the clay and crystalline oxyhydroxide fractions increases to 25 percent and 70 percent, respectively.

  19. A heuristic simulation model of Lake Ontario circulation and mass balance transport (United States)

    McKenna, J.E.; Chalupnicki, M.A.


    The redistribution of suspended organisms and materials by large-scale currents is part of natural ecological processes in large aquatic systems but can contribute to ecosystem disruption when exotic elements are introduced into the system. Toxic compounds and planktonic organisms spend various lengths of time in suspension before settling to the bottom or otherwise being removed. We constructed a simple physical simulation model, including the influence of major tributaries, to qualitatively examine circulation patterns in Lake Ontario. We used a simple mass balance approach to estimate the relative water input to and export from each of 10 depth regime-specific compartments (nearshore vs. offshore) comprising Lake Ontario. Despite its simplicity, our model produced circulation patterns similar to those reported by more complex studies in the literature. A three-gyre pattern, with the classic large counterclockwise central lake circulation, and a simpler two-gyre system were both observed. These qualitative simulations indicate little offshore transport along the south shore, except near the mouths of the Niagara River and Oswego River. Complex flow structure was evident, particularly near the Niagara River mouth and in offshore waters of the eastern basin. Average Lake Ontario residence time is 8 years, but the fastest model pathway indicated potential transport of plankton through the lake in as little as 60 days. This simulation illustrates potential invasion pathways and provides rough estimates of planktonic larval dispersal or chemical transport among nearshore and offshore areas of Lake Ontario. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  20. Very fast isotopic and mass balance calculations used for strategic planing of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marguet, S.D.


    Owing to the prevalence in France of nuclear generated electricity, the french utility, EDF focuses much research on fuel cycle strategy. In this context, analysis of scenarios combining problems related to planning and economics, but also reactor physics, necessitate a relatively thorough understanding of fuel response to irradiation. The main purpose of the fuel strategy program codes is to predict mass balance modifications with time for the main actinides involved in the cycle, including the minor actinides associated with the current back end fuel cycle key issues. Considering the large number of calculations performed by a strategy code in an iterative process covering a range of about a hundred years, it was important to develop basic computation modules for both the ''reactor'' and ''fabrication'' items. These had to be high speed routines, but on an accuracy level compatible with the strategy code efficiency. At the end of 1992, the EDF Research and Development Division (EDF/DER) developed a very simple, extremely fast method of calculating transuranian isotope masses. This approach, which resulted in the STRAPONTIN software, considerably increased the scope of the EDF/DER fuel strategy code TIRELIRE without undue impairment of machine time requirements for a scenario. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  1. Isotopic mass balance of Manzala Lake as indicators of present and past hydrogeological processes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.W.M.


    Lakes are very important part of the aquatic ecosystem, which represent about 15% of the total commercial fishing areas in Egypt. Manzala lake is considered one of the largest lakes in Egypt. It is located in the north-eastern edge of the Nile delta and suffering from industrial and agricultural pollutions. The most serious source of pollution may be from Port Said and Damietta wastes, which dumped regularly into the lake. The main object of the present study is to investigate the hydrochemical and isotopic features of the lake waters and to compare the parameters deduced in the present and previous investigations in order to improve the current knowledge of the dynamic change during this time. The stable isotope (oxygen-18) component mass balance approach was used to find out the evaporation rate and the seepage from the groundwater to the lake. The data showed that the seepage rate from the groundwater to the lake was 305.54 x 106 m3/y (about 2% higher than previous study) since the amounts of drainage water became higher. The evaporation rate was 2185.844 x 106 m3/y (about 5% less than previous study). This is due to the reduction in the lake size. Although these rates are relatively small, yet they indicate an alarm for pollution propagation around the lake, which would increase with time

  2. Estimates of Ice Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry: Past and Future (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)


    A major uncertainty in predicting sea level rise is the sensitivity of ice sheet mass balance to climate change, as well as the uncertainty in present mass balance. Since the annual water exchange is about 8 mm of global sea level equivalent, the 20% uncertainty in current mass balance corresponds to 1.6 mm/yr in sea level change. Furthermore, estimates of the sensitivity of the mass balance to temperature change range from perhaps as much as - 10% to + 10% per K. A principal purpose of obtaining ice sheet elevation changes from satellite altimetry has been estimation of the current ice sheet mass balance. Limited information on ice sheet elevation change and their implications about mass balance have been reported by several investigators from radar altimetry (Seasat, Geosat, ERS-1&2). Analysis of ERS-1&2 data over Greenland for 7 years from 1992 to 1999 shows mixed patterns of ice elevation increases and decreases that are significant in terms of regional-scale mass balances. Observed seasonal and interannual variations in ice surface elevation are larger than previously expected because of seasonal and interannUal variations in precipitation, melting, and firn compaction. In the accumulation zone, the variations in firn compaction are modeled as a function of temperature leaving variations in precipitation and the mass balance trend. Significant interannual variations in elevation in some locations, in particular the difference in trends from 1992 to 1995 compared to 1995 to 1999, can be explained by changes in precipitation over Greenland. Over the 7 years, trends in elevation are mostly positive at higher elevations and negative at lower elevations. In addition, trends for the winter seasons (from a trend analysis through the average winter elevations) are more positive than the corresponding trends for the summer. At lower elevations, the 7-year trends in some locations are strongly negative for summer and near zero or slightly positive for winter. These

  3. Understanding the Role of Wind in Reducing the Surface Mass Balance Estimates over East Antarctica (United States)

    Das, I.; Scambos, T. A.; Koenig, L.; Creyts, T. T.; Bell, R. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Lenaerts, J.; Paden, J. D.


    Accurate quantification of surface snow-accumulation over Antarctica is important for mass balance estimates and climate studies based on ice core records. An improved estimate of surface mass balance must include the significant role near-surface wind plays in the sublimation and redistribution of snow across Antarctica. We have developed an empirical model based on airborne radar and lidar observations, and modeled surface mass balance and wind fields to produce a continent-wide prediction of wind-scour zones over Antarctica. These zones have zero to negative surface mass balance, are located over locally steep ice sheet areas (>0.002) and controlled by bedrock topography. The near-surface winds accelerate over these zones, eroding and sublimating the surface snow. This scouring results in numerous localized regions (≤ 200 km2) with reduced surface accumulation. Each year, tens of gigatons of snow on the Antarctic ice sheet are ablated by persistent near-surface katabatic winds over these wind-scour zones. Large uncertainties remain in the surface mass balance estimates over East Antarctica as climate models do not adequately represent the small-scale physical processes that lead to mass loss through sublimation or redistribution over the wind-scour zones. In this study, we integrate Operation IceBridge's snow radar over the Recovery Ice Stream with a series of ice core dielectric and depth-density profiles for improved surface mass balance estimates that reflect the mass loss over the wind-scour zones. Accurate surface mass balance estimates from snow radars require spatially variable depth-density profiles. Using an ensemble of firn cores, MODIS-derived surface snow grain size, modeled accumulation rates and surface temperatures from RACMO2, we assemble spatially variable depth-density profiles and use our mapping of snow density variations to estimate layer mass and net accumulation rates from snow radar layer data. Our study improves the quantification of

  4. Incorrectly Interpreting the Carbon Mass Balance Technique Leads to Biased Emissions Estimates from Global Vegetation Fires (United States)

    Surawski, N. C.; Sullivan, A. L.; Roxburgh, S. H.; Meyer, M.; Polglase, P. J.


    Vegetation fires are a complex phenomenon and have a range of global impacts including influences on climate. Even though fire is a necessary disturbance for the maintenance of some ecosystems, a range of anthropogenically deleterious consequences are associated with it, such as damage to assets and infrastructure, loss of life, as well as degradation to air quality leading to negative impacts on human health. Estimating carbon emissions from fire relies on a carbon mass balance technique which has evolved with two different interpretations in the fire emissions community. Databases reporting global fire emissions estimates use an approach based on `consumed biomass' which is an approximation to the biogeochemically correct `burnt carbon' approach. Disagreement between the two methods occurs because the `consumed biomass' accounting technique assumes that all burnt carbon is volatilized and emitted. By undertaking a global review of the fraction of burnt carbon emitted to the atmosphere, we show that the `consumed biomass' accounting approach overestimates global carbon emissions by 4.0%, or 100 Teragrams, annually. The required correction is significant and represents 9% of the net global forest carbon sink estimated annually. To correctly partition burnt carbon between that emitted to the atmosphere and that remaining as a post-fire residue requires the post-burn carbon content to be estimated, which is quite often not undertaken in atmospheric emissions studies. To broaden our understanding of ecosystem carbon fluxes, it is recommended that the change in carbon content associated with burnt residues be accounted for. Apart from correctly partitioning burnt carbon between the emitted and residue pools, it enables an accounting approach which can assess the efficacy of fire management operations targeted at sequestering carbon from fire. These findings are particularly relevant for the second commitment period for the Kyoto protocol, since improved landscape fire

  5. Mass-balance measurements in Alaska and suggestions for simplified observation programs (United States)

    Trabant, D.C.; March, R.S.


    US Geological Survey glacier fieldwork in Alaska includes repetitious measurements, corrections for leaning or bending stakes, an ability to reliably measure seasonal snow as deep as 10 m, absolute identification of summer surfaces in the accumulation area, and annual evaluation of internal accumulation, internal ablation, and glacier-thickness changes. Prescribed field measurement and note-taking techniques help eliminate field errors and expedite the interpretative process. In the office, field notes are transferred to computerized spread-sheets for analysis, release on the World Wide Web, and archival storage. The spreadsheets have error traps to help eliminate note-taking and transcription errors. Rigorous error analysis ends when mass-balance measurements are extrapolated and integrated with area to determine glacier and basin mass balances. Unassessable errors in the glacier and basin mass-balance data reduce the value of the data set for correlations with climate change indices. The minimum glacier mass-balance program has at least three measurement sites on a glacier and the measurements must include the seasonal components of mass balance as well as the annual balance.

  6. Geochemical mass balance for sulfur- and nitrogen-bearing acid components: Eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischoff, W.D.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Paterson, V.L.


    The impact on a geographical region of SO 2 and nitrogen oxides (NO /SUB x/ ) emissions to the atmosphere because of man's activities (e.g., burning of fossil fuels and smelting of sulfide ores) usually has not been considered in terms of a regional geochemical mass balance model. Mass balance models, however, have been employed extensively on a global scale. The models evaluate reservoir sizes, processes and fluxes associated with the transfer of a substance within a system of interest. The models may be steady- or transient-state, and include assessment of historical (geologic), present and future data and processes. In this chapter a geochemical mass balance model is applied to constituents of acid precipitation (H + , NO - 3 and SO 2- ) to evaluate the impact of acid precipitation on the eastern United States

  7. Antarctic Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Ice Sheet Mass Balance using GRACE: A Report from the Ice-sheet Mass Balance Exercise (IMBIE) (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; Wahr, J. M.; Schrama, E. J.; Milne, G. A.; Barletta, V.; Horwath, M.; Whitehouse, P.


    In preparation for the Inter-govermental Panel on Climate Change: Assessment Report 5 (IPCC AR5), ESA and NASA have formed a committee of experts to perform a formal set of comparative experiments concerning space observations of ice sheet mass balance. This project began in August of 2011 and has now concluded with a report submitted for Science (Shepherd et al., 2012). The focus of the work conducted is to re-evaluate scientific reports on the mass balance of Greenland ice sheet (GIS) and Antarctic ice sheet (AIS). The most serious discrepancies have been reported for the AIS, amounting to as much as 0.9 mm/yr in discrepant sea level contribution. A direct method of determining the AIS is by space gravimetry. However, for this method to contribute to our understanding of sea level change, we require knowledge of present-day non-elastic vertical movements of bedrock in Antarctica. Quantifying the uncertainty and bias caused by lack of observational control on models of regional glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), was a major focus for our experiments. This regional process is the most problematic error source for GRACE-determinations of ice mass balance in Antarctica. While GIA likely dominates some large vertical motions in Antarctica that are now observed with GPS (Thomas et al., 2011, GRL), interpretations still require models. The reported uncertainty for space gravimetric (GRACE) based sea level sourcing is roughly 0.20 to 0.35 mm/yr. The uncertainty is also part of the error budget for mass balances derived from altimetry measurements, though at a much lower level. Analysis of the GRACE time series using CSR RL04 (2003.0-2010.10) for AIS mass balance reveals a small trend of order +1 to -24 Gt/yr without a GIA correction. Three periods were selected over which to perform inter-comparisons (see Table). One class of GIA models, that relies primarily on far field sea level reconstructions (e.g. ICE-5G), provide a GIA correction that places AIS mass imbalance (

  8. The mass balance of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miloud, S.; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Wan Ramli Wan Daud


    A Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), operating at low temperature uses a simple chemical process to combine hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electric current and heat during the electrochemical reaction. This work concern on the theoretical consideration of the mass balance has been evaluated to predict the mass flow rate of the both gases (hydrogen/oxygen), the water mass balance, and the heat transfer in order to design a single cell PEMFC stack with a better flow field distributor on the performance of Polymer Electrolyte membrane fuel cells

  9. Can we close the long term mass balance equation for pollutants in highway ponds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Rasmussen, Michael R.


    The paper discusses the prospects of finding the long term mass balance on basis of short term simulations. A step in this process is to see to which degree the mass balance equation can be closed by measurements. Accordingly the total accumulation of heavy metals and PAH's in 8 Danish detention...... ponds only receiving runoff from highways have been measured. The result shows that the incoming mass of heavy metals from short term runoff events is accumulated. This is not observable in the same magnitude for the toxic organic compounds. The results also show that the accumulation rates...

  10. Diagnosing the decline in climatic mass balance of glaciers in Svalbard over 1957-2014 (United States)

    Ims Østby, Torbjørn; Vikhamar Schuler, Thomas; Ove Hagen, Jon; Hock, Regine; Kohler, Jack; Reijmer, Carleen H.


    Estimating the long-term mass balance of the high-Arctic Svalbard archipelago is difficult due to the incomplete geodetic and direct glaciological measurements, both in space and time. To close these gaps, we use a coupled surface energy balance and snow pack model to analyse the mass changes of all Svalbard glaciers for the period 1957-2014. The model is forced by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, downscaled to 1 km resolution. The model is validated using snow/firn temperature and density measurements, mass balance from stakes and ice cores, meteorological measurements, snow depths from radar profiles and remotely sensed surface albedo and skin temperatures. Overall model performance is good, but it varies regionally. Over the entire period the model yields a climatic mass balance of 8.2 cm w. e. yr-1, which corresponds to a mass input of 175 Gt. Climatic mass balance has a linear trend of -1.4 ± 0.4 cm w. e. yr-2 with a shift from a positive to a negative regime around 1980. Modelled mass balance exhibits large interannual variability, which is controlled by summer temperatures and further amplified by the albedo feedback. For the recent period 2004-2013 climatic mass balance was -21 cm w. e. yr-1, and accounting for frontal ablation estimated by Błaszczyk et al.(2009) yields a total Svalbard mass balance of -39 cm w. e. yr-1 for this 10-year period. In terms of eustatic sea level, this corresponds to a rise of 0.037 mm yr-1. Refreezing of water in snow and firn is substantial at 22 cm w. e. yr-1 or 26 % of total annual accumulation. However, as warming leads to reduced firn area over the period, refreezing decreases both absolutely and relative to the total accumulation. Negative mass balance and elevated equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) resulted in massive reduction of the thick (> 2 m) firn extent and an increase in the superimposed ice, thin (ice extents. Atmospheric warming also leads to a marked change in the thermal regime, with cooling of the

  11. Sensitivity of a Chemical Mass Balance model for PM2.5 to source profiles for differing styles of cooking (United States)

    Abdullahi, K. L.; Delgado-Saborit, J. M.; Harrison, Roy M.


    Use of a Chemical Mass Balance model is one of the two most commonly used approaches to estimating atmospheric concentrations of cooking aerosol. Such models require the input of chemical profiles for each of the main sources contributing to particulate matter mass and there is appreciable evidence from the literature that not only the mass emission but also the chemical composition of particulate matter varies according to the food being prepared and the style of cooking. In this study, aerosol has been sampled in the laboratory from four different styles of cooking, i.e. Indian, Chinese, Western and African cooking. The chemical profiles of molecular markers have been quantified and are used individually within a Chemical Mass Balance model applied to air samples collected in a multi-ethnic area of Birmingham, UK. The model results give a source contribution estimate for cooking aerosol which is consistent with other comparable UK studies, but also shows a very low sensitivity of the model to the cooking aerosol profile utilised. A survey of local restaurants suggested a wide range of cooking styles taking place which may explain why no one profile gives an appreciably better fit in the CMB model.

  12. Nitrogen losses from dairy manure estimated through nitrogen mass balance and chemical markers (United States)

    Hristov, Alexander N.; Zaman, S.; Vander Pol, M.; Ndegwa, P.; Campbell, L.; Silva, S.


    Ammonia is an important air and water pollutant, but the spatial variation in its concentrations presents technical difficulties in accurate determination of ammonia emissions from animal feeding operations. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between ammonia volatilization and ??15N of dairy manure and the feasibility of estimating ammonia losses from a dairy facility using chemical markers. In Exp. 1, the N/P ratio in manure decreased by 30% in 14 d as cumulative ammonia losses increased exponentially. Delta 15N of manure increased throughout the course of the experiment and ??15N of emitted ammonia increased (p < 0.001) quadratically from -31??? to -15 ???. The relationship between cumulative ammonia losses and ??15N of manure was highly significant (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76). In Exp. 2, using a mass balance approach, approximately half of the N excreted by dairy cows (Bos taurus) could not be accounted for in 24 h. Using N/P and N/K ratios in fresh and 24-h manure, an estimated 0.55 and 0.34 (respectively) of the N excreted with feces and urine could not be accounted for. This study demonstrated that chemical markers (P, K) can be successfully used to estimate ammonia losses from cattle manure. The relationship between manure ??15N and cumulative ammonia loss may also be useful for estimating ammonia losses. Although promising, the latter approach needs to be further studied and verified in various experimental conditions and in the field. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Secondary effects of anion exchange on chloride, sulfate, and lead release: systems approach to corrosion control. (United States)

    Willison, Hillary; Boyer, Treavor H


    Water treatment processes can cause secondary changes in water chemistry that alter finished water quality including chloride, sulfate, natural organic matter (NOM), and metal release. Hence, the goal of this research was to provide an improved understanding of the chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) with regards to chloride and sulfate variations at full-scale water treatment plants and corrosion potential under simulated premise plumbing conditions. Laboratory corrosion studies were conducted using Pb-Sn solder/Cu tubing galvanic cells exposed to model waters with low (approx. 5 mg/L Cl(-) and 10 mg/L SO(4)(2-)) and high (approx. 50 mg/L Cl(-) and 100 mg/L SO(4)(2-)) concentrations of chloride and sulfate at a constant CSMR of ≈ 0.5. The role of NOM during corrosion was also evaluated by changing the type of organic material. In addition, full-scale sampling was conducted to quantify the raw water variability of chloride, sulfate, and NOM concentrations and the changes to these parameters from magnetic ion exchange treatment. Test conditions with higher concentrations of chloride and sulfate released significantly more lead than the lower chloride and sulfate test waters. In addition, the source of NOM was a key factor in the amount of lead released with the model organic compounds yielding significantly less lead release than aquatic NOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Water vapor mass balance method for determining air infiltration rates in houses (United States)

    David R. DeWalle; Gordon M. Heisler


    A water vapor mass balance technique that includes the use of common humidity-control equipment can be used to determine average air infiltration rates in buildings. Only measurements of the humidity inside and outside the home, the mass of vapor exchanged by a humidifier/dehumidifier, and the volume of interior air space are needed. This method gives results that...

  15. Basin-scale partitioning of Greenland ice sheet mass balance components (2007-2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.L.; Stenseng, Lars; Skourup, Henriette


    The current deficit in Greenland ice sheet mass balance is due to both a decrease in surface mass balance (SMB) input and an increase in ice discharge (D) output. While SMB processes are beginning to be well captured by observationally-constrained climate modeling, insight into D is relatively...... of the gate. Using a 1961-1990 reference climatology SMB field from the MAR regional climate model, we quantify ice sheet mass balance within eighteen basins. We find a 2007-2011 mean D of 515±57 Gtyr-1. We find a 2007-2011 mean total mass balance of -262±21 Gtyr-1, which is equal to a 0.73 mm yr-1 global sea...... limited. We use InSAR-derived velocities, in combination with ice thickness observations, to quantify the mass flux (F) across a flux perimeter around the ice sheet at ~1700 m elevation. To quantify D, we correct F for SMB, as well as changes in volume due to ice dynamics, in the area downstream...

  16. Higher surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by high - resolution climate modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Janneke; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Box, Jason E.; Bales, Roger C.


    High‐resolution (∼11 km) regional climate modeling shows total annual precipitation on the Greenland ice sheet for 1958–2007 to be up to 24% and surface mass balance up to 63% higher than previously thought. The largest differences occur in coastal southeast Greenland, where the much higher

  17. Monthly solutions of ice sheet mass balance at basin scale – and their associated uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Forsberg, René


    There are still discrepancies in published ice sheet mass balance results, even between ones based on the same data sets. It can be difficult to conclude from where the discrepancies arise, and it is therefore important to cross calibrate methods, data and models in order to determine...

  18. Mass-Balance Constraints on Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Seagrass Beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erftemeijer, P.L.A.; Middelburg, J.J.


    A relatively simple mass balance model is presented to study the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in tropical seagrass beds. The model is based on quantitative data on nutrient availability, seagrass primary production, community oxygen metabolism, seagrass tissue nutrient contents,

  19. Exploring uncertainty in glacier mass balance modelling with Monte Carlo simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machguth, H.; Purves, R.S.; Oerlemans, J.; Hoelzle, M.; Paul, F.


    By means of Monte Carlo simulations we calculated uncertainty in modelled cumulative mass balance over 400 days at one particular point on the tongue of Morteratsch Glacier, Switzerland, using a glacier energy balance model of intermediate complexity. Before uncertainty assessment, the model was

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.


    The purpose of these calculations is to develop the material balances for documentation of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and future reference. The attached mass balances were prepared to support revision two of the PFD for the CSB. The calculations refer to diagram H-2-825869

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KLEM, M.J.


    The purpose of this calculation document is to develop the bases for the material balances of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Level 1 Process Flow Diagram (PFD). The attached mass balances support revision two of the PFD for the MCO and provide future reference

  2. Mass Balance Model, A study of contamination effects in AMS 14C sample analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopiou, Markella


    In this training thesis a background correction analysis, also known as mass balance model, was implemented to study the contamination effects in AMS 14C sample processing. A variety of backgrounds and standards with sizes ranging from 50 μg C to 1500 μg

  3. Diagnosing the decline in climatic mass balance of glaciers in Svalbard over 1957–2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Østby, T.I.; Schuler, T.V.; Hagen, J.O.; Hock, Regine; Kohler, J.; Reijmer, C.H.


    Estimating the long-term mass balance of the high-Arctic Svalbard archipelago is difficult due to the incomplete geodetic and direct glaciological measurements, both in space and time. To close these gaps, we use a coupled surface energy balance and snow pack model to analyse the mass changes of all

  4. Hybrid inventory, gravimetry and altimetry (HIGA) mass balance product for Greenland and the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colgan, W.; Abdalati, W.; Citterio, M.


    We present a novel inversion algorithm that generates a mass balance field that is simultaneously consistent with independent observations of glacier inventory derived from optical imagery, cryosphere-attributed mass trends derived from satellite gravimetry, and ice surface elevation trends derived...

  5. The pattern of anthropogenic signal emergence in Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.


    Surface mass balance (SMB) trends influence observed Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) mass loss, but the component of these trends related to anthropogenic forcing is unclear. Here we study the simulated spatial pattern of emergence of an anthropogenically derived GrIS SMB signal between 1850 and 2100

  6. Mass Balance. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook. (United States)

    Carnegie, John W.

    This module describes the process used to determine solids mass and location throughout a waste water treatment plant, explains how these values are used to determine the solids mass balance around single treatment units and the entire system, and presents calculations of solids in pounds and sludge units. The instructor's manual contains a…

  7. Transdermal administration of radiolabelled [14C]rotigotine by a patch formulation: A mass balance trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cawello, W.; Wolff, H.M.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Horstmann, R.; Braun, M.


    Background and objective: The dopamine agonist rotigotine has been formulated in a silicone-based transdermal system for once-daily administration. The objective of the present study was to characterise the mass balance of rotigotine in humans after administration of a single transdermal patch

  8. Future climate warming increases Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fyke, J.G.; Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.; Price, S.


    The integrated surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has large interannual variability. Long-term future changes to this variability will affect GrIS dynamics, freshwater fluxes, regional oceanography, and detection of changes in ice volume trends. Here we analyze a simulated

  9. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rae, J.G.L.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Edwards, T.L.; Fettweis, X.; Gregory, J.M.; Hewitt, H.T.; Lowe, J.A.; Lucas-Picher, P.; Mottram, R.H.; Payne, A.J.; Ridley, J.K.; Shannon, S.R.; van de Berg, W.J.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; van den Broeke, M.R.


    Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs) have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution

  10. Geodetic reanalysis of annual glaciological mass balances (2001-2011) of Hintereisferner, Austria (United States)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan Peter; Nicholson, Lindsey; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf; Stötter, Johann; Kaser, Georg


    This study presents a reanalysis of the glaciologically obtained annual glacier mass balances at Hintereisferner, Ötztal Alps, Austria, for the period 2001-2011. The reanalysis is accomplished through a comparison with geodetically derived mass changes, using annual high-resolution airborne laser scanning (ALS). The grid-based adjustments for the method-inherent differences are discussed along with associated uncertainties and discrepancies of the two methods of mass balance measurements. A statistical comparison of the two datasets shows no significant difference for seven annual, as well as the cumulative, mass changes over the 10-year record. Yet, the statistical view hides significant differences in the mass balance years 2002/03 (glaciological minus geodetic records = +0.92 m w.e.), 2005/06 (+0.60 m w.e.), and 2006/07 (-0.45 m w.e.). We conclude that exceptional meteorological conditions can render the usual glaciological observational network inadequate. Furthermore, we consider that ALS data reliably reproduce the annual mass balance and can be seen as validation or calibration tools for the glaciological method.

  11. Trophic mass-balance model of Alaska's Prince William Sound ecosystem, for the post-spill period 1994-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okey, T.A.; Pauly, D.


    The Ecopath modelling approach for the Prince William Sound (PWS) ecosystem was described. The area is the site of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), the largest spill in U.S. history. 36,000 tonnes of crude oil spread throughout the central and southwestern PWS into the Gulf of Alaska and along the Kenai and Alaska Peninsula. The initial effects of the oil spill were catastrophic. The Ecopath modelling approach discussed in this report is aimed at providing a cohesive picture of the PWS ecosystem by constructing a mass-balanced model of food-web interactions and trophic flows using information collected since the EVOS. The model includes all biotic components of the ecosystem and provides a quantitative description of food-web interactions and relationships, as well as energy flows among components. The model can provide an understanding of how ecosystems respond to disturbances, such as oil spills. 216 refs., 74 tabs., 13 figs., 8 appendices

  12. Mass Balance Modelling of Saskatchewan Glacier, Canada Using Empirically Downscaled Reanalysis Data (United States)

    Larouche, O.; Kinnard, C.; Demuth, M. N.


    Observations show that glaciers around the world are retreating. As sites with long-term mass balance observations are scarce, models are needed to reconstruct glacier mass balance and assess its sensitivity to climate. In regions with discontinuous and/or sparse meteorological data, high-resolution climate reanalysis data provide a convenient alternative to in situ weather observations, but can also suffer from strong bias due to the spatial and temporal scale mismatch. In this study we used data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) project with a 30 x 30 km spatial resolution and 3-hour temporal resolution to produce the meteorological forcings needed to drive a physically-based, distributed glacier mass balance model (DEBAM, Hock and Holmgren 2005) for the historical period 1979-2016. A two-year record from an automatic weather station (AWS) operated on Saskatchewan Glacier (2014-2016) was used to downscale air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and incoming solar radiation from the nearest NARR gridpoint to the glacier AWS site. An homogenized historical precipitation record was produced using data from two nearby, low-elevation weather stations and used to downscale the NARR precipitation data. Three bias correction methods were applied (scaling, delta and empirical quantile mapping - EQM) and evaluated using split sample cross-validation. The EQM method gave better results for precipitation and for air temperature. Only a slight improvement in the relative humidity was obtained using the scaling method, while none of the methods improved the wind speed. The later correlates poorly with AWS observations, probably because the local glacier wind is decoupled from the larger scale NARR wind field. The downscaled data was used to drive the DEBAM model in order to reconstruct the mass balance of Saskatchewan Glacier over the past 30 years. The model was validated using recent snow thickness measurements and previously published geodetic mass

  13. Mass balance in the monitoring of pollutants in tidal rivers of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (United States)

    da Silveira, Raquel Pinhão; Rodrigues, Ana Paula de Castro; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Bidone, Edison Dausacker


    This study addressed the identification and monitoring of pollution sources of terrestrial origin in rivers (domestic sewage and industrial effluents) and critical fluvial segments in highly polluted environments under tidal influence (mixing marine and continental sources) from Guanabara Bay Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mass balance of contaminants was determined in conditions of continuous flow (low tide) during dry season (lower dilution capability). The results allowed the evaluation of the potential of contaminant mass generation by the different river segments and the estimation of their natural and anthropogenic components. The water quality of Iguaçú and Sarapuí Rivers were evaluated for metals and biochemical oxygen demand. The method gave an excellent response, including the possibility of sources identification and contaminated river segments ranking. The approach also offers fast execution and data interpretation, being highly efficient.

  14. Studying the Effects of Amazonian Land Cover Change on Glacier Mass Balance in the Tropical Andes (United States)

    Mark, B. G.; Fernandez, A.; Gabrielli, P.; Montenegro, A.; Postigo, J.; Hellstrom, R. A.


    Recent research has highlighted several ongoing environmental changes occurring across Tropical South America, including Andean glacier retreat, drought, as well as changes in land-use and land-cover. As the regional climate of the area is mostly characterized by land-ocean interactions, the atmospheric convection in the Amazon, and the effect of the Andes on circulation patterns, it follows that changes in one of those regions may affect the other. Most scholars who have studied the causes of tropical glaciers' fluctuations have not analyzed the linkages with changes in the Amazon with the same attention paid to the influence of Pacific sea surface temperature. Here we study the response of glacier surface mass balance in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru (10°S), to a scenario where the Amazonian rainforest is replaced by savannas. We ran climatic simulations at 2-km spatial resolution utilizing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model considering two scenarios: (a) control (CRTL), with today's rainforest extent; and (b) land cover change (LCC), where all the rainforest was replaced by savanna. WRF output was in turn ingested into a glacier energy and mass balance (GEMB) model that we validate by reconstructing both the accumulated mass balance from available observations, and the altitudinal distribution of mass balance in the region. Seasonal comparison between CRTL and LCC scenarios indicates that forest replacement by savanna results in more positive glacier mass balance. This shift to more positive mass balance contrasts with a (WRF) modeled rise in the elevation of the freezing line (0°C) between 30 to 120 m for the LCC scenario. Our results are surprising because most previous studies have shown that reducing Amazon forest cover diminishes rainfall and increases temperature, suggesting that glaciers should lose mass. We hypothesize and discuss implications of possible land-atmospheric processes that might drive this tropical glacier response to

  15. Adjustment of regional climate model output for modeling the climatic mass balance of all glaciers on Svalbard.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, M.; Obleitner, F.; Reijmer, C.H.; Pohjola, V.A.; Glowacki, P.; Kohler, J.


    Large-scale modeling of glacier mass balance relies often on the output from regional climate models (RCMs). However, the limited accuracy and spatial resolution of RCM output pose limitations on mass balance simulations at subregional or local scales. Moreover, RCM output is still rarely available

  16. Elevation change and remote-sensing mass-balance methods on the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz

    The mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet is virtually impossible to obtain with traditional ground-based methods alone due to its vast size. It is thus desirable to develop mass-balance methods depending on remote sensing instead and this field has experienced a dramatic development within...... of measured surface elevation change over a 50x50~km part of the western Greenland Ice-Sheet margin near Kangerlussuaq. In this region, the mean observed elevation change has been -0.5~m from 2000 to 2003. However, the change is unevenly distributed with the northern and central part generally in balance...... the last decade. Large amounts of data have been collected from satellite and airborne platforms, yielding surface elevation changes and surface velocity fields. Here we present data from the Greenland Ice-Sheet margin acquired with a new small-scale airborne system, designed for regional high...

  17. Mass balance of the Amitsulôq ice cap, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, Carl Egede; Olesen, Ole B.


    We present detailed mass balance measurements from the Amitsulôq ice cap in West Greenland spanning from 1982 to 1990. The data includes summer and winter balances from 26 stake locations distributed over five transects covering the whole ice cap. The mass balance measurements are combined...... with a recent satellite-derived digital elevation model to calculate the specific balance, which is in turn compared to discharge data from the adjacent Tasersiaq basin. The correlation between specific summer balance and discharge is R2 = 0.93 indicating that the basin discharge is dominated by glacial...... meltwater, linking the hydropower potential of the basin closely to the fate of the adjoining Greenland ice-sheet margin....

  18. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. W. van de Wal


    Full Text Available A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the K-transect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at eight sites along a transect over an altitude range of 380–1850 m at approximately 67° N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average 3.8 × 10−3 m w.e. m−1, and the mean equilibrium line altitude is 1553 m a.s.l. Only the lower three sites within 10 km of the margin up to an elevation of 700 m experience a significant increasing trend in the ablation over the entire period. Data are available at: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779181.

  19. Progress toward Consensus Estimates of Regional Glacier Mass Balances for IPCC AR5 (United States)

    Arendt, A. A.; Gardner, A. S.; Cogley, J. G.


    Glaciers are potentially large contributors to rising sea level. Since the last IPCC report in 2007 (AR4), there has been a widespread increase in the use of geodetic observations from satellite and airborne platforms to complement field observations of glacier mass balance, as well as significant improvements in the global glacier inventory. Here we summarize our ongoing efforts to integrate data from multiple sources to arrive at a consensus estimate for each region, and to quantify uncertainties in those estimates. We will use examples from Alaska to illustrate methods for combining Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), elevation differencing and field observations into a single time series with related uncertainty estimates. We will pay particular attention to reconciling discrepancies between GRACE estimates from multiple processing centers. We will also investigate the extent to which improvements in the glacier inventory affect the accuracy of our regional mass balances.

  20. Influence of Persistent Wind Scour on the Surface Mass Balance of Antarctica (United States)

    Das, Indrani; Bell, Robin E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Wolovick, Michael; Creyts, Timothy T.; Studinger, Michael; Fearson, Nicholas; Nicolas, Julien P.; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; vandenBroeke, Michiel R.


    Accurate quantification of surface snow accumulation over Antarctica is a key constraint for estimates of the Antarctic mass balance, as well as climatic interpretations of ice-core records. Over Antarctica, near-surface winds accelerate down relatively steep surface slopes, eroding and sublimating the snow. This wind scour results in numerous localized regions (Antarctica. The scour zones are persistent because they are controlled by bedrock topography. On the basis of our Dome A observations, we develop an empirical model to predict wind-scour zones across the Antarctic continent and find that these zones are predominantly located in East Antarctica. We estimate that approx. 2.7-6.6% of the surface area of Antarctica has persistent negative net accumulation due to wind scour, which suggests that, across the continent, the snow mass input is overestimated by 11-36.5 Gt /yr in present surface-mass-balance calculations.

  1. California's Snow Gun and its implications for mass balance predictions under greenhouse warming (United States)

    Howat, I.; Snyder, M.; Tulaczyk, S.; Sloan, L.


    Precipitation has received limited treatment in glacier and snowpack mass balance models, largely due to the poor resolution and confidence of precipitation predictions relative to temperature predictions derived from atmospheric models. Most snow and glacier mass balance models rely on statistical or lapse rate-based downscaling of general or regional circulation models (GCM's and RCM's), essentially decoupling sub-grid scale, orographically-driven evolution of atmospheric heat and moisture. Such models invariably predict large losses in the snow and ice volume under greenhouse warming. However, positive trends in the mass balance of glaciers in some warming maritime climates, as well as at high elevations of the Greenland Ice Sheet, suggest that increased precipitation may play an important role in snow- and glacier-climate interactions. Here, we present a half century of April snowpack data from the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains of California, USA. This high-density network of snow-course data indicates that a gain in winter snow accumulation at higher elevations has compensated loss in snow volume at lower elevations by over 50% and has led to glacier expansion on Mt. Shasta. These trends are concurrent with a region-wide increase in winter temperatures up to 2° C. They result from the orographic lifting and saturation of warmer, more humid air leading to increased precipitation at higher elevations. Previous studies have invoked such a "Snow Gun" effect to explain contemporaneous records of Tertiary ocean warming and rapid glacial expansion. A climatological context of the California's "snow gun" effect is elucidated by correlation between the elevation distribution of April SWE observations and the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino Southern Oscillation, both controlling the heat and moisture delivered to the U.S. Pacific coast. The existence of a significant "Snow Gun" effect presents two challenges to snow and glacier mass

  2. Development of the ECLSS Sizing Analysis Tool and ARS Mass Balance Model Using Microsoft Excel (United States)

    McGlothlin, E. P.; Yeh, H. Y.; Lin, C. H.


    The development of a Microsoft Excel-compatible Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) sizing analysis "tool" for conceptual design of Mars human exploration missions makes it possible for a user to choose a certain technology in the corresponding subsystem. This tool estimates the mass, volume, and power requirements of every technology in a subsystem and the system as a whole. Furthermore, to verify that a design sized by the ECLSS Sizing Tool meets the mission requirements and integrates properly, mass balance models that solve for component throughputs of such ECLSS systems as the Water Recovery System (WRS) and Air Revitalization System (ARS) must be developed. The ARS Mass Balance Model will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Geodetic Mass Balance of the Northern Patagonian Icefield from 2000 to 2012 Using Two Independent Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Dussaillant


    Full Text Available We compare two independent estimates of the rate of elevation change and geodetic mass balance of the Northern Patagonian Icefield (NPI between 2000 (3,856 km2 and 2012 (3,740 km2 from space-borne data. The first is obtained by differencing the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM from February 2000 and a Satellite pour l'Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5 DEM from March 2012. The second is deduced by fitting pixel-based linear elevation trends over 118 DEMs calculated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER stereo images acquired between 2000 and 2012. Both methods lead to similar and strongly negative icefield-wide mass balance rates of −1.02 ± 0.21 and −1.06 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr−1 respectively, which is in agreement with earlier studies. Contrasting glacier responses are observed, with individual glacier mass balance rates ranging from −0.15 to −2.30 m w.e. yr−1 (standard deviation = 0.49 m w.e. yr−1; N = 38. For individual glaciers, the two methods agree within error bars, except for small glaciers poorly sampled in the SPOT5 DEM due to clouds. Importantly, our study confirms the lack of penetration of the C-band SRTM radar signal into the NPI snow and firn except for a region above 2,900 m a.s.l. covering <1% of the total area. Ignoring penetration would bias the mass balance by only 0.005 m w.e. yr−1. A strong advantage of the ASTER method is that it relies only on freely available data and can thus be extended to other glacierized areas.

  4. Surface mass balance contributions to acceleration of Antarctic ice mass loss during 2003-2013


    Seo, Ki-Weon; Wilson, Clark R.; Scambos, Ted; Kim, Baek-Min; Waliser, Duane E.; Tian, Baijun; Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Eom, Jooyoung


    Abstract Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE?derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by ...

  5. Assessment of attenuation processes in a chlorinated ethene plume by use of stream bed Passive Flux Meters, streambed Point Velocity Probes and contaminant mass balances (United States)

    Rønde, V.; McKnight, U. S.; Annable, M. D.; Devlin, J. F.; Cremeans, M.; Sonne, A. T.; Bjerg, P. L.


    water. Since the plume at the bank mainly consists of cis-DCE and vinyl chloride, this implies high and persistent stream water concentrations of these compounds. Finally, this study demonstrates the usefulness and complementary nature of sPFM and SBPVP measurements for assessing the attenuation processes through mass balance calculations.

  6. Long term mass balance of the Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq glaciers in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Fitzner, Antje; Kjær, Kurt


    Observations over the past decade show huge ice loss associated with speeding up of glaciers in southeast Greenland in 2003, followed by a deceleration in 2006. These short-term episodic dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance at decadal scale. However, to improve the projec......Observations over the past decade show huge ice loss associated with speeding up of glaciers in southeast Greenland in 2003, followed by a deceleration in 2006. These short-term episodic dynamic perturbations have a major impact on the mass balance at decadal scale. However, to improve...... the projection of future sea level rise, a long-term data record that reveals the mass balance between episodic events is required. Here, we extend the observational record of marginal thinning of Helheim glacier (HG) and Kangerdlugssuaq glacier (KG) from 7 to 30 years. Our measurements reveal that, although...... in air temperature suggest that both outlet glaciers respond immediately to small fluctuations in both the SST and air temperature. Furthermore, we compare our observations of ice flow speed and elevation changes with predictions based on the The Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) software....

  7. A Range Correction for Icesat and Its Potential Impact on Ice-sheet Mass Balance Studies (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Moholdt, G.; Fricker, H. A.; Brunt, Kelly M.


    We report on a previously undocumented range error in NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) that degrades elevation precision and introduces a small but significant elevation trend over the ICESat mission period. This range error (the Gaussian-Centroid or 'G-C'offset) varies on a shot-to-shot basis and exhibits increasing scatter when laser transmit energies fall below 20 mJ. Although the G-C offset is uncorrelated over periods less than1 day, it evolves over the life of each of ICESat's three lasers in a series of ramps and jumps that give rise to spurious elevation trends of -0.92 to -1.90 cm yr(exp -1), depending on the time period considered. Using ICESat data over the Ross and Filchner-Ronne ice shelves we show that (1) the G-C offset introduces significant biases in ice-shelf mass balance estimates, and (2) the mass balance bias can vary between regions because of different temporal samplings of ICESat.We can reproduce the effect of the G-C offset over these two ice shelves by fitting trends to sample-weighted mean G-C offsets for each campaign, suggesting that it may not be necessary to fully repeat earlier ICESat studies to determine the impact of the G-C offset on ice-sheet mass balance estimates.

  8. Morphometric Controls on Glacier Mass Balance of the Puruogangri Ice Field, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu


    Full Text Available Evaluating the impacts of climatic changes and morphometric features on glacier mass balance is crucial to providing insight into glacier changes and their effects on regional water resources and ecosystems. Here, we presented an evaluation of morphometric effects on the glacier mass balances of the Puruogangri ice field (PIF on the Tibetan Plateau. A clear spatial variability of glacier mass balances, ranging from −0.035 to +0.019 m·w.e.·year−1, was estimated by comparing the TanDEM-X DEM (2012 with the SRTM-X DEM (2000. In general, the observed glacier mass changes were consistent with our fieldwork investigations. Furthermore, by applying the method of linear regression analysis, we found that the mass changes of individual glaciers on the PIF were mainly dominated by the mean altitude (R = 0.84, p < 0.001, however, they were statistically independent of glacier size, aspect, and surface velocity. At a local scale (grid size of 10 × 10 pixels, apart from the factor of altitude, surface velocity was correlated with glacier mass change.

  9. Gulkana Glacier, Alaska-Mass balance, meteorology, and water measurements, 1997-2001 (United States)

    March, Rod S.; O'Neel, Shad


    The measured winter snow, maximum winter snow, net, and annual balances for 1997-2001 in the Gulkana Glacier basin are determined at specific points and over the entire glacier area using the meteorological, hydrological, and glaciological data. We provide descriptions of glacier geometry to aid in estimation of conventional and reference surface mass balances and descriptions of ice motion to aid in the understanding of the glacier's response to its changing geometry. These data provide annual estimates for area altitude distribution, equilibrium line altitude, and accumulation area ratio during the study interval. New determinations of historical area altitude distributions are given for 1900 and annually from 1966 to 2001. As original weather instrumentation is nearing the end of its deployment lifespan, we provide new estimates of overlap comparisons and precipitation catch efficiency. During 1997-2001, Gulkana Glacier showed a continued and accelerated negative mass balance trend, especially below the equilibrium line altitude where thinning was pronounced. Ice motion also slowed, which combined with the negative mass balance, resulted in glacier retreat under a warming climate. Average annual runoff augmentation by glacier shrinkage for 1997-2001 was 25 percent compared to the previous average of 13 percent, in accordance with the measured glacier volume reductions.

  10. A mass balance mercury budget for a mine-dominated lake: Clear Lake, California (United States)

    Suchanek, T.H.; Cooke, J.; Keller, K.; Jorgensen, S.; Richerson, P.J.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Harner, E.J.; Adam, D.P.


    The Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM), active intermittently from 1873–1957 and now a USEPA Superfund site, was previously estimated to have contributed at least 100 metric tons (105 kg) of mercury (Hg) into the Clear Lake aquatic ecosystem. We have confirmed this minimum estimate. To better quantify the contribution of the mine in relation to other sources of Hg loading into Clear Lake and provide data that might help reduce that loading, we analyzed Inputs and Outputs of Hg to Clear Lake and Storage of Hg in lakebed sediments using a mass balance approach. We evaluated Inputs from (1) wet and dry atmospheric deposition from both global/regional and local sources, (2) watershed tributaries, (3) groundwater inflows, (4) lakebed springs and (5) the mine. Outputs were quantified from (1) efflux (volatilization) of Hg from the lake surface to the atmosphere, (2) municipal and agricultural water diversions, (3) losses from out-flowing drainage of Cache Creek that feeds into the California Central Valley and (4) biotic Hg removal by humans and wildlife. Storage estimates include (1) sediment burial from historic and prehistoric periods (over the past 150–3,000 years) from sediment cores to ca. 2.5m depth dated using dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), 210Pb and 14C and (2) recent Hg deposition in surficial sediments. Surficial sediments collected in October 2003 (11 years after mine site remediation) indicate no reduction (but a possible increase) in sediment Hg concentrations over that time and suggest that remediation has not significantly reduced overall Hg loading to the lake. Currently, the mine is believed to contribute ca. 322–331 kg of Hg annually to Clear Lake, which represents ca. 86–99% of the total Hg loading to the lake. We estimate that natural sedimentation would cover the existing contaminated sediments within ca. 150–300 years.

  11. Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet. (United States)

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J


    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) on nutrient retention in laying hens and compare 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. Hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental chambers for 3-wk periods. Excreta samples were collected at the end of each trial to estimate apparent retention of N, S, P, and Ca. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed (53.44%, P > 0.05). Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet (18.7, - 11.4, and 22.6%, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (40.7, 0.3, and 28.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH(3) over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3-wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). The 3-wk P excretion was similar between diets (0.68 kg). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions.

  12. Investigating ice cliff evolution and contribution to glacier mass-balance using a physically-based dynamic model (United States)

    Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Brun, Fanny; Steiner, Jakob; Pellicciotti, Francesca


    , and then apply the model to the entirety of Lirung and Langtang glaciers to quantify the total contributions of cliffs to glacier mass balance. Observations and model results suggest a strong dependency of the cliffs' life cycle on supraglacial ponds, as the water body keeps the cliff geometry constant through a combination of backwasting and calving at the bottom and maintenance of steep slopes in the lowest sections. The absence of ponds causes the progressive flattening of the cliff, which finally leads to complete disappearance. Modelled volume losses from May to October 2013 range from 2650 to 9415 m3 w.e., in agreement with the estimates with the SfM-approach. Mean error of modelled elevation within the cliff outline ranges from -1.3 to 0.6m. This work sheds light on mechanisms of cliffs' changes by quantifying them for the first time with a physically-based, dynamic model, and presents the first complete estimate of the relevance of supraglacial ice-cliffs to total glacier mass-balance for two distinct glaciers.

  13. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas (United States)

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán; Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.


    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous “excess sulfur” problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the “petrologic estimate”), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of

  14. A mass-balance study on chloride fluxes in a large central European catchment during 1900–2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Porcal, Petr; Posch, M.


    Roč. 120, 1-3 (2014), s. 319-335 ISSN 0168-2563 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : modelling * organic chlorine * forest * agriculture * diffuse sources Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.488, year: 2014

  15. Using a mass balance to understand the geology and geochemistry of a reservoir receiving and discharging acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turney, D.C.; Edwards, K.


    Howard-Williams Lake is a 14.5 acre reservoir located in an abandoned coal mine in Perry County, Ohio. With a pH of 3.0 and acidity values of 300--400 mg/L, the reservoir has no plants or fish currently surviving in the lake. Reclamation of spoil piles adjacent to the lake to the north in the late 1980s was not successful in reducing the acidity of the lake. Currently, papermill sludge is being used on the reclaimed area to the north to promote vegetation, but the reservoir has shown no signs of improving. The goal of this project is to transform the lake into a fishable and swimmable one. The reservoir is receiving about 175 gallons per minute of acid mine drainage, not including seepage into the lake, from eight different sources. Three of the sources account for about 165 gallons per minute of the surface water that enters the lake. These inflows have relatively low acidity readings, which range from 66 mg/L to 568 mg/L. The other five sources of acid mine drainage have much lower flowrates, but have acidity values as high as 3,000 mg/L. Samples of all of the surface inflows and the outflow of the lake were taken and sent to a laboratory and tested for the following parameters: total acidity as CaCO 3 , total alkalinity as CaCO 2 , specific conductivity, total suspended solids, sulfate, chloride calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total iron, total manganese, aluminum, and hardness. During sampling of the surface inflows, volumetric flowrates were measured for each inflow. Once the flowrates and the concentrations of the various parameters were known, a mass balance could be constructed which would show how much of each parameter was entering the lake each day. These data were then used to gain an understanding of the geochemistry and geology of the site

  16. Low-pass filtered continuum streambed and bedload sediment mass balance laws for an alluvial, gravel-bed stream (United States)

    DeTemple, B.; Wilcock, P.


    In an alluvial, gravel-bed stream governed by a plane-bed bedload transport regime, the physicochemical properties, size distribution, and granular architecture of the sediment grains that constitute the streambed surface influence many hydrodynamic, geomorphic, chemical, and ecological processes. Consequently, the abilities to accurately characterize the morphology and model the morphodynamics of the streambed surface and its interaction with the bedload above and subsurface below are necessary for a more complete understanding of how sediment, flow, organisms, and biogeochemistry interact. We report on our progress in the bottom-up development of low-pass filtered continuum streambed and bedload sediment mass balance laws for an alluvial, gravel-bed stream. These balance laws are assembled in a four stage process. First, the stream sediment-water system is conceptually abstracted as a nested, multi-phase, multi-species, structured continuum. Second, the granular surface of an aggregate of sediment grains is mathematically defined. Third, an integral approach to mass balance, founded in the continuum theory of multiphase flow, is used to formulate primordial, differential, instantaneous, local, continuum, mass balance laws applicable at any material point within a gravel-bed stream. Fourth, area averaging and time-after-area averaging, employing planform, low-pass filtering expressed as correlation or convolution integrals and based on the spatial and temporal filtering techniques found in the fields of multiphase flow, porous media flow, and large eddy simulation of turbulent fluid flow, are applied to smooth the primordial equations while maximizing stratigraphic resolution and preserving the definitions of relevant morphodynamic surfaces. Our approach unifies, corrects, contextualizes, and generalizes prior efforts at developing stream sediment continuity equations, including the top-down derivations of the surface layer (or "active layer") approach of Hirano

  17. Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance from Satellite Altimetry 1992 to 2001 (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Cornejo, Helen; Giovinetto, Mario; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui


    A major uncertainty in understanding the causes of the current rate of sea level rise is the potential contributions from mass imbalances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Estimates of the current mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet are derived from surface- elevation changes obtained from 9 years of ERS - 1 & 2 radar altimeter data. Elevation time-series are created from altimeter crossovers among 90-day data periods on a 50 km grid to 81.5 S. The time series are fit with a multivariate linear/sinusoidal function to give the average rate of elevation change (dH/dt). On the major Rome-Filchner, Ross, and Amery ice shelves, the W d t are small or near zero. In contrast, the ice shelves of the Antarctic Peninsula and along the West Antarctic coast appear to be thinning significantly, with a 23 +/- 3 cm per year surface elevation decrease on the Larsen ice shelf and a 65 +/- 4 cm per year decrease on the Dotson ice shelf. On the grounded ice, significant elevation decreases are obtained over most of the drainage basins of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West Antarctica and inland of Law Dome in East Antarctica. Significant elevation increases are observed within about 200 km of the coast around much of the rest of the ice sheet. Farther inland, the changes are a mixed pattern of increases and decreases with increases of a few centimeters per year at the highest elevations of the East Antarctic plateau. The derived elevation changes are combined with estimates of the bedrock uplift from several models to provide maps of ice thickness change. The ice thickness changes enable estimates of the ice mass balances for the major drainage basins, the overall mass balance, and the current contribution of the ice sheet to global sea level change.

  18. Overview of Ice-Sheet Mass Balance and Dynamics from ICESat Measurements (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay


    The primary purpose of the ICESat mission was to determine the present-day mass balance of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, identify changes that may be occurring in the surface-mass flux and ice dynamics, and estimate their contributions to global sea-level rise. Although ICESat's three lasers were planned to make continuous measurements for 3 to 5 years, the mission was re-planned to operate in 33-day campaigns 2 to 3 times each year following failure of the first laser after 36 days. Seventeen campaigns were conducted with the last one in the Fall of 2009. Mass balance maps derived from measured ice-sheet elevation changes show that the mass loss from Greenland has increased significantly to about 170 Gt/yr for 2003 to 2007 from a state of near balance in the 1990's. Increased losses (189 Gt/yr) from melting and dynamic thinning are over seven times larger'than increased gains (25 gt/yr) from precipitation. Parts of the West Antarctic ice sheet and the Antarctic Peninsula are losing mass at an increasing rate, but other parts of West Antarctica and the East Antarctic ice sheet are gaining mass at an increasing rate. Increased losses of 35 Gt/yr in Pine Island, Thwaites-Smith, and Marie-Bryd.Coast are more than balanced by gains in base of Peninsula and ice stream C, D, & E systems. From the 1992-2002 to 2003-2007 period, the overall mass balance for Antarctica changed from a loss of about 60 Gt/yr to near balance or slightly positive.

  19. Representativeness of regional and global mass-balance measurement networks (Invited) (United States)

    Cogley, J. G.; Moholdt, G.; Gardner, A. S.


    We showed in a recent publication that regional estimates of glacier mass budgets, obtained by interpolation from in-situ measurements, were markedly more negative than corresponding estimates by satellite gravimetry (GRACE) and satellite altimetry (ICESat) during 2003-2009. Examining the ICESat data in more detail, we found that in-situ records tend to be located in areas where glaciers are thinning more rapidly than as observed in their regional surroundings. Because neither GRACE nor ICESat can provide information for times before 2002-2003, and may not operate without interruption in the future, we explore possible explanations of and remedies for the identified bias in the in-situ network. Sparse spatial sampling, coupled with previously undetected spatial variability of mass balance at scales between the 10-km in-situ scale and the 350-km gravimetric scale, appears to be the leading explanation. Satisfactory remedies are not obvious. Selecting glaciers for in-situ measurement that are more representative will yield only incremental improvements. There appears to be no alternative to mass-balance modelling as a versatile tool for estimation of regional mass balance. However the meteorological data for forcing the surface components of glacier models have coarser resolution than is desirable and are themselves uncertain, especially in the remote regions where much of the glacier ice is found. Measurements of frontal (dynamic) mass changes are still difficult, and modelling of these changes remains underdeveloped in spite of recent advances. Thus research on a broad scale is called for in order to meet the challenge of producing more accurate hindcasts and projections of glacier mass budgets with fine spatial and temporal resolution.

  20. Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin


    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

  1. Mass balance of Mars' residual south polar cap from CTX images and other data (United States)

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W.; Cantor, B.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.


    Erosion of pits in the residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars concurrent with deposition and fluctuating cap boundaries raises questions about the mass balance and long term stability of the cap. Determining a mass balance by measurement of a net gain or loss of atmospheric CO2 by direct pressure measurements (Haberle, R.M. et al. [2014]. Secular climate change on Mars: An update using one Mars year of MSL pressure data. American Geophysical Union (Fall). Abstract 3947), although perhaps the most direct method, has so far given ambiguous results. Estimating volume changes from imaging data faces challenges, and has previously been attempted only in isolated areas of the cap. In this study we use 6 m/pixel Context Imager (CTX) data from Mars year 31 to map all the morphologic units of the RSPC, expand the measurement record of pit erosion rates, and use high resolution images to place limits on vertical changes in the surface of the residual cap. We find the mass balance in Mars years 9-31 to be -6 to +4 km3/♂y, or roughly -0.039% to +0.026% of the mean atmospheric CO2 mass/♂y. The indeterminate sign results chiefly from uncertainty in the amounts of deposition or erosion on the upper surfaces of deposits (as opposed to scarp retreat). Erosion and net deposition in this period appear to be controlled by summertime planetary scale dust events, the largest occurring in MY 9, another, smaller one in MY 28. The rates of erosion and the deposition observed since MY 9 appear to be consistent with the types of deposits and erosional behavior found in most of the residual cap. However, small areas (100 ♂y) of depositional and/or erosional conditions different from those occurring in the period since MY 9, although these environmental differences could be subtle.

  2. Evaluating Greenland glacial isostatic adjustment corrections using GRACE, altimetry and surface mass balance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutterley, Tyler C; Velicogna, Isabella; Csatho, Beata; Rezvan-Behbahani, Soroush; Babonis, Greg; Van den Broeke, Michiel


    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) represents a source of uncertainty for ice sheet mass balance estimates from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) time-variable gravity measurements. We evaluate Greenland GIA corrections from Simpson et al (2009 Quat. Sci. Rev. 28 1631–57), A et al (2013 Geophys. J. Int. 192 557–72) and Wu et al (2010 Nature Geosci. 3 642–6) by comparing the spatial patterns of GRACE-derived ice mass trends calculated using the three corrections with volume changes from ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) and OIB (Operation IceBridge) altimetry missions, and surface mass balance products from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO). During the period September 2003–August 2011, GRACE ice mass changes obtained using the Simpson et al (2009 Quat. Sci. Rev. 28 1631–57) and A et al (2013 Geophys. J. Int. 192 557–72) GIA corrections yield similar spatial patterns and amplitudes, and are consistent with altimetry observations and surface mass balance data. The two GRACE estimates agree within 2% on average over the entire ice sheet, and better than 15% in four subdivisions of Greenland. The third GRACE estimate corrected using the (Wu et al 2010 Nature Geosci. 3 642–6)) GIA shows similar spatial patterns, but produces an average ice mass loss for the entire ice sheet that is 64 − 67 Gt yr −1 smaller. In the Northeast the recovered ice mass change is 46–49 Gt yr −1 (245–270%) more positive than that deduced from the other two corrections. By comparing the spatial and temporal variability of the GRACE estimates with trends of volume changes from altimetry and surface mass balance from RACMO, we show that the Wu et al (2010 Nature Geosci. 3 642–6) correction leads to a large mass increase in the Northeast that is inconsistent with independent observations. (paper)

  3. NETPATH-WIN: an interactive user version of the mass-balance model, NETPATH (United States)

    El-Kadi, A. I.; Plummer, Niel; Aggarwal, P.


    NETPATH-WIN is an interactive user version of NETPATH, an inverse geochemical modeling code used to find mass-balance reaction models that are consistent with the observed chemical and isotopic composition of waters from aquatic systems. NETPATH-WIN was constructed to migrate NETPATH applications into the Microsoft WINDOWS® environment. The new version facilitates model utilization by eliminating difficulties in data preparation and results analysis of the DOS version of NETPATH, while preserving all of the capabilities of the original version. Through example applications, the note describes some of the features of NETPATH-WIN as applied to adjustment of radiocarbon data for geochemical reactions in groundwater systems.

  4. Stable isotopic mass balance in sandstone-shale couplets. An example from the Neogene Pannonian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyas, J.; Geologisches Institut.


    Oxygen isotopic ratios of carbonate cements in the Neogene sandstones of the Pannonian Basin show distinct variations: early calcites 3-6 per mille lighter than the late calcites from the same location and depth. This shift is thought to be related to the isotopically heavy oxygen released from the mixed-layer illite/smectite during illitisation. For sandstones dominated by compactional flow, closed system mass balance calculations predict an isotopic shift comparable to that deducted from petrographic and geochemical observations. The model suggests that variations of geothermal gradient has little effect on isotopic evolution; much more significant is the sandstone: shale ratio in the couplets. (author)

  5. Glacier albedo decrease in the European Alps: potential causes and links with mass balances (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Julitta, Tommaso; Colombo, Roberto


    Both mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets are losing mass all over the Earth. They are highly sensitive to climate variation, and the widespread reduction of glaciers has been ascribed to the atmospheric temperature increase. Beside this driver, also ice albedo plays a fundamental role in defining mass balance of glaciers. In fact, dark ice absorbs more energy causing faster glacier melting, and this can drive to more negative balances. Previous studies showed that the albedo of Himalayan glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet is decreasing with important rates. In this contribution, we tested the hypothesis that also glaciers in the European Alps are getting darker. We analyzed 16-year time series of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) snow albedo from Terra (MOD13A1, 2000-2015) and Aqua (MYD13A1, 2002-2015) satellites. These data feature a spatial resolution of 500m and a daily temporal resolution. We evaluated the existence of a negative linear and nonlinear trend of the summer albedo values both at pixel and at glacier level. We also calculated the correlation between MODIS summer albedo and glacier mass balances (from the World Glaciological Monitoring Service, WGMS database), for all the glaciers with available mass balance during the considered period. In order to estimate the percentage of the summer albedo that can be explained by atmospheric temperature, we correlated MODIS albedo and monthly air temperature extracted from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Results show that decreasing trends exist with a strong spatial variability in the whole Alpine chain. In large glaciers, such as the Aletch (Swiss Alps), the trend varies significantly also within the glacier, showing that the trend is higher in the area across the accumulation and ablation zone. Over the 17 glaciers with mass balance available in the WGMS data set, 11 gave significant relationship with the MODIS summer albedo. Moreover, the comparison between ERA-Interim temperature

  6. Mathematical modeling of water mass balance for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Jaafar Sahari; Nik Suhaimi Mat Hassan


    Gas and water management are key to achieving good performance from a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. Water plays a critical role in PEMFC. The proton conductivity is increase with the water content. In order to achieve enough hydration, water is normally introduced into the cell externally by a variety of methods such as liquid injection, steam introduction, and humidification of reactants by passing them through humidifiers before entering the cell. In this paper, mathematical modeling of water mass balance for PEMFC at anode and cathode side are proposed by using external humidification and assume that steady state, constant pressure, constant temperature and gases distribution are uniform

  7. Evaporation and NARS Nitric Acid Mass Balance Summary: 2000--2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreutzberg, B.D.; Ames, R.L.; Hansel, K.M.


    A compilation of the historical nitric acid processing data for the evaporation and nitric acid recycle system (NARS) in TA-55 has provided general acid mass balance trends, as well as the location of missing information in both the evaporation system and NARS data logs. The data were accumulated during the calendar years 2000 to 2005. After making a number of processing assumptions, the empirical system information was used to create an interactive spreadsheet that predicts, with moderate accuracy, some of the various stream variables for the combined evaporation and acid recycle processes. Empirical data and interactive calculations were compared to an Aspen Plus(trademark) simulation of the process

  8. The mid-cretaceous water bearer: Isotope mass balance quantification of the Albian hydrologic cycle (United States)

    Ufnar, David F.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Brenner, Richard L.; Witzke, B.J.


    A latitudinal gradient in meteoric ??18O compositions compiled from paleosol sphaerosiderites throughout the Cretaceous Western Interior Basin (KWIB) (34-75??N paleolatitude) exhibits a steeper, more depleted trend than modern (predicted) values (3.0??? [34??N latitude] to 9.7??? [75??N] lighter). Furthermore, the sphaerosiderite meteoric ??18O latitudinal gradient is significantly steeper and more depleted (5.8??? [34??N] to 13.8??? [75??N] lighter) than a predicted gradient for the warm mid-Cretaceous using modern empirical temperature-??18O precipitation relationships. We have suggested that the steeper and more depleted (relative to the modern theoretical gradient) meteoric sphaerosiderite ??18O latitudinal gradient resulted from increased air mass rainout effects in coastal areas of the KWIB during the mid-Cretaceous. The sphaerosiderite isotopic data have been used to constrain a mass balance model of the hydrologic cycle in the northern hemisphere and to quantify precipitation rates of the equable 'greenhouse' Albian Stage in the KWIB. The mass balance model tracks the evolving isotopic composition of an air mass and its precipitation, and is driven by latitudinal temperature gradients. Our simulations indicate that significant increases in Albian precipitation (34-52%) and evaporation fluxes (76-96%) are required to reproduce the difference between modern and Albian meteoric siderite ??18O latitudinal gradients. Calculations of precipitation rates from model outputs suggest mid-high latitude precipitation rates greatly exceeded modern rates (156-220% greater in mid latitudes [2600-3300 mm/yr], 99% greater at high latitudes [550 mm/yr]). The calculated precipitation rates are significantly different from the precipitation rates predicted by some recent general circulation models (GCMs) for the warm Cretaceous, particularly in the mid to high latitudes. Our mass balance model by no means replaces GCMs. However, it is a simple and effective means of obtaining

  9. Elevation Change, Mass Balance, Dynamics, and Surging of Langjökull, Iceland from 1997 to 2007


    Pope, Allen; Willis, Ian Craig; Pálsson, Finnur; Arnold, Neil Stuart; Rees, William Gareth; Björnsson, Helgi; Grey, Lauren


    Glaciers and ice caps around the world are changing quickly, with surge-type behaviour superimposed upon climatic forcing. Here, we study Iceland’s second largest ice cap, Langjökull, which has both surge- and non-surge-type outlets. By differencing elevation change with surface mass balance, we estimate the contribution of ice dynamics to elevation change. We use DEMs, in situ stake measurements, regional reanalyses, and a mass balance model to calculate the vertical ice velocity. Thus,...

  10. Opportunities and Challenges in Enhancing Value of Annual Glacier Mass Balance Monitoring Examples from Western North America (United States)

    Pelto, M. S.


    Alpine glacier mass balance is the most accurate indicator of glacier response to climate and with retreat of alpine glaciers is one of the clearest signals of global climate change. Completion of long term, representative and homogenous mass balance field measurement of mass balance, compiled by WGMS, is a key climate data record. To ensure a monitoring program remains vital and funded local collaboration and connecting the research to local societal impacts is crucial. Working with local partners in collecting and providing the right data is critical whether their interest is in hydropower, irrigation, municipal supply, hazard reduction and/or aquatic ecosystems. The expansion of remote sensing and modeling capability provides both a challenge to continued relevance and an opportunity for field mass balance programs to expand relevance. In modelling studies of both glacier mass balance and glacier runoff transient balance data has equivalent value with annual balance data, for both calibration runs and as an input variable. This increases the utility of mid-season field observations. Remote sensing provides repeat imagery that often identifies the AAR and transient snowline of a glacier. For runoff assessment understanding the specific percent of glacier surface area that is glacier ice, older firn, and retained snowpack from the previous winter at frequent intervals during the melt season is vital since each region has a different melt factor. A denser field observation network combined with this imagery can provide additional point balance values of ablation that complement the mass balance record. Periodic measurement of mass balance at a denser network using GPR, LIDAR, TLS or probing is required to better understand long term point balance locations and is important at end of the melt season not just beginning, and has value mid-season for modelling. Applications of each of utility of field mass balance observations will be illustrated.

  11. Comparison of Glaciological and Gravimetric Glacier Mass Balance Measurements of Taku and Lemon Creek Glaciers, Southeast Alaska (United States)

    Vogler, K.; McNeil, C.; Bond, M.; Getraer, B.; Huxley-Reicher, B.; McNamara, G.; Reinhardt-Ertman, T.; Silverwood, J.; Kienholz, C.; Beedle, M. J.


    Glacier-wide annual mass balances (Ba) have been calculated for Taku (726 km2) and Lemon Creek glaciers (10.2 km2) since 1946 and 1953 respectively. These are the longest mass balance records in North America, and the only Ba time-series available for Southeast Alaska, making them particularly valuable for the global glacier mass balance monitoring network. We compared Ba time-series from Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers to Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mascon solutions (1352 and 1353) during the 2004-2015 period to assess how well these gravimetric solutions reflect individual glaciological records. Lemon Creek Glacier is a challenging candidate for this comparison because it is small compared to the 12,100 km2 GRACE mascon solutions. Taku Glacier is equally challenging because its mass balance is stable compared to the negative balances dominating its neighboring glaciers. Challenges notwithstanding, a high correlation between the glaciological and gravimetrically-derived Ba for Taku and Lemon Creek glaciers encourage future use of GRACE to measure glacier mass balance. Additionally, we employed high frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to measure the variability of accumulation around glaciological sites to assess uncertainty in our glaciological measurements, and the resulting impact to Ba. Finally, we synthesize this comparison of glaciological and gravimetric mass balance solutions with a discussion of potential sources of error in both methods and their combined utility for measuring regional glacier change during the 21st century.

  12. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan


    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  13. Optimal hydrograph separation using a recursive digital filter constrained by chemical mass balance, with application to selected Chesapeake Bay watersheds (United States)

    Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Baker, Anna C.; Blomquist, Joel D.; Hopple, Jessica A.


    slightly high and some biased slightly low compared to the recursive digital filter. There were notable differences between the days at base flow estimated by the different methods, with the recursive digital filter having a smaller range of values. This was attributed to how the different methods determine cessation of quickflow (the part of streamflow which is not base flow).For 109 Chesapeake Bay watershed sites with available specific conductance data, the parameters of the filter were optimized using a chemical-mass-balance constraint and two different models for the time-dependence of base-flow specific conductance. Sixty-seven models were deemed acceptable and the results compared well with non-optimized results. There are a number of limitations to the optimal hydrograph-separation approach resulting from the assumptions implicit in the conceptual model, the mathematical model, and the approach taken to impose chemical mass balance (including tracer choice). These limitations may be evidenced by poor model results; conversely, poor model fit may provide an indication that two-component separation does not adequately describe the hydrologic system’s runoff response.The results of this study may be used to address a number of questions regarding the role of groundwater in understanding past changes in stream-water quality and forecasting possible future changes, such as the timing and magnitude of land-use and management practice effects on stream and groundwater quality. Ongoing and future modeling efforts may benefit from the estimates of base flow as calibration targets or as a means to filter chemical data to model base-flow loads and trends. Ultimately, base-flow estimation might provide the basis for future work aimed at improving the ability to quantify groundwater discharge, not only at the scale of a gaged watershed, but at the scale of individual reaches as well.

  14. Changes in ice dynamics and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. (United States)

    Rignot, Eric


    The concept that the Antarctic ice sheet changes with eternal slowness has been challenged by recent observations from satellites. Pronounced regional warming in the Antarctic Peninsula triggered ice shelf collapse, which led to a 10-fold increase in glacier flow and rapid ice sheet retreat. This chain of events illustrated the vulnerability of ice shelves to climate warming and their buffering role on the mass balance of Antarctica. In West Antarctica, the Pine Island Bay sector is draining far more ice into the ocean than is stored upstream from snow accumulation. This sector could raise sea level by 1m and trigger widespread retreat of ice in West Antarctica. Pine Island Glacier accelerated 38% since 1975, and most of the speed up took place over the last decade. Its neighbour Thwaites Glacier is widening up and may double its width when its weakened eastern ice shelf breaks up. Widespread acceleration in this sector may be caused by glacier ungrounding from ice shelf melting by an ocean that has recently warmed by 0.3 degrees C. In contrast, glaciers buffered from oceanic change by large ice shelves have only small contributions to sea level. In East Antarctica, many glaciers are close to a state of mass balance, but sectors grounded well below sea level, such as Cook Ice Shelf, Ninnis/Mertz, Frost and Totten glaciers, are thinning and losing mass. Hence, East Antarctica is not immune to changes.

  15. Using an SLR inversion to measure the mass balance of Greenland before and during GRACE (United States)

    Bonin, Jennifer


    The GRACE mission has done an admirable job of measuring large-scale mass changes over Greenland since its launch in 2002. However before that time, measurements of large-scale ice mass balance were few and far between, leading to a lack of baseline knowledge. High-quality Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data existed a decade earlier, but normally has too low a spatial resolution to be used for this purpose. I demonstrate that a least squares inversion technique can reconstitute the SLR data and use it to measure ice loss over Greenland. To do so, I first simulate the problem by degrading today's GRACE data to a level comparable with SLR, then demonstrating that the inversion can re-localize Greenland's contribution to the low-resolution signal, giving an accurate time series of mass change over all of Greenland which compares well with the full-resolution GRACE estimates. I then utilize that method on the actual SLR data, resulting in an independent 1994-2014 time series of mass change over Greenland. I find favorable agreement between the pure-SLR inverted results and the 2012 Ice-sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise (IMBIE) results, which are largely based on the "input-output" modeling method before GRACE's launch.

  16. Logs and completion data for water and mass balance wells in Mortandad and Ten Site Canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, S.G.; Koch, R.J.


    Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled and completed in December 1994 as part of a water and mass balance study for the shallow perched aquifer in the Mortandad Canyon alluvium and in the lower part of Ten-Site Canyon. The wells penetrated the alluvium containing the aquifer and were completed into the top of the weathered tuff. Twelve of these wells encountered the Tshirege Member (Cooing Unit 1 g) of the Bandelier Tuff below the canyon alluvium, while ten wells made contact with the Cerro Toledo interval, which lies between the Tshirege and Otowi Members of the Bandelier Tuff. The remaining two wells were completed into the alluvium above the weathered tuff contact. These wells provide access for continuous water level measurement and water sampling. Data from these new wells will be used to determine changes in alluvial aquifer water storage, water quality sampling, and estimation of seepage into the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff below the alluvium. This report documents drilling activities and well completion logs for the water and mass balance study. These wells also provide critical new data for fourteen north-south vertical cross-sections constructed for the canyon alluvium

  17. Transfer of arsenic from poultry feed to poultry litter: A mass balance study. (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay K; Le, X Chris; Kachanosky, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Siddique, Tariq


    Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen -1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen -1 ) during the growth phase of 35days. Our mass balance calculations showed that chickens ingested 2669-2730mg As with the feed and excreted out 2362-2896mg As in poultry litter during the growth period of 28days when As containing feed was used, yielding As recovery between 86 and 108%. Though our complementary studies show that residual arsenic species in rox-fed chicken meat may have relevance to human exposure, insignificant retention of total As in the chicken meat substantiates our mass balance results. The results are important in evaluating the fate of feed additive used in poultry production and its potential environmental implications if As containing poultry litter is applied to soil for crop production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: mass balance and removal processes. (United States)

    Gao, Pin; Ding, Yunjie; Li, Hui; Xagoraraki, Irene


    Occurrence and removal efficiencies of fifteen pharmaceuticals were investigated in a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant in Michigan. Concentrations of these pharmaceuticals were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer. Detailed mass balance analysis was conducted during the whole treatment process to evaluate the contributing processes for pharmaceutical removal. Among the pharmaceuticals studied, demeclocycline, sulfamerazine, erythromycin and tylosin were not detected in the wastewater treatment plant influent. Other target pharmaceuticals detected in wastewater were also found in the corresponding sludge phase. The removal efficiencies of chlortetracycline, tetracycline, sulfamerazine, acetaminophen and caffeine were >99%, while doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfadiazine and lincomycin exhibited relatively lower removal efficiencies (e.g., <50%). For sulfamethoxazole, the removal efficiency was approximately 90%. Carbamazepine manifested a net increase of mass, i.e. 41% more than the input from the influent. Based on the mass balance analysis, biotransformation is believed to be the predominant process responsible for the removal of pharmaceuticals (22% to 99%), whereas contribution of sorption to sludge was relatively insignificant (7%) for the investigated pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mass balance for lead in the California South Coast Air Basin: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankey, R.L.; Davidson, C.I.; McMichael, F.C.


    A mass balance for lead for the year 1989 in the South Coast Air Basin has inputs to the atmosphere of 600 ± 190 kg/day and outputs of 580 ± 160 kg/day, showing rough agreement. Stationary sources are responsible for only about 5% of the total lead emissions. The bulk of the lead is emitted from vehicles using leaded gasoline (37%) and unleaded gasoline (15%), as well as from resuspension of previously deposited lead on roads (43%). Over half of the total emitted lead deposits on roads and nearby soil, while about one-third is carried out of the basin by wind. A small amount, less than 10%, is deposited on surfaces throughout the basin. These percentages are approximately the same as those in a mass balance for the same region calculated for 1972, when lead emissions from leaded gasoline were about a factor of 70 greater than leaded gas emissions in 1989. When the lead emissions re used as inputs o a simple continuously stirred flow reactor model for the basin, reasonable, agreement is obtained between calculated and measured concentrations

  20. Surface Mass Balance Contributions to Acceleration of Antarctic Ice Mass Loss during 2003- 2013 (United States)

    Seo, K. W.; Wilson, C. R.; Scambos, T. A.; Kim, B. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Tian, B.; Kim, B.; Eom, J.


    Recent observations from satellite gravimetry (the GRACE mission) suggest an acceleration of ice mass loss from the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The contribution of surface mass balance changes (due to variable precipitation) is compared with GRACE-derived mass loss acceleration by assessing the estimated contribution of snow mass from meteorological reanalysis data. We find that over much of the continent, the acceleration can be explained by precipitation anomalies. However, on the Antarctic Peninsula and other parts of West Antarctica mass changes are not explained by precipitation and are likely associated with ice discharge rate increases. The total apparent GRACE acceleration over all of the AIS between 2003 and 2013 is -13.6±7.2 GTon/yr2. Of this total, we find that the surface mass balance component is -8.2±2.0 GTon/yr2. However, the GRACE estimate appears to contain errors arising from the atmospheric pressure fields used to remove air mass effects. The estimated acceleration error from this effect is about 9.8±5.8 GTon/yr2. Correcting for this yields an ice discharge acceleration of -15.1±6.5 GTon/yr2.

  1. Large-scale subduction of continental crust implied by India-Asia mass-balance calculation (United States)

    Ingalls, Miquela; Rowley, David B.; Currie, Brian; Colman, Albert S.


    Continental crust is buoyant compared with its oceanic counterpart and resists subduction into the mantle. When two continents collide, the mass balance for the continental crust is therefore assumed to be maintained. Here we use estimates of pre-collisional crustal thickness and convergence history derived from plate kinematic models to calculate the crustal mass balance in the India-Asia collisional system. Using the current best estimates for the timing of the diachronous onset of collision between India and Eurasia, we find that about 50% of the pre-collisional continental crustal mass cannot be accounted for in the crustal reservoir preserved at Earth's surface today--represented by the mass preserved in the thickened crust that makes up the Himalaya, Tibet and much of adjacent Asia, as well as southeast Asian tectonic escape and exported eroded sediments. This implies large-scale subduction of continental crust during the collision, with a mass equivalent to about 15% of the total oceanic crustal subduction flux since 56 million years ago. We suggest that similar contamination of the mantle by direct input of radiogenic continental crustal materials during past continent-continent collisions is reflected in some ocean crust and ocean island basalt geochemistry. The subduction of continental crust may therefore contribute significantly to the evolution of mantle geochemistry.

  2. Recent mass balance of the Purogangri Ice Cap, central Tibetan Plateau, by means of differential X-band SAR interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Neckel


    Full Text Available Due to their remoteness, altitude and harsh climatic conditions, little is known about the glaciological parameters of ice caps on the Tibetan Plateau. This study presents a geodetic mass balance estimate of the Purogangri Ice Cap, Tibet's largest ice field between 2000 and 2012. We utilized data from the actual TerraSAR-X mission and its add-on for digital elevation measurements and compared it with elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The employed data sets are ideal for this approach as both data sets were acquired at X-band at nearly the same time of the year and are available at a fine grid spacing. In order to derive surface elevation changes we employed two different methods. The first method is based on differential synthetic radar interferometry while the second method uses common DEM differencing. Both approaches revealed a slightly negative mass budget of −44 ± 15 and −38 ± 23 mm w.eq. a−1 (millimeter water equivalent respectively. A slightly negative trend of −0.15 ± 0.01 km2 a−1 in glacier extent was found for the same time period employing a time series of Landsat data. Overall, our results show an almost balanced mass budget for the studied time period. Additionally, we detected one continuously advancing glacier tongue in the eastern part of the ice cap.

  3. Chloride Test (United States)

    ... metabolic acidosis ) or when a person hyperventilates (causing respiratory alkalosis ). A decreased level of blood chloride (called hypochloremia) ... disease , emphysema or other chronic lung diseases (causing respiratory ... metabolic alkalosis). An increased level of urine chloride can indicate ...

  4. Monitoring glacier albedo as a proxy to derive summer and annual surface mass balances from optical remote-sensing data (United States)

    Davaze, Lucas; Rabatel, Antoine; Arnaud, Yves; Sirguey, Pascal; Six, Delphine; Letreguilly, Anne; Dumont, Marie


    Less than 0.25 % of the 250 000 glaciers inventoried in the Randolph Glacier Inventory (RGI V.5) are currently monitored with in situ measurements of surface mass balance. Increasing this archive is very challenging, especially using time-consuming methods based on in situ measurements, and complementary methods are required to quantify the surface mass balance of unmonitored glaciers. The current study relies on the so-called albedo method, based on the analysis of albedo maps retrieved from optical satellite imagery acquired since 2000 by the MODIS sensor, on board the TERRA satellite. Recent studies revealed substantial relationships between summer minimum glacier-wide surface albedo and annual surface mass balance, because this minimum surface albedo is directly related to the accumulation-area ratio and the equilibrium-line altitude. On the basis of 30 glaciers located in the French Alps where annual surface mass balance data are available, our study conducted on the period 2000-2015 confirms the robustness and reliability of the relationship between the summer minimum surface albedo and the annual surface mass balance. For the ablation season, the integrated summer surface albedo is significantly correlated with the summer surface mass balance of the six glaciers seasonally monitored. These results are promising to monitor both annual and summer glacier-wide surface mass balances of individual glaciers at a regional scale using optical satellite images. A sensitivity study on the computed cloud masks revealed a high confidence in the retrieved albedo maps, restricting the number of omission errors. Albedo retrieval artifacts have been detected for topographically incised glaciers, highlighting limitations in the shadow correction algorithm, although inter-annual comparisons are not affected by systematic errors.

  5. 21st century changes in the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet simulated with the global model CESM (United States)

    Vizcaíno, M.; Lipscomb, W. H.; Van den Broeke, M.


    We present here the first projections of 21st century surface mass balance change of the Greenland ice sheet simulated with the Community Earth System Model (CESM). CESM is a fully-coupled, global climate model developed at many research centers and universities, primarily in the U.S. The model calculates the surface mass balance in the land component (the Community Land Model, CLM), at the same resolution as the atmosphere (1 degree), with an energy-balance scheme. The snow physics included in CLM for non-glaciated surfaces (SNiCAR model, Flanner and Zender, 2005) are used over the ice sheet. The surface mass balance is calculated for 10 elevation classes, and then downscaled to the grid of the ice sheet model (5 km in this case) via vertical linear interpolation between elevation classes combined with horizontal bilinear interpolation. The ice sheet topography is fixed at present-day values for the simulations presented here. The use of elevation classes reduces computational costs while giving results that reproduce well the mass balance gradients at the steep margins of the ice sheet. The simulated present-day surface mass balance agrees well with results from regional models. We focus on the regional model RACMO (Ettema et al. 2009) to compare the results on 20th-century surface mass balance evolution and two-dimensional patterns. The surface mass balance of the ice sheet under RCP8.5. forcing becomes negative in the last decades of the 21st century. The equilibrium line becomes ~500 m higher on average. Accumulation changes are positive in the accumulation zone. We examine changes in refreezing, accumulation, albedo, surface fluxes, and the timing of the melt season.

  6. Nitrogen transport, transformation, and retention in the Three Gorges Reservoir : A mass balance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ran, Xiangbin; Bouwman, Lex; Yu, Zhigang; Beusen, Arthur; Chen, Hongtao; Yao, Qingzhen


    Dam construction in river systems affects the biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), yet most studies on N cycling in reservoirs do not consider the transformations and retention of the different N species. This study addresses the N inputs, transport, transformations, and retention in the Three Gorges

  7. Evolution of a Lowland Karst Landscape; A Mass-Balance Approach (United States)

    Chamberlin, C.; Heffernan, J. B.; Cohen, M. J.; Quintero, C.; Pain, A.


    Karst landscapes are highly soluble, and are vulnerable to biological acid production as a major driving factor in their evolution. Big Cypress National Park (BICY) is a low-lying karst landscape in southern Florida displaying a distinctive morphology of isolated depressions likely influenced by biology. The goal of this study is to constrain timescales of landform development in BICY. This question was addressed through the construction of landscape-scale elemental budgets for both calcium and phosphorus. Precipitation and export fluxes were calculated using available chemistry and hydrology data, and stocks were calculated from a combination of existing data, field measurements, and laboratory chemical analysis. Estimates of expected mass export given no biological acid production and given an equivalent production of 100% of GPP were compared with observed rates. Current standing stocks of phosphorus are dominated by a large soil pool, and contain 500 Gg P. Inputs are largely dominated by precipitation, and 8000 years are necessary to accumulate standing stocks of phosphorus given modern fluxes. Calcium flux is vastly dominated by dissolution of the limestone bedrock, and though some calcium is retained in the soil, most is exported. Using LiDAR generated estimates of volume loss across the landscape and current export rates, an estimated 15,000 years would be necessary to create the modern landscape. Both of these estimates indicate that the BICY landscape is geologically very young. The different behaviors of these elements (calcium is largely exported, while phosphorus is largely retained) lend additional confidence to estimates of denudation rates of the landscape. These estimates can be even closer reconciled if calcium redistribution over the landscape is allowed for. This estimate is compared to the two bounding conditions for biological weathering to indicate a likely level of biological importance to landscape development in this system.

  8. Recycled Uranium Mass Balance Project Y-12 National Security Complex Site Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report has been prepared to summarize the findings of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) Mass Balance Project and to support preparation of associated U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) site reports. The project was conducted in support of DOE efforts to assess the potential for health and environmental issues resulting from the presence of transuranic (TRU) elements and fission products in recycled uranium (RU) processed by DOE and its predecessor agencies. The United States government used uranium in fission reactors to produce plutonium and tritium for nuclear weapons production. Because uranium was considered scarce relative to demand when these operations began almost 50 years ago, the spent fuel from U.S. fission reactors was processed to recover uranium for recycling. The estimated mass balance for highly enriched RU, which is of most concern for worker exposure and is the primary focus of this project, is summarized in a table. A discrepancy in the mass balance between receipts and shipments (plus inventory and waste) reflects an inability to precisely distinguish between RU and non-RU shipments and receipts involving the Y-12 Complex and Savannah River. Shipments of fresh fuel (non-RU) and sweetener (also non-RU) were made from the Y-12 Complex to Savannah River along with RU shipments. The only way to distinguish between these RU and non-RU streams using available records is by enrichment level. Shipments of {le}90% enrichment were assumed to be RU. Shipments of >90% enrichment were assumed to be non-RU fresh fuel or sweetener. This methodology using enrichment level to distinguish between RU and non-RU results in good estimates of RU flows that are reasonably consistent with Savannah River estimates. Although this is the best available means of distinguishing RU streams, this method does leave a difference of approximately 17.3 MTU between receipts and shipments. Slightly depleted RU streams received by the Y-12 Complex from ORGDP and

  9. Surface Energy and Mass Balance Model for Greenland Ice Sheet and Future Projections (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojian

    The Greenland Ice Sheet contains nearly 3 million cubic kilometers of glacial ice. If the entire ice sheet completely melted, sea level would raise by nearly 7 meters. There is thus considerable interest in monitoring the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Each year, the ice sheet gains ice from snowfall and loses ice through iceberg calving and surface melting. In this thesis, we develop, validate and apply a physics based numerical model to estimate current and future surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The numerical model consists of a coupled surface energy balance and englacial model that is simple enough that it can be used for long time scale model runs, but unlike previous empirical parameterizations, has a physical basis. The surface energy balance model predicts ice sheet surface temperature and melt production. The englacial model predicts the evolution of temperature and meltwater within the ice sheet. These two models can be combined with estimates of precipitation (snowfall) to estimate the mass balance over the Greenland Ice Sheet. We first compare model performance with in-situ observations to demonstrate that the model works well. We next evaluate how predictions are degraded when we statistically downscale global climate data. We find that a simple, nearest neighbor interpolation scheme with a lapse rate correction is able to adequately reproduce melt patterns on the Greenland Ice Sheet. These results are comparable to those obtained using empirical Positive Degree Day (PDD) methods. Having validated the model, we next drove the ice sheet model using the suite of atmospheric model runs available through the CMIP5 atmospheric model inter-comparison, which in turn built upon the RCP 8.5 (business as usual) scenarios. From this exercise we predict how much surface melt production will increase in the coming century. This results in 4-10 cm sea level equivalent, depending on the CMIP5 models. Finally, we try to bound melt water

  10. Models for mirror symmetry breaking via β-sheet-controlled copolymerization: (i) mass balance and (ii) probabilistic treatment. (United States)

    Blanco, Celia; Hochberg, David


    Experimental mechanisms that yield the growth of homochiral copolymers over their heterochiral counterparts have been advocated by Lahav and co-workers. These chiral amplification mechanisms proceed through racemic β-sheet-controlled polymerization operative in both surface crystallites as well as in solution. We develop two complementary theoretical models for these template-induced desymmetrization processes leading to multicomponent homochiral copolymers. First, assuming reversible β-sheet formation, the equilibrium between the free monomer pool and the polymer strand within the template is assumed. This yields coupled nonlinear mass balance equations whose solutions are used to calculate enantiomeric excesses and average lengths of the homochiral chains formed. The second approach is a probabilistic treatment based on random polymerization. The occlusion probabilities depend on the polymerization activation energies for each monomer species and are proportional to the concentrations of the monomers in solution in the constant pool approximation. The monomer occlusion probabilities are represented geometrically in terms of unit simplexes from which conditions for maximizing or minimizing the likelihood for mirror symmetry breaking can be determined.

  11. A Mass Balance Model for Designing Green Roof Systems that Incorporate a Cistern for Re-Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Chopra


    Full Text Available Green roofs, which have been used for several decades in many parts of the world, offer a unique and sustainable approach to stormwater management. Within this paper, evidence is presented on water retention for an irrigated green roof system. The presented green roof design results in a water retention volume on site. A first principle mass balance computer model is introduced to assist with the design of these green roof systems which incorporate a cistern to capture and reuse runoff waters for irrigation of the green roof. The model is used to estimate yearly stormwater retention volume for different cistern storage volumes. Additionally, the Blaney and Criddle equation is evaluated for estimation of monthly evapotranspiration rates for irrigated systems and incorporated into the model. This is done so evapotranspiration rates can be calculated for regions where historical data does not exist, allowing the model to be used anywhere historical weather data are available. This model is developed and discussed within this paper as well as compared to experimental results.

  12. Mass balance of Greenland and the Canadian Ice Caps from combined altimetry and GRACE inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    The combination of GRACE and altimetry data may yield a high resolution mass balance time series of the Greenlandice sheet, highlighting the varying individual mass loss behaviour of major glaciers. By including the Canadian arctic ice caps in the estimation, a more reliable estimate of the mass...... loss of both Greenlandand the Canadian ice caps may be obtained, minimizing the leakage errors otherwise unavoidable by GRACE. Actually, the absolute value of the Greenlandice sheet mass loss is highly dependent on methods and how the effects of Arctic Canadian ice caps are separated in the GRACE...... loss of the ice caps and ice sheet basins for the period 2003-15. This period shows a marked increase of ice sheet melt, especially in NW and NE Greenland, but also show large variability, with the melt anomaly year of 2012 showing a record mass loss, followed by 2013 with essentially no Greenland mass...

  13. Mass balance and surface movement of the Greenland Ice Sheet at Summit, Central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, C.S.; Keller, K.; Gundestrup, N.S.


    During the GRIP deep drilling in Central Greenland, the ice sheet topography and surface movement at Summit has been mapped with GPS. Measurements of the surface velocity are presented for a strain net consisting of 13 poles at distances of 25-60 km from the GRIP site. Some results are: The GRIP...... site is located approximately 2 km NW of the topographic summit; the surface velocity at the GISP 2 site is 1.7 m/yr in the W direction. The present mass balance at Summit is calculated to be -0.03+/-0.04 m/yr, i.e. close to steady state. This result is the best now available for Summit. A small...... thinning rate might be a transient response of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to the temperature increase at the Wisconsin-Holocene transition....

  14. Improving Surface Mass Balance Over Ice Sheets and Snow Depth on Sea Ice (United States)

    Koenig, Lora Suzanne; Box, Jason; Kurtz, Nathan


    Surface mass balance (SMB) over ice sheets and snow on sea ice (SOSI) are important components of the cryosphere. Large knowledge gaps remain in scientists' abilities to monitor SMB and SOSI, including insufficient measurements and difficulties with satellite retrievals. On ice sheets, snow accumulation is the sole mass gain to SMB, and meltwater runoff can be the dominant single loss factor in extremely warm years such as 2012. SOSI affects the growth and melt cycle of the Earth's polar sea ice cover. The summer of 2012 saw the largest satellite-recorded melt area over the Greenland ice sheet and the smallest satellite-recorded Arctic sea ice extent, making this meeting both timely and relevant.

  15. Modeling and experimental validation of water mass balance in a PEM fuel cell stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Araya, Samuel Simon; Olesen, Anders Christian


    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells require good hydration in order to deliver high performance and ensure long life operation. Water is essential for proton conductivity in the membrane which increases by nearly six orders of magnitude from dry to fully hydrated. Adequate water...... management in PEM fuel cell is crucial in order to avoid an imbalance between water production and water removal from the fuel cell. In the present study, a novel mathematical zero-dimensional model has been formulated for the water mass balance and hydration of a polymer electrolyte membrane. This model...... is validated against experimental data. In the results it is shown that the fuel cell water balance calculated by this model shows better fit with experimental data-points compared with model where only steady state operation were considered. We conclude that this discrepancy is due a different rate of water...

  16. Norway and adjacent sedimentary basins during Cenozoic times - sediment fluxes, accumulation rates and mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.


    use offshore data from adjacent sedimentary basins (the North Sea and the Norwegian shelf) to calculate the amount of erosion. We have used a broad dataset of seismic 2D lines to map depositional units and a well dataset for the stratigraphic control and the velocity distribution in the sediments. We...... have therefore obtained accumulation rates in meters per million years for 5 depositional units in three areas - Southern North Sea, Central and Northern North Sea and the Norwegian shelf. Furthermore, taking into account the decay of porosity in sediments with burial depth, we have estimated...... the sediment volumes at the time of their deposition. Such calculation gives minimum values of erosion rates onshore and a mass balance can be approximated, when considering uncertainties like deposition of sediments outside study area, post-depositional sediment removal and loss of mass due to chemical...

  17. Mixing height and mass balance of SO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere above Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, J.A.; Branson, J.R.


    Measurements of the SO/sub 2/ concentration at heights ranging from 150 to 1200 m were made at Cardington, Bedfordshire, using lightweight samplers carried on the cable of the tethered balloon. A value of 1200 m for the mean mixing height for SO/sub 2/ was deduced from the measurements. This value indicates that dry deposition limits the mean lifetime of SO/sub 2/ to about 2 days. The results of the national survey of air pollution were used to derive an area-mean concentration of 36 micrograms/m3 for SO/sub 2/ over Great Britain (excluding the north of Scotland, West Wales and the South West Peninsula) and this result is used in a discussion of the mass balance of atmospheric sulphur over this area.

  18. An eco-friendly approach for sodium chloride free cotton dyeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umer, T.


    Present study was conducted with an aim to develop an environmental friendly method of dyeing cotton as an alternative to standard reactive dyeing process that requires high level of salt. When dyeing was carried out in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), an extremely lighter depth of shade was experienced, and hence this particular research was focused on the reduction of the total colour difference (AE) to a minimum level. Instead of adding any other chemical or any additional process like cationization, salt-free reactive dyeing was carried out by varying three common process parameters (dyes, alkali, and process time) to achieve required depth of shade. The results obtained were compared with those of conventionally dyed fabrics in terms of depth of shade (AL), total colour difference (AE), washing fastness, and rubbing fastness. The results were found to be promising and comparable to those dyed with using NaCl. Moreover, the investigated method showed a significant reduction of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in the wastewater, and thus proved to be an environment friendly process. (author)

  19. Consequences of tributyltin chloride induced stress in Leydig cells: an ex-vivo approach. (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Srivastava, Ankit; Khanna, Smita; Khandelwal, Shashi


    Tributyltin (TBT), a member of the organotin family, is a known endocrine disruptor. It persists long in the environment and is widely used in various industrial applications. This study was planned to understand its toxic influence on Leydig cells isolated from 28 day old wistar rats. In-vitro exposure to TBT-Chloride (TBTC) (300-3000 nM) reduced cell viability (DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation and MTT assay) and affected testosterone production. TBTC induced both apoptotic and necrotic cell death (AnnexinV/PI binding assay). Involvement of calcium (Ca(2+)), redox imbalance (ROS, GSH and TBARS) and mitochondria in TBTC toxicity was evaluated by using Ca(2+) inhibitors (BAPTA-AM, EGTA, Ruthenium Red), free radical scavengers (NAC, C-Phycocyanin) and mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor (Cyclosporine A). Protein expression analysis of phosphorylated MAPKinases (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, & p38), steroidogenic proteins (3β-HSD, StAR & TSPO) and apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bcl2) illustrates the cytotoxic and anti-steroidogenic activity of TBTC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mass Balance of the West Antarctic Ice-Sheet from ICESat Measurements (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Li, Jun; Robins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui


    Mass balance estimates for 2003-2008 are derived from ICESat laser altimetry and compared with estimates for 1992-2002 derived from ERS radar altimetry. The net mass balance of 3 drainage systems (Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd) for 2003-2008 is a loss of 100 Gt/yr, which increased from a loss of 70 Gt/yr for the earlier period. The DS including the Bindschadler and MacAyeal ice streams draining into the Ross Ice Shelf has a mass gain of 11 Gt/yr for 2003-2008, compared to an earlier loss of 70 Gt/yr. The DS including the Whillans and Kamb ice streams has a mass gain of 12 Gt/yr, including a significant thickening on the upper part of the Kamb DS, compared to a earlier gain of 6 Gt/yr (includes interpolation for a large portion of the DS). The other two DS discharging into the Ronne Ice Shelf and the northern Ellsworth Coast have a mass gain of 39 Gt/yr, compared to a gain of 4 Gt/yr for the earlier period. Overall, the increased losses of 30 Gt/yr in the Pine Island, Thwaites/Smith, and the coast of Marie Bryd DSs are exceeded by increased gains of 59 Gt/yr in the other 4 DS. Overall, the mass loss from the West Antarctic ice sheet has decreased to 38 Gt/yr from the earlier loss of 67 Gt/yr, reducing the contribution to sea level rise to 0.11 mm/yr from 0.19 mm/yr

  1. Source identification and mass balance studies of mercury in Lake An-dong, S. Korea (United States)

    Han, J.; Byeon, M.; Yoon, J.; Park, J.; Lee, M.; Huh, I.; Na, E.; Chung, D.; Shin, S.; Kim, Y.


    In this study, mercury and methylmercury were measured in atmospheric, tributary, open-lake water column, sediment, planktons and fish samples in the catchments area of Lake An-dong, S. Korea. Lake An-dong, an artificial freshwater lake is located on the upstream of River Nak-dong. It has 51.5 km2 of open surface water and 1.33 year of hydraulic residence time. It is a source of drinking water for 0.3 million S. Koreans. Recently, the possibilities of its mercury contamination became an issue since current studies showed that the lake had much higher mercury level in sediment and certain freshwater fish species than any other lakes in S. Korea. This catchments area has the possibilities of historical mercury pollution by the location of more than 50 abandoned gold mines and Young-poong zinc smelter. The objective of this study was to develop a mercury mass balance and identify possible mercury sources in the lake. The results of this study are thus expected to offer valuable insights for the sources of mercury loading through the watershed. In order to estimate the mercury flux, TGM, RGM and particulate mercury were measured using TEKRAN 2537 at the five sites surrounding Lake An-dong from May, 2009 with wet and dry deposition. The fate and transport of mercury in water body were predicted by using EFDC (Environmental Dynamic Fluid Code) and Mercury module in WASP7 (Water quality analysis program) after subsequent distribution into water body, sediments, followed by bioaccumulation and ultimate uptake by humans. The mercury mass balance in Young-poong zinc smelter was also pre-estimated by measuring mercury content in zinc ores, emission gases, sludge, wastewater and products.

  2. Using Terrain Analysis and Remote Sensing to Improve Snow Mass Balance and Runoff Prediction (United States)

    Venteris, E. R.; Coleman, A. M.; Wigmosta, M. S.


    Approximately 70-80% of the water in the international Columbia River basin is sourced from snowmelt. The demand for this water has competing needs, as it is used for agricultural irrigation, municipal, hydro and nuclear power generation, and environmental in-stream flow requirements. Accurate forecasting of water supply is essential for planning current needs and prediction of future demands due to growth and climate change. A significant limitation on current forecasting is spatial and temporal uncertainty in snowpack characteristics, particularly snow water equivalent. Currently, point measurements of snow mass balance are provided by the NRCS SNOTEL network. Each site consists of a snow mass sensor and meteorology station that monitors snow water equivalent, snow depth, precipitation, and temperature. There are currently 152 sites in the mountains of Oregon and Washington. An important step in improving forecasts is determining how representative each SNOTEL site is of the total mass balance of the watershed through a full accounting of the spatiotemporal variability in snowpack processes. This variation is driven by the interaction between meteorological processes, land cover, and landform. Statistical and geostatistical spatial models relate the state of the snowpack (characterized through SNOTEL, snow course measurements, and multispectral remote sensing) to terrain attributes derived from digital elevation models (elevation, aspect, slope, compound topographic index, topographic shading, etc.) and land cover. Time steps representing the progression of the snow season for several meteorologically distinct water years are investigated to identify and quantify dominant physical processes. The spatially distributed snow balance data can be used directly as model inputs to improve short- and long-range hydrologic forecasts.

  3. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the conventional activated sludge treatment process: fate and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini


    The fate and the mass balance of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the conventional activated sludge treatment process were investigated in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The POPs of interest were 7 polychlorinated biphenyls and 19 organochlorine pesticides. Target compounds were determined at six different points across the treatment system: the influent, the effluent of the primary sedimentation tank, the effluent of the secondary sedimentation tank, the primary sludge, the activated sludge from the recirculation stream, and the digested/dewatered sludge. The distribution of POPs between the dissolved and the adsorbed phases of wastewater and sludge was investigated. A good linear relationship between the distribution coefficients, K d , and the octanol-water partition coefficients, K ow , of the solutes was observed only in raw wastewater, suggesting that other factors affect the phase distribution of organic compounds in treated wastewater. For all POPs, a significant increase in partitioning with a decreasing solids concentration was observed, revealing an effect from non-settling microparticles remaining in the 'dissolved' phase during the separation procedure. A good linear relationship was also revealed between logK d and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of wastewater, suggesting that DOC favors the advective transport of POPs in the dissolved phase. Almost all POPs showed good mass balance agreements at both the primary and the secondary treatment. The losses observed for some species could be attributed to biodegradation/biotransformation rather than volatilization. The relative distribution between the treated effluent and the waste sludge streams varied largely among different compounds, with p-p'-DDE being highly accumulated in the waste sludge (98%) but almost 60% of α-HCH remaining in the treated effluent

  4. Speciation distribution and mass balance of copper and zinc in urban rain, sediments, and road runoff. (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaojun; Fu, Dafang; Li, He


    Heavy metal pollution in road runoff had caused widespread concern since the last century. However, there are little references on metal speciation in multiple environmental media (e.g., rain, road sediments, and road runoff). Our research targeted the investigation of metal speciation in rain, road sediments, and runoff; the analysis of speciation variation and mass balance of metals among rain, road sediments, and runoff; the selection of main factors by principal component analysis (PCA); and the establishment of equation to evaluate the impact of rain and road sediments to metals in road runoff. Sequential extraction procedure contains five steps for the chemical fractionation of metals. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (Shimadzu, AA-6800) was used to determine metal speciation concentration, as well as the total and dissolved fractions. The dissolved fractions for both Cu and Zn were dominant in rain. The speciation distribution of Zn was different from that of Cu in road sediments, while speciation distribution of Zn is similar to that of Cu in runoff. The bound to carbonates for both Cu and Zn in road sediments were prone to be dissolved by rain. The levels of Cu and Zn in runoff were not obviously influenced by rain, but significantly influenced by road sediments. The masses for both Cu and Zn among rain, road sediments, and road runoff approximately meet the mass balance equation for all rainfall patterns. Five principal factors were selected for metal regression equation based on PCA, including rainfall, average rainfall intensity, antecedent dry periods, total suspended particles, and temperature. The established regression equations could be used to predict the effect of road runoff on receiving environments.

  5. Relative performance of empirical and physical models in assessing the seasonal and annual glacier surface mass balance of Saint-Sorlin Glacier (French Alps) (United States)

    Réveillet, Marion; Six, Delphine; Vincent, Christian; Rabatel, Antoine; Dumont, Marie; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Morin, Samuel; Vionnet, Vincent; Litt, Maxime


    This study focuses on simulations of the seasonal and annual surface mass balance (SMB) of Saint-Sorlin Glacier (French Alps) for the period 1996-2015 using the detailed SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus snowpack model. The model is forced by SAFRAN meteorological reanalysis data, adjusted with automatic weather station (AWS) measurements to ensure that simulations of all the energy balance components, in particular turbulent fluxes, are accurately represented with respect to the measured energy balance. Results indicate good model performance for the simulation of summer SMB when using meteorological forcing adjusted with in situ measurements. Model performance however strongly decreases without in situ meteorological measurements. The sensitivity of the model to meteorological forcing indicates a strong sensitivity to wind speed, higher than the sensitivity to ice albedo. Compared to an empirical approach, the model exhibited better performance for simulations of snow and firn melting in the accumulation area and similar performance in the ablation area when forced with meteorological data adjusted with nearby AWS measurements. When such measurements were not available close to the glacier, the empirical model performed better. Our results suggest that simulations of the evolution of future mass balance using an energy balance model require very accurate meteorological data. Given the uncertainties in the temporal evolution of the relevant meteorological variables and glacier surface properties in the future, empirical approaches based on temperature and precipitation could be more appropriate for simulations of glaciers in the future.

  6. Relative performance of empirical and physical models in assessing the seasonal and annual glacier surface mass balance of Saint-Sorlin Glacier (French Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Réveillet


    Full Text Available This study focuses on simulations of the seasonal and annual surface mass balance (SMB of Saint-Sorlin Glacier (French Alps for the period 1996–2015 using the detailed SURFEX/ISBA-Crocus snowpack model. The model is forced by SAFRAN meteorological reanalysis data, adjusted with automatic weather station (AWS measurements to ensure that simulations of all the energy balance components, in particular turbulent fluxes, are accurately represented with respect to the measured energy balance. Results indicate good model performance for the simulation of summer SMB when using meteorological forcing adjusted with in situ measurements. Model performance however strongly decreases without in situ meteorological measurements. The sensitivity of the model to meteorological forcing indicates a strong sensitivity to wind speed, higher than the sensitivity to ice albedo. Compared to an empirical approach, the model exhibited better performance for simulations of snow and firn melting in the accumulation area and similar performance in the ablation area when forced with meteorological data adjusted with nearby AWS measurements. When such measurements were not available close to the glacier, the empirical model performed better. Our results suggest that simulations of the evolution of future mass balance using an energy balance model require very accurate meteorological data. Given the uncertainties in the temporal evolution of the relevant meteorological variables and glacier surface properties in the future, empirical approaches based on temperature and precipitation could be more appropriate for simulations of glaciers in the future.

  7. The origin of groundwater salinity in granitic rocks: identification and characterisation of chloride sources; Origine de la salinite des eaux souterraines en milieu granitique: identification et caracterisation des sources de chlorure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, S.


    Hydrogeological research in crystalline rocks, developed either in geothermics or in feasibility studies for geological disposal of radioactive waste, points out a wide range of chloride contents in associated groundwaters. The aim of this dissertation is to identify the possible origins of chloride in groundwaters within different geological conditions. The three possible chloride reservoirs (chloride-bearing minerals, fluid inclusions, micro-porosity) located in rock have been characterised by studying samples from eight granitic sites with different technical approaches (electronic microbeam, alkaline fusion, micro-thermometry, crush-leaching, diffusion experiment). Firstly, this allows the definition of a new typology of the sites, by considering not only hydrogeological features but also occurrence of salt-rich fluid inclusions with sedimentary origin. Secondly, the use of tracers (such as Cl/Br ratio, {delta}{sup 37}Cl) and mass balance calculations shows that the contribution of fluid inclusions trapped in quartz and chloride-bearing minerals cannot account for the high salinity of groundwater. In this case, the chloride origin could be of sedimentary type. Chloride would be stored in micro-porosity and in fluid inclusions trapped in carbonates. Thirdly, we have pointed out the importance of micro-porosity, acting more as a sieve and a buffer than as a source. Finally, we have shown that the low salinity of groundwaters has not always an internal origin. (author) 187 refs.

  8. Mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet - a study of ICESat data, surface density and firn compaction modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L. S.; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Nielsen, K.


    ICESat has provided surface elevation measurements of the ice sheets since the launch in January 2003, resulting in a unique data set for monitoring the changes of the cryosphere. Here we present a novel method for determining the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet derived from ICESat...... in estimating the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet. We find firn dynamics and surface densities to be important factors in deriving the mass loss from remote sensing altimetry. The volume change derived from ICESat data is corrected for firn compaction, vertical bedrock movement and an intercampaign...... boundary conditions. We find an annual mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet of 210 ± 21 Gt yr-1 in the period from October 2003 to March 2008. This result is in good agreement with other studies of the Greenland ice sheet mass balance, based on different remote sensing techniques....

  9. Downscaling of the global climate model data for the mass balance calculation of mountain glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Morozova


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a hybrid method of downscaling of the GCM‑generated meteorological fields to the characteristic spatial resolution which is usually used for modeling of a single mountain glacier mass balance. The main purpose of the study is to develop a reliable forecasting method to evaluate future state of moun‑ tain glaciation under changing climatic conditions. The method consists of two stages. In the first or dynamical stage, we use results of calculations of the regional numerical model HadRM3P for the Black Sea‑Caspian region with a spatial resolution of 25 km [22]. Initial conditions for the HadRM3P were provided by the GCM devel‑ oped in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of RAS (INMCM4 [18]. Calculations were carried out for two time periods: the present climate (1971–2000 and climate in the late 21st century (2071–2100 according to the scenario of greenhouse gas emissions RCP 8.5. On the second stage of downscaling, further regionalization is achieved by projecting of RCM‑generated data to the high‑resolution (25 m digital altitude model in a domain enclosing a target glacier. Altitude gradients of the surface air temperature and precipitation were derived from the model data. Further on, both were corrected using data of observations. Incoming shortwave radiation was calculated in the mass balance model separately, taking into account characteristics of the slope, i.e. exposition and shading of each cell. Then, the method was tested for glaciers Marukh (Western Caucasus and Jankuat (Central Caucasus, both for the present‑day and for future climates. At the end of the 21st century, the air tem‑ perature rise predicted for the summer months was calculated to be about 5–6 °C, and the result for the winter to be minus 2–3 °C. Change in annual precipitation is not significant, less than 10%. Increase in the total short‑ wave radiation will be about 5%. These changes will result in the fact that

  10. Mass balance and hydrological contribution of glaciers in northern and central Chile (United States)

    MacDonell, Shelley; Vivero, Sebastian; McPhee, James; Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Campos, Cristian; Caro, Dennys; Ponce, Rodrigo


    Water is a critical resource in the northern and central regions of Chile, as the area supports more than 40% of the country's population, and the regional economy depends on agricultural production and mining, which are two industries that rely heavily on a consistent water supply. Due to relatively low rates of rainfall, meltwater from snow and ice bodies in the highland areas provides a key component of the annual water supply in these areas. Consequently, accurate estimates of the rates of ablation of the cryosphere (i.e. snow and ice) are crucial for predicting current supply rates, and future projections. Whilst snow is generally a larger contributor of freshwater, during periods of drought, glaciers provide a significant source. This study aims to determine the contribution of glaciers to two catchments in northern and central Chile during a 2.5 year period, which largely consisted of extreme dry periods, but also included the recent El Niño event. This study combined field and modelling studies to understand glacier and rock glacier contributions in the Tapado (30°S), Yeso (33°S) catchments. In the field we undertook glaciological mass balance monitoring of three glaciers, monitored albedo and snow line changes using automatic cameras for three glaciers, measured discharge continuously at several points, installed six automatic weather stations and used thermistors to monitor thermal regime changes of two rock glaciers. The combination of these datasets where used to drive energy balance and hydrological models to estimate the contribution of ice bodies to streamflow in the two studied catchments. Over the course of the study all glaciers maintained a negative mass balance, however glaciers in central Chile lost more mass, which is due to the higher melt rates experienced due to lower elevations and higher temperatures. Areas free of debris generally contributed more to streamflow than sediment covered regions, and snow generally contributed more over

  11. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berger


    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  12. A Model Approach for Finding Cleaning Solutions for Plasticized Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Surfaces of Collections Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz Landaluze, Jon; Egsgaard, Helge; Morales Munoz, Clara


    This study focused on developing a surface cleaning treatment for one type of commercially available plasticized poly(vinyl chloride). The effects of cleaning solutions on samples of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) were examined by several methods. The sample surface, prior to and after artifici...

  13. Development and validation of a rapid ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method for the assay of benzalkonium chloride using a quality-by-design approach. (United States)

    Mallik, Rangan; Raman, Srividya; Liang, Xiaoli; Grobin, Adam W; Choudhury, Dilip


    A rapid robust reversed-phase UHPLC method has been developed for the analysis of total benzalkonium chloride in preserved drug formulation. A systematic Quality-by-Design (QbD) method development approach using commercial, off the shelf software (Fusion AE(®)) has been used to optimize the column, mobile phases, gradient time, and other HPLC conditions. Total benzalkonium chloride analysis involves simple sample preparation. The method uses gradient elution from an ACE Excel 2 C18-AR column (50mm×2.1mm, 2.0μm particle size), ammonium phosphate buffer (pH 3.3; 10mM) as aqueous mobile phase and methanol/acetonitrile (85/15, v/v) as the organic mobile phase with UV detection at 214nm. Using these conditions, major homologs of the benzalkonium chloride (C12 and C14) have been separated in less than 2.0min. The validation results confirmed that the method is precise, accurate and linear at concentrations ranging from 0.025mg/mL to 0.075mg/mL for total benzalkonium chloride. The recoveries ranged from 99% to 103% at concentrations from 0.025mg/mL to 0.075mg/mL for total benzalkonium chloride. The validation results also confirmed the robustness of the method as predicted by Fusion AE(®). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of adjusting model inputs to achieve mass balance on time-dynamic simulations in a food-web model of Lake Huron (United States)

    Langseth, Brian J.; Jones, Michael L.; Riley, Stephen C.


    Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is a widely used modeling tool in fishery research and management. Ecopath requires a mass-balanced snapshot of a food web at a particular point in time, which Ecosim then uses to simulate changes in biomass over time. Initial inputs to Ecopath, including estimates for biomasses, production to biomass ratios, consumption to biomass ratios, and diets, rarely produce mass balance, and thus ad hoc changes to inputs are required to balance the model. There has been little previous research of whether ad hoc changes to achieve mass balance affect Ecosim simulations. We constructed an EwE model for the offshore community of Lake Huron, and balanced the model using four contrasting but realistic methods. The four balancing methods were based on two contrasting approaches; in the first approach, production of unbalanced groups was increased by increasing either biomass or the production to biomass ratio, while in the second approach, consumption of predators on unbalanced groups was decreased by decreasing either biomass or the consumption to biomass ratio. We compared six simulation scenarios based on three alternative assumptions about the extent to which mortality rates of prey can change in response to changes in predator biomass (i.e., vulnerabilities) under perturbations to either fishing mortality or environmental production. Changes in simulated biomass values over time were used in a principal components analysis to assess the comparative effect of balancing method, vulnerabilities, and perturbation types. Vulnerabilities explained the most variation in biomass, followed by the type of perturbation. Choice of balancing method explained little of the overall variation in biomass. Under scenarios where changes in predator biomass caused large changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., high vulnerabilities), variation in biomass was greater than when changes in predator biomass caused only small changes in mortality rates of prey (i.e., low

  15. Greenland Surface Mass Balance as Simulated by the Community Earth System Model. Part II: Twenty-First-Century Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.; Sacks, W.J.; van den Broeke, M.R.


    This study presents the first twenty-first-century projections of surface mass balance (SMB) changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) with the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which includes a new ice sheet component. For glaciated surfaces, CESM includes a sophisticated calculation of energy

  16. A Simplified Model of Human Alcohol Metabolism That Integrates Biotechnology and Human Health into a Mass Balance Team Project (United States)

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Dimiduk, Kathryn; Daniel, Susan


    We present a simplified human alcohol metabolism model for a mass balance team project. Students explore aspects of engineering in biotechnology: designing/modeling biological systems, testing the design/model, evaluating new conditions, and exploring cutting-edge "lab-on-a-chip" research. This project highlights chemical engineering's impact on…

  17. Mass balance and long-term fate of PCDD/Fs in a lagoon sediment and paddy soil, Niigata, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Mizuki [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Science, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)], E-mail:; Seike, Nobuyasu [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Science, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)], E-mail:; Kobayashi, Jun [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan)], E-mail:; Kajihara, Hideo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)], E-mail:; Takahashi, Yukio [Academic Assembly Institute of Science and Technology, Niigata University, 2-8050 Ikarashi, Niigata City 950-2181 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in a sediment core and in samples of surface sediment and paddy soil collected from the Toyano lagoon and Kameda basin in Niigata, Japan, were analyzed to elucidate the temporal trends of their concentrations in the lagoon sediment and the relationship between the sediment and the paddy soil. The mass balance of these pollutants was also estimated to determine their long-term fate in surface waters. An analysis by chemical mass balance identified the agrochemicals pentachlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl 4-nitrophenyl ether as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. On the basis of the findings regarding the mass balance in the Kameda basin over the last 40 years, we estimate that more than half the input of PCDD/Fs to the Kameda basin has disappeared. We suggest that the PCDD/Fs that flowed out from the paddy fields have been transferred to the lower basin. - The long-term mass balance of PCDD/Fs in sediments from paddy soil is elucidated.

  18. Elevation change of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to surface mass balance and firn processes, 1960-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.; Ligtenberg, S. R M; Noël, B. P Y; Howat, I. M.; Box, J. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; McConnell, J. R.; Steffen, K.; Harper, J. T.; Das, S. B.; Van Den Broeke, M. R.


    Observed changes in the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet are caused by ice dynamics, basal elevation change, basal melt, surface mass balance (SMB) variability, and by compaction of the overlying firn. The last two contributions are quantified here using a firn model that includes

  19. Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study Post Audit: Integrated, Multi-media PCB Modeling and Forecasting for Lake Trout (United States)

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  20. Estimating Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallee, H


    We report future projections of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) obtained with the regional climate model MAR, forced by the outputs of three CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs) when considering two different warming scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). The GCMs

  1. Glacier mass balance and its potential impacts in the Altai Mountains over the period 1990-2011 (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Kitabata, Hideyuki; Kadota, Tsutomu; Hirabayashi, Yukiko


    The Altai Mountains contain 1281 glaciers covering an area of 1191 km2. These glaciers have undergone significant changes in glacial length and area over the past decade. However, mass changes of these glaciers and their impacts remain poorly understood. Here we present surface mass balances of all glaciers in the region for the period 1990-2011, using a glacier mass-balance model forced by the outputs of a regional climate model. Our results indicate that the mean specific mass balance for the whole region is about -0.69 m w.e. yr-1 over the entire period, and about 81.3% of these glaciers experience negative net mass balance. We detect an accelerated wastage of these glaciers in recent years, and marked differences in mass change and its sensitivity to climate change for different regions and size classes. In particular, higher mass loss and temperature sensitivity are observed for glaciers smaller than 0.5 km2. In addition to temperature rise, a decrease in precipitation in the western part of the region and an increase in precipitation in the eastern part likely contribute to significant sub-region differences in mass loss. With significant glacier wastage, the contribution of all glaciers to regional water resources and sea-level change becomes larger than before, but may not be a potential threat to human populations through impacts on water availability.

  2. Glacier mass balance in high-arctic areas with anomalous gravity (United States)

    Sharov, A.; Rieser, D.; Nikolskiy, D.


    All known glaciological models describing the evolution of Arctic land- and sea-ice masses in changing climate treat the Earth's gravity as horizontally constant, but it isn't. In the High Arctic, the strength of the gravitational field varies considerably across even short distances under the influence of a density gradient, and the magnitude of free air gravity anomalies attains 100 mGal and more. On long-term base, instantaneous deviations of gravity can have a noticeable effect on the regime and mass budget of glaciological objects. At best, the gravity-induced component of ice mass variations can be determined on topographically smooth, open and steady surfaces, like those of arctic planes, regular ice caps and landfast sea ice. The present research is devoted to studying gravity-driven impacts on glacier mass balance in the outer periphery of four Eurasian shelf seas with a very cold, dry climate and rather episodic character of winter precipitation. As main study objects we had chosen a dozen Russia's northernmost insular ice caps, tens to hundreds of square kilometres in extent, situated in a close vicinity of strong gravity anomalies and surrounded with extensive fields of fast and/or drift ice for most of the year. The supposition about gravitational forcing on glacioclimatic settings in the study region is based on the results of quantitative comparison and joint interpretation of existing glacier change maps and available data on the Arctic gravity field and solid precipitation. The overall mapping of medium-term (from decadal to half-centennial) changes in glacier volumes and quantification of mass balance characteristics in the study region was performed by comparing reference elevation models of study glaciers derived from Russian topographic maps 1:200,000 (CI = 20 or 40 m) representing the glacier state as in the 1950s-1980s with modern elevation data obtained from satellite radar interferometry and lidar altimetry. Free-air gravity anomalies were

  3. Re-assessment of recent (2008–2013 surface mass balance over Dome Argus, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghu Ding


    Full Text Available At Dome Argus, East Antarctica, the surface mass balance (SMB from 2008 to 2013 was evaluated using 49 stakes installed across a 30×30 km area. Spatial analysis showed that at least 12 and 20 stakes are needed to obtain reliable estimates of SMB at local scales (a few hundred square metres and regional scales (tens of square kilometres, respectively. The estimated annual mean SMB was 22.9±5.9 kg m−2 yr−1, including a net loss by sublimation of −2.22±0.02 kg m−2 yr−1 and a mass gain by deposition of 1.37±0.01 kg m−2 yr−1. Therefore, ca. 14.3% of precipitation was modified after deposition, which should be considered when interpreting snow or ice core records produced by future drilling projects. The surface snow density and SMB in the western portion of Dome Argus are higher than in other areas, and these differences are likely related to the katabatic wind, which is strengthened by topography in this sector. A new digital elevation model (DEM of Dome Argus was generated, confirming that both peaks of the dome can be considered as the summit of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Findings from this study should be valuable for validating SMB estimates obtained from regional climate models and DEMs established using remote-sensing data.

  4. Challenges for Greenland-wide mass balance from Cryosat-2 radar-altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    As the Greenland ice sheet warms, a change in the structure of the upper snow/firn occurs. This change further induces changes in the reflective properties of the firn seen from satellite radar altimetry. If not identified as changes in the reflective properties of the firn, these may be interpre......As the Greenland ice sheet warms, a change in the structure of the upper snow/firn occurs. This change further induces changes in the reflective properties of the firn seen from satellite radar altimetry. If not identified as changes in the reflective properties of the firn, these may...... be interpreted as actual surface elevation changes seen from the satellite radar altimetry (Nilsson et al., 2015).Here, we investigate how to correct the elevation change observed from the ESA Cryosat-2 radar altimetry mission to derive elevation change of the air/snow interface of the Greenland ice sheet....... The elevation change of this “real” physical surface is crucial, if the goal is to derive Greenland mass balance as done for LiDAR missions.The investigations look into waveform parameters to correct for the observed bias between Radar and LiDAR observations when using Croysat-2 level-2 data. Based...

  5. Characterization and mass balance of trace elements in an iron ore sinter plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ladeira Lau


    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is becoming more restrictive in several industrial sectors, especially in the steel industry, which is well known for its large pollution potential. With the recent growth of interest in effects of trace elements on the environment and health, the inclusion of emission limits on these elements in this legislation has become increasingly popular. This article aims to describe the partitioning of trace elements between the products (sinter and plant emissions in an iron ore sinter plant, aiming to better understand the behavior of these elements in the sintering process to eventually support interventions to modify these partitions. Chemical characterization of several sintering inputs was initially performed, revealing that the steel-making residues contained large concentrations of trace elements, whereas low concentrations were observed in the flux. Based on the trace element concentrations, we analyzed the injection of trace elements in a sintering pilot using a sintering mixture. Mass balance was then used to determine the theoretical partitioning of trace elements in the sinter and emissions; cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, and copper exhibited greater tendencies to concentrate in atmospheric emissions.

  6. Mass balance to assess the efficiency of a mechanical-biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Morais, J. de; Ducom, G.; Achour, F.; Rouez, M.; Bayard, R.


    Using mechanical-biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste, it is possible to significantly lower landfill volume and gas and leachate emissions. Moreover, the landfill characteristics are improved. The performance of the Mende (France) mechanical-biological treatment plant is assessed via mass balances coupled with manual sorting according to the MODECOM TM methodology and biochemical methane potential after 90 days of incubation. The site includes mechanical sorting operations, a rotary sequential bioreactor, controlled aerobic stabilisation corridors, maturation platforms, and a sanitary landfill site for waste disposal in separated cells. Results showed that several steps could be improved: after a first sieving step, about 12% of the potentially biodegradable matter is landfilled directly without any treatment; mechanical disintegration of papers and cardboards in the rotary sequential bioreactor is insufficient and leads to a high proportion of papers and cardboards being landfilled without further treatment. Two fine fractions go through stabilisation and maturation steps. At the end of the maturation step, about 54% of the potentially biodegradable matter is degraded. The biochemical methane potential after 90 days of incubation is reduced by 81% for one of the two fine fractions and reduced by 88% for the other one. Considering the whole plant, there is a reduction of nearly 20% DM of the entering residual municipal solid waste

  7. Mass Balance Applied to Brazilian Conventional Broiler Houses during One Production Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Migliavacca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil plays an important role in global poultry production as it is the world's largest chicken exporter and the third largest broiler producer. Despite the development achieved by the Brazilian broiler industry as a result of the integrated production system, many obstacles still need to be overcome, in particular, housing environment. In this regard, detailed knowledge of the inputs, outputs, and primary waste generated by broiler production cycles is essential to establish a baseline for energy balance research studies and to develop environmental solutions. This article proposes a mass balance of conventional broiler houses of southern Brazil sheds in order to predict their outputs, but that may also be applicable to other regions with similar climate. Control volumes considered the heating, cooling, and rearing processes. All generated products and wastes were estimated considering litter production and the total production per cycle. Despite the variety of the microclimates, the results were very close to those reported in experiments, indicating that this model is adequate for this kind of estimation.

  8. Mass balance analysis of triclosan, diethyltoluamide, crotamiton and carbamazepine in sewage treatment plants. (United States)

    Nakada, N; Yasojima, M; Okayasu, Y; Komori, K; Suzuki, Y


    The behavior of antibacterial triclosan, insect-repellent diethyltoluamide (DEET), anticonvulsant carbamazepine, and antipruritic crotamiton was investigated at two sewage treatment plants (STPs) to clarify their complete mass balance. Twenty-four-hour flow-proportional composite samples were collected from the influent and effluent of primary and final sedimentation tanks, a biofiltration tank and disinfection tanks. Sludge samples (i.e., activated and excess sludge) and samples of the return flow from the sludge treatment process were collected in the same manner. The analytes in both the dissolved and particulate phases were individually determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer. Triclosan was dominantly detected in the particulate phase especially in the early stage of treatment (up to 83%) and was efficiently removed (over 90%) in STPs, mainly by sorption to sewage sludge. Limited removal was observed for DEET (55+/-24%), while no significant removal was demonstrated for crotamiton or carbamazepine. The solid-water distribution coefficients (K(d), n=4) for triclosan (log K(d): 3.7-5.1), DEET (1.3-1.9) and crotamiton (1.1-1.6) in the sludge samples are also determined in this study. These findings indicate the limitations of current sewage treatment techniques for the removal of these water-soluble drugs (i.e. DEET, carbamazepine, and crotamiton).

  9. Using a mass balance to determine the potency loss during the production of a pharmaceutical blend. (United States)

    Mackaplow, Michael B


    The manufacture of a blend containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and inert excipients is a precursor for the production of most pharmaceutical capsules and tablets. However, if there is a net water gain or preferential loss of API during production, the potency of the final drug product may be less than the target value. We use a mass balance to predict the mean potency loss during the production of a blend via wet granulation and fluidized bed drying. The result is an explicit analytical equation for the change in blend potency a function of net water gain, solids losses (both regular and high-potency), and the fraction of excipients added extragranularly. This model predicts that each 1% gain in moisture content (as determined by a loss on drying test) will decrease the API concentration of the final blend at least 1% LC. The effect of pre-blend solid losses increases with their degree of superpotency. This work supports Quality by Design by providing a rational method to set the process design space to minimize blend potency losses. When an overage is necessary, the model can help justify it by providing a quantitative, first-principles understanding of the sources of potency loss. The analysis is applicable to other manufacturing processes where the primary sources of potency loss are net water gain and/or mass losses.

  10. A mass balance of tri-hexabrominated diphenyl ethers in lactating cows. (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; De Wit, Cynthia A; Asplund, Lillemor; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C


    Beef and dairy products can be important vectors of human exposure to polybrominated diphenylethers (BDEs), and hence an understanding of BDE transfer from feed to cows' milk and tissue is important for BDE exposure assessment The fate of tri- to hexaBDEs in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet was studied by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a mass balance study. Tissue distribution was studied in one cowslaughtered afterthe experiment The carryover rates from feed to milk ranged from 0.15 to 0.35 for the major congeners. Lower values were observed for several of the tetrabrominated congeners, and this was attributed to metabolism. The dietary absorption efficiency decreased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the BDE congener. The absorption behavior was consistent with a model based on chemical lipophilicity, but agreed less well with a model based on effective molecular diameter, and it violated Lipinski's "rule of 5". The lipid normalized concentrations were similar in all tissues analyzed including liver and milk, suggesting that tissue distribution is governed by partitioning into lipids. Overall, the behavior of the tri- to hexaBDEs was consistent with that observed for other classes of halogenated aromatic contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs, but it differed markedly from the behavior of the hepta- decaBDEs.

  11. Mass balance of decabromodiphenyl ethane and decabromodiphenyl ether in a WWTP. (United States)

    Ricklund, Niklas; Kierkegaard, Amelie; McLachlan, Michael S; Wahlberg, Cajsa


    The additive flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) has been identified in the environment, but little is known about its environmental behaviour. It is structurally similar to decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), making it conceivable that it may also become an environmental contaminant of concern. In this study a mass balance of deBDethane and decaBDE was undertaken in a modern WWTP in Stockholm serving 7.05x10(5) inhabitants. Flow proportional samples of plant influent and effluent as well as daily grab samples of digested sludge were collected during two 7-day periods. All samples were analyzed with GC/HRMS using isotope labelled internal standards. The mean mass flows of deBDethane and decaBDE to the WWTP were 6.0 g per day and 55 g per day, respectively. Of this, less than 1% of both BFRs left the WWTP via the effluent, while the bulk was sequestered into the digested sludge, where the mean concentrations of deBDethane and decaBDE were 81 and 800 ng g(-1)d.wt., respectively. It is concluded that the transfer efficiency of deBDethane from the technosphere to the environment via WWTPs is similar to that of decaBDE.

  12. Aquatic worms eat sludge: Mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also be considered. This study gives the mass balances for sludge consumed by L. variegatus, showing the fate of the consumed organic material, nutrients and heavy metals associated with the sludge. A distinction is made between conversion into worm biomass, release as dissolved metabolites and what remains in the worm faeces. The results showed that 39% of the nitrogen and 12% of the phosphorus in the sludge digested by the worms are used in the formation of new worm biomass, which has potential for reuse. Experiments showed that settling of the worm faeces leads to a factor 2.5 higher solids concentration, compared to settling of waste sludge. This could lead to a 67% reduction of the volumetric load on thickening equipment. The worm reactor is expected to be most interesting for smaller WWTPs where a decrease on the volumetric load on sludge handling operations will have most impact.

  13. Mercury mass balance study in Wujiangdu and Dongfeng Reservoirs, Guizhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xinbin; Jiang Hongmei; Qiu Guangle; Yan Haiyu; Li Guanghui; Li Zhonggen


    From October 2003 to September 2004, we conducted a detailed study on the mass balance of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) of Dongfeng (DF) and Wujiangdu (WJD) reservoirs, which were constructed in 1992 and 1979, respectively. Both reservoirs were net sinks for THg on an annual scale, absorbing 3319.5 g km -2 for DF Reservoir, and 489.2 g km -2 for WJD Reservoirs, respectively. However, both reservoirs were net sources of MeHg to the downstream ecosystems. DF Reservoir provided a source of 32.9 g MeHg km -2 yr -1 , yielding 10.3% of the amount of MeHg that entered the reservoir, and WJD Reservoir provided 140.9 g MeHg km -2 yr -1 , yielding 82.5% of MeHg inputs. Our results implied that water residence time is an important variable affecting Hg methylation rate in the reservoirs. Our study shows that building a series of reservoirs in line along a river changes the riverine system into a natural Hg methylation factory which markedly increases the %MeHg in the downstream reservoirs; in effect magnifying the MeHg buildup problem in reservoirs. - Reservoirs are the sink of total mercury but source of methylmercury to the aquatic systems.

  14. A sensitivity analysis of the mass balance equation terms in subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Caldeira, Alexandre D.; Borges, Eduardo M.


    In a heated vertical channel, the subcooled flow boiling occurs when the fluid temperature reaches the saturation point, actually a small overheating, near the channel wall while the bulk fluid temperature is below this point. In this case, vapor bubbles are generated along the channel resulting in a significant increase in the heat flux between the wall and the fluid. This study is particularly important to the thermal-hydraulics analysis of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT uses the Eulerian multiphase model to analyze the subcooled flow boiling. In a previous paper, the comparison of the FLUENT results with experimental data for the void fraction presented a good agreement, both at the beginning of boiling as in nucleate boiling at the end of the channel. In the region between these two points the comparison with experimental data was not so good. Thus, a sensitivity analysis of the mass balance equation terms, steam production and condensation, was performed. Factors applied to the terms mentioned above can improve the agreement of the FLUENT results to the experimental data. Void fraction calculations show satisfactory results in relation to the experimental data in pressures values of 15, 30 and 45 bars. (author)

  15. Life cycle inventory and mass-balance of municipal food waste management systems: Decision support methods beyond the waste hierarchy. (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart


    When assessing the environmental and human health impact of a municipal food waste (FW) management system waste managers typically rely on the principles of the waste hierarchy; using metrics such as the mass or rate of waste that is 'prepared for recycling,' 'recovered for energy,' or 'sent to landfill.' These metrics measure the collection and sorting efficiency of a waste system but are incapable of determining the efficiency of a system to turn waste into a valuable resource. In this study a life cycle approach was employed using a system boundary that includes the entire waste service provision from collection to safe end-use or disposal. A life cycle inventory of seven waste management systems was calculated, including the first service wide inventory of FW management through kitchen in-sink disposal (food waste disposer). Results describe the mass, energy and water balance of each system along with key emissions profile. It was demonstrated that the energy balance can differ significantly from its' energy generation, exemplified by mechanical biological treatment, which was the best system for generating energy from waste but only 5 th best for net-energy generation. Furthermore, the energy balance of kitchen in-sink disposal was shown to be reduced because 31% of volatile solids were lost in pre-treatment. The study also confirmed that higher FW landfill diversion rates were critical for reducing many harmful emissions to air and water. Although, mass-balance analysis showed that the alternative end-use of the FW material may still contain high impact pollutants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-year analysis of distributed glacier mass balance modelling and equilibrium line altitude on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Falk, Ulrike; López, Damián A.; Silva-Busso, Adrián


    The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). This region was subject to strong warming trends in the atmospheric surface layer. Surface air temperature increased about 3 K in 50 years, concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The positive trend in surface air temperature has currently come to a halt. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K (100 m)-1) and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the wintertime over the past decades in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. Its impact on winter accumulation results in the observed negative mass balance estimates. Six years of continuous glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects as well as 5 years of climatological data time series are presented and a spatially distributed glacier energy balance melt model adapted and run based on these multi-year data sets. The glaciological surface mass balance model is generally in good agreement with observations, except for atmospheric conditions promoting snow drift by high wind speeds, turbulence-driven snow deposition and snow layer erosion by rain. No drift in the difference between simulated mass balance and mass balance measurements can be seen over the course of the 5-year model run period. The winter accumulation does not suffice to compensate for the high variability in summer ablation. The results are analysed to assess changes in meltwater input to the coastal waters, specific glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The Fourcade Glacier catchment drains

  17. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India. (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali


    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP.

  18. Solar radiation, cloudiness and longwave radiation over low-latitude glaciers: implications for mass-balance modelling (United States)

    Mölg, Thomas; Cullen, Nicolas J.; Kaser, Georg

    Broadband radiation schemes (parameterizations) are commonly used tools in glacier mass-balance modelling, but their performance at high altitude in the tropics has not been evaluated in detail. Here we take advantage of a high-quality 2 year record of global radiation (G) and incoming longwave radiation (L↓) measured on Kersten Glacier, Kilimanjaro, East Africa, at 5873 m a.s.l., to optimize parameterizations of G and L↓. We show that the two radiation terms can be related by an effective cloud-cover fraction neff, so G or L↓ can be modelled based on neff derived from measured L↓ or G, respectively. At neff = 1, G is reduced to 35% of clear-sky G, and L↓ increases by 45-65% (depending on altitude) relative to clear-sky L↓. Validation for a 1 year dataset of G and L↓ obtained at 4850 m on Glaciar Artesonraju, Peruvian Andes, yields a satisfactory performance of the radiation scheme. Whether this performance is acceptable for mass-balance studies of tropical glaciers is explored by applying the data from Glaciar Artesonraju to a physically based mass-balance model, which requires, among others, G and L↓ as forcing variables. Uncertainties in modelled mass balance introduced by the radiation parameterizations do not exceed those that can be caused by errors in the radiation measurements. Hence, this paper provides a tool for inclusion in spatially distributed mass-balance modelling of tropical glaciers and/or extension of radiation data when only G or L↓ is measured.

  19. Mass balance evolution of Martial Este Glacier, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina for the period 1960–2099

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buttstädt


    Full Text Available The Martial Este Glacier in southern Tierra del Fuego was studied in order to estimate the surface mass balance from 1960 until 2099. For this reason a degree-day model was calibrated. Air temperature and precipitation data obtained from 3 weather stations as well as glaciological measurements were applied. The model was driven using a vertical air temperature gradient of 0.69 K/100 m, a degree-day factor for snow of 4.7 mm w.e. K−1 day−1, a degree-day factor for ice of 9.4 mm w.e. K−1 day−1 and a precipitation gradient of 22%/100 m. For the purpose of surface mass balance reconstruction for the time period 1960 until 2006 a winter vertical air temperature gradient of 0.57 K/100 m and a summer vertical air temperature gradient of 0.71 K/100 m were added as well as a digital terrain model. The key finding is an almost continuous negative mass balance of −772 mm w.e. a−1 throughout this period. While the calculation of the mass balance for the period 1960–2006 is based on instrumental records, the mass balance for the years 2007 until 2099 was estimated based on the IPCC SRES A2-scenario. To accomplish this estimation, the dataset of the global climate model HadCM3 was statistically downscaled to fit local conditions at Martial Este Glacier. Subsequently, the downscaled air temperature and precipitation were applied to a volume-area scaling glacier change model. Findings reveal an enduring deglaciation resulting in a surface area reduction of nearly 93% until 2099. This implicates that the Martial Este Glacier might be melted off at the beginning of the 22nd century.

  20. Effect of enhanced manganese oxidation in the hyporheic zone on basin-scale geochemical mass balance (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Fuller, Christopher C.


    cumulative effect of hyporheic exchange in Pinal Creek basin was to remove approximately 20% of the dissolved manganese flowing out of the drainage basin. Our results illustrate that the cumulative significance of reactive uptake in the hyporheic zone depends on the balance between chemical reaction rates, hyporheic porewater residence time, and turnover of streamflow through hyporheic flow paths. The similarity between the hyporheic reaction timescale (1/λs ≈ 1.3 hours), and the hyporheic porewater residence timescale (ts ≈ 8 min) ensured that there was adequate time for the reaction to progress. Furthermore, it was the similarity between the turnover length for stream water flow through hyporheic flow paths (Ls = stream velocity/storage-zone exchange coefficient ≈ 1.3 km) and the length of Pinal Creek (L ≈ 7 km), which ensured that all stream water passed through hyporheic flow paths several times. As a means to generalize our findings to other sites where similar types of hydrologic and chemical information are available, we suggest a cumulative significance index for hyporheic reactions, Rs = λstsL/Ls (dimensionless); higher values indicate a greater potential for hyporheic reactions to influence geochemical mass balance. Our experience in Pinal Creek basin suggests that values of Rs > 0.2 characterize systems where hyporheic reactions are likely to influence geochemical mass balance at the drainage-basin scale.

  1. Overview and Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992-2009 (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.


    Mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in more recent reports lie between approximately ?50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009. The 300 Gt/year range is approximately 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (?28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. We also modify the IOM estimate using (1) an alternate extrapolation to estimate the discharge from the non-observed 15% of the periphery, and (2) substitution of input from a field data compilation for input from an atmospheric model in 6% of area. The modified IOM estimate reduces the loss from 136 Gt/year to 13 Gt/year. Two ERS-based estimates, the modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 2005 lie in a narrowed range of ?27 to -40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992 2001 is -47 Gt/year for West Antarctica, ?16 Gt/year for East Antarctica, and -31 Gt/year overall (?0.1 mm/year SLE), not including part of the Antarctic Peninsula (1.07% of the AIS area). Although recent reports of large and increasing rates of mass loss with time from GRACE-based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion

  2. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of fine and PM10 in the Desert Southwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Clements


    Full Text Available The Desert Southwest Coarse Particulate Matter Study was undertaken in Pinal County, Arizona, to better understand the origin and impact of sources of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM in rural, arid regions of the U.S. southwestern desert. The desert southwest experiences some of the highest PM10 mass concentrations in the country. To augment previously reported results, 6-week aggregated organic speciation data that included ambient concentrations of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, and saccharides were used in chemical mass balance modeling (CMB. A set of re-suspended soil samples were analyzed for specific marker species to provide locally-appropriate source profiles for the CMB analysis. These profiles, as well as previously collected plant and fungal spore profiles from the region, were combined with published source profiles for other relevant sources and used in the CMB analysis. The six new region-specific source profiles included both organic and inorganic species for four crustal material sources, one plant detritus source, and one fungal spore source.Results indicate that up to half of the ambient PM2.5 was apportioned to motor vehicles with the highest regional contribution observed in the small urban center of Casa Grande. Daily levels of apportioned crustal material accounted for up to 50% of PM2.5 mass with the highest contributions observed at the sites closest to active agricultural areas. Apportioned secondary PM, biomass burning, and road dust typically contributed less than 35% as a group to the apportioned PM2.5 mass. Crustal material was the primary source apportioned to PM10 and accounted for between 50–90% of the apportioned mass. Of the other sources apportioned to PM10, motor vehicles and road dust were the largest contributors at the urban and one of the rural sites, whereas road dust and meat cooking operations were the largest contributors at the other rural site.

  3. Precursors predicted by artificial neural networks for mass balance calculations: Quantifying hydrothermal alteration in volcanic rocks (United States)

    Trépanier, Sylvain; Mathieu, Lucie; Daigneault, Réal; Faure, Stéphane


    This study proposes an artificial neural networks-based method for predicting the unaltered (precursor) chemical compositions of hydrothermally altered volcanic rock. The method aims at predicting precursor's major components contents (SiO2, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, and K2O). The prediction is based on ratios of elements generally immobile during alteration processes; i.e. Zr, TiO2, Al2O3, Y, Nb, Th, and Cr, which are provided as inputs to the neural networks. Multi-layer perceptron neural networks were trained on a large dataset of least-altered volcanic rock samples that document a wide range of volcanic rock types, tectonic settings and ages. The precursors thus predicted are then used to perform mass balance calculations. Various statistics were calculated to validate the predictions of precursors' major components, which indicate that, overall, the predictions are precise and accurate. For example, rank-based correlation coefficients were calculated to compare predicted and analysed values from a least-altered test dataset that had not been used to train the networks. Coefficients over 0.87 were obtained for all components, except for Na2O (0.77), indicating that predictions for alkali might be less performant. Also, predictions are performant for most volcanic rock compositions, except for ultra-K rocks. The proposed method provides an easy and rapid solution to the often difficult task of determining appropriate volcanic precursor compositions to rocks modified by hydrothermal alteration. It is intended for large volcanic rock databases and is most useful, for example, to mineral exploration performed in complex or poorly known volcanic settings. The method is implemented as a simple C++ console program.

  4. Mass Balance Modeling for Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace System in Steelmaking Facility in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (I)smail Ekmek(c)i; Ya(s)ar Yetisken; (U)nal (C)amdali


    In the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production processes, scrap steel is principally used as a raw material instead of iron ore. In the steelmaking process with EAF, scrap is first melted in the furnace and then the desired chemical composition of the steel can be obtained in a special furnace such as ladle furnace (LF). This kind of furnace process is used for the secondary refining of alloy steel. LF furnace offers strong heating fluxes and enables precise temperature control, thereby allowing for the addition of desired amounts of various alloying elements. It also provides outstanding desulfurization at high-temperature treatment by reducing molten steel fluxes and removing deoxidation products. Elemental analysis with mass balance modeling is important to know the precise amount of required alloys for the LF input with respect to scrap composition. In present study, chemical reactions with mass conservation law in EAF and LF were modeled altogether as a whole system and chemical compositions of the final steel alloy output can be obtained precisely according to different scrap compositions, alloying elements ratios, and other input amounts. Besides, it was found that the mass efficiency for iron element in the system is 95.93%. These efficiencies are calculated for all input elements as 8.45% for C, 30.31% for Si, 46.36% for Mn, 30.64% for P, 41.96% for S, and 69.79% for Cr, etc. These efficiencies provide valuable ideas about the amount of the input materials that are vanished or combusted for 100 kg of each of the input materials in the EAF and LF system.

  5. Nitrogen emissions from broilers measured by mass balance over eighteen consecutive flocks. (United States)

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B


    Emission of nitrogen in the form of ammonia from poultry rearing facilities has been an important topic for the poultry industry because of concerns regarding the effects of ammonia on the environment. Sound scientific data is needed to accurately estimate air emissions from poultry operations. Many factors, such as season of the year, ambient temperature and humidity, bird health, and management practices can influence ammonia volatilization from broiler rearing facilities. Precise results are often difficult to attain from commercial facilities, particularly over long periods of time. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine nitrogen loss from broilers in a research facility under conditions simulating commercial production for 18 consecutive flocks. Broilers were reared to 40 to 42 d of age and fed diets obtained from a commercial broiler integrator. New rice hulls were used for litter for the first flock, and the same litter was recycled for all subsequent flocks with caked litter removed between flocks. All birds, feeds, and litter materials entering and leaving the facility were quantified, sampled, and analyzed for total nitrogen content. Nitrogen loss was calculated by the mass balance method in which loss was equal to the difference between the nitrogen inputs and the nitrogen outputs. Nitrogen partitioning as a percentage of inputs averaged 15.29, 6.84, 55.52, 1.27, and 21.08% for litter, caked litter, broiler carcasses, mortalities, and nitrogen loss, respectively, over all eighteen flocks. During the production of 18 flocks of broilers on the same recycled litter, the average nitrogen emission rate was calculated to range from 4.13 to 19.74 g of N/ kg of marketed broiler (grams of nitrogen per kilogram) and averaged 11.07 g of N/kg. Nitrogen loss was significantly (P broiler grow-out facilities varies significantly on a flock-to-flock basis.

  6. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance: evaluating simulations and making projections with regional climate models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. L. Rae


    Full Text Available Four high-resolution regional climate models (RCMs have been set up for the area of Greenland, with the aim of providing future projections of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB, and its contribution to sea level rise, with greater accuracy than is possible from coarser-resolution general circulation models (GCMs. This is the first time an intercomparison has been carried out of RCM results for Greenland climate and SMB. Output from RCM simulations for the recent past with the four RCMs is evaluated against available observations. The evaluation highlights the importance of using a detailed snow physics scheme, especially regarding the representations of albedo and meltwater refreezing. Simulations with three of the RCMs for the 21st century using SRES scenario A1B from two GCMs produce trends of between −5.5 and −1.1 Gt yr−2 in SMB (equivalent to +0.015 and +0.003 mm sea level equivalent yr−2, with trends of smaller magnitude for scenario E1, in which emissions are mitigated. Results from one of the RCMs whose present-day simulation is most realistic indicate that an annual mean near-surface air temperature increase over Greenland of ~ 2°C would be required for the mass loss to increase such that it exceeds accumulation, thereby causing the SMB to become negative, which has been suggested as a threshold beyond which the ice sheet would eventually be eliminated.

  7. Imaging spectroscopy to assess the composition of ice surface materials and their impact on glacier mass balance (United States)

    Naegeli, Kathrin; Huss, Matthias; Damm, Alexander; de Jong, Rogier; Schaepman, Michael; Hoelzle, Martin


    The ice-albedo feedback plays a crucial role in various glaciological processes, but especially influences ice melt. Glacier surface albedo is one of the most important variables in the energy balance of snow and ice, but depends in a complicated way on many factors, such as cryoconite concentration, impurities due to mineral dust, soot or organic matter, grain size or ice surface morphology. Our understanding on how these various factors influence glacier albedo is still limited hindering a spatially and temporally explicit parameterization of energy balance models and requiring strongly simplified assumptions on actual albedo values. Over the last two decades, several studies have focused on glacier surface albedo using automatic in-situ weather stations in combination with radiation measurement setups or satellite images. Due to limitations of both approaches in matching either the spatial or the temporal length scale of glacier albedo, still fairly little is known about the state, changes and impact of glacier surface albedo in the Swiss Alps, although there are obvious changes in surface characteristics on most alpine glaciers over the last years. With use of the APEX (Airborne Prism EXperiment) image spectrometer, measurements of reflected radiation were acquired in high spatial and spectral resolution on Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland, to explicitly analyse the ice surface. In-situ radiometric measurements were acquired with an ASD field spectrometer in parallel to APEX overflights. These data are intended to be used for validation purposes as well as input data for the linear spectral unmixing analysis of the APEX data. Seasonal glacier mass balance is monitored since five years using the direct glaciological method. This contribution presents a first evaluation of the data collected in summer 2013. The obtained in-situ and airborne reflectance measurements were used in combination with a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) approach to assess the

  8. Rates and time scales of clay-mineral formation by weathering in saprolitic regoliths of the southern Appalachians from geochemical mass balance (United States)

    Jason R. Price; Michael A. Velbel; Lina C. Patino


    Rates of clay formation in three watersheds located at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, western North Carolina, have been determined from solute flux-based mass balance methods. A system of mass balance equations with enough equations and unknowns to allow calculation of secondary mineral formation rates as well as the more commonly determined primary-...

  9. E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Vadose Zone Model: Confirmation of Water Mass Balance for Subsidence Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    In preparation for the next revision of the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) Performance Assessment (PA), a mass balance model was developed in Microsoft Excel to confirm correct implementation of intact- and subsided-area infiltration profiles for the proposed closure cap in the PORFLOW vadose-zone model. The infiltration profiles are based on the results of Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model simulations for both intact and subsided cases.

  10. Elemental Mass Balance of the Hydrothermal Alteration Associated with the Baturappe Epithermal Silver-Base Metal Prospect, South Sulawesi, Indonesia


    Nur, Irzal; Idrus, Arifudin; Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Harijoko, Agung; Watanabe, Koichiro; Imai, Akira; Jaya, Asri; Irfan, Ulva Ria; Sufriadin


    Abstract The Baturappe prospect situated in southernmost part of Sulawesi island, Indonesia, is a hydrothermal mineralization district which is characterized by occurrences of epithermal silver-base metal mineralizations. The mineralizations hosted in basaltic-andesitic volcanic rocks of the late Middle-Miocene Baturappe Volcanics. This paper discusses a recent study of relationships between alteration mineralogy and whole-rock geochemistry, which focused on elemental mass balance calculat...

  11. Sensitivity of Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance to surface albedo parameterization: a study with a regional climate model


    Angelen, J. H.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Lhermitte, S.; Fettweis, X.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Broeke, M. R.; Meijgaard, E.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.


    We present a sensitivity study of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as modeled using a regional atmospheric climate model, to various parameter settings in the albedo scheme. The snow albedo scheme uses grain size as a prognostic variable and further depends on cloud cover, solar zenith angle and black carbon concentration. For the control experiment the overestimation of absorbed shortwave radiation (+6%) at the K-transect (west Greenland) for the period 2004–2009 is...

  12. Use of geomorphic, hydrologic, and nitrogen mass balance data to model ecosystem nitrate retention in tidal freshwater wetlands


    E. D. Seldomridge; K. L. Prestegaard


    Geomorphic characteristics have been used as scaling parameters to predict water and other fluxes in many systems. In this study, we combined geomorphic analysis with in-situ mass balance studies of nitrate retention (NR) to evaluate which geomorphic scaling parameters best predicted NR in a tidal freshwater wetland ecosystem. Geomorphic characteristics were measured for 267 individual marshes that constitute the freshwater tidal wetland ecosystem of the Patuxent River...

  13. Observationally constrained surface mass balance of Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kuipers Munneke


    Full Text Available The surface mass balance (SMB of the Larsen C ice shelf (LCIS, Antarctica, is poorly constrained due to a dearth of in situ observations. Combining several geophysical techniques, we reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of SMB over the LCIS. Continuous time series of snow height (2.5–6 years at five locations allow for multi-year estimates of seasonal and annual SMB over the LCIS. There is high interannual variability in SMB as well as spatial variability: in the north, SMB is 0.40 ± 0.06 to 0.41 ± 0.04 m w.e. year−1, while farther south, SMB is up to 0.50 ± 0.05 m w.e. year−1. This difference between north and south is corroborated by winter snow accumulation derived from an airborne radar survey from 2009, which showed an average snow thickness of 0.34 m w.e. north of 66° S, and 0.40 m w.e. south of 68° S. Analysis of ground-penetrating radar from several field campaigns allows for a longer-term perspective of spatial variations in SMB: a particularly strong and coherent reflection horizon below 25–44 m of water-equivalent ice and firn is observed in radargrams collected across the shelf. We propose that this horizon was formed synchronously across the ice shelf. Combining snow height observations, ground and airborne radar, and SMB output from a regional climate model yields a gridded estimate of SMB over the LCIS. It confirms that SMB increases from north to south, overprinted by a gradient of increasing SMB to the west, modulated in the west by föhn-induced sublimation. Previous observations show a strong decrease in firn air content toward the west, which we attribute to spatial patterns of melt, refreezing, and densification rather than SMB.

  14. Assessment of Antarctic Ice-Sheet Mass Balance Estimates: 1992 - 2009 (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Giovinetto, Mario B.


    Published mass balance estimates for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) lie between approximately +50 to -250 Gt/year for 1992 to 2009, which span a range equivalent to 15% of the annual mass input and 0.8 mm/year Sea Level Equivalent (SLE). Two estimates from radar-altimeter measurements of elevation change by European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS) (+28 and -31 Gt/year) lie in the upper part, whereas estimates from the Input-minus-Output Method (IOM) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) lie in the lower part (-40 to -246 Gt/year). We compare the various estimates, discuss the methodology used, and critically assess the results. Although recent reports of large and accelerating rates of mass loss from GRACE=based studies cite agreement with IOM results, our evaluation does not support that conclusion. We find that the extrapolation used in the published IOM estimates for the 15 % of the periphery for which discharge velocities are not observed gives twice the rate of discharge per unit of associated ice-sheet area than the 85% faster-moving parts. Our calculations show that the published extrapolation overestimates the ice discharge by 282 Gt/yr compared to our assumption that the slower moving areas have 70% as much discharge per area as the faster moving parts. Also, published data on the time-series of discharge velocities and accumulation/precipitation do not support mass output increases or input decreases with time, respectively. Our modified IOM estimate, using the 70% discharge assumption and substituting input from a field-data compilation for input from an atmospheric model over 6% of area, gives a loss of only 13 Gt/year (versus 136 Gt/year) for the period around 2000. Two ERS-based estimates, our modified IOM, and a GRACE-based estimate for observations within 1992 to 2005 lie in a narrowed range of +27 to - 40 Gt/year, which is about 3% of the annual mass input and only 0.2 mm/year SLE. Our preferred estimate for 1992-2001 is - 47 Gt

  15. The mass balance of production and consumption: Supporting policy-makers for aquatic food security (United States)

    Lopes, A. S.; Ferreira, J. G.; Vale, C.; Johansen, J.


    This work addresses divergences between data on consumption and availability for wild-caught and farmed fish, and normalisation of reported production data, to support integrated fisheries and aquaculture management. The methodologies developed, centred on improved parameterisation and on mass balance closure, were tested in two case studies: (i) the cod fishery in Europe, with particular emphasis on Iceland and the United Kingdom; and (ii) the overall balance of aquatic products for Portugal, the ICES member with the most diverse range of landed marine species. Data for consumption, Illegal, Unreported, or Unregulated (IUU) catch, and official availability statistics were used to identify discrepancies between consumption and official availability data. The identification of discrepancies between supply and demand, when coupled with source-discriminated data, showed a pattern where products with no unmet demand tend to display a considerable IUU percentage-above 9% in three cases (hake, sardine, and horse mackerel). By contrast with fished products with an over-met demand such as cod (144%) and sardine (124%), farmed species display low Optimal Consumption Level (OCL) satisfaction. Atlantic salmon, gilthead seabream, and European seabass register 45%, 58% and 44% respectively; this suggests a considerable unmet demand for these products and/or a high volume of undeclared fish reaching consumers, which may be due to the lack of landings control that exists for wild-caught fish. Improvements to production estimates using live-weight coefficients illustrate the impacts of seafood processing. Different processing methods can generate variations in live-weight estimates, leading to errors in officially reported data, and expose the limitations of the current statistical methods. As an example, the corrected per capita consumption for Portugal for 2014 (the latest FAO data) increases from 57 to 66 kg ind-1 y-1, which places the country as the second-greatest consumer in

  16. Predicting unsaturated zone nitrogen mass balances in agricultural settings of the United States (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Puckett, Larry J.; Ma, Liwang; Green, Christopher T.; Bayless, E. Randall; Malone, Robert W.


    Unsaturated zone N fate and transport were evaluated at four sites to identify the predominant pathways of N cycling: an almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] orchard and cornfield (Zea mays L.) in the lower Merced River study basin, California; and corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations in study basins at Maple Creek, Nebraska, and at Morgan Creek, Maryland. We used inverse modeling with a new version of the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) to estimate soil hydraulic and nitrogen transformation parameters throughout the unsaturated zone; previous versions were limited to 3-m depth and relied on manual calibration. The overall goal of the modeling was to derive unsaturated zone N mass balances for the four sites. RZWQM2 showed promise for deeper simulation profiles. Relative root mean square error (RRMSE) values for predicted and observed nitrate concentrations in lysimeters were 0.40 and 0.52 for California (6.5 m depth) and Nebraska (10 m), respectively, and index of agreement (d) values were 0.60 and 0.71 (d varies between 0 and 1, with higher values indicating better agreement). For the shallow simulation profile (1 m) in Maryland, RRMSE and d for nitrate were 0.22 and 0.86, respectively. Except for Nebraska, predictions of average nitrate concentration at the bottom of the simulation profile agreed reasonably well with measured concentrations in monitoring wells. The largest additions of N were predicted to come from inorganic fertilizer (153–195 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in California) and N fixation (99 and 131 kg N ha−1 yr−1 in Maryland and Nebraska, respectively). Predicted N losses occurred primarily through plant uptake (144–237 kg N ha−1 yr−1) and deep seepage out of the profile (56–102 kg N ha−1 yr−1). Large reservoirs of organic N (up to 17,500 kg N ha−1 m−1 at Nebraska) were predicted to reside in the unsaturated zone, which has implications for potential future transfer of nitrate to groundwater.

  17. Freshwater fluxes into the subpolar North Atlantic from secular trends in Arctic land ice mass balance (United States)

    Bamber, J. L.; Enderlin, E. M.; Howat, I. M.; Wouters, B.; van den Broeke, M.


    Freshwater fluxes (FWF) from river runoff and precipitation minus evaporation for the pan Arctic seas are relatively well documented and prescribed in ocean GCMs. Fluxes from Greenland and Arctic glaciers and ice caps on the other hand are generally ignored, despite their potential impacts on ocean circulation and marine biology and growing evidence for changes to the hydrography of parts of the subpolar North Atlantic. In a previous study we determined the FWF from Greenland for the period 1958-2010 using a combination of observations and regional climate modeling. Here, we update the analysis with data from new satellite observations to extend the record both in space and time. The new FWF estimates cover the period 1958-2014 and include the Canadian, Russian and Norwegian Arctic (Svalbard) in addition to the contributions from Greenland. We combine satellite altimetry (including CryoSat 2) with grounding line flux data, regional climate modeling of surface mass balance and gravimetry to produce consistent estimates of solid ice and liquid FWF into the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. The total cumulative FWF anomaly from land ice mass loss started to increase significantly in the mid 1990s and now exceeds 5000 km^3, a value that is about half of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s. The majority of the anomaly is entering two key areas of deep water overturning in the Labrador and Irminger Seas, at a rate that has been increasing steadily over the last ~20 years. Since the mid 2000s, however, the Canadian Arctic archipelago has been making a significant contribution to the FW anomaly entering Baffin Bay. Tracer experiments with eddy-permitting ocean GCMs suggest that the FW input from southern Greenland and the Canadian Arctic should accumulate in Baffin Bay with the potential to affect geostrophic circulation, stratification in the region and possibly the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. We also examine the trajectory of

  18. Atmospheric river impacts on Greenland Ice Sheet surface melt and mass balance (United States)

    Mattingly, K.; Mote, T. L.


    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has accelerated during the early part of the 21st Century. Several episodes of widespread GrIS melt in recent years have coincided with intense poleward moisture transport by atmospheric rivers (ARs), suggesting that variability in the frequency and intensity of these events may be an important driver of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS. ARs may contribute to GrIS surface melt through the greenhouse effect of water vapor, the radiative effects of clouds, condensational latent heating within poleward-advected air masses, and the energy provided by liquid precipitation. However, ARs may also provide significant positive contributions to GrIS SMB through enhanced snow accumulation. Prior research on the role of ARs in Arctic climate has consisted of case studies of ARs associated with major GrIS melt events or examined the effects of poleward moisture flux on Arctic sea ice. In this study, a long-term (1979-2016) record of intense moisture transport events affecting Greenland is compiled using a conventional AR identification algorithm as well as a self-organizing map (SOM) classification applied to integrated water vapor transport (IVT) data from several atmospheric reanalysis datasets. An analysis of AR effects on GrIS melt and SMB is then performed with GrIS surface melt data from passive microwave satellite observations and the Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) regional climate model. Results show that meltwater production is above normal during and after AR impact days throughout the GrIS during all seasons, with surface melt enhanced most by strong (> 85th percentile IVT) and extreme (> 95th percentile IVT) ARs. This relationship holds at the seasonal scale, as the total amount of water vapor transported to the GrIS by ARs is significantly greater during above-normal melt seasons. ARs exert a more complex influence on SMB. Normal (< 85th percentile IVT) ARs generally do not have a substantial impact on

  19. Bromine species fluxes from Lake Constance’s catchment, and a preliminary lake mass balance (United States)

    Gilfedder, B. S.; Petri, M.; Wessels, M.; Biester, H.


    the catchment, which is supported by Ti, Zr and Br/C org data. In the lake bromine was irreversibly lost to the sediments, with best flux estimates based on mass-balance and sediment trap data of +50-90 μg Br m -2 d -1. Overall, it appears that bromine is not simply a cyclic salt in the case of Lake Constance, with a clear geological component and dynamic lacustrine biogeochemistry.

  20. Mass balance and surface velocity reconstructions of two reference Caucasus glaciers (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Kaminskaia, Mariia; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Morozova, Polina; Popovnin, Victor; Rybak, Elena


    Total glacial volume of the Greater Caucasus exceeds 40 cubic km and its area exceeds 1 thousand square km. During the 20th century, mountain glaciers at the Greater Caucasus were continuously degrading. According to various estimates, their area reduced more than one-third and their volume almost by half. The process of degradation was accompanied by growing population and economical development on surrounding territories. In the 21st century under proceeding global warming, a tendency of shrinking of area and volume of glaciation is obviously expected to continue. Working out of strategy of sustainable economic development of the region is the main motivation for elaboration of predictions of glaciers' evolution in the changing environment. Growing demand of fresh water is the basic challenge for the local economy, and efficient planning of water resources is impossible without knowing future state of glaciation. Therefore our research aims at obtaining accurate evaluation of probable future change of the most prominent mountain glaciers of the Greater Caucasus in forthcoming decades and at studying impacts of changing characteristics of glaciation on the run-off in the area. Initially, we focus on two so-called reference glaciers - Marukh (Western Caucasus) and Djankuat (Central Caucasus). Intensive field observations on both of them have been conducted during the last half of the century and essential amount of detailed relevant information has been collected on their geometry change and on mass balance. Besides, meteorological measurements were episodically carried out directly on the glaciers providing enough data for correlation of the local weather conditions with the data from the closest meteorological stations. That is why studying of response of Marukh and Djankuat on the environmental change can be accurately verified, which is crucial for understanding mechanisms driving evolution of large glaciated area in the Caucasus. As the instrument of research

  1. [Characteristic of Mercury Emissions and Mass Balance of the Typical Iron and Steel Industry]. (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-hui; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ding-yong; Luo, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi; Xu, Feng


    To preliminarily discuss the mercury emission characteristics and its mass balance in each process of the iron and steel production, a typical iron and steel enterprise was chosen to study the total mercury in all employed materials and estimate the input and output of mercury during the steel production process. The results showed that the mercury concentrations of input materials in each technology ranged 2.93-159.11 µg · kg⁻¹ with the highest level observed in ore used in blast furnace, followed by coal of sintering and blast furnace. The mercury concentrations of output materials ranged 3.09-18.13 µg · kg⁻¹ and the mercury concentration of dust was the highest, followed by converter slag. The mercury input and the output in the coking plant were 1346.74 g · d⁻¹ ± 36.95 g · d⁻¹ and 177.42 g · d⁻¹ ± 13.73 g · d⁻¹, respectively. In coking process, mercury mainly came from the burning of coking coal. The sintering process was the biggest contributor for mercury input during the iron and steel production with the mercury input of 1075. 27 g · d⁻¹ ± 60.89 g · d⁻¹ accounting for 68.06% of the total mercury input during this production process, and the ore powder was considered as the main mercury source. For the solid output material, the output in the sintering process was 14.15 g · d⁻¹ ± 0.38 g · d⁻¹, accounting for 22.61% of the total solid output. The mercury emission amount from this studied iron and steel enterprise was estimated to be 553.83 kg in 2013 with the emission factor of 0.092 g · t⁻¹ steel production. Thus, to control the mercury emissions, iron and steel enterprises should combine with production practice, further reduce energy consumption of coking and sintering, or improve the quality of raw materials and reduce the input of mercury.

  2. Estimation of air-water gas exchange coefficient in a shallow lagoon based on 222Rn mass balance. (United States)

    Cockenpot, S; Claude, C; Radakovitch, O


    The radon-222 mass balance is now commonly used to quantify water fluxes due to Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in coastal areas. One of the main loss terms of this mass balance, the radon evasion to the atmosphere, is based on empirical equations. This term is generally estimated using one among the many empirical equations describing the gas transfer velocity as a function of wind speed that have been proposed in the literature. These equations were, however, mainly obtained from areas of deep water and may be less appropriate for shallow areas. Here, we calculate the radon mass balance for a windy shallow coastal lagoon (mean depth of 6m and surface area of 1.55*10(8) m(2)) and use these data to estimate the radon loss to the atmosphere and the corresponding gas transfer velocity. We present new equations, adapted to our shallow water body, to express the gas transfer velocity as a function of wind speed at 10 m height (wind range from 2 to 12.5 m/s). When compared with those from the literature, these equations fit particularly well with the one of Kremer et al. (2003). Finally, we emphasize that some gas transfer exchange may always occur, even for conditions without wind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating the unknown components of nutrient mass balances for forestry plantations in mine rehabilitation, upper Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia. (United States)

    Mercuri, A M; Duggin, J A; Daniel, H; Lockwood, P V; Grant, C D


    Commercial forestry plantations as a postmining land use in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia are restricted by both the poor nutrient availability of mining substrates and low regional rainfall. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether municipal waste products and saline groundwater from coal mining operations could improve early tree growth without impacting on the environment through salt accumulation and/or nutrient enrichment and changes in groundwater quality. Potential impacts were investigated by quantifying the nutrient cycling dynamics within the plantation using an input-output mass balance approach for exchangeable calcium (Ca(2+)), exchangeable magnesium (Mg(2+)), exchangeable potassium (K(+)), exchangeable sodium (Na(+)), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Measured inputs to and outputs from the available nutrient pool in the 0-30 cm of the overburden subsystem were used to estimate the net effect of unmeasured inputs and outputs (termed "residuals"). Residual values in the mass balance of the irrigated treatments demonstrated large leaching losses of exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, and Na. Between 96% and 103% of Na applied in saline mine-water irrigation was leached below the 0-30-cm soil profile zone. The fate of these salts beyond 30 cm is unknown, but results suggest that irrigation with saline mine water had minimal impact on the substrate to 30 cm over the first 2 years since plantation establishment. Accumulations of N and P were detected for the substrate amendments, suggesting that organic amendments (particularly compost) retained the applied nutrients with very little associated losses, particularly through leaching.

  4. Carbon dioxide degassing at the groundwater-stream-atmosphere interface: isotopic equilibration and hydrological mass balance in a sandy watershed (United States)

    Deirmendjian, Loris; Abril, Gwenaël


    Streams and rivers emit significant amounts of CO2 and constitute a preferential pathway of carbon transport from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, the estimation of CO2 degassing based on the water-air CO2 gradient, gas transfer velocity and stream surface area is subject to large uncertainties. Furthermore, the stable isotope signature of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C-DIC) in streams is strongly impacted by gas exchange, which makes it a useful tracer of CO2 degassing under specific conditions. For this study, we characterized the annual transfers of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) along the groundwater-stream-river continuum based on DIC concentrations, stable isotope composition and measurements of stream discharges. We selected a homogeneous, forested and sandy lowland watershed as a study site, where the hydrology occurs almost exclusively through drainage of shallow groundwater (no surface runoff). We observed the first general spatial pattern of decreases in pCO2 and DIC and an increase in δ13C-DIC from groundwater to stream orders 1 and 2, which was due to the experimentally verified faster degassing of groundwater 12C-DIC compared to 13C-DIC. This downstream enrichment in 13C-DIC could be modelled by simply considering the isotopic equilibration of groundwater-derived DIC with the atmosphere during CO2 degassing. A second spatial pattern occurred between stream orders 2 and 4, consisting of an increase in the proportion of carbonate alkalinity to the DIC accompanied by the enrichment of 13C in the stream DIC, which was due to the occurrence of carbonate rock weathering downstream. We could separate the contribution of these two processes (gas exchange and carbonate weathering) in the stable isotope budget of the river network. Thereafter, we built a hydrological mass balance based on drainages and the relative contribution of groundwater in streams of increasing order. After combining with the dissolved CO2 concentrations, we

  5. Mass Balance Reconstruction and Volumetric change of Stok Glaicer , Ladak Region, Western Himalyas,India (1969-2015) (United States)

    Mohd, S.; AL, R.


    Understanding mass balance and volumetric change of glaciers are extremely important in areas where the majority of the population depends on cryospheric sources for the livelihood. Ladakh is one of the coldest and the aridest region of India. The majority of the population live in mountain pockets where the only source of water is snow and glacier melt for agriculture and domestic use. Stok village catchment (52 km2) has seven very small glaciers with an area ranging between 0.2-1.05 km2 at an elevation above 5300m a.s.l (GSI 2009). These glaciers contribute to a stream feeding Stok village of 274 ( 1469 individuals) households and a portion of Chuchot village before joining the Indus River. Ironically very limited studies have been carried out so far in this region, making it even more urgent to monitor the health of the glaciers in this region. With the changing climate, booming of the tourism industry and scarcity of water resources during the spring season, there is a shift in the livelihood of the region towards other option leading to a negative impact on the environment and over exploitation of natural resources. In this study we present analysis of measured annual mass balances for the period 2015-2017 and reconstruction of annual mass balances since 1969 to 2015 of Stok glacier located on the north eastern slope of Zanskar range in Ladakh region of western Himalayas. Direct glaciological methods were used to obtain annual mass balance for 2015-2017 and for reconstruction of annual mass balances, Classical Temperature Index model were used with the help of meteorological data from Indian Meteorological Department. The data gaps were filled with the help of several modelled datasets viz. HAR (High Asia Reanalysis), REMO, and Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS2.1 dataset. We also present catchment wide change in volume of the glaciers since 1969 to 2015. Declassified satellite images and Landsat images were used to obtain the change in volume of the glacier with

  6. Multi-year analysis of distributed glacier mass balance modelling and equilibrium line altitude on King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Falk


    Full Text Available The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP. This region was subject to strong warming trends in the atmospheric surface layer. Surface air temperature increased about 3 K in 50 years, concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The positive trend in surface air temperature has currently come to a halt. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K (100 m−1 and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the wintertime over the past decades in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. Its impact on winter accumulation results in the observed negative mass balance estimates. Six years of continuous glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects as well as 5 years of climatological data time series are presented and a spatially distributed glacier energy balance melt model adapted and run based on these multi-year data sets. The glaciological surface mass balance model is generally in good agreement with observations, except for atmospheric conditions promoting snow drift by high wind speeds, turbulence-driven snow deposition and snow layer erosion by rain. No drift in the difference between simulated mass balance and mass balance measurements can be seen over the course of the 5-year model run period. The winter accumulation does not suffice to compensate for the high variability in summer ablation. The results are analysed to assess changes in meltwater input to the coastal waters, specific glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA. The

  7. The Mass Balance of Glacier No. 1 at the Headwaters of the Urumqi River in Relation to Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yuan


    Full Text Available Most small glaciers in the world have significantly decreased their volume during the last century, which has caused water shortage problems. Glacier No. 1, at the headwaters of the Urumqi River, Tianshan, China, has been monitored since 1959 and similarly has experienced significant mass and volume losses over the last few decades. Thus, we examined the trend and potential abrupt changes of the mass balance of Glacier No. 1. Principal component analysis and singular value decomposition were used to find significant relations between the mass balance of Glacier No. 1 and Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns using climate indices. It was found that the mass balance of Glacier No. 1 had a significantly decreasing trend corresponding to −14.5 mm/year from 1959 to 2010. A change point was detected in 1997 with 99% confidence level. Two time periods with different mass balances were identified as 1959–1996 and 1997–2010. The mass balance for the first period was −136.4 mm/year and up to −663.9 mm/year for the second period. The mass balance of Glacier No. 1 is positively related to the Scandinavian Pattern (SCA, and negatively related to the East Atlantic Pattern (EA. These relationships are useful in better understanding the interaction between glacier mass balance and climate variability.

  8. Nutrient Mass Balance for the Mobile River Basin in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi (United States)

    Harned, D. A.; Harvill, J. S.; McMahon, G.


    The source and fate of nutrients in the Mobile River drainage basin are important water-quality concerns in Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Land cover in the basin is 74 percent forested, 16 percent agricultural, 2.5 percent developed, and 4 percent wetland. A nutrient mass balance calculated for 18 watersheds in the Mobile River Basin indicates that agricultural non-point nitrogen and phosphorus sources and urban non-point nitrogen sources are the most important factors associated with nutrients in the streams. Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs from atmospheric deposition, crop fertilizer, biological nitrogen fixation, animal waste, and point sources were estimated for each of the 18 drainage basins. Total basin nitrogen inputs ranged from 27 to 93 percent from atmospheric deposition (56 percent mean), 4 to 45 percent from crop fertilizer (25 percent mean), animal waste (8 percent mean), and 0.2 to 11 percent from point sources (3 percent mean). Total basin phosphorus inputs ranged from 10 to 39 percent from atmospheric deposition (26 percent mean), 7 to 51 percent from crop fertilizer (28 percent mean), 20 to 64 percent from animal waste (41 percent mean), and 0.2 to 11 percent from point sources (3 percent mean). Nutrient outputs for the watersheds were estimated by calculating instream loads and estimating nutrient uptake, or withdrawal, by crops. The difference between the total basin inputs and outputs represents nutrients that are retained or processed within the basin while moving from the point of use to the stream, or in the stream. Nitrogen output, as a percentage of the total basin nitrogen inputs, ranged from 19 to 79 percent for instream loads (35 percent mean) and from 0.01 to 32 percent for crop harvest (10 percent mean). From 53 to 87 percent (75 percent mean) of nitrogen inputs were retained within the 18 basins. Phosphorus output ranged from 9 to 29 percent for instream loads (18 percent mean) and from 0.01 to 23 percent for crop harvest (7

  9. Use of geomorphic, hydrologic, and nitrogen mass balance data to model ecosystem nitrate retention in tidal freshwater wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Seldomridge


    Full Text Available Geomorphic characteristics have been used as scaling parameters to predict water and other fluxes in many systems. In this study, we combined geomorphic analysis with in-situ mass balance studies of nitrate retention (NR to evaluate which geomorphic scaling parameters best predicted NR in a tidal freshwater wetland ecosystem. Geomorphic characteristics were measured for 267 individual marshes that constitute the freshwater tidal wetland ecosystem of the Patuxent River, Maryland. Nitrate retention was determined from mass balance measurements conducted at the inlets of marshes of varying size (671, 5705, and 536 873 m2 over a period of several years. Mass balance measurements indicate that NR is proportional to total water flux over the tidal cycle. Relationships between estimated tidal prism (calculated water volume for spring tides and various geomorphic parameters (marsh area, total channel length, and inlet width were defined using measurements from air photos and compared to field data. From these data, NR equations were determined for each geomorphic parameter, and used to estimate NR for all marshes in the ecosystem for a reference spring (high tide. The resulting ecosystem NR estimates were evaluated for (a accuracy and completeness of geomorphic data, (b relationship between the geomorphic parameters and hydrologic flux, and (c the ability to adapt the geomorphic parameter to varying tidal conditions. This analysis indicated that inlet width data were the most complete and provided the best estimate of ecosystem nitrate retention. Predictions based on marsh area were significantly lower than the inlet width-based predictions. Cumulative probability distributions of nitrate retention indicate that the largest 3–4% of the marshes retained half of the total nitrate for the ecosystem.

  10. Mass-balance modelling results of groundwater data collected at Olkiluoto over the period 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partamies, S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Pitkaenen, P.


    Olkiluoto has been selected as a repository site for final disposal of spent nuclear waste produced in Finland. An understanding of the hydrogeochemical groundwater conditions and their evolution is essential in evaluating the long-term safety of the repository. The performance of technical barriers and the migration of potentially released radionuclides depend on the chemical conditions. A prerequisite for understanding these factors is the ability to specify the water-rock interactions, which control chemical conditions in the groundwater. The objective of this study is to present mass-balance studies of the samples collected over the period 2004 - 2007. A total of 178 groundwater samples have been collected over this period (84 groundwater observation tubes, 88 from deep multipackered boreholes and 6 from the ONKALO) which provided a comprehensive dataset on dissolved chemical species and isotopes. The PHREEQC program was used in the mass-balance calculations in order to develop geochemical interpretations of water-rock interactions, isotope-chemical evolution and the mixing of palaeowater types. A model of the hydrogeochemical evolution in different parts of the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto has been created and the significance of chemical reactions and groundwater mixing along different flow paths calculated. The changes in hydrogeochemical interpretations and chemical and isotopic calculations indicate that pH seems to be dominantly controlled by thermodynamic equilibrium with calcite in fractures and there are indications that this process may also occur in the overburden layer. Oxic redox conditions, prevailing in recharging groundwater, change abruptly to sulphidic conditions close to the surface, generally in the overburden. The results from the mass-balance calculations correspond and support the earlier conceptions of groundwater mixing, the origin of salinity and the hydrogeochemical evolution. The fractions of glacial meltwater indicated in these

  11. Mass-balance modelling results of groundwater data collected at Olkiluoto over the period 2004-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partamies, S.; Pitkaenen, P.


    Olkiluoto has been selected as a repository site for final disposal of spent nuclear waste produced in Finland. An understanding of the hydrogeochemical groundwater conditions and their evolution is essential in evaluating the long-term safety of the repository. The performance of technical barriers and the migration of potentially released radionuclides depend on the chemical conditions. A prerequisite for understanding these factors is the ability to specify the water-rock interactions, which control chemical conditions in the groundwater. The objective of this study is to present mass-balance studies of the samples collected over the period 2004 - 2007. A total of 178 groundwater samples have been collected over this period (84 groundwater observation tubes, 88 from deep multipackered boreholes and 6 from the ONKALO) which provided a comprehensive dataset on dissolved chemical species and isotopes. The PHREEQC program was used in the mass-balance calculations in order to develop geochemical interpretations of water-rock interactions, isotope-chemical evolution and the mixing of palaeowater types. A model of the hydrogeochemical evolution in different parts of the crystalline bedrock at Olkiluoto has been created and the significance of chemical reactions and groundwater mixing along different flow paths calculated. The changes in hydrogeochemical interpretations and chemical and isotopic calculations indicate that pH seems to be dominantly controlled by thermodynamic equilibrium with calcite in fractures and there are indications that this process may also occur in the overburden layer. Oxic redox conditions, prevailing in recharging groundwater, change abruptly to sulphidic conditions close to the surface, generally in the overburden. The results from the mass-balance calculations correspond and support the earlier conceptions of groundwater mixing, the origin of salinity and the hydrogeochemical evolution. The fractions of glacial meltwater indicated in these

  12. Increasing meltwater discharge from the Nuuk region of the Greenland ice sheet and implications for mass balance (1960-2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van As, Dirk; Langer Andersen, Morten; Petersen, Dorthe


    We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godthåbsfjord. RCM data (1960-2012) are resampled to a high...... spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automaticweather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation andoverestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent...

  13. Sensitivity of Glacier Mass Balance Estimates to the Selection of WRF Cloud Microphysics Parameterization in the Indus River Watershed (United States)

    Johnson, E. S.; Rupper, S.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Strong, C.; Kochanski, A.


    Climate model outputs are often used as inputs to glacier energy and mass balance models, which are essential glaciological tools for testing glacier sensitivity, providing mass balance estimates in regions with little glaciological data, and providing a means to model future changes. Climate model outputs, however, are sensitive to the choice of physical parameterizations, such as those for cloud microphysics, land-surface schemes, surface layer options, etc. Furthermore, glacier mass balance (MB) estimates that use these climate model outputs as inputs are likely sensitive to the specific parameterization schemes, but this sensitivity has not been carefully assessed. Here we evaluate the sensitivity of glacier MB estimates across the Indus Basin to the selection of cloud microphysics parameterizations in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). Cloud microphysics parameterizations differ in how they specify the size distributions of hydrometeors, the rate of graupel and snow production, their fall speed assumptions, the rates at which they convert from one hydrometeor type to the other, etc. While glacier MB estimates are likely sensitive to other parameterizations in WRF, our preliminary results suggest that glacier MB is highly sensitive to the timing, frequency, and amount of snowfall, which is influenced by the cloud microphysics parameterization. To this end, the Indus Basin is an ideal study site, as it has both westerly (winter) and monsoonal (summer) precipitation influences, is a data-sparse region (so models are critical), and still has lingering questions as to glacier importance for local and regional resources. WRF is run at a 4 km grid scale using two commonly used parameterizations: the Thompson scheme and the Goddard scheme. On average, these parameterizations result in minimal differences in annual precipitation. However, localized regions exhibit differences in precipitation of up to 3 m w.e. a-1. The different schemes also impact the

  14. Development of an in vivo animal model for skin penetration in hairless rats assessed by mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Petersen, Mads B; Benfeldt, Eva


    acid and (14)C-butyl salicylate were topically applied. Rapid and differentiated percutaneous absorption of both compounds were shown by urinary excretion data. For (14)C-salicylic acid the amount on the skin surface, in the stratum corneum and in the viable skin was determined. Total mass balance...... rat and free mobility throughout the test period. By consecutive tape stripping, monitored by measurements of transepidermal water loss and confirmed by histological examination of skin biopsies, 10 tape strippings were found to remove the stratum corneum completely. For assessment of the model, (14)C-salicylic...

  15. Barrow real-time sea ice mass balance data: ingestion, processing, dissemination and archival of multi-sensor data (United States)

    Grimes, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Heinrichs, T. A.; Eicken, H.


    Sensor data can be highly variable in nature and also varied depending on the physical quantity being observed, sensor hardware and sampling parameters. The sea ice mass balance site (MBS) operated in Barrow by the University of Alaska Fairbanks ( is a multisensor platform consisting of a thermistor string, air and water temperature sensors, acoustic altimeters above and below the ice and a humidity sensor. Each sensor has a unique specification and configuration. The data from multiple sensors are combined to generate sea ice data products. For example, ice thickness is calculated from the positions of the upper and lower ice surfaces, which are determined using data from downward-looking and upward-looking acoustic altimeters above and below the ice, respectively. As a data clearinghouse, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) processes real time data from many sources, including the Barrow MBS. Doing so requires a system that is easy to use, yet also offers the flexibility to handle data from multisensor observing platforms. In the case of the Barrow MBS, the metadata system needs to accommodate the addition of new and retirement of old sensors from year to year as well as instrument configuration changes caused by, for example, spring melt or inquisitive polar bears. We also require ease of use for both administrators and end users. Here we present the data and processing steps of using sensor data system powered by the NoSQL storage engine, MongoDB. The system has been developed to ingest, process, disseminate and archive data from the Barrow MBS. Storing sensor data in a generalized format, from many different sources, is a challenging task, especially for traditional SQL databases with a set schema. MongoDB is a NoSQL (not only SQL) database that does not require a fixed schema. There are several advantages using this model over the traditional relational database management system (RDBMS

  16. Quantification of submarine groundwater discharge and its short-term dynamics by linking time-variant end-member mixing analysis and isotope mass balancing (222-Rn) (United States)

    Petermann, Eric; Knöller, Kay; Stollberg, Reiner; Scholten, Jan; Rocha, Carlos; Weiß, Holger; Schubert, Michael


    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) plays a crucial role for the water quality of coastal waters due to associated fluxes of nutrients, organic compounds and/or heavy-metals. Thus, the quantification of SGD is essential for evaluating the vulnerability of coastal water bodies with regard to groundwater pollution as well as for understanding the matter cycles of the connected water bodies. Here, we present a scientific approach for quantifying discharge of fresh groundwater (GWf) and recirculated seawater (SWrec), including its short-term temporal dynamics, into the tide-affected Knysna estuary, South Africa. For a time-variant end-member mixing analysis we conducted time-series observations of radon (222Rn) and salinity within the estuary over two tidal cycles in combination with estimates of the related end-members for seawater, river water, GWf and SWrec. The mixing analysis was treated as constrained optimization problem for finding an end-member mixing ratio that simultaneously fits the observed data for radon and salinity best for every time-step. Uncertainty of each mixing ratio was quantified by Monte Carlo simulations of the optimization procedure considering uncertainty in end-member characterization. Results reveal the highest GWf and SWrec fraction in the estuary during peak low tide with averages of 0.8 % and 1.4 %, respectively. Further, we calculated a radon mass balance that revealed a daily radon flux of 4.8 * 108 Bq into the estuary equivalent to a GWf discharge of 29.000 m3/d (9.000-59.000 m3/d for 25th-75th percentile range) and a SWrec discharge of 80.000 m3/d (45.000-130.000 m3/d for 25th-75th percentile range). The uncertainty of SGD reflects the end-member uncertainty, i.e. the spatial heterogeneity of groundwater composition. The presented approach allows the calculation of mixing ratios of multiple uncertain end-members for time-series measurements of multiple parameters. Linking these results with a tracer mass balance allows conversion

  17. Glacier mass balance reconstruction by sublimation induced enrichment of chemical species on Cerro Tapado (Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ginot


    Full Text Available A 36 m long ice core down to bedrock from the Cerro Tapado glacier (5536 m a.s.l, 30°08' S, 69°55' W was analyzed to reconstruct past climatic conditions for Northern Chile. Because of the marked seasonality in the precipitation (short wet winter and extended dry summer periods in this region, major snow ablation and related post-depositional processes occur on the glacier surface during summer periods. They include predominantly sublimation and dry deposition. Assuming that, like measured during the field campaign, the enrichment of chloride was always related to sublimation, the chemical record along the ice core may be applied to reconstruct the history of such secondary processes linked to the past climatic conditions over northern Chile. For the time period 1962–1999, a mean annual net accumulation of 316 mm water equivalent (weq and 327 mm weq loss by sublimation was deduced by this method. This corresponds to an initial total annual accumulation of 539 mm weq. The annual variability of the accumulation and sublimation is related with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI: higher net-accumulation during El-Niño years and more sublimation during La Niña years. The deepest part of the ice record shows a time discontinuity; with an ice body deposited under different climatic conditions: 290 mm higher precipitation but with reduced seasonal distribution (+470 mm in winter and –180 mm in summer and –3°C lower mean annual temperature. Unfortunately, its age is unknown. The comparison with regional proxy data however let us conclude that the glacier buildup did most likely occur after the dry mid-Holocene.

  18. Mass balance and sliding velocity of the Puget lobe of the cordilleran ice sheet during the last glaciation (United States)

    Booth, D.B.


    An estimate of the sliding velocity and basal meltwater discharge of the Puget lobe of the Cordilleran ice sheet can be calculated from its reconstructed extent, altitude, and mass balance. Lobe dimensions and surface altitudes are inferred from ice limits and flow-direction indicators. Net annual mass balance and total ablation are calculated from relations empirically derived from modern maritime glaciers. An equilibrium-line altitude between 1200 and 1250 m is calculated for the maximum glacial advance (ca. 15,000 yr B.P.) during the Vashon Stade of the Fraser Glaciation. This estimate is in accord with geologic data and is insensitive to plausible variability in the parameters used in the reconstruction. Resultant sliding velocities are as much as 650 m/a at the equilibrium line, decreasing both up- and downglacier. Such velocities for an ice sheet of this size are consistent with nonsurging behavior. Average meltwater discharge increases monotonically downglacier to 3000 m3/sec at the terminus and is of a comparable magnitude to ice discharge over much of the glacier's ablation area. Palcoclimatic inferences derived from this reconstruction are consistent with previous, independently derived studies of late Pleistocene temperature and precipitation in the Pacific Northwest. ?? 1986.

  19. Modelling system dynamics and phytoplankton diversity at Ranchi lake using the carbon and nutrient mass balance equations. (United States)

    Mukherjee, B; Nivedita, M; Mukherjee, D


    Modelling system dynamics in a hyper-eutrophic lake is quite complex especially with a constant influx of detergents and sewage material which continually changes the state variables and interferes with the assessment of the chemical rhythm occurring in polluted conditions as compared to unpolluted systems. In this paper, a carbon and nutrient mass balance model for predicting system dynamics in a complex environment was studied. Studies were conducted at Ranchi lake to understand the altered environmental dynamics in hyper-eutrophic conditions, and its impact on the plankton community. The lake was monitored regularly for five years (2007 - 2011) and the data collected on the carbon flux, nitrates, phosphates and silicates was used to design a mass balance model for evaluating and predicting the system. The model was then used to correlate the chemical rhythm with that of the phytoplankton dynamics and diversity. Nitrates and phosphates were not limiting (mean nitrate and phosphate concentrations were 1.74 and 0.83 mgl⁻¹ respectively). Free carbon dioxide was found to control the system and, interacting with other parameters determined the diversity and dynamics of the plankton community. N/P ratio determined which group of phytoplankton dominated the community, above 5 it favoured the growth of chlorophyceae while below 5 cyanobacteria dominates. TOC/TIC ratio determined the abundance. The overall system was controlled by the availability of free carbon dioxide which served as a limiting factor.

  20. Purity Assessment of Organic Reference Materials with a Mass Balance Method: A Case Study of Endosulfan-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghyun; Lee, Joonhee; Ahn, Seonghee; Song, Youngsin; Kim, Dongkyun; Kim, Byungjoo


    A mass balance method established in this laboratory was applied to determine the purity of an endosulfan-II pure substance. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used to measure organic impurities. Total of 10 structurally related organic impurities were detected by GC-FID in the material. Water content was determined to be 0.187% by Karl-Fischer (K-F) coulometry with an oven-drying method. Nonvolatile residual impurities was not detected by Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) within the detection limit of 0.04% (0.7 μg in absolute amount). Residual solvents within the substance were determined to be 0.007% in the Endosulfan-II pure substance by running GC-FID after dissolving it with two solvents. The purity of the endosulfan-II was finally assigned to be (99.17 ± 0.14)%. Details of the mass balance method including interpretation and evaluating uncertainties of results from each individual methods and the finally assayed purity were also described

  1. Comparison of mass balance, energy consumption and cost of composting facilities for different types of organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko


    Mass balance, energy consumption and cost are basic pieces of information necessary for selecting a waste management technology. In this study, composting facilities that treat different types of organic waste were studied by questionnaire survey and via a chemical analysis of material collected at the facilities. The mass balance was calculated on a dry weight basis because the moisture content of organic waste was very high. Even though the ratio of bulking material to total input varied in the range 0-65% on a dry basis, the carbon and ash content, carbon/nitrogen ratio, heavy metal content and inorganic nutrients in the compost were clearly influenced by the different characteristics of the input waste. The use of bulking material was not correlated with ash or elemental content in the compost. The operating costs were categorised into two groups. There was some economy of scale for wages and maintenance cost, but the costs for electricity and fuel were proportional to the amount of waste. Differences in operating costs can be explained by differences in the process characteristics.

  2. Polyvinyl chloride resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hong Jae


    This book contains polyvinyl chloride resin industry with present condition such as plastic industry and polyvinyl chloride in the world and Japan, manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resin ; suspension polymerization and solution polymerization, extruding, injection process, hollow molding vinyl record, vacuum forming, polymer powders process, vinyl chloride varnish, vinyl chloride latex, safety and construction on vinyl chloride. Each chapter has descriptions on of process and kinds of polyvinyl chloride resin.

  3. The heat source of Ruapehu crater lake; deductions from the energy and mass balances (United States)

    Hurst, A. W.; Bibby, H. M.; Scott, B. J.; McGuinness, M. J.


    Regular observations of temperature, outflow rates and water chemistry of Crater Lake, Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand have been made for the last 25 years. These data have been used to derive a model of the dynamics of the lake, and determine the input of energy, mass, and chloride from the volcano to the Crater Lake. The recent, relatively quiescent state of the volcano, when virtually no heat has been input to the lake, has also enabled an assessment to be made of the surface heat loss characteristics, which play an important role in the model of the lake. The modelling suggests that since about 1982 the ratio of the volcanic heat to mass added to the base of the lake is about 6 MJ/kg, which is not compatible with heating of the lake by magmatic steam alone. Thus, only about 50% of the heating has been by magmatic steam. It is suggested that heat could be transferred from a magmatic source to the region below the lake by a heat-pipe mechanism, commonly associated with geothermal systems. The simultaneous upward movement of vapour phase, and downward movement of liquid phase from condensed vapour allows efficient heat transfer without overall mass transfer. The permeability necessary to supply the required heat is of the order of 10 darcy, and is consistent with a rubble filled vent. For at least the last five years, there has been a characteristic pattern in the Crater Lake temperature record, with alternate heating and cooling phases. The heating phase generally lasts for one or two months, while the cooling phase lasts for six months to a year. A possible explanation for this cyclic behaviour is the presence of a layer of liquid sulphur under Crater Lake, acting as a partial barrier between the heat-pipe and the lake. The unusual variations of the viscosity of liquid sulphur with temperature will mean that at temperatures greater than 160°C, the layer of sulphur becomes highly viscous and would block any upwards steam flow and hence stop the heat input to Crater

  4. Assessing the optimized precision of the aircraft mass balance method for measurement of urban greenhouse gas emission rates through averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexie M. F. Heimburger


    Full Text Available To effectively address climate change, aggressive mitigation policies need to be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Anthropogenic carbon emissions are mostly generated from urban environments, where human activities are spatially concentrated. Improvements in uncertainty determinations and precision of measurement techniques are critical to permit accurate and precise tracking of emissions changes relative to the reduction targets. As part of the INFLUX project, we quantified carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO and methane (CH4 emission rates for the city of Indianapolis by averaging results from nine aircraft-based mass balance experiments performed in November-December 2014. Our goal was to assess the achievable precision of the aircraft-based mass balance method through averaging, assuming constant CO2, CH4 and CO emissions during a three-week field campaign in late fall. The averaging method leads to an emission rate of 14,600 mol/s for CO2, assumed to be largely fossil-derived for this period of the year, and 108 mol/s for CO. The relative standard error of the mean is 17% and 16%, for CO2 and CO, respectively, at the 95% confidence level (CL, i.e. a more than 2-fold improvement from the previous estimate of ~40% for single-flight measurements for Indianapolis. For CH4, the averaged emission rate is 67 mol/s, while the standard error of the mean at 95% CL is large, i.e. ±60%. Given the results for CO2 and CO for the same flight data, we conclude that this much larger scatter in the observed CH4 emission rate is most likely due to variability of CH4 emissions, suggesting that the assumption of constant daily emissions is not correct for CH4 sources. This work shows that repeated measurements using aircraft-based mass balance methods can yield sufficient precision of the mean to inform emissions reduction efforts by detecting changes over time in urban emissions.

  5. Mass Balance Evolution of Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, 1980–2100, and Its Implications for Surge Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kienholz


    Full Text Available Surge-type Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, has undergone strong retreat since it last surged in 1936–1937. To assess its evolution during the late Twentieth and Twenty-first centuries and determine potential implications for surge likelihood, we run a simplified glacier model over the periods 1980–2015 (hindcasting and 2015–2100 (forecasting. The model is forced by daily temperature and precipitation fields, with downscaled reanalysis data used for the hindcasting. A constant climate scenario and an RCP 8.5 scenario based on the GFDL-CM3 climate model are employed for the forecasting. Debris evolution is accounted for by a debris layer time series derived from satellite imagery (hindcasting and a parametrized debris evolution model (forecasting. A retreat model accounts for the evolution of the glacier geometry. Model calibration, validation and parametrization rely on an extensive set of in situ and remotely sensed observations. To explore uncertainties in our projections, we run the glacier model in a Monte Carlo fashion, varying key model parameters and input data within plausible ranges. Our results for the hindcasting period indicate a negative mass balance trend, caused by atmospheric warming in the summer, precipitation decrease in the winter and surface elevation lowering (climate-elevation feedback, which exceed the moderating effects from increasing debris cover and glacier retreat. Without the 2002 rockslide deposits on Black Rapids' lower reaches, the mass balances would be more negative, by ~20% between the 2003 and 2015 mass-balance years. Despite its retreat, Black Rapids Glacier is substantially out of balance with the current climate. By 2100, ~8% of Black Rapids' 1980 area are projected to vanish under the constant climate scenario and ~73% under the RCP 8.5 scenario. For both scenarios, the remaining glacier portions are out of balance, suggesting continued retreat after 2100. Due to mass starvation, a surge in the Twenty

  6. Reactive transport and mass balance modeling of the Stimson sedimentary formation and altered fracture zones constrain diagenetic conditions at Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Ming, D. W.; Peretyazhko, T. S.; Rampe, E. B.


    On a planet as cold and dry as present-day Mars, evidence of multiple aqueous episodes offers an intriguing view into very different past environments. Fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian depositional environments are being investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity in Gale crater, Mars. Geochemical and mineralogical observations of these sedimentary rocks suggest diagenetic processes affected the sediments. Here, we analyze diagenesis of the Stimson formation eolian parent material, which caused loss of olivine and formation of magnetite. Additional, later alteration in fracture zones resulted in preferential dissolution of pyroxene and precipitation of secondary amorphous silica and Ca sulfate. The ability to compare the unaltered parent material with the reacted material allows constraints to be placed on the characteristics of the altering solutions. In this work we use a combination of a mass balance approach calculating the fraction of a mobile element lost or gained, τ, with fundamental geochemical kinetics and thermodynamics in the reactive transport code CrunchFlow to examine the characteristics of multiple stages of aqueous alteration at Gale crater, Mars. Our model results indicate that early diagenesis of the Stimson sedimentary formation is consistent with leaching of an eolian deposit by a near-neutral solution, and that formation of the altered fracture zones is consistent with a very acidic, high sulfate solution containing Ca, P and Si. These results indicate a range of past aqueous conditions occurring at Gale crater, Mars, with important implications for past martian climate and environments.

  7. The use of a numerical mass-balance model to estimate rates of soil redistribution on uncultivated land from 137Cs measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, P.N.; Walling, D.E.


    A numerical mass-balance model is developed which can be used to estimate rates of soil redistribution on uncultivated land from measurements of bombderived 137 Cs inventories. The model uses a budgeting approach, which takes account of temporal variations in atmospheric fallout of 137 Cs, radioactive decay, and net gains or losses of 137 Cs due to erosion and deposition processes, combined with parameters which describe internal 137 Cs redistribution processes, to estimate the 137 Cs content of topsoil and the 137 Cs inventory at specific points, from the start of 137 Cs fallout in the 1950s to the present day. The model is also able to account for potential differences in particle size composition and organic matter content between mobilised soil particles and the original soil, and the effect that these may have on 137 Cs concentrations and inventories. By running the model for a range of soil erosion and deposition rates, a calibration relationship can be constructed which relates the 137 Cs inventory at a sampling point to the average net soil loss or gain at that location. In addition to the magnitude and temporal distribution of the 137 Cs atmospheric fallout flux, the soil redistribution rates estimated by the model are sensitive to parameters which describe the relative texture and organic matter content of the eroded or deposited material, and the ability of the soil to retain 137 Cs in the upper part of the soil profile. (Copyright (c) 1988 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. An integrated approach to preventing common dental diseases with calcium glycerophosphate and magnesium chloride in teenagers with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Kolesnikova


    Full Text Available Objective: to identify and develop methods for the prevention of common dental diseases in teenagers with hypertension. The paper presents the results of dental examination in a group of teenagers with hypertension and in a control group before and after preventive measures. The Fedorov-Volodkina hygiene index modified by Pakhomov was used to assess their oral hygienic status. The periodontal tissue status was evaluated using the comprehensive periodontal index. Calcium glycerophosphate and magnesium chloride were used as preventive agents. After training in oral hygiene techniques and completing a prevention course, there were positive changes in the hygienic and periodontal tissue status, which is important for the further maturation of dental tissues and for the formation of healthy periodontal ones in both groups.

  9. Computation of the velocity field and mass balance in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.


    Darcian velocity has been conventionally calculated in the finite-element modeling of groundwater flow by taking the derivatives of the computed pressure field. This results in discontinuities in the velocity field at nodal points and element boundaries. Discontinuities become enormous when the computed pressure field is far from a linear distribution. It is proposed in this paper that the finite element procedure that is used to simulate the pressure field or the moisture content field also be applied to Darcy's law with the derivatives of the computed pressure field as the load function. The problem of discontinuity is then eliminated, and the error of mass balance over the region of interest is much reduced. The reduction is from 23.8 to 2.2% by one numerical scheme and from 29.7 to -3.6% by another for a transient problem

  10. Assessing the regional impact of indonesian biomass burning emissions based on organic molecular tracers and chemical mass balance modeling (United States)

    Engling, G.; He, J.; Betha, R.; Balasubramanian, R.


    Biomass burning activities commonly occur in Southeast Asia (SEA), and are particularly intense in Indonesia during the dry seasons. The effect of biomass smoke emissions on air quality in the city state of Singapore was investigated during a haze episode in October 2006. Substantially increased levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and associated chemical species were observed during the haze period. Specifically, the enhancement in the concentration of molecular tracers for biomass combustion such as levoglucosan by as much as two orders of magnitude and the diagnostic ratios of individual organic compounds indicated that biomass burning emissions caused a regional smoke haze episode due to their long-range transport by prevailing winds. With the aid of air mass backward trajectories and chemical mass balance modeling, large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were identified as the sources of the smoke aerosol, exerting a significant impact on air quality in downwind areas, such as Singapore.

  11. Brief Communication: Upper Air Relaxation in RACMO2 Significantly Improves Modelled Interannual Surface Mass Balance Variability in Antarctica (United States)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.


    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  12. Mass Balance of Cenozoic Andes-Amazon Source to Sink System—Marañón Basin, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérôme Calvès


    Full Text Available We investigate the mass balance of the Cenozoic Andes-Amazon source to sink system using rock uplift proxies and solid sedimentation of the Marañón Basin in Peru. The evolution of sedimentation rates is calibrated with regional structural restored cross-section. The quantification of eroded sediments from reliefs to sedimentary basin is achieved with ×10 Myr resolution and compared to present day proxies from the HYBAM (HYdrologie et Biogéochimie du Bassin Amazonien Critical Zone Observatory. Erosion of the early Andean landforms started during the Upper Mesozoic period, but sediment rates significantly increase during the Neogene. This is in agreement with the calibrated increase of rock uplift in the Andean orogenic belt.

  13. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini


    Full Text Available Input-output mass balances within stream reaches provide in situ estimates of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical characterisation of stream water at the input and output ends of the stream reach. There is a need to optimise the hydrological monitoring and the frequencies of water sampling to yield precise annual mass balances, so as to avoid undue cost - high resolution monitoring and subsequent chemical analysis can be labour intensive and costly. In this paper, simulation exercises were performed using a data set created to represent the instantaneous discharge and solute dynamics at the input and output ends of a model stream reach during a one year period. At the output end, stream discharge and water chemistry were monitored continuously, while the input end was assumed to be ungauged; water sampling frequency was changed arbitrarily. Instantaneous discharge at the ungauged sampling point was estimated with an empirical power model linking the discharge to the catchment area (Hooper, 1986. The model thus substitutes for the additional gauge station. Simulations showed that 10 days was the longest chemical sampling interval which could provide reach annual mass balances of acceptable precision. Presently, the relationship between discharge and catchment area is usually assumed to be linear but simulations indicate that small departures from the linearity of this relationship could cause dramatic changes in the mass balance estimations.

  14. Cross check of the new economic and mass balance feature of the fuel cycle scenario code TR-EVOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino-Rodriguez, I.; Garcia-Martinez, M.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Lopez, D.


    Versatile computational tools with up to date capabilities are needed to assess current nuclear fuel cycles or the transition from the current status of the fuel cycle to the more advanced and sustainable ones. The TR-EVOL module, that is devoted to fuel cycle mass balance, simulates diverse nuclear power plants (PWR, SFR, ADS, etc.), having possibly different types of fuels (UO_2, MOX, etc.), and the associated fuel cycle facilities (enrichment, fuel fabrication, processing, interim storage, waste storage, geological disposal). This work is intended to cross check the new capabilities of the fuel cycle scenario code TR-EVOL.This process has been divided in 2 stages. The first stage is dedicated to check the improvements in the nuclear fuel mass balance estimation using the available data for the Spanish nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage has been focused in verifying the validity of the TR-EVOL economic module, comparing results to data published by the ARCAS EU project. A specific analysis was required to evaluate the back-end cost. Data published by the waste management responsible institutions was used for the validation of the methodology. Results were highly satisfactory for both stages. In particular, the economic assessment provides a difference smaller than 3% regarding results published by the ARCAS project (NRG estimations). Furthermore, concerning the back-end cost, results are highly acceptable (7% difference for a final disposal in a once-through scenario and around 11% for a final disposal in a reprocessing strategy) given the significant uncertainties involved in design concepts and related unit costs. (authors)

  15. Reconstruction of the 1979–2006 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis


    Full Text Available Results from a 28-year simulation (1979–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveal an increase of solid precipitation (+0.4±2.5 km3 yr−2 and run-off (+7.9±3.3 km3 yr−2 of surface meltwater. The net effect of these competing factors is a significant Surface Mass Balance (SMB loss of −7.2±5.1 km3 yr−2. The contribution of changes in the net water vapour flux (+0.02±0.09 km3 yr−2 and rainfall (+0.2±0.2 km3 yr−2 to the SMB variability is negligible. The meltwater supply has increased because the GrIS surface has been warming up +2.4°C since 1979. Sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and net solar radiation have not varied significantly over the last three decades. However, the simulated downward infrared flux has increased by 9.3 W m−2 since 1979. The natural climate variability (e.g. the North Atlantic Oscillation does not explain these changes. The recent global warming, due to the greenhouse gas concentration increase induced by human activities, could be a cause of these changes. The doubling of surface meltwater flux into the ocean over the period 1979–2006 suggests that the overall ice sheet mass balance has been increasingly negative, given the likely meltwater-induced acceleration of outlet glaciers. This study suggests that increased melting overshadows over an increased accumulation in a warming scenario and that the GrIS is likely to keep losing mass in the future. An enduring GrIS melting will probably affect in the future an certain effect on the stability of the thermohaline circulation and the global sea level rise.

  16. Mechanism and rate of denitrification in an agricultural watershed: Electron and mass balance along groundwater flow paths (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Liebscher, Hugh; Cox, Stephen E.


    The rate and mechanism of nitrate removal along and between groundwater flow paths were investigated using a series of well nests screened in an unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Intensive agricultural activity in this area has resulted in nitrate concentrations in groundwater often exceeding drinking water standards. Both the extent and rate of denitrification varied depending on the groundwater flow path. While little or no denitrification occurred in much of the upland portions of the aquifer, a gradual redox gradient is observed as aerobic upland groundwater moves deeper in the aquifer. In contrast, a sharp shallow redox gradient is observed adjacent to a third‐order stream as aerobic groundwater enters reduced sediments. An essentially complete loss of nitrate concurrent with increases in excess N2 provide evidence that denitrification occurs as groundwater enters this zone. Electron and mass balance calculations suggest that iron sulfide (e.g., pyrite) oxidation is the primary source of electrons for denitrification. Denitrification rate estimates were based on mass balance calculations using nitrate and excess N2 coupled with groundwater travel times. Travel times were determined using a groundwater flow model and were constrained by chlorofluorocarbon‐based age dates. Denitrification rates were found to vary considerably between the two areas where denitrification occurs. Denitrification rates in the deep, upland portions of the aquifer were found to range from from 1.0 to 2.7 mM of N per year. Potential denitrification rates in groundwater adjacent to the stream may be much faster, with rates up to 140 mM per year based on an in situ experiment conducted in this zone.

  17. Satellite-derived submarine melt rates and mass balance (2011-2015) for Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiammetta; Heimbach, Patrick


    Ice-shelf-like floating extensions at the termini of Greenland glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of upstream glaciers and the ice sheet as a whole. While submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, the spatial distribution of submarine melting and its contribution to the total mass balance of these floating extensions is incompletely known and understood. Here, we use high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery collected between 2011 and 2015 to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues - Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier, 79N), Ryder Glacier (RG), and Petermann Glacier (PG). Submarine melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 50 m a-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. We compare the total melt rates to the influx of ice to the ice tongue to assess their contribution to the current mass balance. At Petermann Glacier and Ryder Glacier, we find that the combined submarine and aerial melt approximately balances the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet. At Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux (14.2 ± 0.96 km3 a-1 w.e., water equivalent) exceeds the inflow of ice (10.2 ± 0.59 km3 a-1 w.e.), indicating present thinning of the ice tongue.

  18. Electrode Mass Balancing as an Inexpensive and Simple Method to Increase the Capacitance of Electric Double-Layer Capacitors (United States)

    Andres, Britta; Engström, Ann-Christine; Blomquist, Nicklas; Forsberg, Sven; Dahlström, Christina; Olin, Håkan


    Symmetric electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) have equal masses of the same active material in both electrodes. However, having equal electrode masses may prevent the EDLC to have the largest possible specific capacitance if the sizes of the hydrated anions and cations in the electrolyte differ because the electrodes and the electrolyte may not be completely utilized. Here we demonstrate how this issue can be resolved by mass balancing. If the electrode masses are adjusted according to the size of the ions, one can easily increase an EDLC’s specific capacitance. To that end, we performed galvanostatic cycling to measure the capacitances of symmetric EDLCs with different electrode mass ratios using four aqueous electrolytes— Na2SO4, H2SO4, NaOH, and KOH (all with a concentration of 1 M)—and compared these to the theoretical optimal electrode mass ratio that we calculated using the sizes of the hydrated ions. Both the theoretical and experimental values revealed lower-than-1 optimal electrode ratios for all electrolytes except KOH. The largest increase in capacitance was obtained for EDLCs with NaOH as electrolyte. Specifically, we demonstrate an increase of the specific capacitance by 8.6% by adjusting the electrode mass ratio from 1 to 0.86. Our findings demonstrate that electrode mass balancing is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the capacitance of EDLCs. Furthermore, our results imply that one can reduce the amount of unused material in EDLCs and thus decrease their weight, volume and cost. PMID:27658253

  19. The changing impact of snow conditions and refreezing on the mass balance of an idealized Svalbard glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Van Pelt


    Full Text Available Glacier surface melt and runoff depend strongly on seasonal and perennial snow (firn conditions. Not only does the presence of snow and firn directly affect melt rates by reflecting solar radiation, it may also act as a buffer against mass loss by storing melt water in refrozen or liquid form. In Svalbard, ongoing and projected amplified climate change with respect to the global mean change has severe implications for the state of snow and firn and its impact on glacier mass loss. Model experiments with a coupled surface energy balance - firn model were done to investigate the surface mass balance and the changing role of snow and firn conditions for an idealized Svalbard glacier. A climate forcing for the past, present and future (1984-2104 is constructed, based on observational data from Svalbard Airport and a seasonally dependent projection scenario. Results illustrate ongoing and future firn degradation in response to an elevational retreat of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA of 31 m decade−1. The temperate firn zone is found to retreat and expand, while cold ice in the ablation zone warms considerably. In response to pronounced winter warming and an associated increase in winter rainfall, the current prevalence of refreezing during the melt season gradually shifts to the winter season in a future climate. Sensitivity tests reveal that in a present and future climate the density and thermodynamic structure of Svalbard glaciers are heavily influenced by refreezing. Refreezing acts as a net buffer against mass loss. However, the net mass balance change after refreezing is substantially smaller than the amount of refreezing itself, which can be ascribed to melt-enhancing effects after refreezing, which partly offset the primary mass-retaining effect of refreezing.

  20. Mass balance and isotope effects during nitrogen transport through septic tank systems with packed-bed (sand) filters (United States)

    Hinkle, S.R.; Böhlke, J.K.; Fisher, L.H.


    Septic tank systems are an important source of NO3- to many aquifers, yet characterization of N mass balance and isotope systematics following septic tank effluent discharge into unsaturated sediments has received limited attention. In this study, samples of septic tank effluent before and after transport through single-pass packed-bed filters (sand filters) were evaluated to elucidate mass balance and isotope effects associated with septic tank effluent discharge to unsaturated sediments. Chemical and isotopic data from five newly installed pairs and ten established pairs of septic tanks and packed-bed filters serving single homes in Oregon indicate that aqueous solute concentrations are affected by variations in recharge (precipitation, evapotranspiration), NH4+ sorption (primarily in immature systems), nitrification, and gaseous N loss via NH3 volatilization and(or) N2 or N2O release during nitrification/denitrification. Substantial NH4+ sorption capacity was also observed in laboratory columns with synthetic effluent. Septic tank effluent ??15N-NH4+ values were almost constant and averaged + 4.9??? ?? 0.4??? (1 ??). In contrast, ??15N values of NO3- leaving mature packed-bed filters were variable (+ 0.8 to + 14.4???) and averaged + 7.2??? ?? 2.6???. Net N loss in the two networks of packed-bed filters was indicated by average 10-30% decreases in Cl--normalized N concentrations and 2-3??? increases in ??15N, consistent with fractionation accompanying gaseous N losses and corroborating established links between septic tank effluent and NO3- in a local, shallow aquifer. Values of ??18O-NO3- leaving mature packed-bed filters ranged from - 10.2 to - 2.3??? (mean - 6.4??? ?? 1.8???), and were intermediate between a 2/3 H2O-O + 1/3 O2-O conceptualization and a 100% H2O-O conceptualization of ??18O-NO3- generation during nitrification.

  1. Calculating carbon mass balance from unsaturated soil columns treated with CaSO₄₋minerals: test of soil carbon sequestration. (United States)

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K


    Renewed interest in managing C balance in soils is motivated by increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and consequent climate change. Here, experiments were conducted in soil columns to determine C mass balances with and without addition of CaSO4-minerals (anhydrite and gypsum), which were hypothesized to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) retention and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) precipitation as calcite under slightly alkaline conditions. Changes in C contents in three phases (gas, liquid and solid) were measured in unsaturated soil columns tested for one year and comprehensive C mass balances were determined. The tested soil columns had no C inputs, and only C utilization by microbial activity and C transformations were assumed in the C chemistry. The measurements showed that changes in C inventories occurred through two processes, SOC loss and SIC gain. However, the measured SOC losses in the treated columns were lower than their corresponding control columns, indicating that the amendments promoted SOC retention. The SOC losses resulted mostly from microbial respiration and loss of CO2 to the atmosphere rather than from chemical leaching. Microbial oxidation of SOC appears to have been suppressed by increased Ca(2+) and SO4(2)(-) from dissolution of CaSO4 minerals. For the conditions tested, SIC accumulation per m(2) soil area under CaSO4-treatment ranged from 130 to 260 g C m(-1) infiltrated water (20-120 g C m(-1) infiltrated water as net C benefit). These results demonstrate the potential for increasing C sequestration in slightly alkaline soils via CaSO4-treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The exploration of trophic structure modeling using mass balance Ecopath model of Tangerang coastal waters (United States)

    Dewi, N. N.; Kamal, M.; Wardiatno, Y.; Rozi


    Ecopath model approach was used to describe trophic interaction, energy flows and ecosystem condition of Tangerang coastal waters. This model consists of 42 ecological groups, of which 41 are living groups and one is a detritus group. Trophic levels of these groups vary between 1.0 (for primary producers and detritus) to 4.03 (for tetraodontidae). Groups with trophic levels 2≤TLfish, while detritus has a positive impact on the majority of demersal fish. Leiognathidae havea negative impact on phytoplankton, zooplankton and several other groups. System omnivory index for this ecosystem is 0.151. System primary production/respiration (P/R) ratio of Tangerang coastal waters is 1.505. This coastal ecosystem is an immatureecosystem because it hasdegraded. Pedigree index for this model is 0.57. This model describes ecosystem condition affected by overfishing and antropogenic activities. Therefore, through Ecopath model we provide some suggestions about the ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  3. Structural instability of atmospheric flows under perturbations of the mass balance and effect in transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Núñez, M A; Mendoza, R


    Several methods to estimate the velocity field of atmospheric flows, have been proposed to the date for applications such as emergency response systems, transport calculations and for budget studies of all kinds. These applications require a wind field that satisfies the conservation of mass but, in general, estimated wind fields do not satisfy exactly the continuity equation. An approach to reduce the effect of using a divergent wind field as input in the transport-diffusion equations, was proposed in the literature. In this work, a linear local analysis of a wind field, is used to show analytically that the perturbation of a large-scale nondivergent flow can yield a divergent flow with a substantially different structure. The effects of these structural changes in transport calculations are illustrated by means of analytic solutions of the transport equation

  4. Mass balance approaches to assess critical loads and target loads of heavy metals for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Groenenberg, J.E.; Posch, M.


    Critical loads of heavy metals address not only ecotoxicological effects on organisms in soils and surface waters, but also food quality in view of public health. A critical load for metals is the load resulting at steady state in a metal concentration in a compartment (e.g. soil solution, surface

  5. The chemical evolution of Kurnub Group paleowater in the Sinai-Negev province-a mass balance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, E.; Jones, B.F.; Weinberger, G.


    The chemical evolution of the Kurnub Group paleowater was studied starting from rainwater in recharge areas of the Sinai and along groundwater flowpaths leading to the natural outlets of this regional aquifer. This was achieved by investigating the chemical composition of groundwater, ionic ratios, degrees of saturation with common mineral species, normative analysis of dissolved salts and by modeling of rock/water interaction and mixing processes occurring along groundwater flow paths. The initial groundwater composition used is from the Nakhel well in Sinai. It evolves from desert rainwater percolating through typical Kurnub Group lithology in Sinai. This rainwater dissolves mainly gypsum, halite and dolomite together with smaller amounts of marine aerosol and K-feldspar. At the same time it precipitates calcite, SiO 2 , smectite and degasses CO 2 . Between the area of Nakhel and the northern Negev the chemistry of Kurnub Group waters is influenced by dissolution of halite and lesser amounts of gypsum of surficial origin in recharge areas, small amounts of feldspars and of dolomite cement in sandstones eroded from the Arabo-Nubian igneous massif of Sinai and organic degradation-derived CO 2 . Concomitantly, there is precipitation of calcite, smectite, SiO 2 and probably analcime characteristic of sediments in continental closed basins. North of the Negev, the Kurnub Group fluids are diluted and altered by mixing with Judea Group aquifer groundwaters. On the E there is mixing with residual brines from the water body ancestral to the Dead Sea, prior to discharge into the Arava valley. Rock/water interaction indicated by NETPATH and PHREEQC modeling is in agreement with lithology and facies changes previously observed in the Kurnub Group sequence. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Modelling the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and neighbouring ice caps : A dynamical and statistical downscaling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noël, B.P.Y.


    The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is the world’s second largest ice mass, storing about one tenth of the Earth’s freshwater. If totally melted, global sea level would rise by 7.4 m, affecting low-lying regions worldwide. Since the mid-1990s, increased atmospheric and oceanic temperatures have

  7. Indoor and outdoor urban atmospheric CO2: Stable carbon isotope constraints on mixing and mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Yurena; Yapp, Crayton J.


    Research highlights: → 13 C of indoor CO 2 indicates proportion of C 4 -derived carbon in occupants' diet. → Flux balance model for ventilated rooms shows rapid approach to CO 2 steady-state. → From extant indoor CO 2 data more dietary C 4 carbon in American than European diets. → Local outdoor urban CO 2 increase of 17 ppm in ten years, no change in average 13 C. - Abstract: From July to November 2009, concentrations of CO 2 in 78 samples of ambient air collected in 18 different interior spaces on a university campus in Dallas, Texas (USA) ranged from 386 to 1980 ppm. Corresponding δ 13 C values varied from -8.9 per mille to -19.4 per mille. The CO 2 from 22 samples of outdoor air (also collected on campus) had a more limited range of concentrations from 385 to 447 ppm (avg. = 408 ppm), while δ 13 C values varied from -10.1 per mille to -8.4 per mille (avg.=-9.0 per mille). In contrast to ambient indoor and outdoor air, the concentrations of CO 2 exhaled by 38 different individuals ranged from 38,300 to 76,200 ppm (avg. = 55,100 ppm), while δ 13 C values ranged from -24.8 per mille to -17.7 per mille (avg. = -21.8 per mille). The residence times of the total air in the interior spaces of this study appear to have been on the order of 10 min with relatively rapid approaches (∼30 min) to steady-state concentrations of ambient CO 2 gas. Collectively, the δ 13 C values of the indoor CO 2 samples were linearly correlated with the reciprocal of CO 2 concentration, exhibiting an intercept of -21.8 per mille, with r 2 = 0.99 and p 2 data representing 18 interior spaces (with varying numbers of occupants), and the coincidence of the intercept (-21.8 per mille) with the average δ 13 C value for human-exhaled CO 2 demonstrates simple mixing between two inputs: (1) outdoor CO 2 introduced to the interior spaces by ventilation systems, and (2) CO 2 exhaled by human occupants of those spaces. If such simple binary mixing is a common feature of interior spaces, it

  8. Oxygen isotope mass balance of atmospheric nitrate at Dome C, East Antarctica, during the OPALE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Savarino


    Full Text Available Variations in the stable oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric nitrate act as novel tools for studying oxidative processes taking place in the troposphere. They provide both qualitative and quantitative constraints on the pathways determining the fate of atmospheric nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2 = NOx. The unique and distinctive 17O excess (Δ17O = δ17O − 0.52 × δ18O of ozone, which is transferred to NOx via oxidation, is a particularly useful isotopic fingerprint in studies of NOx transformations. Constraining the propagation of 17O excess within the NOx cycle is critical in polar areas, where there exists the possibility of extending atmospheric investigations to the glacial–interglacial timescale using deep ice core records of nitrate. Here we present measurements of the comprehensive isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate collected at Dome C (East Antarctic Plateau during the austral summer of 2011/2012. Nitrate isotope analysis has been here combined for the first time with key precursors involved in nitrate production (NOx, O3, OH, HO2, RO2, etc. and direct observations of the transferrable Δ17O of surface ozone, which was measured at Dome C throughout 2012 using our recently developed analytical approach. Assuming that nitrate is mainly produced in Antarctica in summer through the OH + NO2 pathway and using concurrent measurements of OH and NO2, we calculated a Δ17O signature for nitrate on the order of (21–22 ± 3 ‰. These values are lower than the measured values that ranged between 27 and 31 ‰. This discrepancy between expected and observed Δ17O(NO3− values suggests the existence of an unknown process that contributes significantly to the atmospheric nitrate budget over this East Antarctic region. However, systematic errors or false isotopic balance transfer functions are not totally excluded.

  9. Changes in the Mass Balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet in a Warming Climate During 2003-2009 (United States)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Luthcke, Scott


    Mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) derived from ICESat and GRACE data both show that the net mass loss from GIS during 2003-2009 is about 175 Gt/year, which contributes 0.5mm/yr global sea-level rise. The rate of mass loss has increased significantly since the 1990's when the GIS was close to mass balance. Even though the GIS was close to mass balance during the 1990's, it was already showing characteristics of responding to8 warmer climate, specifically thinning at the margins and thickening inland at higher elevations. During 2003-2009, increased ice thinning due to increases in melting and acceleration of outlet glaciers began to strongly exceed the inland thickening from increases in accumulation. Over the entire GIS, the mass loss between the two periods, from increased melting and ice dynamics, increased by about 190 Gt/year while the mass gain, from increased precipitation and accumulation, increased by only about 15Gt/year. These ice changes occurred during a time when the temperature on GIS changed at rate of about 2K/decade. The distribution of elevation and mass changes derived from ICESat have high spatial resolution showing details over outlet glaciers, by drainage systems, and by elevation. However, information on the seasonal cycle of changes from ICESat data is limited, because the ICESat lasers were only operated during two to three campaigns per year of about 35 days duration each. In contrast, the temporal resolution of GRACE data, provided by the continuous data collection, is much better showing details of the seasonal cycle and the inter-annual variability. The differing sensitivity of the ICESat altimetry and the GRACE gravity methods to motion of the underlying bedrock from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is used to evaluate the GIA corrections provided by models. The two data types are also combined to make estimates of the partitioning of the mass gains and losses among accumulation, melting, and ice discharge from outlet

  10. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.


    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y

  11. A model for the oceanic mass balance of rhenium and implications for the extent of Proterozoic ocean anoxia (United States)

    Sheen, Alex I.; Kendall, Brian; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Creaser, Robert A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bekker, Andrey; Poulton, Simon W.; Anbar, Ariel D.


    Emerging geochemical evidence suggests that the atmosphere-ocean system underwent a significant decrease in O2 content following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), leading to a mid-Proterozoic ocean (ca. 2.0-0.8 Ga) with oxygenated surface waters and predominantly anoxic deep waters. The extent of mid-Proterozoic seafloor anoxia has been recently estimated using mass-balance models based on molybdenum (Mo), uranium (U), and chromium (Cr) enrichments in organic-rich mudrocks (ORM). Here, we use a temporal compilation of concentrations for the redox-sensitive trace metal rhenium (Re) in ORM to provide an independent constraint on the global extent of mid-Proterozoic ocean anoxia and as a tool for more generally exploring how the marine geochemical cycle of Re has changed through time. The compilation reveals that mid-Proterozoic ORM are dominated by low Re concentrations that overall are only mildly higher than those of Archean ORM and significantly lower than many ORM deposited during the ca. 2.22-2.06 Ga Lomagundi Event and during the Phanerozoic Eon. These temporal trends are consistent with a decrease in the oceanic Re inventory in response to an expansion of anoxia after an interval of increased oxygenation during the Lomagundi Event. Mass-balance modeling of the marine Re geochemical cycle indicates that the mid-Proterozoic ORM with low Re enrichments are consistent with extensive seafloor anoxia. Beyond this agreement, these new data bring added value because Re, like the other metals, responds generally to low-oxygen conditions but has its own distinct sensitivity to the varying environmental controls. Thus, we can broaden our capacity to infer nuanced spatiotemporal patterns in ancient redox landscapes. For example, despite the still small number of data, some mid-Proterozoic ORM units have higher Re enrichments that may reflect a larger oceanic Re inventory during transient episodes of ocean oxygenation. An improved understanding of the modern oceanic Re

  12. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biganzoli, L.; Falbo, A.; Forte, F.; Grosso, M.; Rigamonti, L.


    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators — R1, large household appliances — R2, TV and monitors — R3, small household appliances — R4 and lighting equipment — R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. - Highlights: • The WEEE management system in

  13. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan


    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  14. Evaluation of Primary Production in the Lower Amazon River Based on a Dissolved Oxygen Stable Isotopic Mass Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagne-Maynard, William C.; Ward, Nicholas D.; Keil, Richard G.; Sawakuchi, Henrique O.; Da Cunha, Alan C.; Neu, Vania; Brito, Daimio C.; Da Silva Less, Diani F.; Diniz, Joel E. M.; De Matos Valerio, Aline; Kampel, Milton; Krusche, Alex V.; Richey, Jeffrey E.


    The Amazon River outgasses nearly an equivalent amount of CO2 as the rainforest sequesters on an annual basis due to microbial decomposition of terrigenous and aquatic organic matter. Most research performed in the Amazon has been focused on unraveling the mechanisms driving CO2 production since the recognition of a persistent state of CO2 supersaturation. However, although the river system is clearly net heterotrophic, the interplay between primary production and respiration is an essential aspect to understanding the overall metabolism of the ecosystem and potential transfer of energy up trophic levels. For example, an efficient ecosystem is capable of both decomposing high amounts of organic matter at lower trophic levels, driving CO2 emissions, and accumulating energy/biomass in higher trophic levels, stimulating fisheries production. Early studies found minimal evidence for primary production in the Amazon River mainstem and it has since been assumed that photosynthesis is strongly limited by low light penetration attributed to the high sediment load. Here, we test this assumption by measuring the stable isotopic composition of O218O-O2) and O2 saturation levels in the lower Amazon River from Óbidos to the river mouth and its major tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós rivers, during high and low water periods. An oxygen mass balance model was developed to estimate the input of photosynthetic oxygen in the discrete reach from Óbidos to Almeirim, midway to the river mouth. Based on the oxygen mass balance we estimate that primary production occurred at a rate of 0.39 ± 0.24 g O m3 d-1 at high water and 1.02 ± 0.55 g O m3 d-1 at low water. This translates to 41 ± 24% of the rate of O2 drawdown via respiration during high water and 67 ± 33% during low water. These primary production rates are 2-7 times higher than

  15. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, L., E-mail:; Falbo, A.; Forte, F.; Grosso, M.; Rigamonti, L.


    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators — R1, large household appliances — R2, TV and monitors — R3, small household appliances — R4 and lighting equipment — R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. - Highlights: • The WEEE management system in

  16. Assessment of interannual variations in the surface mass balance of 18 Svalbard glaciers from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Terra albedo product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuell, W.; Kohler, J.; Obleitner, F.; Glowacki, P.; Melvold, K.; Bernsen, E.; Oerlemans, J.


    We estimate annual anomalies of the surface mass balance of glaciers on Svalbard for the period 2000–2005 (six years), by calculating the so-called ‘‘satellite-derived mass balance’’ (Bsat) from time series of satellite-derived surface albedos. The method needs no other input variables. Surface

  17. Impact of model resolution on simulated wind, drifting snow and surface mass balance in Terre Adélie, East Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314850163; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Scarchilli, C.; Agosta, C.


    This paper presents the impact of model resolution on the simulated wind speed, drifting snow climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Terre Ad´elie and its surroundings, East Antarctica. We compare regional climate model simulations at 27 and 5.5 km resolution for the year 2009. The wind speed

  18. Runoff and mass-balance simulations from the Greenland Ice Sheet at Kangerlussuaq (Søndre Strømfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mernild, S. H.; Liston, G. E.; Steffen, K.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Hasholt, B.


    This study provides insights into surface mass-balance (SMB) and runoff exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/1979–2007/2008) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the

  19. Volume changes of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, due to surface mass balance, ice flow, and subglacial melting at geothermal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen


    We present observed changes in the geometry of western Vatnajökull over a period of about ten years which are caused by the surface mass balance, ice flow (both during surges and quiescent periods), and basal melting due to geothermal and volcanic activity. Comparison of two digital elevation...

  20. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fettweis, X.; Franco, B.; Tedesco, M.; van Angelen, J.H.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Gallée, H.


    To estimate the sea level rise (SLR) originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS), we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Mod`ele Atmosph´erique R´egional), forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model


    In 1997, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a mass balance study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in lactating cows in background conditions. The field portion of the study occurred at the US Department of A...

  2. Coupling of climate models and ice sheet models by surface mass balance gradients: application to the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen


    Full Text Available It is notoriously difficult to couple surface mass balance (SMB results from climate models to the changing geometry of an ice sheet model. This problem is traditionally avoided by using only accumulation from a climate model, and parameterizing the meltwater run-off as a function of temperature, which is often related to surface elevation (Hs. In this study, we propose a new strategy to calculate SMB, to allow a direct adjustment of SMB to a change in ice sheet topography and/or a change in climate forcing. This method is based on elevational gradients in the SMB field as computed by a regional climate model. Separate linear relations are derived for ablation and accumulation, using pairs of Hs and SMB within a minimum search radius. The continuously adjusting SMB forcing is consistent with climate model forcing fields, also for initially non-glaciated areas in the peripheral areas of an ice sheet. When applied to an asynchronous coupled ice sheet – climate model setup, this method circumvents traditional temperature lapse rate assumptions. Here we apply it to the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS. Experiments using both steady-state forcing and glacial-interglacial forcing result in realistic ice sheet reconstructions.

  3. Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 - Part 1: Greenland (1958-2016) (United States)

    Noël, Brice; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Melchior van Wessem, J.; van Meijgaard, Erik; van As, Dirk; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Smeets, C. J. P. Paul; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.


    We evaluate modelled Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) near-surface climate, surface energy balance (SEB) and surface mass balance (SMB) from the updated regional climate model RACMO2 (1958-2016). The new model version, referred to as RACMO2.3p2, incorporates updated glacier outlines, topography and ice albedo fields. Parameters in the cloud scheme governing the conversion of cloud condensate into precipitation have been tuned to correct inland snowfall underestimation: snow properties are modified to reduce drifting snow and melt production in the ice sheet percolation zone. The ice albedo prescribed in the updated model is lower at the ice sheet margins, increasing ice melt locally. RACMO2.3p2 shows good agreement compared to in situ meteorological data and point SEB/SMB measurements, and better resolves the spatial patterns and temporal variability of SMB compared with the previous model version, notably in the north-east, south-east and along the K-transect in south-western Greenland. This new model version provides updated, high-resolution gridded fields of the GrIS present-day climate and SMB, and will be used for projections of the GrIS climate and SMB in response to a future climate scenario in a forthcoming study.

  4. Septic systems as hot-spots of pollutants in the environment: Fate and mass balance of micropollutants in septic drainfields. (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S; Wilson, P Chris; Williams, Clinton F


    Septic systems, a common type of onsite wastewater treatment systems, can be an important source of micropollutants in the environment. We investigated the fate and mass balance of 17 micropollutants, including wastewater markers, hormones, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the drainfield of a septic system. Drainfields were replicated in lysimeters (1.5m length, 0.9m width, 0.9m height) and managed similar to the field practice. In each lysimeter, a drip line dispersed 9L of septic tank effluent (STE) per day (equivalent to 32.29L/m(2) per day). Fourteen micropollutants in the STE and 12 in the leachate from drainfields were detected over eight months. Concentrations of most micropollutants in the leachate were low (85% of the added micropollutants except for sucralose were attenuated in the drainfield. We discovered that sorption was the key mechanism for retention of carbamazepine and partially for sulfamethoxazole, whereas microbial degradation likely attenuated acetaminophen in the drainfield. This data suggests that sorption and microbial degradation limited transport of micropollutants from the drainfields. However, the leaching of small amounts of micropollutants indicate that septic systems are hot-spots of micropollutants in the environment and a better understanding of micropollutants in septic systems is needed to protect groundwater quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence and simulation of trihalomethanes in swimming pool water: A simple prediction method based on DOC and mass balance. (United States)

    Peng, Di; Saravia, Florencia; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald


    Trihalomethanes (THM) are the most typical disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in public swimming pool water. DBPs are produced when organic and inorganic matter in water reacts with chemical disinfectants. The irregular contribution of substances from pool visitors and long contact time with disinfectant make the forecast of THM in pool water a challenge. In this work occurrence of THM in a public indoor swimming pool was investigated and correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Daily sampling of pool water for 26 days showed a positive correlation between DOC and THM with a time delay of about two days, while THM and DOC didn't directly correlate with the number of visitors. Based on the results and mass-balance in the pool water, a simple simulation model for estimating THM concentration in indoor swimming pool water was proposed. Formation of THM from DOC, volatilization into air and elimination by pool water treatment were included in the simulation. Formation ratio of THM gained from laboratory analysis using native pool water and information from field study in an indoor swimming pool reduced the uncertainty of the simulation. The simulation was validated by measurements in the swimming pool for 50 days. The simulated results were in good compliance with measured results. This work provides a useful and simple method for predicting THM concentration and its accumulation trend for long term in indoor swimming pool water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Greenland ice sheet surface mass-balance modelling and freshwater flux for 2007, and in a 1995-2007 perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.


    y-1); the only year with a negative GrIS SMB. Runoff in 2007 was approximately 35% greater than average for 1995-2006. From 1995 through 2007 overall, precipitation decreased while ablation increased, leading to an increased average SMB loss of 127 km3. The modelled GrIS SMB was merged with previous......-stations) were used as model inputs. The GrIS minimum surface melt extent of 29% occurred in 1996, while the greatest extent of 51% was present in 2007. The 2007 melt extent was 20% greater than the average for 1995-2006. The year 2007 had the highest GrIS surface runoff (523 km3 y-1) and the lowest SMB (-3 km3...... estimates of GrIS subglacial runoff (from geothermal melt) and GrIS calving to quantify GrIS freshwater flux to the ocean, indicating an average negative mass-balance of 265 (±83) km3 y-1. This study further suggests an average GrIS freshwater flux of approximately 786 km3 y-1 to the ocean, of which 45...

  7. Th isotopes in the Santa Monica basin: temporal variation, long-term mass balance and model rate constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Chih-An


    Distribution and flux of 234 Th, 232 Th and 230 Th in the water column of central Santa Monica basin observed over a period of seven years show seasonal and interannual variabilities. A steady-state model is applied to the integrated data to calculate long term average flux and model rate constants of Th isotopes. Mass balance calculations show that the basin acts like a closed system for short-lived 234 Th, but not for the long-lived isotopes 230 Th and 232 Th. Most 230 Th in the basin is transported from elsewhere. Of the incoming Th, 40-55% of the 230 Th and 14-26% of the 232 Th enter the surface water in dissolved form. In the upper 100m, the residence time of dissolved Th with respect to adsorption onto suspended particulates, 70-80 days, is about one order of magnitude higher than the residence time of suspended particles with respect to aggregation into sinking particles, 7-10 days. (author)

  8. Future projections of the climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard with the regional climate model MAR (United States)

    Lang, C.; Fettweis, X.; Erpicum, M.


    We have performed future projections of the climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of Svalbard with the MAR regional climate model forced by the MIROC5 global model, following the RCP8.5 scenario at a spatial resolution of 10 km. MAR predicts a similar evolution of increasing surface melt everywhere in Svalbard followed by a sudden acceleration of the melt around 2050, with a larger melt increase in the south compared to the north of the archipelago and the ice caps. This melt acceleration around 2050 is mainly driven by the albedo-melt feedback associated with the expansion of the ablation/bare ice zone. This effect is dampened in part as the solar radiation itself is projected to decrease due to cloudiness increase. The near-surface temperature is projected to increase more in winter than in summer as the temperature is already close to 0 °C in summer. The model also projects a strong winter west-to-east temperature gradient, related to the large decrease of sea ice cover around Svalbard. At the end of the century (2070-2099 mean), SMB is projected to be negative over the entire Svalbard and, by 2085, all glaciated regions of Svalbard are predicted to undergo net ablation, meaning that, under the RCP8.5 scenario, all the glaciers and ice caps are predicted to start their irreversible retreat before the end of the 21st century.

  9. Modelling the climate and surface mass balance of polar ice sheets using RACMO2 - Part 2: Antarctica (1979-2016) (United States)

    Melchior van Wessem, Jan; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice P. Y.; van Meijgaard, Erik; Amory, Charles; Birnbaum, Gerit; Jakobs, Constantijn L.; Krüger, Konstantin; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Lhermitte, Stef; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Medley, Brooke; Reijmer, Carleen H.; van Tricht, Kristof; Trusel, Luke D.; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; Wouters, Bert; Wuite, Jan; van den Broeke, Michiel R.


    We evaluate modelled Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) near-surface climate, surface mass balance (SMB) and surface energy balance (SEB) from the updated polar version of the regional atmospheric climate model, RACMO2 (1979-2016). The updated model, referred to as RACMO2.3p2, incorporates upper-air relaxation, a revised topography, tuned parameters in the cloud scheme to generate more precipitation towards the AIS interior and modified snow properties reducing drifting snow sublimation and increasing surface snowmelt. Comparisons of RACMO2 model output with several independent observational data show that the existing biases in AIS temperature, radiative fluxes and SMB components are further reduced with respect to the previous model version. The model-integrated annual average SMB for the ice sheet including ice shelves (minus the Antarctic Peninsula, AP) now amounts to 2229 Gt y-1, with an interannual variability of 109 Gt y-1. The largest improvement is found in modelled surface snowmelt, which now compares well with satellite and weather station observations. For the high-resolution ( ˜ 5.5 km) AP simulation, results remain comparable to earlier studies. The updated model provides a new, high-resolution data set of the contemporary near-surface climate and SMB of the AIS; this model version will be used for future climate scenario projections in a forthcoming study.

  10. Chemical and sewage sludge co-incineration in a full-scale MSW incinerator: toxic trace element mass balance. (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario; Giugliano, Michele; Campolunghi, Manuel


    Co-incineration of sludges with MSW is a quite common practice in Europe. This paper illustrates a case of co-incineration of both sewage sludges and chemical sludges, the latter obtained from drinking water production, in a waste-to-energy (WTE) plant located in northern Italy and equipped with a grate furnace, and compares the toxic trace elements mass balance with and without the co-incineration of sludges. The results show that co-incineration of sewage and chemical sludges does not result in an increase of toxic trace elements the total release in environment, with the exception of arsenic, whose total release increases from 1 mg t(fuel) (-1) during standard operation to 3 mg t(fuel) (-1) when sludges are co-incinerated. The increase of arsenic release is, however, attributable to the sole bottom ashes, where its concentration is five times higher during sludge co-incineration. No variation is observed for arsenic release at the stack. This fact is a further guarantee that the co-incineration of sludges, when performed in a state-of-the-art WTE plant, does not have negative effects on the atmospheric environment.

  11. Green rusts synthesis by coprecipitation of Fe II-Fe III ions and mass-balance diagram (United States)

    Ruby, Christian; Aïssa, Rabha; Géhin, Antoine; Cortot, Jérôme; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Génin, Jean-Marie


    A basic solution is progressively added to various mixed Fe II-Fe III solutions. The nature and the relative quantities of the compounds that form can be visualised in a mass-balance diagram. The formation of hydroxysulphate green rust {GR( SO42-)} is preceded by the precipitation of a sulphated ferric basic salt that transforms in a badly ordered ferric oxyhydroxide. Then octahedrally coordinated Fe II species and SO42- anions are adsorbed on the FeOOH surface and GR( SO42-) is formed at the solid/solution interface. By using the same method of preparation, other types of green rust were synthesised, e.g. hydroxycarbonate green rust {GR( CO32-)}. Like other layered double hydroxides, green rusts obey the general chemical formula [ṡ[ṡmHO]x+ with x⩽1/3. Al-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust consists of small hexagonal crystals with a lateral size ˜50 nm, which is significantly smaller than the size of the GR( SO42-) crystals (˜500 nm). To cite this article: C. Ruby et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  12. Previously hidden low-energy ions: a better map of near-Earth space and the terrestrial mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    André, Mats


    This is a review of the mass balance of planet Earth, intended also for scientists not usually working with space physics or geophysics. The discussion includes both outflow of ions and neutrals from the ionosphere and upper atmosphere, and the inflow of meteoroids and larger objects. The focus is on ions with energies less than tens of eV originating from the ionosphere. Positive low-energy ions are complicated to detect onboard sunlit spacecraft at higher altitudes, which often become positively charged to several tens of volts. We have invented a technique to observe low-energy ions based on the detection of the wake behind a charged spacecraft in a supersonic ion flow. We find that low-energy ions usually dominate the ion density and the outward flux in large volumes in the magnetosphere. The global outflow is of the order of 10 26 ions s –1 . This is a significant fraction of the total number outflow of particles from Earth, and changes plasma processes in near-Earth space. We compare order of magnitude estimates of the mass outflow and inflow for planet Earth and find that they are similar, at around 1 kg s −1 (30 000 ton yr −1 ). We briefly discuss atmospheric and ionospheric outflow from other planets and the connection to evolution of extraterrestrial life. (invited comment)

  13. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of TSP in a lignite-burning area of Western Macedonia, Greece (United States)

    Samara, Constantini

    Total suspended particle mass concentrations (TSP) were determined in the Kozani-Ptolemais-Florina basin (western Macedonia, Greece), an area with intensive lignite burning for power generation. The study was conducted over a 1-year period (November 2000-November 2001) at 10 receptor sites located at variable distances from the power plants. Ambient TSP samples were analyzed for 27 major, minor and trace elements. Particulate emissions were also collected from a variety of sources including fly ash, lignite dust, automobile traffic, domestic heating, and open-air burning of agricultural biomass and refuse, and analyzed for the same chemical components. Ambient and source chemical profiles were used for source identification and apportionment of TSP by employing a chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Diesel burning in vehicular traffic and in the power plants for generator start up was found to be the major contributor to ambient TSP levels at all 10 sites. Other sources with significant contributions were domestic coal burning, vegetative burning (wood combustion and agricultural burns) and refuse open-air burning. Fly ash escaping the electrostatic precipitators of the power plants was a minor contributor to ambient TSP.

  14. Titanium Mass-balance Analysis of Paso Robles Soils: Elemental Gains and Losses as Affected by Acid Alteration Fluids (United States)

    Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.


    The Columbia Hills soils have been exposed to aqueous alteration in alkaline [1] as well as acid conditions [2,3]. The Paso Robles class soils are bright soils that possess the highest S concentration of any soil measured on Mars [2]. Ferric-sulfate detection by Moessbauer analysis indicated that acid solutions were involved in forming these soils [4]. These soils are proposed to have formed by alteration of nearby rock by volcanic hydrothermal or fumarolic activity. The Paso Robles soils consist of the original Paso Robles-disturbed-Pasadena (PR-dist), Paso Robles- PasoLight (PR-PL), Arad-Samra, Arad-Hula, Tyrone- Berker Island1 and Tyrone-MountDarwin [2 ,3. ]Chemical characteristics indicate that the PR-dist and PR-PL soils could be derived from acid weathering of local Wishstone rocks while the Samra and Hula soils are likely derived from local Algonquin-Iroquet rock [3]. The Paso Robles soils were exposed to acidic sulfur bearing fluids; however, little else is known about the chemistry of the alteration fluid and its effects on the alteration of the proposed parent materials. The objectives of this work are to conduct titanium normalized mass-balance analysis to1) assess elemental gains and losses from the parent materials in the formation of the Paso Robles soils and 2) utilize this information to indicate the chemical nature of the alteration fluids.

  15. 21st century projections of surface mass balance changes for major drainage systems of the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, M; Fettweis, X


    Outputs from the regional climate model Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale at a spatial resolution of 25 km are used to study 21st century projected surface mass balance (SMB) over six major drainage basins of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). The regional model is forced with the outputs of three different Earth System Models (CanESM2, NorESM1 and MIROC5) obtained when considering two greenhouse gas future scenarios with levels of CO 2 equivalent of, respectively, 850 and >1370 ppm by 2100. Results indicate that the increase in runoff due to warming will exceed the increased precipitation deriving from the increase in evaporation for all basins, with the amount of net loss of mass at the surface varying spatially. Basins along the southwest and north coast are projected to have the highest sensitivity of SMB to increasing temperatures. For these basins, the global temperature anomaly corresponding to a decrease of the SMB below the 1980–99 average (when the ice sheet was near the equilibrium) ranges between +0.60 and +2.16 °C. For the basins along the northwest and northeast, these values range between +1.50 and +3.40 °C. Our results are conservative as they do not account for ice dynamics and changes in the ice sheet topography. (letter)

  16. Kinetic rates and mass balance of COD, TKN, and TP using SBR treating domestic and industrial wastewater. (United States)

    Warodomrungsimun, Chaowalit; Fongsatitkul, Prayoon


    To assess the performance of SBR to treat three different types of wastewater from domestic, hospital, slaughterhouse and investigate the kinetic rates of active biomass. Mass balance calculation of COD, TKN and TP was further performed to explain the mechanisms of the biological nutrient removals processed in the SBR system. The measured kinetic rates were in turn used to evaluate the process performances under different types of wastewater. Experimental research involving 3 similar SBR lab-scales were installed and operated at the Sanitary Engineering Laboratory. The reactors were seeded with sludge biomass obtained from the Sri-Phraya Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in Bangkok. The slaughterhouse, hospital and domestic wastewaters were treated by SBR system for biological organic carbon (COD), nitrogen (TKN) and phosphorus removals. Biological methods for kinetic rates evaluation were conducted in five replicated batch tests. The removal efficiencies of COD and TKN were greater than 90% for all three types of wastewater while the biological phosphorus removal for domestic and hospital wastewaters were less than 60% and phosphorus removal for slaughterhouse exceeded 95%. The kinetic rates of nitrification and denitrification of hospital wastewater was lower than those the domestic and slaughterhouse wastewaters. Phosphorus release and uptake rates of slaughterhouse wastewater were high but domestic and hospital wastewaters were very low. The result of system removal efficiency and batch test for kinetic rates confirmed that the domestic and hospital wastewaters were in deficiency of organic carbon with respect to its ability to support successful biological phosphorus removal.

  17. Use of mass balance and statistical correlation for geochemical and isotopic investigation of the groundwater in the quaternary aquifer of the nile delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, M.A.A.; Sadek, M.A.; Salem, W.M.


    A hydrochemical and environmental isotopic studies were conducted in the nile delta region, to investigate the sources of salinity and replenishment for the groundwater reservoir which are of importance for land reclamation projects and the establishment of new communities on the west and east side of the nile delta. The hydrogeological properties of the main exploitable aquifer (quaternary) was described. The chemistry of the collected surface and ground-waters was outlined through the analysis of major cations (Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ ) and major anions (Ci - , SO 4 - , HCO 3 - ). The variation in chemical composition of examined waters is attributed to the use of fertilizers, leaching of terrestrial salts and ion exchange between soil's minerals and water, in addition to, sea water intrusion in some isolated areas near by saline bodies (mediterranean sea, manzala lake, suez canal). Oxygen-18 and deuterium concentrations were used to identify the mechanism of recharge. The results show a mixing between different sources of water: recent Nile, old Nil water before construction of high Aswan dam, coastal precipitation as well as some contribution from both sea water toward north and palaeo-water at the eastern and western fringes of the nile delta. In some localities the recharge occurs indirectly after evaporation and/or vertical leakage of deep water due to over-pumping rates. This paper also demonstrates the implementation of statistical correlation and mass balance approaches to present the chemical and isotopic characterization of the nile delta quaternary aquifer. Recommendations are given for optimal use of water resources in the area of study

  18. Method for Analyzing Trade-offs in Biomass Management in Smallholder Farming Systems Based on Mass Balance: A Case Study in Tajikistan's Foothills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ruppen


    Full Text Available In smallholder farming systems, especially in mountainous areas, households face trade-offs between meeting short-term human needs and ensuring long-term soil productivity. Improved biomass management can help break the downward spiral of overexploitation of natural resources, land degradation, and productivity decline, and support more sustainable use of marginal land. Mixed crop/livestock systems are often carefully balanced to minimize risks. Thus, when planning interventions, profound systems knowledge is crucial. However, the data required for system characterization are often scarce, and original field studies are thus necessary. The aim of this research, a case study in Tajikistan, was to improve systems understanding of the biomass cycle in crop/livestock systems in order to quantify the obstacles to the spread of sustainable land management technologies to farming households. It aimed to establish a database and methods of rapid data collection to quantify the stocks and flows of biomass, with a focus on mass balances, and to evaluate smallholders’ biomass management options and trade-offs. Data collection included household interviews, secondary literature, and reference data sets from global sources. Trade-off analysis focused on household-level self-supply of food, fodder, and fuel by farmers with different sizes of smallholdings, and their potential for on-farm recycling of organic matter. Results indicate that food self-supply by small and medium smallholders is insufficient and fodder sources are scarce. Fodder scarcity means that application of crop byproducts to soils is unlikely. Animal dung is largely used as fuel. Firewood needs exceed on-farm wood production, leading to deforestation. The approach presented facilitates an understanding of current and potential agricultural land interventions in the crop/livestock farming systems prevailing in mountainous areas.

  19. Analysing mass balance of viruses in a coagulation-ceramic microfiltration hybrid system by a combination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the plaque forming units (PFU) method. (United States)

    Matsushita, T; Matsui, Y; Shirasaki, N


    Virus removal experiments using river water spiked with bacteriophages were conducted by an in-line coagulation-ceramic microfiltration hybrid system to investigate the effects of filtration flux (62.5 and 125 L/(m2 x h)) and type of virus (Qbeta and MS2) on virus removal. In addition, the mass balance of viruses through the hybrid system was analysed by quantifying the infectious and inactive viruses by a combination of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the plaque forming units (PFU) method. Even when the system was operated at high filtration flux (125 L/(m2 x h)), high virus removal (> 6 log) with short coagulation time (2.4 s) was successfully achieved by dosing polyaluminium chloride (PACI) at more than 1.08 mg-Al/L. Removal performances were different between Qbeta and MS2, although their diameters are almost the same: greater virus removal was achieved for MS2 at PACI dosing of 0.54 mg-Al/L, and for Qbeta at PACI dosing of more than 1.08 mg-Al/L. The combination of the PCR and PFU methods revealed that two phenomena, adsorption to/entrapment in aluminium floc and virucidal activity of PACI, partially account for the high virus removal in the coagulation-MF hybrid system.

  20. Effects of top-dressing recycled broiler litter on litter production, litter characteristics, and nitrogen mass balance. (United States)

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B


    Top-dressing is a method of broiler litter management in which a thin layer of new, clean litter material is spread over the top of previously used litter prior to placement of a new flock. This fresh layer of bedding material increases the absorptive capacity of the litter and decreases litter caking. Although this practice has been widely used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to quantify the effects the practice has on broiler performance, litter production rates, and nutrient content, or the ability of broiler litter to retain manure N and prevent volatilization. An experiment was conducted to quantify these parameters under simulated commercial conditions in a research facility. Nine consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on recycled broiler litter that had previously been used for 9 flocks. Control pens received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed pens received a thin layer of new rice hulls (1 to 2 cm) before the placement of each flock. Nitrogen loss was calculated using the mass balance method. Average broiler performance was not different between the top-dressed and control pens. Top-dressing of litter significantly (P dressed pens compared with control pens. As a result, litter C:N ratios were significantly higher for pens with top-dressed litter. Differences in N loss between the treatments were not consistent. Average N loss for all flocks was 10.61 and 11.92 g of N/kg of marketed broiler for control and top-dressed pens, respectively, or 20.1 and 22.5% of N inputs, respectively. Based on this experiment, top-dressing of recycled broiler litter would not be recommended as a strategy to reduce the volatilization of N from broiler rearing facilities and, in fact, may actually increase N loss.

  1. Outline of surface mass balance at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica, by the stake method from 1995 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Kameda


    Full Text Available This paper describes observational results of surface mass balance (SMB at Dome Fuji (77°19'01″S, 39°42'11″E; 3810m a.s.l., East Antarctica from 1995 to 2006. The SMB was estimated using 36 bamboo stakes (grid of 6×6, placed at 20m intervals. The heights of the stake tops from the snow surface were measured at 0.5cm resolution twice monthly in 1995, 1996, 1997, and 2003, and once a year for the rest of the study period. The annual SMB from 1995 to 2006 at Dome Fuji was 27.3±1.5kgm^a^. This result agrees well with the annual SMB from AD 1260 to 1993 (26.4kgm^a^, estimated from volcanic signals in the Dome Fuji ice core. From 1995 to 2006, there were 37 incidences of negative or zero annual SMB, which was 8.6%. Compared with similar studies at Vostok, South Pole and Dome C, we found that a site with SMB over 190kgm^a^ is expected to have annual snow accumulation at the 95% confidence level. Sites from 1500 to 2500m above sea level fit the criteria on the Antarctic ice sheet. According to stake and snow pit observations at Vostok, we estimated that the probability of an annual layer missing (hiatus at Dome Fuji under present-day and glacial conditions are 9.4% and 11.4%, respectively. Variations of SMB measured by 36-stakes for 12 years were also analyzed.

  2. Geochemical mass-balance to study the relative weathering rates of various formations in a complex watershed of lower Himalayas (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Pallavi; Kar, Swagat; Chouhan, Ramesh


    Weathering of rocks is a major process and believed to have the potential to alter Earth's surface. Aglar, a watershed in Garhwal Lesser Himalayas is identified and various formations of this complex geology are studied to understand the weathering process. A stream passes through the fault that divides the watershed into two slopes which have different lithotectonic units. Paligar and Belgar are the two main tributaries of Aglar stream flowing along the slopes respectively and joining at the valley near Thatyur village, India. Rocks like quartzite and limestone are generally hard, massive and resistant to weathering. However, sedimentary rocks are vulnerable to weathering and erosion. On the other hand, phyllites and schists are characterized by flaky minerals which weather quickly and promote instability . Aglar has all of them. The weathering processes are studied first using the hydrochemistry of Aglar river through major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+) and major anions (SO42-, HCO-3, Cl-, NO3-). The discharges at various sampling points are calculated using area - velocity method. The basic idea in describing the discharge of material in a river is to estimate the mass of the substances transported through a cross section of the river per second. Dominance of Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO-3 indicates that carbonate weathering is the major chemical weathering process near Belgar river. Paligar river has lower conductivity values compared to Belgar river which illustrates lower ionic concentrations. Mass-balance calculations are found often skewed and suggest the role of subsurface groundwater flow to explain the uncharacterized load. Southern side of the watershed with higher percentage of forest cover is found to have higher chemical weathering rates compared to the other slope having relatively lesser vegetation. These higher rates demonstrate the higher stream discharge load in that slope.

  3. Mass balance of emerging contaminants in the water cycle of a highly urbanized and industrialized area of Italy. (United States)

    Castiglioni, Sara; Davoli, Enrico; Riva, Francesco; Palmiotto, Marinella; Camporini, Paolo; Manenti, Angela; Zuccato, Ettore


    The occurrence of several classes of emerging contaminants (ECs) was assessed in the River Lambro basin, one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas of Italy. The study aims were to identify the main sources of ECs, quantify their amounts circulating in the water cycle, and study their fate in the aquatic environment. More than 80 ECs were selected among pharmaceuticals (PHARM), personal care products (PCPs), disinfectants (DIS), illicit drugs (IDs), perfluorinated compounds (PERF), alkylphenols and bisphenol A (Alk-BPA), and anthropogenic markers (AM). Specific analytical methods were developed for quantitative analysis based on solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. ECs were measured in rivers upstream and downstream of the main city (Milan), and in untreated and treated wastewater from Milan to assess the contribution to river contamination, and in superficial and deep groundwater in the city area to study the relationship between river and groundwater contamination. Samples were collected in a two-year monitoring campaign. Almost all ECs were ubiquitous in untreated wastewater, at concentrations up to the μg/L range, and the most abundant classes were PHARM and AM. Removals during different wastewater treatment processes were studied and the most stable substances were PHARM, PCPs and PERF. The mass loads increased for all the classes of ECs along the River Lambro basin. A mass balance was done in the river basin and allowed to identify the main sources of contamination, which were domestic, from treated or untreated wastewater, for PHARM, PCPs and IDs, mainly industrial for PERF, and both industrial and domestic for Alk-BPA. The study of AM helped to identify direct discharges of untreated wastewater. A substantial contribution of surface water to groundwater contamination was observed. This study improves the knowledge on occurrence, sources and fate of multiple classes of ECs in a highly urbanized area providing

  4. Mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of regorafenib in healthy human subjects. (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael; Hafner, Frank-Thorsten; Lang, Dieter; Radtke, Martin; Diefenbach, Konstanze; Cleton, Adriaan; Lettieri, John


    To evaluate the mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of regorafenib in healthy volunteers. In addition, in vitro metabolism of regorafenib in human hepatocytes was investigated. Four healthy male subjects received one 120 mg oral dose of regorafenib containing approximately 100 µCi (3.7 MBq) [ 14 C]regorafenib. Plasma concentrations of parent drug were derived from HPLC-MS/MS analysis and total radioactivity from liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Radiocarbon analyses used HPLC with fraction collection followed by LSC for all urine samples, plasma, and fecal homogenate extracts. For the in vitro study, [ 14 C]regorafenib was incubated with human hepatocytes and analyzed using HPLC-LSC and HPLC-HRMS/MS. Regorafenib was the major component in plasma, while metabolite M-2 (pyridine N-oxide) was the most prominent metabolite. Metabolites M-5 (demethylated pyridine N-oxide) and M-7 (N-glucuronide) were identified as minor plasma components. The mean concentration of total radioactivity in plasma/whole blood appeared to plateau at 1-4 h and again at 6-24 h post-dose. In total, 90.5% of administered radioactivity was recovered in the excreta within a collection interval of 12 days, most of which (71.2%) was eliminated in feces, while excretion via urine accounted for 19.3%. Regorafenib (47.2%) was the most prominent component in feces and was not excreted into urine. Excreted metabolites resulted from oxidative metabolism and glucuronidation. Regorafenib was eliminated predominantly in feces as well as by hepatic biotransformation. The multiple biotransformation pathways of regorafenib decrease the risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions.

  5. Simulating groundwater flow and runoff for the Oro Moraine aquifer system. Part II. Automated calibration and mass balance calculations (United States)

    Beckers, J.; Frind, E. O.


    A steady-state groundwater model of the Oro Moraine aquifer system in Central Ontario, Canada, is developed. The model is used to identify the role of baseflow in the water balance of the Minesing Swamp, a 70 km 2 wetland of international significance. Lithologic descriptions are used to develop a hydrostratigraphic conceptual model of the aquifer system. The numerical model uses long-term averages to represent temporal variations of the flow regime and includes a mechanism to redistribute recharge in response to near-surface geologic heterogeneity. The model is calibrated to water level and streamflow measurements through inverse modeling. Observed baseflow and runoff quantities validate the water mass balance of the numerical model and provide information on the fraction of the water surplus that contributes to groundwater flow. The inverse algorithm is used to compare alternative model zonation scenarios, illustrating the power of non-linear regression in calibrating complex aquifer systems. The adjoint method is used to identify sensitive recharge areas for groundwater discharge to the Minesing Swamp. Model results suggest that nearby urban development will have a significant impact on baseflow to the swamp. Although the direct baseflow contribution makes up only a small fraction of the total inflow to the swamp, it provides an important steady influx of water over relatively large portions of the wetland. Urban development will also impact baseflow to the headwaters of local streams. The model provides valuable insight into crucial characteristics of the aquifer system although definite conclusions regarding details of its water budget are difficult to draw given current data limitations. The model therefore also serves to guide future data collection and studies of sub-areas within the basin.

  6. Bioanalysis works in the IAA AMS facility: Comparison of AMS analytical method with LSC method in human mass balance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Teiji; Isono, Yoshimi; Setani, Kaoru; Sakai, Kumiko; Yamada, Ichimaro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Gunji, Shinobu; Matsui, Takao


    Institute of Accelerator Analysis Ltd. (IAA) is the first Contract Research Organization in Japan providing Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analysis services for carbon dating and bioanalysis works. The 3 MV AMS machines are maintained by validated analysis methods using multiple control compounds. It is confirmed that these AMS systems have reliabilities and sensitivities enough for each objective. The graphitization of samples for bioanalysis is prepared by our own purification lines including the measurement of total carbon content in the sample automatically. In this paper, we present the use of AMS analysis in human mass balance and metabolism profiling studies with IAA 3 MV AMS, comparing results obtained from the same samples with liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Human samples such as plasma, urine and feces were obtained from four healthy volunteers orally administered a 14 C-labeled drug Y-700, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, of which radioactivity was about 3 MBq (85 μCi). For AMS measurement, these samples were diluted 100-10,000-fold with pure-water or blank samples. The results indicated that AMS method had a good correlation with LSC method (e.g. plasma: r = 0.998, urine: r = 0.997, feces: r = 0.997), and that the drug recovery in the excreta exceeded 92%. The metabolite profiles of plasma, urine and feces obtained with HPLC-AMS corresponded to radio-HPLC results measured at much higher radioactivity level. These results revealed that AMS analysis at IAA is useful to measure 14 C-concentration in bioanalysis studies at very low radioactivity level

  7. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spokas, K.; Bogner, J.; Chanton, J.P.; Morcet, M.; Aran, C.; Graff, C.; Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le; Hebe, I.


    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH 4 m -2 d -1 . Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery

  8. On the importance of the albedo parameterization for the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in EC-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen


    Full Text Available The albedo of the surface of ice sheets changes as a function of time due to the effects of deposition of new snow, ageing of dry snow, bare ice exposure, melting and run-off. Currently, the calculation of the albedo of ice sheets is highly parameterized within the earth system model EC-Earth by taking a constant value for areas with thick perennial snow cover. This is an important reason why the surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS is poorly resolved in the model. The purpose of this study is to improve the SMB forcing of the GrIS by evaluating different parameter settings within a snow albedo scheme. By allowing ice-sheet albedo to vary as a function of wet and dry conditions, the spatial distribution of albedo and melt rate improves. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of SMB in EC-Earth is not significantly improved. As a reason for this, we identify omissions in the current snow albedo scheme, such as separate treatment of snow and ice and the effect of refreezing. The resulting SMB is downscaled from the lower-resolution global climate model topography to the higher-resolution ice-sheet topography of the GrIS, such that the influence of these different SMB climatologies on the long-term evolution of the GrIS is tested by ice-sheet model simulations. From these ice-sheet simulations we conclude that an albedo scheme with a short response time of decaying albedo during wet conditions performs best with respect to long-term simulated ice-sheet volume. This results in an optimized albedo parameterization that can be used in future EC-Earth simulations with an interactive ice-sheet component.

  9. Using ATM laser altimetry to constrain surface mass balance estimates and supraglacial hydrology of the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Studinger, M.; Medley, B.; Manizade, S.; Linkswiler, M. A.


    Repeat airborne laser altimetry measurements can provide large-scale field observations to better quantify spatial and temporal variability of surface processes contributing to seasonal elevation change and therefore surface mass balance. As part of NASA's Operation IceBridge the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter measured the surface elevation of the Greenland Ice Sheet during spring (March - May) and fall (September - October) of 2015. Comparison of the two surveys reveals a general trend of thinning for outlet glaciers and for the ice sheet in a manner related to elevation and latitude. In contrast, some thickening is observed on the west (but not on the east) side of the ice divide above 2200 m elevation in the southern half, below latitude 69°N.The observed magnitude and spatial patterns of the summer melt signal can be utilized as input into ice sheet models and for validating reanalysis of regional climate models such as RACMO and MAR. We use seasonal anomalies in MERRA-2 climate fields (temperature, precipitation) to understand the observed spatial signal in seasonal change. Aside from surface elevation change, runoff from meltwater pooling in supraglacial lakes and meltwater channels accounts for at least half of the total mass loss. The ability of the ATM laser altimeters to image glacial hydrological features in 3-D and determine the depth of supraglacial lakes could be used for process studies and for quantifying melt processes over large scales. The 1-meter footprint diameter of ATM laser on the surface, together with a high shot density, allows for the production of large-scale, high-resolution, geodetic quality DEMs (50 x 50 cm) suitable for fine-scale glacial hydrology research and as input to hydrological models quantifying runoff.

  10. Modelling the dynamics of fish contamination by Chernobyl radiocaesium: an analytical solution based on potassium mass balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koulikov, Alexei O.; Meili, Markus


    After the sudden fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, activities and bioaccumulation factors of radiocaesium ( 137 Cs, 134 Cs) fluctuated strongly over several years before reaching quasi-equilibrium, with patterns significantly differing among organisms. To model these dynamic relaxation processes based on ecological mechanisms we developed mass balance equations for 137 Cs in an aquatic food chain on the following basis: (a) potassium acts as a biogeochemical analogue ('carrier') of caesium; (b) the concentration of potassium in fish and other animals is effectively constant; (c) the main source of potassium in freshwater fish is the dietary uptake. The model is applicable to linear food chains of any number of trophic levels, while solutions evaluated here include the following food chain compartments: water, invertebrates (fish food), non-piscivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The activity concentration in the water, which is considered as the secondary source of 137 Cs, is described by multi-component first-order decay function, although two components (fast and slow) are often sufficient to provide agreement with empirical data. In every compartment the turnover rate of caesium is considered as a constant over time. The analytical solution of the model equations describes the 137 Cs activity concentration in every compartment as a series of exponential functions, of which some are derived from the source pattern, and the others determined by the 137 Cs turnover rate in each food chain compartment. The model was tested with post-Chernobyl data from several long-term studies in lakes and provided a reasonable description of important radioecological aspects

  11. Chloride test - blood (United States)

    Serum chloride test ... A greater-than-normal level of chloride is called hyperchloremia. It may be due to: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (used to treat glaucoma) Diarrhea Metabolic acidosis Respiratory alkalosis (compensated) Renal ...

  12. Chloride in diet (United States)

    ... this page: // Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  13. Mercuric chloride poisoning (United States)

    ... page: // Mercuric chloride poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It ...

  14. Changing pattern of ice flow and mass balance for glaciers discharging into the Larsen A and B embayments, Antarctic Peninsula, 2011 to 2016 (United States)

    Rott, Helmut; Abdel Jaber, Wael; Wuite, Jan; Scheiblauer, Stefan; Floricioiu, Dana; Melchior van Wessem, Jan; Nagler, Thomas; Miranda, Nuno; van den Broeke, Michiel R.


    We analysed volume change and mass balance of outlet glaciers on the northern Antarctic Peninsula over the periods 2011 to 2013 and 2013 to 2016, using high-resolution topographic data from the bistatic interferometric radar satellite mission TanDEM-X. Complementary to the geodetic method that applies DEM differencing, we computed the net mass balance of the main outlet glaciers using the mass budget method, accounting for the difference between the surface mass balance (SMB) and the discharge of ice into an ocean or ice shelf. The SMB values are based on output of the regional climate model RACMO version 2.3p2. To study glacier flow and retrieve ice discharge we generated time series of ice velocity from data from different satellite radar sensors, with radar images of the satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X as the main source. The study area comprises tributaries to the Larsen A, Larsen Inlet and Prince Gustav Channel embayments (region A), the glaciers calving into the Larsen B embayment (region B) and the glaciers draining into the remnant part of the Larsen B ice shelf in Scar Inlet (region C). The glaciers of region A, where the buttressing ice shelf disintegrated in 1995, and of region B (ice shelf break-up in 2002) show continuing losses in ice mass, with significant reduction of losses after 2013. The mass balance numbers for the grounded glacier area of region A are -3.98 ± 0.33 Gt a-1 from 2011 to 2013 and -2.38 ± 0.18 Gt a-1 from 2013 to 2016. The corresponding numbers for region B are -5.75 ± 0.45 and -2.32 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The mass balance in region C during the two periods was slightly negative, at -0.54 ± 0.38 Gt a-1 and -0.58 ± 0.25 Gt a-1. The main share in the overall mass losses of the region was contributed by two glaciers: Drygalski Glacier contributing 61 % to the mass deficit of region A, and Hektoria and Green glaciers accounting for 67 % to the mass deficit of region B. Hektoria and Green glaciers accelerated significantly in 2010

  15. Relating road salt to exceedances of the water quality standard for chloride in New Hampshire streams. (United States)

    Trowbridge, Philip R; Kahl, J Steve; Sassan, Dari A; Heath, Douglas L; Walsh, Edward M


    Six watersheds in New Hampshire were studied to determine the effects of road salt on stream water quality. Specific conductance in streams was monitored every 15 min for one year using dataloggers. Chloride concentrations were calculated from specific conductance using empirical relationships. Stream chloride concentrations were directly correlated with development in the watersheds and were inversely related to streamflow. Exceedances of the EPA water quality standard for chloride were detected in the four watersheds with the most development. The number of exceedances during a year was linearly related to the annual average concentration of chloride. Exceedances of the water quality standard were not predicted for streams with annual average concentrations less than 102 mg L(-1). Chloride was imported into three of the watersheds at rates ranging from 45 to 98 Mg Cl km(-2) yr(-1). Ninety-one percent of the chloride imported was road salt for deicing roadways and parking lots. A simple, mass balance equation was shown to predict annual average chloride concentrations from streamflow and chloride import rates to the watershed. This equation, combined with the apparent threshold for exceedances of the water quality standard, can be used for screening-level TMDLs for road salt in impaired watersheds.

  16. Citropin 1.1 Trifluoroacetate to Chloride Counter-Ion Exchange in HCl-Saturated Organic Solutions: An Alternative Approach. (United States)

    Sikora, Karol; Neubauer, Damian; Jaśkiewicz, Maciej; Kamysz, Wojciech


    In view of the increasing interest in peptides in various market sectors, a stronger emphasis on topics related to their production has been seen. Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis, although being fast and efficient, provides final products with significant amounts of trifluoroacetate ions in the form of either a counter-ion or an unbound impurity. Because of the proven toxicity towards cells and peptide activity inhibition, ion exchange to more biocompatible one is purposeful. Additionally, as most of the currently used counter-ion exchange techniques are time-consuming and burdened by peptide yield reduction risk, development of a new approach is still a sensible solution. In this study, we examined the potential of peptide counter-ion exchange using non-aqueous organic solvents saturated with HCl. Counter-ion exchange of a model peptide, citropin 1.1 (GLFDVIKKVASVIGGL-NH 2 ), for each solvent was conducted through incubation with subsequent evaporation under reduced pressure, dissolution in water and lyophilization. Each exchange was performed four times and compared to a reference method-lyophilization of the peptide from an 0.1 M HCl solution. The results showed superior counter-ion exchange efficiency for most of the organic solutions in relation to the reference method. Moreover, HCl-saturated acetonitrile and tert -butanol provided a satisfying exchange level after just one repetition. Thus, those two organic solvents can be potentially introduced into routine peptide counter-ion exchange.

  17. A 30-year record of surface mass balance (1966-95) and motion and surface altitude (1975-95) at Wolverine Glacier, Alaska (United States)

    Mayo, Lawrence R.; Trabant, Dennis C.; March, Rod S.


    Scientific measurements at Wolverine Glacier, on the Kenai Peninsula in south-central Alaska, began in April 1966. At three long-term sites in the research basin, the measurements included snow depth, snow density, heights of the glacier surface and stratigraphic summer surfaces on stakes, and identification of the surface materials. Calculations of the mass balance of the surface strata-snow, new firn, superimposed ice, and old firn and ice mass at each site were based on these measurements. Calculations of fixed-date annual mass balances for each hydrologic year (October 1 to September 30), as well as net balances and the dates of minimum net balance measured between time-transgressive summer surfaces on the glacier, were made on the basis of the strata balances augmented by air temperature and precipitation recorded in the basin. From 1966 through 1995, the average annual balance at site A (590 meters altitude) was -4.06 meters water equivalent; at site B (1,070 meters altitude), was -0.90 meters water equivalent; and at site C (1,290 meters altitude), was +1.45 meters water equivalent. Geodetic determination of displacements of the mass balance stake, and glacier surface altitudes was added to the data set in 1975 to detect the glacier motion responses to variable climate and mass balance conditions. The average surface speed from 1975 to 1996 was 50.0 meters per year at site A, 83.7 meters per year at site B, and 37.2 meters per year at site C. The average surface altitudes were 594 meters at site A, 1,069 meters at site B, and 1,293 meters at site C; the glacier surface altitudes rose and fell over a range of 19.4 meters at site A, 14.1 meters at site B, and 13.2 meters at site C.

  18. High-resolution DEMs for High-mountain Asia: A systematic, region-wide assessment of geodetic glacier mass balance and dynamics (United States)

    Shean, D. E.; Arendt, A. A.; Osmanoglu, B.; Montesano, P.


    High Mountain Asia (HMA) constitutes the largest glacierized region outside of the Earth's polar regions. Although available observations are limited, long-term records indicate sustained regional glacier mass loss since 1850, with increased loss in recent decades. Recent satellite data (e.g., GRACE, ICESat-1) show spatially variable glacier mass balance, with significant mass loss in the Himalaya and Hindu Kush and slight mass gain in the Karakoram. We generated 4000 high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from sub-meter commercial stereo imagery (DigitalGlobe WorldView/GeoEye) acquired over glaciers in High-mountain Asia from 2002-present (mostly 2013-present). We produced a regional 8-m DEM mosaic for 2015 and estimated 15-year geodetic mass balance for 40000 glaciers larger than 0.1 km2. We are combining with other regional DEM sources to systematically document the spatiotemporal evolution of glacier mass balance for the entire HMA region. We also generated monthly to interannual DEM and velocity time series for high-priority sites distributed across the region, with >15-20 DEMs available for some locations from 2010-present. These records document glacier dynamics, seasonal snow accumulation/redistribution, and processes that affect glacier mass balance (e.g., ice-cliff retreat, debris cover evolution). These efforts will provide basin-scale assessments of snow/ice melt runoff contributions for model cal/val and downstream water resources applications. We will continue processing all archived and newly available commercial stereo imagery for HMA, and will release all DEMs through the HiMAT DAAC.

  19. Comprehensive theory of the Deans' switch as a variable flow splitter: fluid mechanics, mass balance, and system behavior. (United States)

    Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan; Mysliwietz, Bodo; Lammers, Peter Schulze


    The Deans' switch is an effluent switching device based on controlling flows of carrier gas instead of mechanical valves in the analytical flow path. This technique offers high inertness and a wear-free operation. Recently new monolithic microfluidic devices have become available. In these devices the whole flow system is integrated into a small metal device with low thermal mass and leak-tight connections. In contrast to a mechanical valve-based system, a flow-controlled system is more difficult to calculate. Usually the Deans' switch is used to switch one inlet to one of two outlets, by means of two auxiliary flows. However, the Deans' switch can also be used to deliver the GC effluent with a specific split ratio to both outlets. The calculation of the split ratio of the inlet flow to the two outlets is challenging because of the asymmetries of the flow resistances. This is especially the case, if one of the outlets is a vacuum device, such as a mass spectrometer, and the other an atmospheric detector, e.g. a flame ionization detector (FID) or an olfactory (sniffing) port. The capillary flows in gas chromatography are calculated with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation of the laminar, isothermal and compressible flow in circular tubes. The flow resistances in the new microfluidic devices have to be calculated with the corresponding equation for rectangular cross-section microchannels. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation underestimates the flow to a vacuum outlet. A corrected equation originating from the theory of rarefied flows is presented. The calculation of pressures and flows of a Deans' switch based chromatographic system is done by the solution of mass balances. A specific challenge is the consideration of the antidiffusion resistor between the two auxiliary gas lines of the Deans' switch. A full solution for the calculation of the Deans' switch including this restrictor is presented. Results from validation measurements are in good accordance with the developed

  20. Assessing modeled Greenland surface mass balance in the GISS Model E2 and its sensitivity to surface albedo (United States)

    Alexander, Patrick; LeGrande, Allegra N.; Koenig, Lora S.; Tedesco, Marco; Moustafa, Samiah E.; Ivanoff, Alvaro; Fischer, Robert P.; Fettweis, Xavier


    The surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) plays an important role in global sea level change. Regional Climate Models (RCMs) such as the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) have been employed at high spatial resolution with relatively complex physics to simulate ice sheet SMB. Global climate models (GCMs) incorporate less sophisticated physical schemes and provide outputs at a lower spatial resolution, but have the advantage of modeling the interaction between different components of the earth's oceans, climate, and land surface at a global scale. Improving the ability of GCMs to represent ice sheet SMB is important for making predictions of future changes in global sea level. With the ultimate goal of improving SMB simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Model E2 GCM, we compare simulated GrIS SMB against the outputs of the MAR model and radar-derived estimates of snow accumulation. In order to reproduce present-day climate variability in the Model E2 simulation, winds are constrained to match the reanalysis datasets used to force MAR at the lateral boundaries. We conduct a preliminary assessment of the sensitivity of the simulated Model E2 SMB to surface albedo, a parameter that is known to strongly influence SMB. Model E2 albedo is set to a fixed value of 0.8 over the entire ice sheet in the initial configuration of the model (control case). We adjust this fixed value in an ensemble of simulations over a range of 0.4 to 0.8 (roughly the range of observed summer GrIS albedo values) to examine the sensitivity of ice-sheet-wide SMB to albedo. We prescribe albedo from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD43A3 v6 to examine the impact of a more realistic spatial and temporal variations in albedo. An age-dependent snow albedo parameterization is applied, and its impact on SMB relative to observations and the RCM is assessed.

  1. Evaluation of a 12-km Satellite-Era Reanalysis of Surface Mass Balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Cullather, R. I.; Nowicki, S.; Zhao, B.; Max, S.


    The recent contribution to sea level change from the Greenland Ice Sheet is thought to be strongly driven by surface processes including melt and runoff. Global reanalyses are potential means of reconstructing the historical time series of ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB), but lack spatial resolution needed to resolve ablation areas along the periphery of the ice sheet. In this work, the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) is used to examine the spatial and temporal variability of surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet. MERRA-2 is produced for the period 1980 to the present at a grid spacing of ½° latitude by ⅝° longitude, and includes snow hydrology processes including compaction, meltwater percolation and refreezing, runoff, and a prognostic surface albedo. The configuration of the MERRA-2 system allows for the background model - the Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) - to be carried in phase space through analyzed states via the computation of analysis increments, a capability referred to as "replay". Here, a MERRA-2 replay integration is conducted in which atmospheric forcing fields are interpolated and adjusted to sub- atmospheric grid-scale resolution. These adjustments include lapse-rate effects on temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other atmospheric variables that are known to have a strong elevation dependency over ice sheets. The surface coupling is performed such that mass and energy are conserved. The atmospheric forcing influences the surface representation, which operates on land surface tiles with an approximate 12-km spacing. This produces a high-resolution, downscaled SMB which is interactively coupled to the reanalysis model. We compare the downscaled SMB product with other reanalyses, regional climate model values, and a second MERRA-2 replay in which the background model has been replaced with a 12-km, non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5. The assessment

  2. Properties of the surface snow in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica - climate and non-climate dependent variability of the surface mass balance and stable water isotopic composition (United States)

    Vladimirova, D.; Ekaykin, A.; Lipenkov, V.; Popov, S. V.; Petit, J. R.; Masson-Delmotte, V.


    Glaciological and meteorological observations conducted during the past four decades in Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica, are compiled. The database is used to investigate spatial patterns of surface snow isotopic composition and surface mass balance, including detailed information near subglacial lake Vostok. We show diverse relationships between snow isotopic composition and surface temperature. In the most inland part (elevation 3200-3400 m a.s.l.), surface snow isotopic composition varies independently from surface temperature, and is closely related to the distance to the open water source (with a slope of 0.98±0.17 ‰ per 100 km). Surface mass balance values are higher along the ice sheet slope, and relatively evenly distributed inland. The minimum values of snow isotopic composition and surface mass balance are identified in an area XX km southwestward from Vostok station. The spatial distribution of deuterium excess delineates regions influenced by the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean air masses, with Vostok area being situated close to their boundary. Anomalously high deuterium excess values are observed near Dome A, suggesting high kinetic fractionation for its moisture source, or specifically high post-deposition artifacts. The dataset is available for further studies such as the assessment of skills of general circulation or regional atmospheric models, and the search for the oldest ice.

  3. Estimating representative background PM2.5 concentration in heavily polluted areas using baseline separation technique and chemical mass balance model (United States)

    Gao, Shuang; Yang, Wen; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Yanling; Mao, Jian; Ma, Zhenxing; Cong, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xian; Tian, Shasha; Azzi, Merched; Chen, Li; Bai, Zhipeng


    The determination of background concentration of PM2.5 is important to understand the contribution of local emission sources to total PM2.5 concentration. The purpose of this study was to exam the performance of baseline separation techniques to estimate PM2.5 background concentration. Five separation methods, which included recursive digital filters (Lyne-Hollick, one-parameter algorithm, and Boughton two-parameter algorithm), sliding interval and smoothed minima, were applied to one-year PM2.5 time-series data in two heavily polluted cities, Tianjin and Jinan. To obtain the proper filter parameters and recession constants for the separation techniques, we conducted regression analysis at a background site during the emission reduction period enforced by the Government for the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting in Beijing. Background concentrations in Tianjin and Jinan were then estimated by applying the determined filter parameters and recession constants. The chemical mass balance (CMB) model was also applied to ascertain the effectiveness of the new approach. Our results showed that the contribution of background PM concentration to ambient pollution was at a comparable level to the contribution obtained from the previous study. The best performance was achieved using the Boughton two-parameter algorithm. The background concentrations were estimated at (27 ± 2) μg/m3 for the whole year, (34 ± 4) μg/m3 for the heating period (winter), (21 ± 2) μg/m3 for the non-heating period (summer), and (25 ± 2) μg/m3 for the sandstorm period in Tianjin. The corresponding values in Jinan were (30 ± 3) μg/m3, (40 ± 4) μg/m3, (24 ± 5) μg/m3, and (26 ± 2) μg/m3, respectively. The study revealed that these baseline separation techniques are valid for estimating levels of PM2.5 air pollution, and that our proposed method has great potential for estimating the background level of other air pollutants.

  4. Diffuse pollution (pesticides and nitrate) at catchment scale on two constrasted sites: mass balances and characterization of the temporal variability of groundwater quality. (United States)

    Baran, N.; Gutierrez, A.


    characterizations. Notable changes in the use of pesticides generally result from the evolution of regulations. In Europe, the herbicides atrazine and isoproturon have been classified as priority substances (2455/2001/EC, OJEC 2001). The use of atrazine was forbidden in France since September 2003 following restrictions already in force since 1991. In January 2004 the maximum permitted application of isoproturon was reduced from 2500 to 1800 g ha-1. In France, two contrasted hydrogeological systems located in agricultural contexts were intensively monitored for at least a decade in order to i) characterize the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater contamination by different pesticides with varied physical and chemical characteristics (atrazine, isoproturon and their metabolites and chloroacetanilides used as atrazine substitutes) and nitrate, ii) calculate annual pesticide mass balances for a long period including years with contrasted climatic conditions and to iii) identify the different mechanisms influencing water and solute transfer. Although both sites (Brévilles and 3 Fontaines) have very different hydrogeological characteristics (4 vs. 50 sq km, sandy vs. chalky saturated zone, non karstic vs. karstic, …) the monitoring of the major springs representing the outlet of the catchments revealed similarities. For example, atrazine and its metabolite deethylatrazine have been both systematically quantified at the outlet springs despite the stop of atrazine use on the Brévilles and 3 Fontaines catchments since April1999 and September 2003, respectively. For both sites, the mass balances (comparison of inputs and outfluxes) indicated that only few percents of the applied quantity of atrazine reached the spring but led to concentrations higher than the allowed limit for drinkable water. At the opposite, isoproturon which is the pesticide applied with the highest quantities for the last decade on both sites, is detected in a very limited number of samples. The different

  5. Structure of chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride). III. Preparation of poly(vinyl chloride)-β,β-d2 as a model for the study of the mechanism of chlorination and of the chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukas, R.; Kolinsky, M.


    A method for the preparation of poly(vinyl chloride)-β,β-d 2 (PVC-β,β-d 2 ) as a model for the investigation of the mechanism of chlorination and of the CPVC structure has been suggested. The conditions of preparation of deuterated intermediates of a multistage synthesis of vinyl chloride-β,β-d 2 and of suspension-polymerized PVC-β,β-d 2 have been described including the mass balance. Malonic acid was used as the starting compound. Tacticity values of a sample of PVC-β,β-d 2 and its infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are presented and compared with the data already published

  6. Two Phase 1, Open‐Label, Mass Balance Studies to Determine the Pharmacokinetics of 14C‐Labeled Isavuconazonium Sulfate in Healthy Male Volunteers (United States)

    Kato, Kota; Hale, Christine; Kowalski, Donna; Lademacher, Christopher; Yamazaki, Takao; Akhtar, Shahzad; Desai, Amit


    Abstract Isavuconazonium sulfate is the water‐soluble prodrug of the active triazole isavuconazole. Two phase 1 studies were conducted to identify the metabolic profile and mass balance of isavuconazole and BAL8728 (inactive cleavage product). Seven subjects in study 1 (isavuconazole mass balance) received a single oral dose of [cyano‐14C]isavuconazonium sulfate corresponding to 200 mg isavuconazole. Six subjects in study 2 (BAL8728 mass balance) received a single intravenous dose of [pyridinylmethyl‐14C]isavuconazonium sulfate corresponding to 75 mg BAL8728. Pharmacokinetic parameters of radioactivity in whole blood and plasma and of isavuconazole and BAL8728 in plasma were assessed. Radioactivity ratio of blood/plasma, percentage of dose, and cumulative percentage of radioactive dose recovered in urine and feces for isavuconazole and BAL8728 were assessed. Metabolic profiling was carried out by high‐performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mean plasma isavuconazole pharmacokinetic parameters included apparent clearance (2.3 ± 0.7 L/h), apparent volume of distribution (301.8 ± 105.7 L), and terminal elimination half‐life (99.9 ± 44.6 hours). In study 1, isavuconazole‐derived radioactivity was recovered approximately equally in urine and feces (46.1% and 45.5%, respectively). In study 2, BAL8728‐derived radioactivity was predominantly recovered in urine (96.0%). Isavuconazole (study 1) and M4 (cleavage metabolite of BAL8728; study 2) were the predominant circulating components of radioactivity in plasma. PMID:28750160

  7. Linking morphodynamic response with sediment mass balance on the Colorado River in Marble Canyon: issues of scale, geomorphic setting, and sampling design (United States)

    Grams, Paul E.; Topping, David J.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt


    Measurements of morphologic change are often used to infer sediment mass balance. Such measurements may, however, result in gross errors when morphologic changes over short reaches are extrapolated to predict changes in sediment mass balance for long river segments. This issue is investigated by examination of morphologic change and sediment influx and efflux for a 100 km segment of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona. For each of four monitoring intervals within a 7 year study period, the direction of sand-storage response within short morphologic monitoring reaches was consistent with the flux-based sand mass balance. Both budgeting methods indicate that sand storage was stable or increased during the 7 year period. Extrapolation of the morphologic measurements outside the monitoring reaches does not, however, provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of sand-storage change for the 100 km study area. Extrapolation results in large errors, because there is large local variation in site behavior driven by interactions between the flow and local bed topography. During the same flow regime and reach-average sediment supply, some locations accumulate sand while others evacuate sand. The interaction of local hydraulics with local channel geometry exerts more control on local morphodynamic response than sand supply over an encompassing river segment. Changes in the upstream supply of sand modify bed responses but typically do not completely offset the effect of local hydraulics. Thus, accurate sediment budgets for long river segments inferred from reach-scale morphologic measurements must incorporate the effect of local hydraulics in a sampling design or avoid extrapolation altogether.

  8. On the impact of using downscaled reanalysis data instead of direct measurements for modeling the mass balance of a tropical glacier (Cordillera Blanca, Peru) (United States)

    Galos, Stephan; Hofer, Marlis; Marzeion, Ben; Mölg, Thomas; Großhauser, Martin


    Due to their setting, tropical glaciers are sensitive indicators of mid-tropospheric meteorological variability and climate change. Furthermore these glaciers are of particular interest because they respond faster to climatic changes than glaciers located in mid- or high-latitudes. As long-term direct meteorological measurements in such remote environments are scarce, reanalysis data (e.g. ERA-Interim) provide a highly valuable source of information. Reanalysis datasets (i) enable a temporal extension of data records gained by direct measurements and (ii) provide information from regions where direct measurements are not available. In order to properly derive the physical exchange processes between glaciers and atmosphere from reanalysis data, downscaling procedures are required. In the present study we investigate if downscaled atmospheric variables (air temperature and relative humidity) from a reanalysis dataset can be used as input for a physically based, high resolution energy and mass balance model. We apply a well validated empirical-statistical downscaling model, fed with ERA-Interim data, to an automated weather station (AWS) on the surface of Glaciar Artesonraju (8.96° S | 77.63° W). The downscaled data is then used to replace measured air temperature and relative humidity in the input for the energy and mass balance model, which was calibrated using ablation data from stakes and a sonic ranger. In order to test the sensitivity of the modeled mass balance to the downscaled data, the results are compared to a reference model run driven solely with AWS data as model input. We finally discuss the results and present future perspectives for further developing this method.

  9. Perennial water stratification and the role of freshwater in the mass balance of Arctic ice shelves and multiyear landfast sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, M.O.


    A number of the ice shelves of northern Ellesmere Island in the Canadian High Arctic owe their origin to multiyear landfast sea ice (MLSI) growth during the post-Hypsithermal cooling ca. 3,000-4,000 BP. Since they grew in response to an arctic-wide climatic deterioration and contain evidence of occasional post-4,000 BP climatic ameliorations, they may be expected to be sensitive to future global climate changes manifested in the High Arctic. The purpose of this paper is to examine ice-ocean interactions and feedbacks, and the response of the ice shelves and the MLSI to the improved summer climate of the last ca. 100 years, and implications for the future. There is good evidence that there has been a negative surface mass balance since the turn of the century. Mass balance measurements on the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf between 1966 and 1985 indicate a total ice loss of 1.371 m at a mean annual rate of 68.5 mm. The interannual pattern of accumulation and ablation and the long-term losses on the ice shelf are similar to other Canadian High Arctic glacier mass balance records. It is evident from water and ice core records of salinity, δ 18 0 and tritium, that perennial water stratification is common below and behind the ice shelves and MLSI. The coastal waters are highly stratified, with anything from 0.5 m to 41.0 m of freshwater interposed between the overlying ice and underlying seawater. The primary source of the freshwater is summer run-off of snow-meltwater from the adjacent land and from the ice itself. There is minimal mixing between the influent freshwater and seawater, and the freshwater is either dammed behind the ice shelves and the MLSI, with subsequent under-ice freshwater outflows, or pooled in under-ice depressions

  10. Surface mass balance and runoff modeling using HIRHAM4 RCM at Kangerlussuaq (Søndre Strømfjord), West Greenland, 1950-2080

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.


    A regional atmospheric model, the HIRHAM4 regional climate model (RCM) using boundary conditions from the ECHAM5 atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM), was downscaled to a 500-m gridcell increment using SnowModel to simulate 131 yr (1950-2080) of hydrologic cycle evolution in west...... Greenland's Kangerlussuaq drainage. Projected changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) and runoff are relevant for potential hydropower production and prediction of ecosystem changes in sensitive Kangerlussuaq Fjord systems. Mean annual surface air temperatures and precipitation...

  11. Climate, glacier mass balance and runoff (1993-2005) for the Mittivakkat Glacier catchment, Ammassalik Island, SE Greenland, and in a long term perspective (1898-1993)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Kane, D.L.; Hansen, Birger


    temperatures (MAAT) occur in the coastal area, indicating an approximately 20-d shorter thawing period. The higher lying glacier area, in contrast, experiences an increasing MAAT, an approximately 40-d longer thawing period and a 60-d longer snow-free period. The Mittivakkat Glacier net mass balance has been...... almost continuously negative, corresponding to an average loss of glacier volume of 0.4% yr-1. The total catchment runoff is averaging 1973±281 mm w.eq. yr-1, and around 30% of the runoff is explained by glacier net loss. Over the 106 years (1898-2004) MAAT has, on average, increased significantly...

  12. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...... of depth and time, when both the surface chloride concentration and the diffusion coefficient are allowed to vary in time. The model is presented in a companion paper....

  13. Hydrogeochemical cycling and chemical denudation in the Fort River Watershed, central Massachusetts: An appraisal of mass-balance studies (United States)

    Yuretich, Richard F.; Batchelder, Gail L.


    The Fort River watershed in central Massachusetts receives precipitation with a composition similar to that in Hubbard Brook (New Hampshire), yet the average stream water chemistry is substantially different, showing higher pH and TDS. This is largely a function of bedrock and surficial geology, and chemical differences among small streams within the Fort River watershed are apparently controlled by the composition and thickness of the prevailing surficial cover. The surficial deposits determine groundwater and surface water flow paths, thereby affecting the resultant contact time with mineral matter and the chemistry of the runoff. Despite the rural setting, over 95% of the annual sodium and chloride in the streams comes from road salt; after correcting for this factor, cation denudation rates are about equal to those at Hubbard Brook. However, silica removal is occurring at a rate more than 30% greater in the Fort River. When climatic conditions in Hubbard Brook and Fort River are normalized, weathering rates appear consistently higher in the Fort River, reflecting differences in weathering processes (i.e., cation exchange and silicate breakdown) and hydrogeology. Because of uncertainties in mechanisms of cation removal from watersheds, the silica denudation rate may be a better index of weathering intensity.

  14. Quantification of seasonal to annual mass balances from glacier surface albedo derived from optical satellite images, application on 30 glaciers in the French Alps for the period 2000-2015. (United States)

    Davaze, Lucas; Rabatel, Antoine; Arnaud, Yves; Sirguey, Pascal; Six, Delphine; Letreguilly, Anne; Dumont, Marie


    Increasing the number of glaciers monitored for surface mass balance is very challenging, especially using laborious methods based on in situ data. Complementary methods are therefore required to quantify the surface mass balance of unmonitored glaciers. The current study relies on the so-called albedo method, based on the analysis of albedo maps retrieved from optical satellite imagery acquired since 2000 by the MODIS sensor, onboard of TERRA satellite. Recent studies performed on single glaciers in the French Alps, the Himalayas or the Southern Alps of New Zealand revealed substantial relationships between summer minimum glacier-wide surface albedo and annual mass balance, because this minimum surface albedo is directly related to accumulation-area ratio and the equilibrium-line altitude. On the basis of 30 glaciers located in the French Alps where annual surface mass balance are available, our study conducted on the period 2000-2015 confirms the robustness and reliability of the relationship between the summer minimum surface albedo and the annual surface mass balance. At the seasonal scale, the integrated summer surface albedo is significantly correlated with the summer mass balance of the six glaciers seasonally surveyed. For the winter season, four of the six glaciers showed a significant correlation when linking the winter surface mass balance and the integrated winter surface albedo, using glacier-dependent thresholds to filter the albedo signal. Sensitivity study on the computed cloud detection algorithm revealed high confidence in retrieved albedo maps. These results are promising to monitor both annual and seasonal glacier-wide surface mass balances of individual glaciers at a regional scale using optical satellite images.

  15. The effect of residual chlorides on resultant properties of solid and liquid phases after carbonization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevova Eva; Sugarkova Vera; Kaloc Miroslav [Institute of Geonics ASCR, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Petrology


    The low-concentration condition was employed to model the carbonisation mode for local (Czech Republic) coals with higher concentrations of some metals. After completing the carbonisation, mass balance calculations were performed. Results show that the presence of zinc dichloride, copper dichloride and sodium chloride caused the most pronounced impediment to the formation of tar in contrast to lead dichloride and aluminium chloride that increased tar. The results demonstrated that adding of chloride agents effect both the course of the coking process and the properties of solid and liquid products of coking. Evaluation of the solid phase showed that chloride addition caused a decrease of the caking and swelling value, which corresponds with measurements of plasticity values that are of significant influence on mechanical properties closely related to coking plant processes. Evaluation of the liquid phase pointed towards an increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (especially phenanthrene, fluoranthene, acenaphthylene, pyrene) but a decrease of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene. Chloride addition increased aromaticity and caused a difference in substitution rate at aromatic nucleus. Mesophase estimation indicated extensive mosaic, domain and laminated anisotropic texture occurrence after chloride addition, mainly NaCl and CuCl{sub 2} addition. A more detailed evaluation including detailed screening, TGA, IR and RTG analysis will be subject of further investigation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Chloride flux in phagocytes. (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun


    Phagocytes, such as neutrophils and macrophages, engulf microbes into phagosomes and launch chemical attacks to kill and degrade them. Such a critical innate immune function necessitates ion participation. Chloride, the most abundant anion in the human body, is an indispensable constituent of the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2 O2 -halide system that produces the potent microbicide hypochlorous acid (HOCl). It also serves as a balancing ion to set membrane potentials, optimize cytosolic and phagosomal pH, and regulate phagosomal enzymatic activities. Deficient supply of this anion to or defective attainment of this anion by phagocytes is linked to innate immune defects. However, how phagocytes acquire chloride from their residing environment especially when they are deployed to epithelium-lined lumens, and how chloride is intracellularly transported to phagosomes remain largely unknown. This review article will provide an overview of chloride protein carriers, potential mechanisms for phagocytic chloride preservation and acquisition, intracellular chloride supply to phagosomes for oxidant production, and methods to measure chloride levels in phagocytes and their phagosomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Instruments for radiation measurement in life sciences (4). 7. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry for drug development. Human mass balance studies at discovery stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, Teiji


    Following the recent trend of Position Paper issued from European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products on the non-clinical safety studies to support clinical trials with a single micro dose, human mass balance studies at discovery stages were made with special interest in using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) with a small amount of hot (radioisotope-labeled) drug. This method was found to be effective for the purpose of screening in the clinical study for pharmaceutical development. To show an example of the test, 5, 50, 500μg/body of C14-ARA (α1A adrenoreceptor antagonist, 50 nCi or 1.85 kBq/body/dose) were given (cross over) to several persons to be inspected and C14-quantity in the blood plasma or urine was determined with AMS until after 168 hours or so. The results of the present experiment demonstrate that human mass balance study at discovery stages is possible with ultra high sensitive measuring systems such as AMS and PET (positron emission tomography). (S. Ohno)

  18. A century of variation in the dependence of Greenland iceberg calving on ice sheet surface mass balance and regional climate change. (United States)

    Bigg, G R; Wei, H L; Wilton, D J; Zhao, Y; Billings, S A; Hanna, E; Kadirkamanathan, V


    Iceberg calving is a major component of the total mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). A century-long record of Greenland icebergs comes from the International Ice Patrol's record of icebergs (I48N) passing latitude 48° N, off Newfoundland. I48N exhibits strong interannual variability, with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. In this study, we show, through a combination of nonlinear system identification and coupled ocean-iceberg modelling, that I48N's variability is predominantly caused by fluctuation in GrIS calving discharge rather than open ocean iceberg melting. We also demonstrate that the episodic variation in iceberg discharge is strongly linked to a nonlinear combination of recent changes in the surface mass balance (SMB) of the GrIS and regional atmospheric and oceanic climate variability, on the scale of the previous 1-3 years, with the dominant causal mechanism shifting between glaciological (SMB) and climatic (ocean temperature) over time. We suggest that this is a change in whether glacial run-off or under-ice melting is dominant, respectively. We also suggest that GrIS calving discharge is episodic on at least a regional scale and has recently been increasing significantly, largely as a result of west Greenland sources.

  19. Multivariate Analysis, Mass Balance Techniques, and Statistical Tests as Tools in Igneous Petrology: Application to the Sierra de las Cruces Volcanic Range (Mexican Volcanic Belt) (United States)

    Velasco-Tapia, Fernando


    Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC) volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt). In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma) was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward's linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas) in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures). PMID:24737994

  20. Multivariate Analysis, Mass Balance Techniques, and Statistical Tests as Tools in Igneous Petrology: Application to the Sierra de las Cruces Volcanic Range (Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Velasco-Tapia


    Full Text Available Magmatic processes have usually been identified and evaluated using qualitative or semiquantitative geochemical or isotopic tools based on a restricted number of variables. However, a more complete and quantitative view could be reached applying multivariate analysis, mass balance techniques, and statistical tests. As an example, in this work a statistical and quantitative scheme is applied to analyze the geochemical features for the Sierra de las Cruces (SC volcanic range (Mexican Volcanic Belt. In this locality, the volcanic activity (3.7 to 0.5 Ma was dominantly dacitic, but the presence of spheroidal andesitic enclaves and/or diverse disequilibrium features in majority of lavas confirms the operation of magma mixing/mingling. New discriminant-function-based multidimensional diagrams were used to discriminate tectonic setting. Statistical tests of discordancy and significance were applied to evaluate the influence of the subducting Cocos plate, which seems to be rather negligible for the SC magmas in relation to several major and trace elements. A cluster analysis following Ward’s linkage rule was carried out to classify the SC volcanic rocks geochemical groups. Finally, two mass-balance schemes were applied for the quantitative evaluation of the proportion of the end-member components (dacitic and andesitic magmas in the comingled lavas (binary mixtures.

  1. Identification of anthropogenic and natural inputs of sulfate and chloride into the karstic ground water of Guiyang, SW China: combined delta37Cl and delta34S approach. (United States)

    Liu, Cong-Qiang; Lang, Yun-Chao; Satake, Hiroshi; Wu, Jiahong; Li, Si-Liang


    Because of active exchange between surface and groundwater of a karstic hydrological system, the groundwater of Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou Province, southwest China, has been seriously polluted by anthropogenic inputs of NO3-, SO4(2-), Cl-, and Na+. In this work, delta37Cl of chloride and delta34S variations of sulfate in the karstic surface/groundwater system were studied, with a main focus to identify contaminant sources, including their origins. The surface, ground, rain, and sewage water studied showed variable delta37Cl and delta34S values, in the range of -4.1 to +2.0 per thousand, and -20.4 to +20.9 per thousand for delta37Cl and delta34S (SO4(2-)), respectively. The rainwater samples yielded the lowest delta37Cl values among those observed to date for aerosols and rainwater. Chloride in the Guiyang area rain waters emanated from anthropogenic sources rather than being of marine origin, probably derived from HCl (g) emitted by coal combustion. By plotting 1/SO4(2-) vs delta34S and 1/Cl- vs delta37Cl, respectively, we were able to identify some clusters of data, which were assigned as atmospheric deposition (acid rain component), discharge from municipal sewage, paleo-brine components in clastic sedimentary rocks, dissolution of gypsum mainly in dolomite, oxidation of sulfide minerals in coal-containing clastic rocks, and possibly degradation of chlorine-containing organic matter. We conclude that human activities give a significant input of sulfate and chloride ions, as well as other contaminants, into the studied groundwater system through enhanced atmospheric deposition and municipal sewage, and that multiple isotopic tracers constitute a powerful tool to ascertain geochemical characteristics and origin of complex contaminants in groundwater.

  2. Using plot experiments to test the validity of mass balance models employed to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.


    Information on rates of soil loss from agricultural land is a key requirement for assessing both on-site soil degradation and potential off-site sediment problems. Many models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution as a function of the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management, but empirical data remain essential for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures. Direct measurements using erosion plots are, however, costly and the results obtained relate to a small enclosed area, which may not be representative of the wider landscape. In recent years, the use of fallout radionuclides and more particularly caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and excess lead-210 ( 210 Pb ex ) has been shown to provide a very effective means of documenting rates of soil loss and soil and sediment redistribution in the landscape. Several of the assumptions associated with the theoretical conversion models used with such measurements remain essentially unvalidated. This contribution describes the results of a measurement programme involving five experimental plots located in southern Italy, aimed at validating several of the basic assumptions commonly associated with the use of mass balance models for estimating rates of soil redistribution on cultivated land from 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex measurements. Overall, the results confirm the general validity of these assumptions and the importance of taking account of the fate of fresh fallout. However, further work is required to validate the conversion models employed in using fallout radionuclide measurements to document soil redistribution in the landscape and this could usefully direct attention to different environments and to the validation of the final estimates of soil redistribution rate as well as the assumptions of the models employed. - Highlights: ► Soil erosion is an important threat to the long-term sustainability of agriculture.

  3. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.


    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input–output

  4. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input–output method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Z.; Schrama, E.J.O.; van der Wal, W.; van den Broeke, MR; Enderlin, EM


    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input–output

  5. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries (United States)

    Parry, J. M.


    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  6. Phosphorus mass balance in a highly eutrophic semi-enclosed inlet near a big metropolis: a small inlet can contribute towards particulate organic matter production. (United States)

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji


    Terrigenous loading into enclosed water bodies has been blamed for eutrophic conditions marked by massive algal growth and subsequent hypoxia due to decomposition of dead algal cells. This study aims to describe the eutrophication and hypoxia processes in a semi-enclosed water body lying near a big metropolis. Phosphorus mass balance in a small inlet, Ohko Inlet, located at the head of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, was quantified using a numerical model. Dissolved inorganic phosphorous inflow from Kaita Bay next to the inlet was five times higher than that from terrigenous load, which may cause an enhancement of primary production. Therefore, it was concluded that not only the reduction of material load from the land and the suppression of benthic flux are needed, but also reducing the inflow of high phosphorus and oxygen depleted water from Kaita Bay will form a collective alternative measure to remediate the environmental condition of the inlet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparative uncertainty study of the calibration of macrolide antibiotic reference standards using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance and mass balance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuyu; Hu Changqin


    This study introduces the general method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) for the calibration of reference standards of macrolide antibiotics. Several qNMR experimental conditions were optimized including delay, which is an important parameter of quantification. Three kinds of macrolide antibiotics were used to validate the accuracy of the qNMR method by comparison with the results obtained by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The purities of five common reference standards of macrolide antibiotics were measured by the 1 H qNMR method and the mass balance method, respectively. The analysis results of the two methods were compared. The qNMR is quick and simple to use. In a new medicine research and development process, qNMR provides a new and reliable method for purity analysis of the reference standard

  8. After the Earthquake: Impacts of Seismic Snow and Ice Redistribution in Langtang Valley, Nepal, on Glacier Mass Balances and Hydrological Regimes (United States)

    Shea, J. M.; Ragettli, S.; Immerzeel, W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Miles, E. S.; Steiner, J. F.; Buri, P.; Kraaijenbrink, P. D. A.


    The magnitude 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake that struck Nepal on 25 April 2015 resulted in a catastrophic loss of life and property, and had major impacts in high mountain areas. The earthquake resulted in a number of massive ice avalanches in Langtang Valley that destroyed entire villages and killed over 300 people. We first conduct a remote sensing analysis of the entire catchment, and attempt to quantify the volumes of snow and ice redistributed through high-resolution optical imagery, thermal imagery, and DEM differencing. Where data are available we examine the impact on the surface mass balances of four major glaciers (Lirung, Shalbachaum, Langtang and Langshisha). Finally, we use the physically-based and fully distributed TOPKAPI model to simulate the impacts of the co-seismic snow and ice redistribution on the hydrology of the Langtang River.

  9. Assessment of attenuation processes in a chlorinated ethene plume by use of stream bed Passive Flux Meters, streambed Point Velocity Probes and contaminant mass balances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønde, Vinni Kampman; McKnight, Ursula S.; Annable, Michael

    , however studies contradicting this have also been reported. Since dilution commonly reduces contaminant concentrations in streams to below quantification limits, use of mass balances along the pathway from groundwater to stream is unusual. Our study is conducted at the low-land Grindsted stream, Denmark......Chlorinated ethenes (CE) are abundant groundwater contaminants and pose risk to both groundwater and surface water bodies, as plumes can migrate through aquifers to streams. After release to the environment, CE may undergo attenuation. The hyporheic zone is believed to enhance CE attenuation......, which is impacted by a contaminant plume. CE have been observed in the stream water; hence our study site provides an unusual opportunity to study attenuation processes in a CE plume as it migrates through the groundwater at the stream bank, through the stream bed and further to the point of fully mixed...

  10. Carbon source/sink function of a subtropical, eutrophic lake determined from an overall mass balance and a gas exchange and carbon burial balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Xing Yangping; Xie Ping; Ni Leyi; Rong Kewen


    Although studies on carbon burial in lake sediments have shown that lakes are disproportionately important carbon sinks, many studies on gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface have demonstrated that lakes are supersaturated with CO 2 and CH 4 causing a net release of CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In order to more accurately estimate the net carbon source/sink function of lake ecosystems, a more comprehensive carbon budget is needed, especially for gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface. Using two methods, overall mass balance and gas exchange and carbon burial balance, we assessed the carbon source/sink function of Lake Donghu, a subtropical, eutrophic lake, from April 2003 to March 2004. With the overall mass balance calculations, total carbon input was 14 905 t, total carbon output was 4950 t, and net carbon budget was +9955 t, suggesting that Lake Donghu was a great carbon sink. For the gas exchange and carbon burial balance, gaseous carbon (CO 2 and CH 4 ) emission across the water-air interface totaled 752 t while carbon burial in the lake sediment was 9477 t. The ratio of carbon emission into the atmosphere to carbon burial into the sediment was only 0.08. This low ratio indicates that Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink. Results showed good agreement between the two methods with both showing Lake Donghu to be a great carbon sink. This results from the high primary production of Lake Donghu, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic activity. Gaseous carbon emission accounted for about 15% of the total carbon output, indicating that the total output would be underestimated without including gaseous carbon exchange. - Due to high primary production, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic acitivity, subtropical, eutrophic Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink

  11. Multicompartment Ecosystem Mass Balances as a Tool for Understanding and Managing the Biogeochemical Cycles of Human Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Baker


    Full Text Available Nitrogen remains a ubiquitous pollutant in surface and groundwater throughout the United States, despite 30 years of pollution control efforts. A detailed multicompartment N balance for the Central Arizona-Phoenix ecosystem is used to illustrate how an ecosystem-level approach can be used to develop improved N management strategies. The N balance is used to demonstrate how nitrate in pumped groundwater used for crop irrigation could be used to reduce inputs of commercial fertilizer and decrease N leaching to aquifers. Effectively managing N pollution also will require an understanding of the complex factors that control the N balance, including targeted regulations, individual human behavior, land-use conversion, and other ecosystem management practices that affect the N balance. These sometimes countervailing factors are illustrated with several scenarios of wastewater treatment technology and population growth in the Phoenix area. Management of N eventually must be coupled to management of other elements, notably carbon, phosphorus, and salts. We postulate that an ecosystem framework for pollution management will result in strategies that are more effective, fairer, and less expensive than current approaches.

  12. Mass balance of arsenic fluxes in rivers impacted by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). (United States)

    Bidone, Edison; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Silva-Filho, Emmanuel Vieira; Kutter, Vinicius; Dias da Silva, Lílian I; Castilhos, Zuleica


    Arsenic (As) is a dangerous and carcinogenic element and drinking water is its main pathway of human exposure. Gold mines are widely recognized as important sources of As pollution. This work proposes the assessment of As distribution along watersheds surrounding "Morro do Ouro" gold mine (Paracatu, southeastern Brazil). A balance approach between filtered As fluxes (As river segments was applied. Ultrafiltration procedure was used to categorize As into the following classes: particulate > 0.1 μm, colloidal  10 kDa, dissolved  1 kDa, and truly dissolved river segment that suggests As accumulation in sediments along the rivers in both urban and rural areas, mainly due to SPM sedimentation and sorption by Fe oxyhydroxides. Ultrafiltration shattering showed concentrations of decreasing As with particle size; the SPM load (> 0.1 μm) was almost one order higher to dissolved load (< 1 kDa).

  13. Zingiber officinale and 6-gingerol alleviate liver and kidney dysfunctions and oxidative stress induced by mercuric chloride in male rats: A protective approach. (United States)

    Joshi, Deepmala; Srivastav, Sunil Kumar; Belemkar, Sateesh; Dixit, Vaibhav A


    Mercury toxicity is an emerging problem in the world as its concentration is rising continuously due to increased industrial, medicinal and domestic uses. Exposure to mercury represents a serious challenge to humans and other living biomes. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of natural products as Zingiber officinale extract and its active compound (6-gingerol) against mercuric chloride-induced hepatorenal toxicity and oxidative stress in male rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150±10g, n=6 per group) were administered HgCl 2 (12μmol/kg, ip; once only) the treatment of Zingiber officinale Rosc. extract (ZO: 125mg/kg, po) and 6-gingerol (GG: 50mg/kg, po) for three days after 24h of HgCl 2 administration. Acute HgCl 2 administration altered various biochemical parameters, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and cholesterol, urea, creatinine, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen contents with a concomitant decline in protein and albumin concentration in serum. In addition, a significant rise in lipid peroxidation level with concomitant decrease in reduced glutathione content and the antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase after acute HgCl 2 exposure. Results of the present investigation clearly showed that both treatments as Zingiber officinale extract and 6-gingerol provide protection against acute mercuric chloride-intoxication by preventing oxidative degradation of a biological membrane from metal mediated free radical attacks. Biochemical data were well supported by histopathological findings. In conclusion, natural products may be an ideal choice against oxidative damage induced by mercury poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Mass balance of nutrients during the filling phase of two reservoirs of Sistema Produtor Alto Tietê (SPAT - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.7313 Mass balance of nutrients during the filling phase of two reservoirs of Sistema Produtor Alto Tietê (SPAT - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.7313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto José Monteiro Junior


    Full Text Available Paraitinga and Biritiba reservoirs are part of Sistema Produtor Alto Tietê and they play an important role at the public water supply. The purpose of this study is to understand the mass balance of nitrogen and phosphorus that can influence the eutrophication process in reservoirs during the filling phase, and provide information for the implementation of mechanisms to manage water quality. Water samples were collected from August 2005 until May 2006. Concentrations of total phosphorus (PT and total nitrogen (NT were measured and the mass balance and loads were estimated. Paraitinga reservoir presented retention of NT and PT during the dry season and export during the rainy season; whilst at Biritiba reservoir we evidenced retention of NT and PT for both dry and rainy seasons. The annual balance demonstrated that during the reservoirs filling process, the systems retain NT and PT. The retention of nutrients into the system indicates that the environments have been modified leading to eutrophication and its consequences, and that it is necessary to outline strategies in order to mitigate the problem and suggest implementation of techniques to reduce the diffuse load.Paraitinga and Biritiba reservoirs are part of Sistema Produtor Alto Tiet�� and they play an important role at the public water supply. The purpose of this study is to understand the mass balance of nitrogen and phosphorus that can influence the eutrophication process in reservoirs during the filling phase, and provide information for the implementation of mechanisms to manage water quality. Water samples were collected from August 2005 until May 2006. Concentrations of total phosphorus (PT and total nitrogen (NT were measured and the mass balance and loads were estimated. Paraitinga reservoir presented retention of NT and PT during the dry season and export during the rainy season; whilst at Biritiba reservoir we evidenced retention of NT and PT for both dry and rainy seasons

  15. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

  16. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaathaug, E.J.


    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  17. Quantifying Freshwater Mass Balance in the Central Tibetan Plateau by Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Altimetry, and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Tseng


    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP has been observed by satellite optical remote sensing, altimetry, and gravimetry for a variety of geophysical parameters, including water storage change. However, each of these sensors has its respective limitation in the parameters observed, accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution. Here, we utilized an integrated approach to combine remote sensing imagery, digital elevation model, and satellite radar and laser altimetry data, to quantify freshwater storage change in a twin lake system named Chibuzhang Co and Dorsoidong Co in the central TP, and compared that with independent observations including mass changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data. Our results show that this twin lake, located within the Tanggula glacier system, remained almost steady during 1973–2000. However, Dorsoidong Co has experienced a significant lake level rise since 2000, especially during 2000–2005, that resulted in the plausible connection between the two lakes. The contemporary increasing lake level signal at a rate of 0.89 ± 0.05 cm·yr−1, in a 2° by 2° grid equivalent water height since 2002, is higher than the GRACE observed trend at 0.41 ± 0.17 cm·yr−1 during the same time span. Finally, a down-turning trend or inter-annual variability shown in the GRACE signal is observed after 2012, while the lake level is still rising at a consistent rate.

  18. On ISSM and leveraging the Cloud towards faster quantification of the uncertainty in ice-sheet mass balance projections (United States)

    Larour, E.; Schlegel, N.


    With the Amazon EC2 Cloud becoming available as a viable platform for parallel computing, Earth System Models are increasingly interested in leveraging its capabilities towards improving climate projections. In particular, faced with long wait periods on high-end clusters, the elasticity of the Cloud presents a unique opportunity of potentially "infinite" availability of small-sized clusters running on high-performance instances. Among specific applications of this new paradigm, we show here how uncertainty quantification in climate projections of polar ice sheets (Antarctica and Greenland) can be significantly accelerated using the Cloud. Indeed, small-sized clusters are very efficient at delivering sensitivity and sampling analysis, core tools of uncertainty quantification. We demonstrate how this approach was used to carry out an extensive analysis of ice-flow projections on one of the largest basins in Greenland, the North-East Greenland Glacier, using the Ice Sheet System Model, the public-domain NASA-funded ice-flow modeling software. We show how errors in the projections were accurately quantified using Monte-Carlo sampling analysis on the EC2 Cloud, and how a judicious mix of high-end parallel computing and Cloud use can best leverage existing infrastructures, and significantly accelerate delivery of potentially ground-breaking climate projections, and in particular, enable uncertainty quantification that were previously impossible to achieve.

  19. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert


    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  20. Lithium thionyl chloride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saathoff, D.J.; Venkatasetty, H.V.


    The discharge rate and internal conductivity of electrochemical cell including a lithium anode, and a cathode and an electrolyte including LiAlCl4 and SOC2 is improved by the addition of an amount of a mixture containing AlCl3 and butyl pyridinium chloride.

  1. The medical sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.


    In the institute was investigated the chemical composition of rock salt of some deposits of Tajikistan and was show the presence in it admixture of ions of Ca 2 + , Mg 2 + a nd SO 2 - a nd absence of heavy metals, ammonium salts, iron, potassium and arsenic. Was elaborated the fundamental instrument-technologic scheme of sodium chloride receiving

  2. A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009 (United States)

    Kish, G.R.; Stringer, C.E.; Stewart, M.T.; Rains, M.C.; Torres, A.E.


    Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan aquifer water. Field conditions limited the application of the GMB method to low-intensity storms but the CMB method was applied to both low-intensity and high-intensity storms. The average contribution of base flow to total discharge for all storms ranged from 31 to 100 percent, whereas the contribution of base flow to total discharge during peak discharge periods ranged from less than 10 percent to 100 percent. Although calcium, magnesium, and silica were consistent markers of Upper Floridan aquifer chemistry, their use in calculating base flow by the GMB method was limited because the frequency of point data collected in this study was not sufficient to capture the complete hydrograph from pre-event base-flow to post-event base-flow concentrations. In this study, pre-event water

  3. Application of GRACE to the assessment of model-based estimates of monthly Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance (2003-2012) (United States)

    Schlegel, Nicole-Jeanne; Wiese, David N.; Larour, Eric Y.; Watkins, Michael M.; Box, Jason E.; Fettweis, Xavier; van den Broeke, Michiel R.


    Quantifying the Greenland Ice Sheet's future contribution to sea level rise is a challenging task that requires accurate estimates of ice sheet sensitivity to climate change. Forward ice sheet models are promising tools for estimating future ice sheet behavior, yet confidence is low because evaluation of historical simulations is challenging due to the scarcity of continental-wide data for model evaluation. Recent advancements in processing of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data using Bayesian-constrained mass concentration ("mascon") functions have led to improvements in spatial resolution and noise reduction of monthly global gravity fields. Specifically, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's JPL RL05M GRACE mascon solution (GRACE_JPL) offers an opportunity for the assessment of model-based estimates of ice sheet mass balance (MB) at ˜ 300 km spatial scales. Here, we quantify the differences between Greenland monthly observed MB (GRACE_JPL) and that estimated by state-of-the-art, high-resolution models, with respect to GRACE_JPL and model uncertainties. To simulate the years 2003-2012, we force the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) with anomalies from three different surface mass balance (SMB) products derived from regional climate models. Resulting MB is compared against GRACE_JPL within individual mascons. Overall, we find agreement in the northeast and southwest where MB is assumed to be primarily controlled by SMB. In the interior, we find a discrepancy in trend, which we presume to be related to millennial-scale dynamic thickening not considered by our model. In the northwest, seasonal amplitudes agree, but modeled mass trends are muted relative to GRACE_JPL. Here, discrepancies are likely controlled by temporal variability in ice discharge and other related processes not represented by our model simulations, i.e., hydrological processes and ice-ocean interaction. In the southeast, GRACE_JPL exhibits larger seasonal amplitude than predicted by the

  4. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  5. Electrical Conductivity of Molten DyCl3-NaCl and DyCl3-KCl Systems: An Approach to Structural Interpretations of Rare Earth Chloride Melts (United States)

    Iwadate, Yasuhiko; Ohkubo, Takahiro


    Electrical conductivities (κs) of molten DyCl3-NaCl and DyCl3-KCl systems were estimated by measuring the impedances of each mixture melt at any temperature and/or frequency. The molar volumes (Vms) were measured by dilatometry and represented as a polynomial empirical equation of temperature and composition. Due to both the properties, the molar conductivities (Λms) were calculated and their temperature and/or composition dependences were discussed from the standpoint of structural features as well. The κs increased curvilinearly with increasing temperature across the whole composition ranges. This trend was also applied to the Λms which was fitted by an Arrhenius-type equation. The relationship of Λms with melt composition was studied and the Λms were found to decrease with increasing composition of DyCl3. These findings were interpreted based on the results of structural science so far reported, and finally, the relationship between Λms and the structures of pure rare earth chloride melts was discussed.

  6. Effect of Sodium Chloride on α-Dicarbonyl Compound and 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural Formations from Glucose under Caramelization Conditions: A Multiresponse Kinetic Modeling Approach. (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural


    This study aimed to investigate the kinetics of α-dicarbonyl compound formation in glucose and glucose-sodium chloride mixture during heating under caramelization conditions. Changes in the concentrations of glucose, fructose, glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF), glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl were determined. A comprehensive reaction network was built, and the multiresponse model was compared to the experimentally observed data. Interconversion between glucose and fructose became 2.5 times faster in the presence of NaCl at 180 and 200 °C. The effect of NaCl on the rate constants of α-dicarbonyl compound formation varied across the precursor and the compound itself and temperature. A decrease in rate constants of 3-deoxyglucosone and 1-deoxyglucosone formations by the presence of NaCl was observed. HMF formation was revealed to be mainly via isomerization to fructose and dehydration over cyclic intermediates, and the rate constants increase 4-fold in the presence of NaCl.

  7. Curcuma longa Linn. extract and curcumin protect CYP 2E1 enzymatic activity against mercuric chloride-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress: A protective approach. (United States)

    Joshi, Deepmala; Mittal, Deepak Kumar; Shukla, Sangeeta; Srivastav, Sunil Kumar; Dixit, Vaibhav A


    The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Curcuma longa (200mgkg -1 , po) and curcumin (80mgkg -1 , po) for their hepatoprotective efficacy against mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 : 12μmolkg -1 , ip; once only) hepatotoxicity. The HgCl 2 administration altered various biochemical parameters, including transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglycerides and cholesterol contents with a concomitant decline in protein and albumin concentration in serum which were restored towards control by therapy of Curcuma longa or curcumin. On the other hand, both treatments showed a protective effect on drug metabolizing enzymes viz. aniline hydroxylase (AH) and amidopyrine-N-demethylase (AND), hexobarbitone induced sleep time and BSP retention. Choleretic, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH)-free radical scavenging activities and histological studies also supported the biochemical findings. The present study concludes that Curcuma longa extract or curcumin has the ability to alleviate the hepatotoxic effects caused by HgCl 2 in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple experimental approaches of immunotoxic effects of mercury chloride in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, through in vivo, in tubo and in vitro exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Matthieu B.; Auffret, Michel; Wessel, Nathalie; Fortier, Marlene; Morin, Yves; Pellerin, Jocelyne; Fournier, Michel


    Biological impairments due to mercury discharge into the environment are now an issue of global concern. From the three forms of mercury found in aquatic ecosystems, the immunotoxic effects of mercury chloride were examined in the model animal, the blue mussel. In order to investigate the toxic potency of this chemical, three exposure regimes were carried out: chronic exposure of groups of individuals, a new protocol 'in tubo' designed for sub-acute exposures of individuals, and acute exposures of target cells. Chronic exposure revealed significant immunotoxic effects after 7 days at 10 -6 M, while acute exposures showed significant inhibition of phagocytosis at 10 -4 M and 10 -3 M. In sub-acute exposures both circulating haemocytes and haemocyte mortality increased at 10 -4 M and 10 -3 M while phagocytosis and the clearance rate drew hormetic toxic effects on healthy individuals. These results suggest the use of the 'in tubo' design for bivalve toxicological individual studies. - HgCl 2 impairs the immune system of test-tube mussels

  9. Rates of biotite weathering, and clay mineral transformation and neoformation, determined from watershed geochemical mass-balance methods for the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, Southern Blue Ridge Mountains, North Carolina, USA (United States)

    Jason R. Price; Michael A. Velbel


    Biotite is a common constituent of silicate bedrock. Its weathering releases plant nutrients and consumes atmospheric CO2. Because of its stoichiometric relationship with its transformational weathering product and sensitivity to botanical activity, calculating biotite weathering rates using watershed mass-balance methods has proven challenging....

  10. Satellite-derived, melt-season surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2000-2005) and its relationship to mass balance (United States)

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S.; Casey, K.A.; DiGirolamo, N.E.; Wan, Z.


    Mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet was measured for each melt season from 2000 to 2005 using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)–derived land-surface temperature (LST) data-product maps. During the period of most-active melt, the mean, clear-sky surface temperature of the ice sheet was highest in 2002 (−8.29 ± 5.29°C) and 2005 (−8.29 ± 5.43°C), compared to a 6-year mean of −9.04 ± 5.59°C, in agreement with recent work by other investigators showing unusually extensive melt in 2002 and 2005. Surface-temperature variability shows a correspondence with the dry-snow facies of the ice sheet; a reduction in area of the dry-snow facies would indicate a more-negative mass balance. Surface-temperature variability generally increased during the study period and is most pronounced in the 2005 melt season; this is consistent with surface instability caused by air-temperature fluctuations.

  11. A mass spectrographic investigation of the methods for obtaining quantitative analyses for the mass balance of P and B through a submerged arc silicon smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.E.C.; Jones, D.S.; Wegman, J.W.; Brain, L.; Van Wamelen, J.


    Mass spectrographic analyses of silica, silicon and silica reducing agents have been made using an arc discharge mass spectrograph. Analyses of certified standards and standard mixtures are given. An evaluation of doping techniques shows that the solid doping technique is satisfactory and that the liquid doping technique leads to significant errors. The amount of liquid dopant absorbed onto the substrate matrix varied from one compound to another and from one matrix to another. Comparison of analyses of solid-doped and undoped certified standards shows that all of the solid dopant is taken up by the sample. Analysis of silica reducing agents used in the arc reduction furnace shows that the major source of contamination by B and P is likely to be the coal and wood. Silica contains 0.4 ppm of B and 4 ppm of P and is a minor source of contamination. The levels in silicon are about 10 ppm for B and 20 ppm for P. A mass balance on P cannot be made and the missing amount is larger than the inaccuracy of the analysis. For analyses of feedstocks where the smelter outlet fumes are not sampled an accuracy of analysis to a factor of two is sufficient for the analysis of the coal and wood chips

  12. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.


    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  13. Dedolomitization Potential of Fluids from Gypsum-to-Anhydrite Conversion: Mass Balance Constraints from the Late Permian Zechstein-2-Carbonates in NW Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hallenberger


    Full Text Available The Zechstein-2-Carbonates represent one of the most prolific hydrocarbon systems of Central Europe. Carbonate reservoir quality is primarily controlled by mineralogy, with dolomite representing moderate-to-good porosities and calcite commonly representing low porosities. Current models suggest that this calcite is the result of a basin-wide phase of dedolomitization. The calcium (Ca source for the dedolomites is thought to be derived from the fluids liberated during gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion. We present an easy-to-use and generally applicable template to estimate the dedolomitization potential of these fluids. Depending on reaction stoichiometry, salinity, and temperature, we estimate that between 2.8⁎10−3 m3 and 6.2⁎10−3 m3 of calcite may replace dolomite for each m3 of anhydrite created. Within the constraints dictated by the environment of the late Permian Zechstein basin, we estimate that about 5⁎10−3 m3 of dedolomite is created for each m3 of anhydrite. Mass balance constraints indicate that fluids derived from gypsum-to-anhydrite conversion account for less than 1% of the observed dedolomite in most of the studied industry wells from northern Germany.

  14. Stress corrosion crack growth studies on nitrogen added AISI type 316 stainless steel and its weld metal in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, H.; George, G.; Khatak, H.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Div. of Metallurgy; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe


    Compact tension specimens of nitrogen-added AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel and its weld metal were subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing in a boiling solution containing 5 M sodium chloride + 0.15 M sodium sulphate + 2.5 ml/l hydrochloric acid solution using the constant extension rate testing (CERT) technique. The extension rate of testing was 10 microns per hour. The threshold values of stress intensify factor (K{sub ISCC}) and J-integral (J{sub ISCC}) were taken as those values of K{sub I} and J{sub I} at which about 25 microns of SCC crack growth was observed. These threshold values were about four times higher and plateau crack growth rates (PCGR) were nearly one order of magnitude lower for the base metal vis-a-vis the weld metal. Fractographic observations indicated failure by transgranular SCC (TGSCC) of austenite in both the base and weld metal. No stress-assisted dissolution of delta-ferrite or its interface with austenite, was observed. (orig.) [German] CT-Proben von Grund- und Schweissnahtwerkstoff des stickstoffhaltigen Stahles AISI 316 LN wurden Spannungsrisskorrosionstests in siedender chloridhaltiger Loesung (5 M Natriumchlorid/0,15 M Natriumsulfat/0,03 M Salzsaeure) unterzogen. Die Tests erfolgten bei konstanter Dehnrate (CERT-Test) von 10 {mu}m/h. Als Schwellwerte der Initiierung von Spannungsrisskorrosion K{sub ISCC} und I{sub ISCC} wurden die Werte des Spannungsintensitaetsfaktors K{sub I} und des J-Integrals J{sub I} ermittelt, bei denen ein Risswachstum von 25 {mu}m auftrat. Dabei wies der Grundwerkstoff 4-fach hoehere Schwellwerte K{sub ISCC} und J{sub ISCC} auf als der Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Auch die Risswachstumsraten im Plateaubereich der Risswachstumsrate-Spannungsintensitaetskruven waren am Grundwerkstoff um eine Groessenordnung geringer als am Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Die fraktorgrahischen Untersuchungen zeigten an beiden Materialien Schaedigung durch transkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion. Eine

  15. How does the ice sheet surface mass balance relate to snowfall? Insights from a ground-based precipitation radar in East Antarctica (United States)

    Souverijns, Niels; Gossart, Alexandra; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; Lhermitte, Stef; Mangold, Alexander; Laffineur, Quentin; Delcloo, Andy; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.


    Local surface mass balance (SMB) measurements are crucial for understanding changes in the total mass of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, including its contribution to sea level rise. Despite continuous attempts to decipher mechanisms controlling the local and regional SMB, a clear understanding of the separate components is still lacking, while snowfall measurements are almost absent. In this study, the different terms of the SMB are quantified at the Princess Elisabeth (PE) station in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Furthermore, the relationship between snowfall and accumulation at the surface is investigated. To achieve this, a unique collocated set of ground-based and in situ remote sensing instrumentation (Micro Rain Radar, ceilometer, automatic weather station, among others) was set up and operated for a time period of 37 months. Snowfall originates mainly from moist and warm air advected from lower latitudes associated with cyclone activity. However, snowfall events are not always associated with accumulation. During 38 % of the observed snowfall cases, the freshly fallen snow is ablated by the wind during the course of the event. Generally, snow storms of longer duration and larger spatial extent have a higher chance of resulting in accumulation on a local scale, while shorter events usually result in ablation (on average 17 and 12 h respectively). A large part of the accumulation at the station takes place when preceding snowfall events were occurring in synoptic upstream areas. This fresh snow is easily picked up and transported in shallow drifting snow layers over tens of kilometres, even when wind speeds are relatively low ( < 7 ms-1). Ablation events are mainly related to katabatic winds originating from the Antarctic plateau and the mountain ranges in the south. These dry winds are able to remove snow and lead to a decrease in the local SMB. This work highlights that the local SMB is strongly influenced by synoptic upstream conditions.

  16. Mass-balance modeling of mineral weathering rates and CO2 consumption in the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed, Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Price, Jason R.; Szymanski, David W.


    Mineral weathering rates and a forest macronutrient uptake stoichiometry were determined for the forested, metabasaltic Hauver Branch watershed in north-central Maryland, USA. Previous studies of Hauver Branch have had an insufficient number of analytes to permit determination of rates of all the minerals involved in chemical weathering, including biomass. More equations in the mass-balance matrix were added using existing mineralogic information. The stoichiometry of a deciduous biomass term was determined using multi-year weekly to biweekly stream-water chemistry for a nearby watershed, which drains relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock.At Hauver Branch, calcite hosts ~38 mol% of the calcium ion (Ca2+) contained in weathering minerals, but its weathering provides ~90% of the stream water Ca2+. This occurs in a landscape with a regolith residence time of more than several Ka (kiloannum). Previous studies indicate that such old regolith does not typically contain dissolving calcite that affects stream Ca2+/Na+ ratios. The relatively high calcite dissolution rate likely reflects dissolution of calcite in fractures of the deep critical zone.Of the carbon dioxide (CO2) consumed by mineral weathering, calcite is responsible for approximately 27%, with the silicate weathering consumption rate far exceeding that of the global average. The chemical weathering of mafic terrains in decaying orogens thus may be capable of influencing global geochemical cycles, and therefore, climate, on geological timescales. Based on carbon-balance calculations, atmospheric-derived sulfuric acid is responsible for approximately 22% of the mineral weathering occurring in the watershed. Our results suggest that rising air temperatures, driven by global warming and resulting in higher precipitation, will cause the rate of chemical weathering in the Hauver Branch watershed to increase until a threshold temperature is reached. Beyond the threshold temperature, increased recharge would

  17. Bioaccumulation Potential Of Air Contaminants: Combining Biological Allometry, Chemical Equilibrium And Mass-Balances To Predict Accumulation Of Air Pollutants In Various Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, Karin; McKone, Thomas E.; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Hendriks, A. Jan


    In the present study we develop and test a uniform model intended for single compartment analysis in the context of human and environmental risk assessment of airborne contaminants. The new aspects of the model are the integration of biological allometry with fugacity-based mass-balance theory to describe exchange of contaminants with air. The developed model is applicable to various mammalian species and a range of chemicals, while requiring few and typically well-known input parameters, such as the adult mass and composition of the species, and the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficient of the chemical. Accumulation of organic chemicals is typically considered to be a function of the chemical affinity forlipid components in tissues. Here, we use a generic description of chemical affinity for neutral and polar lipids and proteins to estimate blood-air partition coefficients (Kba) and tissue-air partition coefficients (Kta) for various mammals. This provides a more accurate prediction of blood-air partition coefficients, as proteins make up a large fraction of total blood components. The results show that 75percent of the modeled inhalation and exhalation rate constants are within a factor of 2 from independent empirical values for humans, rats and mice, and 87percent of the predicted blood-air partition coefficients are within a factor of 5 from empirical data. At steady-state, the bioaccumulation potential of air pollutants is shown to be mainly a function of the tissue-air partition coefficient and the biotransformation capacity of the species and depends weakly on the ventilation rate and the cardiac output of mammals.

  18. Test and application of a general process-based dynamic coastal mass-balance model for contaminants using data for radionuclides in the Dnieper-Bug estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanson, Lars; Lindgren, Dan


    In this work a general, process-based mass-balance model for water contaminants for coastal areas at the ecosystem scale (CoastMab) is presented and for the first time tested for radionuclides. The model is dynamic, based on ordinary differential equations and gives monthly predictions. Connected to the core model there is also a sub-model for contaminant concentrations in fish. CoastMab calculates sedimentation, resuspension, diffusion, mixing, burial and retention of the given contaminant. The model contains both general algorithms, which apply to all contaminants, and substance-specific parts (such as algorithms for the particulate fraction, diffusion, biouptake and biological half-life). CoastMab and the sub-model for fish are simple to apply in practice since all driving variables may be readily accessed from maps or regular monitoring programs. The separation between the surface-water layer and the deep-water layer is not done as in most traditional models from water temperature data but from sedimentological criteria. Previous versions of the models for phosphorus and suspended particulate matter (in the Baltic Sea) have been validated and shown to predict well. This work presents modifications of the model and tests using two tracers, radiocesium and radiostrontium (from the Chernobyl fallout) in the Dnieper-Bug estuary (the Black Sea). Good correlations are shown between modeled and empirical data, except for the month directly after the fallout. We have, e.g., shown that: 1. The conditions in the sea outside the bay are important for the concentrations of the substances in water, sediments and fish within the bay, 2. We have demonstrated 'biological,' 'chemical' and 'water' dilution, 3. That the water chemical conditions in the bay influence biouptake and concentrations in fish of the radionuclides and 4. That the feeding behaviour of the coastal fish is very important for the biouptake of the radionuclides

  19. Using plot experiments to test the validity of mass balance models employed to estimate soil redistribution rates from 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) measurements. (United States)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E


    Information on rates of soil loss from agricultural land is a key requirement for assessing both on-site soil degradation and potential off-site sediment problems. Many models and prediction procedures have been developed to estimate rates of soil loss and soil redistribution as a function of the local topography, hydrometeorology, soil type and land management, but empirical data remain essential for validating and calibrating such models and prediction procedures. Direct measurements using erosion plots are, however, costly and the results obtained relate to a small enclosed area, which may not be representative of the wider landscape. In recent years, the use of fallout radionuclides and more particularly caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and excess lead-210 ((210)Pb(ex)) has been shown to provide a very effective means of documenting rates of soil loss and soil and sediment redistribution in the landscape. Several of the assumptions associated with the theoretical conversion models used with such measurements remain essentially unvalidated. This contribution describes the results of a measurement programme involving five experimental plots located in southern Italy, aimed at validating several of the basic assumptions commonly associated with the use of mass balance models for estimating rates of soil redistribution on cultivated land from (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) measurements. Overall, the results confirm the general validity of these assumptions and the importance of taking account of the fate of fresh fallout. However, further work is required to validate the conversion models employed in using fallout radionuclide measurements to document soil redistribution in the landscape and this could usefully direct attention to different environments and to the validation of the final estimates of soil redistribution rate as well as the assumptions of the models employed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the largest municipal wastewater treatment plant in Southwest China: mass balance analysis and consumption back-calculated model. (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Huang, Lei; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Guo, Jin-Song


    The occurrence and fate of twenty-one pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) were investigated in different steps of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Southwest China. Concentrations of these PhACs were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that 21 target PhACs were present in wastewater and 18 in sludge. The calculated total mass load of PhACs per capita to the influent, the receiving water and sludge were 4.95mgd(-1)person(-1), 889.94μgd(-1)person(-1) and 78.57μgd(-1)person(-1), respectively. The overall removal efficiency of the individual PhACs ranged from "negative removal" to almost complete removal. Mass balance analysis revealed that biodegradation is believed to be the predominant removal mechanism, and sorption onto sludge was a relevant removal pathway for quinolone antibiotics, azithromycin and simvastatin, accounting for 9.35-26.96% of the initial loadings. However, the sorption of the other selected PhACs was negligible. The overall pharmaceutical consumption in Chongqing, China, was back-calculated based on influent concentration by considering the pharmacokinetics of PhACs in humans. The back-estimated usage was in good agreement with usage of ofloxacin (agreement ratio: 72.5%). However, the back-estimated usage of PhACs requires further verification. Generally, the average influent mass loads and back-calculated annual per capita consumption of the selected antibiotics were comparable to or higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geodetic glacier mass balances at the push of a button: application of Structure from Motion technology on aerial images in mountain regions (United States)

    Bolch, T.; Mölg, N.


    The application of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) to generate digital terrain models (DTMs) derived out of images from various kinds of sources has strongly increased in recent years. The major reason for this is its easy-to-use handling in comparison to conventional photogrammetry. In glaciology, DTMs are intensely used, among others, to calculate the geodetic mass balances. Few studies investigated the application of SfM to aerial images in mountainous terrain and results look promising. We tested this technique in a demanding environment in the Swiss Alps including very steep slopes, snow and ice covered terrain. SfM (using the commercial software packages of Agisoft Photoscan and Pix4DMapper) and conventional photogrammetry (ERDAS Photogrammetry) were applied on archival aerial images for nine dates between 1946 and 2005 the results were compared regarding bundle adjustment and final DTM quality. The overall precision of the DTMs could be defined with the use of a modern, high-quality reference DTM by Swisstopo. Results suggest a high performance of SfM to produce DTMs of similar quality as conventional photogrammetry. A ground resolution of high quality (little noise and artefacts) can be up to 50% higher, with 3-6 times less user effort. However, the controls on the commercial SfM software packages are limited in comparison to ERDAS Photogrammetry. SfM performs less reliably when few images with little overlap are processed. Overall, the uncertainty of DTMs from the different software are comparable and mostly within the uncertainty range of the reference DTM, making them highly valuable for glaciological purposes. Even though SfM facilitates the largely automated production of high quality DTMs, the user is not exempt from a thorough quality check, at best with reference data where available.

  2. Estimating the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance contribution to future sea level rise using the regional atmospheric climate model MAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis


    Full Text Available To estimate the sea level rise (SLR originating from changes in surface mass balance (SMB of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS, we present 21st century climate projections obtained with the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, forced by output of three CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 general circulation models (GCMs. Our results indicate that in a warmer climate, mass gain from increased winter snowfall over the GrIS does not compensate mass loss through increased meltwater run-off in summer. Despite the large spread in the projected near-surface warming, all the MAR projections show similar non-linear increase of GrIS surface melt volume because no change is projected in the general atmospheric circulation over Greenland. By coarsely estimating the GrIS SMB changes from GCM output, we show that the uncertainty from the GCM-based forcing represents about half of the projected SMB changes. In 2100, the CMIP5 ensemble mean projects a GrIS SMB decrease equivalent to a mean SLR of +4 ± 2 cm and +9 ± 4 cm for the RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios respectively. These estimates do not consider the positive melt–elevation feedback, although sensitivity experiments using perturbed ice sheet topographies consistent with the projected SMB changes demonstrate that this is a significant feedback, and highlight the importance of coupling regional climate models to an ice sheet model. Such a coupling will allow the assessment of future response of both surface processes and ice-dynamic changes to rising temperatures, as well as their mutual feedbacks.

  3. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data. (United States)

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A


    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  4. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek


    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  5. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions† (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene


    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM. PMID:27873832

  6. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions. (United States)

    Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene


    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO₃, a solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO₃, solution of AgNO₃ and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV) we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N) as 500 nM.

  7. Chlorine/chloride based processes for uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The CE Lummus Minerals Division was commissioned by The Department of Supply and Services to develop order-of-magnitude capital and operating cost estimates for chlorine/chloride-based processes for uranium ores. The processes are designed to remove substantially all radioactive consituents from the ores to render the waste products harmless. Two processes were selected, one for a typical low grade ore (2 lb. U 3 O 8 /ton ore) and one for a high grade ore (50 lbs U 3 O 8 /ton). For the low grade ore a hydrochloric acid leaching process was chosen. For high grade ore, a more complex process, including gaseous chlorination, was selected. Capital cost estimates were compiled from information obtained from vendors for the specified equipment. Building cost estimates and the piping, electrical and instrumentation costs were developed from the plant layout. Utility diagrams and mass balances were used for estimating utilities and consumables. Detailed descriptions of the bases for capital and operating cost estimates are given

  8. Mass balance and decontamination times of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in rural nested catchments of an early industrialized region (Seine River basin, France). (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie


    Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and their subsequent release in rivers constitute a major environmental and public health problem in industrialized countries. In the Seine River basin (France), some PAHs exceed the target concentrations, and the objectives of good chemical status required by the European Water Framework Directive might not be achieved. This investigation was conducted in an upstream subcatchment where atmospheric fallout (n=42), soil (n=33), river water (n=26) and sediment (n=101) samples were collected during one entire hydrological year. PAH concentrations in atmospheric fallout appeared to vary seasonally and to depend on the distance to urban areas. They varied between 60 ng·L(-1) (in a remote site during autumn) and 2,380 ng·L(-1) (in a built-up area during winter). PAH stocks in soils of the catchment were estimated based on land use, as mean PAH concentrations varied between 110 ng·g(-1) under woodland and 2,120 ng·g(-1) in built-up areas. They ranged from 12 to 220 kg·km(-2). PAH contamination in the aqueous phase of rivers remained homogeneous across the catchment (72 ± 38 ng·L(-1)). In contrast, contamination of suspended solid was heterogeneous depending on hydrological conditions and population density in the drainage area. Moreover, PAH concentrations appeared to be higher in sediment (230-9,210 ng·g(-1)) than in the nearby soils. Annual mass balance calculation conducted at the catchment scale showed that current PAH losses were mainly due to dissipation (biodegradation, photo-oxidation and volatilization) within the catchments (about 80%) whereas exports due to soil erosion and riverine transport appeared to be of minor importance. Based on the calculated fluxes, PAHs appeared to have long decontamination times in soils (40 to 1,850 years) thereby compromising the achievement of legislative targets. Overall, the study highlighted the major role of legacy contamination that supplied the bulk of

  9. Application of a hybrid method for downscaling of the global climate model fields for evaluation of future surface mass balance of mountain glaciers (United States)

    Morozova, Polina; Rybak, Oleg; Kaminskaia, Mariia


    Mountain glaciers in the Caucasus have been degrading during the last century. During this time period they lost approximately one-third in area and half of their volume. Prediction of their evolution in changing climate is crucial for the local economy because hydrological regime in the territory north to the Main Caucasus Chain is mainly driven by glacier run-off. For future projections of glaciers' surface mass balance (SMB) we apply a hybrid method of downscaling of GCM-generated meteorological fields from the global scale to the characteristic spatial resolution normally used for modeling of a single mountain glacier SMB. A method consists of two stages. On the first, dynamical stage, we use the results of calculations of regional climate model (RCM) HadRM3P for the Black Sea-Caspian region with a spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. Initial and boundary conditions for HadRM3P are provided by an AO GCM INMCM developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (Moscow, Russia). Calculations were carried out for two time slices: the present (reference) climate (1971-2000 years) and climate in the late 21st century (2071-2100 years) according to scenario of greenhouse gas emissions RCP 8.5. On the second stage of downscaling, further regionalization is achieved by projecting of RCM-generated data to the high-resolution (25 m) digital elevation models in a domain enclosing target glaciers (Marukh in the Western Caucasus and Djankuat in the Central Caucasus, both being typical valley glaciers). Elevation gradient of surface air temperature and precipitation were derived from the model data. Further, results were corrected using data of observations. The incoming shortwave radiation is calculated separately, taking into account slopes, aspects and shade effect. In the end of the current century expected air temperature growth in the Central and Western Caucasus is about 5-6 °C (summer), and 2-3 °C (winter). Reduction in annual precipitation is not

  10. Investigation of thallium fluxes from subaerial volcanism-Implications for the present and past mass balance of thallium in the oceans (United States)

    Baker, R.G.A.; Rehkamper, M.; Hinkley, T.K.; Nielsen, S.G.; Toutain, J.P.


    A suite of 34 volcanic gas condensates and particulates from Kilauea (Hawaii), Mt. Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Mt. Merapi (Indonesia), White Island and Mt. Nguaruhoe (New Zealand) were analysed for both Tl isotope compositions and Tl/Pb ratios. When considered together with published Tl-Pb abundance data, the measurements provide globally representative best estimates of Tl/Pb = 0.46 ?? 0.25 and ??205Tl = -1.7 ?? 2.0 for the emissions of subaerial volcanism to the atmosphere and oceans (??205Tl is the deviation of the 205Tl/203Tl isotope ratio from NIST SRM 997 isotope standard in parts per 10,000). Compared to igneous rocks of the crust and mantle, volcanic gases were found to have (i) Tl/Pb ratios that are typically about an order of magnitude higher, and (ii) significantly more variable Tl isotope compositions but a mean ??205Tl value that is indistinguishable from estimates for the Earth's mantle and continental crust. The first observation can be explained by the more volatile nature of Tl compared to Pb during the production of volcanic gases, whilst the second reflects the contrasting and approximately balanced isotope fractionation effects that are generated by partial evaporation of Tl during magma degassing and partial Tl condensation as a result of the cooling and differentiation of volcanic gases. Mass balance calculations, based on results from this and other recent Tl isotope studies, were carried out to investigate whether temporal changes in the volcanic Tl fluxes could be responsible for the dramatic shift in the ??205Tl value of the oceans at ???55 Ma, which has been inferred from Tl isotope time series data for ferromanganese crusts. The calculations demonstrate that even large changes in the marine Tl input fluxes from volcanism and other sources are unable to significantly alter the Tl isotope composition of the oceans. Based on modelling, it is shown that the large inferred change in the ??205Tl value of seawater is best explained if the oceans

  11. Constitutive mass balance relations between chemical composition, volume, density, porosity, and strain in metasomatic hydrochemical systems: Results on weathering and pedogenesis (United States)

    Brimhall, George H.; Dietrich, William E.


    Relations characterizing the chemical, physical, and mechanical changes resulting from metasomatic hydrochemical processes are developed using mass balance models which formally link chemical composition to bulk density, mineral density, volumetric properties, porosity, and amount of deformation (strain). Rigorous analysis of aqueous solute transport effects is then made possible in a variety of porous media flow environments including chemical weathering, pedogenesis (soil formation), diagenesis, ore deposition and enrichment, and metamorphism. Application of these linear constitutive relations to chemical weathering profiles shows that immobile and locally mobile chemical elements, with masses conserved on the scale of soil profiles, can be accurately identified from analysis of appropriate data arrays and then used as natural geochemical tracers to infer the nature and extent of hydrochemical weathering processes and volume changes during pedogenesis. Assumptions commonly made in the past about the supposed immobility of certain elements, e.g., Ti and Zr, become unnecessary. Quantitative differentiation between the effects of residual and supergene fractionation is then easily made. These methods are applied to Ni-rich laterites developed by weathering of ultramafic rocks, showing that during ordinary residual enrichment, Ni is concentrated by as much as 4× protolith peridotite concentrations. This occurs simply by silicate mineral dissolution and removal of chemical elements other than Ni ( e.g., Mg) with a corresponding reduction in saprolite density and increase in bulk porosity without significant deformation. In contrast, laterites with mineable concentrations of Ni which are similarly undeformed (such as the Nickel Mountain Mine in Riddle, Oregon) have experienced, in addition to residual enrichment, strong supergene enrichment by fractionation of ore elements between a leached zone from which Ni is extracted and a complementary enriched zone positioned

  12. Impact of improved Greenland ice sheet surface representation in the NASA GISS ModelE2 GCM on simulated surface mass balance and regional climate (United States)

    Alexander, P. M.; LeGrande, A. N.; Fischer, E.; Tedesco, M.; Kelley, M.; Schmidt, G. A.; Fettweis, X.


    Towards achieving coupled simulations between the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE2 general circulation model (GCM) and ice sheet models (ISMs), improvements have been made to the representation of the ice sheet surface in ModelE2. These include a sub-grid-scale elevation class scheme, a multi-layer snow model, a time-variable surface albedo scheme, and adjustments to parameterization of sublimation/evaporation. These changes improve the spatial resolution and physical representation of the ice sheet surface such that the surface is represented at a level of detail closer to that of Regional Climate Models (RCMs). We assess the impact of these changes on simulated Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB). We also compare ModelE2 simulations in which winds have been nudged to match the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim reanalysis with simulations from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM forced by the same reanalysis. Adding surface elevation classes results in a much higher spatial resolution representation of the surface necessary for coupling with ISMs, but has a negligible impact on overall SMB. Implementing a variable surface albedo scheme increases melt by 100%, bringing it closer to melt simulated by MAR. Adjustments made to the representation of topography-influenced surface roughness length in ModelE2 reduce a positive bias in evaporation relative to MAR. We also examine the impact of changes to the GrIS surface on regional atmospheric and oceanic climate in coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations with ModelE2, finding a general warming of the Arctic due to a warmer GrIS, and a cooler North Atlantic in scenarios with doubled atmospheric CO2 relative to pre-industrial levels. The substantial influence of changes to the GrIS surface on the oceans and atmosphere highlight the importance of including these processes in the GCM, in view of potential feedbacks between the ice sheet

  13. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz


    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  14. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo


    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  15. The achievement of mass balance by simultaneous quantification of floxuridine prodrug, floxuridine, 5-fluorouracil, 5-dihydrouracil, α-fluoro-β-ureidopropionate, α-fluoro-β-alanine using LC-MS. (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Provoda, Chester J; Amidon, Gordon L


    5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (floxuridine, 5-FdUrd) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are widely used for the treatment of colorectal cancers. The mechanisms of action of 5-FdUrd and 5-FU, as well as the biochemical pathway responsible for their metabolism, are well understood. Identification of every metabolite and achieving mass balance by conventional UV absorption-based HPLC analysis are not feasible because the metabolites beyond 5-FU in the 5-FdUrd metabolic pathway are undetectable by UV light. We therefore established a mass spectrometry method, designed for fast and convenient analysis, for simultaneously measuring 5-FdUrd, 5-FU, and their metabolites. Linearity, precision and accuracy were validated in the concentration ranges studied for each compound. Hydrolysis studies of 5-FdUrd and amino acid mono ester prodrugs of 5-FdUrd in Capan-2 cell homogenates were carried out and the achievement of mass balance was established with this method (recovery of 5'-O-l-leucyl-FdUrd was 96.6-108.2% and that of 5-FdUrd was 79.4-117.4%). This simple LC-MS method achieves reliable quantitation and mass balance of 5-FdUrd, 5-FU, and their metabolites and can be effectively utilized for further kinetic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on the influence of metallurgical variables on the stress corrosion behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel in sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatak, H.S.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B.; Rodriguez, P.


    Stress corrosion data on a nuclear grade AISI type 304 stainless steel in a boiling solution of 5M NaCl + 0.15M Na 2 SO 4 + 3 mL/L HCl (bp 381 K) for various metallurgical conditions of the steel are presented in this article. The metallurgical conditions used are solution annealing, sensitization, 10 pct cold work, 20 pct cold work, solution annealing + sensitization, 10 pct cold work + sensitization, and 20 pct cold work + sensitization. The fracture mechanics approach has been used to obtain quantitative data on the stress corrosion crack growth rates. The stress intensity factor, K I , and J integral, J I , have been used as evaluation parameters. The crack growth rates have been measured using compact tension type samples under both increasing and decreasing stress intensity factors. A crack growth rate of 5 x 10 -11 m/s was chosen for the determination of threshold parameters. Results of the optical microscopic and fractographic examinations are presented. Acoustic signals were recorded during crack growth. Data generated from acoustic emissions, activation energy measurements, and fractographic features indicate hydrogen embrittlement as the possible mechanism of cracking

  17. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.


    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  18. Reversible uptake of molecular oxygen by heteroligand Co(II)-L-α-amino acid-imidazole systems: equilibrium models at full mass balance. (United States)

    Pająk, Marek; Woźniczka, Magdalena; Vogt, Andrzej; Kufelnicki, Aleksander


    The paper examines Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems (where amino acid = L-α-amino acid: alanine, asparagine, histidine) which, when in aqueous solutions, activate and reversibly take up dioxygen, while maintaining the structural scheme of the heme group (imidazole as axial ligand and O 2 uptake at the sixth, trans position) thus imitating natural respiratory pigments such as myoglobin and hemoglobin. The oxygenated reaction shows higher reversibility than for Co(II)-amac systems with analogous amino acids without imidazole. Unlike previous investigations of the heteroligand Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems, the present study accurately calculates all equilibrium forms present in solution and determines the [Formula: see text]equilibrium constants without using any simplified approximations. The equilibrium concentrations of Co(II), amino acid, imidazole and the formed complex species were calculated using constant data obtained for analogous systems under oxygen-free conditions. Pehametric and volumetric (oxygenation) studies allowed the stoichiometry of O 2 uptake reaction and coordination mode of the central ion in the forming oxygen adduct to be determined. The values of dioxygen uptake equilibrium constants [Formula: see text] were evaluated by applying the full mass balance equations. Investigations of oxygenation of the Co(II)-amino acid-imidazole systems indicated that dioxygen uptake proceeds along with a rise in pH to 9-10. The percentage of reversibility noted after acidification of the solution to the initial pH ranged within ca 30-60% for alanine, 40-70% for asparagine and 50-90% for histidine, with a rising tendency along with the increasing share of amino acid in the Co(II): amino acid: imidazole ratio. Calculations of the share of the free Co(II) ion as well as of the particular complex species existing in solution beside the oxygen adduct (regarding dioxygen bound both reversibly and irreversibly) indicated quite significant values for the

  19. Antarctic Peninsula mass balance at present-day and over the past 150 years employing constraints from GRACE, GPS and other data (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; Wiese, D. N.; Watkins, M. M.; Landerer, F. W.; Simms, A.; Yuan, D.; Boening, C.


    Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) land mass and adjacent islands has been ocurring for more than 100 years. The rate of warming is at the extreme end of all Earth observations: during the 2nd half of the 20th century the rate is 3.5°C per century and has a dramatic effect of glaciers: west coast glaciers show diminishing outlet heights at a rate of 0.28 × 0.03 m/yr since the mid-1960s (Kunz et al., 2012). Since the late 1980's, notably on the northeastern edge of the AP, many of the outlet glaciers have experienced the loss of ice shelf buttressing forces that retard the outlet flow velocity (e.g., Berthier et al., 2012). The loss of these buttressing forces has caused outlet glaciers to speed up. It is clear from ice core and in situ records that the AP snow accumulation has also been increasing. While there is growing confidence that all space borne data are consistent with a net mass loss of the Antarctic Peninsula since 1990, there is relatively little convergence on the total mass loss, and its temporal variability, other than that measured by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Employing JPL mascon analyses, Ivins et al. (2011) employed 6.25 years of GRACE data, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) modeling with GPS data, to determine the mass trend of Graham Land (north of 67° S) at -32 × 6 Gt/yr and -9.5 × 3 Gt/yr for the remainder of the AP (74° S - 67° S). Neither region exhibited any significant non-secular signatures during 2003-2009.25. However, some outlet glaciers have shown both height and velocity changes over the period 2002-2012 that indicate increasing rates of loss - via laser altimetry and InSAR measurements (Anya Wendt, personal communication, 2012). In a combined examination of AP mass balance (with a slightly larger area for AP definition), recent work extended to mid 2013, indicates that the region of the Antarctic Peninsula has a loss rate of about -32.5 × 12 Gt/yr, with distinct and significant speed-up after

  20. The origin and crust/mantle mass balance of Central Andean ignimbrite magmatism constrained by oxygen and strontium isotopes and erupted volumes (United States)

    Freymuth, Heye; Brandmeier, Melanie; Wörner, Gerhard


    Volcanism during the Neogene in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the Andes produced (1) stratovolcanoes, (2) rhyodacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites which reach volumes of generally less than 300 km3 and (3) large-volume monotonous dacitic ignimbrites of up to several thousand cubic kilometres. We present models for the origin of these magma types using O and Sr isotopes to constrain crust/mantle proportions for the large-volume ignimbrites and explore the relationship to the evolution of the Andean crust. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured on phenocrysts in order to avoid the effects of secondary alteration. Our results show a complete overlap in the Sr-O isotope compositions of lavas from stratovolcanoes and low-volume rhyolitic ignimbrites as well as older (>9 Ma) large-volume dacitic ignimbrites. This suggests that the mass balance of crustal and mantle components are largely similar. By contrast, younger (estimated the volume of these ignimbrite deposits throughout the Central Andes during the Neogene and examined the spatiotemporal pattern of so-called ignimbrite flare-ups. We observe a N-S migration of maximum ages of the onset of large-volume "ignimbrite pulses" through time: Major pulses occurred at 19-24 Ma (e.g. Oxaya, Nazca Group), 13-14 Ma (e.g. Huaylillas and Altos de Pica ignimbrites) and 70 km3 Ma-1 km-1 (assuming plutonic/volcanic ratios of 1:5) which are additional to, but within the order of, the arc background magmatic flux. Comparing our results to average shortening rates observed in the Andes, we observe a "lag-time" with large-volume eruptions occurring after accelerated shortening. A similar delay exists between the ignimbrite pulses and the subduction of the Juan Fernandez ridge. This is consistent with the idea that large-volume ignimbrite eruptions occurred in the wake of the N-S passage of the ridge after slab steepening has allowed hot asthenospheric mantle to ascend into and cause the melting of the mantle wedge. In our model, the

  1. Chloride removal from plutonium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, H.P.


    SRP is evaluating a program to recover plutonium from a metallic alloy that will contain chloride salt impurities. Removal of chloride to sufficiently low levels to prevent damaging corrosion to canyon equipment is feasible as a head-end step following dissolution. Silver nitrate and mercurous nitrate were each successfully used in laboratory tests to remove chloride from simulated alloy dissolver solution containing plutonium. Levels less than 10 ppM chloride were achieved in the supernates over the precipitated and centrifuged insoluble salts. Also, less than 0.05% loss of plutonium in the +3, +4, or +6 oxidation states was incurred via precipitate carrying. These results provide impetus for further study and development of a plant-scale process to recover plutonium from metal alloy at SRP

  2. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert


    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  3. Producing ammonium chloride from coal or shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, O L


    Process of producing ammonium chloride consists of mixing the substance to be treated with a chloride of an alkali or alkaline earth metal, free silica, water and free hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture until ammonium chloride distills off and collecting the ammonium chloride.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The...

  5. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cetylpyridinium chloride. 173.375 Section 173.375... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No....1666 of this chapter, at a concentration of 1.5 times that of cetylpyridinium chloride. (c) The...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1622 - Potassium chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium chloride. 184.1622 Section 184.1622 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1622 Potassium chloride. (a) Potassium chloride (KCl, CAS Reg... levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice. Potassium chloride may be used in infant...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...