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Sample records for chloride content

  1. Effect of application of ammonium chloride and calcium chloride on alfalfa cation-anion content and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J P; Brummer, E C; Henning, S J; Doorenbos, R K; Horst, R L

    2007-11-01

    A major factor predisposing the cow to periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, is being fed a prepartum ration with a high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). The DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of Cl to alfalfa could increase Cl in forage, thereby lowering DCAD. We conducted a field experiment at 2 Iowa locations in which established plots of alfalfa were treated in April 2001 with 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg of Cl/ha using ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, or a mix of the 2 sources with equal amounts of chloride coming from each source. Plots were harvested 4 times in 2001 and once in 2002 and plant tissue analyzed for mineral composition. Applying chloride from either source once in the spring resulted in increased plant chloride content over all 4 cuttings for that year. Averaged across both locations, chloride levels were elevated from 0.52% in control plots to 0.77, 0.87, and 0.89% Cl in plots treated with 56, 112, and 168 kg of Cl/ha, respectively. Chloride application had no effect on plant potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus. These results suggest chloride application can elevate chloride content and lower DCAD values of alfalfa, and also maintain crop yield. PMID:17954756

  2. Chloride content and pH value in the pore solution of concrete under carbonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-mei WAN; Folker H.WITTMANN; Tie-jun ZHAO; Hong FAN

    2013-01-01

    Chloride content and the pH value of the pore solution in the neighborhood of steel reinforcement are decisive parameters for initiation and rate of corrosion.The pore solution of cement mortar and hardened cement paste has been expressed from the pore space by high pressure in the investigation.The influence of the water-cement ratio,age,and addition of chloride to the fresh mix on chloride content in the pore solution has been determined by ion chromatography.At the same time the pH value of the pore solution has been determined.The dissolved chloride content decreases with increase in the water-cement ratio.The amount of bound chloride increases with time,but it decreases with decreasing content of dissolved chloride in the pore solution.A significant influence of carbonation on the dissolved chloride content of the pore solution has been observed.With complete carbonation,the dissolved chloride content in cement mortar and hardened cement paste increases by a factor between 2 and 12.The bound chloride decreases by 27%-54%.As expected,the pH value decreases from around 13.2 to as low as 8.0 due to carbonation.It can be concluded that carbonation not only lowers the pH value but liberates bound chloride.This is one obvious reason why the combined action of chloride penetration and carbonation accelerates steel corrosion and shortens the service life of reinforced concrete structures.

  3. ANALYSIS OF ADIPATE ESTER CONTENTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Otero, Amalia Dopazo

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT-) Raman spectroscopy excited with a 1064 nm laser can be used to determine the content of plasticizers in commercial flexible poly vinyl chloride (PVC) products. Our previous study [T. Nørbygaard, R.W. Berg, Analysis of phthalate ester content in PVC plastics by means of FT-...

  4. Effect of Chloride Content on Bond Behavior Between FRP and Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘金龙; 黄毅方; 邢锋

    2010-01-01

    For reinforced concrete structures located along the seaside, the penetration of chloride ions into concrete may be a threat to the durability of the structures. Experimental investigations were carried out to study the effect of chloride content on the bond behavior between concrete and fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) plates. Direct shear tests were conducted on the FRP strengthened concrete members. Before testing, the specimens were immersed in NaCl solutions with concentrations ranging from 3%—15% for di...

  5. Optimization of calcium chloride content on bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research investigates the optimization of calcium chloride content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement. Calcium chloride was used as an addition of White Portland cement at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. Calcium chloride was dissolved in sterile distilled water and blended with White Portland cement using a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Analysis of the bioactivity and pH of white Portland cement pastes with calcium chloride added at various amounts was carried out in simulated body fluid. Setting time, density, compressive strength and volume of permeable voids were also investigated. The characteristics of cement pastes were examined by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope linked to an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. The result indicated that the addition of calcium chloride could accelerate the hydration of white Portland cement, resulting in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength of the pastes. The compressive strength of all cement pastes with added calcium chloride was higher than that of the pure cement paste, and the addition of calcium chloride at 8 wt.% led to achieving the highest strength. Furthermore, white Portland cement pastes both with and without calcium chloride showed well-established bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the material within 7 days following immersion in simulated body fluid; white Portland cement paste with added 3%CaCl2 exhibited the best bioactivity. - Highlights: ► Optimization CaCl2 content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties. ► CaCl2 was used as an addition at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. ► CaCl2 resulted in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength. ► Addition of 3%CaCl2 exhibited the optimum formation of hydroxyapatite.

  6. [Effect of cadmium chloride on polyphosphoinositides content in the rat liver and kidneys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Borikov, A Iu

    2003-01-01

    The influence of cadmium chloride on the content of some fractions of polyphosphoinositides in the liver and kidneys of rats has been investigated in the work. We have reported that a single administration of sublethal dose of cadmium chloride leads to the long-term elevation of the content of diacylglycerol, which is responsible for the activation of protein kinase C. The increase of triphosphoinositides fraction content may be connected with activation of phosphoinositid-3-kinase and with accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-diphosphate and phosphatidilinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate, which are known as activators of some protein kinase C isoforms and also play an important role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. The lipids fractions content changes were similar in the liver and kidneys, but had different time of response. PMID:14681986

  7. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  8. Determination of persimmon leaf chloride contents using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, José Miguel; Visconti, Fernando; Chiaravalle, Mara; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-05-01

    Early diagnosis of specific chloride toxicity in persimmon trees requires the reliable and fast determination of the leaf chloride content, which is usually performed by means of a cumbersome, expensive and time-consuming wet analysis. A methodology has been developed in this study as an alternative to determine chloride in persimmon leaves using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with multivariate calibration techniques. Based on a training dataset of 134 samples, a predictive model was developed from their NIR spectral data. For modelling, the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method was used. The best model was obtained with the first derivative of the apparent absorbance and using just 10 latent components. In the subsequent external validation carried out with 35 external data this model reached r (2) = 0.93, RMSE = 0.16 % and RPD = 3.6, with standard error of 0.026 % and bias of -0.05 %. From these results, the model based on NIR spectral readings can be used for speeding up the laboratory determination of chloride in persimmon leaves with only a modest loss of precision. The intermolecular interaction between chloride ions and the peptide bonds in leaf proteins through hydrogen bonding, i.e. N-H···Cl, explains the ability for chloride determinations on the basis of NIR spectra. Graphical Abstract The NIRS-PLSR alternative to the wet reference analytical method for chloride determination in persimmon leaves saves lab work in exchange of a modest loss of precissionᅟ. PMID:26935930

  9. Effect of cobalt chloride on content of lipids and lipoproteins in serum and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Shalamov, R V; Zagaiko, A L

    1997-07-01

    Lipids and the composition of lipoproteins in blood serum and liver cytosol, total lipid, and phospholipid contents in liver subcellular fractions and the spectrum of microsomal liver lipids were studied in male Wistar rats after a single injection of cobalt chloride. Virtually all lipid and lipoprotein fractions in blood and liver were increased and lipoprotein composition was changes. The lipid composition of liver microsomes did not change under these conditions. Thus, microsomal membranes are stable under developing oxidative stress. PMID:9331964

  10. Chloride permeability of rat brain membrane vesicles correlates with thiamine triphosphate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettendorff, L; Hennuy, B; De Clerck, A; Wins, P

    1994-07-25

    Incubation of rat brain homogenates with thiamine or thiamine diphosphate (TDP) leads to a synthesis of thiamine triphosphate (TTP). In membrane vesicles subsequently prepared from the homogenates, increased TTP content correlates with increased 36Cl- uptake. A hyperbolic relationship was obtained with a K0.5 of 0.27 nmol TTP/mg protein. In crude mitochondrial fractions from the brains of animals previously treated with thiamine or sulbutiamine, a positive correlation between 36Cl- uptake and TTP content was found. These results, together with other results previously obtained with the patch-clamp technique, suggest that TTP is an activator of chloride channels having a large unit conductance. PMID:7953714

  11. ASSESSMENT OF CHLORIDE AND PHOSPHATE CONTENTS IN WATER OF CHILIKA LAGOON, ODISHA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Mishra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are receiving much international attention during past few decades with the better understanding of their values and functions. Wetland science is emerging as a unique discipline encompassing the terrestrial and aquatic ecology i.e. hydrology, limnology and engineering. The quality of surface water of Chilika lagoon with respect to physico-chemical parameters was investigated. The present investigation on evaluation of water quality such as chloride and phosphate contents of Chilika Lagoon will primarily address the changing characteristics and will be a step for formulating an action plan for integrating ecological, social and economical dimensions to promote sustainable development of the lagoon. The variables that are related to pollution sources showed differences. For the study of physico-chemical properties of water, the samples were collected monthly for a period of 2 years from July 2011 to June 2013 from six different sampling stations which spread over all the ecological sectors. Collection of samples was made from the predetermined stations of the water body by holding the polythene bottle (5 L.capacity. The samples were brought to the laboratory for analysis. At the spot of the sampling sites, the temperature of water was recorded. The water samples were analyzed in the laboratory by standard methods. The water samples were then filtered and were used for the measurement. Among the stations, Rambha shows the highest chloride content i.e. 10579.3±483.3 mg/L in summer season and Rambha shows the lowest chloride value i.e. 1008.00±266.8 mg/L in summer season. Among the stations, Kalupada ghat shows the highest value of phosphate content i.e 0.534±0.22 mg/L in the winter and Barakul shows the lowest value i.e. 0.013 ±0.002 mg/L in winter season.

  12. Determination of fluoride and chloride content in UO2 powder by selective ion electrode potentiometry method using pyrohydrolitic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flouride and chloride ions in uranium oxide powder should be determined since they influence the performance of fuel element during irradiation in the reactor. Determination of flouride and chloride ion content had been done by selective ion electrode Potentiometry method from uranium oxide after separation from U using method pyrohydrolitic. The experiment showed that the maximum efficiencies of the pyrohydrolitic separation of flouride and chloride ions is 93.78±5.51 % and 95.71±3.08 %, with minimum detection of 0.019 ppm and 1.775 ppm respectively. Uranium matrix as much as 250 ppm showed significant influence on the measurement. (author)

  13. Electrodeposition of SnSbCu Alloy on Copper from an Electrolyte with Varied Content of Antimony Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, A. Kh.; Valeev, I. Sh.

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure and chemical composition of electrodeposited alloys of the SnSbCu system with varied concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte have been investigated. It is shown that during electrodeposition mechanical-mixture alloys are not formed, but rather intermetallic compounds. It is found that increasing the concentration of antimony chloride in the electrolyte leads to a decrease in the tin content and cracking of the coating.

  14. Leaching of copper concentrates with high arsenic content in chlorine-chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the results of copper concentrates leaching which have high arsenic concepts (up to 2.5%). The treatments were carried out using chlorine that forms from sodium hypochlorite and sulphuric acid. The aim of this work is to obtain a solution having high copper content 4 to 6 g/l and 5 to 7 g/l free acid in order to submit it directly to a solvent extraction stage. In addition, this solution should have minimum content of arsenic and chloride ions. To carry out this investigation, an acrylic reactor was constructed where the leaching tests were made at constant temperature in a thermostatic bath under atmospheric pressure. The concentrate samples were obtained from mineral processing plants from Antofagasta, Chile. Typical variables were studied, such as leaching agent concentration, leaching time, pulp density and temperature among others. Some of the residues were analyzed by XRD and EPS. On the other hand, the solutions were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results indicate solutions having the contents stated above can be obtained. (Author) 19 refs

  15. [Influence of cadmium chloride and hydrogen peroxide on the content of phosphoinositides in isolated hepatocytes of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borikov, A Iu; Kaliman, P A

    2004-01-01

    Influence of cadmium chloride and hydrogen peroxide on the processes of lipid peroxidation and contents of polyphosphoinositides in isolated hepatocytes of rats was studied. It is shown that incubation of the cells with cadmium chloride or hydrogen peroxide already in 15 min results in the reinforcement of lipid peroxidation and increase of contents of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositoldiphosphate. Variations of the basal level of the latter, as is well known, plays an important messenger role. In case of more long incubation (60 min) one can observe the significant accumulation of intermediate and final products of lipid peroxidation, while the content of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositoldiphosphate did not differ from the control, but the content of phosphatidylinositolphosphate was increased. Changes in the content of separate fraction of polyphosphoinositides in the presence of cadmium chloride and hydrogen peroxide were similar. Allowing for all that it is, possible to draw a conclusion that the mechanism of cadmium influence on the content of polyphosphoinositides is based on its ability to cause development of the oxidative stress. PMID:19621747

  16. Effects of micronized sodium chloride on the sensory profile and consumer acceptance of turkey ham with reduced sodium content

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Esteves Lopes Galvão; Debora Braga Moura; Andrea Carla Silva Barretto; Marise Aparecida Rodrigues Pollonio

    2014-01-01

    The impact of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution for micronized salt on consumer acceptance of turkey ham was investigated. Five formulations - F1 (control - 2.0% NaCl), F2 (1.7% NaCl), F3 (1.4% NaCl), F4 (1.7% micronized NaCl), and F5 (1.4% micronized NaCl) - were evaluated with respect to sodium chloride content and by consumers using a nine-point hedonic scale for overall acceptability and CATA (check-all-that-apply) using 24 sensory descriptors. Trained panelists characterized...

  17. Effects of micronized sodium chloride on the sensory profile and consumer acceptance of turkey ham with reduced sodium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Esteves Lopes Galvão

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution for micronized salt on consumer acceptance of turkey ham was investigated. Five formulations - F1 (control - 2.0% NaCl, F2 (1.7% NaCl, F3 (1.4% NaCl, F4 (1.7% micronized NaCl, and F5 (1.4% micronized NaCl - were evaluated with respect to sodium chloride content and by consumers using a nine-point hedonic scale for overall acceptability and CATA (check-all-that-apply using 24 sensory descriptors. Trained panelists characterized the products using the flash profiling technique. Reductions in the salt content by up to 30% did not affect the overall acceptability of the samples by the consumers. However, the consumers characterized the formulations with lower salt content as "less salty and less seasoned" in comparison to the contents in the control. Products containing 1.7% NaCl were considered very similar to the control. The results obtained indicate that it is possible to reduce NaCl content by 30% without affecting consumer acceptance of the product. The use of micronized salt did not affect the sensory characteristics when compared with those of formulations containing the same level of sodium chloride indicating that micronized salt does not influence perception of salt.

  18. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content. PMID:26852809

  19. Effects of chloride content on CO2 corrosion of carbon steel in simulated oil and gas well environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Maximum CO2 corrosion rate is reached with increasing Cl− content. • Cl− can destroy the corrosion product films. • High amounts of Cl− content can inhibit the cathodic reaction in CO2 corrosion. • Mass transfer control becomes more efficient as the Cl− content increases. • Cl− has no effect on the composition of the corrosion product. - Abstract: Effects of chloride content on CO2 corrosion of carbon steel have been studied by immersion tests and electrochemical measurements combined with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and analysis of polarization curves. Results show that maximum CO2 corrosion rate is reached with increasing Cl− content at a constant temperature and partial pressure. CO2 corrosion is a mixed-controlled process, i.e., both activation and mass-transfer steps with increasing Cl− content. Increasing Cl− content can reduce CO2 solubility. Moreover, Cl− can destroy corrosion product films and change morphology of corrosion product films, but it has no effect on the composition of the corrosion product

  20. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalat...... esters are given. It is demonstrated that the presence of phthalate esters in PVC products is readily detectable by FT-Raman spectroscopy. By use of proper ref. samples quant. detn. of the phthalate ester content becomes possible as well....

  1. OF SODIUM NITRITE FOR SPINY-CHEEK CRAYFISH (ORCONECTES LIMOSUS RAF. THE EFFECT OF CHLORIDE CONTENT IN WATER ON THE TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOZÁK P.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of sodium nitrite for the spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus was assessed in relation to the concentration of chlorides diluted in water. Results of the tests confirmed a favourable effect of chloride content in water on the tolerance of spiny-cheek crayfish to nitrites. The 96hLC50 value of 4.8 mg l-1, 17.7 mg l-1, 34.7 mg l-1, 50.5 mg l-1, 74.4 mg l-1, and 96.6 mg l-1 N-NO2- found out in individual tests corresponded, respectively to a chloride content of 11, 40, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg l-1 Cl-in diluting water. Linear relationship of the 96hLC50 values on chloride concentration (y = 0.23 ×+ 7 was proven statistically (R = 0.995.

  2. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities. Th

  3. Analysis of phthalate ester content in poly(vinyl chloride) plastics by means of Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy is applied to a range of phthalate ester plasticizers in pure form as well as in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) samples. It is found that phthalate esters as a group can be identified by a set of six characteristic Raman bands. FT-Raman spectra of 22 phthalate...

  4. Influence of fiber content on mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of kenaf fibers reinforced poly(vinyl chloride)/thermoplastic polyurethane poly-blend composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Increasing fiber content decreased tensile strength and strain. • Tensile modulus was increasing with increase in fiber content. • SEM showed fiber/matrix poor adhesion. • Impact strength was decreasing with increase in fiber content. • Lower thermal stability with increase in fiber content was observed. - Abstract: Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) bast fiber reinforced poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) poly-blend was prepared by melt mixing method using Haake Polydrive R600 internal mixer. The composites were prepared with different fiber content: 20%, 30% and 40% (by weight), with the processing parameters: 140 °C, 11 min, and 40 rpm for temperature, time and speed, respectively. After mixing, the composite was compressed using compressing molding machine. Mechanical properties (i.e. tensile properties, flexural properties, impact strength) were studied. Morphological properties of tensile fracture surface were studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal properties of the composites were studied using Thermogravimetric Analyses (TGA). PVC/TPU/KF composites have shown lower tensile strength and strain with increase in fiber content. Tensile modulus showed an increasing trend with increase in fiber content. Impact strength decreased with increase in fiber content; however, high impact strength was observed even with 40% fiber content (20.2 kJ/m2). Mean while; the 20% and 30% fiber contents showed higher impact strength of 34.9, 27.9 kJ/m2; respectively. SEM showed that there is poor fiber/matrix adhesion. Thermal degradation took place in three steps. In the first step, composites as well as the matrix had a similar stability. At the second step, matrix showed a slightly better stability than the composites. At the last step, composites showed a better stability than the matrix

  5. Short-term forecasting of the chloride content in the mineral waters of the Ustroń Health Resort using SARIMA and Holt-Winters models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowska Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ustroń S.A. Health Resort (southern Poland uses iodide-bromide mineral waters taken from Middle and Upper Devonian limestones and dolomites with a mineralisation range of 110-130 g/dm3 for curative purposes. Two boreholes - U-3 and U3-A drilled in the early 1970s were exploited. The aim of this paper is to estimate changes in mineral water quality of the Ustroń Health Resort by taking into consideration chloride content in the water from the U-3 borehole. The data has included the results of monthly analyses of chlorides from 2005 to 2015 during the tests carried out by the Mining Department of the Health Resort. The triple exponential smoothing (ETS function and the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA method of modelling time series were used for the calculations. The ability to properly forecast mineral water quality can result in a good status of the exploitation borehole and a limited number of failures in the exploitation system. Because of the good management of health resorts, it is possible to acquire more satisfied customers. The main goal of the article involves the real-time forecast accuracy, obtained results show that the proposed methods are effective for such situations. Presented methods made it possible to obtain a 24-month point and interval forecast. The results of these analyses indicate that the chloride content is forecast to be in the range of 72 to 83 g/l from 2015 to 2017. While comparing the two methods of analysis, a narrower range of forecast values and, therefore, greater accuracy were obtained for the ETS function. The good performance of the ETS model highlights its utility compared with complicated physically based numerical models.

  6. [Content and composition of lipoproteins of rat blood and liver and various parameters of oxidative stress during administration of cobalt chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Zagaĭko, A L; Shalamov, R V; Ganusova, G V; Barannik, T V; Skripnik, E V; Sokolik, V V; Shabi, B K

    1997-01-01

    Cobalt chloride effect on rat liver and serum blood lipoproteins content and composition and on some characteristics of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress was investigated. The activation of free-radical oxidation and oxidative stress development were judged from the dynamics of lipid peroxidation products accumulation, from cathepsin D unsedimental activity and from the alteration of microsomal cytochrome P-450 content and from activity of a number antioxidative enzymes. In order to evaluate the state of glutathione-defence system the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and some NADPH-generating enzymes and reduced glutathione level alteration were studied in liver. The data obtained show that the cobalt chloride injection leads to the development of the oxidative stress and to activation of some antioxidant defence system, namely, glutathione-depending enzymes, and of microsomal cytochrome P-450 catabolism. The system blood lipoproteins (liver lipoproteins was found to participate in metabolism adaptation under oxidative stress and in maintenance of biological membranes structure and functioning. PMID:9606836

  7. A combined effect of cadmium chloride and ionizing irradiation on the contents of metallothioneines in the bone marrow and liver of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that introduction of cadmium chloride (0.75 mg/kg Cd2+) in combination with γ-irradiation (8.5 Gy) of mice increases the level of metallothioneines (MTs in the bone marrow and liver of mice. The maximum effect was observed in 24-30 h after the performance. Similarly, irradiation with the doses of 3 to 10 Gy resulted in an increase of both MT isoforms (MT1 and MT2) in the bone marrow in 24 h. A combined action of γ-irradiation and a heavy metal caused an additive effect on the MT content in the bone marrow, whereas the MT content in liver was 2 times lower than that predicted theoretically. A possible mechanism of the discovered phenomenon was discussed. Supposedly, it is associated with different degrees of the radiation-induced inhibition of the MT1 and MT2 expression by cadmium ions. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Leaching of copper concentrates with high arsenic content in chlorine-chloride media; Lixiviacion de concentrados de cobre con alto contenido de arsenico en medio cloro-cloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herreros, O.; Fuentes, G.; Quiroz, R.; Vinals, J.

    2003-07-01

    This work reports the results of copper concentrates leaching which have high arsenic concepts (up to 2.5%). The treatments were carried out using chlorine that forms from sodium hypochlorite and sulphuric acid. The aim of this work is to obtain a solution having high copper content 4 to 6 g/l and 5 to 7 g/l free acid in order to submit it directly to a solvent extraction stage. In addition, this solution should have minimum content of arsenic and chloride ions. To carry out this investigation, an acrylic reactor was constructed where the leaching tests were made at constant temperature in a thermostatic bath under atmospheric pressure. The concentrate samples were obtained from mineral processing plants from Antofagasta, Chile. Typical variables were studied, such as leaching agent concentration, leaching time, pulp density and temperature among others. Some of the residues were analyzed by XRD and EPS. On the other hand, the solutions were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results indicate solutions having the contents stated above can be obtained. (Author) 19 refs.

  9. Effects of Rice Hull Particle Size and Content on the Mechanical Properties and Visual Appearance of Wood Plastic Composites Prepared from Poly(vinyl chloride)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nawadon Petchwattana; Sirijutaratana Covavisaruch

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to develop Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) from rice hull and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC).The influences of the rice hull particle size and content on the mechanical properties and the visual appearance of the WPC decking board were investigated.The experimental results revealed that the impact strength tended to decrease with increasing rice hull content.The composites with larger particle sizes exhibited higher impact strength.Under tensile and flexure load,higher rice hull content induced greater modulus and ultimate strength when the rice hull was applied at less than 60 phr.Beyond this concentration,the modulus and the strength dropped due to the formation of rice hull agglomerates.The smaller particles of the milled rice hull,the greater tendency there was for them to act as a pigment to form a darker shade close that of the rice hull on the composite decking board.The larger particle sizes were 106 μm and beyond simply embedded in the white PVC matrix.

  10. Effect of Zn and Pb contents on the electrochemical behavior of brass alloys in chloride-free neutral sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.M.; El-Sherif, R.M.; Badawy, W.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-11-01

    Different electrochemical methods such as open-circuit potential measurements, polarization techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of brass alloys with various Zn contents (5.5-38.0 mass%) and Cu-38.0Zn-Pb alloy with different Pb contents (1.0-3.4 mass%) in neutral sodium sulfate solutions. The influence of working conditions, e.g., immersion time, sulfate ions concentration and temperature on the electrochemical behavior of the different alloys was also studied. It was found that the initial corrosion rate is relatively high for alloys with the higher zinc content due to dezincification. The dezincification process initiates by selective dissolution of zinc and continues by a simultaneous dissolution of copper and zinc followed by re-deposition of copper. An increase in the lead content and immersion time in the sodium sulfate solution increases the corrosion resistance of the alloy and improves its stability. The stability of the leaded brass was considered to be due to the formation of an insoluble film of lead sulfate on its surface. The impedance data were fitted to theoretical data obtained according to an equivalent circuit model describing the electrode/electrolyte interface. The mechanism of the alloy dissolution was discussed in view of the obtained results. (Author)

  11. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    OpenAIRE

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad; Abtahi, F.; M Hooshangi; ST Heydari

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt) and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were select...

  12. The effect of ammonium chloride concentrationson the content of carotenoid pigments in the body of Lymnaea stagnalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Kyrychuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the peculiarities of distribution of β-carotene and xanthophylls in the body of Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Pulmonata, Lymnaeidae in the normal conditions and under the action of different concentrations of NH4Cl, depending on duration of exposure (2, 7, 14 and 21 days. L. stagnalis (300 copies were collected in September 2013–2014 (in Zhytomyr region. Toxicant NH4Cl was used in concentrations corresponding to 0.5, 2, 5 and 10 MAC. The content of β-carotene and xanthophylls was determined by the Taylor method. 2400 biochemical analyses were carried out. The article shows that under the action of 0.5 MPC NH4Cl adaptive processes are stimulated in the body of L. stagnalis and total antioxidant activity is activated, as evidenced by changes in the content of β-carotene and xanthophylls in the organs (hepatopancreas, pallium and foot and tissues (hemolymph of the mollusks under study. The research proves that the action of concentration discussed above during 2, 14 and 21 days causes the increase in the content of β-carotene in hepatopancreas (1.63–5.73 times, pallium (1.68–5.37 times and foot (1.81–3.89 times of animals. Incubation of mollusks in solutions of NH4Cl (0.5 MAC for 7 days resulted in the decrease of figures in these organs by 23,6–38,8% relatively to control. It should be noted that from the overall dynamics hemolymph is somewhat distracting; for it 1.35–1.46 times’ decrease in the content of β-carotene after short-term action of the toxicant (2 and 7 days and β-carotene increase by 2.79–7.38 times under conditions of prolonged exposure (14 and 21 days is recorded. The content of xanthophylls correlates with the content of β-carotene on the 2nd, 7th and 14th day of toxic action, but by increasing the time of contact with toxic substances to 21 days the decrease in figures by 20,9–40,7% in foot and pallium is recorded. When the toxicant concentration is increased to 2 MAC (with 2

  13. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  14. Effect of ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride and root-zone acidity on inorganic ion content of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv NC82) were supplied with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4Cl at root-zone pH of 6.0 and 4.5 in hydroponic culture for 28 days. Dry matter accumulation, total N and C content, and leaf area and number were not affected by the NH4+ source or root-zone pH. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated up to 1.2 mM Cl g DW-1, but accumulated 37% less inorganic H2PO4- and 47% less SO4(2-) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4. The large Cl- accumulation resulted in NH4Cl- supplied plants having a 31% higher inorganic anion (NO3-, H2, PO4-, SO4(2-), and Cl-) charge. This higher inorganic anion charge in the NH4Cl-supplied plants was balanced by a similar increase in K+ charge. Plants supplied with NH4Cl accumulated greater concentrations of Cl- in leaves (up to 5.1% of DW) than plants supplied with (NH4)2SO4 (less than -% DW). Despite the high Cl- concentration of leaves in NH4Cl supplied plants, these plants showed no symptoms of Cl- toxicity. This demonstrates that toxicity symptoms are not due solely to an interaction between high Cl- concentration in tissue and NH4+ nutrition. The increase in root-zone acidity to pH 4.5 from 6.0 did not induce toxicity symptoms.

  15. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile Fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Moore, P A

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3.14H2O] and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and P solubility. Although the use of Al2(SO4)3.14H2O has been intensively used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid AlCl3 on these parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of applying liquid AlCl3 to poultry litter on 1) broiler performance, 2) NH3 fluxes, and 3) litter chemical characteristics, including soluble reactive P, total volatile fatty acids, and N content. Eight hundred broiler chicks were placed into 16 floor pens (50 birds/pen) in a single house for 6 wk. Liquid AlCl3 treatments were sprayed on the litter surface at rates of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter; un-treated litter served as controls. At the 2 lower rates, liquid AlCl3 treatments tended to improve weight gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion or mortality, whereas the higher rate (300 g/kg of litter) had a negative effect on intake. Application of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3 reduced NH3 fluxes by 63, 76, and 76% during the 6-wk period, respectively, compared with the controls. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced litter soluble reactive P contents by 24, 30, and 36%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. Total volatile fatty acid contents (odor precursors) in litter were reduced by 20, 50, and 51%, respectively, with 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter. Liquid AlCl3 additions increased total N, inorganic N, and plant available N contents in litter. These results indicate that liquid AlCl3 additions at the lower rates can provide significant positive environmental benefits to broiler operations. PMID:18809856

  16. Processes regulating groundwater chloride content in marshes under different environmental conditions: A comparative case study in Península Valdés and Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Eleonora; Alvarez, María del Pilar

    2016-03-01

    Salt marshes are some of the most important wetlands in many regions of the world. Soil and groundwater salinity plays an important role in coastal wetland ecosystems because of the differences in tolerances of plant species to salinity and tidal inundation. Given that the salinity of these environments is mostly dominated by the chloride anion, it is the aim of this study to identify the geochemical processes that regulate its content in groundwater. A comparison of two intertidal wetlands under different environmental conditions was carried out in Peninsula Valdés and in Samborombón Bay, both on the Atlantic coast of Argentina. The tidal influence over the groundwater marsh dynamics was analyzed from continuous records of groundwater levels and electrical conductivity. Besides, major ion and environmental isotope data were used to identify the geochemical processes that determine the chloride content, based on the study of ion ratios and analytical models. The results show that, despite the hydrological differences between the two studied marshes, the processes regulating the Cl- contents are similar: evaporation, transpiration and halite dissolution. Among them, evaporation/transpiration are the processes that could continuously increase the chloride concentration. However, it is expected that those are not processes that greatly increase the groundwater saline content if compared to the dissolution of halite.

  17. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  18. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  19. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics...

  20. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007; R...... strategy is theoretically based on systems theory as formulated by Niklas Luhmann (Luhmann, 1995; 2002) and on own work, where. Luhmann’s general ideas and concepts of the educational system are transposed into a didactical framework (Keiding, 2005,2007,2008).......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......, is subordinating content to methods as seen in modern didactics, hereby transforming content to a medium for achievement of learning-to-learn skills rather than something valuable in its own right. At the level of general didactics quite few attempts have been made to formulate criteria and...

  1. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  2. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  3. Study of the Effect of Molten Copper Chloride Immersion Test on Alloys with High Nickel Content with and without Surface Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siantar, Edwin

    The demand for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier has increased greatly. The Cu-Cl cycle is a promising thermochemical cycle that is currently being developed to be the large-scale method of hydrogen production. The lifetime of materials for the pipes transporting molten CuCl is an important parameter for an economic design of a commercial thermochemical Cu-Cl hydrogen plant. This research is an examination of candidate materials following an immersion test in molten CuCl at 500 °C for 100 h. Two alloys, Ni based super-alloy (Inconel 625) and super austenitic stainless steel (AL6XN) were selected as the base metal. There were two types of coating applied to improve the corrosion resistance of the base metals during molten CuCl exposure. A metallic of Diamalloy 4006 and two ceramic of yttria stabilized zirconia and alumina coatings were applied to the base metal using thermal spray methods. An immersion apparatus was designed and constructed to perform an immersion test that has a condition similar to those in a hydrogen plant. After the immersion test, the materials were evaluated using an electrochemical method in combination with ex-situ surface analysis. The surface condition including elemental composition, film structure and resistivity of the materials were examined and compared. The majority of the coatings were damaged and fell off. Cracks were found in the original coated specimens indicating the sample geometry may have affected the integrity of the sprayed coating. When the coating cracked, it provided a pathway for the molten CuCl to go under the coating and react with the surface underneath the coating. Copper deposits and iron chloride that were found on the sample surfaces suggest that there were corrosion reactions that involved the metal dissolution and reduction of copper during immersion test. The results also suggest that Inconel 625 performed better than stainless steel AL6XN. Both Diamalloy 4006 and YSZ (ZrO2 18TiO2 10Y2O3) coatings seemed to

  4. HPLC法测定亚甲蓝注射液含量及其有关物质%Determination of Content and Related Substances of Methylthioninium Chloride Injection by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩淑芹

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To establish an HPLC method for the determination of methylthioninium chloride injection and its related substances. Methods:Octadecylsilane bonded silica was used as the filler. A Waters Symmetry C18 column (150 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5μm) was used with the mobile phase of 0. 3% phosphoric acid solution-acetonitrile (70∶ 30). The detection wavelength was 246 nm and the column temperature was 30℃. The flow rate was 1. 0 ml·min-1 and the injection volume was 10μl. Results:The separation degree of methylthioninium chloride peak and impurity peaks was good. Methylthioninium chloride within the range of 2. 0-60. 0 μg· ml-1showed a good linear relationship (r=0. 9998). Impurity A within the range of 0. 2-3. 2 μg·ml-1 showed a good linear relation-ship (r=0. 999 6). The average recovery of methylthioninium chloride was 99. 75% and RSD was 0. 86% (n=9). Conclusion:The method is simple, accurate and specific with high precision. It can be used to determine the content of methylthioninium chloride injec-tion and its related substances.%目的::建立 HPLC 法测定亚甲蓝注射液的含量及有关物质。方法:色谱柱:Waters Symmetry C18柱(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:0.3%磷酸溶液-乙晴(70∶30);检测波长:246 nm;柱温:30℃;流速:1.0 ml·min-1,进样量:10μl。结果:亚甲蓝峰与杂质峰之间分离度良好;亚甲蓝和杂质A分别在2.0~60.0μg·ml-1(r=0.9998)和0.2~3.2μg·ml-1(r=0.9996)浓度范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系;亚甲蓝的平均加样回收率为99.75%,RSD为0.86%(n=9)。结论:建立的方法简便、准确,专属性好,精密度高,可用来测定亚甲蓝注射液含量及其有关物质。

  5. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  6. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth and...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  7. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...... marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  8. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  9. Teores de cloretos, lactose e índice cloretos/lactose na secreção láctea de bovinos da raça Jersey no primeiro mês da lactação Chloride and lactose contents and chloride/lactose ratio in milk from Jersey cows in the first month of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F.S. Raimondo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do período colostral nos teores lácteos de cloretos, lactose e do índice cloretos/lactose. Foram colhidas 418 amostras de leite provenientes de glândulas mamárias sadias, e que não apresentavam crescimento bacteriano ao exame microbiológico, de 127 vacas da raça Jersey. As amostras foram distribuídas em oito grupos: 0 ┤1/2 dia; 1/2 ┤1 dia; 1 ┤2 dias; 2 ┤3 dias; 3 ┤5 dias; 5 ┤7 dias; 7 ┤15 dias; 15 ┤30 dias em lactação. Nas amostras, colhidas antes da ordenha, foram determinados os valores de cloretos, por titulação colorimétrica, e de lactose, por radiação infravermelho, e calculou-se o índice cloretos/lactose. Nas primeiras 24 horas da lactação, observou-se abrupta diminuição no teor lácteo de cloretos e do índice cloretos/lactose, associada com o aumento no teor lácteo de lactose. A transição da secreção de colostro para leite em relação ao teor de cloretos e lactose e ao índice cloretos/lactose na secreção láctea ocorreu na primeira semana da lactação, a partir do terceiro dia da lactação para o valor de cloretos e para a relação cloretos/lactose e a partir do quarto dia da lactação para o teor de lactose. Recomenda-se, nas primeiras 24 horas da lactação, a adoção dos seguintes limites de normalidade: cloretos, 3,94g/dL e índice cloretos/lactose, 4,03g/dL e índice cloretos/lactose In order to assess the influence of the colostral period on chloride and lactose levels and on the chloride/lactose ratio, 419 milk samples from 127 Jersey cows were analyzed. The samples were collected from healthy udders that did not present any bacterial growth in the microbiological examination. Cows were distributed into eight groups as follows: 0 ┤1/2 day; 1/2 ┤1 day; 1 ┤2 days; 2 ┤3 days; 3 ┤5 days; 5 ┤7 days; 7 ┤15 days; 15 ┤30 days of lactation. The samples were collected before milking to analyze the levels of chloride by colorimetric titration, lactose

  10. 上海市域地下水环境氯离子含量的时空演化特征研究%Study on the Temporal and Spatial Evolution Characteristics of Chloride Ion Content in the Groundwater Environment of Shanghai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉强

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide distribution of Chloride Ion in groundwater, so it is of great significance to probe into the temporal and spatial dynamic evolution of Chloride content in groundwater environment. The results showed there existed a relevantly great change in the annual content of Chloride Ion in the groundwater of Shanghai City, presenting a regular quadric curve or cubic curve. Furthermore, the change in each aquifer presented a significant difference. From the perspective of its vertical distribution, the average content of Chloride Ion from height to lowness in turn was the second confined aquifer , the fifth confined aquifer, the unconfined aquifer, the fourth and the third confined aquifer.%鉴于氯离子在地下水中的分布很广,因此,探究地下水环境氯离子含量时空动态演化规律具有重要意义。研究发现,上海市地下水环境 Cl-含量年际演化幅度比较大,且呈现规律性的二次曲线或三次曲线,各个含水层之间的变化呈显著性差异。从其垂直方向分布看,氯离子平均含量由高到低依次为第二承压含水层,第五承压含水层,潜水含水层,第四承压含水层和第三承压含水层。

  11. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  12. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  13. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface...

  15. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface...

  16. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  17. Hydrogenation of Tasmanian alginite in the presence of tin (II) chloride and zinc chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.J.

    1981-10-01

    A Mersey River (Tasmanian) algnite concentrate was heated (3 Cmin$SUP$-$SUP$1 to temperatures of 200-480 C in a small capacity, high-pressure, single-cell differential thermal analysis, batch autoclave under nitrogen or hydrogen (initial pressure 9.8 MPa) with or without 10 wt% zinc chloride or tin (II) chloride. An organic solvent (vehicle) was not used in these experiments. Although there is an almost complete conversion of alginite to gaseous and liquid products between 425 and 450 C, the compositions of the autoclave gas samples, the yields and compositions of the hexane-soluble material derived from the autoclave products, and the optical properties of the hexane-soluble residues, reflect the experimental conditions, in particular the influence of the metal chlorides. Principal phases of hydrogen uptake by alginite occur at different temperatures in a hydrogen atmosphere depending on the presence and nature of the metal chloride. The autoclave gas compositions reveal a clear distinction between the uncatalysed and catalysed experiments. The hydrocarbon gas ratios permit a distinction to be made between catalytic (carbonium ion mechanism) reactions and thermal (free radical mechanism) reactions; at higher temperatures the latter are dominant, even in the catalysed experiments. The metal chlorides lower the organic sulphur and nitrogen contents of the hexane-soluble material; zinc chloride being more effective than tin (II) chloride. Incident light fluorescence microscopy suggests that zinc chloride and tin (II) chloride give rise to different hydrogenation reactions between 300 and 425 C. Incident light fluorescence microscopy is a most useful method of studying the petrography of alignite in the hexane-insoluble residues. (28 refs.)

  18. Mass transport in aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaist, D.G.

    1986-09-01

    Conductimetric and diaphragm cell techniques have been used to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride solutions at 25/sup 0/C. At low concentrations where Zn/sup 2 +/ is the major zinc-transporting species, the diffusion-induced electric field along zinc chloride concentration gradients drives large co-current flows of potassium chloride. In concentrated solutions where a large proportion of zinc diffusses as anionic ZnCl/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ complexes, flow of zinc chloride generates counterflow of potassium chloride. If a sharp zinc chloride is formed in an otherwise uniform solution of potassium chloride, coupled diffusion can concentrate potassium ions within the diffusion boundary. Equations are developed to predict multicomponent transport coefficients for zinc chloride in supporting electrolytes.

  19. Effect of different concentrations of potassium silicate, nano-silicon and calcium chloride on concentration of potassium, calcium and magnesium, chlorophyll content and number of florets of Asiatic lily cv. ‘Brunello’

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mirabbasi; A. Nikbakht; N. Etemadi; M.R. Sabzalian

    2013-01-01

    Production of many cut flowers, such as lilium, is very common in Iran. Flower quality has special importance in lilium flower production process, and proper nutrition is one of the major effective factors. This research was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of potassium silicate, nano-silicon and calcium chloride on concentration of potassium, calcium and magnesium, chlorophyll index and number of florets of Asiatic lily 'Brunello'. The experiment was carried ou...

  20. Reinforcement corrosion in alkaline chloride media with reduced oxygen concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly considered that the corrosion of steel in concrete is controlled by the oxygen content of the pore solution and there are service life models that relate the corrosion rate to the amount of oxygen. It is also commonly believed that in water saturated conditions the oxygen content in the pores is negligible and that underwater there is no risk of depassivation and the corrosion rate is very low. However, the available data on corrosion rates in immersed conditions do not indicate such performance; on the contrary corrosion develops when sufficient chloride reaches the reinforcement. In the present paper, results are presented for tests performed in alkaline chloride solutions that were purged with nitrogen to reduce the oxygen content. The results indicate that at very low oxygen concentrations, corrosion may develop in the presence of chlorides. The presence or absence of corrosion is influenced by the amount of chloride, the corrosion potential and the steel surface condition. (authors)

  1. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  2. Effects of slag and fly ash on reinforcement corrosion in concrete in chloride environment: Research from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Polder, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    A review is given of research on the durability performance of concrete made with blast furnace slag and fly ash related to chloride induced reinforcement corrosion, carried out in the Netherlands, where slag has been used in cement for almost a century. Results are presented from field studies on concrete in marine environment and laboratory studies involving chloride exposure. Chloride surface content, diffusion coefficient, electrical resistivity, critical chloride content and corrosion ra...

  3. Estimation of aquifer recharge by means of atmospheric chloride deposition balance

    OpenAIRE

    Custodio Gimena, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of the atmospheric chloride deposition on land allows the estimation of long-term average aquifer recharge when the average chloride content in the recharge water is known. This is a well-established, simple method, although not exempt from theoretical and practical difficulties. In spite of its potential, it is seldom applied. Under favorable circumstances, the results are reliable and the associated uncertainty can be determined. The chloride content of recharge water ...

  4. Gasometric titration for dimethylaluminum chloride analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Maligres, Peter; Eckenroad, Kyle; Simmons, Bryon

    2016-06-01

    A gasometric titration method was developed to quantitate active alkylaluminum content in dimethylaluminum chloride solution to perform the stoichiometry calculation for the reaction charge. The procedure was reproducible with good precision, and the results showed good correlation with ICP-MS method. The gasometric titration is a simple, inexpensive alternative to analysis via ICP-MS which provides more selective analysis of methylaluminum species without the need for inertion. PMID:27017569

  5. 自动电位滴定法测定工业铬酸酐中氯离子含量方法研究%The Research Method to Determine Chloride Ion Content in Chromium Trioxide for Industrial Use with Automatic Potentiometric Titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡清启; 孙宁

    2015-01-01

    用乙醇作还原剂,将铬酸酐中CrO42-还原为Cr3+,再用硝酸银标准溶液滴定,以电位变化率最大点确定反应终点,求出氯离子含量。就精密度和加标回收进行实验,并对方法展开分析与讨论,该方法的建立对工业生产铬酸酐中氯离子指标的控制具有指导意义。%Reduce the CrO42+to Cr3+in chromium trioxide with ethanol as the reductant ,then determine the content of chloride ion using AgNO3 standard solution to titrate to the end point that has a biggest change of potential. Conduct an experiment for calculating the precision and standard addition recovery of the method,and then analysis and discuss about the method.This method has a guiding significance for controlling the content of chloride ion in the industrial production of chromium trioxide.

  6. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  7. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  8. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Mathiyarasu; N Palaniswamy; V S Muralidharan

    2001-02-01

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments by the formation of passive films on the surface. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried on cupronickels in chloride solutions at H 6.3 to understand the role of chloride ions in passive film formation. Increase in nickel content of the alloy and of chloride ions in solution decreases film resistance. Chloride ions take part in reduction of the passive film to copper. A solid-state model for passive film formation involving chloride ions has been attempted.

  9. Processes of lithium chlorides purification from Salar de Atacama concentrated brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research carried out to obtain lithium chloride, as a suitable electrolyte for the production of high purity lithium metal are presented. Concentrated lithium chloride brines from Salar de Atacama have been used as starting materials. The studied process requires the reduction of the boron content in the brines to levels below 5 ppm, followed by a crystallization process to obtain a crystallized lithium chloride. The elimination of the magnesium chloride co-crystallized with the lithium chloride, is achieved by a complementary washing step and the lixiviation of the impure LiCl crystals with ethanol. (author)

  10. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  11. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which the...... chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  12. Determination on Content of Chloride in the FGD System Wastewater by Automatic Potentiometric Titration%自动电位滴定法测定湿法脱硫系统脱硫废水中氯化物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高姗; 郭磊; 宋晓红

    2011-01-01

    By automatic potentiometric titration,at pH=5 sourish water mixtures with total ionic strength buffer,wet de-sulfurization wastewater was determinted with titration teagen of 0.05 mo1·L-1 AgNO 3.The different concentration of chloride desulfurization wastewater samples were experienced and analyzed.Tests for recovery were made by the stan-dard addition method,and the recovery were between 95.21% and 107.46%.Tests for precision were made with different samples,and the relative standard deviation(sRSDs)were between 0.19% and 5.30%.%应用自动电位滴定法,在pH=5的总离子强度缓冲溶液存在的微酸性水溶液中,用0.05 mo1·L-1硝酸银标准溶液作为滴定剂,测定了湿法脱硫废水中氯化物含量。实验对不同浓度氯化物的脱硫废水样品分别进行了实验并加以分析。用标准加入法进行了回收率试验,结果在95.21%~107.46%之间。用不同样品进行了精密度试验,方法的相对标准偏差(n=6)在0.19%~5.30%之间。

  13. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  14. On the corrosion of reinforcing steels in concrete in the presence of chlorides

    OpenAIRE

    R. Genin, Jean Marie; Raharinaivo, Andre

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to give a scientific justification to some empirical results, in steel corrosion field, from concrete containing chlorides. First, it appears that corrosion products on the steels, have different structures and natures in function of the chloride content would be inferior or superior to a characteristic value. Second, the penetration of the chlorides in the concrete can be described by a simple Fick's diffusion law in the most frecuent cases. When cement...

  15. Stabilizing Plutonium oxide material containing Chloride salts at PFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PFP had over 900 items, weighing more than 1100 kg consisting of impure plutonium oxides referred to as high chloride content plutonium oxides. Tests were conducted to examine items for physical characteristics. After 17 years of storage, the inner food-pack cans maintained integrity with very little evidence of corrosion. Items were washed with water to remove chloride salts. Chloride was readily soluble with plutonium concentrations less than 0.05 g/L in wash solution from all but one of seven items. Washed material was calcined at 1000 C. The calcined material passed the storage test for less than 0.5% water. Unopened items were examined using gamma energy analysis to determine if a prompt gamma (n, x) interaction could be used to screen out items with low chloride concentrations. The prompt gamma was not measurable. A 2168 keV gamma from the (α, x) interaction with chloride correlated within 10% of the chloride concentration measured from washing the item with water

  16. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  17. Influence of Fly Ash on Surface Chloride Concentration Under Shallow Immersion Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Xiaodong; Xing, Feng; Han, Ningxu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of fly ash content on concrete surface chloride concentration was investigated through periodical tests of surface chloride concentration of concrete by immersing three kinds of concrete specimens in 5.0 wt.% sodium chloride solution. One kind of specimen is common concrete without fly ash, whereas the other two kinds of specimens are mixed with fly ash. The results show that the surface chloride ion concentration ranges from 0.295 to 0.777 wt.% for the immersed c...

  18. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  19. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  20. Nitrato modula os teores de cloreto e compostos nitrogenados em plantas de milho submetidas à salinidade Nitrate modulates the contents of chloride and N-compounds in maize plants under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexcyane Rodrigues Feijão

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do nitrato (NO3- no crescimento e no acúmulo de solutos inorgânicos e orgânicos em plantas de milho submetidas à salinidade. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sob esquema fatorial 2×4, constando de oito tratamentos: dois níveis de salinidade (NaCl a 0 e 75 mM e quatro concentrações de NO3- (0,5; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5 mM em sistema hidropônico. A massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes foi reduzida pela salinidade, porém isso foi menos evidente quando as plantas foram submetidas a concentrações de NO3- abaixo de 2,5 mM. O melhor crescimento das plantas foi observado na concentração aproximada de NO3- a 5,0 mM. Os teores de Na+ e Cl- aumentaram com a salinidade em todos os órgãos estudados, havendo maior acúmulo desses íons nas raízes. De modo geral, os teores de K+ foram pouco afetados por esse estresse. Com o aumento da concentração de NO3- no meio, houve melhora na absorção desse íon, levando à redução da absorção de Cl- e ao acúmulo de prolina e N-aminossolúveis. O estresse nutricional é mais limitante ao crescimento das plantas de milho que o estresse salino, cujos efeitos prejudiciais são minimizados por uma nutrição de NO3- adequada.This work aimed to study the effect of nitrate (NO3- on growth and accumulation of inorganic and organic solutes in maize plants subjected to salinity. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with five replications, and a 2×4 factorial scheme, consisting of eight treatments: two salinity levels (NaCl at 0 or 75 mM and four different concentrations of NO3- (0.5, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mM in nutrient solution. The dry mass of shoots and roots was reduced by salinity, however, this was less evident when plants were exposed to concentrations of NO3- below 2.5 mM. The best growth was observed in the approximate concentration of 5.0 mM NO3-. The Na+ and Cl- contents

  1. Nitrato modula os teores de cloreto e compostos nitrogenados em plantas de milho submetidas à salinidade Nitrate modulates the contents of chloride and N-compounds in maize plants under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexcyane Rodrigues Feijão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do nitrato (NO3- no crescimento e no acúmulo de solutos inorgânicos e orgânicos em plantas de milho submetidas à salinidade. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sob esquema fatorial 2×4, constando de oito tratamentos: dois níveis de salinidade (NaCl a 0 e 75 mM e quatro concentrações de NO3- (0,5; 2,5; 5,0 e 7,5 mM em sistema hidropônico. A massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes foi reduzida pela salinidade, porém isso foi menos evidente quando as plantas foram submetidas a concentrações de NO3- abaixo de 2,5 mM. O melhor crescimento das plantas foi observado na concentração aproximada de NO3- a 5,0 mM. Os teores de Na+ e Cl- aumentaram com a salinidade em todos os órgãos estudados, havendo maior acúmulo desses íons nas raízes. De modo geral, os teores de K+ foram pouco afetados por esse estresse. Com o aumento da concentração de NO3- no meio, houve melhora na absorção desse íon, levando à redução da absorção de Cl- e ao acúmulo de prolina e N-aminossolúveis. O estresse nutricional é mais limitante ao crescimento das plantas de milho que o estresse salino, cujos efeitos prejudiciais são minimizados por uma nutrição de NO3- adequada.This work aimed to study the effect of nitrate (NO3- on growth and accumulation of inorganic and organic solutes in maize plants subjected to salinity. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with five replications, and a 2×4 factorial scheme, consisting of eight treatments: two salinity levels (NaCl at 0 or 75 mM and four different concentrations of NO3- (0.5, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mM in nutrient solution. The dry mass of shoots and roots was reduced by salinity, however, this was less evident when plants were exposed to concentrations of NO3- below 2.5 mM. The best growth was observed in the approximate concentration of 5.0 mM NO3-. The Na+ and Cl- contents

  2. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  3. Factors other than chloride level influencing rate of reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castel, A.; Arliguie, G. [Paul Sabatier Univ., Toulouse (France); Francois, R. [Institut National Des Sciences Appliques, Toulouse (France)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the degree of corrosion a 14 year-old concrete member was completely bared and three meter-long beams were stored in three-point flexion in an aggressive environment by sequences of drying and wetting by a salt fog. Total chloride content was measured at the level of all reinforcements. Despite the small concrete cover of 10 mm at the stirrups and 16 mm for the longitudinal reinforcement, no evidence was found to relate corrosion to chloride content, since a large part of the reinforcement was not affected by corrosion. It was concluded that the steel-concrete interface had a major influence on being able to predict the onset of corrosion in relation to chloride content. Indeed, corrosion damage was only present when the steel-concrete interface was damaged. These results call into question the validity of the chloride threshold as the single determining criterion to forecast corrosion development. It is suggested that the nature of the interface between steel and concrete, which may be randomly distributed along the reinforcements, should also be considered. Experimental evidence shows that steel-concrete interface damage is linked to non-elastic behaviour of bond that occurs at a given level of mechanical loading. Therefore, corrosion damage is best considered as a deterministic phenomenon linked to a bonding damage. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Partial replacement of sodium chloride in Italian salami and the influence on the sensory properties and texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fieira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cured meat products, such as Italian salami, exhibit high levels of sodium from NaCl, added to ensure flavor and texture. Studies indicates a close relationship between the consumption of these products and hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride on the texture and sensory attributes of Italian salami and to quantify the levels of minerals in the finished product. Four formulations were prepared: without a starter culture (F1; with a starter culture (F2; partial replacement of 60% sodium chloride by  potassium chloride (F3; and partial replacement of sodium chloride by a mixture containing potassium chloride,  magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride (F4. Analyses of Na+, K+, Ca+2 and Mg+2 contents, texture profile and sensory attributes (acceptance test were carried out. Formulations F1, F2, F3 and F4 presented levels of Na+ 0.53, 0.44, 0.36 and 0.30, respectively. The formulations presented a reduction in the sodium chloride content over 25%, thus complying with the requirements of the current legislation. The addition of these salts affected certain important sensory attributes, such as flavor and global impression, and increased hardness and chewiness values.

  5. Chloride Migration in Heterogeneous Soil - 1. Experimental Methodology and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassner, Mona; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Destouni, Georgia

    1994-01-01

    estimated to about 10 m. The ratio between the arrival time of the peak in chloride concentration and the water residence time given by the measured flow parameters indicated a mobile water content that was smaller than the measured water content. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity in both the...... vertical and horizontal direction, and the agreement between the present hydraulic conductivity measurements and earlier measurements in the field area, indicate that the partition of the measured water content between mobile and relatively immobile water was an effect of the soil structure rather than a...

  6. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  7. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  8. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Nemesio M. Pérez; Dina L. López; Gladys V. Melián; Eleazar Padrón; Germán D. Padilla

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical...

  9. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  10. Chloride stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in boric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high nickel austenitic alloys are generally considered to have good resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. In the standard boiling magnesium chloride solution tests, alloys with more than 40% nickel are immune. Nevertheless, more recent data show that cracking can occur in both Alloys 600 and 690 if the solution is acidified. In other low pH media, such as boric acid solution at 100 deg C, transgranular and intergranular cracking are observed in Alloy 600 in the presence of minor concentrations of sodium chloride (2g/I). In concentrated boric acid at higher temperatures (250 and 290 deg C), intergranular cracking also occurs, either when the chloride concentration is high, or at low chloride contents and high oxygen levels. The role of pH and a possible specific action of boric acid are discussed, together with the influence of electrochemical potential. (author)

  11. Chloride stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in boric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Ph. [Electricite de France, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Noel, D.; Gras, J.M.; Prieux, B. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-10-01

    The high nickel austenitic alloys are generally considered to have good resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. In the standard boiling magnesium chloride solution tests, alloys with more than 40% nickel are immune. Nevertheless, more recent data show that cracking can occur in both Alloys 600 and 690 if the solution is acidified. In other low pH media, such as boric acid solution at 100 deg C, transgranular and intergranular cracking are observed in Alloy 600 in the presence of minor concentrations of sodium chloride (2g/I). In concentrated boric acid at higher temperatures (250 and 290 deg C), intergranular cracking also occurs, either when the chloride concentration is high, or at low chloride contents and high oxygen levels. The role of pH and a possible specific action of boric acid are discussed, together with the influence of electrochemical potential. (author) 21 refs.

  12. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  13. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Ma D; Guo M; Zhang M

    2013-01-01

    Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate...

  14. Protective effect and mechanism of lithium chloride pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Jiang Li; Tao Hsu; Hui-Xian Li; Jin-Zheng Shi; Mei-Ling Du; Xiao-Yuan Wang; Wen-Ting Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of lithium chloride pretreatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury(I-RI) in rats.Methods:A total of60SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, lithium chloride intervention group and L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group with15 in each.TheI-RI model was established in model group, the lithium chloride intervention group andL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group by method of seaming along left anterior descending coronary artery myocardial, control group was only opened the chest without seaming,ST-elevation within2 min was regarded as modeling success.Model group did not adopted any intervention, lithium chloride intervention group was treated with lithium chloride injection 15 mg/kg by jugular venipuncture preoperatively,L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group was treated with intraperitoneal injection of30 mg•kg-1•d-1L-arginine methyl ester7 d before the test, and intravenous catheter of15 mg/kg lithium chloride preoperatively. The hydroxybutyric acid dehydrogenase(HBDH), creatine kinase isoenzyme(CK-MB), superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA) level and nitric oxide synthase(NOS) activites were tested.Each large area of myocardial ischemia tissue was extracted for determination of the MDA content,SOD activity in tissue and serum, and morphological changes of myocardial tissue.Results:SOD activity was highest in lithium chloride intervention group, followed by L-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group, control group and model group (P0.05);HBDH andCK-MB of plasma were highest in model group, followed byL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium chloride intervention group, lithium chloride intervention group and control group(P<0.05).A significantly lighter myocardial damage was observed microscopically in lithium chloride intervention group than that inL-arginine methyl ester+ lithium

  15. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  16. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kovarova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L on common carp (Cyprinus carpio was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted.

  18. The isolation of beryllium and mercury from lithium chloride solution by means of gas extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility and optimal conditions of beryllium and mercury extraction using acetylacetone (HAA) from lithium chloride solution by argon blowing through the solution are determined. Dependences of extraction degrees and distribution coefficients on different parameters of liquid phase: initial pH value, lithium chloride concentration and initial content of HAA, are presented. The degree of beryllium extraction reaches the maximum at liquid phase pH of 4.4-5.25 and concentration of lithium chloride of 8.5 mol/l. Distribution coefficient changes in inverse proportion to the extraction degree

  19. Improvement of the durability of concrete with recycled aggregates in chloride exposed environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Ramonich, Enric; Barra Bizinotto, Marilda; Aponte Hernández, Diego Fernando; Jiménez Fernández, Cristian Gonzalo; Valls del Barrio, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    Recycled aggregates concrete (RAC) becomes an important participant in recycled materials, although there are still questionable issues about some of its properties. Durability of RAC and its relationship with recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is often discussed, especially in relation with chloride penetration and diffusion properties. An extensive experimental campaign was performed in order to evaluate the effect of RCA content in the retention and diffusion of chlorides in RAC. The influe...

  20. Response of the Higher Basidiomycetic Ganoderma resinaceum to Sodium Chloride Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Yehia A. G.; Mohamed, Eman H. F. A.; Abd Elzaher, E. H. F.

    2007-01-01

    Ganoderma resinaceum tolerated sodium chloride salt stress within a range of 0 mM till 300 mM. It responded to salt stress with fluctuation in proline formation at different NaCl concentrations. However,the mycelial dry weight,total protein contents and exopolysaccharides did not changed considerably. Increasing sodium chloride concentration led to morphological alteration in fungal mycelia with disappearance of fungal cell wall,plasmolysis,and vacuolation as indicated with electron microscop...

  1. Disposable sensor for electrochemical determination of chloride ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujes-Garrido, Julia; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2016-08-01

    This work describes the development of a new, simple and inexpensive method for the determination of chloride ions, by using voltammetric disposable sensors. The sensor includes three screen printed electrodes: a working, an auxiliary (both carbon based paste electrodes), and a pseudo-reference Ag/AgCl paste based electrode. Since the presence of chloride ions in the solution modifies the equilibrium potential of Ag/AgCl electrode, the concentration of this analyte has been determined through the systematic shift of the voltammetric peak potential of a control species such as potassium ferricyanide, potassium ferrocyanide or ferrocenemethanol. These control species can be used in solution or mixed into the carbon paste of the working screen printed electrode. In order to characterize the developed methods, reproducibility, repeatability and detection limit of the sensors were calculated in each case. Reproducibility values below 3% (n=5) were obtained. When ferrocenemethanol was used as control species, the lowest quantity of chloride ions detected was 10.0mM. A comprehensive study of interfering ions was also carried out. These sensors were successfully applied to determine the chloride content in sea water and in a commercial saline solution sample. PMID:27216668

  2. Alumina/silica aerogel with zinc chloride as an alkylation catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEJAN U. SKALA

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The alumina/silica with zinc chloride aerogel alkylation catalyst was obtained using a one step sol-gel synthesis, and subsequent drying with supercritical carbon dioxide. The aerogel catalyst activity was found to be higher compared to the corresponding xerogel catalyst, as a result of the higher aerogel surface area, total pore volume and favourable pore size distribution. Mixed Al–O–Si bonds were present in both gel catalyst types. Activation by thermal treatment in air was needed prior to catalytic alkylation, due to the presence of residual organic groups on the aerogel surface. The optimal activation temperature was found to be in the range 185–225°C, while higher temperatures resulted in the removal of zinc chloride from the surface of the aerogel catalyst with a consequential decrease in the catalytic activity. On varying the zinc chloride content, the catalytic activity of the aerogel catalyst exhibited a maximum. High zinc chloride contents decreased the catalytic activity of the aerogel catalyst as the result of the pores of the catalyst being plugged with this compound, and the separation of the alumina/silica support into Al-rich and Si-rich phases. The surface area, total pore volume, pore size distribution and zinc chloride content had a similar influence on the activity of the aerogel catalyst as was the case of xerogel catalyst and supported zinc chloride catalysts.

  3. Neutron diffraction study of aluminum chloride imidazolium chloride molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Saboungi, M.L.; Suzuya, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Koura, N. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1994-02-01

    The structure of molten mixtures of (AlCl{sub 3}){sub x}(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride){sub 1-x} was investigated by neutron diffraction techniques for x=0.46, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.67. Results derived from earlier ab initio molecular orbital (6-31G* basis set) computations for AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}}, and EMI{sup +} were used to calculate the diffraction patterns; the calculated contributions of each species are thus obtained and overall results are in good agreement with measurements.

  4. PCDD/F catalysis by metal chlorides and oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Yang, Jie; Buekens, Alfons; Olie, Kees; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    Model fly ash (MFA) samples were composed of silica, sodium chloride, and activated carbon, and doped with metal (0.1 wt% Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cd) chloride or oxide. Each sample was de novo tested at 350 °C for 1 h, in a flow of gas (N2, N2 + 10% O2, +21% O2 or +10% H2) to investigate the effect of metal catalyst and gas composition on PCDD/F formation. Total PCDD/F yield rises rapidly with oxygen content, while the addition of hydrogen inhibits the formation and chlorination of PCDD/F. The amount of PCDD on average rises linearly with the oxygen concentration, while that of PCDF follows a reaction order of about 1/2; thus the PCDF to PCDD ratio drops when more oxygen becomes available. Some samples do not follow this trend. Chlorides are much more active than oxides, yet there are marked differences between individual metals. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the signatures from all samples, showing their unique specificity and diversity. Each catalyst shows a different signature within its individual homologue groups, demonstrating that these signatures are not thermodynamically controlled. Average congener patterns do not vary considerably with oxygen content changing from oxidising (air) to reducing (nitrogen, hydrogen). PMID:27341157

  5. 海排灰的氯盐含量对三灰结合料微观机理影响研究%Study of Influence of Content of Chloride and Salt in Sea-Removed Dust on Microcosmic Mechanism for Binder of Cement-Lime-Fly Ash(3 dusts)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁炜; 包龙生; 于玲

    2009-01-01

    Study of microcosmic mechanism of '3 dusts' binder hydrated product, based on sea-removed dust, has revealed influence of chlorid ion on thrength of subbase materials. Study results show that cement and lime have consolidating effect on chloride ion in sea removed dust. Adequate amount of chloride ion in sea removed dust is helpful to subbase.%对基于海排灰的三灰结合料水化产物的微观机理进行研究,揭示氯离子对底基层材料强度形成的影响.研究表明:水泥、石灰材料对海排灰中的氯离子有固化作用,海排灰中适量的氯离子对底基层材料有益.

  6. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of SixZry intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  7. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...... steady state diffusion however. It simply implies that incremental increases in the concentration of diffusing ions in the pore solution will rapidly re-equilibrate with the hydrates present locally, where, the greater the ratio of bound to free ions, the greater the buffering effect which slows down the...

  8. Cooper hydrometallurgy and extraction from chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of copper hydrometallurgy is presented and various processes proposed for copper recovery from sulphide concentrates are discussed. Leaching, extraction and stripping are considered, including reagents and processes. The extraction of copper from chloride solutions is discussed. Various extractants are presented and their use for copper transfer from chloride solutions to the organic phase and back to chloride and to sulphate solutions is discussed. (author) 4 refs

  9. Concentrações de cloreto de cálcio e tempos de armazenamento nos teores de açúcares redutores de uvas cv red globe (Vitis vinifera L Calcium chloride concentrations and storage time on reducing sugar contents of grape cv red globe (Vitis vinifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geny Lopes de Carvalho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do cloreto de cálcio na doçura pós-colheita de uvas 'Red Globe' (Vitis vinifera L cultivadas em Jales, noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, foram adotados os procedimentos: os cachos foram tratados por imersão durante 10 minutos em soluções CaCl2 0, 1, 2 e 3% e deixados por 30, 60 e 90 dias a uma temperatura de 0ºC a 3ºC, 90+ 3% de UR e 0,2 0,3 m/s de velocidade do ar, após os quais foram deixados em temperatura ambiente (20 a 25ºC, para avaliações aos 0, 3 e 6 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 x 3 (concentrações de CaCl2 x tempo de armazenamento refrigerado x tempo de armazenamento em temperatura ambiente com três repetições. Foram feitas avaliações de açúcares redutores totais (g 100g -1, frutose (g 100g -1 e glicose (g 100g -1. Os teores de açúcares redutores totais, frutose e glicose dos frutos variaram com a aplicação de CaCl2, tempos de armazenamento a frio e em temperatura ambiente. Destaca-se a frutose cujos teores em todas as concentrações de CaCl2 (1, 2 e 3%, aos 30 e 60 dias de armazenamento refrigerado e 3 e 6 dias em temperatura ambiente, foram superiores aos teores dos frutos controle. Conclui-se que tratamentos com CaCl2 propicia às uvas melhor sabor, sendo indicada a concentração de CaCl2 2% e o armazenamento a frio por 60 dias e em temperatura ambiente até seis dias.This work was carried out with the aim of evaluating the calcium chloride influence on both post harvest sweetness of grapes 'Red Globe' (Vitis vinifera L grown in Jales, in the northwest of São Paulo State. The procedures adopted were as follows: banches were treated in a CaCla2 1%, 2%, and 3% immersion for 10 minutes and then left at na 0º C tempereture, 90 + 3% relative humidity, and 0,2-0,3 m/s air speed for 30, 60, and 90 days after which they were left at room temperature (20 to 25º C for evaluation. A ramdomized block design with a 4 x 3 x 3 (Ca

  10. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C2HCl3 and CH2Cl2. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C2HCl3 was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C2HCl3 was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C2HCl3 and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl2 and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl2, CO and CO2 were formed. CH2Cl2 was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl2, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH3+ and CH4 were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH2Cl2. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  11. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  12. Chemical characterization of a potassium hydroxyapatite prepared by soaking in potassium chloride and carbonate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, E G; Karlsson, K H

    1992-01-01

    A potassium-doped synthetic apatite was prepared by soaking hydroxyapatite in potassium carbonate and potassium chloride solutions. The hydroxyapatite was prepared by firing slip cast ceramic bodies in vacuum at 1100 degrees C. The conical ceramic samples and a crushed material of this were soaked in carbonate and chloride solutions for 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Potassium, calcium, and phosphate were determined by direct current plasma emission spectroscopy. The carbonate content was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and chloride titrimetrically. After 2 weeks, one potassium ion substituted one calcium ion when soaked in a carbonate solution. When soaked in the chloride solution substitution occurred to the same extent. At phosphate sites the substitution of phosphate for carbonate occurred at one sixth of the sites after 2 weeks. Chloride incorporated one half of the OH-sites after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks about one chloride ion was found in the apatite, and after 6 weeks one and a half of the OH-sites were occupied by chloride ions. PMID:1483120

  13. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl2, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl2, MgSO4 + MgCl2 and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite

  14. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weerdt, K., E-mail: klaartje.d.weerdt@ntnu.no [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim (Norway); Orsáková, D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Brno, Brno (Czech Republic); Geiker, M.R. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  15. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  16. Study on dehydrochlorination of waste poly (vinyl chloride) resins by microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Saburo; Qian, Qingrong; Sunohara, Satoshi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    Waste poly (vinyl chloride: PVC) resins are experimentally dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation. The following unique results are obtained: (1) plasticizer in PVC resin absorbs microwave power more effectively than PVC polymer. The higher the plasticizer content in PVC resin, the higher is the dehydrochlorination reaction (2) low PVC polymer content materials such as cushion floor require high microwave irradiation power to secure a high dehydrochlorination yield, (3) calcium carbonate in PVC resin reacts with released hydrochloric acid gas and results calcium chloride during microwave irradiation, (4) additives in PVC resin strongly influence dehydrochlorination yield, (5) it is evidenced that the PVC copolymer is also dehydrochlorinated by microwave irradiation.

  17. Viscosity of aqueous-glyceric solutions of potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of viscometric investigation of the solutions of rubidium and cesium chlorides (also potassium chloride for comparison) in mixtures water-glycerine at 15, 25, 35 and 45 deg C are presented. Glycerine content constituted 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07; 0.11 molar fractions. It is shown that the range of viscosity values lower as compared to the ones for pure solvent are the wider the lower the temperature and glycerine content are (in the range of 0.01-0.11 molar fractions). The composition-viscosity, temperature-viscosity diagrams are presented

  18. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  19. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  20. Organometallic complexes of thiocarbanilides and substituted thiocarbanilides using manganese (II) chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organo-metallic complexes of substituted thiocarbanilide using manganese (II) chloride were prepared, these are: (VIII) 3:3'-Dichloro thiocarbanilide. Manganese (II) chloride. (IX) 3:3'-Dimethyl thiocarbanilide. Manganese (II) chloride. (X) 2:2'-dimethyl thiocarbanilide. Manganese (II) chloride. These compounds are coloured, soluble in most organic solvents, insoluble in water, decomposed by hot solvents. The physical properties of compounds (IX) and (X) were studied by UV and IR spectra, and the physical properties of compound (VIII) were studied by UV, IR, mass spectra and NMR. The molecular weight of the compound (VIII) was determined by three different methods; Rast's camphor method, mass spectra and the nitrogen contents. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 2:1, and the coordination is from sulphur atom more than nitrogen.(Author)

  1. The Correlation of Chloride Diffusion Coefficient and Concrete Maturity Value and Its Application in Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macao Bridge Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Pengping; Wang, Shengnian; Xiong, Jianbo; Chai, Rui; Yan, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The correlation of chloride diffusion coefficient and concrete maturity value within 56 days of curing was investigated by the chemically combined water content method, rapid chloride migration (RCM) test, and concrete maturity test. The experimental results showed that chloride diffusion coefficient of concretes decreased not only with increasing curing ages but also with increasing curing temperature, which can promote the hydration degree of cementitous materials. There is a significant co...

  2. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical. PMID:21191883

  3. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after a...

  4. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  5. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements are...

  6. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  7. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.)

  8. Coagulation properties of anelectrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride containing active chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chengzhi; LIU Huijuan; QU Jiuhui

    2006-01-01

    With high content of the Al13 species and the active chloride, an electrochemically prepared polyaluminum chloride (E-PACl) presents integrated efficiency of coagulation and oxidation. The coagulation properties of E-PACl were systemically investigated through jar tests in the various water quality conditions. The active chlorine in E-PACl can significantly influence the coagulation behavior due to the active chlorine preoxidation, which can change the surface charge characteristic of organic matter (OM) in water. The active chlorine preoxidation could improve the E-PACl coagulation efficiency if the water possessed the characteristics of relatively low OM content (2 mg/L) and high hardness (278 mg CaCO3/L). In the water with medium content of OM (5 mg/L), dosage would be a crucial factor to decide whether the active chlorine in E-PACl aided coagulation process or not. Comparing with alkaline condition, active chlorine would show a more significant influence on the coagulation process in acidic region.

  9. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  10. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  11. Membrane chloride transport measured using a chloride-sensitive fluorescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of chloride across cell membranes through exchange, cotransport, or conductive pathways is a subject of great biological importance. Current methods of measurement are restricted in their sensitivity, time resolution, and applicability. A new transport measurement technique has been developed on the basis of the fluorescence quenching by chloride of the dye 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium (SPQ). SPQ fluorescence quenching by chloride is rapid and sensitive, with a greater than 50% decrease in fluorescence at 10 mM chloride. SPQ fluorescence is not altered by other physiological anions or by pH and can be used to measure both neutral and conductive transport processes. The high water solubility and membrane permeability properties of SPQ make it ideal for use in both membrane vesicles and cells. Chloride transport determined with SPQ was validated by measurement of erythrocyte chloride/anion exchange and membrane vesicle chloride conductance using 35SO4 uptake

  12. Water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)/lithium chloride composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, Duc Thuan

    2015-10-09

    Thin and robust composite membranes comprising stainless steel scaffold, fine and porous TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol/lithium chloride were fabricated and studied for air dehumidification application. Higher hydrophilicity, sorption and permeation were observed for membranes with increased lithium chloride content up to 50%. The permeation and sorption properties of the membranes were investigated under different temperatures. The results provided a deeper insight into the membrane water vapor permeation process. It was specifically noted that lithium chloride significantly reduces water diffusion energy barrier, resulting in the change of permeation energy from positive to negative values. Higher water vapor permeance was observed for the membrane with higher LiCl content at lower temperature. The isothermal air dehumidification tests show that the membrane is suitable for dehumidifying air in high humid condition. Additionally, results also indicate a trade-off between the humidity ratio drop with the water vapor removal rate when varying air flowrate.

  13. A study on synthetic method and material characteristics of magnesium ammine chloride as ammonia transport materials for solid SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Kook; Yoon, Cheon Seog [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Suk [Engine Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Among various ammonium salts and metal ammine chlorides used as solid materials for the sources of ammonia with solid SCR for lean NOx reduction, magnesium ammine chloride was taken up for study in this paper because of its ease of handling and safety. Lab-scale synthetic method of magnesium ammine chloride were studied for different durations, temperatures, and pressures with proper ammonia gas charged, as a respect of ammonia gas adsorption rate(%). To understand material characteristics for lab-made magnesium ammine chloride, DA, IC, FT-IR, XRD and SDT analyses were performed using the published data available in literature. From the analytical results, the water content in the lab-made magnesium ammine chloride can be determined. A new test procedure for water removal was proposed, by which the adsorption rate of lab-made sample was found to be approximately 100%.

  14. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  15. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  16. Stochastic Analysis of the Multi-dimensional Effect of Chloride Ingress into Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of the reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. One mode of corrosion initiation occurs when the chloride content around the reinforcement bars exceeds a critical threshold value, which...

  17. A Probabilistic Model for Chloride-Ingress and Initation of Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement is a major problem for a large number of reinforced concrete structures because it can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold va...

  18. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  19. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

  20. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Kizek; Petr Babula; Jaromir Hubalek; Vojtech Adam; Libuse Trnkova

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the mo...

  1. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  2. Chloride transport and its sensitivities to different boundary conditions in reclaimed soil solutions filled with fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yang CHEN; Jia-Ping YAN; Shi-Wen ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Chloride ion transport in reclaimed soil solutions filled with fly ash (FA) was investigated by measuring the hydraulic parameters (i.e.water retention curves and hydraulic conductivity) of three substrates,namely GSL,GFA,and CFA.Similar simulations were carried out under certain weather conditions.The different boundary conditions of chloride transport were also discussed from FA texture,cover soil thickness,groundwater table level,and initial chloride concentration.Furthcrmore,the sensitivities of chloride ions to these effect factors were analyzed.The results show that the different top soil thickness and initial chloride concentration have no effect on salinity of topsoil solution in the monitoring points,but they can clearly change the chloride concentration of FA layers.The sensibilities from top soil thickness and initial chloride content are exceedingly weak to the salinity balance based on two dimensions of the time and concentration.While the different FA texture and groundwater table not only affect the salinity equilibrium process of the whole reclaimed soil profile,but also change its balance state.Generally,coarse FA particles and high groundwater table can defer the salinity balance process of the reclaimed soil solution,and they also increase the chloride concentration of FA layer solutions,and even topsoil ones.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of zinc chloride containing poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the characterization of zinc chloride incorporated into a poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) hydrogel prepared by gamma-ray irradiation was investigated. Zinc chloride powder with different concentrations was dissolved in the PAAc solution, and it was crosslinked with gamma-ray irradiation. The effects of various parameters such as zinc ion concentration and irradiation doses on characteristics of the hydrogel formed were investigated in detail for obtaining an antibacterial wound dressing. In addition, the gel content, pH-sensitive (pH 4 or 7) swelling ratio, and UV–vis absorption spectra of the zinc particles in the hydrogels were characterized. Moreover, antibacterial properties of these new materials against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains were observed on solid growth media. The antibacterial tests indicated that the zinc chloride containing PAAc hydrogels have good antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The characterization of zinc chloride containing PAA hydrogel was investigated. • The gel content increased with an increase in absorbed dose up to 75 kGy. • Finally, the zinc chloride based hydrogels have an antibacterial activity

  4. Influence of Binder Composition and Concrete Pore Structure on Chloride Diffusion Coefficient in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pengping; SU Dagen; WANG Shengnian; FAN Zhihong

    2011-01-01

    The influence of binder composition and pore structure of concrete on chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete were investigated by the natural immersion test, MIP test, SEM and EDS test, respectively. The experimental results showed that the effect of binder composition on chloride diffusion coefficient was the comprehensive result of concrete pore structure and binder hydration products, and the porosity and pore size distribution were the main factors that influence the changes of diffusion coefficient. The chloride diffusion coefficient decreased with increasing the curing temperature and the relative humidity. The hydration degree were promoted by improving curing temperatures, and then the porosity of concrete decreased and the proportion of gel pore and transitional pore increased, respectively. But the water evaporation decreased with increasing the relative humidity and then decreased porosity and increased the proportion of gel pore and transitional pore. Additionally, The chloride diffusion coefficient of concrete got the lower value when the appropriate replacement of fly ash in the ranges of 10%-20%, when the double-adding fly ash and slag content was 50%. The porosity increased and the ratio of C/S in C-S-H decreased with further increasing the fly ash content, which led to increase the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete.

  5. Modeling the Time-to Corrosion Cracking of the Cover Concrete in Chloride Contaminated Reinforced Concrete Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Youping

    1996-01-01

    Significant factors on steel corrosion in chloride contaminated reinforced concrete and time-to-corrosion cracking were investigated in this study. Sixty specimens were designed with seven admixed chloride contents, three concrete cover depths, two reinforcing steel bar diameters, two exposure conditions, and a typical concrete with water to cement ratio of 0.45. Corrosion current density (corrosion rate), corrosion potential, ohmic resistance of concrete and temperature were measured monthly...

  6. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fleming

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC by conventional suspension polymerization process via redox system, with an initial content of 10%/mass of the VDC monomer. The copolymer average molecular weight was obtained by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and by intrinsic viscosity analysis. To control the polymerization process continuously, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chloride content in the PAN AN/VDC copolymer structure was accomplished by using X-ray fluorescence and potentiometric titration techniques. A good correlation was found between these two techniques, leading to a straightforward verification of VDC in the polymer structure. The thermal behavior of PAN AN/VDC copolymer was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The results showed that VDC monomers exhibited a nearly stoichiometric reaction with acrylonitrile, copolymerizing about 90% of its initial mass. VDC changed significantly the polyacrylonitrile thermal behavior, decreasing the polymer degradation temperature by about 40-50°C.

  7. Sorption of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) to agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lei; Sun, Teng-Fei; Zheng, Mei-Jie; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Wong, Ming-Hung; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) used as cationic surfactants are intensively released into environment to be pollutants receiving more and more concerns. Sorption of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC), one of commonly used alkyl QACs, to five types of agricultural soils at low concentrations (1-50mg/L) was investigated using batch experiments. DTAC sorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and reached reaction equilibrium within 120min. Both Freundlich model and Langmuir model fitted well with DTAC isotherm data with the latter better. DTAC sorption was spontaneous and favorable, presenting a physical sorption dominated by ion exchanges. Sorption distribution coefficient and sorption affinity demonstrated that soil clay contents acted as a predominant phase of DTAC sorption. DTAC could display a higher mobility and potential accumulation in crops in the soils with lower clay contents and lower pH values. Sorption of DTAC was heavily affected by ions in solution with anion promotion and cation inhibition. PMID:27101455

  8. Interactions of benzalkonium chloride with soft and hard contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured the uptake and washout of benzalkonium chloride, using radioactive tracer, by representative hard and soft contact lenses. Uptake by soft contact lenses after 7 days of continuous exposure is high (30 to 56 micrograms/mg of lens weight), with a low percentage of washout in 24 hours (between 0.2% and 1.5% of total uptake). High-water content lenses absorb greater quantities of benzalkonium than do low-water content lenses. Hard lenses take up a much smaller quantity of benzalkonium but release between 30% and 60% of total uptake during washout for 24 hours. Fluorosilicone-acrylate polymer lenses adsorb and release the most preservative, while polymethylmethacrylate lenses (Paragon Optical Inc, Mesa, Ariz) adsorb and release the least. The released benzalkonium from either soft or hard lenses is of a sufficient concentration to be at or above the upper limits of safety

  9. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies to the apical chloride channel in Necturus gallbladder inhibit the chloride conductance.

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, A L; Tsai, L M; Falk, R J

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The...

  11. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  12. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  13. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  14. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  15. COMPARISON OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE AND SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE FOR USE DURING RAPID SEQUENCE INTUBATION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Penchalaiah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The goal of rapid sequence intubation is to secure the patients airway smoothly and quickly, minimizing the chances of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. Traditionally succinylcholine chloride has been the neuromuscular blocking drug of choi ce for use in rapid sequence intubation because of its rapid onset of action and profound relaxation. Succinylcholine chloride remains unsurpassed in providing ideal intubating conditions. However the use of succinylcholine chloride is associated with many side effects like muscle pain, bradycardia, hyperkalaemia and rise in intragastric and intraocular pressure. Rocuronium bromide is the only drug currently available which has the rapidity of onset of action like succinylcholine chloride. Hence the present study was undertaken to compare rocuronium bromide with succinylcholine chloride for use during rapid sequence intubation in adult patients. METHODOLOGY : The study population consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 - 60 years posted for various elective su rgeries requiring general anaesthesia . S tudy population was randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 patients in each sub group. 1. Group I : Intubated with 1 mg kg - 1 of succinylcholine chloride (n=30 . 2. Grou p II : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . 3. Group III : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . Intubating conditions were assessed at 60 seconds based on the scale adopted by Toni Magorian et al. 1993. The haemodynamic para meters in the present study were compared using p - value obtained from student t - test . RESULTS : It was noted that succinylcholine chloride 1 mg kg - 1 body weight produced excellent intubating conditions in all patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 body we ight produced excellent intubating conditions in 53.33% of patients but produced good to excellent intubating conditions in 96.67% of patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1

  16. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  17. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  19. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  20. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  1. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  2. Test data from the chloride-monitor well at Sun City Center, Hillsborough County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, William C.

    1979-01-01

    A test well drilled for Southwest Florida Water Management District at Sun City Center in Hillsborough County, will serve to monitor the interface between freshwater in the aquifer and the underlying chloride water. The sulfate content of the water in the aquifer at the well site exceeds 250 mg/L below a depth of about 700 feet. Wells for domestic and public supply in the area bottom at less than 500 feet and are separated from the sulfate water by about 100 feet of poorly-permeable limestone. The freshwater-chloride water interface is quite sharp and occurs at a depth of 1,410 feet. The chloride water is similar in composition to seawater but nearly twice as saline. (Woodard-USGS).

  3. Chromium, aluminium and titanium effect on nickel corrosion resistance in sodium sulfate and chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to determine corrosion resistance of binary nickel alloys, alloyed with aluminium, titanium and chromium, in sodium sulfate and chloride melts. The content of aluminium, titanium and chromium varied from 0 up to 13,2; 21.4 and 36%, respectively. It was estabslished that resistance against slulfide corrosion grows in chromium-alloyed nickel and deoreases in nickel alloyed with aluminium and titanium. Nickel-chronium solid solutions containing > 16 to 17% Cr are characterized by the maximal stability in sodium sulfide melt and Ni3Al and Ni3Ti intermetallics -by the minimal one. Alloying nickel with aluminium titanium (up to 6 to 8%) and chromium (up to 10 to 12%) increases its resistance aginst sodium chloride melt. Binary Ni-Al-, Ni-Ti- and ternary Ni-Al-Ti-alloys possess a lower corrosion resistance in sodium sulfate as compared to sodium chloride

  4. Ion Transport and Microstructure of Sandwich Cementitious Materials Exposed to Chloride Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xingang; WANG Kai; WANG Rui; XIE Tao; HUANG Jie

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport of sandwich cementitious materials (SCM) exposed to chloride environment was investigated by accelerated diffusion method and natural diffusion method. Pore structure and micromorphology of SCM were investigated by MIP and SEM-EDS. In comparison with the monolayer structural high performance concrete (HPC), conductive charge for 6 hours, chloride diffusion coefficient, and apparent chloride diffusion coefifcient of SCM were decreased by 30%-40%, two orders of magnitude and 40%-50%, respectively. Pore structure of ultra low ion permeability cementitious materials (ULIPCM) prepared for the facesheet is superior to that of HPC prepared for the core. As for porosity, the most probable pore radius, the content of pores with radius 50 nm and the surface area of pores, the order is ULIPCM

  5. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl3liquid + H2O → FeOClsolid + 2 HClgas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOClsolid + H2O → Fe2O3solid + 2 HClgas. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  6. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR CHLORIDE PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures in marine environment are subjected to chloride penetration, which significantly degrades the structural performance due to the occurrence of corrosion in the steel reinforcement. The performance degradation of the structures would reduce the intended service life and caused higher maintenance and repair cost. Therefore, system to monitor chloride penetration into reinforced concrete before the starting corrosion of reinforcement is indispensable. An embedded probe system to detect chloride penetration into concrete was developed in Japan. This probe consists of a cementitious material body and some number of wires as sensors, which are set in the shallow ditches around the probe body. The system detect the chloride penetration by monitoring the initiation time of wire corrosion, it also has the advantages of continuous monitoring and early warning on the onset of corrosion in the reinforcement. However, the probe had not yet had high sensitivity for detecting critical chloride content in concrete. Therefore to increase its sensitivity, four types of improvements, namely partial coating of the wires, waterproofing on the probe body, filling the ditches with porous material and supplying small current on the wires were evaluated in this study. From the experimental result, it was observed that supplying small current and partial coating of the wires could improve the sensitivity of the probe significantly, while waterproofing treatment on the probe body and filling the ditches did not have significant contribution.

  8. Combining sulfate electrowinning with chloride leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, A. W.; Sudderth, R. B.; Olafson, S. M.

    1991-08-01

    Although the chloride leaching of copper sulfide concentrates has proved highly efficient, electrowinning from chloride solutions presents many difficulties, notably in cell design and the handling of the powder product. Sulfate electrowinning,on the other hand, continues to improve and has played a significant part in the widespread adoption of the solvent extraction-electrowinning process for copper recovery from low-grade ores. It has been found that the two steps can be combined by introducing a novel solvent extraction process after chloride leaching. This article presents the results of laboratory tests to prove the feasibility of this approach and discusses how it can be integrated into a commercially viable flow sheet.

  9. Stochastic Simulation of Chloride Ingress into Reinforced Concrete Structures by Means of Multi-Dimensional Gaussian Random Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of the reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation occurs when the chloride content...... around the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper FERM (the Finite Element Reliability Method) is employed for obtaining the probability of exceeding a critical chloride concentration level at the reinforcement bars using MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation). The chloride ingress...... is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process by FEM (Finite Element Method) and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modeled by multidimensional stochastic fields, which are discretized using the EOLE (Expansion Optimum Linear Estimation...

  10. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  11. Enhancing post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: The present study was conducted to enhance the post harvest storage life of peach fruits using calcium chloride treatments. CaCl/sub 2/ solution at 1 % (T1 ), 2 % (T2 ) and 3 % (T3) were prepared and the fruits were dipped for five minutes, while (To) was left with out calcium chloride treatment as control. The fruits were packed in corrugated soft board cartons and stored at ambient temperature (35 degree C + 2) for a total period of 15 days. The physicochemical analysis such as weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), decay index, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content and overall sensory acceptability were determined at an interval of three days up to the successful completion of the study. A significant decrease was observed in fruit firmness (1.8-0.3 kg), % acidity (0.950- 0.538), ascorbic acid content (7.06-4.67 mg/100g) and overall sensory acceptability (8.4-2.3), while a significant increase was observed in TSS (8.2-11.9 degree brix), decay index (0-72.64 %) and % weight loss (0-11.3) during storage. Results showed that one and two percent calcium chloride treated fruits have little improvement while fruits treated with 3 % calcium chloride were found to be most acceptable as per physico-chemical analyses and over all sensory acceptability result. (author)

  12. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  13. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  14. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  15. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C10H21NH3Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer

  16. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on...

  17. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  18. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408. ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  19. Determination of chloride in uranium solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danse, A.; Stoch, H.; Steele, T.W.

    1967-05-15

    Thiocyanate is first removed by precipitation with a small excess of a copper solution, and the cations are removed by passing the filtrate through a cation-exchange resin. The chloride is determined in the eluate by a potentiometric titration in which silver nitrate solution is used.

  20. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  1. Polyvinyl chloride filled with bismuth oxychloride powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášková, M.; Sedláček, T.; Kharlamov, Alexander; Pivokonský, Radek; Saha, P.

    Larnaca : Polymer Processing Society, 2009, s. 242. [Polymer Processing Society Europe/Africa Regional Meeting. Larnaca (GR), 18.10.2009-21.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : olyvinyl chloride * bismuth oxychloride * radiopaque agents Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  2. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  3. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  4. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and crystallized. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  5. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  6. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  7. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-12-01

    The continuous emissions of SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH{sub 4}F- and 0.016 M KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-extractable sulfate (NH{sub 4}F-S and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH{sub 4}F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from {approx}34 to 95% and {approx}65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion

  8. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous emissions of SO2, HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH4F- and 0.016 M KH2PO4-extractable sulfate (NH4F-S and KH2PO4-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH4F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH2PO4. This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from ∼34 to 95% and ∼65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH2PO4-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention of fluoride over sulfate and chloride, and of

  9. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  10. Feasibility of obtaining scandium of improved quality by sodium-thermic reduction of chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic parameters of sodium-thermic reduction of scandium chloride are studied to obtain crystalline scandium of high purity. The advantages of the method are demonstrated. Optimal parameters of metal scandium preparation of 99.998 % (and higher) purity including the content of dissolved scandium in the initial melt - 10-15%; process temperature - 820-920 deg C; sodium metal feed rate - 3 g/(min · cm2) are ascertained

  11. Corrosion behaviour of new duplex stainless steel reinforcements embedded in chloride contaminated concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Sanchez, Eduardo; Cobo Escamilla, Alfonso; Martínez Bastidas, David

    2011-01-01

    The use of reinforcing stainless steels (SS) in concrete have proved to be one of the most effective methods to guarantee the passivity of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride contaminated environment. The present research studies the corrosion behaviour of a new duplex SS reinforcements with low nickel content (LND) (more economicaly compatible) is compared with the conventional austenitic AISI 304 SS and duplex AISI 2304 SS. Corrosion behaviour of ribbed SS reinforcement...

  12. Hepatoprotective Role of Sodium Selenite Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  13. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  14. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  15. Continuous microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride and compatibilization of polyvinyl chloride and polylactide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhavesh

    This dissertation focuses on overcoming existing limitations of WPCs which prevent them from realizing their full market potential. These limitations include: (i) lack of a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and its composites using supercritical fluids to reduce the high density of the WPCs, (ii) need for an efficient coupling agent for WPCs to overcome the poor compatibility between wood and plastic, and (iii) unproven use of wood as a filler for the biopolymer polylactide (PLA) to make "green" composites. These limitations were addressed through experimentation to develop a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming, and through surface modification of wood flour using natural coupling agents. The effects of wood flour, acrylic modifier and plasticizer content on the rheological properties of PVC based WPCs were studied using an extrusion capillary rheometer and a two-level factorial design. Wood flour content and acrylic modifier content were the major factors affecting the die swell ratio. Addition of plasticizer decreased the true viscosity of unfilled and filled PVC, irrespective of the acrylic modifier content. However, the addition of acrylic modifier significantly increased the viscosity of unfilled PVC but decreased the composite viscosity. Results of the rheological study were used to set baseline conditions for the continuous extrusion foaming of PVC WPCs using supercritical CO 2. Effects of material composition and processing conditions on the morphology of foamed samples were investigated. Foamed samples were produced using various material compositions and processing conditions, but steady-state conditions could not be obtained for PVC. Thus the relationships could not be determined. Incompatibility between wood flour and PVC was the focus of another study. The natural polymers chitin and chitosan were used as novel coupling agents to improve interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix

  16. Role of Chloride for a Simple, Non-Grignard Mg Electrolyte in Ether-Based Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Niya; Pan, Baofei; Saha-Shah, Anumita; Hubaud, Aude A; Vaughey, John T; Baker, Lane A; Liao, Chen; Burrell, Anthony K

    2016-06-29

    Mg battery operates with Chevrel phase (Mo6S8, ∼1.1 V vs Mg) cathodes that apply Grignard-based or derived electrolytes, which allow etching of the passivating oxide coating forms at the magnesium metal anode. Majority of Mg electrolytes studied to date are focused on developing new synthetic strategies to achieve a better reversible Mg deposition. While most of these electrolytes contain chloride as a component, and there is a lack of literature which investigates the fundamental role of chloride in Mg electrolytes. Further, ease of preparation and potential safety benefits have made simple design of magnesium electrolytes an attractive alternative to traditional air sensitive Grignard reagents-based electrolytes. Work presented here describes simple, non-Grignard magnesium electrolytes composed of magnesium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide mixed with magnesium chloride (Mg(TFSI)2-MgCl2) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and diglyme (G2) that can reversibly plate and strip magnesium. Based on this discovery, the effect of chloride in the electrolyte complex was investigated. Electrochemical properties at different initial mixing ratios of Mg(TFSI)2 and MgCl2 showed an increase of both current density and columbic efficiency for reversible Mg deposition as the fraction content of MgCl2 increased. A decrease in overpotential was observed for rechargeable Mg batteries with electrolytes with increasing MgCl2 concentration, evidenced by the coin cell performance. In this work, the fundamental understanding of the operation mechanisms of rechargeable Mg batteries with the role of chloride content from electrolyte could potentially bring rational design of simple Mg electrolytes for practical Mg battery. PMID:27255422

  17. Revised Model of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Bridge by Considering Complex Action of Load and Chloride Binding Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Yiqiang; Guo, DongMei

    2014-01-01

    Coastal concrete bridges will suffer from deterioration of RC structural performance and resistance attenuation because of the chloride penetration and other environment factors. This article discusses current different chloride diffusion models and puts forward the revised model of chloride diffusion in concrete bridge by considering the complex action of load influence and chloride-binding capacity. Comparison of numerical predicted values and relative experimental tests show the presented ...

  18. Pulse-step-change electrolysis at obtaining of zinc-scandium alloys from chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of laboratory studies and pilot production tests are reported for the process of electrolyte deposition of scandium on liquid zinc from chloride-fluoride melts under pulse-step conditions with the aim of producing alloys with a maximum possible scandium content. The ranges of optimum parameters and electrolysis methods permitting the solution of the problem are determined

  19. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical sampling. The potential contribution of chloride to groundwater from endogenous HCl gas may invalidate the CMB method. The chloride-to-bromide molar ratio was an efficient tracer used to select recharge water samples having atmospheric origin of chloride. Yearly net aquifer recharge was 631 mm year−1, i.e., 69% of yearly precipitation. This result is in agreement with potential aquifer recharge estimated through an independent lumped-parameter rainfall-runoff model operated by the Insular Water Council of Tenerife. This paper illustrates basic procedures and routines to use the CMB method for aquifer recharge in active volcanic oceanic islands having sparse-data coverage and groundwater receiving contribution of endogenous halides.

  20. [The effect of cadmium chloride and hydrogen peroxide on the lipid peroxidation and fractional composition of lipids in hepatocytes of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borikov, O Iu; Kaliman, P A

    2004-01-01

    The isolated hepatocytes were incubated in the medium, containing cadmium chloride or hydrogen peroxide. Influence of the latter on the intensity of lipid peroxidation and contents of some lipids fractions, as well as viability of hepatocytes in these conditions has been studied. It is shown that under such cultivation conditions the activation of lipid peroxidation in the hepatocytes takes place. Its activation in presence of cadmium chloride was one of the factors of the membranes damage. The changes in the content of some fractions of lipids were similar both under the incubations of the cells with cadmium chloride and hydrogen peroxide. This allows one to suppose that cadmium chloride causes changes in the lipid composition of membranes as a result of intensification of lipid peroxidation. PMID:15915720

  1. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient; the...

  2. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 500C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  3. Acylation of Toluene with Isobutyryl Chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Klisáková, Jana; Žilková, Naděžda; Červený, L.

    Cape Town, 2004 - ( Steen van, E.), s. 2717-2723 ISBN 0-958-46636-X. [International Zeolite Conference /14./. Cape Town (ZA), 25.04.2004-30.04.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : acylation of toluene * isobutyryl chloride * zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete mixtures aretested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures.Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP wa...

  5. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  6. Electrodeposition of Zinc from Chloride Solution

    OpenAIRE

    NAIK, Yanjerappa Arthoba; VENKATESHA, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2002-01-01

    The electroplating of zinc is carried out in the presence of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy benzaldehyde from a chloride bath. The bath constituents are optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density are also optimized. The current efficiency and throwing power are measured at different current densities. Polarization study is carried out under galvanostatic conditions. Corrosion resistance test indicated good protection of steel by the ...

  7. Electrochemical behaviours of scandium in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical behaviour of scandium(3) ions in an eutectic melt of NaCl-KCl-CsCl at 810-850 K is studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The process of cathodic reduction of scandium complex ions in chloride melts is found to proceed according to the scheme: Sc(3) → Sc(0) and to be controlled by the rate of ScCl63- complex dissociation

  8. (tert-Butyl(2-hydroxyethylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title molecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl−, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5 (2°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100.

  9. Manganese laser using manganese chloride as lasant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A manganese vapor laser utilizing manganese chloride as a lasant has been observed and investigated. Lasing is attained by means of two consecutive electrical discharges. The maximum laser output is obtained at a vapor pressure of about 3 torr, a temperature of 680 C, and a time delay between electrical discharges of 150 microsec. The maximum energy density is 1.3 microjoule per cu cm.

  10. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Kántor; Miroslava Kačániová; Vendula Pachlová

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine). The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD), ...

  11. Distinct outcomes of chloride diarrhoea in two siblings with identical genetic background of the disease: implications for early diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoglund, P; Holmberg, C.; Sherman, P; Kere, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Congenital chloride diarrhoea (CLD, OMIM 214700) is a serious inherited defect of intestinal electrolyte absorption transmitted in an autosomal recessive fashion. The major clinical manifestation is diarrhoea with high chloride content which can be balanced by substitution. The molecular pathology involves an epithelial Cl /HCO3 exchanger protein, encoded by the solute carrier family 26, member 3 gene (SLC26A3), previously known as CLD or DRA (downregulated in adenomas). To date, ...

  12. Chloride Channel Myotonia: Study of Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghofrani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channel Myotonia is a form of channelopathy, and Myotonia is its manifestation. Myotonia may be defined as delayed relaxation of skeletal muscle after its contraction. Decreased chloride conductance across the transverse tubular system, renders the muscle membrane hyper-excitable and leads to repetitive firing, creating Myotonia. Myotonia congenital is another name for chloride channel Myotonia. Myotonia congenital appears in autosomal dominant type called Thomson disease, autosomal recessive type called Becker disease, and a type with sporadic occurrence. Symptoms appear in the first or second decade of life. Repeated muscle contraction, the so called warm up, result in resolution of the Myotonia stiffness. Muscle stiffness and hypertrophy is another finding at physical examination. In this study we report on 5 patients, which had clinical and electrical signs of Myotonia. Muscle hypertrophy and warm up phenomena were present in all cases. CPK measurement of all cases were normal. 2 patients underwent muscle biopsy that showed only atrophy and increased central nuclei. In three cases autosomal recessive inheritance (Becker, in one case autosomal dominant inheritance (Thomsen and in one case sporadic occurrence was suggested. With respect to successful results of carbamazepine therapy in 4 patients, and being excellent in one of them, we suggest carbamazepine for the first choice of Myotonia treatment.

  13. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327

  14. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl2–N2 mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated

  15. Microwave spectrum and structure of nitrosyl chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave spectra of 15N isotopic species of nitrosyl chloride, 15NO35Cl and 15NO37Cl, have been assigned between 8 and 26 GHz, and the following rotational constants have been obtained: A = 81600 MHz, B = 5693.80 MHz, and C = 5322.44 MHz for 15NO35Cl, A = 81520 MHz, B = 5556.07 MHz, and C = 5201.56 MHz for 15NO37Cl. The microwave spectra of the normal species of nitrosyl chloride as well as the 37Cl species and the 18O species have already been measured by Millen et al. (1961). An analysis of both the rotational constants obtained in this study and the constants by Millen et al. has given the following bond lengths and angle as the complete r sub(s) structural parameters of nitrosyl chloride. r(N-O) = 1.143 +- 0.006 A, r(N-Cl) = 1.973 +- 0.003 A, and 0 +- 0.50. The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in the N-Cl bond axis system of 15NO35Cl are X sub(zz) = -57.8 MHz and eta = -0.311. (author)

  16. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS. PMID:10624900

  17. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  18. Solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments up to 20 MPa and 475 C. These experiments were carried out using a dynamic method where deionized steam was passed through a packed bed of salt crystals in a 500 mL Hastelloy autoclave. The residence time of the steam in the salt bed was sufficient to saturate the steam with the salt. The steam samples were cooled and analyzed by ion chromatography. Correlations based on temperature and density were selected to describe the solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam. The density dependence is much stronger than the temperature dependence. By using these correlations, it is possible to estimate the solubility of salt in steam at lower densities than those used in the experiments. Enthalpy-entropy diagrams are given that show the steam expansion line in turbines, including curves for constant concentration of sodium chloride solubility in steam. These can be used to analyze where in the steam cycle this salt may deposit. (orig.)

  19. Effect of Fly Ash on Frost-Resistance and Chloride Ions Diffusion Properties of Marine Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-wu; QIAN Jue-shi; ZHANG Yi-ying

    2009-01-01

    It is necessary to pay more attention to the durability of concrete undergoing freeze-thaw cycles and seawater attack simultaneously.Investigated are the effects of water-binder ratio,fly ash (FA) contents and air-entraining agent on resistance to frost and chloride diffusion of marine concrete blended with FA in natural seawater.The results show that fly ash does not improve the frost resistance of concrete but can improve its resistance to chloride diffusion by addition of less than 30%.The resistance to frost and chloride diffusion of FA concrete can be improved with the decrease of water-binder ratio,and FA may improve both of them simultaneously only being mixed with air-entraining agent.A ratio (named as R) of the frost-resisting durability factor to chloride diffusion coefficient can be used to evaluate the durability of marine concrete.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses are consistent with the evaluations by the value of R.

  20. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv

    2003-01-01

    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  1. The nucleation of aerosols in flue gases with a high content of alkali - a laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Joakim Reimer; Schultz-Møller, Christina; Wedel, Stig;

    2000-01-01

    determined from the measurements. The homogeneous nucleation of the pure chlorides is suppressed by even relatively small concentrations of foreign seed particles and is therefore unlikely to contribute to the creation of new particles in real flue gases. The addition of SO2 to the chloride vapor feed, in...... the presence of oxygen and water vapor, increases the number concentration of effluent particles significantly and affects their composition to include sulphate in addition to chloride. The sulphate content is independent of the peak temperatures of the flue gas but increases with increasing content...

  2. The preparation of an etifenin and stannous chloride kit for hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To improve the synthesis of etifenin and stannous chloride for injection in clinical practice. Methods: N-chloracetyl-2, 6-diethylaniline was obtained by reaction of chloroacetyl chloride with (2, 6-diethyl) aniline. It was condensed by iminodiacetic acid to generate (2, 6-diethylacetanilide) iminodiacetate (etifenin). The reaction temperature was changed and the product was recrystallized for purification. The ligand, 40 mg etifenin, and the reducing agent, 0.4 mg SnCl2, were reacted in the kit. Quality control analysis was performed according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The radiochemical purity of the labeled compound, 99Tcm-etifenin, and its use in hepatobiliary imaging was studied. Results: The synthetic ligand was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (IR), 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectroscopy (MS) and elemental analysis. IR peaks (KBr, cm-1) were located at: 3308, 3010, 1706, 1665, 1535, 1471; 1H-NMR (CD3OD, ppm) peaks were: 1.16, 2.57, 3.62, 3.67, 7.11, 7.20; MS m/z was 323 (M+). The ligand and reducing agent were lyophilized to form a sterile nonpyrogenic kit. The quality satisfied the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standard,including the identity test, pH (4.6), tin content, etifenin content,sterile test and endotoxin test (the content was <75 endotoxin unit (EU)/bottle). The radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-etifenin was 96%. The hepatobiliary imaging by 99Tcm-etifenin was of high quality. Conclusion: The modified synthesis of etifenin and stannous chloride for injection is simple and feasible. The improved etifenin and stannous chloride kit could be applied to clinical imaging. (authors)

  3. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...... systems could be explained as secondary effects due to a primary interaction with the sodium transport mechanisms. A correlation was found between the clamping current recorded during hyperpolarization and the efflux of chloride under short circuit conditions with chloride Ringer's on both sides. On the...

  4. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL ( OLEA EUROPEA L.) AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RAT ALBINOS WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Necib, Youcef; Bahi, Ahlem; Zerizer, Sakina; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  5. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L.) Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  6. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  7. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Skipper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium.  Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay. The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05 was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis by vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    In 1974 vinyl chloride (VC), a gas used in the plastics industry, was shown to be a human carcinogen, inducing a very rare type of tumor, angiosarcoma of the liver. The same type of tumor was induced in rodents exposed to VC thus providing an excellent model for mechanistic studies. Here, we review the numerous studies on the mechanism of action of VC with particular emphasis on the DNA products induced by this strong alkylating agent. In particular, the genotoxicity, repair mechanisms, in vivo formation and tumor mutation spectra by etheno-adducts will be analysed and possible approaches for future research suggested. PMID:17033136

  9. Solidification of supercooled molten zinc chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodová, Miroslava; Cihlář, Antonín; Nitsch, Karel

    Bratislava: x, 2005 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 5-9 ISBN 80-89088-42-2. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2005 /15./. Kežmarské Žĺaby (SK), 05.09.2005-09.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : molten zinc chloride * thermal analysis * crystallization * glass formation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  10. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  11. Compressive Strength, Pore Size Distribution and Chloride-ion Penetration of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Incorporating Class-F Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Shicong; C S Poon

    2006-01-01

    The effects of fly ash on the compressive strength, pore size distribution ard chloride-ion penetration of recycled aggregate concrete were investigated. Two series of concrete mixtures were prepared. The concrete mixtures in series I had a water-to-binder ratio and a cement content of 0.55 and 410 kg/m3 , respectively. The concrete mixtures in series Ⅱ had a water-to-binder ratio and a cement content of 0.45 and 400 kg/m3 respectively. Recycled aggregate was used as 20% , 50% , and 100% replacements of natural coarse aggregate in the concrete mixtures in both series. In addition, fly ash was used as 0% , 25% and 35% by weight replacements of cement. The results show that the compressive strengths of the concrete decreased as the recycled aggregate and the fly ash contents increased. The total porosity and average porosity diameter of the concrete increased as the recycled aggregate content increased. Furthermore, an increase in the recycled aggregate content decreased the resistance to chloride ion penetration. Nevertheless, the replacement of cement by 25% fly ash improved the resistance to chloride ion penetration and pore diameters and reduced the total porosity of the recycled aggregate concrete.

  12. Unexpected corrosion of stainless steel in low chloride waters – microbial aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Carpén, Leena; Møller, Per;

    2009-01-01

    conditions or periods of low water consumption have occurred prior to the failure. Typically the corrosion attacks appear within 2-3 years in weld nuggets, heat affected zones or in crevices like e.g. press fitting pipe connections. The failure mode is pitting and crevice corrosion leading to leaks and rust......Abstract Stainless steels EN 1.4301 and 1.4401/1.4404 are normally considered corrosion resistant in low chloride natural waters like drinking water. However, a number of corrosion failures have been observed in e.g. fire extinguisher systems and drinking water installations, where stagnant...... stains on the outside of the installation. Corrosion may occur in water qualities with rather low chloride contents and fairly low conductivity, which would usually not be considered especially corrosive towards stainless steel. One key parameter is the ennoblement documented on stainless steel in...

  13. A Study on Zinc-Iron Alloy Electrodeposition from a Chloride Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The electrodeposition of zinc-iron alloys from a chloride-based electrolyte has been studied using electrochemical polarisation techniques, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) and Computer Assisted Pulse Plating (CAPP). A...... change in the electrodeposition mechanism from equilibrium codeposition to anomalous codeposition with a change in cathodic current density has been observed. Zn-Fe alloys with compositions ranging from 5 wt-% to more than 75 wt-% Fe have been electrodeposited from a single electrolyte, making this...... system ideal for production of compositional modulated alloy (CMA) electrodeposits. Chloride content, pH and agitation of the electrolyte have been observed to have a strong influence on the reaction at the cathode surface, just as the use of pulse reversal current during electrodeposition. A theory on...

  14. Alleviation of Cadmium Toxicity in Pisum sativum L. Seedlings by Calcium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam S. EL-BELTAGI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the role of calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance and reducing cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Some treatment with 1 and 5 mM CaCl2 mitigated cadmium stress by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities: catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenol oxidase (PPO, as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid (ASA, tocopherol and carotenoids. On the other hand, total carbohydrate and total soluble proteins decreased with increasing cadmium concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, total phenol, total free amino acids, proline and lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium acetate. Electrophoretic studies of protein revealed that cadmium treatments alone or in combination with calcium chloride were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of new bands in pea seedlings. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase and acid phosphatase isozymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities.

  15. [Effect of mercury chloride on the level of lipids and products of their peroxidation in rat vital organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Oksenenko, S V

    2002-01-01

    The influence of mercury chloride on peroxidation processes of lipids and level of common lipids, phospholipids and spectrum of neutral lipids in liver, heart, lung and kidney of rats has been investigated. Administration of mercury chloride in a dose 0.7 mg/100 g of body weight to animals has invoked accumulation of lipids peroxide products in fractions of neutral lipids and phospholipids so it testifies the development of oxidative stress. Decrease of the most sensitive to oxidation fractions in the early stages of oxidative stress development and increase of free cholesterol and its ethers content in kidney and free cholesterol in the heart in more later terms as a result of mercury chloride administration have been revealed. PMID:14964870

  16. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors and for the......-Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...

  17. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes;

    2005-01-01

    increasing focus on the need for modeling the ingress of chloride into cracked concrete. Present models quantify chloride ingress in static cracks only, although several structural applications display dynamic loading conditions in an environment containing chlorides, e.g. marine structures and car parks....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected to a...... load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces was...

  18. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-05-13

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

  19. Concrete Durability. Influence of chloride ions concentrations in mixing water and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Villarino, Begoña

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The most aggressive situation which is responsible for most of the cases of steel reinforcement corrosion in concrete, takes place when chlorides are present in the environment. These chlorides destroy the passivating film of steel and promote the denominated pitting corrosion. In order to study the demonstrated corrosive action of chloride ions on concrete structures, a number of experiments have been designed, to quantify the effect of different amounts of this ion in concrete. Several mixes have been prepared with portland cement type II-C-35 to which it has been added, as an additive in mixing water, NaCl in increasing concentrations. The samples obtained were submerged in different dissolutions of NaCl. From the results obtained it is clear that the chloride content in mixing water does not affect the flux of calcium ions; however, its influence on the flux of chloride ions is significant. Likewise, it is confirmed that the existence of chloride ions in dissolution influences the migration of calcium and chloride ions.

    La situación más agresiva, y la responsable del mayor número de casos de corrosión de armaduras en el hormigón, se da cuando en el ambiente hay presencia de cloruros, pues éstos destruyen de forma puntual la capa pasivante del acero, lo que provoca la denominada corrosión por picaduras. Con objeto de estudiar la demostrada acción perniciosa de los cloruros sobre las estructuras de hormigón, se ha diseñado un conjunto de ensayos con el fin de cuantificar el efecto de las distintas cantidades de este ion en la masa de hormigón. Se han realizado diversas amasadas con cemento tipo II-C-35 a las que se añadió, como aditivo en el agua de amasado, NaCl en concentraciones crecientes. Las probetas obtenidas se sumergieron en disoluciones de NaCl de distintas concentraciones. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que la presencia de cloruros en el agua de amasado no afecta al flujo de iones cálcicos, mientras

  20. Interactions between chloride ingress and carbonation in cementitious materials

    OpenAIRE

    SAILLIO, Mickael; BARBERON, Fabien; BAROGHEL BOUNY, Véronique; GEGOUT, Philippe; PLATRET, Gérard; D'ESPINOSE DE LA CAILLERIE, JB

    2011-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride attacks are the major causes of reinforced concrete (RC) structure deterioration by initiation of steel rebar corrosion. These attacks are usually studied separately in the literature. Chloride-induced corrosion takes place mainly in marine environment or in the case of contact with deicing salts, while carbonation is systematically present in all RC structures at a variable degree. Since carbonation leads to significant microstructure changes, the effect of chloride ...

  1. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Kaifeng Tang; Dong Pan; Zongru Lei; Weilun Wang; Feng Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions...

  2. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  3. Radiolytic preparation of anhydrous tin (2) chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Anhydrous tin (2) chloride (SnCl2) is prepared by radiolysis with high energy electrons of a tin (4) chloride (SnCl4) solution in heptane. The SnCl4 is reduced to insoluble SNCl2. The energy yield, G(SnCl2), molecules of SnCl2, produced per 100 eV, increases with SnCl4 concentration from 1.6 at 0.15 M SnCl4 to 3.1 at 3.0 M SnCl4. Other parameters such as temperature total dose and beam current have little influence on G(SnCl2). The method may be used to prepare other metal halides if the higher valence, more covalent metal halide is soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lower more ionic metal halide is insoluble. The reaction mechanism is discussed; the radiolysis of both heptane and SnCl4 is involved. At high SnCl4 concentration G(SnCl2) appears to be limited by the yield of SnC13 radicals.

  4. Cobalt electrodeposition using urea and choline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of Co(II) in urea-choline chloride-CoCl2 melt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 373 K. The results show that the reaction of Co(II) to Co is irreversible and it proceeds via a one-step two electrons transfer process. The diffusion coefficient of Co(II) was estimated to be 1.7 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 at 373 K. Electrodeposition of cobalt was studied at different cathodic potentials (-0.80 to -0.95 V) and at different temperatures (353 to 383 K) in eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (1:2 molar ratio). The deposits were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images show that uniform, dense, and compact deposits were obtained at -0.80 V within a temperature range of 353 K to 373 K. EDS and XRD analysis confirm that high-purity metallic Co deposits were obtained

  5. The electrodeposition of lead from chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.

    1986-11-28

    At low current densities, lead was deposited onto a lead substrate as a fine powder that did not adhere well to the substrate. At higher current densities dendritic growth occurred. Lead does not adhere to a graphite substrate and, since copper and titanium substrates require higher cell voltages than lead substrates, these three substrates were rejected. The temperature of the electrolyte must be maintained above 69/sup 0/C to avoid the precipitation of lead chloride in the cell. Optimum current efficiencies at the anode and cathode were obtained at 80/sup 0/C, and no improvement in the morphology of the deposit was observed at higher temperatures. A combination of Quebracho extract and cuprous ions achieved the greatest improvement in the morphology of the deposit, while maintaining high current efficiencies at the anode and cathode. However, when the deposition time was increased, dendritic growth was much in evidence. A compact, adherent deposit of lead could not be obtained from chloride electrolytes. 22 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  7. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  8. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a

  9. Estimation of trace chloride in nuclear grade sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author represents a method to determinate trace levels of chloride in sodium coolant in a fast neutron reactor. Vacuum distillation is used for separating chloride from sodium matrix. After separation, matrix interference from sodium salts is eliminated and a large sample amount can be taken for analysing chloride. In contrast with other similar mercuric thiocyanate colorimetric method in China, this method minimizes a glaring blank of colorimetric solution and determining influence of temperature. Therefore, it increases the precision in analysing chloride. The results of the research demonstrate that when a level of chloride in sodium is less than 1 μg/g, the precision is 37% (n = 10). The recoveries of chloride in high pure sodium demonstrate that when 15-30 μg/g of chloride is added in sodium, the recovery is 97.8%-98.6% and when 4μg/g of chloride is added, then the average recovery is 99.2%. And the relative standard deviation is 16.2% (n =7). It is demonstrated that a monitoring requirement of chloride can be satisfied with this method in coolant of sodium in a fast neutron reactor

  10. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  11. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution is...... used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  13. Sulfate, chloride and fluoride retention in Andosols exposed to volcanic acid emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmelle, Pierre; Delfosse, Thomas; Delvaux, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    The continuous emissions of SO(2), HCl and HF by Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, represent a substantial source of atmospheric S-, Cl- and F-containing acid inputs for local ecosystems. We report on the effects of such acid depositions on the sulfate, chloride and fluoride contents in soils (0-40 cm) from two distinct transects located downwind from the volcano. The first transect corresponds to relatively undifferentiated Vitric Andosols, and the second transect to more weathered Eutric Andosols. These soils are exposed to various rates of volcanogenic acid addition, with the Vitric sites being generally more affected. Prolonged acid inputs have led to a general pH decrease and reduced exchangeable base cation concentrations in the Andosols. The concentrations of 0.5 M NH(4)F- and 0.016 M KH(2)PO(4)-extractable sulfate (NH(4)F-S and KH(2)PO(4)-S, respectively) indicate that volcanic S addition has increased the inorganic sulfate content of the Vitric and Eutric soils at all depths. In this process, the rate of sulfate accumulation is also dependent on soil allophane contents. For all soils, NH(4)F extracted systematically more (up to 40 times) sulfate than KH(2)PO(4). This difference suggests sulfate incorporation into an aluminum hydroxy sulfate phase, whose contribution to total inorganic sulfate in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols is estimated from approximately 34 to 95% and approximately 65 to 98%, respectively. The distribution of KH(2)PO(4)-extractable chloride in the Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to volcanic Cl inputs reveals that added chloride readily migrates through the soil profiles. In contrast, reaction of fluoride with Al and Fe oxyhydroxides and allophanes is an important sink mechanism in the Masaya Andosols exposed to airborne volcanic F. Fluoride dominates the anion distribution in all soil horizons, although F is the least concentrated element in the volcanic emissions and depositions. The soil anion distribution reflects preferential retention

  14. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  15. Efeito do cloreto de cálcio e do tratamento hidrotérmico na atividade enzimática e no teor de fenólicos do abacaxi Effect of calcium chloride and hydrothermical treatment on enzymatic activity and phenol content of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIDE BOTREL GONÇALVES

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available O abacaxi (Ananas comosus Mill. está sujeito a danos causados pelo frio durante o armazenamento refrigerado. A aplicação, pós-colheita, de Ca pode contribuir para reduzir vários tipos de desordens fisiológicas. Neste trabalho, verificou-se a influência da aplicação, pós-colheita, de CaCl2 a 2%, associada ao tratamento hidrotérmico (38ºC e 40ºC por 10 e 20 minutos de imersão, na composição química (fenólicos e enzimas, e na suscetibilidade ao escurecimento interno do abacaxi (Ananas comosus Mill. cultivar Smooth Cayenne. Os frutos foram armazenados a 9ºC e umidade relativa de 90% por um período de 15 dias. As avaliações foram efetuadas sete dias após a retirada dos frutos das condições de refrigeração. O tratamento dos frutos com CaCl2 reduziu o índice de escurecimento interno, conferindo menor atividade das enzimas polifenoloxidase, peroxidase e fenilalanina amônio liase e reduzindo o teor de compostos fenólicos na polpa quando associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico, independentemente do tempo de imersão.Pineapple (Ananas comosus Mill. is exposed to injuries caused by low temperature during the refrigerated storage. The post-harvest application of Ca may contribute to reduce a number of physiological disorders. In this work, the influence of the postharvest application of 2% CaCl2 associated with hydrothermical treatment (38ºC and 40ºC for 10 and 20 minutes, on the chemical composition (enzymes, phenols, and susceptibility to internal browning of pineapple `Smooth Cayenne' fruits was studied. The fruits were stored at 9ºC and 90% relative humidity for 15 days. The evaluations were performed seven days after removal of the fruits from the refrigerated conditions. The immersion of the fruits into a 2% CaCl2 solution reduced the index of internal browning and diminished the activities of the enzymes polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase and phenilalanine ammonium lyase, as well as the content of phenolic compounds when

  16. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC, a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate was used to adjust pH value and the basicity of the pickle liquor, the PAFC was subsequently prepared after the polymerization process. The optimal synthesizing parameters for the preparation of PAFC obtained were as follows: the concentration of hydrochloric acid of 24 wt%, ratio of hydrochloric acid to bauxite tailings of 6:1, temperature of 90ºC, leaching time of 2.5 hours, ration of pickle liquor to calcium aluminate of 12:1, polymerization temperature of 90ºC and polymerization time of about 3 hours. The basicity of PAFC was higher than 68%, the sum concentration of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 was beyond 12.5%. The results of flocculation tests indicate that the PAFC has a better performance of removing the turbidity of wastewater compared to PAC, and PAFC prepared by bauxite tailings is a kind of high quality flocculants.

  17. Extraction of scandium by benzoylantipyrine from chloride-perchlorate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of scandium complexes in case of extraction by benzoyl-4-antipyrine (BANT) in chloroform from aqueous chloride-perchlorate solutions, depending on extraction, perchlorate-ion and salting out agents concentration, was studied. It has been ascertained that scandium distribution factor is nearly 50 at NaClO4 and BANT concentrations equal to 2 and 0.1 mol/l respectively. Introduction of salting out agents (NaCl, CaCl2) and HCl at a constant content of NaClO4 (0.5 mol/l) increases noticeably scandium extraction. For 0.1 mol/l BANT solution in chloroform the extraction capacity in terms of scandium makes up 1.26 g/l. The optimal conditions for the element extraction have been found, the composition of the complex extracted has been ascertained (Sc:BANT:ClO4- = 1:3:3) and extraction mechanism has been suggested. Influence of interfering elements on scandium distribution factor was studied

  18. Dye-fixing Behaviors of Novel Reactive Cationic Copolymers of 3-Chloro-2 hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium Chloride and Dimethyldiallylammonium Chloride (P (CMDA-DMDAAC)s) on Cotton Fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, a series of novel reactive cationic copolymers (P(CMDA- DMDAAC)s) of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropylmethyldiallylammonium chloride (CMDA) and dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) with different molecular weights characterized by intrinsic viscosities of 0.02, 0.76 dL/g and different structures characterized by controlled 2%-20% molar ratios of CMDA units in main chains, were used to fix the representative reactive dyes (Reactive Scarlet 3BS and Reactive Brilliant Blue KNR) on cotton fabrics, and their dye-fixing behaviors, which were evaluated by different dye-fixing fastness such as dry rubbing fastness, wet rubbing fastness, color fastness to soaping, and white fabric staining, were studied, to develop the novel promising reactive polycationic dye-fixatives for cotton fabric. The results showed, their dye-fixing fastness was affected by their intrinsic viscosities and the molar contents of CMDA units in main chains, and those selected P(CMDA-DMDAAC)s with the intrinsic viscosities of 0.26-0.76 dL/g and 8%, 20% molar contents of CMDA units in main chains, could exhibit better dye-fixing fastness and were better than all members of a group of the selected widely-used commercial polycationic dye-fixatives, which were due to the nice balance of structures and molecular weights. Thus, the selected P(CMDA-DMDAAC)s could be used as the expected novel dye-fixatives for cotton fabric. (author)

  19. Aspects of the magnetism of ferrous chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a critical review of the existing work on ferrous chloride and presents, as well, a number of new experimental results. First, a careful analysis of the level structure of ferrous ions in the crystalline field shows that the crystalline anisotropy is of the same order of magnitude as the exchange interactions, a feature which gives rise to some particular effects, such as an upward curvature of the magnetization curve at 0 K in a perpendicular magnetic field. Further, the very low temperature (T > 0.4 K) thermal variation of both the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility evidences a magnetic component in elementary excitations. This result suggests the presence of a large magneto-elastic coupling. Finally, an experimental study of the H-T phase diagram near TN and of the critical behaviour of the specific heat and parallel susceptibility was performed. (author)

  20. Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li3PO4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

  1. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  2. Coordination compounds of transition metal chlorides with tetrazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordination compounds (CC) of Co(2), Ni(2), Cu(2), Cd(2) chlorides with tetrazole and Ni(2) and Cd(2) chloride CC with tetrazolylhydrazone benzaldehyde are synthesized. The compounds are characterized by electron- and IR-spectroscopy, magnetic measurements (78-300 K), radiography. Conclusions are made on polynuclear structure of coordination compounds and Msup((2)) octahedron coordination

  3. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  4. Probabilistic Models and Computational Methods for Chloride Ingress in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.

    Within the last decades it has been recognized that reinforced concrete structures are subject to a number of destructive mechanisms which might affect the structure in such a way that it is not able to fulfil its purpose efficiently. The present report focuses on chloride ingress and chloride-in...

  5. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor in an infant with congenital chloride diarrhoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Minford, A M; Barr, D G

    1980-01-01

    Hyper-reninaemia, hypokaluria, and hypokalaemia in an infant with congenital chloride diarrhoea improved during treatment with a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, ketoprofen. There was evidence of increased activity of therenin-aldosterone system when ketoprofen was stopped. It is suggested that prostaglandins may be involved in stimulating the renin-aldosterone system in congenital chloride diarrhoea.

  6. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl2, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al2O3.CaCl2) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl2. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl2.

  7. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  8. Monte Carlo calculation of chloride diffusion in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coefficient of chloride diffusion is calculated by applying the Fick's second law of diffusion to a chloride concentration profile. Then from the signal strength for various chlorine gamma-ray energies was then calculated at the detector of the portable D-D neutron generator based PGNAA setup. (author)

  9. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    OpenAIRE

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A.; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epi...

  10. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 Tmelting). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ dk with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author)

  11. A review of CANMET's acid chloride leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional sulphuric acid leach processing of uranium ore is technically and economically viable but presents some environmental concerns because almost all of the radium and the sulphides, especially pyrite (an acid generating mineral), present in the ore report to the tailing disposal sites. In order to obtain leach tailings with a radium (226) content of 20-25 pCi/g solids and essentially free of pyrite, an alternative HCl leach process has been developed. Hydrochloric acid leaching of low-grade pyritic uranium ore (e.g. Elliot Lake U-ore) followed by flotation for pyrite removal from the final leach residue yielded tailings essentially free of pyrite and radionuclides, the radium level in the tailings being in the range of 25-30 pCi g-1 solids. Acid chloride leaching of Midwest Lake uranium ore, under various conditions (e.g., HCl, HCl-CaCl2-O2 pressure, HCL-FeCl3) provided high extraction of U, Ni, As and Ra and tailings with radium levels above 177 pCi g-1 solids. However HCl leaching of the radium preleached Midwest Lake uranium ore provided the best extraction of U(>99%), Ni(88%), As(90%) and Ra (98%) and the tailings with only 108 pCi g-1 solids radium. Of course, out of these 108 pCi/g solids, at least 66 pCi/g solids were tied up with the residual uranium (0.02%) in the tailings, and the remaining radium (42 pCi/g solids) present as sparingly soluble radium salt/salts (e.g., RaS04). The acid chloride leaching process for uranium ore has definite technological and environmental merits but presently compares unfavourably both in capital and operating costs with the conventional sulphuric acid leach process. However, the economics of the HCl leach process could become viable when the costs of removing the radium (226) and the sulphides (i.e., the acid generating minerals) from sulphuric acid leach tailings are taken into consideration

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Apical Chloride Channel in Necturus Gallbladder Inhibit the Chloride Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Arthur L.; Tsai, Lih-Min; Falk, Ronald J.

    1989-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The channel or a closely related molecule is present in the membrane whether or not the pathway is open, since, in addition to inhibiting the conductance of the open channel, the antibody also bound to the membrane in the resting state and prevented subsequent opening of the channel. The antibody was shown to recognize, by ELISA, epitopes from the Necturus gallbladder and small intestine. Finally, by Western blot analysis of Necturus gallbladder homogenates, the antibody was shown to recognize two protein bands of Mr 219,000 and Mr 69,000. This antibody should permit isolation and characterization of this important ion channel.

  13. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  14. Water and chloride transport in a fine-textured soil in a feedlot pen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizaga, E. A.; Rodríguez, L.; Ocampo, C. J.

    2015-11-01

    Cattle feeding in feedlot pens produces large amounts of manure and animal urine. Manure solutions resulting from surface runoff are composed of numerous chemical constituents whose leaching causes salinization of the soil profile. There is a relatively large number of studies on preferential flow characterization and modeling in clayed soils. However, research on water flow and solute transport derived from cattle feeding operations in fine-textured soils under naturally occurring precipitation events is less frequent. A field monitoring and modeling investigation was conducted at two plots on a fine-textured soil near a feedlot pen in Argentina to assess the potential of solute leaching into the soil profile. Soil pressure head and chloride concentration of the soil solution were used in combination with HYDRUS-1D numerical model to simulate water flow and chloride transport resorting to the concept of mobile/immobile-MIM water for solute transport. Pressure head sensors located at different depths registered a rapid response to precipitation suggesting the occurrence of preferential flow-paths for infiltrating water. Cracks and small fissures were documented at the field site where the % silt and % clay combined is around 94%. Chloride content increased with depth for various soil pressure head conditions, although a dilution process was observed as precipitation increased. The MIM approach improved numerical results at one of the tested sites where the development of cracks and macropores is likely, obtaining a more dynamic response in comparison with the advection-dispersion equation.

  15. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  16. Electrochemical corrosion characteristics of aluminium alloy 6061 T6 in demineralized water containing 0.1 % chloride ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct current electrochemical method is one of the techniques has been used to study the corrosion behaviour of metal/ alloy in its environment. This paper attempts to investigate the corrosion behaviour of Al 6061 T6 immersed in Reactor TRIGA Mark II pool water containing about 0.1 % NaCl content. The result shown that the corrosion rate value of the aluminium 6061 T6 increased with the presence of 0.1 % Ion Chloride content in the demineralized water reactor pool as compared to normal demineralized water. This is due to aggressiveness of chloride ion attack to metal surface. Beside corrosion rate analysis, the further tests such as corrosion behaviour diagram, cyclic polarization have been carried and the results have been reported. (Author)

  17. Electrochemical corrosion characteristics of aluminium alloy 6061 T6 in demineralized water containing 0.1 % chloride ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct current electrochemical method is one of the techniques has been used to study the corrosion behaviour of metal/alloy in its environment. This paper attempts to investigate the corrosion behaviour of Al 6061 T6 immersed in Reactor TRIGA Mark II pool water containing about 0.1% NaCl content. The result shown that the corrosion rate value of the aluminium 6061 T6 increased with the presence of 0.1 % Ion Chloride content in the demineralized water reactor pool as compared to normal demineralized water. This is due to aggressiveness of chloride ion attack to metal surface. Beside corrosion rate analysis, the further tests such as corrosion behaviour diagram, cyclic polarization have been carried and the results have been reported. (author)

  18. Dioxin contents in fly ashes of MSW incineration in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M B; Chung, Y T

    1998-04-01

    Fly ashes from three municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators in Taiwan were collected and segregated into different fractions for determining the physical and chemical properties and dioxin contents. Analysis of ashes with each fraction indicated that fine particles had higher dioxin contents than large particles. Dioxin homologue components of ashes generated from large-scale mass burn MSW incinerator were less toxic than that from small-scale batch incinerators, and contained less non-2,3,7,8 PCDD/Fs. Correlation analysis did not reveal a consistent trend between dioxins content and ashes' physical properties, while strong positive correlation was found between dioxins content and chloride content. Positive correlation between dioxin content and heavy metals content such as copper and zinc in the fly ash was also established. PMID:9532726

  19. High temperature corrosion in chloridizing atmospheres: development of material quasi-stability diagrams and coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doublet, S.; Schuetze, M. [Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V., Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Chlorine gas is widely encountered in chemical industries, e. g. in waste incinerators and plastic/polymer decomposition mills. The presence of chlorine may significantly reduce the life-time of the components. Although metallic materials have been widely used under such conditions there is still a need for data on the role of the different alloying elements in commercial alloys. The purpose of this work is to produce a clear picture of which alloying elements play a detrimental role and which elements are beneficial. These results can be used as a tool for general assessment of metallic alloys with regard to their performance in chloridizing high temperature environments. A previous study has already been performed in oxidizing-chloridizing atmospheres and led to the elaboration of material quasi-stability diagrams. As a follow-up the present work has been performed in reducing-chloridizing atmospheres in order to validate these diagrams at low partial pressures of oxygen. The behaviour of 9 commercial materials where the content of the major alloying elements was varied in a systematic manner was investigated in reducing-chloridizing atmospheres (in Ar containing up to 2 vol.% Cl{sub 2} and down to 1 ppm O{sub 2}) at 800 deg. C. As the thermodynamical approach to corrosion in such atmospheres could not explain all the phenomena which occur, kinetics calculations i.e. diffusion calculations were carried out. Pack cementation and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) coatings were also developed from the best alloying elements previously found by the calculations and the corrosion experiments. Corrosion tests on the coated materials were then performed in the same conditions as the commercial alloys. (authors)

  20. Effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of lipids from dairy wastewater by replacing Gum Arabic emulsifier for sodium chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Aguiar Mendes; Heizir Ferreira de Castro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the replacement of Gum Arabic for sodium chloride to reduce fat and organic contents in dairy wastewater using two low cost commercially available lipase preparations from animal source (Kin Master - LKM and Nuclear- LNU). The best performance was achieved when lipase Nuclear (LNU) was used as catalyst. In addition, this lipase preparation has also lower cost, which makes its use a quite promising technique for reduction of suspended solids as protei...

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Application of 1-Butyl-3 Methylimidazolium Chloride as Green Material for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar; Varma, Mahesh N.; Diwakar Z. Shende; Yoo, Chang Kyoo; Kailas L. Wasewar

    2013-01-01

    The possible application of imidazolium ionic liquids as energy-efficient green material for extractive deep desulfurization of liquid fuel has been investigated. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl was synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction of n-methylimidazolium and 1-chlorobutane. Molecular structures of the ILs were confirmed by FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, water content and viscosity analysis of [BMIM]Cl were carried ou...

  2. On normalization of chlorine content in the nitrogen dioxide based coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the viewpoint of thermodynamics ways to transform chlorine-containing impurities in nitrogen dioxide into nitrosyl chloride are analyzed. The effect of the impurities on coolant corrosion activity in case of their content up to 0.07 % in terms of chlorine is studied experimentally. The conclusion is made on the admissible content of chlorine compounds in nitrogen dioxide within 0.01-0.03 %. When the admissible content of chloride in the coolant subjected to high-temperature treatment is exceeded, the rectification purification is possible. Lines of phase equilibria in systems nitrogen dioxide-nitrosyl chloride and nitrogen dioxide-nitrogen oxide in the range of low concentration of highly volatile component practically coincide in liquid content-vapor content coordinates. A twofold decrease in nitrosyl chloride concentration in still bottoms is accompanied by the twofold decrease in nitrogen oxide concentration. For twofold decrease in nitrosyl chloride concentration in the process of degassing during boiling the evaporation of 30 % of coolant is required

  3. Caesium-137 Chloride Retention following Accidental Ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four men became contaminated with caesium-137 chloride due to leaks in a 100 c source. The source was believed to be completely leak proof, since the caesium chloride was contained in a welded stainless-steel capsule which was covered with an outer steel jacket of standard Oak Ridge design. Most of the contamination occurred while the men were cleaning the components of a pneumatic device used to move the source. The most heavily- contaminated individual placed his mouth over the end of a transport tube and attempted to blow some ''dust'' out of the tube. The other men handled various parts of the transport mechanism and wiped ''dust'' out of holes with their fingers. None of the men washed their hands before eating lunch. When radioactive contamination was discovered on the following day, immediate efforts were made to decontaminate the men. Arrangements for whole-body counts were also made and, on the fifth day following contamination, the men reported to the Radiation Exposure Evaluation laboratory. The body burdens on the fifth day ranged from 35 - 970 nc of caesium-137. During the next five to six days the burdens dropped rapidly and on the eleventh day ranged from 28- 780 nc. After the eleventh day the body burdens of caesium-137 changed much more slowly. Whole-body counts made between the 11th and 160th day yielded biological half-lives of 76, 95 and 126 d for the three most heavily-contaminated individuals. During the period of rapid excretion all urine and faeces were collected and counted. These counts indicated a considerable superficial contamination prior to the eleventh day since only a portion of the removed caesium-137 was found in the urine and stool specimens. The body burdens of the four men are compared with normals of the same size, build, age and diet habits. A short discussion of normal burdens is included. A brief description of the counting system, data handling techniques and calibration procedures is also included. (author)

  4. NEXAFS and XPS studies of nitrosyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schio, Luca; Li, Cui; Monti, Susanna; Salén, Peter; Yatsyna, Vasyl; Feifel, Raimund; Alagia, Michele; Richter, Robert; Falcinelli, Stefano; Stranges, Stefano; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Carravetta, Vincenzo

    2015-04-14

    The electronic structure of nitrosyl chloride (ClNO) has been investigated in the gas phase by X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the Cl 2p, Cl 2s, N 1s and O 1s edges in a combined experimental and theoretical study. The theoretical calculations at different levels of approximation predict ionization potential values in good agreement with the experimental data and allow us to assign the main features of the absorption spectra. An unexpected failure of the density functional model is, however, observed in the calculation of the Cl 2s binding energy, which is related to a large self-interaction error. Largely different photoabsorption cross-section patterns are experimentally observed in core excitations from the investigated quantum shells (n = 1, 2). This finding is confirmed by the oscillator strength distributions calculated at different absorption edges; in the case of the n = 2 shell the bands below the threshold are extremely weak and most of the absorption intensity is due to excitations in the continuum. PMID:25754872

  5. Regulation of neuronal chloride homeostasis by neuromodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Woodin, Melanie A

    2016-05-15

    KCC2 is the central regulator of neuronal Cl(-) homeostasis, and is critical for enabling strong hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition in the mature brain. KCC2 hypofunction results in decreased inhibition and increased network hyperexcitability that underlies numerous disease states including epilepsy, neuropathic pain and neuropsychiatric disorders. The current holy grail of KCC2 biology is to identify how we can rescue KCC2 hypofunction in order to restore physiological levels of synaptic inhibition and neuronal network activity. It is becoming increasingly clear that diverse cellular signals regulate KCC2 surface expression and function including neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. In the present review we explore the existing evidence that G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling can regulate KCC2 activity in numerous regions of the nervous system including the hypothalamus, hippocampus and spinal cord. We present key evidence from the literature suggesting that GPCR signalling is a conserved mechanism for regulating chloride homeostasis. This evidence includes: (1) the activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and metabotropic Zn(2+) receptors strengthens GABAergic inhibition in CA3 pyramidal neurons through a regulation of KCC2; (2) activation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A serotonin receptors upregulates KCC2 cell surface expression and function, restores endogenous inhibition in motoneurons, and reduces spasticity in rats; and (3) activation of A3A-type adenosine receptors rescues KCC2 dysfunction and reverses allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain. We propose that GPCR-signals are novel endogenous Cl(-) extrusion enhancers that may regulate KCC2 function. PMID:26876607

  6. Design of zirconium tetra chloride purification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of zirconium tetrachloride purification apparatus was done. The purification was done by sublimation and desublimation of zirconium tetrachloride compound. Zirconium tetrachloride,which was produced by the chlorination processes, was sublimated at 600oC then was desublimated at 331oC. The impurities could be separated. Zirconium tetra chloride was put at the tray in the column heated by the furnace, so that it sublimated. Ferri and Chromi salt was reduced to be ferro and chromo which could not be sublimated. Desublimation, was done in the cooler from pipe which was flowed by water. Cooler mode from 6 pieces of pipe, 1/4 inch in diameter and 30 cm in length. The water flow was 2.8 l/minute. Air was entered in the annulus surrounding the column. From the 80 cm length of the column, 50 cm was used for sublimation, and 30 cm for desublimation. Heat requirement was supplied by a furnace outside of the column. Heat flux could be arranged by the controller. (author)

  7. Redetermination of 1-carboxycyclohexan-1-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa González

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H14NO2+·Cl−, was reported previously [Chacko, Srinivasan & Zand (1975. J. Cryst. Mol. Struct. 5, 353–357] from Weissenberg photographic data with R = 0.113. It has now been redetermined, providing a significant increase in the precision of the derived geometric parameters, viz. mean σ(C—C = 0.003 Å in the present work compared with 0.021 Å for the previous work. The complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirrror symmetry, with three C atoms, two O atoms and the N atom lying on the reflecting plane; the chloride anion also has m site symmetry. The crystal structure is established by a two-dimensional network of O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, generating C12(4 and C12(7 chains, and R24(8 and R24(14 rings.

  8. NQR in tert-butyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Aldo H.

    2004-03-01

    Tert-butyl chloride has been broadly studied experimentally through various techniques such as X-ray crystallography, DTA, and NMR. It was also studied experimentally through nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), but this study was limited and incomplete. In this paper, we present a more detailed study of TBC through the NQR of 35Cl. Our results show that near 120 K, the onset of the CH 3 groups semirotations around symmetry axis C3 takes place with an activation energy U=16.1 kJ mol -1. This intramolecular movement produces a T1 minimum near 148 K and is the dominant mechanism of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in phase III of this compound. In phase II of TBC, we show that there are not only methyl groups semirotations, but also semirotations of the whole molecule around a different axis from the symmetry axis C' 3 (C-Cl bond) with an activation energy of E=10.4 kJ mol -1.

  9. Formation of plutonium phosphates in chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnaeva, A.A.; Kryukova, A.I.; Kazanstev, G' N.; Skiba, O.V.; Korshunov, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    Introduction of sodium- and potassium phosphates Na/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ and K/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in the PuCl/sub 3/-NaCl, PuCl/sub 3/-KCl melts results in reduction of plutonium amount in the liquid phase. Low-soluble plutonium (3) phosphates, of assumed Na/sub 3/Pu/sub 2/ composition (PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ are transported into the solid phase. Using the methods of radiographical and radiometric analyses the phases of plutonium phosphates separated by precipitation from chloride melt and also prepared from PuO/sub 2/ and NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ at 1200 deg C are investigated. Their solubility in the NaCl-KCl melt and stability to these melts during a long-term contact, and also under the effect of CCl/sub 4/ are evaluated. The data are compared with similar data for thorium-, uranium-, americium-, curium-, zirconium-, rare earth phosphates.

  10. 银杏萜内酯的分布与矮壮素对其生物合成的调节%Distribution of terpene lactones in Ginkgo biloba and the regulation effect of chlorocholine chloride on their biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷平生; 苏淑钗; 蒋湘宁; 王天华; 王沙生

    2004-01-01

    Terpene lactone contents in different organs of Ginkgo biloba L.and leaf,stem and root of G.biloba seedlings treated with chlorocholine chloride were determined by GC.The results showed that total terpene lactone contents in the order from high to low were bud(1.973mg·g-1),leaf(1.753mg·g-1),root,stem,and the terpene lactone in phloem was higher than that in xylem,leaf contained more bilobalide than root and stem.Chlorocholine chloride treatment significantly increased terpene lactone content of G.biloba seedlings.The possible way of terpene lactone biosynthesis was discussed.

  11. Durability Analysis of Subway Station in Chloride Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang LuFeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a finite element model for chloride ions transport in saturated concrete was proposed based on the Fick’s second law of diffusion. The governing partial differential equation was solved numerically in space as a boundary-value problem and in time as an initial-value problem by means of the finite element formulations. The maximum allowable value of chloride diffusion coefficient within different locations of subway station with service life of 100a was achieved and suggestions for durability analysis of subway station in chloride environment were also proposed.

  12. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be...

  13. Applicability of boron-doped diamond electrode to the degradation of chloride-mediated and chloride-free wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical degradation of chloride-mediated and chloride-free dye wastewaters was investigated on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode in comparison with that on a dimensionally stable anode (DSA), and the applicability of BDD electrode to the degradation of these two kinds of wastewaters was explored. In chloride-free wastewater, the electrochemical degradation efficiency of dye on BDD electrode was much higher than that on DSA, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 100% and 26% for BDD and DSA, respectively. In chloride-mediated dye wastewater, COD removal was faster than that in chloride-free wastewater on both BDD and DSA electrodes with COD removal efficiencies higher than 95%, whereas the rate of COD removal on DSA was faster than that on BDD electrode. The investigation indicates that DSA is more suitable than BDD electrode in degradation of originally chloride contained dye wastewaters for the sake of energy and time saving. However, for chloride-free dye wastewaters, with the aim of environmental protection, BDD electrode is more appropriate to realize complete mineralization. At the same time, the secondary pollution can be avoided

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  15. The effects of copper oxy chloride waste contamination on selected soil biochemical properties at disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out at a sanitary waste disposal site for Kutsaga Tobacco Research Station, Zimbabwe, which uses large amounts of copper oxy chloride for sterilization of recycled float trays in flooded bench tobacco seedling production systems. Soil samples randomly collected from six stream bank zones (bands up the valley slope) varying in their distance ranges from the centre of both the wastewater-free and wastewater-affected paths [0-5 m (B1); 6-10 m (B2); 11-15 m (B3); 16-20 m (B4); 21-25 m (B5) and 26-30 m (B6)] in two sample depths (0-15; 15-30 cm) were analysed for metal copper, organic matter contents, and soil pH and subjected to agarized incubation for microbial counts. Results suggest that the repeated disposals of copper oxy chloride waste from tobacco float tray sanitation sinks into a creek amplify metal copper loads in the soil by 500 fold. The greatest concentrations of copper in both the topsoil and upper subsoil were recorded in the B3, B4 and B5 stream bank zones of the wastewater path. The concentration of copper was significantly lower in the middle of the waste-affected creek than that in the stream bank zones. This trend in the copper concentration coincided with the lowest acidity of the soil. Overloading the soil with copper, surprisingly, enhances the content of soil organic matter. The repeated release of copper oxy chloride waste into a stream causes an accelerated build-up of metal copper and soil acidity in the stream bank on-site while contamination is translocated to either underground water reserve or surface stream water flow in the middle of the wastewater path

  16. EFFECT OF COPPER SULPHATE AND COBALT CHLORIDE ON GROWTH OF THE IN VITRO CULTURE TISSUES FOR DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L. CV. ASHGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Madi Waheed AL-Mayahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of copper sulphate and cobalt chloride on propagation of date palm cv. Ashgar in vitro. The rate of callus proliferation was significantly higher in the medium supplemented with 2 µM copper sulphate and 2 µM cobalt chloride together (p<0.05. Addition of copper sulphate and Cobalt chloride to the medium was most effective for shoots regeneration from callus and enhanced regeneration frequency as well as number of shoots obtained per explant, the best result (7.12 shoot/explant was obtained by using copper sulphate and Cobalt chloride at 2.0 µM. Also the results of this experiment indicates that the maximum induction of roots can be achieved in the media containing both additives at 0.5 µM. The callus exhibited a decline in carbohydrate contents, proteins, whereas total phenol content increased at high concentration of Cu and Co. The greatest formation of chlorophylls a, b and total chlorophyll was obtained in plantlets grown in the media containing both additives at 0.5 µM. As well as Maximum survivability was noticed for plants cultured in media that containing both copper sulphate and Cobalt chloride at 0.5 µM.

  17. Adsorption of Tetradecylpyridinium Chloride on Aqueous Surfaces of Sodium Chloride Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fujio, Katsuhiko; Hayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Surface tension of aqueous NaCl solutions of tetradecylpyridinium chloride (TPC) has been measured by the drop weight method at different NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1.000 mol dm−3 at 25◦C. Surface excess densities of tetradecylpyridinium ion (TP+), Cl− and Na+ have been obtained as functions of TPC concentration at different NaCl concentrations by applying the Gibbs adsorption isotherm to the surface tension data below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of TPC. Surface excess densiti...

  18. Adsorption of Dodecylpyridinium Chloride on Aqueous Surfaces of Sodium Chloride Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Fujio, Katsuhiko; TAKEUCHI, Kumiko; Suzuki, Maki

    2012-01-01

    Surface tension of aqueous NaCl solutions of dodecylpyridinium chloride (DPC) has been measured by the drop weight method at different NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1.000 mol dm-3 at 25℃. Applying the Gibbs adsorption isotherm to the surface tension data at DPC concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess densities of dodecylpyridinium ion (DP+), Cl- and Na+ have been obtained as functions of DPC concentration at different NaCl concentrations. Surface excess d...

  19. A synthetic chloride channel restores chloride conductance in human cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Shen

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene-encoding cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR cause defective transepithelial transport of chloride (Cl(- ions and fluid, thereby becoming responsible for the onset of cystic fibrosis (CF. One strategy to reduce the pathophysiology associated with CF is to increase Cl(- transport through alternative pathways. In this paper, we demonstrate that a small synthetic molecule which forms Cl(- channels to mediate Cl(- transport across lipid bilayer membranes is capable of restoring Cl(- permeability in human CF epithelial cells; as a result, it has the potential to become a lead compound for the treatment of human diseases associated with Cl(- channel dysfunction.

  20. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  1. Calcium chloride effects on the glass transition of condensed systems of potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Katopo, Lita; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2016-05-15

    The effect of calcium chloride on the structural properties of condensed potato starch undergoing a thermally induced glass transition has been studied using dynamic mechanical analysis and modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Extensive starch gelatinisation was obtained by hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min producing materials that covered a range of moisture contents from 3.7% w/w (11% relative humidity) to 18.8% w/w (75% relative humidity). FTIR, ESEM and WAXD were also performed in order to elucidate the manner by which salt addition affects the molecular interactions and morphology of condensed starch. Experimental protocol ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of calcium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Highly reactive calcium ions form a direct interaction with starch to alter considerably its structural properties via an anti-plasticizing effect, as compared to the polymer-water matrix. PMID:26776036

  2. Changes in metabolites, antioxidant system, and gene expression in Microcystis aeruginosa under sodium chloride stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Mao, Feijian; Kirumba, George Chira; Jiang, Cheng; Manefield, Mike; He, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Microcystis (M.) aeruginosa, one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria, occurs worldwide. The Qingcaosha (QCS) Reservoir is undergoing eutrophication and faces the problem of saltwater intrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sudden salinity changes on physiological parameters and related gene transcription in M. aeruginosa under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that sodium chloride (50, 200 and 500 mg L(-1) NaCl) inhibited the algal growth and decreased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a, carotenoid and phycocyanin). Sodium chloride increased both the intracellular and extracellular microcystin contents and elevated the mcyD transcript level in M. aeruginosa. It also increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and caused cytomembrane damage. This damage caused the release of intracellular toxins into the culture medium. In addition, NaCl decreased the maximum electron transport rate, increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changed the cellular redox status. Consequently, NaCl inhibited the expression of cpcB, psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, NaCl increased the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and total glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The transcript levels of sod and reduced glutathione (gsh) were also increased after exposure to NaCl. Our results indicate that a sudden increase in salinity increases the production and excretion of microcystin, changes the cellular redox status, enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibits photosynthesis, and affects transcript levels of related genes in M. aeruginosa. PMID:26232039

  3. EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURPLETOP VERVAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  4. Effect Of Choline Chloride (CC On 'Monroe' Peach Fruit Quality And Leaf Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike ÇETİNBAŞ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of choline chloride (CC were evaluated on fruit quality of ‘Monroe’ peach over 2-year period in a commercial orchard. Spray treatments of CC (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were applied to 7, 21 and 30 days before commercial harvest (DBH. Some fruit quality parameters fruit weight (g, fruit flesh firmness (N, soluble solids content (SSC, %, titratable acidity (TA, %, fruit colour (CIELab, sugars, ethylene production, respiration rate were assessed for per treatments. All treatments were increased fruit size and fruit weight. In the applications of CC the most determined results have occurred on colourness which is the one of significant quality parameter in peaches and they had positive effect on the development red colour.Treatments of CC have been increased of total sugar contents

  5. Effect of chloride and oxygen on stress corrosion cracking of 304N in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior and mechanism of solution- treated 304N stainless steel in high temperature water were studied by slow strain rate tensile test (SSRT) and fracture surface analysis. The results show that the SCC behavior of 304N in high temperature water reveals as transgranular cracking, and with the increasing of Cl- content, the susceptibility of SCC increases. The specimen shows brittle fracture mode when it is exposed to high temperature aerated water containing 50 mg/L Cl-. The present results also indicate that the susceptibility of chloride induced-SCC decreases significantly with decreasing of dissolved oxygen (DO) content in water, which reveals that DO plays a significant role in promoting SCC of 304N in high temperature water. (authors)

  6. Nickel Chloride Promoted Glaser Coupling Reaction in Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Hua LI; Lei WANG; Min WANG; Jin Can YAN

    2004-01-01

    A Glaser coupling reaction of terminal alkynes in the presence of nickel chloride without any organics and bases in hot water has been developed, which produces the corresponding homo-coupling products in good yields.

  7. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications. PMID:21922094

  8. Catalytic Decomposition of Methylene Chloride by Sulfated Titania Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Catalytic decomposition of methylene chloride in air below 300℃ was studied.Sulfated titania was very effective in converting 959ppm methylene chloride selectively to CO,CO2 and HCl.Complete decomposition of methylene chloride was achieved at low temperature(275℃).It was found that the acidic property of catalyst was a determinant factor for the catalytic activity.The presence of water vapor in the feed stream remarkably reduced the catalytic activity,which could be due to the blockage of acidic sites on the surface of catalyst by water molecules.A bifunctional catalyst comprising copper oxide was developed to improve the selectivity of catalytic oxidation,which indicated that copper oxide can promote the deep oxidation of methylene chloride.The crystal form of TiO2 imposes an important influence upon the catalytic oxidation.

  9. Thermodynamic calculation of self-diffusion in sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua; Li, Chengbo; Shan, Shuangming

    2016-05-01

    Using the available pressure-volume-temperature equation of state of sodium chloride, we show that the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium and chloride in sodium chloride as a function of temperature and pressure can be successfully reproduced in terms of bulk elastic and expansivity data. We use a thermodynamic model that interconnects point-defect parameters with bulk properties. Our calculated diffusion coefficients and point-defect parameters, including activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume, well agree with reported experimental results when uncertainties are considered. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity of sodium chloride inferred from our predicted diffusivities of sodium through the Nernst-Einstein equation is compared with previous experimental data.

  10. Laboratory stress corrosion cracking studies with sulfur acids and chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, V.B.

    1985-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) caused by polythionic acid and/or chlorides has occurred in coal liquefaction pilot plants. This problem is also common in refineries and has been extensively researched. This study examines: (1) the relationship of the ASTM standard ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid test for determining sensitization to resistance to polythionic SCC; (2) the cracking resistance of higher-alloy. Fe-Ni-Cr materials and common austenitic stainless steels (SS); and (3) the effect of chloride concentrations up to 1% in polythionic acid solutions on cracking behavior. The ferric sulfatesulfuric acid test can be used as an acceptance test for materials resistant to polythionic acid SCC. More highly alloyed materials were more resistant to sensitization than most austenitic SS and were virtually unattacked in polythionic acid solutions containing up to 1% chloride. Chloride increased the corrosion rate and caused localized pitting but it did not significantly affect the number of failures or the failure mode.

  11. Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Saraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

  12. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  13. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhupinder Kaur; Harish Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  14. Mechanisms of chloride decomposition in upgrading oil sands bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.; Diaz, D.; Gray, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Eaton, P. [Champion Technologies, Fresno, TX (United States); Wu, A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    In addition to clay minerals, bitumens from mining operations contain chloride salts because of the salinity of the extraction process water and the connate water in the ore. These chlorides form corrosive hydrochloric acid. High concentrations of organic acid components known as naphthenic acids are also found in bitumen from Alberta's oil sands. These also cause corrosion. Chloride salts, clays and organic acids may interact in the presence of steam to promote hydrochloric acid formation causing major corrosion problems in downstream facilities. This study examined the behaviour of these components under upgrading conditions. In particular, it examined the rate and the extent of the hydrolysis reactions for salts found in bitumen. Mixtures of bitumen, salts and organic acids were exposed to flowing steam at 100 to 400 degrees C under nitrogen purge. Ion chromatography was used to analyze the condensed vapours for chloride.

  15. Purification and reconstitution of chloride channels from kidney and trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride channels mediate absorption and secretion of fluid in epithelia, and the regulation of these channels is now known to be defective in cystic fibrosis. Indanyl-oxyacetic acid 94 (IAA-94) is a high-affinity ligand for the chloride channel, and an affinity resin based on that structure was developed. Solubilized proteins from kidney and trachea membranes were applied to the affinity matrix, and four proteins with apparent molecular masses of 97, 64, 40, and 27 kilodaltons were eluted from the column by excess IAA-94. A potential-dependent 36Cl- uptake was observed after reconstituting these proteins into liposomes. Three types of chloride channels with single-channel conductances of 26, 100, and 400 picosiemens were observed after fusion of these liposomes with planar lipid bilayers. Similar types of chloride channels have been observed in epithelia

  16. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  17. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  18. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K;

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...... anions determine the homeostatic set point for [Cl(-)], and hence, neuronal volume and the polarity of local GABA(A)R signaling....

  19. Influence of cracks on chloride penetration and corrosion initiation time

    OpenAIRE

    Audenaert, K.; De Schutter, G.; L. Marsavina

    2009-01-01

    Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is the main durability problem for concrete structures in a marine environment. If the chlorides reach the reinforcement steel, it will depassivate and start to corrode in presence of air and water. Since the corrosion products have a larger volume than the intial products, concrete stresses are induced, leading to spalling and degradation of the concrete structures. If cracks, caused by early drying, thermal effects, shrinkage or overstress, are pre...

  20. Optical Studies on Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Nithyaja, B; Nampoori, P.N V; P. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Optical characterization of lead chloride crystals prepared by sol-gel method is reported. The relevant sol-gel technique is used for the preparation of PbCl2 samples with five different types. In this paper, we report the absorption and fluorescence behaviour of pure, UV& IR irradiated and electric & magnetic field applied lead chloride crystal samples in solution phase at two different concentrations. Optical bandgap and emission studies of these crystals are also done.

  1. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  2. Polarization and Charge Transfer in the Hydration of Chloride Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation, and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding...

  3. Effect of kaolin treatment temperature on mortar chloride permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Puertas, F.; Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.; J. Torres

    2007-01-01

    The present paper discusses the results of chloride resistance tests conducted on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortars containing a Colombian kaolin pre-treated at temperatures of from 600 to 800 ºC. The resulting metakaolin (MK) was added to OPC mortar mixes in proportions of 10 and 20% by cement weight. The mortars were compared for physical and chemical properties, including capillary absorption, chloride permeability and pore microstructure as assessed by mercury porosimetry....

  4. Extraction and immobilization of simulated pyrometallurgical chloride waste in Zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeolites are effective media for the removal and immobilization of fission products waste from pyrometallurgical reprocessing of nuclear fuels. In the present study, equilibration experiments between zeolite 4A and a simulated: pyrometallurgical chloride waste were carried out. Several batches of equilibration were carried out by varying the zeolite to salt (Z/S) ratio. The effects of Z/S on the extraction behaviour of the waste chloride salts were explored. (author)

  5. Intracellular chloride concentration of the mouse vomeronasal neuron

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangseong; Ma, Limei; Unruh, Jay; McKinney, Sean; Yu, C. Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is specialized in detecting pheromone and heterospecific cues in the environment. Recent studies demonstrate the involvement of multiple ion channels in VNO signal transduction, including the calcium-activated chloride channels (CACCs). Opening of CACCs appears to result in activation of VNO neuron through outflow of Cl− ions. However, the intracellular Cl− concentration remains undetermined. Results We used the chloride ion quenching dye, MQAE, to measu...

  6. Computational modelling of chloride ion transport in reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, S.J.H.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.; De Borst, R.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to a saline environment is a major threat with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ions, which are present in seawater and de-icing salts, are able to penetrate the concrete up to the depth of the reinforcement. They can eventually trigger a pitting corrosion process. The assessment of a corrosion-free service life of concrete structures is of paramount economic interest. However, the modelling of the ingress of chloride ions is complicated due t...

  7. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Rajarao; Badekai Ramachandra Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs) on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe) as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental ef...

  8. Durability Analysis of Subway Station in Chloride Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang LuFeng; Yu Bo; Hong Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a finite element model for chloride ions transport in saturated concrete was proposed based on the Fick’s second law of diffusion. The governing partial differential equation was solved numerically in space as a boundary-value problem and in time as an initial-value problem by means of the finite element formulations. The maximum allowable value of chloride diffusion coefficient within different locations of subway station with service life of 100a was achieved and suggestions ...

  9. Influence of cracks on chloride penetration in concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Audenaert, K.; Schutter, G. de; MARSAVINA, L

    2009-01-01

    Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is the main durability problem for concrete structures in a marine environment. If the chlorides reach the reinforcement steel, it will depassivate and start to corrode in presence of air and water. Since the corrosion products have a larger volume than the initial products, concrete stresses are induced, leading to spalling and degradation of the concrete structures. If cracks, caused by early drying, thermal effects, shrinkage movements or overstre...

  10. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  11. Density Functional Theory Study on Conformers of Benzoylcholine Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Karakaya; Fatih Ucun; Ahmet Tokatlı

    2013-01-01

    The optimized molecular structures and vibrational frequencies and also gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR shift values of benzoylcholine chloride [(2-benzoyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] have been calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP) method with 6-31++G(d) basis set. The comparison of the experimental and calculated infrared (IR), Raman, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra has indicated that the experimental spectra are formed from the superp...

  12. Yield and chemical composition of tobacco leaves of different cultivars as affected by four levels of potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An outdoor pot experiment was conducted to evaluate response of ten tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivars to KCl induced chloride toxicity at the Tobacco Research Station, Mardan, Pakistan, during 2002. The study included four levels of KCl, which were: 0,4, 8 and 12 mmol kg-1 soil and was arranged according to 4x I 0 factorial design with three replications. Seedlings of the respective cultivars, Spt-G28, KHG-14, KHG-15, KHG-18, Coker-371 Gold, Candel, KHG-19, K-399, Coker-48 and Coker-I76 were planted in pots containing 5 kg normal soil. After establishment of the seedlings, the respective amount of KCl was applied in one liter of water and then irrigated with normal water for the rest of the growing period. The data showed that all growth parameters increased with the initial dose of 4 mmol kg-I of KCl, but then decreased with higher levels due to chloride toxicity. When averaged across cultivars, the highest seedling height (17.4 cm), number of leaves per plant (8.7), leaf area (42.0 cm/sup 2/), and dry weight (10.17 g per pot) were recorded in treatments receiving 4 mmo1 KCl kg/sup -1/ soil. Chloride, reducing sugars, nicotine and K content of leaves showed linear regression with KCl levels (r > 0.95), producing 250, 74.33, 18.62 and 14.14% increase at 12 mmol kg-I soil, respectively, as compared to control. Nitrogen content of leaves also increased with increasing KCl levels in most of the cultivars showing an overall increase of 12.46%, as compared to control. Unlike other growth parameters, ash content increased with increase in KCl level up to the higher dose of 12 mmol kg/sup -I/ soil. Cultivars showed differential response to the KCl induced chloride toxicity. KHG-14 was found to be the most sensitive cultivar regarding growth parameters, while KHG-18 and KHG-15 recorded higher changes in chemical composition to KCl application. Considering the overall performance, Spt-G.28 was found to be the most suitable variety producing higher plant height, number

  13. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrefae F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis

  14. The influence of nitrogen oxides on the activation of bromide and chloride in salt aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleicher, S.; Buxmann, J. C.; Sander, R.; Riedel, T. P.; Thornton, J. A.; Platt, U.; Zetzsch, C.

    2014-04-01

    Experiments on salt aerosol with different salt contents were performed in a Teflon chamber under tropospheric light conditions with various initial contents of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2). A strong activation of halogens was found at high NOx mixing ratios, even in samples with lower bromide contents such as road salts. The ozone depletion by reactive halogen species released from the aerosol, was found to be a function of the initial NOx mixing ratio. Besides bromine, large amounts of chlorine have been released in our smog chamber. Time profiles of the halogen species Cl2, Br2, ClNO2, BrNO2 and BrO, ClO, OClO and Cl atoms were simultaneously measured by various techniques (chemical ionization mass spectrometry, differential optical absorption spectrometry coupled with a multi-reflection cell and gas chromatography of hydrocarbon tracers for Cl and OH, employing cryogenic preconcentration and flame ionization detection). Measurements are compared to calculations by the CAABA/MECCA 0-D box model, which was adapted to the chamber conditions and took the aerosol liquid water content and composition into account. The model results agree reasonably with the observations and provide important information about the prerequisites for halogen release, such as the time profiles of the aerosol bromide and chloride contents as well as the aerosol pH.

  15. Investigation of chloride-release of nuclear grade resin in PWR primary system coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new preparation technique is developed for making the low-chloride nuclear-grade resin by commercial resin. The chloride remained in nuclear grade resin may release to PWR primary coolant. The amount of released chloride is depended on the concentration of boron, lithium, other anion impurities, and remained chloride concentration in resin

  16. Ab initio Investigations of the Equilibria between Trichlorothioacetyl Chloride, Tetrachlorothiirane, and Trichloroethenesulfenyl Chloride, their Reactants and Decomposition Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Vestergaard; Christensen, Henrik; Shim, Irene;

    2004-01-01

    Trichlorothioacetyl chloride 1, tetrachlorothiirane 2, and trichloroethenesulfenyl chloride 3 and the equilibria between them have been investigated by ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) calculations, and by Gaussian-3 theory, G3(MP2). The transition state...... of the isomerization reactions have been identified. Also investigated were possible reactions leading to the isomers and their possible decomposition products. The results show that the unobserved isomerization reactions are feasible....

  17. A small synthetic molecule functions as a chloride-bicarbonate dual-transporter and induces chloride secretion in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Yun; Li, Shing-To; Shen, Fang-Fang; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Dan

    2016-05-31

    A C2 symmetric small molecule composed of l-phenylalanine and isophthalamide was found to function as a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) dual transporter and self-assemble into chloride channels. In Ussing-chamber based short-circuit current measurements, this molecule elicited chloride-dependent short-circuit current (Isc) increase in both Calu-3 cell and CFBE41o-cell (with F508del mutant CFTR) monolayers. PMID:27188496

  18. Technical note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    OpenAIRE

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; J. Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur environmental risks and significant expense. There is therefore a strong motivation to find less hazardous alternatives. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previousl...

  19. Technical Note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    OpenAIRE

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; J. Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur significant risks and expense. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously for freshwater samples. Here, we assess BAC as a less hazardous alterna...

  20. Characterization of the lanthanum chloride scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports about the investigations on the performance of the new earth-rare halide Scintillator, the LaCl3:10%Ce, which has been discovered with attractive scintillation properties: fast, efficient, and high-energy resolution. The combination of good brightness and linear response has naturally resulted in a very good energy resolution, whereas the fast decay time promoted counting applications at very high rate and very fast timing resolution. Energy resolutions of (2.99±0.02) %, (8.66±0.02) %, and (2.05±0.01) % have been achieved by exciting the detector with 662 keV 137Cs, 122 keV 152Eu, and 1332.5 keV 60Co sources respectively, at room temperature. The variations of the resolution as a function of both shaping time and high voltage have been studied and found to be relatively linear. The timing resolution was also studied. The value of 1.07 ns FWHM has been recorded with LaCl3:10%Ce and BaF2 detectors operating in coincidence mode, using 1333.5 keV γ-ray 60Co peak. Compared to similar studies, this timing resolution was worse than expected even if the exciting radioactive sources used in the two experiments were different. The efficiency values of (0.24±0.01)%, (0.01±0.01)% and (0.09±0.01)% were obtained with laboratory 137Cs, 152Eu, 60Co isotopes respectively. These detector efficiency values were very low, due to the smaller detector sizes used in these earlier crystals and to the large detector-source-distance used in this experiment. The Lanthanum Chloride Scintillator detector is hygroscopic and relatively expensive compared to established scintillators. In addition, it carries internal contamination in 138La and 227Ac for larger thicknesses. Nevertheless, the energy resolution figures achieved, twice as good as that of NaI(Tl), are in good agreement with those reported elsewhere. They credit the scintillation detectors as good challengers of semiconductor-based detectors, allowing their application fields to be extended. (author)

  1. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong from Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva; Tadeu José da Silva Peixoto Sobrinho; Valérium Thijan Nobre de Almeida e Castro; Danielle da Cunha Amaral Lima; Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti de Amorim

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total tannin content (TTC) were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC) was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FIC (ferrous ion chelating) as...

  2. Henry’s constant of carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride/ethylene glycol, choline chloride/glycerol, choline chloride/malonic acid) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new set of Henry’s constant for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvents were measured. • The DESs used were: ethaline, glyceline, and maline. • The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and composition. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlations. -- Abstract: In this study, we present a new set of Henry’s constant data for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (DES) (20 to 80 wt% DES) at T = (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The DESs used were choline chloride-based: ethaline (choline chloride/ethylene glycol), glyceline (choline chloride/glycerol), and maline (choline chloride/malonic acid). A differential Henry’s coefficient model was used to describe the behaviour of Henry’s constant, and correlate it with temperature and concentration of DES in the aqueous DES solution. The correlation was found satisfactory such that the proposed model can be used in engineering calculations with reasonable accuracy

  3. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Joon Woo Park; Ki Yong Ann; Chang-Geun Cho

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS) mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added ...

  4. Simulation of Chloride Diffusion in Cracked Concrete with Different Crack Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Yong Wang; Li-Na Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion of steel rebar is one of the primary durability problems for reinforced concrete structures in marine environment. Furthermore, if the surfaces of concrete structures have cracks, additional chloride can penetrate into concrete through cracked zone. For chloride ingression into cracked concrete, former researches mainly focus on influence of crack width on chloride diffusion coefficients. Other crack characteristics, such as chloride depth, crack shape (equal-width ...

  5. Effect of n-tetradecanol on the extraction of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides with tri-n-dodecylammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equations are proposed to describe the reduction in the partition coefficients of metal chlorides in amine extractant systems following the addition of alcohols. The equations include two empirical factors: solvation parameters for amine chloride and the compound undergoing extraction. These parameters can be found from independent data. The equations have been used to describe the extraction of micro amounts of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides by tridodecylammonium chloride in the presence of n-tetradecanol

  6. Mucin Reactivity after Acute Exposure to Mercury and Zinc Chloride in Neurocytes of Freshwater Snail Bellamya bengalensis: A Histochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Londhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS of gastropods is extensively studied for its pathology and immunocytology; there is scanty information on histochemical alterations in neuronal cells due to heavy metal. This study was designed to investigate histochemical alterations in cerebral neurons of freshwater snail Bellamya bengalensis after intoxication with mercuric chloride (HgCl2 and zinc chloride (ZnCl2. As per chemical components cerebral ganglia of Bellamya bengalensis showed three different zones, namely, periganglionic connective tissue sheath, interperikaryonal space, and neuropil. After intoxication, increased acidic content in extracellular matrix (ECM of neuronal cells was found. These alterations were directly proportional to time of exposure period. From results, HgCl2 proved its highly toxic nature over chemical composition of cerebral neuronal cells of freshwater snail Bellamya bengalensis compared to ZnCl2 intoxication.

  7. Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. Thermal stabilization of HCP items at 750 C (without water washing) is being investigated as an alternative method for meeting the intent of DOE STD 3013-2000. This report presents the results from a series of furnace tests conducted to develop material balance and system operability data for supporting the evaluation of lower-temperature thermal stabilization

  8. Development of Modified 304 Stainless Steel Resistant to Stress Corrosion Cracking in Chloride Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This was a feasibility study for a modified 304 steel resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aqueous environment containing chloride. SCC tests were conducted potentiostaticaly with spot-welded specimens, which had both crevice and residual stress, mainly in 3 % NaCl solution at various temperatures to determine the critical temperature for SCC at and below which the steel would not suffer from SCC. The effects of individual alloying element of silicon, manganese and copper on SCC of 18Cr-14Ni steels which phosphor content is 0.002 % and molybdenum content is 0.01 % were examined. Addition of 1 or 2 % of copper has beneficial effect on resistance to SCC, while increasing silicon or manganese content has no significant effect. Critical temperature of the steel with 0.002 % of phosphor and 2 % of copper is 150 ℃, which is markedly higher than 50 ℃ of 304L steel. However, the beneficial effect of copper is reduced with increasing phosphor content. From practical viewpoint, the modified steel with good SCC resistance should have 0.01 %-0.015 % of phosphor and 0.3 % or more of molybdenum, because it is very difficult to reduce phosphor content below 0.008 % industrially and such molybdenum content is inevitably introduced through cost-saving melting process using return steel. Aluminium is to be added as another alloying element and 3 % of aluminium combined with 2 % of copper has been found to negate the deleterious effects of increased phosphor and molybdenum content. As a candidate steel at this stage, 14Cr-16Ni-0.013P-2Cu-1Al-(0.3-1)Mo steel has critical temperature of 110 ℃.

  9. A spectroscopic study of uranium species formed in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination of uranium metal or uranium oxides in chloride melts offers an acceptable process for the head-end of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The reactions of uranium metal and ceramic uranium dioxide with chlorine and with hydrogen chloride were studied in the alkali metal chloride melts, NaCl-KCl at 973K, NaCl-CsCl between 873 and 923K and LiCl-KCl at 873K. The uranium species formed therein were characterized from their electronic absorption spectra measured in situ. The kinetic parameters of the reactions depend on melt composition, temperature and chlorinating agent used. The reaction of uranium dioxide with oxygen in the presence of alkali metal chlorides results in the formation of alkali metal uranates. A spectroscopic study, between 723 and 973K, on their formation and their solutions was undertaken in LiCl, LiCl-KCl eutectic and NaCl-CsCl eutectic melts. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 923K containing added aluminium trichloride in the presence of oxygen has also been investigated. In this case, the reaction leads to the formation of uranyl chloride species. (author)

  10. VOCl as a Cathode for Rechargeable Chloride Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Reddy, M Anji; Mu, Xiaoke; Diemant, Thomas; Zhang, Le; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Clemens, Oliver; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2016-03-18

    A novel room temperature rechargeable battery with VOCl cathode, lithium anode, and chloride ion transporting liquid electrolyte is described. The cell is based on the reversible transfer of chloride ions between the two electrodes. The VOCl cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189 mAh g(-1) . A reversible capacity of 113 mAh g(-1) was retained even after 100 cycles when cycled at a high current density of 522 mA g(-1) . Such high cycling stability was achieved in chloride ion batteries for the first time, demonstrating the practicality of the system beyond a proof of concept model. The electrochemical reaction mechanism of the VOCl electrode in the chloride ion cell was investigated in detail by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirm reversible deintercalation-intercalation of chloride ions in the VOCl electrode. PMID:26924132

  11. Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique; Zanni, Hélène; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

    2005-02-01

    The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress. PMID:15833625

  12. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is assumed that 111In-chloride is bound to serum transferrin and then transported into reticulocyte in erythropoietic marrow. However, several biochemical differences between radioiron and 111In have been reported since these years. In present study, clinical usefulness of 111In-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was examined especially by comparing 111In-chloride image with sup(99m)Tc-colloid. Obtained results are as follows: 1) In most cases, both 111In-chloride and sup(99m)Tc-colloid images showed similar bone marrow distributions. 2) In three out of 7 cases with hypoplastic anemia and two patients with bone marrow irradiation (700-1,000 rad), the central marrow or irradiated marrow showed marked decreased uptake of 111In, and showed normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc. 3) In two out of 3 cases with chronic myelogenous leucemia, central marrow showed normal uptake of 111In, and showed decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc. From the present study, the same dissociation findings as those between radioiron and radiocolloid could be obtained in hypoplastic anemia and bone marrow irradiation. 111In-chloride would appear to be a useful erythropoietic imaging agent, although further study of exact comparison with radioiron should be necessary. (auth.)

  13. One and two dimensional chloride ion diffusion of fly ash concrete under flexural stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-sheng ZHANG; Wei SUN; Zhi-yong LIU; Shu-dong CHEN

    2011-01-01

    A preloading frame is firstly designed to accurately apply external flexural stress to concrete specimens.Then a method is developed to measure one and two dimensional (1D and 2D) chloride ion concentrations at different distances from the surface of concrete under flexural stress.Using this method and the preloading frame,1D and 2D stress-diffusion is systematically investigated for fly ash concretes made with different fly ash contents (0%,10%,20%,40%,and 60%),and water to binder ratios (0.3,0.35,and 0.4).The stress accelerating effect on 1D and 2D chloride ion diffusion is also quantitatively analyzed through a comparison between stress-diffusion and nonstress-diffusion.A diffusion accelerating effect caused by external flexural stress can clearly be observed through the comparison.In order to quantify the stress accelerating effect,a stress accelerating factor is proposed in this paper.The relationship between stress accelerating factor and external stress-to-ultimate stress ratio is given as an exponential function.Finally,the process of the initiation,prorogation,and distribution of microcracks on the tensile face of specimen is observed in-situ by using a small-sized loading frame and scanning electron microscope (SEM).The above research provides an insight into chloride attack on the edge reinforcing bars of concrete structures under flexural stress,such as large-span beam and board in the field of civil engineering.

  14. On the corrosion of reinforcing steels in concrete in the presence of chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Genin, Jean Marie

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to give a scientific justification to some empirical results, in steel corrosion field, from concrete containing chlorides. First, it appears that corrosion products on the steels, have different structures and natures in function of the chloride content would be inferior or superior to a characteristic value. Second, the penetration of the chlorides in the concrete can be described by a simple Fick's diffusion law in the most frecuent cases. When cement has a high proportion of tricalcium aluminates and the concrete a small porosity, Fick's law cannot be applied.

    Este estudio pretende dar a ciertos resultados empíricos, una justificación científica en el campo de la corrosión de los aceros, en un hormigón que contenga cloruros. En primer lugar, se pone de manifiesto que los productos de corrosión sobre los aceros tienen estructuras y naturalezas diferentes, en función de que el contenido de cloruro sea inferior o superior a un valor característico. En segundo lugar, se puede describir la penetración de los cloruros en el hormigón por una sencilla ley de difusión de Fick, en los casos más frecuentes. Cuando el cemento contiene una elevada proporción de aluminato tricálcico, y el hormigón poca porosidad, no se aplica la ley de Fick.

  15. 原油氯转移剂在电脱盐装置上的应用%Application of chloride transfer agent in electro - static desalting unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹圣武

    2012-01-01

    为从源头上控制原油中携带的氯化物,中国石油化工股份有限公司某分公司在常减压蒸馏装置电脱盐系统试用了沧州信昌化工有限公司研发的TLV -1型高效原油氯转移剂.结果表明,氯转移剂能够有效将原油中的有机氯转化为无机氯,使电脱盐切水中的氯离子含量明显增加而随切水排出系统,有机氯脱除率大于80%;氯转移剂对脱盐温度、注水量、原油含氯量等操作参数的适应性较强;使用氯转移剂后,初馏塔、常压塔、减压塔顶污水中氯离子含量下降幅度大于30%,装置的低温位腐蚀现象得到减轻.%In order to remove the chloride in crude oil from the very beginning, a high efficiency chloride transfer agent TLV - 1 developed by Cangzhou Xinchang Chemical Co Ltd was given a trial in the electro - static desalting system of atmospheric -vacuum distillation unit of Jiujiang Petrochemical Company,SINOPEC. The results showed that TLV -1 could efficiently transform the organic chloride into the inorganic species, thus increasing the chloride ion content in the blow down water of resalting system and discharging the chloride ion together with the wastewater, so that the removal ratio of organic chloride achieved more than 80% . TLV - 1 had better flexibility to the operating conditions of resalting temperature, water injection rate and chloride content in crude oil. After using TLV - 1, the chloride ion content in the wastewater decreased by more than 30% at the top of primary tower, atmospheric tower and vacuum tower, and the low temperature corrosion was relieved in the unit.

  16. Effect of Chlorocholine Chloride on Chlorophyll, Photosynthesis, Soluble Sugar and Flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei ZHANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoids content determines the quality characteristics of Ginkgo biloba extract that could be increased by using of plant growth regulators. The objective of study was to investigate the effect of chlorocholine chloride (CCC, an anti-gibberellin growth retardant, on photosynthesis, chlorophyll, soluble sugar, total amino acids and phenylalanine contents, flavonoid accumulation, and flavonoids enzyme activity in G. biloba leaves. The ginkgo seedlings were grown in the greenhouse conditions with foliar applications of 0 (control, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC. Results showed that 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased photosynthetic rates of leaves, the contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, total amino acids and phenylalnine in ginkgo leaves. Total polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins content, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, chalcone synthase (CHS and chalcone isomerase (CHI activities were all significantly increased by 1.0 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments. Foliar treatment with CCC therefore might be a useful means of improving pharmacological properties of G. biloba leaves.

  17. The origin of groundwater salinity in granitic rocks: identification and characterisation of chloride sources; Origine de la salinite des eaux souterraines en milieu granitique: identification et caracterisation des sources de chlorure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, S.

    1998-04-29

    Hydrogeological research in crystalline rocks, developed either in geothermics or in feasibility studies for geological disposal of radioactive waste, points out a wide range of chloride contents in associated groundwaters. The aim of this dissertation is to identify the possible origins of chloride in groundwaters within different geological conditions. The three possible chloride reservoirs (chloride-bearing minerals, fluid inclusions, micro-porosity) located in rock have been characterised by studying samples from eight granitic sites with different technical approaches (electronic microbeam, alkaline fusion, micro-thermometry, crush-leaching, diffusion experiment). Firstly, this allows the definition of a new typology of the sites, by considering not only hydrogeological features but also occurrence of salt-rich fluid inclusions with sedimentary origin. Secondly, the use of tracers (such as Cl/Br ratio, {delta}{sup 37}Cl) and mass balance calculations shows that the contribution of fluid inclusions trapped in quartz and chloride-bearing minerals cannot account for the high salinity of groundwater. In this case, the chloride origin could be of sedimentary type. Chloride would be stored in micro-porosity and in fluid inclusions trapped in carbonates. Thirdly, we have pointed out the importance of micro-porosity, acting more as a sieve and a buffer than as a source. Finally, we have shown that the low salinity of groundwaters has not always an internal origin. (author) 187 refs.

  18. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  19. Aluminum chloride restoration of in-situ leached uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    During in-situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other elements (uranium and selenium) that are mobilized during the leaching process, have also been found in post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and, thus, greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid increase in permeability.

  20. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  1. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability.

  2. Chloride channels of platelets%血小板氯通道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琳; 尹松梅

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channels distribute widely in the body, and participate in many physiological actions and regulatory processes. Based on their physiological roles and molecular structures, six kinds of chloride channels have been identified: (1) The chloride channels family; (2) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; (3) Swelling-activated chloride channels; (4) Calcium-activated chloride channels; (5) The p64 (CLIC) gene family; (6) γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors. The chloride channels do exist in platelets, and their appearances are dependent on the presence of intracellular calcium. Blocking agents of chloride channels inhibit the thrombin-activated platelet aggregation and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that chloride channels play a role in the activation of platelets. In addition, chloride channels act on both the cell volume regulation and the intracellular pH regulation in platelets.

  3. Investigation of effect of some factors on boron coprecipitaion from magnesium chloride brines by aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions of precipitation of boron with aluminium hydroxide from natural magnesium chloride solutions of different concentration and from artificial solutions of boric acid with the same content of magnesium chloride were investigated. The effect of acidity on precipitation of boron with aluminium hydroxide was investigated over the pH range from 4.5 to 8.0. The dependence of the degree of boron extraction on pH has two maxima and one minimum. For concentrated mother liquors the maximum is at pH=5.0, and for dilute ones, at pH=6.5. The nature of the metal hydroxide and of the anions present in the solutions affects the shift of the maximum and minimum of boron extraction. It has been established that with an increase in temperature from 15 deg C to 45 deg C boron precipitation from weakly acid solutions decreases as a result of destruction of the boron polyanions with the formation of orthoboric acid. In a weakly alkaline medium, however, boron extraction increases due to additional release of magnesium hydroxide

  4. Diffusion of Chloride Ions in Soils:Ⅱ.Kinetic and Ther—modynamic Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMINGGANG; ZHANGYIPING; 等

    1997-01-01

    The amounts of chloride ions diffused in four soils of different textures at the same water content under different temperature and at varied time were measured by the diffusion cell method using 36Cl-labelled CaCl2 solution,Five kinetic models were used to fit the dynamic process of the diffusion of chloride ions in the soils ,It was found that Elovich equation or power function equation was the best model to describe the process .The pseudothermodynamic parameters,i.e.the net reaction energy,the activation entropy, activation enthalpy and activation free energy of the diffusion,were dervied from the absolute reaction-rate theory.The results showed that these parameters decreased in the order of loessal soil>black lu soil> lou soil> yellow cinnamon soil,which indicated that the force an the heat-energy barrier to be overcome for diffusion decreased ,the diffusion rate increased and the disorder of the soil-solution-ion system due to diffusion decreased successively with the texture becoming heavier in the four soils.

  5. Evaluation of chloride mass balance of pore water as an indicator of groundwater recharge to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Lagarde, Laura; Pasten, Ernesto; Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Monterrey Metropolitan Area in Nuevo Leon, Mexico, is the third largest metropolitan area and one of the most important industrial sites of Mexico. Groundwater constitutes 40% of the water supply to this urban area. This supply is under constant stress due to the population increase. The unsaturated zone at six sites along two cross-sections was characterized to evaluate the potential of chloride concentration as an indicator of recharge. The selected sites include the range of topographic elevations, vegetation, and annual precipitation of the study area. In each site, boreholes up to 5 m deep were drilled and soil was sampled every 0.5 m. The grain size of each soil sample was determined and pore water extracted to determine the water content percentage, and the chloride, sulfate and nitrate concentration of the pore water. The undersaturated zone consists of alluvial deposits with an average gravel and sand content greater than 60% for all but one of the sampling sites. The pore water content varies from 0.4 to 25% by weight with a decreasing trend as depth increases in areas with agriculture. Sulfate has the highest anion concentration in the pore waters, ranging from 42 to 45,000 mg/L and no apparent distribution pattern along the soil profile columns. Chloride concentration ranges from 8 to 3600 mg/L with an increase in concentration below 1.5 m depth in all the profiles. Chloride and sulfate concentrations with depth are directly correlated suggesting a common input, possibly dissolution-precipitation of evaporite minerals from nearby outcrops or an anthropogenic input. Hence, it is unlikely that chloride behaves as a conservative ion. As a result, its concentration is not likely to be a good indicator of groundwater recharge. Finally; the nitrate concentration ranges from 2 to 96 mg/L nitrate, without a clear pattern along the soil profiles. Low concentration of nitrate in the soil profiles below agricultural areas may suggest denitrification as suggested

  6. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Donald R. Lehmann

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  7. SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  8. Microreactor Technology for On-Site Production of Methyl Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, S A.; Vajglová, Z. (Zuzana); Eränen, K.; Murzin, D.Y.; Salmi, T

    2014-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two stainless steel microreactors [gas-phase microreactor (GPMR)-mix from the Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz (IMM)] coupled in series was used for production of methyl chloride by hydrochlorination of methanol. The catalyst was γ-alumina on microreactor platelets. The influence of temperature on the methanol conversion and methyl chloride selectivity was investigated. A maximum conversion of 97.6% and a selectivity of 98.8% were reached at 340°C, which is c...

  9. Venous uptake of 201Tl as thallous chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium-201, injected as thallous chloride, has been found to adhere to or be taken up by the vein into which it is injected, permitting images to be obtained of human veins up to 4 h following injection. A digoxin-insensitive rat vein model also retained 201Tl but for shorter periods of time. 201Tl uptake is independent of the solution into which it is introduced, whether 5% dextrose or 0.9% sodium chloride. This technique permits multiple delayed views of normal veins to be obtained but is of uncertain value in the evaluation of thrombophlebitis of the calf because of rather poor resolution and high cost. (author)

  10. Steel corrosion in anoxic mediums with high chloride concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon steels are widely used in contact with chloride containing mediums, however most of the literature reports corrosion problems in solutions in contact with air, for example, sea water. There are other applications where the steel is in contact with freshwater in the absence of oxygen as is the case with materials for nuclear repositories or in petroleum production. These mediums can have varied composition but their corrosivity is usually related to the concentration of chlorides. There are no systematic studies in the literature about the influence of high chloride concentrations on the speed of steel corrosion for carbon steels in the absence of oxygen. Some work has been done using Raman and XPS spectroscopy, but these techniques have been carried out ex situ in samples submitted to the action of high chloride concentrations. This results in the appearance of corrosion products on the metal surface due to the oxidation of the surface from exposure to air before and during the use of these techniques, generating confusing and uncertain data. The lack of reliable data is due to the difficulty of applying these techniques in situ under very low oxygen conditions (less than 10 ppb) without allowing any air into the system. Since there are no studies in the literature about the influence of high concentrations of chloride on the corrosion speed of carbon steels in the absence of oxygen, this work aims to generate experimental data to evaluate the influence of high concentrations of this anion on the corrosion speed of steel under anoxic conditions. The corrosivity of each solution was evaluated using electrochemical techniques such as corrosion potential, corrosion speed, anodic and cathodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammetries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the oxidation-reduction processes that occur with specific temperature, pH and chloride concentration conditions. Concentrated solutions of sodium chloride (50,000, 100,000 and 180

  11. Production and mitigation of acid chlorides in geothermal steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the equilibrium distribution of relatively nonvolatile solutes between aqueous liquid and vapor phases have been made at temperatures to 350{degrees}C for HCl(aq) and chloride salts. These data are directly applicable to problems of corrosive-steam production in geothermal steam systems. Compositions of high-temperature brines which could produce steam having given concentrations of chlorides may be estimated at various boiling temperatures. Effects of mitigation methods (e.g., desuperheating) can be calculated based on liquid-vapor equilibrium constants and solute mass balances under vapor-saturation conditions.

  12. Uranium(VI) extraction from chloride solution with benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC) in a liquid membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of uranium(VI) from chloride solution using a liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) technique was studied. The emulsion is constituted by the quaternary salt of benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC, R4NCl) as a carrier, kerosene as organic diluent, Span 80 as emulsifying agent and 0.5 mol/l Na2CO3 as stripping phase. The important variables affecting the LEM permeation process such as the concentrations of extractant, internal strip phase, types of organic diluent, and the presence of magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate were investigated. It was found that, at a given condition, the maximum extraction rate of uranium(VI) reached 80%. The emulsion was stable at low pH in the presence of certain amounts of electrolytes such as NaCl and MgCl2. (author)

  13. The compatibility of steel and aluminium with calcium chloride/ammonia, magnesium chloride/methylamine and magnesium chloride/methylamine/decane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of pairs of substances such as calcium chloride/ammonia or magnesium chloride/methylamine for distant heating or heat storage requires compatibility between these substances and the structural materials of the reactor vessels, transport-containers, and/or heat exchangers. Readily weldable mild steel or aluminium are considered likely candidates for the structural materials for transport containers or heat exchangers. In these compatibility investigations the metal samples have been held in contact with the chemical substances under different conditions (temperature, pressure, time) and after the compatibility treatments, the samples were tested. When there is no detectable change in the properties of the samples after the compatibility treatments (in comparison with the as received status) the compatibility is deemed good. Weight changes, surface investigations, fatigue strength tests and metallographical investigations were performed for determining this compatibility. (Auth.)

  14. An electrochemical method for accelerated testing of chloride diffusivity in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. (Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials)

    1994-01-01

    In the present paper an electrochemical method for accelerated testing of chloride diffusivity in concrete is presented. The method is based on a theoretical relationship between chloride diffusivity and observed steady-state rate of chloride migration through the concrete. The concentration of the chloride source solution has a significant influence on the rate of chloride migration and, therefore, a correction factor for ionic interaction in the relationship is introduced. It is shown that the relationship can be used for calculation of chloride diffusivity under various testing conditions. Some experimental results are also presented.

  15. Chloride isolation for accelerator mass spectrometry of 36Cl produced by atomic bomb neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator mass spectrometry was performed at the Munich tandem laboratory to determine the ratio of 36Cl/Cl in silicate rock samples exposed to neutrons of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Chloride was chemically separated from silicate rock for this purpose. Five grams of silicate rock was fused with 30 g of sodium hydroxide and dissolved in 900 ml of water. The chloride in the resulting solution was spectrophotometrically determined. Chloride was precipitated as silver chloride by addition of appropriate amounts of silver nitrate, and silver chloride was then collected on a membrane filter. The chloride in the rock samples was thus isolated quantitatively. (author)

  16. The precipitation of radioactive radium-226 from acidic chloride leach liquors with barium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional barium chloride (BaClsub(2)) precipitation has been effective in the 99+ percent removal of radium-226 as radium-barium sulphate [RaBa(SOsub(4))sub(2)] sludge, from HCl liquors produced by laboratory and pilot leaches of Canadian uranium ores. Radium-226, due to its low-level radiation characteristics, is removed as it has been identified as an environmental and long-term health problem. The formation of the RaBa(SOsub(4))sub(2) sludge was aided due to adequate sulphate (SOsub(4)) concentrations in the HCl pilot liquors produced. Recyclable Rasup(226) concentrations of about 66 pCi/L, in treated effluents, will cost about 1/10 that of effluents below federal environmental guidelines of 10 pCi Rasup(226)/L. Toxic barium (Ba) will potentially build up in effluents as recyclable Rasup(226) concentrations around 66 pCi/L. Barium, in addition to being added to liquors as BaClsub(2) precipitant, is present in the radioactive ore and HCl leach liquors

  17. Determination of γ-spectrometric parameters for some chloride salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass attenuation coefficients, atomic cross-sections and effective atomic numbers are determined for LiCl, NaCl and KCl solutions with contents up to 0.2 g cm-3.The energies used are 0.511, 0.662 and 1.274 keV. The combined results were employed to determine the mass attenuation coefficients and atomic cross-sections of the salts and water in the solutions. The results are compared with the calculated values from elemental data. It was found that the mass attenuation coefficients and corresponding total cross-sections are, in general, less from measurement than from tabulated data, either for water or for the chloride salts

  18. Synthesis and characterization of methacrylamidopropyltrimethylammonium chloride and N-substituted acrylamide ionomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Quaternary ammonium ionomers of Methacrylamidopropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride with N-substituted acrylamides were prepared at 55±1°C using azobiscyanovaleric acid (ACVA initiator. The monomers and ionomers were characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy and the copolymer composition was calculated from elemental analysis data. The reduced viscosity of ionomers in methanol behaves as non-polyelectrolytes at lower mole percentage and as polyelectrolyte at higher mole percentage. The molecular weights of ionomers were found to be high and the polydispersity index values indicate termination mainly by disproportionation. The glass transition temperature (Tg of ionomers were greater than those of the corresponding homopolymers, attributed to a reduction in segmental mobility. The initial decomposition temperature (IDT showed that the stability of ionomers increases with increasing mole percentage of ionic content.

  19. Sodium nickel chloride battery technology for large-scale stationary storage in the high voltage network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benato, Roberto; Cosciani, Nicola; Crugnola, Giorgio; Dambone Sessa, Sebastian; Lodi, Giuseppe; Parmeggiani, Carlo; Todeschini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The extensive application of Sodium-Nickel Chloride (Na-NiCl2) secondary batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles, in which the safety requirements are more restrictive than these of stationary storage applications, depicts the Na-NiCl2 technology as perfectly suitable for the stationary storage applications. The risk of fire is negligible because of the intrinsic safety of the cell chemical reactions, related to the sodium-tetrachloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) content into the cell, which acts as a secondary electrolyte (the primary one being the ceramic β″-alumina as common for Na-Beta batteries). The 3 h rate discharge time makes this technology very attractive for load levelling, voltage regulation, time shifting and the power fluctuation mitigation of the renewable energy sources in both HV and EHV networks.

  20. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  1. Mineralization of HA crystals regulated by terephthaloyl chloride-modified silk fibroin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Li; Guang Mei Chen; Xin Lan Ma; Qiao Yan Chen; Ge Wen Xu; Yi Ping Huang

    2011-01-01

    Terephthaloyl chloride (DB)-modified silk fibroin (SF) films were immersed into 1.5 times simulated body fluid (1.5 SBF) to regulate the mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals at about 36.5 ℃ for 24 h. UV was used to prove that the new bonds form between the DB and SF. The structure and morphology of the SF/HA were investigated by FTIR, ICP, XRD and SEM. The results showed that the apatite deposited on the matrix of SF mainly was HA. HA was self-assembled on the matrix of SF and formed three-dimensional framework when the weight ratio of DB/SF was 0.30. The content of DB affected the structure and morphology of the apatite composites deposited on the SF films.

  2. Corrosion performance of SiCsubp/6061 Al metal matrix composites in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion performance of silicon carbide particle/aluminium metal matrix composites (SiCsubp/Al) were studied in sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical, microscopic, gravimetric and analytical techniques. The materials under investigation were compocasting processed 6061 Al reinforced with increasing amounts of SiC particles. Potentiostatic polarization tests were done in 0.1M NaCl solutions that were aerated or deaerated to observe overall corrosion behaviour. It was seen that the corrosion potentials did not vary greatly in relation to the amounts of SiCsubp reinforcement. Corrosion tests showed that the degree of corrosion increased with increasing SiCsubp content. SEM analysis technique was used to study the corroded samples and the pitting morphology. By TEM, no intermetallic layer was found at SiC/Al interface. A model for pitting process was proposed

  3. A mathematical model for electrochemical chloride removal from marine cast iron artifacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weizhen OUYANG; Xia CAO; Ning WANG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to theoretically study diffusion and migration of chlo-ride ions during electrochemical chloride removal. The proposed model would enable optimization of its application by predicting the optimal treatment time and current combination. A mathematical model for simulating the transport behavior of chloride ions was developed by consideration of diffusion and migration of chloride ions when a constant DC current density was applied through the marine cast iron artifacts. The corresponding tests were conducted to validate the mathematical model. This model predicted the data of the extraction ratio of the chloride ion that correlated satisfac-torily with the experimental values. An important issue in electrochemical chloride removal was to understand how chloride ions moved, taking account of diffusion and migration of chloride ions and the release of binding chloride ions. The effects of the treatment time, externally applied current density, chloride diffusion coefficient, and rate constant of release of binding chloride ion on chloride removal are studied. The specific quantitative details applied to one-dimensional model were discussed here. This article has proposed a mathematical model for the first time, which was showed to be a useful tool that can reveal the ionic transport mechanism and optimize the application during electrochemical chloride removal.

  4. Chloride transport in a glioma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolpaw, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    Maintenance of the extracellular environment is a major function of central nervous system astroglia. The transport of Cl/sup -/ across the cell membrane may be an integral part of this function, since Cl/sup -/ transport has been implicated in homeostasis of cell volume, pH, and extracellular K/sup +/ concentration. The work presented here investigated Cl/sup -/ transport in the glioma cell line LRM55. Results indicate that LRM55 cells are a good model for astroglia and that these cells contain three Cl/sup -/ transporters; a Cl/sup -//HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchanger, a K/sup +//Cl/sup -/ cotransporter, and a Cl/sup -//SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ exchanger. Ion transport studies measured the fluxes of Cl/sup -/ (as /sup 36/Cl/sup -/), K/sup +/ (as /sup 86/Rb/sup +/), and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (as /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/). Cl/sup -/ flux was trans-simulated by Cl/sup -/ or HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and was inhibited by SITS or furosemide. External K/sup +/ stimulated Cl/sup -/ influx and external Cl/sup -/ stimulated Rb/sup +/ influx. Furosemide, but not SITS, inhibited the K/sup +//Cl/sup -/ cotransporter. High K/sup +/ medium increased cell volume and Cl/sup -/ content. Steady-state Cl/sup -/ concentration was at least twice that predicted from passive equilibration according to the Nernst equation. SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ flux was trans-stimulated by SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ or by Cl/sup -/. Cl/sup -/ was a competitive inhibitor of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ influx, but SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ had no detectable effect on Cl/sup -/ influx or efflux. SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ flux was inhibited by SITS or furosemide.

  5. The beneficial effect of ruthenium additions on the passivation of duplex stainless steel corrosion in sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), College of Engineering, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Al-Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: esherif@ksu.edu.sa; Potgieter, J.H. [Chemistry and Materials Division, School of Biology, Chemistry and Health Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Oxford Road, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Comins, J.D. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Cornish, L.; Olubambi, P.A.; Machio, C.N. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    The effect of varying ruthenium contents of 0.00, 0.14, 0.22, and 0.28% on the corrosion of 22%Cr-9%Ni-3%Mo duplex stainless steel (DSS) after different immersion intervals in 3.5% NaCl solutions has been investigated. The study was carried out using open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic cyclic polarization, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and weight-loss measurements. Particular attention was paid to the effect of Ru on the pitting corrosion of DSS in the chloride solutions. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the presence of Ru passivates the DSS alloy by decreasing its corrosion parameters. Furthermore, it shifts the corrosion and pitting potentials to more positive values. This effect was found to increase with increasing Ru content and also with increased immersion time of the alloy in the chloride solution before measurements. Weight-loss time data after varied exposure periods (4-20 days) showed that the weight-loss and corrosion rate of DSS significantly decrease with increasing Ru contents.

  6. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95 reg-sign, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%

  7. 4-(1H-Tetrazol-5-ylpyridinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wei Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C6H6N5+·Cl−, the tetrazole and pyridine rings are nearly coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 5.58 (11°. The organic cations are linked to the chloride anions via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [110].

  8. Reaction of uranium dioxide with copper-containing chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermet composition materials consisting of metallic copper and uranium dioxide can be used for manufacturing fuel rods of nuclear power reactors. Reprocessing of such irradiated fuel of dispersive type can be done employing non-aqueous pyrochemical methods and developing such technology requires information on interaction of uranium dioxide with chloride melts containing copper ions

  9. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride (Cl-) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO2 sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl- from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H+) and up to 5 M Cl-. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H+, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO3), facilitated by the presence of NO2, strongly affects the rate of Cl- removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl- salt solution without pre-heating the NO2 gas has minimal effect on Cl- removal rates when the contact times between NO2 and the salt solution are on the order of seconds

  10. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  11. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen; Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Kim H.; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Anker Degn; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea...

  12. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter;

    From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  13. Analysis of Yucca Mountain Pore-Water Chloride Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of chemical constituents in the unsaturated zone (UZ) system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, depends on many factors, such as hydrological and geochemical processes of surface precipitation, evapotranspiration, the water-fracture-matrix interactions, large-scale mixing via lateral flow and transport, and the history of climate changes. This study analyzes pore-water chloride-concentration data and models the transport processes. The model results are then used to calibrate the UZ flow model with the aim of refining the infiltration distribution and percolation fluxes to the potential repository. The major chemical data used in this study were pore-water chloride (Cl) concentrations. The sensitivity of this conservative tracer to the UZ flow system is well known. This constituent was directly incorporated into a three-dimensional dual-permeability flow model. Chemical transport properties were taken into account. The surface flux of chloride was determined by the total amount of precipitation reaching the surface and chemical concentration in the precipitation. The entire flow system was divided into domains based on the distribution of pore-water chemical data, infiltration data, hydrogeological and hydrostructural features. Model calibration proceeded by adjusting the site-scale infiltration map and anisotropy permeabilities to reach a satisfying agreement between the simulated subsurface chloride distribution and measured data

  14. Electrodeposition of cerium from aqueous cerous chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerium was plated as a grey, metallic, adherent deposit from aqueous cerous chloride baths containing certain organic addition agents. The cathodic current efficiency was determined for each case. Chemical analysis indicates that the purity of the metal is better than 99.0 per cent. (author). 7 refs

  15. Synthesis and characterization of uranium(VI) chloride fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium (VI) chloride fluorides were synthesized by the reaction of liquid HCl and solid UF6 between -80 and -114 deg C. These dark red compounds are unstable above -40 to -60 deg C. The simplest formulas derived from compositional analysis are UF5Cl and UF4Cl2. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. Mass-spectrometric investigation of thermochemical properties of lanthanide chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapegin, A.M.; Baluev, A.V.; Evdokimov, V.I. (AN SSSR, Chernogolovka. Inst. Novykh Khimicheskikh Problem)

    1984-12-01

    Ionization potentials are measured for ions formed during lanthanide chloride molecules ionization by an electron shock with the use of the improved technique of mass-spectral data processing. Energies of atomization and atomic bond scission in molecules of tri-, di-, and monochlorides are defined along with enthalpies of formation of these molecules in a gaseous state.

  18. Mass-spectrometric investigation of thermochemical properties of lanthanide chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization potentials are measured for ions formed during lanthanide chloride molecules ionization by an electron shock with the use of the improved technique of mass-spectral data processing. Energies of atomization and atomic bond scission in molecules of tri-, di-, and monochlorides are defined along with enthalpies of formation of these molecules in a gaseous state

  19. Study on the Reaction Mechanism of Naphthalene with Oxalyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reaction of naphthalene with oxalyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 was investigated. The homolog of dinaphthyl methanone can be obtained mainly from this reaction. Naphthalene conversion does not have evident correlation with the amount of AlCl3. The results show that the reaction proceeds via carbon cation electrophilic substitution reaction-free radical substitution reaction pathway.

  20. Involvement of chloride in renin secretion from isolated rat glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    M) inhibited renin release reversibly. Substitution of Cl- with nitrate (101 mM) stimulated renin secretion. Substitution with iodide (15 or 101 mM) had no consistent effect. The stimulation induced by calcium-free solutions was high in May and low in September. In the absence of chloride, the response to...

  1. Polyvinyl chloride catheters with repressed migration of plasticizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, T.; Polášková, M.; Kašpárková, V.; Filip, Petr; Sáha, P.

    Larnaca : Polymer Processing Society, 2009, s. 243. [Polymer Processing Society Europe/Africa Regional Meeting. Larnaca (GR), 18.10.2009-21.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Polyvinyl chloride * catheter * repressed migration of plasticizers Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  2. (tert-Butyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas; Simón Hernández-Ortega; David Morales-Morales

    2014-01-01

    In the cation of the title molecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl−, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100).

  3. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  4. A chronopotentiometric approach for measuring chloride ion concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions in aqueous solution. This sensor is based on the stimulus/response principle of chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with

  5. Preparation of pure uranyl chloride from crude yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the preparation of pure uranyl chloride solution from crude yellow cake. The process involves dissolution of the latter in hydrochloric acid followed by uranium extraction using TBP-kerosene mixture. A series of experiments were carried out in order to determine the optimum conditions for both the dissolution and the extraction steps

  6. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) Both forms of the ingredient meet the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated). 184.1845 Section 184.1845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  7. Application and comparison of cocrystallization techniques on trospium chloride cocrystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládková, V.; Cibulková, J.; Eigner, V.; Šturc, A.; Kratochvíl, B.; Rohlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2014), s. 2931-2936. ISSN 1528-7483 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cocrystal * cocrystallization methods * x-ray diffraction * x-ray powder diffraction * trospium chloride Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.891, year: 2014

  8. Effects of dietary chromium chloride, nicotinic acid and copper sulphate on meat of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M T; Ellahi, M; Abbas, N; Yasmin, R; Mazhar, M

    2010-06-01

    1. Combinations of chromium and copper were added to the diet to assess their effects on broiler meat characteristics. 2. For this purpose 175 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into 7 equal groups and were given treatment feeds containing copper sulphate, chromium chloride and nicotinic acid in different combinations. 3. The study was carried out for 5 weeks and samples were collected at the end of 15, 29 and 35 d of treatment and at 42 d after a withdrawal period of one week. 4. Cholesterol content had decreased significantly in breast meat at d 29 in all treatment groups. In thigh meat, it decreased significantly at d 29 in groups receiving two concentrations of chromium + two concentrations of copper. Cholesterol content remained lower even after withholding the treatment for one week. 5. Crude fat content decreased significantly in breast meat in all treatment groups. In thigh meat, at d 29, a significant reduction in crude fat was observed only in birds receiving low chromium and high copper. 6. Crude protein at d 29 increased significantly in breast meat of birds receiving low chromium and high copper, and low or high chromium, while it decreased significantly in treatment groups after withholding the treatment. In thigh meat, at d 29, it increased significantly in treatment groups but decreased significantly after withholding the treatment. 7. It was concluded that chromium and copper, along with nicotinic acid, have modulating effects on broiler meat under tropical conditions. PMID:20680870

  9. Effects of aluminum chloride on serum proteins, bilirubin, and hepatic trace elements in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ben; Zhu, Yanzhu; Zhang, Hongling; Liu, Liming; Li, Guojiang; Song, Yongli; Li, Yanfei

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the hepatic metabolism function and trace elements' distribution. Two hundred healthy male chickens (1 day old) were intraperitoneally administered with AlCl3 (0, 18.31, 27.47, and 36.62 mg kg(-1) day(-1) of Al(3+)) consecutively for 3 days. Then the chickens were allowed to rest for 1 day. The cycle lasted four days. The cycle was repeated 15 times (60 days). The contents of serum total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBI), direct bilirubin (DBI), hepatic aluminum (Al), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were examined. The results showed that the contents of serum TP and ALB and hepatic Fe and Zn decreased and the contents of serum TBI and DBI and hepatic Al and Cu increased in the chickens with AlCl3 This indicates that chronic administration of AlCl3 impairs the hepatic metabolism function and disorders the hepatic trace elements' distribution. PMID:25896954

  10. Leaching of chloride, sulphate, heavy metals, dissolved organic carbon and phenolic organic pesticides from contaminated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Praagh, M; Modin, H

    2016-10-01

    Concrete samples from demolition waste of a former pesticide plant in Sweden were analysed for total contents and leachate concentrations of potentially hazardous inorganic substances, TOC, phenols, as well as for pesticide compounds such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols. Leachates were produced by means of modified standard column leaching tests and pH-stat batch tests. Due to elevated contents of chromium and lead, as well as due to high chloride concentrations in the first leachate from column tests at L/S 0.1, recycling of the concrete as a construction material in groundworks is likely to be restricted according to Swedish guidelines. The studied pesticide compounds appear to be relatively mobile at the materials own pH>12, 12, 9 and 7. Potential leaching of pesticide residues from recycled concrete to ground water and surface water might exceed water quality guidelines for the remediation site and the EU Water Framework Directive. Results of this study stress the necessity to systematically study the mechanism behind mobility of organic contaminants from alkaline construction and demolition wastes rather than rely on total content limit values. PMID:27449537

  11. Effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Road Hung

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of lysozyme chloride on betel quid chewing (BQC) aggravated gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM).METHODS: Male Wistar rats were challenged intravenously with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) to induce DM. Rats were fed with regular pellet food or BQC-containing diets. After 90 d, rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Rat stomachs were irrigated for 3 h with normal saline or simulated gastric juice. Rats were killed and gastric specimens were harvested.RESULTS: An enhancement of various gastric ulcerogenic parameters, including acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, as well as decreased glutathione levels and mucus content, were observed in DM rats. After feeding DM rats with BQC, an exacerbation of these ulcerogenic parameters was achieved. Gastric juice caused a further aggravation of these ulcerogenic parameters. Daily intragastric lysozyme chloride dose-dependently inhibited exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters in those BQC-fed DM rats.CONCLUSION: (1) Gastric juice could aggravate both DM and BQC-fed DM rat hemorrhagic ulcer; (2) BQC exacerbated gastric hemorrhagic ulcer in DM rats via enhancing oxidative stress and reducing defensive factors; (3) lysozyme chloride effectively protected BQC aggravated gastric damage in DM rats.

  12. Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax influences plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit

    OpenAIRE

    RAB, Abdur; HAQ, Ihsan-ul

    2012-01-01

    The influence of CaCl2 and borax on growth, yield, and quality of tomato was investigated during the years 2009 and 2010. The experiment was laid out with a randomized complete block design. Calcium chloride (0.3% and 0.6%) and borax (0.2% and 0.4%) solutions were applied as foliar sprays either alone or in combination and data were recorded for plant height, branches per plant, flowers per cluster, fruits per plant, yield, fruit weight, fruit firmness, and total soluble solid content of the ...

  13. Bioactive PMMA bone cement prepared by modification with methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Tanihara, Masao; Mori, Akiko; Kuramoto, Kou-ichi

    2003-12-15

    Bone cement consisting of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) powder and methylmethacrylate (MMA) liquid is used extensively for fixation of implants such as artificial hip joints with living bone. This type of cement, however, does not show direct bonding to the living body, and hence the fixation is liable to loosen over a long implantation period. Bioactive materials have received much attention because of their capability for bone-bonding, i.e., bioactivity, when implanted in bony defects. Osteoconduction of the bioactive materials is caused by formation of a bone-like apatite layer through a surface reaction between the material and surrounding body fluid. The apatite formation can be induced by a silanol (Sibond;OH) group formed on the materials as well as a dissolution of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) from the material. Incorporation of alkoxysilane and calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) may provide PMMA bone cement with bioactivity, because alkoxysilane gives Sibond;OH after hydrolysis, whereas CaCl(2) releases Ca(2+). In this study, we investigated the potential on bioactivity of the modified PMMA bone cement with alkoxysilane and calcium chloride. PMMA powder was mixed with various amounts of CaCl(2), and MMA liquid with various amounts of 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The mixed paste was immersed in a simulated body fluid (Kokubo solution) that has a similar concentration in inorganic constituents to human blood plasma. After soaking for various periods, apatite formation on the cement was examined. Apatite formation was observed by the addition of CaCl(2) with contents of 16 mass % and more. Incorporation of MPS accelerates the apatite formation. Setting time of the cement was significantly elongated after the addition of MPS, whereas compressive strength significantly decreased with increasing the contents of CaCl(2) and MPS. The hardened cement containing 20 mass % of CaCl(2) in the powder and 20 mass % of MPS in the liquid showed a tendency to be more

  14. Barium borohydride chlorides: synthesis, crystal structures and thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Elisabeth; Olesen, Cathrine H; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Jensen, Torben R

    2016-05-10

    Here we report the synthesis, mechanism of formation, characterization and thermal decomposition of new barium borohydride chlorides prepared by mechanochemistry and thermal treatment of MBH4-BaCl2, M = Li, Na or K in ratios 1 : 1 and 1 : 2. Initially, orthorhombic barium chloride, o-BaCl2 transforms into o-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, x ∼ 0.15. Excess LiBH4 leads to continued anion substitution and a phase transformation into hexagonal barium borohydride chloride h-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, which accommodates higher amounts of borohydride, possibly x ∼ 0.85 and resembles h-BaCl2. Thus, two solid solutions are in equilibrium during mechano-chemical treatment of LiBH4-BaCl2 (1 : 1) whereas LiBH4-BaCl2 (2 : 1) converts to h-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15. Upon thermal treatment at T > ∼200 °C, h-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15 transforms into another orthorhombic barium borohydride chloride compound, o-Ba(BH4)0.85Cl1.15, which is structurally similar to o-BaBr2. The samples with M = Na and K have lower reactivity and form o-Ba(BH4)xCl2-x, x ∼ 0.1 and a solid solution of sodium chloride dissolved in solid sodium borohydride, Na(BH4)1-xClx, x = 0.07. The new compounds and reaction mechanisms are investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and temperature programmed photographic analysis (TPPA). PMID:27109871

  15. Chloride channels and the reactions of cells to topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobasnick G.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of rat epitenon cells to substratum topography on the micrometric and nanometric scale such as groove-ridge structures include cell extension, elongation and orientation reactions. In this paper we report that stretch-sensitive chloride channels may be involved in the earliest stages of these reactions in epitenon fibroblast-like cells. We report that rat epitenon-cells can develop appreciable lateral mechanical tension that could stretch both the force generating cells themselves and those nearby. We show that cells in medium in which more than 80% of the chloride has been replaced by nitrate show little reaction to topography. Spreading of the cells takes place but is much reduced along the direction of the groove-ridge topography but enhanced across the topography. The chloride channel inhibitors NPPB (5-Nitro-2- (3phenylpropylamino benzoicacid 4,4'-disothiocyanostilbene-2, 2' sulphonic acid (DIDS and Chlorotoxin produce similar results which are further accentuated when these inhibitors are presented in low chloride medium. An antibody against ClC3, which has close homology to ClC5/6 also, blocked reaction to topography. These treatments have no significant effect on cell spreading on planar surfaces nor do they lead to changes in internal pH in the cells. There is a slight inhibition of rates of cell movement . Experiments using antisense oligoribonucleotides to ClC-5 or ClC-6 channel m-RNA also inhibit topographic reactions, which provides further confirmation of the hypothesis. Since the ClC-3,4 and 5 share considerable sequence similarities in the genes and in their proteins it has not been possible to make an unambigous determination of which precise chloride channel(s is (are involved.

  16. Determination of fluoride and chloride in nickel ore by ion chromatography%离子色谱法测定镍矿中氟和氯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦怀智; 陆彩霞; 侯晋

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of fluoride and chloride contents in nickel ore by ion chromatography was established. The sample was decomposed by H2SO4. After water steam distillation at 160-180℃, the fluoride and chloride in testing solution would be released and absorbed by NaOH so-lution, realizing the separation from matrix and other elements. Then, the contents of fluoride and chloride were determined by ion chromatography. The high-capacity IonPac? AS23 anion separation column (4 mm×250 mm) and IonPac? AG23 protection column (4 mm×50 mm) were used as chro-matographic column and 20 mmol/L NaOH solution was used as eluent. Fluoride and chloride were detected with conductivity detector. The results showed that the peak area of fluoride and chloride had good linear relationship with their contents in the range of 1-25 μg/mL. The correlation coefficients ? were 1. 000 0 and 0. 999 6 for fluoride and chloride respectively. The determination results of fluoride and chloride in sample showed high precision. The recoveries of standard addition were all greater than 95%.%建立了同时测定镍矿中氟、氯含量的离子色谱法.试样经硫酸分解后,在160~180℃的温度下进行水蒸气蒸馏,试液中的氟和氯随着水蒸气逸出并被NaOH吸收液吸收,与基体和其他元素分离,吸收液中的氟和氯用离子色谱法测定.以高容量IonPac(R) AS23型阴离子分离柱(4 mm×250 mm)和IonPac(R) AG23型保护柱(4mm×50 mm)为色谱柱,20 mmol/LNaOH溶液为淋洗液,用电导检测器检测.结果表明,氟和氯含量在1~25μg/mL范围内与相应的峰面积呈良好的线性关系,相关系数(R)分别为1.000 0和0.999 6,样品中氟、氯测定结果具有较高精密度,加标回收率均达到95%以上.

  17. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    -compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies...... steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady......-state phenomenon: In skins hyperpolarized for a few minutes, the "instantaneous" I-V curves show that the chloride pathway in the conducting state allows a large inward chloride current (outward chloride flux) to pass in the voltage range 40 mV greater than V greater than 0 mV. Calculations based on a three...

  18. The chloride channel inhibitor NS3736 [corrected] prevents bone resorption in ovariectomized rats without changing bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Sophie; Henriksen, Kim; Sveigaard, Christina;

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channel activity is essential for osteoclast function. Consequently, inhibition of the osteoclastic chloride channel should prevent bone resorption. Accordingly, we tested a chloride channel inhibitor on bone turnover and found that it inhibits bone resorption without affecting bone form...

  19. Methodology for content enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederbragt, H.; Heerlien, M.

    2010-01-01

    The STERNA project mainly focuses on enrichment of existing content of content holding organisations in the natural history domain. Therefore, developing a methodology on how to best integrate one’s content into the STERNA information space is an essential part of the project. This document is the o

  20. Influence of A1 Content on the Atmospheric Corrosion Behaviour of Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiling Jia; Chuanwei Yan; Fuhui Wang

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Al content on the Mg-Al alloys corrosion performance during sodium chloride induced atmospheric corrosion has been studied. It was found that the corrosion rate of three Mg-Al alloys was accelerated with increasing Al content. The poor corrosion resistance was attributed to the galvanic coupling between the β phase and eutectic phase or α phase and the formation of porous corrosion products.

  1. Processed foods aimed at children and adolescents: sodium content, adequacy according to the dietary reference intakes and label compliance

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Favila Ribeiro; Marisilda de Almeida Ribeiro; Margarida Angélica da Silva Vasconcelos; Samara Alvachian Cardoso Andrade; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined the sodium content of processed foods aimed at children and adolescents and the adequacy of its content in relation to the dietary reference intakes, and verified label compliance. METHODS: The sodium content of 17 food samples (instant noodles, breaded items, hamburger patties, hot dogs and bologna sausages) was determined by flame photometry and chloride titration, and the results were compared with nutritional data. The labels were checked for compliance wi...

  2. Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Strand, J. C.; Petrofsky, J. S.; Hipskind, S. G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    To determine to what extent the increases in concentration of plasma proteins and electrolytes with short maximal work were a result of hemoconcentration, the changes in plasma volume and total content of the plasma constituents were simultaneously evaluated. The results obtained from six human subjects indicated that in comparison to preexercise values there was a net decrease in total content of plasma protein, sodium, and chloride in the first 2 min of the postexercise period, due primarily to a significant loss (13-15%) of plasma fluid. The total plasma potassium content was increased immediately after exercise but was significantly below the preexercise plasma content after 2 min of recovery.

  3. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

  4. ENHANCEMENT OF CHLORIDE RESISTANCE OF PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE SHEET PILE BY BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    OpenAIRE

    Irmawaty, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion is one of the main mechanisms of deterioration affecting the long-term performance of concrete structures. In Japan, a large majority of structures are built either near the costal or indirect contact with seawater. The durability of reinforced or pre-stressed concrete structure depends on the resistance of concrete to chloride penetration. Naturally concrete provides physical and chemical protection to the reinforcing steel from chloride penetrating. The chloride ...

  5. Higher serum chloride concentrations are associated with acute kidney injury in unselected critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Xu, Xiao; Fan, Haozhe; Li, Danyu; Deng, Hongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Chloride administration has been found to be harmful to the kidney in critically ill patients. However the association between plasma chloride concentration and renal function has never been investigated. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary 24-bed intensive care unit from September 2010 to November 2012. Data on serum chloride for each patient during their ICU stay were abstracted from electronic database. Cl0 referred to the initial chloride on ICU entry...

  6. Cytogenetic Effects of Copper Chloride on the Root Tip Cells of Helianthus annuus L.

    OpenAIRE

    İNCEER, Hüseyin; AYAZ, Sema; BEYAZOĞLU, Osman; ŞENTÜRK, Emine

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetic effects of copper chloride on root tip cells of Helianthus annuus were investigated. Seeds were treated with 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L (ppm) of copper chloride for 24 h. It was found that copper chloride has a marked mitodepressive action on mitosis. Mitotic abnormalities were increased and the mitotic index was decreased depending on the concentration of the copper chloride applied.

  7. Preliminary treatment of chlorinated streams containing fission products: mechanisms leading to crystalline phases in molten chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world of the nuclear power gets ready for profound modifications so that 'the atom' can aspire in conformance with long-lasting energy: it is what we call the development of generation IV nuclear systems. So, the new pyrochemical separation processes for the spent fuel reprocessing are currently being investigated. Techniques in molten chloride media generate an ultimate flow (with high chlorine content) which cannot be incorporated in conventional glass matrices. This flow is entirely water-soluble and must be conditioned in a chemical form which is compatible with a long-term disposal. This work of thesis consists in studying new ways for the management of the chlorinated streams loaded with fission products (FP). To do it, a strategy of selective FP extraction via the in situ formation of crystalline phases was retained. The possibility of extracting rare earths in the eutectic LiCl-KCl was demonstrated via the development of a new way of synthesis of rare earth phosphates (TRPO4). As regards alkaline earths, the conversion of strontium and barium chlorides to the corresponding tungstates or molybdates was studied in different solvents. Mechanisms leading to the crystalline phases in molten chloride media were studied via the coupling of NMR and XRD techniques. First of all, it has been shown that these mechanisms are dependent on the stability of the used precursors. So in the case of the formation of rare earth phosphates the solvent is chemically active. On the other hand, in the case of the formation of alkaline earth tungstates it would seem that the solvent plays the role of structuring agent which can control the ability to react of chlorides. (author)

  8. [Activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rat organs under cobalt and mercury chloride injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rats under cobalt and mercury chloride injection was investigated. The calpains activity increase in the lungs, heart, liver and kidneys was revealed after 2 h cobalt chloride action. The mercury chloride gives a reliable increase of calcium-dependent neutral proteinases only in the kidneys. PMID:14574747

  9. 40 CFR 721.10154 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. 721.10154 Section 721.10154 Protection of Environment..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica. (a) Chemical substance and significant..., dicoco alkyldimethyl, chlorides, reaction products with silica (PMN P-08-157; CAS No. 956147-76-5)...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  11. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (hxy, hxxy, and hxyy) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients hxy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  12. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  13. Experimental study on chloride penetration resistance performance of recycled concrete%再生混凝土抗氯离子渗透性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶腾; 徐毅慧; 张锦

    2014-01-01

    改变再生粗骨料掺量、粉煤灰掺量、水胶比等参数,研究不同配合比对再生混凝土抗氯离子渗透能力的影响规律。试验结果表明,降低水胶比对再生混凝土抗氯离子渗透性能有利;再生混凝土氯离子迁移系数随着再生粗骨料替代率的增大而增大,抗氯离子渗透性能下降。掺加粉煤灰可以改善再生混凝土抗氯离子渗透性能,对于早龄期再生混凝土粉煤灰掺量在10%~20%之间为宜。%By changing some elements such as dosage of recycled coarse aggregate ,content of ash and water-cement ratio , we study the effect of different mix proportions on the chloride penetration resistance of recycled concrete .Experimental result shows that the reduction of water-cement ratio is beneficial to the chloride penetration resistance performance of recycled concrete ,and the chloride transport coefficient of recycled concrete increases with the rise of replacement ratio of recycled coarse aggregate but the chloride penetration resistance decreases .Addition of ash can improve the chloride penetration resistance performance of recycled concrete ,and the content of ash in early-age recycled concrete may be between 10% and 20% .

  14. BIOGENIC AMINES CONTENT IN DIFFERENT WINE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  15. High filler concrete using fly ash: Chloride penetration and microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  16. High filler concrete using fly ash. Chloride penetration and microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.G.; Leegwater, G.A.; Visser, J.H.M.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most high filler concrete studies are based on relatively high contents of powder (cement + filler) (>400 kg m-3). This paper aims to increase the total fly ash content relative to the clinker content, while simultaneously minimizing the total powder content in the concrete to values lower than 300

  17. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the total chlorine and ionic chlorine contents determined as described in paragraph (d) of this... difference between the total chlorine content and the ionic chlorine content. (ii) Total chlorine content. A... titrated with 0.005 N silver nitrate to the equivalence potential end point using an expanded scale...

  18. Density Functional Theory Study on Conformers of Benzoylcholine Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karakaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimized molecular structures and vibrational frequencies and also gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO 1H and 13C NMR shift values of benzoylcholine chloride [(2-benzoyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride] have been calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP method with 6-31++G(d basis set. The comparison of the experimental and calculated infrared (IR, Raman, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra has indicated that the experimental spectra are formed from the superposition of the spectra of two lowest energy conformers of the compound. So, it was concluded that the compound simultaneously exists in two optimized conformers in the ground state. Also the natural bond orbital (NBO analysis has supported the simultaneous exiting of two conformers in the ground state. The calculated optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles and vibrational frequencies for both the lowest energy conformers were seen to be in a well agreement with the corresponding experimental data.

  19. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  20. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis', and D ampersand D plans' were prepared in 1991. Physical D ampersand D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D ampersand D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred

  1. INNA for interelement correlations in rats after mercuric chloride exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an animal model study, we exposed rats to mercuric chloride through drinking water continuously for eight to ten months. A group of these rats were then taken off mercuric chloride water and fed distilled water. A control group of rats was given distilled water. Rat brain, spinal cord, and kidney were analyzed to determine Hg and nine other elements by INAA. Significant imbalances were detected among the groups. Most of the mercury (Hg) was found to be eliminated from the tissues studied within the first thirty days. Implications of the data are discussed in light of observed trace element imbalances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. (author) 25 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  2. Evaluation of corrosion effect in reinforced concrete by chloride exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, G.; Di Benedetti, M.; Iovino, R.; Nanni, A.; Gonzalez, M. A.

    2011-04-01

    Durability is generally described as the ability of a material to maintain its physical and mechanical properties over time. In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, concrete is the ideal material to protect the steel reinforcement given its high alkalinity. In environments subjected to highly aggressive conditions, mostly due to the presence of chlorides, concrete may lose its protective characteristics and allow for accelerated ageing. Concrete degradation and steel reinforcement corrosion are phenomena closely connected. The aim of this research work is the characterization of the relationship between steel reinforcement corrosion and concrete degradation under accelerated ageing in a 3% sodium chloride solution. The method of linear polarization is used for identification of the corrosion rate of the steel bar. Additionally, the values of concrete residual strength are obtained, and correlated to both the corrosion rate and width of concrete cracks. Finally, the prediction of the concrete cover useful life is estimated.

  3. CHLORIDE ION PERMEABILITY STUDIES OF METAKAOLIN BASED HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Vaishali. G.Ghorpade,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To increase the applications of HPC in India, greater under standing of HPC produced with locally available materials and indigenously produced mineral admixtures is essential. In the present investigation, HPC has been produced with locally available aggregates and metakaolin as the mineral admixture. Various metakaolin based HPC mixes were attained by absolute volume method. Cubes of 150X150X150 mm size were cast and cured for 28 days and then tested for compressive strength. Chloride ion permeability test as per ASTM C 1202 has been conducted on various HPC mixes to measure the permeability values of HPC produced with metakaolin. The experimental results indicate that metakaolin has the ability to considerably reduce the permeability of high performance concrete. The various details about the chloride ion permeability test have been presented in this paper.

  4. Sodium chloride's effect on self-assembly of diphenylalanine bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junpyo; Lee, Myeongsang; Na, Sungsoo

    2016-07-15

    Understanding self-assembling peptides becomes essential in nanotechnology, thereby providing a bottom-up method for fabrication of nanostructures. Diphenylalanine constitutes an outstanding building block that can be assembled into various nanostructures, including two-dimensional bilayers or nanotubes, exhibiting superb mechanical properties. It is known that the effect of the ions is critical in conformational and chemical interactions of bilayers or membranes. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sodium chloride on diphenylalanine bilayer using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and calculated the bending Young's modulus and the torsional modulus by applying normal modal analysis using an elastic network model. The results showed that sodium chloride dramatically increases the assembling efficiency and stability, thereby promising to allow the precise design and control of the fabrication process and properties of bio-inspired materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241039

  5. Inhibition of intestinal chloride secretion by proanthocyanidins from Guazuma ulmifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hör, M; Rimpler, H; Heinrich, M

    1995-06-01

    The antisecretory activity of Guazuma ulmifolia bark was examined in rabbit distal colon mounted in an Ussing chamber. Chloride secretion was stimulated by cholera toxin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Guazuma ulmifolia extract (GUE) completely inhibited cholera toxin-induced secretion if the extract was added to the mucosal bath prior to the toxin. Adding the extract after administration of the toxin had no effect on secretion. GUE did not inhibit PGE2-induced chloride secretion. These results indicate an indirect antisecretory mechanism. SDS-PAGE analysis of cholera toxin treated with GUE confirmed this presumption. GUE specifically interacted with the A subunit of the toxin. Preliminary phytochemical examinations showed that the most active fraction contains procyanidins with a degree of polymerisation higher than 8. PMID:7617760

  6. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of chloride doped polyaniline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Pharhad Hussain; A Kumar

    2003-04-01

    Chloride doped polyaniline conducting polymer films have been prepared in a protic acid medium (HCl) by potentiodynamic method in an electrochemical cell and studied by cyclic voltammetry and FTIR techniques. The FTIR spectra confirmed Cl– ion doping in the polymers. The polymerization rate was found to increase with increasing concentration of aniline monomer. But the films obtained at high monomer concentration were rough having a nonuniform flaky polyaniline distribution. Results showed that the polymerization rate did not increase beyond a critical HCl concentration. Cyclic voltammetry suggested that, the oxidation-reduction current increased with an increase in scan rate and that the undoped polyaniline films were not hygroscopic whereas chloride doped polyaniline films were found to be highly hygroscopic.

  7. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  8. Does Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation of Vinyl Chloride Yield Cold Vinylidene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Ravin; Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M; Field, Robert W; Suits, Arthur G

    2015-07-01

    Velocity map imaging of the infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl chloride shows the formation of HCl in rotational levels below J = 10 that are associated with the three-center elimination pathway. The total translational energy release is observed to peak at 3-5 kcal/mol, which is consistent with the low reverse barrier predicted for the formation of HCl with vinylidene coproducts. Direct dynamics trajectory studies from the three-center transition state reproduce the observed distributions and show that the associated vinylidene is formed with only modest rotational excitation, precluding Coriolis-induced mixing among the excited vibrational levels of acetylene that would lead to distribution of vinylidene character into many vibrationally mixed acetylene vibrational levels. The results suggest that infrared multiphoton dissociation of vinyl chloride is an efficient route to synthesis of stable, cold vinylidene. PMID:26266719

  9. Effect of distance from sea on chloride aggressiveness in concrete structures in brazilian coastal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meira, G. R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance of concrete structures from the sea is an important aspect when studying the deleterious effect of airborne salinity in marine environment zone. It permits to know how the durability of structures is affected by increasing the distance from the sea. This paper presents results of an experimental work on assessing the effect of the distance from sea on chloride aggressiveness, considering both the airborne salinity and chloride content in concrete specimens located at different distances from sea. This study has been carried out at Joao Pessoa, capital of the State of Paraiba, located in the northeast part of Brazil. The results indicated a drastic reduction of chloride deposition from marine aerosol, especially along the first 200 meters from the sea. Similar behavior was observed in the concrete specimens, even though the reduction has been less pronounced. Although more research is necessary, the differences in the rates of chloride decrease may be explained by different reasons, including the different chloride concentration in air and on concrete surface, the phenomena related to the skin effect and surface washing by rain.

    La influencia de la distancia al mar es un tema clave en el estudio de la agresividad salina en zona de atmósfera marina, ya que permite conocer cómo afecta a la durabilidad de las construcciones cuando aumenta la distancia al mar. Este trabajo presenta resultados de un estudio experimental que valora la situación a través de la medida del depósito de cloruros de la niebla salina y en probetas de hormigón expuestas a distintas distancias desde el mar en la ciudad de Joâo Pessoa, ubicada en la costa noreste de Brasil. Los resultados indican una importante disminución del depósito de cloruros de la niebla salina a medida que se aumenta la distancia al mar, especialmente en los primeros doscientos metros. La concentración de cloruros en el hormigón indica un comportamiento semejante. Sin

  10. Silent S-Type Anion Channel Subunit SLAH1 Gates SLAH3 Open for Chloride Root-to-Shoot Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Font, Paloma; Maierhofer, Tobias; Jaslan, Justyna; Rosales, Miguel A; Espartero, Joaquín; Díaz-Rueda, Pablo; Müller, Heike M; Hürter, Anna-Lena; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Marten, Irene; Hedrich, Rainer; Colmenero-Flores, José M; Geiger, Dietmar

    2016-08-22

    Higher plants take up nutrients via the roots and load them into xylem vessels for translocation to the shoot. After uptake, anions have to be channeled toward the root xylem vessels. Thereby, xylem parenchyma and pericycle cells control the anion composition of the root-shoot xylem sap [1-6]. The fact that salt-tolerant genotypes possess lower xylem-sap Cl(-) contents compared to salt-sensitive genotypes [7-10] indicates that membrane transport proteins at the sites of xylem loading contribute to plant salinity tolerance via selective chloride exclusion. However, the molecular mechanism of xylem loading that lies behind the balance between NO3(-) and Cl(-) loading remains largely unknown. Here we identify two root anion channels in Arabidopsis, SLAH1 and SLAH3, that control the shoot NO3(-)/Cl(-) ratio. The AtSLAH1 gene is expressed in the root xylem-pole pericycle, where it co-localizes with AtSLAH3. Under high soil salinity, AtSLAH1 expression markedly declined and the chloride content of the xylem sap in AtSLAH1 loss-of-function mutants was half of the wild-type level only. SLAH3 anion channels are not active per se but require extracellular nitrate and phosphorylation by calcium-dependent kinases (CPKs) [11-13]. When co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, however, the electrically silent SLAH1 subunit gates SLAH3 open even in the absence of nitrate- and calcium-dependent kinases. Apparently, SLAH1/SLAH3 heteromerization facilitates SLAH3-mediated chloride efflux from pericycle cells into the root xylem vessels. Our results indicate that under salt stress, plants adjust the distribution of NO3(-) and Cl(-) between root and shoot via differential expression and assembly of SLAH1/SLAH3 anion channel subunits. PMID:27397895

  11. Enthalpy and entropy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with some monosaccharides in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Kelei; WANG; Jianji; BAI; Guangyue; YAN; Haike; WANG

    2004-01-01

    Dilution enthalpies of sodium chloride and some monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fructose) in water and mixing enthalpies of aqueous sodium chloride and these monosaccharide solutions were measured by using an improved precision semimicro-titration calorimeter. Transfer enthalpies of sodium chloride from water to aqueous saccharide solutions were evaluated as well as enthalpy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with these monosaccharides in water. Combined with Gibbs energy interaction parameters, entropy interaction parameters were also obtained. The results show that interactions of the saccharides with sodium chloride depend on the stereochemistry of saccharide molecules. These interaction parameters can identify stereochemical structure of saccharide molecules.

  12. Relationship between chloride diffusivity and pore structure of hardened cement paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-wen SUN; Wei SUN; Yun-sheng ZHANG; Zhi-yong LIU

    2011-01-01

    Based on effective media theory, a predictive model, relating chloride diffusivity to the capillary pores, gel pores,tortuosity factor, and pore size distribution of hardened cement, is proposed. To verify the proposed model, the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions, the degree of hydration, and peak radius of capillary pores of cement paste specimens were measured. The predicted results for chloride diffusivity were compared with published data. The results showed that the predicted chloride diffusivity of hardened cement paste was in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of the evolution of pore structures in cement paste on chloride diffusivity could be deduced simultaneously using the proposed model.

  13. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated 36Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced by them

  14. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar measured by Electron Probe Micro Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    Chloride ingress is a common cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Concrete may be exposed to chloride by sea water or deicing salts. The chloride initiates corrosion of the reinforcement which through expansion disrupts the concrete. Modelling the chloride ingress is an.......Chloride ingress in modern concretes cannot be followed with conventional measuring techniques. This makes it difficult to develop and test new models. However, prefatory experiments have shown that electron probe micro analysis, EPMA, is applicable for this purpose. The geometric resolution for the EPMA method is...

  15. Structural and mechanistic studies of chloride induced activation of human pancreatic α-amylase

    OpenAIRE

    Maurus, Robert; Begum, Anjuman; Kuo, Hsin-Hen; Racaza, Andrew; Numao, Shin; Andersen, Carsten; Tams, Jeppe W.; Vind, Jesper; Overall, Christopher M.; Withers, Stephen G.; Brayer, Gary D

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of allosteric activation of α-amylase by chloride has been studied through structural and kinetic experiments focusing on the chloride-dependent N298S variant of human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA) and a chloride-independent TAKA-amylase. Kinetic analysis of the HPA variant clearly demonstrates the pronounced activating effect of chloride ion binding on reaction rates and its effect on the pH-dependence of catalysis. Structural alterations observed in the N298S variant upon chlorid...

  16. Studies of Degradation of Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (PPVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Elena Gavrilă

    2016-01-01

    Commercial plasticizers are introduced in Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) to obtain flexibility, high elongation to break, durability, resistance to heat and chemicals. Very used plasticizers are phthalates, most commonly phthalate being di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP). The phthalates are not chemically bound to PVC and can migrate from different devices and objects due to the influence of temperature, or to other types of degradation. In article are presented the harm effects of phtha...

  17. Melt supercooling and growth of lead chloride single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nitsch, Karel; Cihlář, Antonín; Rodová, Miroslava

    Bratislava: NOI, 2003 - (Koman, M.; Miklos, D.), s. 49-50 ISBN 80-89088-16-3. [Joint Seminar DMS -RE 2003 /13./. Račkova dolina (SK), 15.09.2003-19.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : crystal growth * lead chloride * Bridgman method * length of supercool region Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  18. Bis[1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane]dichloridonitrosyltungsten(0 chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Avramović

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, [WCl2(NO(C6H16P22]Cl, the seven-coordinated tungsten(II center displays a distorted pentagonal–bipyramidal geometry with trans nitrosyl and chloride ligands. The NO and Cl ligands are disordered over two positions; the site occupancy factors are 0.6 and 0.4.

  19. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride) on growth, viabi...

  20. Sequential injection titration of chloride in milk with potentiometric detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, M.J. Reis; Fernandes, Sílvia M. V.; Rangel, António O.S.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a sequential injection system for the pseudo-titration of chloride in milk is described. Milk was directly aspirated into the system and sandwiched between two silver nitrate plugs (titrant). The aspirated zones were then propelled to the detector (Ag2S/Ag tubular electrode), where the depletion in the titrant silver concentration (due to the formation of a AgCl precipitate) was monitored. The results obtained by the developed sequential injection titration method were ...

  1. Thionyl-chloride-induced lung injury and bronchiolitis obliterans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konichezky, S.; Schattner, A.; Ezri, T.; Bokenboim, P.; Geva, D. (Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot (Israel))

    1993-09-01

    Thionyl-chloride (TCl) is used in the manufacture of lithium batteries, producing SO2 and HCl fumes on contact with water. We report two cases of accidental TCl exposure resulting in lung injury that may vary from a relatively mild and reversible interstitial lung disease to a severe form of bronchiolitis obliterans causing, after a latent period, an acute/chronic respiratory failure as well as other complications (spontaneous pneumothorax and bronchopleural fistula), previously unreported in TCl fume inhalation.

  2. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  3. Polarization and charge transfer in the hydration of chloride ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding waters in the external field of more distant waters. The ChelpG method is employed to explore the effective charges and dipoles on the chloride ions and first-shell waters. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is further utilized to examine charge transfer from the anion to surrounding water molecules. The clusters extracted from the AMOEBA simulations exhibit high probabilities of anisotropic solvation for chloride ions in bulk water. From the QTAIM analysis, 0.2 elementary charges are transferred from the ion to the first-shell water molecules. The default AMOEBA model overestimates the average dipole moment magnitude of the ion compared to the quantum mechanical value. The average magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first shell treated at the MP2-level, with the more distant waters handled with an AMOEBA effective charge model, is 2.67 D. This value is close to the AMOEBA result for first-shell waters (2.72 D) and is slightly reduced from the bulk AMOEBA value (2.78 D). The magnitude of the dipole moment of the water molecules in the first solvation shell is most strongly affected by the local water-water interactions and hydrogen bonds with the second solvation shell, rather than by interactions with the ion.

  4. Chloride transport through cementitious membranes using pulsed current

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, B.; Novoa, X.Ramon; Puga, Beatriz; Vivier, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    International audience Microstructural changes and chloride transport in cement pastes are studied under DC current and pulsed electric fields. Impedance spectroscopy and ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements have been employed for quasi-real time monitoring of changes in the cement paste microstructure. The results show that the electric resistivity and ultrasound velocity (measured at 500 kHz) are modified during the migration experiments. At the end of test, mercury intrusion porosimet...

  5. Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, P.; M. Mohamed Essa

    2007-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt) was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg−1 body weight) significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significa...

  6. Intergranular Corrosion of 2024 Alloy in Chloride Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, Christel; Andrieu, Eric; Blanc, Christine; Mankowski, Georges; Delfosse, Jérôme

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the propagation kinetics of intergranular corrosion on 2024 aluminum alloy immersed in 1 and 3 M chloride solutions. Tests consisting of immersion in a corrosive solution followed by optical observations on sectioned samples were carried out. This method was found to be time consuming and led to a lack of reproducibility due to the random nature of the corrosion attacks. Another method proved to be more efficient; it consisted of measuring the load to f...

  7. A spontaneous, tonic chloride conductance in solitary glutamatergic hippocampal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenman, Lawrence N.; Kress, Geraldine; Charles F. Zorumski; Mennerick, Steven

    2006-01-01

    GABA-A receptors mediate both phasic synaptic inhibition and more recently appreciated tonic currents in the vertebrate central nervous system. We addressed discrepancies in the literature regarding the pharmacology of tonic currents by examining tonic currents in a controlled environment of dissociated, solitary glutamatergic neurons. We describe a novel tonically active, bicuculline-sensitive chloride conductance that is insensitive to gabazine and to picrotoxin and thus not mediated by con...

  8. Binary Nucleation in Aqueous Electrolyte Systems. Sodium Chloride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František

    Gdansk: IFFM Publishers, 2005 - (Mikielewicz, J.; Butrymowicz, D.; Trela, M.; Cieslinski, J.), s. 395-400 ISBN 83-88237-90-X. [HEAT 2005 : International Conference on Transport Phenomena in Multiphase Systems. Gdansk (PL), 26.06.2005-30.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  9. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Fleming; Luiz Claudio Pardini; Nilton Alves; Elson Garcia; Carlos Brito Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN) which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC) by conventional suspensi...

  10. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenthal Eric; Spycher Nicolas; Zhang Guoxiang; Steefel Carl

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes...

  11. Synthesis and catalytic activity of tetraphenylporphyrinate chloride of uranium (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new complex, uranium (4), tetraphenyl porphyrinate chloride, that is an active catalyst of cholesterine oxidation is synthesized by tetraphenyl porphyrine interaction with UCl4 solution in pyridine, the yield being 20%. The composition melting point is above 400 deg, Rf 0.5 (silufol; chloroform-ethanol 1:1), UV spectrum in benzene (λmax, nm(εx103)):425(180), 540(8)

  12. Hematologic depression following therapy with strontium-89 chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial clinical trials using strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride for the treatment of painful skeletal metastases have observed minimal or no hematological depression secondary to the radiostrontium. A patient with marked bone marrow depression temporally related to the administration of the Sr-89 is reported, and the need for close hematological monitoring is emphasized. Bone marrow tumor replacement may predispose patients to marrow depression from radiostrontium, and such patients should be treated with caution

  13. Benzalkonium Chloride Induced Bronchoconstriction in Patients with Stable Bronchial Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byoung Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Background Although benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced bronchoconstriction occurs in patients with bronchial asthma, BAC-containing nebulizer solutions are still being used in daily practice in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inhaled aqueous solutions containing BAC. Methods Thirty subjects with bronchial asthma and 10 normal controls inhaled up to three 600 µg nebulized doses of BAC using a jet nebulizer. FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at one second) was measured...

  14. Discoloration of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater Using Polyaluminium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana; BUŽAROVSKA, Aleksandra; DIMZOSKI, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in discoloration of synthetic dyeing wastewater composed of reactive or direct dye has been investigated, taking into account the proven advantages of PAC in water purification processes (compared to the conventional coagulants such as Al2(SO4)3, FeSO4, etc.). The efficiency of PAC was determined by UV/VIS spectroscopy, controlling the UV/VIS absorbance changes of the wastewater samples after their treatment with the appropriate amount of PAC. Co...

  15. Comment on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner

    2014-09-01

    Glykys et al. (Reports, 7 February 2014, p. 670) proposed that cytoplasmic impermeant anions and polyanionic extracellular matrix glycoproteins establish the local neuronal intracellular chloride concentration, [Cl(-)]i, and thereby the polarity of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor signaling. The experimental procedures and results in this study are insufficient to support these conclusions. Contradictory results previously published by these authors and other laboratories are not referred to. PMID:25190788

  16. Control of Perovskite Crystal Growth by Methylammonium Lead Chloride Templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Andreas; Grill, Irene; Huber, Niklas; Peters, Kristina; Hufnagel, Alexander G; Handloser, Matthias; Docampo, Pablo; Hartschuh, Achim; Bein, Thomas

    2016-04-20

    State-of-the-art solar cells based on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3 ) now reach efficiencies over 20 %. This fast improvement was possible with intensive research in perovskite processing. In particular, chloride-based precursors are known to have a positive influence on the crystallization of the perovskite. Here, we used a combination of in-situ X-ray diffraction and charge-transport measurements to understand the influence of chloride during perovskite crystallization in planar heterojunction solar cells. We show that MAPbCl3 crystallizes directly after the deposition of the starting solution and acts as a template for the formation of MAPbI3 . Additionally, we show that the charge-carrier mobility doubles by extending the time for the template formation. Our results give a deeper understanding of the influence of chloride in the synthesis of MAPbI3 and illustrate the importance of carefully controlling crystallization for reproducible, high-efficiency solar cells. PMID:26928877

  17. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Viscosity measurement of alkali chlorides with capillary viscometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscosities of molten alkali chlorides have been measured by means of newly designed capillary viscometer made of fused quartz as shown in Fig. 1 and combined with a special transparent electric furnace which can be inverted. The viscometer was of a suspended level type and designed so as to minimize the error associated with the measurement, e.g., the effect of surface tension. Reynolds number of the capillary was less than 100. The sample was introduced into the viscometer through the quartz filter and then sealed under vacuum. Cell constants of the viscometer were determined by using distilled water as a calibration liquid. Efflux times were measured by direct visual observation using a digital stopwatch, and showed excellent reproducibility. The viscometer in the present investigation proved to be very precise and the errors accompanied were considered to be less than 0.7%. Viscosities obtained are collected in Table 1 and Figs. 3-1 -- 3-5 together with the previous data. Whereas the viscosity did not necessarily show any regularity, the activation energy for viscous flow increased with increasing cation size in the series of molten alkali chlorides. On the basis of a hard sphere model, the sizes of the flow units were considered to be nearly equal to those of cation-anion pairs. The viscosity of each molten alkali chloride at melting temperature increased with an increasing ratio of the flow unit volume to the hole volume. (author)

  19. Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

  20. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  1. Digital Libraries: Contents & Services

    OpenAIRE

    Nazim, Mohammad; Saraf, Sanjiv

    2005-01-01

    Explains what a digital library is and how it is designed to support access to digital contents and services. In a broad sense a digital library is simply an on-line system providing access to a wide variety of contents and services. Contents include virtually any kind of electronic material such as various kinds of electronic media (text, images, video, etc.), licensed databases of journals, articles and abstracts and description of physical collections. Digital Libraries offer different typ...

  2. Radiation crosslinking of poly(vinyl chloride) with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate. IV. Effect of diundecyl phthalate: dependence of physical properties on composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blends of poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC) with polyfunctional monomers may be crosslinked by ionizing radiation. The physical properties of PVC blended with trimethylolpropanetrimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and diundecyl phthalate (DUP) were studied. The TMPTMA monomer crosslinked the blend by homopolymerization and/or grafting to PVC. The plasticizer, DUP, was chemically inert under irradiation but, by plasticizing the macromolecules and diluting the monomer, changed the kinetics extensively. Characteristics of the glass transitions and the tensile mechanical properties have been correlated with blend composition and radiation dose. Before irradiation, poly(vinyl chloride) was plasticized by both DUP and TMPTMA monomer. The increase in glass transition temperature and mechanical strength following irradiation to 5 Mrad was correlated with the TMPTMA content of the blend. Both the molecular structure of the network and the DUP content of the blend were factors in determining the physical properties of the final crosslinked blend. The molecular structure was determined by the kinetics of the crosslinking reactions, which in turn were determined by the blend composition. A molecular interpretation consistent with the physical properties, chemical kinetics, and mechanism of the crosslinking system has been presented. 24 figures, 2 tables

  3. Determining the impacts of experimental forest plantation on groundwater recharge in the Nebraska Sand Hills (USA) using chloride and sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Z. A.; Gates, J. B.

    2015-02-01

    Although impacts of land-use changes on groundwater recharge have been widely demonstrated across diverse environmental settings, most previous research has focused on the role of agriculture. This study investigates recharge impacts of tree plantations in a century-old experimental forest surrounded by mixed-grass prairie in the Northern High Plains (Nebraska National Forest), USA. Recharge was estimated using solute mass balance methods from unsaturated zone cores beneath 10 experimental plots with different vegetation and planting densities. Pine and cedar plantation plots had uniformly lower moisture contents and higher solute concentrations than grasslands. Cumulative solute concentrations were greatest beneath the plots with the highest planting densities (chloride concentrations 225-240 % and sulfate concentrations 175-230 % of the grassland plot). Estimated recharge rates beneath the dense plantations (4-10 mm yr-1) represent reductions of 86-94 % relative to the surrounding native grassland. Relationships between sulfate, chloride, and moisture content in the area's relatively homogenous sandy soils confirm that the unsaturated zone solute signals reflect partitioning between drainage and evapotranspiration in this setting. This study is among the first to explore afforestation impacts on recharge beneath sandy soils and sulfate as a tracer of deep drainage.

  4. Scalable Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizability, security, auditability, quality, community support, options and cost of licensing. So architecting aContent Management System in terms of enterprise needs and a scalable solution to manage the huge data growth necessitates a Scalable Content Management System.

  5. Multimedia content description framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.

  6. Effect of pH and chloride on the micro-mechanism of pitting corrosion for high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pitting behavior of X80 steel in aerated NaCl solutions is studied systematically. • Unique large pit morphology is observed in neutral/acidic NaCl solutions. • In low pH solutions, pit will propagate in the horizontal direction, leading to the shallow shape of pitting morphology; in high pH solutions, the pit sizes are much smaller. • Film growth, which is dependent on the pH and chloride concentration, has great influence on the cathodic reaction by affecting oxygen diffusion process. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion mechanism of high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions with different pH and chloride content was investigated, using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pitting behavior in alkaline solutions was found to be significantly different from that in neutral and acidic solutions. Electrochemical results and SEM images indicate that the product film formed on the steel surface results in different corrosion behavior in an alkaline solution. SEM images show that pH and chloride concentration in the bulk solution have a great influence on the pitting morphology. Unique large pit morphology due to corrosion in neutral/acidic solutions with 0.05 mol/L NaCl was observed. The relationship between solution pH and the effect of chloride concentration is also discussed

  7. Effect of pH and chloride on the micro-mechanism of pitting corrosion for high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Guangxu, E-mail: gxcheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Wu, Wei; Qiao, Qiao; Li, Yun; Li, Xiufeng

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Pitting behavior of X80 steel in aerated NaCl solutions is studied systematically. • Unique large pit morphology is observed in neutral/acidic NaCl solutions. • In low pH solutions, pit will propagate in the horizontal direction, leading to the shallow shape of pitting morphology; in high pH solutions, the pit sizes are much smaller. • Film growth, which is dependent on the pH and chloride concentration, has great influence on the cathodic reaction by affecting oxygen diffusion process. - Abstract: The pitting corrosion mechanism of high strength pipeline steel in aerated NaCl solutions with different pH and chloride content was investigated, using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pitting behavior in alkaline solutions was found to be significantly different from that in neutral and acidic solutions. Electrochemical results and SEM images indicate that the product film formed on the steel surface results in different corrosion behavior in an alkaline solution. SEM images show that pH and chloride concentration in the bulk solution have a great influence on the pitting morphology. Unique large pit morphology due to corrosion in neutral/acidic solutions with 0.05 mol/L NaCl was observed. The relationship between solution pH and the effect of chloride concentration is also discussed.

  8. Biochemical changes and color properties of fresh-cut green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv.gina treated with calcium chloride during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Kasim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium chloride is widely used in industries as a firming agent, and also to extend shelf-life of vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine, the effect of different doses of calcium chloride on biochemical and color properties of fresh-cut green bean. Fresh-cut green beans were dipped for 90 seconds in 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% solution of calcium chloride at 25°C. The fresh-cut green bean samples were packaged in polystyrene foam dishes, wrapped with stretch film and stored in a cold room at 5±1°C temperature and 85-90% RH. Calcium chloride treatments did not retain the green color of samples. Whiteness index, browning index and total color difference (ΔE values of CaCl2 treated samples were high. Saturation index and hue angle were low compared to the control, especially at higher doses of CaCl2. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO enzyme activity in samples treated with CaCl2 at 3% doses, was low at the 7th days of storage than with other treatments. Fructose and sucrose content of samples increased in all treatment groups whereas glucose level decreased during the first 4th days of storage.

  9. Bioinert membranes prepared from amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) graft copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Rajkumar [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Patel, Madhumita [Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 3–26 Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sung Hoon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yong Kiel [ReSEAT Program, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, 206-9 Cheongyangni-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyung-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Dae-jeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jung-Suk, E-mail: sungjs@dongguk.edu [Department of Life Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, 3–26 Phil-dong, Chung-gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane was hydrophilically modified by grafting with poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The successful grafting of PVC main chain by POEM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular weight and hydrophilicity of membranes increased with the amount of POEM grafting, as characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and contact angle measurement, respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of PVC-g-POEM and the domain spacing increased from 59.3 to 86.1 nm with increasing grafting degree. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for the direct visualization of the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell and bacteria adhesion on the membrane surface. Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests showed that the bioinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content. Highlights: ► TEM and SAXS analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of graft copolymer membranes. ► Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests were performed on graft copolymer membranes. ► Boinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content.

  10. Effect of Calcium Sulphate Nanoparticles on Fusion, Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour Polyvinyl Chloride (pvc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, C. B.; Shisode, P. S.; Kapadi, U. R.; Hundiwale, D. G.; Mahulikar, P. P.

    Calcium Sulphate [CaSO4] was synthesized by in-situ deposition technique and its nano size (60 to 100 nm) was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Composites of the filler CaSO4 (micro and nano) and the matrix poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) were prepared with different filler loading (0-5 wt. %) by melt mixing. The Brabender torque rheometer equipped with an internal mixer was used for preparation and evaluation of fusion behaviour of composites of different formulations. The effect of nano and micro-CaSO4 content on the structure and properties of composites was studied. The nanostructures and dispersion were studied by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical and thermal properties of PVC/ micro and nano-CaSO4 composites were characterized using Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA). From the results of WAXD and SEM the flocculation of CaSO4 nanoparticles were observed on the surfaces of PVC matrix. The thermal analysis results showed that the first thermal degradation onset (T onset) of PVC/nano-CaSO4 composites for 1 wt. % of filler were higher as compared with corresponding microcomposites and pristine PVC. However, the tensile strength was decreasing with increasing filler content while, it shows increment in magnitude at 1 and 2 wt. % of nano-CaSO4 as compared with corresponding micro-CaSO4 as well as pristine PVC.

  11. Bioinert membranes prepared from amphiphilic poly(vinyl chloride)-g-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) graft copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane was hydrophilically modified by grafting with poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The successful grafting of PVC main chain by POEM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The molecular weight and hydrophilicity of membranes increased with the amount of POEM grafting, as characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and contact angle measurement, respectively. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of PVC-g-POEM and the domain spacing increased from 59.3 to 86.1 nm with increasing grafting degree. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for the direct visualization of the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell and bacteria adhesion on the membrane surface. Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests showed that the bioinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content. Highlights: ► TEM and SAXS analysis revealed the microphase-separated structure of graft copolymer membranes. ► Protein adsorption and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell adhesion tests were performed on graft copolymer membranes. ► Boinert properties of membranes were significantly increased with POEM content

  12. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  13. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industry and future developments. ⢠A thorough literature investigation, leading to: o Understanding the reasons to abandon the proposed process route previously used (molten salt electrowinning in parti...

  14. Preparation and characterization of poly-(methacrylatoethyl trimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Malis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A polymer monolithic column, poly-(methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate or poly-(MATE-co-VBC-co-EDMA was successfully prepared in the current study by one-step thermally initiated in situ polymerization, confined in a steel tubing of 0.5 mm i.d. and 1/16” o.d. The monoliths were prepared from methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MATE and vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC as monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA as crosslinker using a binary porogen system of 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The inner wall of steel tubing was pretreated with 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MAPS. In order to obtain monolith with adequate column efficiency and low flow resistance, some parameters such as total monomer concentration (%T and crosslinker concentration (%C were optimized. The morphology of this monolith was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The properties of the monolithic column, such as permeability, binding capacity, and pore size distribution were also characterized in detail. From the results of the characterization of all monolith variation, monolith with %T 30 %C 50 and %T 35 %C 50 give the best characteristic. These monoliths have high permeability, adequate molecular recognition sites (represented with binding capacity value of over 20 mg/mL, and have over 80% flow through pores in their pore structure contribute to low flow resistance. The resulted monolithic columns have promising potential for dual mode liquid chromatography. MATE may contribute for anion-exchange while VBC may responsible for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

  15. Chloride transport and chloride thresholdvalues-Studies on concretes and mortars with Portland cement and limestone blended cement

    OpenAIRE

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used building materials and if it is properly designed and produced, it is an extremely durable material with a service life up to 100 years. However, under certain environmental conditions the service life of reinforced concrete structures is more limited. Deterioration of concrete structure is in most cases caused by the penetration of aggressive media from the surrounding environment. Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is one of t...

  16. Separating refractory and non-refractory particulate chloride and estimating chloride depletion by aerosol mass spectrometry in a marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    I. Nuaaman; Li, S.-M.; K. L. Hayden; Onasch, T. B.; Massoli, P.; D. Sueper; Worsnop, D.R.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K; McLaren, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol composition and concentration measurements along the coast of California were obtained using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) onboard the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex study in 2010. This paper focuses on the measurement of aerosol chloride using the HR-AMS that can be ambiguous in regions with significant quantities of sea salt aerosols. This ambiguity arises due to large differences in the sensitivity of the HR...

  17. Effects of indium chloride exposure on sperm morphology and DNA integrity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indium, a Group IIIA element of the periodic chart and a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry where released streams can contaminate the environment. Consequently, indium can reach humans mainly by natural ways, which could result in a health hazard. Although reproductive toxicities have been surveyed in some studies in animal models, the infertility effects of sperm function induced by indium compounds have not been greatly investigated. We designed a study to investigate the toxicities of subacute exposure to indium compounds on male sperm function and the process of spermatogenesis in a rodent model. Fourteen Sprague-Dawley rats on postnatal Day (PND 84 were randomly divided into exposure and control groups, and weekly received intraperitoneal injections of indium chloride (1.5 mg/kg body weight and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium chloride exposed group showed significant toxicity to sperm function, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphological abnormality and chromatin DNA damage. Furthermore, positive correlations between abnormal sperm morphology, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low dose indium exposure during sexual maturation on sperm function, resulting in sperm chromatin DNA damage through an increase in sperm ROS generation in a rodent model.

  18. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  19. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Fennis; E. Das; M.L. Fransen

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  20. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…