WorldWideScience

Sample records for chlorhexidine

  1. Allergy to Chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Michael N

    2016-04-01

    Chlorhexidine is an effective antiseptic which is widely used in dentistry. Over recent years, it has also been used in other healthcare products as well as in cosmetics. Anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine has been increasingly reported throughout the world, including two incidents in the UK where chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash had been used to wash tooth sockets following recent tooth extraction. Chlorhexidine is under-recognized as a cause of anaphylaxis and dentists should be aware of its potential for serious adverse effects. Dentists need to consider whether the washing out of a tooth socket with chlorhexidine solution should be avoided in the treatment of established dry socket. On current evidence the potential risks of using chlorhexidine as irrigation solution for treating an established dry socket appears to outweigh any known benefit. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Chlorhexidine has the potential to cause anaphylaxis in the dental surgery. PMID:27439274

  2. Chlorhexidine in cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten Schjørring; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana;

    2015-01-01

    and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography...

  3. Agents containing chlorhexidine in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedeva S.N.; Zemlyanichenko М.К.

    2011-01-01

    Aclinical definition of the efficacy of chlorhexidine-containing means for reducing the risk of dental caries and gingivitis with plastic caps. Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent for the formation of individual programs for the prevention of dental caries

  4. IgE-mediated allergy to chlorhexidine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, Lene Heise; Krøigaard, Mogens; Poulsen, Lars K.;

    2007-01-01

    Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999.......Investigations at the Danish Anesthesia Allergy Centre have included testing for allergy to chlorhexidine since 1999....

  5. Penetration of Chlorhexidine into Human Skin ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Karpanen, T. J.; Worthington, T.; Conway, Barbara R; Hilton, A. C.; Elliott, T. S. J.; Lambert, P A

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a model of skin permeation to determine the depth of delivery of chlorhexidine into full-thickness excised human skin following topical application of 2% (wt/vol) aqueous chlorhexidine digluconate. Skin permeation studies were performed on full-thickness human skin using Franz diffusion cells with exposure to chlorhexidine for 2 min, 30 min, and 24 h. The concentration of chlorhexidine extracted from skin sections was determined to a depth of 1,500 µm following serial sec...

  6. Perioperative chlorhexidine allergy: Is it serious?

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic agent, commonly used, in many different preparations, and for multiple purposes. Despite its superior antimicrobial properties, chlorhexidine is a potentially allergenic substance. The following is a review of the current evidence-based knowledge of allergic reactions to chlorhexidine associated with surgical and interventional procedures.

  7. 21 CFR 524.402 - Chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorhexidine. 524.402 Section 524.402 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.402 Chlorhexidine. (a) Specifications. Each gram of ointment contains 10 milligrams chlorhexidine acetate. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 556.120 - Chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorhexidine. 556.120 Section 556.120 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.120 Chlorhexidine. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of chlorhexidine in the uncooked edible tissues of calves....

  9. Chlorhexidine allergy due to topical application

    OpenAIRE

    Nandita N Keni; Meena A Aras; Vidya Chitre

    2012-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is commonly used in dentistry in various forms. Allergic reactions to chlorhexidine of both immediate and delayed type have been reported. Although the incidence is low there may be severe manifestations in some patients. This report presents a case of allergy to chlorhexidine following topical application.

  10. Chlorhexidine allergy due to topical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita N Keni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is commonly used in dentistry in various forms. Allergic reactions to chlorhexidine of both immediate and delayed type have been reported. Although the incidence is low there may be severe manifestations in some patients. This report presents a case of allergy to chlorhexidine following topical application.

  11. Isolation of chlorhexidine-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, H; Kozukue, H

    1982-01-01

    The chlorhexidine resistance of 317 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospital patients was determined. The distribution pattern of their susceptibility to chlorhexidine clearly revealed two peaks, and the frequency of resistance to chlorhexidine was 84.2%.

  12. Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K-S; Kam, P C A

    2008-07-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used skin antisepsis preparation and is an ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. It is an especially effective antiseptic when combined with alcohol. Its antimicrobial effects persist because it is binds strongly to proteins in the skin and mucosa, making it an effective antiseptic ingredient for handwashing, skin preparation for surgery and the placement of intravascular access. Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and antimicrobial agents can reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Contact dermatitis related to chlorhexidine is not common in health care workers. The incidence of contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in atopic patients is approximately 2.5 to 5.4%. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine are often not recognised and therefore may be underreported. This review discusses the pharmacology, microbiology, clinical applications and adverse effects of chlorhexidine.

  13. Chlorhexidine Preserves Dentin Bond in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Carrilho, M. R. O.; Carvalho, R. M.; de Goes, M. F.; di Hipólito, V.; Geraldeli, S.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.; Tjäderhane, L.

    2007-01-01

    Loss of hybrid layer integrity compromises resin-dentin bond stability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be partially responsible for hybrid layer degradation. Since chlorhexidine inhibits MMPs, we hypothesized that chlorhexidine would decelerate the loss of resin-dentin bonds. Class I preparations in extracted third molars were sectioned into two halves. One half was customarily restored (etch-and-rinse adhesive/resin composite), and the other was treated with 2% chlorhexidine after bein...

  14. Chlorhexidine-containing chewing gum. Clinical documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Imfeld, T

    2006-01-01

    A clinical documentation on chlorhexidine containing chewing gum is presented on the occasion of the launch of CHewX, a chewing gum containing 5 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate in Switzerland. Following an overview on functional chewing gum, the mechanism of action of chlorhexidine (CHX), its toxicity and safety are summarized and a review of clinical studies performed with CHX-containing chewing gum given. Indication, dosage, precautions and benefits of CHX chewing gum are described.

  15. Percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine in neonatal cord care.

    OpenAIRE

    Aggett, P J; Cooper, L. V.; Ellis, S H; McAinsh, J

    1981-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine during its routine use in topical antiseptic preparations used in umbilical cord care was investigated by determining plasma chlorhexidine concentrations at ages 5 and 9 days. These showed that percutaneous absorption of chlorhexidine occurred in preterm neonates treated with a 1% solution of chlorhexidine in ethanol, but not in term infants similarly treated, or in preterm infants treated only with a dusting powder containing 1% chlorhexidine and ...

  16. Chlorhexidine urticaria: A rare occurrence with a common mouthwash

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Anamika; Chopra Harneet

    2009-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and nonmedical environments. Compared to its ubiquitous use, allergic contact dermatitis from chlorhexidine has rarely been reported and so its sensitization rate seems to be low. The prevalence of contact urticaria and anaphylaxis due to chlorhexidine remains to be unknown. This case report presents a case of urticaria due to oral use of chlorhexidine. The adverse reaction was confirmed by skin prick test.

  17. 21 CFR 529.400 - Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. 529.400... Chlorhexidine tablets and suspension. (a) Specification. Each tablet and each 28-milliliter syringe of suspension contain 1 gram of chlorhexidine dihydrochloride.1 1 These conditions are NAS/NRC reviewed...

  18. DETERMINATION OF CHLORHEXIDINE IN SALIVA AND IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Ruben, J; Arends, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is presented for the determination of chlorhexidine in centrifuged saliva and in aqueous solutions by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. The method relies on complex formation between chlorhexidine and eosin. The fluorescence value of the chlorhexidine-eosin system decreases with incre

  19. Recurrent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cutaneous Abscesses and Selection of Reduced Chlorhexidine Susceptibility during Chlorhexidine Use

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Ryan C.; Schlett, Carey D.; Crawford, Katrina; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Merrell, D. Scott; Ellis, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the selection of reduced chlorhexidine susceptibility during chlorhexidine use in a patient with two episodes of cutaneous USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus abscess. The second clinical isolate harbors a novel plasmid that encodes the QacA efflux pump. Greater use of chlorhexidine for disease prevention warrants surveillance for resistance.

  20. Chlorhexidine release and water sorption characteristics of chlorhexidine-incorporated hydrophobic/hydrophilic resins

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraishi, N.; Yiu, C.K.Y.; King, N. M.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate chlorhexidine release from unfilled non-solvated methacrylate-based resins of increasing hydrophilicity and to examine relationships among Hoy's solubility parameters, water sorption, solubility and the rate of chlorhexidine release. Methods: Resin discs were prepared from light-cured, experimental resin blends (R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5) containing 0.0, 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 wt.% chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA). Discs were immersed in distilled water at...

  1. Oral chlorhexidine and microbial contamination during endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donatsky, Anders Meller; Holzknecht, Barbara Juliane; Arpi, Magnus;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial contamin......BACKGROUND: One of the biggest concerns associated with transgastric surgery is contamination and risk of intra-abdominal infection with microbes introduced from the access route. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral decontamination with chlorhexidine on microbial...

  2. IgE-mediated chlorhexidine allergy: a new occupational hazard?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagendran, Vasantha; Wicking, Jennifer; Ekbote, Anjali;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine is an effective antimicrobial agent commonly used in UK hospitals, primarily for skin decontamination. Recent UK infection control guidelines recommend the use of 2% chlorhexidine solution in specific clinical settings, thus increasing chlorhexidine use by health care...... workers (HCWs). Chlorhexidine has been widely reported to cause IgE-mediated allergic reactions (from urticaria and angioedema to anaphylaxis) among patients undergoing surgery/invasive procedures. Despite its widespread use in health care settings, there are no reports of clinically confirmed...... occupational IgE-mediated chlorhexidine allergy. AIMS: To identify cases of chlorhexidine allergy among health care workers. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed among HCWs in wards and operating theatres at a UK district general hospital to raise awareness of potential chlorhexidine allergy and to invite...

  3. Chlorhexidine gel associated with papain in pulp tissue dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Couto De Oliveira, Gabriel; Ferraz, Caio Souza; Andrade Júnior, Carlos Vieira; PITHON, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of 2% chlorhexidine gel associated with 8% papain gel in comparison with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite in bovine pulp tissue dissolution. Materials and Methods Ninety bovine pulps of standardized sizes were used and fragmented into 5-mm sizes. The fragments were removed from the root middle third region. They were divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 15), 1) 8% papain; 2) 2% chlorhexidine; 3) 2% chlorhexidine associated with 8% papain; 4) 0....

  4. Experimental evaluation of chlorhexidine gluconate for ocular antisepsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamill, M B; Osato, M S; Wilhelmus, K R

    1984-01-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a bisguanide germicide currently available with 70% isopropanol (Hibistat, Hibitane) or a detergent (Hibiclens, Hibiscrub) for preoperative skin preparation. As these solvents are toxic to the cornea, we investigated the safety and efficacy of aqueous chlorhexidine solutions for ophthalmic use. Chlorhexidine in Tris-glycine buffer was evaluated for retardation of epithelial regeneration after experimental corneal abrasion in rabbits. Irrigant concentrations of 2.0 a...

  5. Chlorhexidine, A Medicine for all the Oral Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Gupta; Vidya Chandavarkar; Sushama R Galgali; Mithilesh Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a bisbiguanide antiseptic. It is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains as well as fungi. It has bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions. Chlorhexidine has excellent antiplaque activity and unique property of substantivity. So it has got wide applications starting from maintaining oral hygiene pre surgically to post operative and also in physically and mentally handicapped patients. Chlorhexidine is now routinely used by clinicians when they treat patient...

  6. Interaction between chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the compatibility of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate since these agents are potential ingredients in future products in preventive dentistry. Varying combinations of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in water, covering the possible ranges of clinically relevant concentrations of both compounds, were made, incubated for 24 h and observed for precipitation of insoluble salts. The mixtures were analyzed for presence of free chlorhexidine and monofluorophosphate after incubation. The results showed that chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate are not compatible in clinically relevant concentrations. A chlorhexidinemonofluorophosphate salt of low solubility in water is presumably formed. (author)

  7. Interaction between chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkvoll, P.; Roella, G.; Bellagamba, S.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the compatibility of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate since these agents are potential ingredients in future products in preventive dentistry. Varying combinations of chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in water, covering the possible ranges of clinically relevant concentrations of both compounds, were made, incubated for 24 h and observed for precipitation of insoluble salts. The mixtures were analyzed for presence of free chlorhexidine and monofluorophosphate after incubation. The results showed that chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate are not compatible in clinically relevant concentrations. A chlorhexidinemonofluorophosphate salt of low solubility in water is presumably formed.

  8. Chlorhexidine: Patient Bathing and Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Salma; Sastry, Sangeeta

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. They are associated with a substantial increase in health care costs each year. Fortunately, many HAIs are preventable, and their eradication is a national priority. Chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing has been used as an infection prevention measure, either alone or bundled with other interventions, with mostly beneficial results. The recent surge in its use as an agent of choice for skin antisepsis has lead to concerns over emerging resistance among microorganisms. Moreover, compliance with CHG-bathing protocols is not routinely monitored. Policies developed to determine the best infection prevention practice must consider that a "one-size-fits-all" strategy may lead to the selection of CHG-tolerant microorganisms, thereby emphasizing the need for more robust guidelines and additional studies on the role of chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of HAIs.

  9. Delivery Challenges for Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Xylitol

    OpenAIRE

    Featherstone, John DB

    2006-01-01

    The progression or reversal of dental caries is determined by the balance between pathological and protective factors. It is well established that a) fluoride inhibits demineralization and enhances remineralization, b) chlorhexidine reduces the cariogenic bacterial challenge, and c) xylitol is non-cariogenic and has antibacterial properties. The challenge that we face is how best to deliver these anti-caries entities at true therapeutic levels, over time, to favorably tip the caries balance. ...

  10. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  11. Chlorhexidine alcohol base mouthrinse versus Chlorhexidine formaldehyde base mouthrinse efficacy on plaque control: double blind, randomized clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ennibi, Oumkeltoum; Lakhdar, Leila; Bouziane, Amal; Bensouda, Yahia; Abouqal, Redouane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chlorhexidine is well known for its antiplaque effect. However, the mouthrinse based chlorhexidine antiplaque efficiency may vary according to the formulation of the final product. The aim of the present study was to compare anti-plaque effectiveness of two commercial mouthrinses: 0.12 % Chlorhexidine alcohol base (CLX-A) versus a diluted 0.1% Chlorhexidine non-alcohol base with 0.1% of Formaldehyde (CLX-F). Material and Methods: the study was a seven day randomized, double-blind,...

  12. FORMULATION OF CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATE DENTAL GELS AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Shivani Salil Desai; Patel, Vishnu M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorhexidine has bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic properties also it is used to reduce oral bacteria and dental plaque. Chlorhexidine gluconate present in gel formulations possesses antibacterial activity towards the organisms present in the dental plaque. Hence, it is a new alternative and cheaper formulation for the treatment of Periodontitis.

  13. Anaphylactic reactions in anaesthetised patients - four cases of chlorhexidine allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, L H; Roed-Petersen, J; Husum, B

    2001-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is widely used all over the world in many different preparations. In Denmark chlorhexidine is the standard skin disinfectant used before surgery or invasive procedures and it is widely used in the general population in mouthwash or for disinfection of minor scratches etc. The potent......Chlorhexidine is widely used all over the world in many different preparations. In Denmark chlorhexidine is the standard skin disinfectant used before surgery or invasive procedures and it is widely used in the general population in mouthwash or for disinfection of minor scratches etc...... into the operation and all four patients required treatment with adrenaline. All four patients had a history of minor symptoms like rashes or faints in connection with previous surgery/invasive procedures. Allergy to chlorhexidine may be more prevalent in surgical patients and cases may have been overlooked due...

  14. The effect of chlorhexidine dentifrice or gel versus chlorhexidine mouthwash on plaque, gingivitis, bleeding and tooth discoloration: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Supranoto; D.E. Slot; M. Addy; G.A. van der Weijden

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and evaluate the available scientific evidence on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine dentifrice or gel (CHX DF/gel) compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash (CHX MW) on plaque, bleeding, gingival inflammation and tooth discoloration scores. Material and methods PubMed-M

  15. Antimicrobial effect of alexidine and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Shik Kim; Seok Woo Chang; Seung-Ho Baek; Seung Hyun Han; Yoon Lee; Qiang Zhu; Kee-Yeon Kum

    2013-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that alexidine has greater affinity for the major virulence factors of bacteria than chlorhexidine. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of 1% alexidine with that of 2% chlorhexidine using Enterococcus faecalis.infected dentin blocks. Sixty bovine dentin blocks were prepared and randomly divided into six groups of 10 each. E. faecalis was inoculated on 60 dentin blocks using the Luppens apparatus for 24 h and then the dentin blocks were soaked in 2% chlorhexidine or 1% alexidine solutions for 5 and 10 min, respectively. Sterile saline was used as a control. The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed by counting the number of bacteria adhering to the dentin surface and observing the degradation of bacterial shape or membrane rupture under a scanning electron microscope. Significantly fewer bacteria were observed in the 2% chlorhexidine- or 1% alexidine-soaked groups than in the control group (P~O.05). However, there was no significant difference in the number of bacteria adhering to the dentinal surface between the two experimental groups or between the two soaking time groups (P>0.05). Ruptured or antiseptic-attached bacteria were more frequently observed in the lO-min-soaked chlorhexidine and alexidine groups than in the 5-min-soaked chlorhexidine and alexidine groups. In conclusion, lO-min soaking with 1% alexidine or 2% chlorhexidine can be effective against E. faecalis infection.

  16. Should surgeons scrub with chlorhexidine or iodine prior to surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarral, Omar A; McCormack, David J; Ibrahim, Sammra; Shipolini, Alex R

    2011-06-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether chlorhexidine gluconate is equivalent or superior to the use of povidone-iodine during surgical hand scrub. A total of 593 papers were found using the reported searches of which eight represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. We conclude that whilst both chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine reduce bacterial count after scrubbing, the effect of chlorhexidine is both more profound and longer lasting. The studies found analysed the difference in reduction in colony forming units or bacterial count following surgical scrub in order to conclude that chlorhexidine was superior. Four studies went further to analyse cumulative and residual activity by testing for bacterial reduction after using a scrub solution for a number of days, an area in which chlorhexidine showed consistent advantages over povidone-iodine. These findings are given more credibility by the clinical finding of a recent meta-analysis of over 5000 patients in which chlorhexidine as an antiseptic skin preparation was associated with significantly reduced surgical site infection (SSI) in clean-contaminated surgery. Despite this, there is no evidence suggesting the use of chlorhexidine during hand scrub reduces SSI, which perhaps explains why guidelines from the World Health Organization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association for Perioperative Practice do not recommend one specific antimicrobial over another for hand scrub.

  17. Controlled Release of Chlorhexidine from UDMA-TEGDMA Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Anusavice, K.J.; Zhang, N.-Z.; Shen, C.

    2006-01-01

    Chlorhexidine salts are available in various formulations for dental applications. This study tested the hypothesis that the release of chlorhexidine from a urethane dimethacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate resin system can be effectively controlled by the chlorhexidine diacetate content and pH. The filler concentrations were 9.1, 23.1, or 33.3 wt%, and the filled resins were exposed to pH 4 and pH 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that Fickian diffusion was the dominant relea...

  18. Effect of chlorhexidine on bonding durability of two self-etching adhesives with and without antibacterial agent to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shafiei

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Chlorhexidine was capable of diminishing the loss of BS of these adhesives over time. However, considering the negative effect of chlorhexidine on the initial BS, the benefits of chlorhexidine associated with these adhesives cannot possibly be used.

  19. Efficacy evaluations on five chlorhexidine teat dip formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, P A; O'Neil, J K; Murdough, P A; Lafayette, A R; Wildman, E E; Pankey, J W

    1993-09-01

    Three developmental postmilking teat dip formulations containing chlorhexidine digluconate were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae in sequential experimental exposure trials. Two additional commercial chlorhexidine digluconate teat dip products were evaluated in natural exposure trials. Under conditions of experimental challenge, the developmental formulations were efficacious against Staph. aureus but did not significantly reduce incidence of new IMI by Strep. agalactiae. None of the three formulations of a conventional germicide used as teat sanitizers effectively reduced incidence of new Strep. agalactiae IMI under experimental challenge conditions. In the natural exposure trials with negative controls, a .35% chlorhexidine teat sanitizer had efficacy of 88.7% against Staph. aureus and 51.4% against Strep. agalactiae. The .5% chlorhexidine product reduced Staph. aureus and Strep. agalactiae IMI by 86 and 56%, respectively. PMID:8227681

  20. Chlorhexidine, A Medicine for all the Oral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Gupta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a bisbiguanide antiseptic. It is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains as well as fungi. It has bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions. Chlorhexidine has excellent antiplaque activity and unique property of substantivity. So it has got wide applications starting from maintaining oral hygiene pre surgically to post operative and also in physically and mentally handicapped patients. Chlorhexidine is now routinely used by clinicians when they treat patients with fixed appliances in orthodontia and maxillofacial surgeries. Chlorhexidine has been extensively used in various medical fields such as gynecology, urology and ophthalmology; also in disinfection of operation fields and treatment of burns. Its products are available in various forms like mouth rinses, gels, sprays, toothpastes and varnishes.

  1. Differential Actions of Chlorhexidine on the Cell Wall of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Cheung, Sau-Ha; Liang, Longman Yimin; Lam, Yun-Wah; Chiu, Sung-Kay

    2012-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a chlorinated phenolic disinfectant used commonly in mouthwash for its action against bacteria. However, a comparative study of the action of chlorhexidine on the cell morphology of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is lacking. In this study, the actions of chlorhexidine on the cell morphology were identified with the aids of electron microscopy. After exposure to chlorhexidine, numerous spots of indentation on the cell wall were found in both Bacillus subtilis and Esc...

  2. Cloning of a Cation Efflux Pump Gene Associated with Chlorhexidine Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chi-Tai; Chen, Haur-Chuan; Chuang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Wang, Jin-Town

    2002-01-01

    Expression libraries of a chlorhexidine-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli XLOLR. Twenty chlorhexidine-resistant transformants were obtained after selection. All clones contained a novel 903-nucleotide locus. Its sequences were compatible with a cation efflux pump, and the locus was thus designated as cepA. Retransformation using cepA-containing plasmids conferred chlorhexidine resistance to both XLOLR and a chlorhexidine-sensitive K....

  3. Contact allergy to chlorhexidine in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten S; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    cause the contact allergy, and whether accidental re-exposure occurs in some patients. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of chlorhexidine contact allergy in a tertiary dermatology clinic in Denmark; to investigate whether patch testing with both chlorhexidine diacetate and chlorhexidine digluconate...

  4. Comparison of Chlorhexidine and Tincture of Iodine for Skin Antisepsis in Preparation for Blood Sample Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Barenfanger, Joan; Drake, Cheryl; Lawhorn, Jerry; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of contamination of blood cultures obtained when skin was prepared with iodine tincture versus chlorhexidine were compared. For iodine tincture, the contamination rate was 2.7%; for chlorhexidine, it was 3.1%. The 0.41% difference is not statistically significant. Chlorhexidine has comparable effectiveness and is safer, cheaper, and preferred by staff, so it is an alternative to iodine tincture.

  5. Chlorhexidine Chip in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis – A Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Medaiah, Sangeetha; Srinivas, M; Melath, Anil; Girish, Suragimath; Polepalle, Tejaswin; Dasari, Ankineedu Babu

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate the use of biodegradable chlorhexidine chip when used as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of moderate to severe periodontitis patients. The study also intended to compare the combined therapy (SRP and Chlorhexidine chip) with chlorhexidine chip alone in individuals with periodontitis.

  6. Prevention of intraoperative wound contamination with chlorhexidine shower and scrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibaldi, R A

    1988-04-01

    In a prospective, controlled, clinical trial, we found that preoperative showering and scrubbing with 4% chlorhexidine gluconate was more effective than povidone-iodine or triclocarban medicated soap in reducing skin colonization at the site of surgical incision. Mean log colony counts of the incision site were one half to one log lower for patients who showered with chlorhexidine compared to those who showered with the other regimens. No growth was observed on 43% of the post shower skin cultures from patients in the chlorhexidine group compared with 16% of the cultures from patients who had povidone-iodine showers and 5% of those from patients who used medicated soap and water. The frequency of positive intraoperative wound cultures was 4% with chlorhexidine, 9% with povidone-iodine and 14% with medicated soap and water. This study demonstrates that chlorhexidine gluconate is a more effective skin disinfectant than either povidone-iodine or triclocarban soap and water and that its use is associated with lower rates of intraoperative wound contamination. PMID:2898503

  7. [Influence of chlorhexidine on the flora of burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barbeyrac, B; Perro, G; Quentin, C; Cutillas, M; Bebear, C; Sanchez, R

    1985-06-01

    The effect of chlorhexidine baths on surface and in-depth colonization of burns was studied in 12 severely burned patients. 202 swabs and 202 biopsy specimens were cultured. Each patient was sampled before and after a daily chlorhexidine bath on several days. Subsequent to bathing, 41% of swabs became sterile and a 1.41 log10 reduction in the number of germs in biopsy specimens was observed. However, deep flora was unchanged in almost half of cases (43.3%) and was reduced by only 1 to 2 log10 in one-third of cases (35.3%). Chlorhexidine added to baths inhibited surface bacterial growth but had an inconsistent and limited effect on in-depth colonization. PMID:3937137

  8. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampanapalli, Sharada Reddy; Konda, Suhasini; Inguva, Hema Chandrika; Chimata, Vamsi Krishna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Chlorhexidine gluconate is a widely used antimicrobial agent. Adding chlorhexidine and quaternary ammonium compounds to filling materials, such as composite resins, acrylic resins, and glass ionomer cements increases the antibacterial property of restorative materials. This study includes antibacterial property of glass ionomer restorative cements with chlorhexidine gluconate. Aim: The primary objective of our study was to compare the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available glass ionomer cements with and without chlorhexidine gluconate on strains of mutans streptococci. Materials and methods: Two glass ionomers (Fuji II Conventional and Fuji IX) were used. Chlorhexidine gluconate was mixed with glass ionomer cements, and antimicrobial properties against mutans streptococci were assessed by agar diffusion. The tested bacterial strain was inhibited and the antimicrobial properties decreased with time. Results: The highest amount of antimicrobial activity with mean inhibitory zone was found in Fuji II with chlorhexidine gluconate followed by Fuji IX with chlorhexidine gluconate, Fuji II without chlorhexidine gluconate, and Fuji IX without chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusion: The results of the study confirmed that the addition of 5% chlorhexidine gluconate to Fuji II and Fuji IX glass ionomer cements resulted in a restorative material that had increased antimicrobial properties over the conventional glass ionomer cements alone for Streptococcus mutans. How to cite this article: Yadiki JV, Jampanapalli SR , Konda S, Inguva HC, Chimata VK. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of Glass Ionomer Cements with and without Chlorhexidine Gluconate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):99-103. PMID:27365927

  9. Effect of fluoride and chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinses on plaque biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabe, Per; Twetman, Svante; Kinnby, Bertil;

    2015-01-01

    in the pre-molar region were worn by three subjects for 7 days. Control discs were removed before subjects rinsed with 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) or 0.2% sodium fluoride (NaF) for 1 minute. Biofilms were stained with Baclight Live/Dead and z-stacks of images created using confocal scanning laser...

  10. Current evidence on chlorhexidine, toothpaste, gels, and mouthwashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Slot; F.A. van der Weijden

    2015-01-01

    The universal advice from dental care professionals is to brush twice daily with a fluoride dentifrice. It would be ideal to incorporate an effective antimicrobial agent such as chlorhexidine (CHX) in a dentifrice formulation. CHX dentifrice can be successfully formulated and will inhibit plaque gro

  11. Control of Streptococcus sanguinis oral biofilm by novel chlorhexidine-chitosan mouthwash: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangalore V. Karthikeyan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The most common prevalent infectious oral diseases in humans are caries and periodontal diseases, which are usually associated with dental plaque. The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the impact of new mouthwash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine (0.1% and bioadhesive chitosan (0.5% on dental plaque bacterial reduction, to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus sanguinis from clinical plaque samples to four different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolates to chlorhexidine (0.2%, chitosan (0.5%, chlorhexidine (0.1% plus chitosan (0.5% combination and saline were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Results: The zone of inhibition showed that chlorhexidine, chitosan and chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash exert an antimicrobial activity. A markedly higher and significant activity was obtained with chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthwash. On intergroup comparison there were statistically significant differences between all the tested solutions, except between chlorhexidine and chitosan mouthwash. Conclusion: Within the limitation of the present study, results showed that chlorhexidine-chitosan combination mouthrinse are superior in antimicrobial activity than chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(2.000: 165-169

  12. Novel Formulation of Chlorhexidine Spheres and Sustained Release with Multilayered Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dong; Shahid, Saroash; Wilson, Rory M; Cattell, Michael J; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2016-05-25

    This work demonstrates the synthesis of new chlorhexidine polymorphs with controlled morphology and symmetry, which were used as a template for layer-by-layer (LbL) encapsulation. LbL self-assembly of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes onto the drug surface was used in the current work, as an efficient method to produce a carrier with high drug content, improved drug solubility and sustained release. Coprecipitation of the chlorhexidine polymorphs was performed using chlorhexidine diacetate and calcium chloride solutions. Porous interconnected chlorhexidine spheres were produced by tuning the concentration of calcium chloride. The size of these drug colloids could be further controlled from 5.6 μm to over 20 μm (diameter) by adjusting the coprecipitation temperature. The chlorhexidine content in the spheres was determined to be as high as 90%. These particles were further stabilized by depositing 3.5 bilayers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) on the surface. In vitro release kinetics of chlorhexidine capsules showed that the multilayer shells could prolong the release, which was further demonstrated by characterizing the remaining chlorhexidine capsules with SEM and confocal microscopy. The new chlorhexidine polymorph and LbL coating has created novel chlorhexidine formulations. Further modification to the chlorhexidine polymorph structure is possible to achieve both sustained and stimuli responsive release, which will enhance its clinical performance in medicine and dentistry. PMID:27176115

  13. Induced Sporicidal Activity of Chlorhexidine against Clostridium difficile Spores under Altered Physical and Chemical Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlorhexidine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial commonly used to disinfect the skin of patients to reduce the risk of healthcare-associated infections. Because chlorhexidine is not sporicidal, it is not anticipated that it would have an impact on skin contamination with Clostridium difficile, the most important cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea. However, although chlorhexidine is not sporicidal as it is used in healthcare settings, it has been reported to kill spores of Bacil...

  14. Transcriptomic and biochemical analyses identify a family of chlorhexidine efflux proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Karl A.; Jackson, Scott M; Penesyan, Anahit; Patching, Simon G.; Tetu, Sasha G.; Eijkelkamp, Bart A.; Brown, Melissa H.; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Paulsen, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    Drug resistance is an increasing problem in clinical settings with some bacterial pathogens now resistant to virtually all available drugs. Chlorhexidine is a commonly used antiseptic and disinfectant in hospital environments, and there is increasing resistance to chlorhexidine seen in some pathogenic bacteria, such as Acinetobacter baumannii. This paper examines the global gene expression of A. baumannii in response to chlorhexidine exposure and identifies a gene that we demonstrate to media...

  15. Chlorhexidine Vs. Sterile Vaginal Wash During Labor to Prevent Neonatal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy L. Eriksen; Keri M. Sweeten; Jorge D. Blanco

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if a dilute solution of chlorhexidine used as a one-time vaginal wash intrapartum can reduce the use of postnatal antibiotics and neonatal infection. Methods: Term pregnant women in labor were prospectively randomized to receive either 20 cc of 0.4% chlorhexidine (n = 481) or 20 cc of sterile water (n = 466) placebo. Exclusion criteria included fetal distress, clinical infection, cervical dilatation >6 cm, and known allergy to chlorhexidin...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the ...

  17. Chlorhexidine gluconate: to bathe or not to bathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Caroline; Louthan, Rufina Bavin; Wessels, Erica; McGowan, Mary-Bridgid; Downer, Shantee; Maiden, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite infection-prevention initiatives, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are still a common occurrence. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is an important antibacterial agent. Research indicates that the intervention of bathing with CHG can reduce the number of HAIs. Chlorhexidine gluconate is known to reduce the bioload of several bacteria, including multiple strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Research regarding the intervention of bathing with CHG was assessed and found to reduce central line-related blood stream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The reduction in HAIs was found to be greater as compared to bathing with soap and water. The reduction of these HAIs will allow for a saving of resources, finances and staff time, which may ultimately be passed on to the patient. While further research is indicated, a strong conclusion is drawn that bathing with CHG reduces the number of HAIs. PMID:23470709

  18. A case report of anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine during urinary catheterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, J; Temple, A; Laycock, G J A

    2012-05-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate is a chemical antiseptic that is effective against Gram positive and negative bacteria and on certain viruses and fungi. A bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic agent, this cationic drug is absorbed on to negatively charged cell surfaces of organisms, disrupting the cell membrane, which results in increased permeability. Its use is mainly topical as a surgical hand antisepsis, site preparation/cleansing and for pre-genitourinary procedures such as urethral catheterisation. Like any drug, caution should be employed with its use as hypersensitivity reactions are being documented increasingly in the medical literature. In the following case, we present a patient who was catheterised with the chlorhexidine containing Instillagel(®) (CliniMed, High Wycombe, UK), prior to undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery.

  19. Chlorhexidine decontamination of sputum for culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, after effective decontamination. Results: We evaluated squalamine and chlorhexidine to decontaminate sputum specimens for the culture of mycobacteria. Eight sputum specimens were artificially infected with 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans as contaminants. In the s...

  20. Synergistic Antimicrobial Action of Chlorhexidine and Ozone in Endodontic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Noites; Cidália Pina-Vaz; Rita Rocha; Manuel Fontes Carvalho; Acácio Gonçalves; Irene Pina-vaz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether irrigation with sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine, and ozone gas, alone or in combination, were effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans; these are microorganisms frequently isolated from teeth with periapical lesions resistant to endodontic treatment. Material and Methods. 220 single root teeth, recently extracted, were inoculated with Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis. The formulations tested were sodiu...

  1. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%) and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2%) on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Jain; Dara John Bhaskar; Devanand Gupta; Chandan Agali; Vipul Gupta; Rajendra Kumar Gupta; Priyanka Yadav; Akash B Lavate; Mudita Chaturvedi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash group. The d...

  2. Recently introduced qacA/B genes in Staphylococcus epidermidis do not increase chlorhexidine MIC/MBC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Nielsen, Lene Nørby;

    2013-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is used as a disinfectant to prevent surgical infections. Recently, studies have indicated that chlorhexidine usage has selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains that are tolerant to chlorhexidine and that this may be related to the presence of the qacA/B-encoded ......A/B-encoded efflux pumps. Here, we evaluated if high-level exposure to chlorhexidine selects for tolerant colonizing Staphylococcus epidermidis and we addressed the consequences of long-term exposure to chlorhexidine.......Chlorhexidine is used as a disinfectant to prevent surgical infections. Recently, studies have indicated that chlorhexidine usage has selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains that are tolerant to chlorhexidine and that this may be related to the presence of the qac...

  3. Mupirocin and Chlorhexidine Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in Patients with Community-Onset Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Stephanie A.; Hogan, Patrick G.; Camins, Bernard C.; Ainsworth, Ali J.; Patrick, Carol; Martin, Madeline S.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Rodriguez, Marcela; Carey-Ann D. Burnham

    2013-01-01

    Decolonization measures, including mupirocin and chlorhexidine, are often prescribed to prevent Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of high-level mupirocin and chlorhexidine resistance in S. aureus strains recovered from patients with SSTI before and after mupirocin and chlorhexidine administration and to determine whether carriage of a mupirocin- or chlorhexidine-resistant strain at baseline precluded S. au...

  4. Differential actions of chlorhexidine on the cell wall of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon-Yeung Cheung

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is a chlorinated phenolic disinfectant used commonly in mouthwash for its action against bacteria. However, a comparative study of the action of chlorhexidine on the cell morphology of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is lacking. In this study, the actions of chlorhexidine on the cell morphology were identified with the aids of electron microscopy. After exposure to chlorhexidine, numerous spots of indentation on the cell wall were found in both Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. The number of indentation spots increased with time of incubation and increasing chlorhexidine concentration. Interestingly, the dented spots found in B. subtilis appeared mainly at the hemispherical caps of the cells, while in E. coli the dented spots were found all over the cells. After being exposed to chlorhexidine for a prolonged period, leakage of cellular contents and subsequent ghost cells were observed, especially from B subtilis. By using 2-D gel/MS-MS analysis, five proteins related to purine nucleoside interconversion and metabolism were preferentially induced in the cell wall of E. coli, while three proteins related to stress response and four others in amino acid biosynthesis were up-regulated in the cell wall materials of B. subtilis. The localized morphological damages together with the biochemical and protein analysis of the chlorhexidine-treated cells suggest that chlorhexidine may act on the differentially distributed lipids in the cell membranes/wall of B. subtilis and E. coli.

  5. Chlorhexidine-calcium phosphate nanoparticles - Polymer mixer based wound healing cream and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Monisha, P; Srinivasan, M; Swathi, D; Raman, M; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we developed a wound healing cream composed of two different polymers, namely chitosan and gelatin with chlorhexidine along with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the prepared cream were investigated based on SEM, EDX, Raman, FTIR and the results indicated that the cream contained gelatin, chitosan, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. The maximum swelling ratio studies indicated that the ratio was around of 52±2.2 at pH7.4 and the value was increased in acidic and alkaline pH. The antimicrobial activity was tested against bacteria and the results indicated that, both chlorhexidine and the hybrid cream devoid of chlorhexidine exhibited antimicrobial activity but the chlorhexidine impregnated cream showed three fold higher antimicrobial activity than without chlorhexidine. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of hybrid cream containing 0.4mg/L chlorhexidine were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in mice. The results indicated that the cream with incorporated chlorhexidine significantly enhanced healing compared with the control samples. For the field validations, the veterinary clinical animals were treated with the cream and showed enhanced healing capacity. In conclusion, a simple and efficient method for design of a novel wound healing cream has been developed for veterinary applications.

  6. Chlorhexidine-calcium phosphate nanoparticles - Polymer mixer based wound healing cream and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Monisha, P; Srinivasan, M; Swathi, D; Raman, M; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we developed a wound healing cream composed of two different polymers, namely chitosan and gelatin with chlorhexidine along with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the prepared cream were investigated based on SEM, EDX, Raman, FTIR and the results indicated that the cream contained gelatin, chitosan, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. The maximum swelling ratio studies indicated that the ratio was around of 52±2.2 at pH7.4 and the value was increased in acidic and alkaline pH. The antimicrobial activity was tested against bacteria and the results indicated that, both chlorhexidine and the hybrid cream devoid of chlorhexidine exhibited antimicrobial activity but the chlorhexidine impregnated cream showed three fold higher antimicrobial activity than without chlorhexidine. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of hybrid cream containing 0.4mg/L chlorhexidine were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in mice. The results indicated that the cream with incorporated chlorhexidine significantly enhanced healing compared with the control samples. For the field validations, the veterinary clinical animals were treated with the cream and showed enhanced healing capacity. In conclusion, a simple and efficient method for design of a novel wound healing cream has been developed for veterinary applications. PMID:27287150

  7. The danger of chlorhexidine in lignocaine gel: A case report of anaphylaxis during urinary catheterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Michael; Lenaghan, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a case of anaphylaxis secondary to chlorhexidine during urethral catheterisation. Despite little evidence for the use of antiseptic lubricants in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections, the distribution and use of such products continues to be widespread. Chlorhexidine-free lubricating gel is widely available and should be used for urological procedures wherever possible.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronan Jacques Rezende Delgado; Thaís Helena Gasparoto; Carla Renata Sipert; Claudia Ramos Pinheiro; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes; Roberto Brandāo Garcia; Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte; Clóvis Monteiro Bramante; Sérgio Aparecido Torres; Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet; Ana Paula Campanelli; Norberti Bernardineli

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0-100 and 100-200 μm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicanscolony forming units at a depth of 0-100 lzm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100-200 μm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans.

  9. Comparative efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash and chlorhexidine on periodontal health: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhishek; Bhashyam, Mamtha

    2016-01-01

    Background With introduction of many herbal medicines, dentistry has recently evidenced shift of approach for treating many inflammatory oral diseases by using such modalities. Aloe vera is one such product exhibiting multiple benefits and has gained considerable importance in clinical research recently. Aim To compare the efficacy of Aloevera and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on Periodontal Health. Material and Methods Thirty days randomized controlled trial was conducted among 390 dental students. The students were randomized into two intervention groups namely Aloe Vera (AV) chlorhexidine group (CHX) and one control (placebo) group. Plaque index and gingival index was recorded for each participant at baseline, 15 days and 30 days. The findings were than statistically analyzed, ANOVA and Post Hoc test were used. Results There was significant reduction (pAloe Vera (AV) and chlorhexidine group. Post hoc test showed significant difference (paloe Vera and placebo and chlorhexidine and placebo group. No significant difference (pAloe vera, chlorhexidine, dental plaque, gingivitis. PMID:27703614

  10. Pectin gelation with chlorhexidine: Physico-chemical studies in dilute solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascol, Manon; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Guillière, Florence; Hangouët, Marie; Raffin, Guy; Marote, Pedro; Lantéri, Pierre; Bordes, Claire

    2016-10-01

    Low methoxyl pectin is known to gel with divalent cations (e.g. Ca(2+), Zn(2+)). In this study, a new way of pectin gelation in the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient, chlorhexidine (CX), was highlighted. Thus chlorhexidine interactions with pectin were investigated and compared with the well-known pectin/Ca(2+) binding model. Gelation mechanisms were studied by several physico-chemical methods such as zeta potential, viscosity, size measurements and binding isotherm was determined by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). The binding process exhibited similar first two steps for both divalent ions: a stoichiometric monocomplexation of the polymer followed by a dimerization step. However, stronger interactions were observed between pectin and chlorhexidine. Moreover, the dimerization step occurred under stoichiometric conditions with chlorhexidine whereas non-stoichiometric conditions were involved with calcium ions. In the case of chlorhexidine, an additional intermolecular binding occurred in a third step. PMID:27312625

  11. Daily Bathing with Chlorhexidine and Its Effects on Nosocomial Infection Rates in Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulji, Chittalsinh M; Clay, Kristin; Velasco, Cruz; Yu, Lolie C

    2015-01-01

    Infections remain a serious complication in pediatric oncology patients. To determine if daily bathing with Chlorhexidine gluconate can decrease the rate of nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients, we reviewed rates of infections in pediatric oncology patients over a 14-month span. Intervention group received daily bath with Chlorhexidine, while the control group did not receive daily bath. The results showed that daily bath with antiseptic chlorhexidine as daily prophylactic antiseptic topical wash leads to decreased infection density amongst the pediatric oncology patients, especially in patients older than 12 years of age. Furthermore, daily chlorhexidine bathing significantly reduced the rate of hospital acquired infection in patients older than 12 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that daily bathing with chlorhexidine may be an effective measure of reducing nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients.

  12. Is there a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine in health care workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvey, L H; Roed-Petersen, J; Husum, B

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, chlorhexidine is the standard disinfectant in most hospitals and health care workers are repeatedly exposed to it. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine from this type of exposure. METHODS: Two hundred...... and forty-eight doctors, nurses and auxiliary staff were invited to participate in the study. One hundred and four individuals took part in the full study including skin tests and a questionnaire and a further 74 individuals filled in the questionnaire giving a total of 178 questionnaires (72%). Patch tests...... to examine the risk of type I and type IV allergy to chlorhexidine in health care workers with daily exposure to chlorhexidine, we did not identify allergies to chlorhexidine in any of the 104 individuals tested or in the additional 74 individuals who completed the questionnaire. We conclude that an allergy...

  13. Effect of Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Fluoride-chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and the Prevalence of Oral Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Streptococcus mutans is the main pathogenic agent involved in dental caries, and may be eliminated using mouthwashes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of fluoride, chlorhexidine, and fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwashes on salivary S. mutans count after two weeks of use and determine the prevalence of their side effects on the oral mucosa. Materials and methods. In this clinical trial, 120 12-14 year-old students were selected and divided into three gr...

  14. High Rate of qacA- and qacB-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Chlorhexidine-Impregnated Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Cheng-Mao; Li, Chi-Yuan; Ho, Mao-Wang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Liu, Shu-Hui; Lu, Jang-Jih

    2012-01-01

    Chlorhexidine has been widely used for infection control. Although the use of chlorhexidine-impregnated catheters has reduced catheter-related infections, chlorhexidine-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has emerged. The correlation between the existence of the chlorhexidine-resistant genes qacA and qacB (qacA/B) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-impregnated catheters in the prevention of MRSA infections is unknown. Sixty methic...

  15. Influence of chlorhexidine digluconate on bond strength durability of a self-etching adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synara Santos Herênio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of 2% chlorhexidine on bond strength durability of a self-etching adhesive system (ClearFill SE Bond. Material and methods: Forty bovine incisors’ crowns had their labial surfaces abraded to dentinexposure,inorderthatthestandardadhesion dentin exposure, inorderthatthestandardadhesion in order that the standard adhesion area reached 4 mm in diameter. Subsequently, they were divided into four groups, according to the treatments performed on the surfaces and storage time: G1 – adhesive system without chlorhexidine for 24 hours (control group; G2 – adhesive system without chlorhexidine for 6 months (control group; G3 – adhesive system with chlorhexidine for 24 hours (experimental group; G4 – adhesive system with chlorhexidine for 6 months (experimental group. After dentin surface treatments, cylinders of composite resin (Z350 were constructed. Then, the specimens were stored in distilled water according to each group design and storage time. Following, the four groups were subjected to shear bond strength test, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm / min. The obtained values were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The results indicated a significant decrease of bond strength in the group treated with chlorhexidine followed by 24-hour storage when compared to control group. However, there was no significant difference in 6-month storage between the experimental and control groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: The application of 2% chlorhexidine was deleterious for bond strength after 24-hour storage.

  16. Penetration of chlorhexidine coating into tooth enamel: A surface analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Rana N S; Symington, John

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine has proved an efficient antibacterial agent and has been used successfully to prevent new carious lesions in the teeth of adults and children. The substantivity of chlorhexidine has not been identified with any precision, but is certainly not of short duration. In this work, surface analytical techniques have been applied to study the chemical composition, distribution, and penetration of an applied liquid coating containing chlorhexidine onto tooth enamel in order to ascertain mechanisms by which chlorhexidine keeps its long term substantivity. Several hypotheses have been put forward with regard to its substantivity, including concepts of chlorhexidine remaining as a reservoir upon application either in the epithelial surfaces, the tooth surface, or the biofilm. Alternatively, it has been proposed the teeth themselves act as the reservoir. To study this, a chlorhexidine containing liquid coating was applied to the surface of teeth. These were subsequently transversely cross-sectioned. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were performed on both surfaces to ascertain chemical composition and distribution of the applied coating. It was found that it formed a coating layer of about 25 μm thick. High spatial ToF-SIMS images showed little evidence of substantial diffusion of chlorhexidine into the enamel, either from the surface or via the enamel lamellae. PMID:27094389

  17. Chlorhexidine-induced elastic and adhesive changes of Escherichia coli cells within a biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Nicole; Murdaugh, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used, commercially available cationic antiseptic. Although its mechanism of action on planktonic bacteria has been well explored, far fewer studies have examined its interaction with an established biofilm. The physical effects of chlorhexidine on a biofilm are particularly unknown. Here, the authors report the first observations of chlorhexidine-induced elastic and adhesive changes to single cells within a biofilm. The elastic changes are consistent with the proposed mechanism of action of chlorhexidine. Atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy techniques were used to determine spring constants and adhesion energy of the individual bacteria within an Escherichia coli biofilm. Medically relevant concentrations of chlorhexidine were tested, and cells exposed to 1% (w/v) and 0.1% more than doubled in stiffness, while those exposed to 0.01% showed no change in elasticity. Adhesion to the biofilm also increased with exposure to 1% chlorhexidine, but not for the lower concentrations tested. Given the prevalence of chlorhexidine in clinical and commercial applications, these results have important ramifications on biofilm removal techniques. PMID:27604079

  18. Small molecule interactions with lipid bilayers: a molecular dynamics study of chlorhexidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosten, Brad; Marquardt, Drew; Sternin, Edward; Harroun, Thad

    2013-03-01

    Chlorhexidine presents an interesting modelling challenge with a hydrophobic hexane connecting two biguanides (arginine analogues) and two aromatic rings. We conducted molecular dynamic simulations using the GROMACS simulation software to reproduce the experimental environment of chlorhexidine in a 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer to produce atomic-level information. We constructed an all-atom force field of chlorhexidine from the CHARMM36 force field using well established parameters of certain amino acids. Partial charges were treated differently, which were calculated using GAUSSIAN software. We will compare and contrast the results of our model to that of our neutron scattering experiments previously done in our lab.

  19. Evaluation of the substantivity of chlorhexidine in association with sodium fluoride in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas Carolina Saliba de; Diniz Henrique França Oliveira; Gomes Jânderson Breder; Sinisterra Rubén Dário; Cortés María Esperanza

    2003-01-01

    The efficacy of the fluoride-chlorhexidine association in the prevention of gingivitis and caries has been advocated for a number of years5,7,14. The objective of the association of these therapeutic agents is a synergistic action. The aim of the present study was to determine the substantivity of chlorhexidine associated or not to sodium fluoride at different intervals of time, in vitro. Bovine enamel surfaces were treated with 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (Periogard® - Colgate®) or 0.05% s...

  20. Efficacy of a chlorhexidine and a chlorhexidine-fluoride varnish mixture to decrease interdental levels of mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twetman, S; Petersson, L G

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing (CHX) and a chlorhexidine/thymol/fluoride-containing (CHX + F) varnish to decrease interdental levels of mutans streptococci (MS). Eighty-two healthy schoolchildren (11-13 years) with high scores of salivary MS were selected by a screening procedure and randomised into two groups. MS were enumerated at all mesial interdental sites of the first permanent molars with the aid of a modified chair-side technique. The interdental molar and premolar sites were treated with either a 1% CHX varnish (Cervitec) or a 1:1 mixture of the CHX varnish and a fluoride varnish containing 0.1% w/w difluorsilane (Fluor Protector; CHX + F) on two occasions within a 2-week period. The varnishes were applied with a small brush after cleaning with dental floss and drying with air. Follow-up samples from the interdental areas were collected after 1 and 3 months. Both groups exhibited a similar statistically significant (p efficacy in diminishing the cariogenic microbial challenge. Thus, the mixed varnish concept should be further developed and warrants an implementation of clinical studies. PMID:9286519

  1. The caries-preventive effect of chlorhexidine varnish in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    James, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents and to determine its effectiveness compared to fluoride varnish.

  2. Anti-biofilm Effect of Glass Ionomer Cements Incorporated with Chlorhexidine and Bioaetive Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xueqing; YANG Tiantian; ZHAO Suling; HUANG Cui; DU Xijin

    2012-01-01

    The effect of glass ionomer cement and resin-modified glass ionomer cement incorporated with chlorhexidine and bioactive glass on antimicrobial activity and physicochemical properties were investigated.The experimental results showed that groups incorporated with 1% chlorhexidine exhibited a significant reduction of optical density values of the bacterial suspension and increased the degradation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.However,groups incorporated with 10% bioactive glass did not affect the optical density values and the biofilm formation.The mechanical properties of the materials and the polymerization were not influenced by the addition of chlorhexidine.Nevertheless,the compressive strength was lower when the materials were incorporated with bioactive glass.It can be concluded that glass ionomer cements incorporated with chlorhexidine can maintain its mechanical properties as well as reduce early S mutans biofilm formation.Controlled release/sustained release technology may be required to optimize the antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements incorporated with bioactive glass.

  3. Antibacterial performance of Chlorhexidine acetate treated plain cotton and β-cyclodextrin treated cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskara, U.R.; Nabers, M.G.D.; Agrawal, P.B.; Warmoeskerken, M.M.C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton was treated with β-cyclodextrin via a crosslinker 1, 2, 3, 4, butane tetracarboxylic acid. β-cyclodextrin attached cotton and plain cotton was treated with the antimicrobial agent Chlorhexidine acetate. The difference in amount of Chlorhexidine acetate loaded onto the two types of fabrics for same application concentrations was noted. These two types of fabrics were then tested for antibacterial performance. The antibacterial activity was tested according to the JIS L 1902 standard usi...

  4. New form of administering chlorhexidine for treatment of denture-induced stomatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryalat, Soukaina T

    2011-01-01

    Soukaina Ryalat, Rula Darwish, Wala AminDepartment of Oral Surgery, Jordan University, Amman, JordanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the release of chlorhexidine as an antifungal drug from doped self-cured poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) acrylic resin and the effect of the drug released on the growth of Candida albicans.Methods: Release of chlorhexidine was evaluated using liquid chromatography, and the effect of the drug on the growth of C. albicans was investigated mi...

  5. Chlorhexidine Salt-Loaded Polyurethane Orthodontic Chains: In Vitro Release and Antibacterial Activity Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Padois, Karine; Bertholle, Valérie; Pirot, Fabrice; Hyunh, Truc Thanh Ngoc; De Rossi, Alessandra; Colombo, Paolo; Falson, Françoise; Sonvico, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of indwelling medical devices has enormously increased the interest in materials incorporating antibiotics and antimicrobial agents as a means to prevent dangerous device-related infections. Recently, chlorhexidine-loaded polyurethane has been proposed as a material suitable for the production of devices which are able to resist microbial contamination. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro release of chlorhexidine from new polymeric orthodontic chai...

  6. Effect of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized control clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Sanjeev Indurkar; Renu Verma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several chemotherapeutic agents have been developed to prevent gingivitis and its progression into periodontitis. In this present study, the efficacy of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel was assessed and compared on plaque induced gingivitis. Aim: To evaluate the effect of ozonated oil on plaque induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects, aged from 18 to 65 years, with plaque-induced gingivitis were selecte...

  7. Comparison of hexachlorophane and chlorhexidine powders in prevention of neonatal infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Alder, V. G.; Burman, D; Simpson, R. A.; Fysh, J; Gillespie, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The protective effect of treating the skin of newborn infants with powders containing 1% chlorhexidine or 0.33% hexachlorophane was compared. Each was equally effective in preventing colonisation and infection by Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, the skin became profusely colonised by coagulase-negative staphylococci, irrespective of the powder used. Venous blood concentrations of chlorhexidine were low or undetectable in the few infants whose blood was analysed.

  8. In vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and six other antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Järvinen, H; Tenovuo, J; Huovinen, P

    1993-01-01

    The susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans to chlorhexidine and to six commonly used, systemic antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, cefuroxime, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, tetracycline, and erythromycin) was studied for 424 clinical isolates from 116 children and students. The MIC of chlorhexidine for all isolates was < or = 1 micrograms/ml. No resistance to the other antimicrobial agents was detected. Although widely exposed to various antimicrobial agents, S. mutans has remaine...

  9. Prevalence of Chlorhexidine-Resistant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus following Prolonged Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Schlett, Carey D.; Millar, Eugene V.; Crawford, Katrina B.; Cui, Tianyuan; Lanier, Jeffrey B.; Tribble, David R.; Ellis, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorhexidine has been increasingly utilized in outpatient settings to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks and as a component of programs for MRSA decolonization and prevention of skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of chlorhexidine resistance in clinical and colonizing MRSA isolates obtained in the context of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for SSTI prevention, during which...

  10. Efficacy of chlorhexidine bathing for reducing healthcare associated bloodstream infections: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Young; Park, Dong-Ah; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Jinkyeong

    2015-01-01

    Background We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine if daily bathing with chlorhexidine decreased hospital-acquired BSIs in critically ill patients. Methods We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify randomized controlled trials that compared daily bathing with chlorhexidine and a control in critically ill patients. Results This meta-analysis included five RCTs. The overall incidence of meas...

  11. Sustained ex vivo skin antiseptic activity of chlorhexidine in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsule encapsulated form and as a digluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lboutounne, Hassan; Chaulet, Jean-François; Ploton, Christine; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice

    2002-08-21

    In this work, the sustained bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine base loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone), PCL, nanocapsules against Staphylococcus epidermidis inoculated onto porcine ear skin was investigated. Drug loaded nanocapsules were prepared by the interfacial polymer deposition following solvent displacement method, then characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, electrophoretic measurements, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Antimicrobial activity of these colloidal carriers was evaluated (i) in vitro against eight strains of bacteria, and (ii) ex vivo against Staphylococcus epidermidis inoculated for 12 h onto porcine ear skin surface treated for 3 min either with 0.6% chlorhexidine base loaded or unloaded nanocapsules suspended in hydrogel, or 1% chlorhexidine digluconate aqueous solution. Chlorhexidine absorption into the stratum corneum (SC) was evaluated by the tape-stripping method. The results showed that chlorhexidine nanocapsules in aqueous suspension having a 200-300 nm size and a positive charge exhibited similar minimum inhibitory concentrations against several bacteria with chlorhexidine digluconate aqueous solution. Ex vivo, there was a significant reduction in the number of colony forming units (CFUs) from 3-min treated skin with chlorhexidine nanocapsule suspension (5 to <1 log(10)) compared to chlorhexidine digluconate solution (5 to 2.02 log(10)) after a 8-h artificial contamination. After a 12-h artificial contamination, both formulations failed to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction. Furthermore, from a 3-min treatment with an identical applied dose and a subsequent 12-h artificial contamination, a residual chlorhexidine concentration in the SC was found to be three-fold higher with chlorhexidine nanocapsule suspension than with chlorhexidine digluconate solution. Interestingly, nanocapsules were shown in porcine skin follicles. Consequently, a topical application of chlorhexidine base-loaded positively charged

  12. Comparative assessment of Cranberry and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on streptococcal colonization among dental students: A randomized parallel clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Khairnar, Mahesh R.; G. N. Karibasappa; Arun S Dodamani; Prashanthkumar Vishwakarma; Naik, Rahul G.; Manjiri A. Deshmukh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash has earned an eponym of the gold standard against oral infections, but with certain limitations. There is no effective alternative to Chlorhexidine. Cranberry is known to inhibit bacterial adhesion in various systemic infections and acts as a strong antioxidant. However, it is less explored for its dental use. Hence, there is a need to evaluate its effect against oral infections. Aim: The aim was to compare the efficacy of 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouth...

  13. Chlorhexidine resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or just an elevated MIC? An in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Cookson, B D; Bolton, M C; Platt, J H

    1991-01-01

    Chlorhexidine (Hibiscrub; ICI) is generally accepted to be effective as an antiseptic hand wash for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), but there is dispute whether the chlorhexidine MIC for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains is higher than that for MSSA strains and, indeed, whether it is relevant. In addition, the link between resistance to chlorhexidine, gentamicin, and "nucleic acid-binding" compounds (NAB; which code, in particular, for propamidine isethionat...

  14. Effect of chlorhexidine bathing in preventing infections and reducing skin burden and environmental contamination: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskey, Curtis J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Chlorhexidine bathing is effective in reducing levels of pathogens on skin. In this review, we examine the evidence that chlorhexidine bathing can prevent colonization and infection with health care-associated pathogens and reduce dissemination to the environment and the hands of personnel. The importance of education and monitoring of compliance with bathing procedures is emphasized in order to optimize chlorhexidine bathing in clinical practice. PMID:27131130

  15. Effect of chlorhexidine bathing in preventing infections and reducing skin burden and environmental contamination: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskey, Curtis J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Chlorhexidine bathing is effective in reducing levels of pathogens on skin. In this review, we examine the evidence that chlorhexidine bathing can prevent colonization and infection with health care-associated pathogens and reduce dissemination to the environment and the hands of personnel. The importance of education and monitoring of compliance with bathing procedures is emphasized in order to optimize chlorhexidine bathing in clinical practice.

  16. Residual activity of cetrimide and chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis-infected root canals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carmen Mara Ferrer-Luque; Mara Teresa Arias-Moliz; Matilde Ruz-Linares; Mara Elena Martnez Garca; Pilar Baca

    2014-01-01

    Effective final irrigation regimen is an important step in order to achieve better disinfection and ensure residual antimicrobial effects after root canal preparation. The aim of this study was to compare the residual antimicrobial activity of 0.2%cetrimide, and 0.2%and 2%chlorhexidine in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown on uniradicular roots for 4 weeks. After root canal preparation, root canals were irrigated with 17%ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to remove the smear layer. The roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n526) according to the final irrigating solution:Group I, 5 mL 0.2%cetrimide;Group II, 5 mL 0.2%chlorhexidine;and Group III, 5 mL 2%chlorhexidine. Samples were collected for 50 days to denote the presence of bacterial growth. The proportion of ungrown specimens over 50 days was evaluated using the nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Differences among groups were tested using the log-rank test and the level of statistical significance was set at P,0.05. The highest survival value was found with 2%chlorhexidine, showing statistically significant differences from the other two groups. At 50 days, E. faecalis growth was detected in 69.23%specimens in Groups I and II, and in 34.61%specimens of Group III. There were no significant differences between 0.2%cetrimide and 0.2%chlorhexidine. Final irrigation with 2%chlorhexidine showed greater residual activity than 0.2%chlorhexidine and 0.2%cetrimide in root canals infected with E. faecalis.

  17. Community-Level Assessment of the Effects of the Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Chlorhexidine on the Outcome of River Microbial Biofilm Development▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, J R; Zhu, B.; Swerhone, G. D. W.; Topp, E.; Roy, J; L. I. Wassenaar; Rema, T.; Korber, D R

    2008-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a common-use antibacterial agent found in a range of personal-care products. We used rotating annular reactors to cultivate river biofilms under the influence of chlorhexidine or its molar equivalent in nutrients. Studies of the degradation of [14C]chlorhexidine demonstrated that no mineralization of the compound occurred. During studies with 100 μg liter−1 chlorhexidine, significant changes were observed in the protozoan and micrometazoan populations, the algal and cyanobact...

  18. The Forgotten Role of Alcohol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Efficacy and Perceived Role of Chlorhexidine in Skin Antisepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Maiwald, Matthias; Chan, Edwin S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin antisepsis is a simple and effective measure to prevent infections. The efficacy of chlorhexidine is actively discussed in the literature on skin antisepsis. However, study outcomes due to chlorhexidine-alcohol combinations are often attributed to chlorhexidine alone. Thus, we sought to review the efficacy of chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis and the extent of a possible misinterpretation of evidence. Methods We performed a systematic literature review of clinical trials and s...

  19. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2% on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15 th day and 30 th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine.

  20. Gamma radiation-sterilized, triple-lumen catheters coated with a low concentration of chlorhexidine were not efficacious at preventing catheter infections in intensive care unit patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherertz, R J; Heard, S O; Raad, I I; Gentry, L; Bowton, D; Scuderi, P; Hu, J.; Carruth, W; Satishchandra, B; J. Pepe; Mosenthal, A; Burke, T.; Dupuis, J.

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind trial, gamma radiation-sterilized, chlorhexidine-coated triple-lumen catheters were compared with uncoated control catheters for their ability to prevent catheter infection in 254 intensive care unit patients. The chlorhexidine coating was not efficacious, and a rabbit model demonstrated that reduction of chlorhexidine activity by gamma radiation sterilization was the likely explanation for the failure.

  1. The effect of 1% chlorhexidine gel and 0.12% dentifrice gel on plaque accumulation: a 3-day non-brushing model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Slot; N.A.M. Rosema; N.L. Hennequin-Hoenderdos; P.A. Versteeg; U. van der Velden; G.A. van der Weijden

    2010-01-01

    Aim:  The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of four treatments on ‘de novo’ plaque accumulation. Treatments included tray application of 1% chlorhexidine gel (CHX-Gel), 0.12% chlorhexidine dentifrice-gel (CHX-DFG), a regular dentifrice (RDF) tray application, or 0.2% chlorhexidine mout

  2. The effect of chlorhexidine in reducing oral colonisation in geriatric patients: a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Abdullah, Sharifah Shafinaz Binti; Chong, Mei Chan; Surindar-Kaur, Surat Singh; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Kwan Hoong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Inadequate oral care has been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia in frail geriatric patients and is a major cause of mortality, due to the colonisation of microbes in vulnerable patients. This type of pneumonia has been associated with an increase in respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine compared to routine oral care in edentulous geriatric inpatients. METHODS A double-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out. The intervention group received oral care with chlorhexidine 0.2%, while the control group received routine oral care with thymol. Nurses provided oral care with assigned solutions of 20 mL once daily over seven days. Oral cavity assessment using the Brief Oral Health Status Examination form was performed before each oral care procedure. Data on medication received and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia was recorded. An oral swab was performed on Day 7 to obtain specimens to test for colonisation. RESULTS The final sample consisted of 35 (control) and 43 (intervention) patients. Chlorhexidine was effective in reducing oral colonisation compared to routine oral care with thymol (p < 0.001). The risk of oral bacterial colonisation was nearly three times higher in the thymol group compared to the chlorhexidine group. CONCLUSION The use of chlorhexidine 0.2% significantly reduced oral colonisation and is recommended as an easier and more cost-effective alternative for oral hygiene. PMID:27211885

  3. Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009, Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively. Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.

  4. New form of administering chlorhexidine for treatment of denture-induced stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryalat S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soukaina Ryalat, Rula Darwish, Wala AminDepartment of Oral Surgery, Jordan University, Amman, JordanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the release of chlorhexidine as an antifungal drug from doped self-cured poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA acrylic resin and the effect of the drug released on the growth of Candida albicans.Methods: Release of chlorhexidine was evaluated using liquid chromatography, and the effect of the drug on the growth of C. albicans was investigated microbiologically using a “well” technique on Saboraud culture medium inoculated with a resistant strain of C. albicans.Results: Chlorhexidine leached steadily out of the acrylic resin into distilled water at mouth temperature, and the sustained drug release continued throughout the 28-day test period. The drug released also demonstrated antifungal activity against the resistant strain of C. albicans.Conclusion: The findings of this study support the use of chlorhexidine-impregnated self-cured PMMA chair-side resin as a new dosage form for the treatment of denture-induced stomatitis.Keywords: chlorhexidine, poly (methyl methacrylate, eluates, antifungal drug, denture stomatitis, Candida albicans

  5. Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity after Gargling with Green Tea and Chlorhexidine Gluconate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E. Suryanto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment are susceptible to dental plaque accumulation. Plaque can cause inflammation in gingiva. It could be assessed by aspartat aminotransferase (AST in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Mouth rinse could be useful to reduce dental plaque accumulation during orthodontic treatment. Chlorhexidine gluconate is often used as mouth rinse in dental practice. On the other hand, green tea is one of natural ingredient that can be used for mouth rinse which is assumed could reduce plaque accumulation. Objectives: To compare the effect between green tea and chlorhexidine gluconate on AST activity in GCF in patient undergoing orthodontic treatment with molar band. Methods: An experimental study was conducted included forty adult subjects. They were randomized into two groups: green tea (n=20 and chlorhexidine gluconate (n=20. AST activity was measured before band insertion, 7 and 30 days after band insertion. One way and two-ways ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed significant difference of AST levels between before, 7 and 30 days after band insertion in the green tea groups (p<0.05. In contrast, there was no significant differences of AST levels between before band insertion, 7 and 30 days after band insertion in the chlorhexidine gluconate groups (p=0.049. There were no difference between each groups with two way ANOVA (p<0.05. Conclusions: Gargle effect of green tea was as effective as chlorhexidine gluconate in reducing AST levels related to banded first molars in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment.

  6. Chlorhexidine Digluconate Effects on Planktonic Growth and Biofilm Formation in Some Field Isolates of Animal Bacterial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Hemati, Majid; Habibian Dehkordi, Saeed; Bahadoran, Shahab; Khoshnood, Sheida; Khubani, Shahin; Dokht Faraj, Mahdi; Hakimi Alni, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: To study chlorhexidine digluconate disinfectant effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some bacterial field isolates from animals. Objectives: The current study investigated chlorhexidine digluconate effects on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in some field isolates of veterinary bacterial pathogens. Materials and Methods: Forty clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella serotypes, Staphylococcus. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (10 isolates for ea...

  7. Implant decontamination with 2% chlorhexidine during surgical peri-implantitis treatment : a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Y. C. M.; Raghoebar, G. M.; Meijer, H. J. A.; Winkel, E. G.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective of this randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to evaluate the clinical, radiographic, and microbiological effects of implant surface decontamination with a 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) solution in comparison with a 0.12% chlorhexidine+0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) so

  8. Antibacterial kaolinite/urea/chlorhexidine nanocomposites: Experiment and molecular modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay minerals are commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of clay/antibacterial drug hybrids which can be further included in drug delivery systems for treatment oral infections. Novel nanocomposites with antibacterial properties were successfully prepared by ion exchange reaction from two types of kaolinite/urea intercalates and chlorhexidine diacetate. Intercalation compounds of kaolinite were prepared by reaction with solid urea in the absence of solvents (dry method) as well as with urea aqueous solution (wet method). The antibacterial activity of two prepared samples against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibacterial studies of both samples showed the lowest MIC values (0.01%, w/v) after 1 day against E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus. A slightly worse antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.12%, w/v) after 1 day. Since samples showed very good antibacterial activity, especially after 1 day of action, this means that these samples can be used as long-acting antibacterial materials. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental data are supported by results of molecular modelling.

  9. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  10. Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on the Antibacterial Substantivity of Chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahriari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the antibacterial substantivity of chlorhexidine (CHX. Seventy-five dentine tubes prepared from human maxillary central and lateral incisor teeth were used. After contamination with Enterococcus faecalis for 14 days, the specimens were divided into five groups as follows: CHX, H2O2, CHX + H2O2, infected dentine tubes (positive control, and sterile dentine tubes (negative control. Dentine chips were collected with round burs into tryptic soy broth, and after culturing, the number of colony-forming units (CFU was counted. The number of CFU was minimum in the first cultures in all experimental groups, and the results obtained were significantly different from each other at any time period (<.05. At the first culture, the number of CFU in the CHX + H2O2 group was lower than other two groups. At the other experimental periods, the CHX group showed the most effective antibacterial action (<.05. Hydrogen peroxide group showed the worst result at all periods. In each group, the number of CFU increased significantly by time lapse (<.05. In conclusion, H2O2 had no additive effect on the residual antibacterial activity of CHX.

  11. Antibacterial kaolinite/urea/chlorhexidine nanocomposites: Experiment and molecular modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holešová, Sylva, E-mail: sylva.holesova@vsb.cz [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17.listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17.listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Valášková, Marta; Hlaváč, Dominik [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17.listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17.listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Madejová, Jana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SAS, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Samlíková, Magda; Tokarský, Jonáš [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17.listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17.listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Pazdziora, Erich [Institute of Public Health Ostrava, Centre of Clinical Laboratories, Partyzánské náměstí 7, CZ-702 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2014-06-01

    Clay minerals are commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of clay/antibacterial drug hybrids which can be further included in drug delivery systems for treatment oral infections. Novel nanocomposites with antibacterial properties were successfully prepared by ion exchange reaction from two types of kaolinite/urea intercalates and chlorhexidine diacetate. Intercalation compounds of kaolinite were prepared by reaction with solid urea in the absence of solvents (dry method) as well as with urea aqueous solution (wet method). The antibacterial activity of two prepared samples against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibacterial studies of both samples showed the lowest MIC values (0.01%, w/v) after 1 day against E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus. A slightly worse antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.12%, w/v) after 1 day. Since samples showed very good antibacterial activity, especially after 1 day of action, this means that these samples can be used as long-acting antibacterial materials. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental data are supported by results of molecular modelling.

  12. Nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine against oral bacterial biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlorhexidine (CHX is a widely used antimicrobial agent in dentistry. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel mesoporous silica nanoparticle-encapsulated pure CHX (Nano-CHX, and its mechanical profile and antimicrobial properties against oral biofilms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The release of CHX from the Nano-CHX was characterized by UV/visible absorption spectroscopy. The antimicrobial properties of Nano-CHX were evaluated in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral pathogenic bacteria. The Nano-CHX demonstrated potent antibacterial effects on planktonic bacteria and mono-species biofilms at the concentrations of 50-200 µg/mL against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Enterococccus faecalis. Moreover, Nano-CHX effectively suppressed multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis up to 72 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This pioneering study demonstrates the potent antibacterial effects of the Nano-CHX on oral biofilms, and it may be developed as a novel and promising anti-biofilm agent for clinical use.

  13. Antibacterial effects of electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibrous membranes loaded with chlorhexidine and silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiankang; Remmers, Stefan J A; Shao, Jinlong; Kolwijck, Eva; Walboomers, X Frank; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Yang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    To prevent percutaneous device associated infections (PDAIs), we prepared electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibrous membrane containing silver nanoparticles as an implantable delivery vehicle for the dual release of chlorhexidine and silver ions. We observed that the silver nanoparticles were distributed homogeneously throughout the fibers, and a fast release of chlorhexidine in 2days and a sustained release of silver ions for up to 28days. The antibacterial efficacy of the membranes against Staphylococcus aureus showed that the membranes exhibited an obvious inhibition zone upon loading with either chlorhexidine (20μg or more per membrane) or AgNO3 (1 and 5wt% to polymer). Furthermore, long-term antibacterial effect up to 4days was verified using membranes containing 5wt% AgNO3. The results suggest that the membranes have strong potential to act as an active antibacterial dressing for local delivery of antibacterial agents to prevent PDAIs. PMID:26970025

  14. Standardized testing with chlorhexidine in perioperative allergy – a large single-centre evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjørring Opstrup, Morten; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Krøigaard, Mogens;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative allergic reactions to chlorhexidine are often severe and easily overlooked. Although rare, the prevalence remains unknown. Correct diagnosis is crucial, but no validated provocation model exists, and other diagnostic tests have never been evaluated. The aims were...... to estimate 1) the prevalence of chlorhexidine allergy and 2) the specificity and sensitivity for diagnostic tests for chlorhexidine allergy. METHODS: We included all patients investigated for suspected perioperative allergic reactions in the Danish Anaesthesia Allergy Centre during 2004-2012. The following...... tests were performed: specific IgE (Immunocap(®) , Phadia AB, Sweden), histamine release test (HR) (RefLab ApS, Denmark), skin prick test (SPT) and intradermal test (IDT). Positivity criteria: specific IgE > 0.35 kUA/l; HR class 1-12; SPT mean wheal diameter ≥ 3 mm; IDT mean wheal diameter ≥ twice...

  15. Effect of chlorhexidine and benzydamine mouthwashes on mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaranayake, L.P.; MacFarlane, T.W.; Hunter, I.P.; Robertson, A.G.; MacFarlane, G.; Soutar, D.S.; Ferguson, M.M.

    1988-05-01

    The efficacy of Benzydamine as a mouthwash was compared with chlorhexidine in two groups of patients receiving radiotherapy for oral carcinoma. Mucositis and pain were recorded over a 6 week period and oral carriage of Candida species, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed using an oral rinse technique. There was no significant difference in the mucositis scores, overall pain scores or the yeast and bacterial species isolated between the two treatment groups. However, 58% (7 out of 12) and 92% (12 out of 13) patients reported oral discomfort when rinsing the mouth with chlorhexidine and benzydamine, respectively. In both groups, the most common coliform isolated was Klebsiella pneumoniae and the carriage of yeasts was significantly greater than that of coliforms. These results indicate that, although the individual patient acceptance of chlorhexidine is better than benzydamine, there is little difference between the two mouthwashes both in controlling pain and mucositis or in the oral carriage of the micro-organisms studied.

  16. The effect of chlorhexidine and benzydamine mouthwashes on mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of Benzydamine as a mouthwash was compared with chlorhexidine in two groups of patients receiving radiotherapy for oral carcinoma. Mucositis and pain were recorded over a 6 week period and oral carriage of Candida species, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed using an oral rinse technique. There was no significant difference in the mucositis scores, overall pain scores or the yeast and bacterial species isolated between the two treatment groups. However, 58% (7 out of 12) and 92% (12 out of 13) patients reported oral discomfort when rinsing the mouth with chlorhexidine and benzydamine, respectively. In both groups, the most common coliform isolated was Klebsiella pneumoniae and the carriage of yeasts was significantly greater than that of coliforms. These results indicate that, although the individual patient acceptance of chlorhexidine is better than benzydamine, there is little difference between the two mouthwashes both in controlling pain and mucositis or in the oral carriage of the micro-organisms studied. (author)

  17. Chlorhexidine spray as an adjunct in the control of dental biofilm in children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Gilberg Resende; Teiltelbaum, Ana Paula; dos Santos, Fábio André; Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Guaré, Renata Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of .12% chlorhexidine applied via spray and the acceptance. A total of 26 individuals with mental health issues, aged 7-14, were included into two groups: placebo (control, n = 13) and chlorhexidine (experimental, n = 13). Both groups received two daily applications of spray during 2 months. The periodontal conditions were evaluated by the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and gingival index (GI). The evaluation of acceptance of the application method (spray) was assessed by questionnaire. Data were analyzed with nonparametric tests, with a significance level of 5%. Regarding the OHI-S index, only the experimental group showed significant change during the evaluations (p < 0.001). Regarding the GI, both groups showed significant changes during the evaluations. The method of application was well accepted by patients and caregivers, and .12% chlorhexidine solution applied via spray significantly reduced the rates of dental and gingival biofilm.

  18. Comparative evaluation of subgingivally delivered chlorhexidine varnish and chlorhexidine gel in reducing microbial count after mechanical periodontal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthena, Sathish; Ramesh, Amitha; Srikanth, Adusumilli; Ramoji Rao, M. V.; Preethi, P. Lakshmi; Samatha, Y. Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Context: Antimicrobial efficacy of subgingival chlorhexidine (CHX) application using two different vehicles of delivery. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of CHX varnish and gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in reducing microbial count within moderate to deep periodontal pockets. Settings and Design: Experimental parallel mouth study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 30 subjects between the age groups 25 and 55 years having moderate to severe periodontitis, with pocket depth ≥ 5 mm were selected for the study. The selected patients were randomized into three groups of 10 each. Subjects in Group 1 received SRP followed by subgingival application of CHX varnish, subjects in Group 2 received SRP followed by subgingival application of CHX gel, subjects in Group 3 received SRP alone. Subgingival plaque samples were collected to estimate mean motile and nonmotile microbial counts using dark field microscopy at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Results: After 3 months, there was statistically significant reduction in nonmotile microbial count in all the three groups. Motile microbial count was significantly reduced in all the three groups till 1 month from baseline. Only subjects in Group 1 who received subgingival CHXvarnish after SRP showed a significant reduction in motile microbial count till 3 months from baseline. Conclusions: Subgingival application of highly concentrated CHX varnish following SRP is beneficial in reducing microbial count in moderate to deep periodontal pockets. PMID:25538468

  19. Comparison of Antibacterial Effect of Fluoride and Chlorhexidine on Two Cariogenic Bacteria: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poureslami HR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Dental plaque is the main source for dental caries and there is no proper vaccine that can affect dental plaques. Objectives: Daily use of an efficient anti-plaque product can be very beneficial in plaque control and, thus, prevention of caries. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effects of four products of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride on two types of cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the antibacterial effect of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride (gel and solution against Streptococci Sanguis and Sobrinus was evaluated. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1% gel (Corosodyl, France, Chlorhexidine gluconate 2% solution (Consepsis, Ultradent, US, Sodium fluoride 0.2% solution (Oral-B, US and Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride 1.23% gel ( Denti-Care, Canada were used. The disc diffusion method was used for testing bacterial sensitivity. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: In comparison with the negative control, each of the four gels and solutions showed antibacterial effects but the effects were not statistically significant for fluoride solution (P=0.217. For S. Sobrinus, the mean diameter of inhibition zone around the discs coated with fluoride gel (F g, fluoride solution (F s, Chlorhexidine gel (CHX g and Chlorhexidine solution (CHX s were 19, 9, 21.5 and 27.5mm, respectively. For S. Sanguis, the mean diameter of inhibition zone around the discs coated with F g, F s, CHX g and CHX s were 17, 11, 17 and 25mm, respectively. CHX s had the most effect on both bacteria and F s had the least. CHX g and F g were less effective than CHX s, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that 2% CHX s and 1.23% F g can be effective on inhibition of the growth of some of cariogenic bacteria. Therefore, these agents can be used in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries.

  20. Effect of chlorhexidine on oral airway biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünase Büyükkoçak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biofilm formation of microorganisms on the surface of airways may lead to supraglottic colonization that may cause lower respiratuar tract infections. Studies searching the efficiency of local disinfectants on biofilm formation are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chlorhexidine coated airways on biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Methods: Culture and electron microscopy methods were used for biofilm assessment. Airways were divided into two groups to investigate the effects of chlorhexidine on number of bacteria attached to the airway and biofilm formation. Group 1(control: naive material, S. epidermidis, Group 2: chlorhexidine coated material, S. epidermidis. No process was applied in Group 1. Chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% was sprayed on the surface of naive material for four seconds and then left to dry in air, in Group to. Number of bacteria attached to the airway were counted by microbiological methods and biofilm formation was shown by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Mann-Whitney u test was performed for statistical analyses. Results: In Group 2, bacteria numbers were 1x102-8x102 cfu/ml, whereas they were 3x103-1x104 cfu/ml in Group 1. Chlorhexidine decreased number of microorganisms attached to the airways with statistical significance (p=0.04. The results of the electron microscopic evaluation were in accordance with the acteriological findings. Conclusion: This study has shown that chlorhexidine coating can successfully reduce the number of adhered bacteria and biofilm formation on airways. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2015;5(4: 162-166

  1. In vitro effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinses on polyspecies biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Bernhard; Meier, Andräé

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Zurich polyspecies biofilm model to compare the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine mouth rinses available on the Swiss market. As positive and negative controls, aqueous 0.15% CHX solution and water were used, respectively. In addition, Listerine® without CHX was tested. Biofilms in batch culture were grown in 24- well polystyrene tissue culture plates on hydroxyapatite discs in 70% mixed (1:1 diluted) unstimulated saliva and 30% complex culture medium. During the 64.5-hour culturing period, the biofilms were exposed to the test solutions for 1 minute twice a day on two subsequent days. Thereafter, the biofilms were dip-washed 3 times in physiological NaCl. Following the last exposure, the incubation of biofilms was continued for another 16 h. They were then harvested at 64.5 h. The dispersed biofilms were plated on 2 agar media. After incubation, colonies (CFU) were counted. All solutions containing CHX as well as Listerine ® significantly reduced the number of microorganisms in biofilms. According to their efficacy, the mouth rinses were classified into 2 groups. The two Curasept ADS solutions, Parodentosan, and the Listerine® mouth rinse reduced the number of total CFU by 3 log10 steps. This seems sufficient for a long-lasting prophylactic application. The two PlakOut® mouth rinses and the CHX control fell into the other group, where the number of CFU was reduced by 7 log10 steps. These mouth rinses are predestined for short-term therapeutic use. However, reversible side effects must be taken into account. It has thus far not been possible to formulate CHX products with effective ADS (Anti Discoloration System) additives without reducing antimicrobial activity. PMID:21656386

  2. Toxicity of chlorhexidine on odontoblast-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Campos Rosetti Lessa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX is recommended for a number of clinical procedures and it has been pointed out as a potential cavity cleanser to be applied before adhesive restoration of dental cavities. OBJECTIVE: As CHX may diffuse through the dentinal tubules to reach a monolayer of odontoblasts that underlies the dentin substrate, this study evaluated the cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of CHX on cultured odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cells were cultured and exposed to CHX solutions at concentrations of 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.2%, 1% and 2%. Pure culture medium (α-MEM and 3% hydrogen peroxide were used as negative and positive control, respectively. After exposing the cultured cells to the controls and CHX solutions for 60 s, 2 h or 60 s with a 24-h recovery period, cell metabolism (MTT assay and total protein concentration were evaluated. Cell morphology was assessed under scanning electron microscopy. CHX had a dose-dependent toxic effect on the MDPC-23 cells. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed when the cells were exposed to CHX in all periods (p<0.05. Significant difference was also determined for all CHX concentrations (p<0.05. The 60-s exposure time was the least cytotoxic (p<0.05, while exposure to CHX for 60 s with a 24-h recovery period was the most toxic to the cells (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the exposure time, all CHX concentrations had a high direct cytotoxic effect to cultured MDPC-23 cells.

  3. Antibacterial dental composites with chlorhexidine and mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J F; Wu, R; Fan, Y; Liao, S; Wang, Y; Wen, Z T; Xu, X

    2014-12-01

    One of the leading causes for the failure of dental composite restorations is secondary caries. Effectively inhibiting cariogenic biofilms and reducing secondary caries could extend the service life of composite restorations. Dental composites releasing antibacterial agents such as chlorhexidine (CHX) have shown biofilm-inhibitory efficacy, but they usually have poor physical and mechanical properties. Herein, we present a study of a new method to encapsulate and release CHX from dental composite using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). SBA-15 MSNs were synthesized according to a reported procedure. CHX (62.9 wt%) was encapsulated into dried MSN from 0.3 M CHX ethanol solution. The dental composites containing 0% (control), 3%, 5%, and 6.3% CHX or the same amounts of CHX entrapped in MSN (denoted as CHX@MSN) were fabricated with methacrylate monomers and silanized glass fillers (CHX or CHX@MSN + glass filler particle = 70 wt%). The monomer mixture consisted of bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA), hexanediol dimethacrylate (HDDMA), ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA), and urethane dimethacrylates (UEDMA) at a weight ratio of 40:30:20:10. The composites were tested for CHX release and recharge, flexural strength and modulus (at 24 hr and 1 mo), surface roughness, in vitro wear, and antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei (in both planktonic growth and biofilm formation). The results showed that the composites with CHX@MSN largely retained mechanical properties and smooth surfaces and showed controlled release of CHX over a long time. In contrast, the composites with directly mixed CHX showed reduced mechanical properties, rough surfaces, and burst release of CHX in a short time. The composites with CHX either directly mixed or in MSN showed strong inhibition to S. mutans and L. casei. This research has demonstrated the successful application of MSNs as a novel nanotechnology in dental materials to inhibit

  4. The bactericidal activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J S; Morant, S V; Bramley, A J

    1977-11-19

    Using an in vivo test on teat skin the disinfectant activity of a teat dip containing chlorhexidine and cetrimide was compared with two iodophor solutions, one containing the recommended concentration of 0.5 per cent available iodine and the other a 10-fold dilution of this (0.05 per cent iodine). The test organisms used were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and for both species the 0.5 per cent iodophor was significantly more bactericidal than either the diluted iodophor or the chlorhexidine/cetrimide teat dip (P less than 0.01). In the test against S aureus, chlorhexidine/cetrimide and the 0.05 per cent iodophor showed similar bactericidal activity, but the iodophor was significantly more bactericidal against E coli (P less than 0.01). It is argued that due to its low bactericidal activity this formulation of chlorhexidine/cetrimide is likely to be inferior to 0.5 per cent iodophor solution as a disinfectant teat dip. PMID:339477

  5. Effect of a chlorhexidine-containing brush-on gel on peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, H; Lindgren, S; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of a chlorhexidine-containing brush-on gel when used as supplement to oral hygiene instructions and mechanical debridement, on peri-implant mucositis in adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 38 adults (48-87 years.) with peri-implant...... of peri-implant mucositis....

  6. EFFECT OF A COMBINED CHLORHEXIDINE AND NAF MOUTHRINSE - AN IN-VIVO HUMAN CARIES MODEL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ULLSFOSS, BN; OGAARD, B; ARENDS, J; RUBEN, J; ROLLA, G; AFSETH, J

    1994-01-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is probably the most widely used and the most potent chemical plaque inhibitory agent, whereas fluoride (F-) is the only truly accepted anticaries agent available at present. As they have discrete mechanisms of action, a combination effect of these agents on human dental caries m

  7. Superiority of chlorhexidine 2%/alcohol 70% wipes in decontaminating ultrasound equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Bhavin; Howell, Victoria; Griffiths, Alicia; Thoppil, Anita; Liu, Monica; Carter, Joseph; Young, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Ultrasound equipment is known to act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic organisms. The aims of these studies were to establish current cleaning practices, to review the extent of bacterial contamination of ultrasound equipment in our hospital, to establish an effective cleaning regimen and to ensure that cleaning does not cause damage. A questionnaire was sent to all acute NHS hospitals in England to establish current cleaning practices. A review of our current practice was performed to establish the extent of bacterial contamination of ultrasound equipment currently in use. Laboratory studies compared cleaning the probes with soap and water with decontaminating with a chlorhexidine 2% and alcohol 70% wipe, including quantifying the residual effect. Accelerated aging was performed on the probe and staff surveyed to establish potential problems with using the wipes on the probe. The survey revealed that a variety of cleaning methods were used to decontaminate ultrasound probes; 57% of our ultrasound machines were contaminated with bacteria. The laboratory studies showed superiority of the chlorhexidine and alcohol wipes over soap and water due to a residual effect, both immediately after cleaning and after 24 hours. The staff survey demonstrated no apparent change in function of the probe after cleaning with the chlorhexidine wipes. Cleaning ultrasound probes with chlorhexidine and alcohol wipes is effective and provides additional protection against bacterial contamination due to its residual effect, and appears in the short term to have no detrimental effect on the probe. PMID:27433210

  8. Effect of addition of 2% chlorhexidine or 10% doxycycline on antimicrobial activity of biodentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Nikhil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether the addition of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate or 10% doxycycline would enhance the antimicrobial activity of Biodentine against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC-29212, Candida albicans (ATCC-90028, and Streptococcus mutans (MTCC-497. Materials and Methods: Three wells of 4 mm diameter and 4 mm depth on each plate were prepared on the agar medium with standardized suspensions of each microorganism. Biodentine powder mixed with 2% chlorhexidine (0.06 g or 10% doxycycline (0.30 g in its liquid or liquid alone was placed to fill each well. Plates were incubated at 37°C as required for microbial growth. A blinded, independent observer measured zones of inhibition. The data were analyzed using independent "t" test to compare the differences among the three cement preparations for different micro-organisms. Results: All Biodentine samples inhibited microbial growth. The highest mean diameters of zone of inhibition for all the micro-organisms were found around Biodentine/chlorhexidine (13.417 followed by Biodentine alone (12.236 and Biodentine/doxycycline (11.25. Conclusion: In conclusion, adding 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in liquid of Biodentine enhanced the antimicrobial activity of Biodentine against all the tested micro-organisms except Candida albicans, while addition of 10% doxycycline decreased the antimicrobial activity of Biodentine. The differences were significant statistically (P < 0.05.

  9. Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of MTA with and without Additives Like Silver Zeolite and Chlorhexidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Anand; Giriyappa, Ramesh Halebathi; Singh, Thakur Veerandar; Jyotsna, Sistla Venkata; Rairam, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Microorganisms, predominantly Enterococcus faecalis are found responsible in the progression of pulpal, periradicular diseases and in endodontic failures. Unsuccessful conventional treatment might necessitate the need for a surgical approach; where in retrograde restorative materials are used to seal the apex. Among the root end filling materials, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is considered biocompatible and is most commonly used in clinical applications but it has limited antibacterial activity. Metallic silver and chlorhexidine have been added into various dental materials to enhance the antibacterial activity. Aim This study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of MTA, MTA mixed with silver zeolite and MTA mixed with chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods Test materials used in the study were divided into three groups namely Group 1- MTA, Group 2-MTA + Silver Zeolite, Group 3-MTA + Chlorhexidine. Direct contact test was done by placing a standardized suspension of Enterococcus faecalis on the test materials in a 96 well microtiter plate. The bacterial growth was measured spectrophotometrically using ELISA reader at intervals of one, three and seven days. Statistical Analysis Data was collected by recording the optical density and analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple post hoc test followed by paired-t test. Results and Conclusion All test groups showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis at day one, three and seven. MTA with silver zeolite showed the maximum antibacterial activity followed by MTA with 2% chlorhexidine. The least antibacterial effect was shown by MTA mixed with sterile water.

  10. Delmopinol-induced matrix removal facilitates photodynamic therapy and chlorhexidine methods for disinfecting mixed oral biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen Christopher

    It is often observed that the slimy matrixes of various bacterial-formed biofilms can limit their disinfection. This investigation demonstrated that disinfection effectiveness by either photodynamic therapy (PDT) or chlorhexidine irrigation is significantly improved by collapse of that matrix using the non-bactericidal reagent delmopinol as part of the treatment sequence. Cyclic shear-producing conditions were used to grow 4-day, whole salivary and growth media biofilms on glow-discharge-treated polystyrene (N=46) and mini-germanium internal reflection prisms to serve in a periodontal crypt model of disinfection by either methylene-blue-mediated PDT or by chlorhexidine irrigation. Assays for bacterial viability, with and without treatments, were performed by alamarBlueRTM fluorescent methods, statistically applied (ANOVA, Tukey's HSD). Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared (MAIR-IR) assays confirmed selective removal of the predominantly polysaccharide matrix materials by the delmopinol treatment, but not by equivalent water or chlorhexidine methods. Confocal-IR microscopy showed that the delmopinol reagent, alone, caused about one-third of each wet biofilm to be removed, while bacterial re-growth was confirmed by alamarBlueRTM assay. Chlorhexidine and PDT suppression of bacterial activity without regrowth was significantly improved with the added delmopinol treatment, and is likely to provide similarly beneficial results in the effective disinfection of diverse biofilms in many settings.

  11. The Mouthwash War - Chlorhexidine vs. Herbal Mouth Rinses: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjid; Wadgave, Umesh; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Ravi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouthwashes are often prescribed in dentistry for prevention and treatment of several oral conditions. In the recent times the use of naturally occurring products what is otherwise known as grandmothers remedy are used on a large scale. This has now called for a newer age of mouth washes but is the new age mouth washes at par with the gold standard or even better than them this study investigates. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two broad categories of mouth washes namely chlorhexidine and herbal mouth washes. Materials and Methods Eleven randomized control studies were pooled in for the meta-analysis. The search was done from the Pub Med Central listed studies with the use keywords with Boolean operators (chlorhexidine, herbal, mouth wash, randomized control trials). The fixed effects model was used for analysis. Results This meta-analysis brings to light, the fact that a wide range of newer herbal products are now available. As with a plethora of herbal mouthwashes available it is the need of the hour to validate their potential use and recommendation. This study found that only two studies favor the use of herbal products and four studies favor the use of chlorhexidine, of the 11 studies that were analyzed. Conclusion More studies are required under well controlled circumstances to prove that herbal products can equate or replace the ‘gold standard’ chlorhexidine. Herbal products are heterogeneous in nature, their use should be advised only with more scientific proof. PMID:27437366

  12. Caries-inhibiting effect of chlorhexidine varnish in pits and fissures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Truin, G.J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2006-01-01

    Evidence regarding the caries-inhibiting effect of chlorhexidine varnish is inconclusive. This study investigated the caries-inhibiting effect of the varnish EC40 on pits and fissures of first permanent molars. A two-year randomized controlled trial was carried out among 461 six- to seven-year-old c

  13. Chlorhexidine varnishes effectively inhibit Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans - An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ashwin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine varnish (Cervitec- Ivoclar Vivadent- Liechtenstein is a sustained-release delivery system that can provide protection against white spots and gingivitis, which are common iatrogenic side effects of orthodontic treatment. Chlorhexidine in varnish form does not depend on patient compliance, does not stain teeth or alter taste sensation like the mouth rinse. Materials and Methods : A split-mouth technique was followed in the treatment of 30 patients selected by stringent selection criteria, evaluating a single application of the test varnish on two randomly allotted quadrants along with a placebo on the other two quadrants. Streptococcus mutans counts responsible for white spots and P. gingivalis count [using PCR test] responsible for gingivitis were done at the start of the study, and then 1 and 3 months later. Results: The chlorhexidine varnish reduced the Streptococci mutans count at the end of 1 month, and this reduction was statistically significant. At the end of 3 months, there was no difference in the S. mutans counts between the two groups. There was a statistically significant reduction in the P. gingivalis count at the end of both 1 and 3 months in comparison to the placebo group. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine varnishes are capable of reducing S. mutans and P. gingivalis and gingivitis, thus improving the overall oral health of the patient. The side effects of chlorhexidine mouth rinses are not seen with this varnish. An application schedule of at least once a month is recommended as the effectiveness is reduced comparatively at the end of 3 months.

  14. Effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate and xylitol on the clinical levels of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha A Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% mouthwash and xylitol chewing gum on the dental plaque levels. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy male dental students aged between 21 and 25 years (mean age 23.4 years participated in the study. All the subjects received a professional prophylaxis at the start of the study, with the purpose of making the dentition 100% free of plaque and calculus. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the Manuka honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the xylitol chewing gum group. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed as also any form of mechanical oral hygiene for all the subjects during the experimental period of 72 h. After the experimental period, the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Results: The mean plaque scores for Groups I, II and III were 1.37, 1.35 and 1.57, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that between-group comparison was significant, with an F-value of 5.99 and a probability value of 0.004. The T-test was carried out to evaluate the inter-group significance, which revealed that the plaque inhibition by Manuka honey was similar to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Both Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly, better than the xylitol chewing gum. Conclusion: Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly better than xylitol chewing gum.

  15. Comparative analysis of Salmonella susceptibility and tolerance to the biocide chlorhexidine identifies a complex cellular defence network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla eCondell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is one of the most widely used biocides in health and agricultural settings as well as in the modern food industry. It is a cationic biocide of the biguanide class. Details of its mechanism of action are largely unknown. The frequent use of chlorhexidine has been questioned recently, amidst concerns that an overuse of this compound may select for bacteria displaying an altered susceptibility to antimicrobials, including clinically important anti-bacterial agents.We generated a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolate (ST24CHX that exhibited a high-level tolerant phenotype to chlorhexidine, following several rounds of in vitro selection, using sub-lethal concentrations of the biocide. This mutant showed altered suceptibility to a panel of clinically important antimicrobial compounds. Here we describe a genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and phenotypic analysis of the chlorhexidine tolerant S. Typhimurium compared with its isogenic sensitive progenitor. Results from this study describe a chlorhexidine defence network that functions in both the reference chlorhexidine sensitive isolate and the tolerant mutant. The defence network involved multiple cell targets including those associated with the synthesis and modification of the cell wall, the SOS response, virulence, and a shift in cellular metabolism towards anoxic pathways, some of which were regulated by CreB and Fur. In addition, results indicated that chlorhexidine tolerance was associated with more extensive modifications of the same cellular processes involved in this proposed network, as well as a divergent defence response involving the up-regulation of additional targets such as the flagellar apparatus and an altered cellular phosphate metabolism.These data show that sub-lethal concentrations of chlorhexidine induce distinct changes in exposed Salmonella, and our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of action and tolerance to this biocidal agent.

  16. Comparative assessment of Cranberry and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on streptococcal colonization among dental students: A randomized parallel clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R Khairnar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash has earned an eponym of the gold standard against oral infections, but with certain limitations. There is no effective alternative to Chlorhexidine. Cranberry is known to inhibit bacterial adhesion in various systemic infections and acts as a strong antioxidant. However, it is less explored for its dental use. Hence, there is a need to evaluate its effect against oral infections. Aim: The aim was to compare the efficacy of 0.2% Chlorhexidine mouthwash with 0.6% Cranberry mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized parallel group clinical trial. Total sample of 50 subjects, aged 18-20 years, were randomly divided into two groups, Group A (25 and Group B (25 were given 10 mL of Chlorhexidine mouthwash and Cranberry mouthwash twice daily, respectively, for 14 days each. The plaque samples, which were taken from the subjects on 1 st day and 14 th day, were inoculated on blood agar plates and incubated at 37΀C for 24-48 h. Number of streptococcal colony forming units were calculated using digital colony counter. The data were subjected to paired t-test and unpaired t-test at a 5% significance level. Results: (1 Chlorhexidine mouthwash showed 69% reduction whereas Cranberry mouthwash showed 68% reduction in S. mutans count. (2 No significant difference was seen between Chlorhexidine and Cranberry mouthwash on streptococci. Conclusion: Cranberry mouthwash is equally effective as Chlorhexidine mouthwash with beneficial local and systemic effect. Hence, it can be used effectively as an alternative to Chlorhexidine mouthwash.

  17. Impact of chlorhexidine mouthwash prophylaxis on probable ventilator-associated pneumonia in a surgical intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Enwere, Emmanuel N; Elofson, Kathryn A; Forbes, Rachel C.; Gerlach, Anthony T

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia is a healthcare goal. Although data is inconsistent, some studies suggest that oral chlorhexidine may decrease rates of pneumonia in mechanically-ventilated patients. We sought to assess the rate of pneumonia in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit (SICU) pre and post implementation of routine chlorhexidine mouthwash prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including patients between 1/1/2009 and 12/3...

  18. Comparative analysis of Salmonella susceptibility and tolerance to the biocide chlorhexidine identifies a complex cellular defence network

    OpenAIRE

    SeamusFanning; OrlaCondell; KristianHandler; AineSheridan; KjellSergeant; JUANWANG; JarlathNally

    2014-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is one of the most widely used biocides in health and agricultural settings as well as in the modern food industry. It is a cationic biocide of the biguanide class. Details of its mechanism of action are largely unknown. The frequent use of chlorhexidine has been questioned recently, amidst concerns that an overuse of this compound may select for bacteria displaying an altered susceptibility to antimicrobials, including clinically important anti-bacterial agents. We generat...

  19. An investigation into the role of dendrimers as potential enhancers of the dermal delivery of topically applied chlorhexidine

    OpenAIRE

    Judd, Amy Maryanne

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of bacteria on the skin results in prophylactic and therapeutic benefits by reducing the occurrence of skin infections. Currently, chlorhexidine digluconate, a conventional topical antiseptic, permeates the skin poorly leaving viable opportunistic pathogens below the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to use polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to enhance the topical delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate to improve its antimicrobial efficacy.

  20. Cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine digluconate to murine macrophages and its effect on hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide induction

    OpenAIRE

    Bonacorsi C.; Raddi M.S.G.; Carlos I.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorhexidine, even at low concentrations, is toxic for a variety of eukaryotic cells; however, its effects on host immune cells are not well known. We evaluated in vitro chlorhexidine-induced cytotoxicity and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediate induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Thioglycollate-induced cells were obtained from Swiss mice by peritoneal lavage with 5 ml of 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline, washed twice and resuspended (10(6) cells/ml) in appropriate med...

  1. The conductivity measurements applied for the evaluation of controlled release of chlorhexidine from thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivative microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the work was the evaluation of the conductivity changes in aqueous environment, consisting of chlorhexidine, and N-isopropylacrylamide derivative microgel, during increasing the temperature between 25 degrees C and 42 degrees C, as a prerequisite to develop the this microgel for controlled release of chlorhexidine, when alterations in temperature are involved. Conductivity of studied systems underwent specific alterations, when temperature increased. For the system with polymer PNM I the values of conductivity were in the range 104,47 microS/cm - 134,70 microS/ cm, for temperature range 25 degrees C and 42 degrees C. In the case of PNM II - CX system, respective values reached 91,75 microS/cm - 135,95 microS/cm. The lowest conductivity values were observed when PNM III - CX mixture was studied: 96,90 microS/cm and 117,37 microS/cm. When a complex of derivatives of N-isopropylacrylamide with chlorhexidine undergoes thermal alteration, there is a potential to obtain controlled release of chlorhexidine from the polymeric bead in the range between 25 degrees C and 42 degrees C. The affinity of chlorhexidine to the polymer may be assessed in this systems applying the conductivity measurements. The solubility of chlorhexidine in the polymeric systems should be in future evaluated, to determine role of this factor in the conductivity alterations.

  2. [Dissertations 25 years after date 21. Enhancing resistance to bacteria with chlorhexidine varnish and probiotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeken, M J M

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the research described in 'Chemotherapy against Streptococcus mutans' was to increase colonization resistance against mutans streptococci by inoculating Actinomyces naeslundii on the dentition. Actinomyces naeslundii established better after chlorhexidine application than after dental cleansing only but did not exceed the 1% level of the total actinomyces population. This was insufficient to increase the colonization resistance against mutans streptococci. A 33% chlorhexidine varnish was developed. After a single short-term application of the varnish all plaque bacteria were erased. After several hours Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus gordonii re-established on the surface. Actinomyces naeslundii recovered later, but often with higher numbers. Mutans streptococci remained suppressed for months. This led to less acid production in dental plaque and caries reduction. The combination of mechanical cleansing and varnish application resulted in additional pocket reduction. Recently, attention is also established for research on the application ofprobiotics in periodotology. PMID:20225702

  3. [Outbreak due to Serratia marcescens associated with intrinsic contamination of aqueous chlorhexidine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Beatrice; Chomali, May; Gutiérrez, Cecilia; Luna, Mariana; Rivas, Jeannette; Blamey, Rodrigo; Espinoza, Ricardo; Izquierdo, Giannina; Cabezas, Catalina; Alvarez, Claudia; de la Fuente, Sebastián

    2015-10-01

    Serratia marcescens is a widely distributed gram-negative rod, often associated to nosocomial infections. Some outbreaks linked to contaminated antiseptic solutions have been reported. In this study we report a nosocomial outbreak of surgical site infection and catheter insertion site infection due to S. marcescens. 33 patients with positive cultures were studied after an index case was identified. Epidemiological, microbiological and molecular analysis demostrated an intrinsic contamination of alcohol free chlorhexidine solution as causal factor. Positive cultures were associated with 13 clinical infections, 9 colonized patients, 6 pseudobacteremia episodes and 5 patients without documented exposure. Hospital and national recall of contaminated chlorhexidine solution was performed after this study. Intrinsic contamination of antiseptic solutions is an infrequent cause of nosocomial infections with major epidemiological relevance.

  4. Comparison of Antibacterial Effect of Fluoride and Chlorhexidine on Two Cariogenic Bacteria: An in Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Poureslami HR; Barkam F; Poureslami P; Salari Z; Salari S

    2014-01-01

    Statement of problem: Dental plaque is the main source for dental caries and there is no proper vaccine that can affect dental plaques. Objectives: Daily use of an efficient anti-plaque product can be very beneficial in plaque control and, thus, prevention of caries. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effects of four products of Chlorhexidine and Fluoride on two types of cariogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, the antibacterial effect of Chlorhe...

  5. Chlorhexidine rinse for prevention of urethritis in men linked to oral sex

    OpenAIRE

    Kolahi, Jafar; Abrishami, Mohamadreza; Fazilati, Mohamad; Soolari, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Background Oral sex among teenagers is on the rise. Similarity between the oral flora and organisms recovered from nongonococcal urethritis and prostatitis, points to retrograde entry of bacteria from oral cavity into the urethra following insertive oral intercourse. Presentation of the hypothesis Chlorhexidine has a wide spectrum of anti-bactericidal activity encompassing gram positive and negative bacteria. It is also effective against HIV and HBV. It produced large and prolonged reductions...

  6. Efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate ointment (Oronine H®) for experimentally-induced comedones

    OpenAIRE

    Yamakoshi, Takako; Makino, Teruhiko; Matsunaga, Kenji; Yoshihisa, Yoko; Rehman, Mati Ur; Seki, Taisuke; Hayashi, Yoshito; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2012-01-01

    Background Oronine H® ointment, which contains chlorhexidine gluconate as its active component, is a well known disinfectant, and has been widely used for treatment of acne in Japan. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of this ointment on the formation of comedones induced by application of 50% oleic acid on the orifices of the external auditory canals of rabbits. Methods The application sites were observed with a dermatoscope, and the area of the hair pores was measured usin...

  7. Efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate ointment (Oronine H®) for experimentally-induced comedones

    OpenAIRE

    Yamakoshi T; Makino T; Matsunaga K; Yoshihisa Y; Ur Rehman M; Seki T; Hayashi Y.; Shimizu T.

    2012-01-01

    Takako Yamakoshi,1 Teruhiko Makino,1 Kenji Matsunaga,1 Yoko Yoshihisa,1 Mati Ur Rehman,1 Taisuke Seki,2 Yoshito Hayashi,3 Tadamichi Shimizu11Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama-shi, Toyama; 2Seki Dermatological Clinic, Toyama-shi, Toyama; 3Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc, Naruto-shi, Tokushima, JapanBackground: Oronine H® ointment, which contains chlorhexidine gluconate as its active component, is a well kn...

  8. Adaptation and growth of Serratia marcescens in contact lens disinfectant solutions containing chlorhexidine gluconate.

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, P A; Sawant, A D; Wilson, L.A.; Ahearn, D G

    1993-01-01

    Serratia marcescens (11 of 12 strains) demonstrated an ability to grow in certain chlorhexidine-based disinfecting solutions recommended for rigid gas-permeable contact lenses. For a representative strain, cells that were grown in nutrient-rich medium, washed, and inoculated into disinfecting solution went into a nonrecoverable phase within 24 h. However, after 4 days, cells that had the ability to grow in the disinfectant (doubling time, g = 5.7 h) emerged. Solutions supporting growth of S. ...

  9. Preoperative skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Solano Castro

    2014-01-01

    The results of secondary research that refers to preoperative skin preparation with antiseptic chlorhexidine 2% are presented. Surgical Site Infections are one of the most common complications in surgical procedures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the user and are the third -associated infection more frequent in the health care . Steps of clinical practice based on evidence were applied, considering in the first instance a question in PICO format, then a search for ...

  10. Chlorhexidine as a root canal irrigant: Antimicrobial and scanning electron microscopic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Živković Slavoljub; Pavlović Violeta

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Selection of irrigant is very important for longterm success of root canal therapy. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX) against five selected microorganisms and to evaluate its efficacy in root canal cleaning. Methods. In this study, by agar diffusion test, were evaluated antimicrobial effects of three root canal irrigants: 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX. The microorganisms tested in ...

  11. Agonistic and Antagonistic Interactions between Chlorhexidine and Other Endodontic Agents: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Root canal irrigants play a significant role in elimination of the microorganisms, tissue remnants, and removal of the debris and smear layer. No single solution is able to fulfill all these actions completely; therefore, a combination of irrigants may be required. The aim of this investigation was to review the agonistic and antagonistic interactions between chlorhexidine (CHX) and other irrigants and medicaments. An English-limited Medline search was performed for articles published from 20...

  12. Effect of Resin Coating and Chlorhexidine on Microleakage of Two Resin Cements after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shafie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluating the effect of resin coating and chlorhexidine on microleakage of two resin cements after water storage.Materials and Methods: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on facial and lingual surfaces of one hundred twenty intact human molars with gingival margins placed 1mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Indirect composite inlays were fabricated and thespecimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups. In Groups 1 to 4, inlays were cemented with Panavia F2.0 cement. G1: according to the manufacturer’s instruction. G2: with light cured resin on the ED primer. G3: chlorhexidine application before priming. G4: withchlorhexidine application before priming and light cured resin on primer. G5: inlays were cemented with Nexus 2 resin cement. G6: chlorhexidine application after etching. Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the 24-hour and 6-month water storagetime. After preparation for microleakage test, the teeth were sectioned and evaluated at both margins under a 20×stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was scored using 0-3 criteria.The data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and complementary Dunn tests.Results: There was significantly less leakage in G2 and G4 than the Panavia F2.0 control group at gingival margins after 6 months (P<0.05. There was no significant differences in leakage between G1 and G3 at both margins after 24 hours and 6 months storage. After 6months, G6 revealed significantly less leakage than G5 at gingival margins (P=0.033. In general, gingival margins showed more leakage than occlusal margins.Conclusion: Additionally, resin coating in self-etch (Panavia F2.0 and chlorhexidine application in etch-rinse (Nexus resin cement reduced microleakage at gingival margins after storage.

  13. Effect of digluconate chlorhexidine on bond strength between dental adhesive systems and dentin: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Dionysopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to systematically review the literature for the effect of digluconate chlorhexidine (CHX) on bond strength between dental adhesive systems and dentin of composite restorations. Materials and Methods: The electronic databases that were searched to identify manuscripts for inclusion were Medline via PubMed and Google search engine. The search strategies were computer search of the database and review of reference lists of the related articles. Search words/terms were a...

  14. Efficacy of chlorhexidine as a postmilking teat disinfectant for the prevention of bovine mastitis during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; King, S H; Lewis, M J; Torre, P M; Matthews, K R; Dowlen, H H

    1990-08-01

    A natural exposure trial was conducted for 12 mo in a herd of 150 lactating Jersey cows to determine efficacy of a .35% chlorhexidine teat dip containing a glycerine emollient for the prevention of bovine intramammary infections. Right teats of cows were dipped in the experimental teat dip after milking machine removal and left teats were not dipped. The herd was free of Streptococcus agalactiae and had a low prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus. Most new major pathogen intramammary infections resulted from Streptococcus species, primarily Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. New infections by Streptococcus species were significantly lower in teats dipped in chlorhexidine than in undipped teats. Overall efficacy of the chlorhexidine teat dip against major mastitis pathogens was 50%. The experimental teat dip also reduced coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species infections 49.0% and Corynebacterium bovis infections 65.2%. Overall efficacy against minor mastitis pathogens was 54.0%. No irritation or chapping of teats dipped in the experimental teat dip was observed. PMID:2229606

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and Tris-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Damborg, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA (Otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. The microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. The most susceptible group included Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis, Streptococcus canis and Corynebacterium auriscanis, which were generally killed by 1 : 64 dilution of the antiseptic product (MBC = 23/0.8 microg/mL of chlorhexidine/Tris-EDTA). The most resistant organism was Proteus mirabilis, which survived up to 1 : 8 dilution of the product (MBC = 375/12 microg/mL). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus displayed intermediate MBCs ranging between 188/6 and 47/1.5 microg/mL. Interestingly, S. pseudintermedius was more susceptible than S. aureus, and no significant difference was observed between meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates within each species, indicating that antiseptic use is unlikely to co-select for meticillin resistance. Although the concentrations required for killing (MBCs) varied considerably with microorganism type, the combination of chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA was active against all the pathogens most commonly involved in canine otitis. PMID:20030799

  16. In vitro antimicrobial activity of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine and Tris-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Ghibaudo, Giovanni; Damborg, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of a commercial ear antiseptic containing chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA (Otodine) were determined by broth microdilution for 150 isolates representing the most common pathogens associated with canine otitis. The microorganisms were classified into three groups according to their levels of susceptibility. The most susceptible group included Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Malassezia pachydermatis, Streptococcus canis and Corynebacterium auriscanis, which were generally killed by 1 : 64 dilution of the antiseptic product (MBC = 23/0.8 microg/mL of chlorhexidine/Tris-EDTA). The most resistant organism was Proteus mirabilis, which survived up to 1 : 8 dilution of the product (MBC = 375/12 microg/mL). Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus displayed intermediate MBCs ranging between 188/6 and 47/1.5 microg/mL. Interestingly, S. pseudintermedius was more susceptible than S. aureus, and no significant difference was observed between meticillin-resistant and meticillin-susceptible isolates within each species, indicating that antiseptic use is unlikely to co-select for meticillin resistance. Although the concentrations required for killing (MBCs) varied considerably with microorganism type, the combination of chlorhexidine 0.15% and Tris-EDTA was active against all the pathogens most commonly involved in canine otitis.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of New Chlorhexidine-Containing Nanoparticles for Root Canal Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Haseeb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Root canal system disinfection is limited due to anatomical complexities. Better delivery systems of antimicrobial agents are needed to ensure efficient bacteria eradication. The purpose of this study was to design chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles that could steadily release the drug. The drug chlorhexidine was encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol–block–poly(l-lactide (PEG–b–PLA to synthesize bilayer nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency was determined through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and particle characterization was performed through microscopy studies of particle morphology and size. Their antimicrobial effect was assessed over the endodontic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The nanoparticles ranged in size from 300–500 nm, which is considered small enough for penetration inside small dentin tubules. The nanoparticles were dispersed in a hydrogel matrix carrier system composed of 1% hydroxyethyl cellulose, and this hydrogel system was observed to have enhanced bacterial inhibition over longer periods of time. Chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles demonstrate potential as a drug carrier for root canal procedures. Their size and rate of release may allow for sustained inhibition of bacteria in the root canal system.

  18. Influence of chlorhexidine application on longitudinal adhesive bond strength in deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of applying 2% chlorhexidine for 30 seconds after phosphoric acid conditioning of dentin on the immediate and long-term bond strengths in deciduous teeth. The occlusal enamel was removed from 40 human sound deciduous molars, which were exfoliated by natural means, and the dentin was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds and washed with running water. The specimens were divided into two groups of 20 teeth. The test group received an application of 2% chlorhexidine for 30 seconds prior to a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system, whereas the control group received only the adhesive system. Three cylindrical restorations were made with a composite resin for each tooth. Ten teeth in each group were submitted to a microshear bond strength test after 24 hours, while the remaining teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 6 months before testing the microshear bond strength. The test group had a higher bond strength than did the control group after 6 months of storage. No statistical differences were found when groups with the same dentin treatment were compared at different times. Short applications of chlorhexidine at low concentrations prevent hybrid layer degradation and positively affect bond strength over time.

  19. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-01

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  20. Results of gastroscope bacterial decontamination by enzymatic detergent compared to chlorhexidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rungsun Rerknimitr; Sorapat Eakthunyasakul; Pongpan Nunthapisud; Pradermchai Kongkam

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy of enzymatic detergent with chlorhexidine for gastroscope bacterial decontamination.METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of these 2 agents to achieve high level disinfection in a gastroscope. A total of 260 samples were collected from 5 different gastroscopes. Manual cleaning was done for 10 min with these 2 agents separately (n = 130 each). Then all specimens underwent 2% glutaraldehyde soaking for 20 min. After 70% alcohol was rinsed, sterile normal saline was flushed into each gastroscope channel and 40 mL of sample was collected. The sample was sent for aerobic bacterial culture after membrane was filtered. A colony count greater than 200 cfu/mL was considered significant.RESULTS: The positive culture rate was 4.6% in the enzymatic detergent arm and 3.1% in the chlorhexidine arm. Pseudomonas species were the main organism detected from both groups (60%). Multiple organisms were found from 4 specimens (enzymatic detergent arm = 1, chlorhexidine arm = 3).CONCLUSION: The contamination rate of both types of cleaning solution is equivalent.

  1. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-01

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group. PMID:21831997

  2. Comparing the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztaş, Nurhan; Sümer, Zeynep

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of gaseous ozone and chlorhexidine solution on a tooth cavity model. Study Design: Twenty-one human molars were divided into 3 groups. Cavities were then cut into the teeth (4 per tooth, 28 cavities per group). After sterilization, the teeth were left in broth cultures of 106 colony-forming units (CFU) ml-1 of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) at 36°C for 48 h. The appropriate treatment followed (group A, control; group B, 2% chlorhexidine solution; and group C, 80s of treatment with ozone, and the cavities were then filled with composite resin. After 72h, the restorations were removed, dentin chips were collected with an excavator, and the total number of microorganisms was determined. Results: Both of the treatments significantly reduced the number of S. mutans present compared with the control group and there was a significant difference between the all groups in terms of the amount of the microorganisms grown (p ozone group (p ozone application could be an anlternative cavity disinfection method because of ozone’s cavity disinfection activity. Key words:Antibacterial activity, chlorhexidine, ozone, streptococcus mutans, tooth cavity. PMID:24455068

  3. Chitosan nanoparticles enhance the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine in collagen membranes used for periapical guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreras, Uriel Soto; Méndez, Fernando Torres; Martínez, Rita Elizabeth Martínez; Valencia, Carolina Samano; Rodríguez, Panfilo Raymundo Martinez; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo Loyola

    2016-01-01

    Endodontic failure is mainly associated with the persistence of microbial infection in the root canal system and/or the periradicular area. Microorganisms and their toxins located in the root canal system may trigger apical periodontitis and tissue destruction. Tissue regeneration in periapical surgery by using membrane barriers has shown an improved healing and bone closure. However, bacterial membrane contamination is a main reason of failure. In this in vitro study, different brands of chlorhexidine, a combination of chitosan nanoparticles containing chlorhexidine were tested against Enterococcus faecalis on agar plate's cultures and infected collagen membranes. Our results indicated that chitosan nanoparticles acted synergistically with chlorhexidine, inhibiting and eliminating significantly a greater amount of colony former units in both BHI-agar cultures and infected collagen membranes. These results suggested that chitosan nanoparticles could be used to improve regenerative procedures in periapical surgery. PMID:26478419

  4. Effect of Terminalia chebula extract and chlorhexidine on salivary pH and periodontal health: 2 weeks randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, D J; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Karim, Bushra; Gupta, Vipul; Punia, Himanshu; Batra, Manu; Jain, Ankita; Agarwal, Amit; Singh, Pradeep

    2014-07-01

    A double blind, randomized, controlled study with three parallel treatment groups was done to evaluate the efficacy of a Terminalia chebula 10% mouth rinse compared with chlorhexidine 0.12% mouth rinse, applied two times daily for 2 weeks, in the treatment of dental plaque and gingivitis. Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. The efficacy variables were periodontal indices on days 0, 7 and 14 after commencement of therapy. Twenty six patients received chlorhexidine mouth rinse, twenty six Terminalia chebula mouth rinse and twenty six received saline solution. The clinical parameters were significantly reduced by both chlorhexidine and Terminalia chebula mouth rinse although no significant difference was seen between the two groups (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that Terminalia chebula mouth rinse is effective in reducing microbial plaque, gingival inflammation and neutralizing salivary pH. PMID:24123617

  5. Biofilm inhibitory effect of chlorhexidine conjugated gold nanoparticles against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Khan, Anum Khalid; Anwar, Ayaz; Ali, Syed Abid; Shah, Muhammad Raza

    2016-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is one of the major pathogen associated with nosocomial infections, especially catheter associated urinary tract infections which involved biofilm formation. This study was designed to evaluate the antibiofilm efficacy of gold nanoparticle conjugated with chlorhexidine (Au-CHX) against K. pneumoniae isolates. Au-CHX was synthesized and analyzed for stability by using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Biofilm inhibition and eradication was performed by crystal violet, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and further confirmed by florescence and AFM microscopy. Au-CHX showed the maxima surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 535 nm, spherical morphology and polydispersity with size in the range of 20-100 nm. The micro molar concentrations (i.e. 25 and 100 μM) of Au-CHX completely inhibited the biofilm formation and metabolic activity within biofilms of K. pneumoniae reference and three tested clinical isolates, respectively. Time dependant biofilm inhibition assay showed that Au-CHX inhibited the early stage of biofilm formation. While at 75 and 100 μM concentrations, it also eradicated the established biofilms of K. pneumoniae isolates as compared to 2 mM chlorhexidine. Reduced florescence signals and surface roughness during microscopic analysis further confirms the antibiofilm activity of Au-CHX against K. pneumoniae ATCC13882 and clinical isolates. Thus it is concluded that chlorhexidine coated gold nanoparticle not only inhibits the biofilm formation of K. pneumoniae ATCC and clinical isolates but also eradicated the preformed biofilm.

  6. Efficacy of different techniques for removal of calcium hydroxide-chlorhexidine paste from root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Leal, Flávia Martins; Silva, Gleyce Oliveira; de Oliveira, Tatiana Rocha; Madureira, Paloma Grasso; Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different techniques for removal of combined calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and chlorhexidine paste from root canals. Fifty single-rooted human teeth were prepared by oscillatory and rotary systems and filled with a paste of Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel. After incubation for 14 days, the specimens were divided into 5 groups (n = 10), and the medication was removed by 1 of 5 different procedures. In group 1 (control), removal procedures involved a master apical file, foraminal debridement, and 5 mL of saline solution applied with the NaviTip irrigation needle. Group 2 was treated the same as group 1, but in addition 0.5 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was used for 3 minutes. In group 3, ultrasonic agitation was performed for 1 minute. Group 4 was treated as group 2, but the NaviTip FX needle was used for irrigation. In group 5, a master apical file, foraminal debridement, and 3-minute application of 5 mL of citric acid were used. After the root-cleaning procedures, the crowns were removed at the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were split longitudinally into halves. The success of intracanal medicament removal was observed under stereoscopic microscope and scanning electron microscope. Remnants of Ca(OH)2 were found in all experimental groups, regardless of the removal technique used. There was no statistically significant difference in cleanliness in the apical third of the root canal among groups 1, 2, and 3. Group 4 showed the best and group 5 the worst results with statistically significant differences. Overall, the NaviTip FX irrigation needle technique was more efficient in removing a Ca(OH)2-chlorhexidine paste from the root canal. PMID:26943099

  7. Chlorhexidine-based antiseptic solutions effectively reduce catheter-related bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onder, Ali Mirza; Chandar, Jayanthi; Billings, Anthony; Diaz, Rosa; Francoeur, Denise; Abitbol, Carolyn; Zilleruelo, Gaston

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate if the application of chlorhexidine-based solutions (ChloraPrep) to the exit site and the hub of long-term hemodialysis catheters could prevent catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) and prolong catheter survival when compared with povidone-iodine solutions. There were 20,784 catheter days observed. Povidone-iodine solutions (Betadine) were used in the first half of the study and ChloraPrep was used in the second half for all the patients. Both groups received chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings at the exit sites. The use of ChloraPrep significantly decreased the incidence of CRB (1.0 vs 2.2/1,000 catheter days, respectively, P = 0.0415), and hospitalization due to CRB (1.8 days vs 4.1 days/1,000 catheter days, respectively, P = 0.0416). The incidence of exit site infection was similar for the two groups. Both the period of overall catheter survival (207.6 days vs 161.1 days, P = 0.0535) and that of infection-free catheter survival (122.0 days vs 106.9 days, P = 0.1100) tended to be longer for the catheters cleansed with ChloraPrep, with no statistical significance. In conclusion, chlorhexidine-based solutions are more effective for the prevention of CRB than povidone-iodine solutions. This positive impact cannot be explained by decreased number of exit site infections. This study supports the notion that the catheter hub is the entry site for CRB. PMID:19296135

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Peganum Harmala L. on Streptococcus mutans Compared to 0.2% Chlorhexidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Khosropanah, Hengameh; Dabiri, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Dental caries is one the most prevalent diseases that affects humans throughout their lives. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is recognized as the most important microorganism during tooth cariogenicity. Reducing this germ in oral cavity can reduce the rate of tooth decays in humans. Purpose The present study compared the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Peganum harmala L. seeds and 0.2% chlorhexidine on S. mutans. Materials and Method Agar diffusion technique and micro broth dilution method were employed to test the antimicrobial effects of these two agents on S. mutans. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of P. harmala was studied on Vero cells by MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium dye) colorimetric method. The data were analyzed with descriptive methods. Results Concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL of the extract made inhibition zones of bacterial growth around the wells; but, lower concentrations could not inhibit the growth of S. mutans. Besides, the antimicrobial effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine was more than 50 mg/mL of the extract. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract on S. mutans was 1.83±0.6 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 4.3±1 mg/mL. The MIC and MBC for 0.2% chlorhexidine were reported to be 0.19 mg/mL, and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The extract concentrations more than 0.5 mg/mL were toxic and caused more than 50% Vero cell death. Conclusion Despite the remarkable antimicrobial effects of high concentrations of P. harmala on S. mutans, high cell toxicity of this plant would restrict its in vivo therapeutic use. PMID:27602397

  9. Biofilm inhibitory effect of chlorhexidine conjugated gold nanoparticles against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Khan, Anum Khalid; Anwar, Ayaz; Ali, Syed Abid; Shah, Muhammad Raza

    2016-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is one of the major pathogen associated with nosocomial infections, especially catheter associated urinary tract infections which involved biofilm formation. This study was designed to evaluate the antibiofilm efficacy of gold nanoparticle conjugated with chlorhexidine (Au-CHX) against K. pneumoniae isolates. Au-CHX was synthesized and analyzed for stability by using UV-Visible spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). Biofilm inhibition and eradication was performed by crystal violet, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and further confirmed by florescence and AFM microscopy. Au-CHX showed the maxima surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 535 nm, spherical morphology and polydispersity with size in the range of 20-100 nm. The micro molar concentrations (i.e. 25 and 100 μM) of Au-CHX completely inhibited the biofilm formation and metabolic activity within biofilms of K. pneumoniae reference and three tested clinical isolates, respectively. Time dependant biofilm inhibition assay showed that Au-CHX inhibited the early stage of biofilm formation. While at 75 and 100 μM concentrations, it also eradicated the established biofilms of K. pneumoniae isolates as compared to 2 mM chlorhexidine. Reduced florescence signals and surface roughness during microscopic analysis further confirms the antibiofilm activity of Au-CHX against K. pneumoniae ATCC13882 and clinical isolates. Thus it is concluded that chlorhexidine coated gold nanoparticle not only inhibits the biofilm formation of K. pneumoniae ATCC and clinical isolates but also eradicated the preformed biofilm. PMID:27321770

  10. Synthesis and purification of carbon-14 labelled 1, 1-hexamethylene-bis [5-(4-chlorophenyl)biguanide] (chlorhexidine, 'Hibitane')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two syntheses of [14C] chlorhexidine ('Hibitane') with the label specifically incorporated in two separate molecular positions are described. Ring labelled chlorhexidine prepared from p-chloro[U-14C]aniline was obtained with a molar specific activity of 27.9 mCi/mmol. Chain labelled material, where the 14C label was incorporated in the 1 and 6 positions of the hexamethylene bridge, was prepared from [1, 6 14C]-adiponitrile, with a molar specific activity of 11.5 mCi/mmol. Several methods of purification are described. (author)

  11. Mise au point et évaluation d'une solution hydro-alcoolique colorée de chlorhexidine

    OpenAIRE

    Malriq, Alexia; Monset, A.; Baudoin, Amandine; Renaud, Julie; Salmon, D.; Pirot, Fabrice; Pivot, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Les solutions hydro alcooliques (70%) de chlorhexidine (0,5%) sont couramment utilisées pour l'antisepsie avant intervention chirurgicale. Cependant, il a été rapporté une instabilité du colorant (azorubine, E122) lors du stockage prolongé à de faibles températures. Dans ce travail, nous avons développé une nouvelle formulation d'une solution hydro alcoolique colorée de chlorhexidine plus stable à faible température. Par ailleurs, une étude préliminaire de biodisponibilité cutanée du colorant...

  12. Comparing the incidence of trismus following mandibular third molar extraction after administration of chlorhexidine and normal saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafari

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   In this double blind clinical survey, 40 healthy candidates of mandibular thir molar surgery were selected and randomly allocated into two groups of 20. First group was asked to administer Chlorhexidine 0.2% mouth wash prior to the operation while the other group used normal saline for 60 seconds before the surgery. Mouth opening was measured before surgery and in 1st, 3rd, 7th days following the operation. Statistical analysis revealed significantly more mouth opening (lower level of trismus in patients utilizing chlorhexidine before surgery.

  13. Comparative analysis of the effect of two chlorhexidine mouthrinses on plaque accumulation and gingival bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alfredo Franco Neto; Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi Parolo; Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing; Marisa Maltz

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two chlorhexidine rinsing solutions (0.12% and 0.2%) on plaque and gingival bleeding. Ten dental students participated in this double-blind, cross-over study, rinsing twice a day, for one minute, with each one of the tested solutions for fourteen days. A wash-out period of one week between treatments was observed. In order to assess gingival bleeding, the van der Weijden et al.¹ (1994) index was used. The plaque indexes used were thos...

  14. Chlorhexidine and green tea extract reduce dentin erosion and abrasion in situ

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, A C; Wiegand, A.; Rios, D.; Hannas, A; Attin, T.; Buzalaf, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This in situ/ex vivo study aimed to analyse the impact of possible MMP-inhibitors (chlorhexidine and green tea extract) on dentin wear induced by erosion or erosion plus abrasion. METHODS: Twelve volunteers took part in this cross-over and double-blind study performed in 4 phases of each 5 days. Bovine dentin samples were worn in palatal appliances and subjected to extraoral erosion (4 times/day, Coca-Cola, 5 min) or erosion plus abrasion (2 times/day, fluoride-free toothpaste and...

  15. Contamination of chlorhexidine cream used to prevent ascending urinary tract infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salveson, A.; Bergan, T.

    1981-06-01

    Chlorhexidine-containing cream is often used as an antimicrobial barrier to ascending urinary tract infection in patients with indwelling urethral catheters. The cream is dispensed in small tubes for personal use but repeated use of a tube still entails a potential infection hazard. The extent of cream contamination was analysed by emulsifying it in 1% peptone broth with 1% Tween-80 added as a wetting agent, and culturing quantitatively for bacteria and fungi by membrane filtration. Twenty-three per cent of cream samples and 35% of swabs taken from outside the tube beneath the screw cap demonstrated microbial contamination. Isolates included potential pathogens such as enterococci, staphylococci, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, opportunists like Moraxella spp. and diphtheroids, and contaminants such as Bacillus spp., micrococci, and a mould of the genus Cladosporium. Contamination of cream with a particular bacterial strain was found to precede urinary tract infection with the same microbe. We recommend that chlorhexidine cream for this use be dispensed in single dose units to ensure sterility.

  16. Chlorhexidine and gauze and tape dressings for central venous catheters: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivane Pedrolo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the effectiveness of the chlorhexidine antimicrobial dressing in comparison to the gauze and tape dressing in the use of central venous catheters.METHOD: a randomized clinical trial was conducted in the intensive care and adult semi intensive care units of a university hospital in the south of Brazil. The subjects were patients using short-term central venous catheters, randomly assigned to the intervention (chlorhexidine antimicrobial dressing or control (gauze and micro porous tape groups.RESULTS: a total of 85 patients were included: 43 in the intervention group and 42 in the control group. No statistically significant differences were found between dressings in regard to the occurrence of: primary bloodstream infections (p-value = 0.5170; local reactions to the dressing (p-value = 0.3774; and dressing fixation (p-value = 0.2739.CONCLUSION: both technologies are effective in covering central venous catheters in regard to the investigated variables and can be used for this purpose. Registry ECR: RBR-7b5ycz.

  17. Ex vivo microbial leakage after using different final irrigation regimens with chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther NAVARRO-ESCOBAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the influence of final irrigation protocols with chlorhexidine in the coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis in filled root canals. Material and Methods Seventy single-root canals from extracted teeth were prepared using ProTaper instruments. The irrigation protocol accomplished an alternating irrigation with 5 mL of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI and 17% EDTA between each file. The teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n=15 according to the final irrigation regimen: group 1, without final irrigation; group 2, irrigation with 10 mL 2.0% chlorhexidine (CHX; group 3, with a final application of EC40™; and group 4, irrigation with the combination (1:1 of 0.2% CHX + 0.1% cetrimide (CTR. All the teeth were mounted in a two-chamber apparatus and the coronal access was exposed to E. faecalis. The presence of turbidity in the BHI broth over a period of 180 days was observed. The Friedman test was used for statistical analysis. Results EC40™ varnish showed the least leakage at 180 days, and was statistically similar to 2% CHX. No significant differences were observed between the group without final irrigation and the 2% CHX group or 0.2% CHX + 0.1% CTR. Conclusions In this ex vivo study, EC40™ showed the longest delayed coronal leakage of E. faecalis, although without significant differences from 2% CHX.

  18. Agonistic and Antagonistic Interactions between Chlorhexidine and Other Endodontic Agents: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigants play a significant role in elimination of the microorganisms, tissue remnants, and removal of the debris and smear layer. No single solution is able to fulfill all these actions completely; therefore, a combination of irrigants may be required. The aim of this investigation was to review the agonistic and antagonistic interactions between chlorhexidine (CHX) and other irrigants and medicaments. An English-limited Medline search was performed for articles published from 2002 to 2014. The searched keywords included: chlorhexidine AND sodium hypochlorite/ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/calcium hydroxide/mineral trioxide aggregate. Subsequently, a hand search was carried out on the references of result articles to find more matching papers. Findings showed that the combination of CHX and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) causes color changes and the formation of a neutral and insoluble precipitate; CHX forms a salt with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). In addition, it has been demonstrated that the alkalinity of calcium hydroxide (CH) remained unchanged after mixing with CHX. Furthermore, mixing CHX with CH may enhance its antimicrobial activity; also mixing mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) powder with CHX increases its antimicrobial activity but this may negatively affect its mechanical properties. PMID:25598802

  19. Efficacy of a surgical scrub including 2% chlorhexidine acetate for canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Nobuo; Nagata, Masahiko; Terada, Yuri; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of a surgical scrub containing 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan® Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA) was evaluated for the topical management of canine superficial pyoderma. The first study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The control was a shampoo containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (4CG; Skin Clinic Shampoo; CHD MEDICS, Goyang, Korea). Ten dogs with symmetrical lesions of canine superficial pyoderma were allocated to receive either 2CA or the control shampoo applied to either side of the body twice weekly for 1 week. Both the owners and the investigators subjectively scored skin lesions including pruritus, erythema, crusted papules and scales on a scale of 0-3. The 2CA and 4CG resulted in almost the same degree of improvement of skin lesions, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. The second study was an open trial of 2CA monotherapy in eight dogs with cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group-associated superficial pyoderma. The 2CA monotherapy was applied every 2 days for 2 weeks. Five dogs improved with 2CA monotherapy, one partially improved and two did not. No adverse reactions were seen in either trial. This suggests that a 2CA surgical scrub could be a useful and safe topical adjunct therapy for dogs with superficial pyoderma involving cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group.

  20. A case report on a systemic toxicity following ingestion of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiahi-e-Kazerani J

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is bonded well to the oral mucosa and dental pellicle and is poorly absorbed from the astrointestinal tract, but in high concentration it is absorbed enough to produce liver necrosis. In this case a dentistry student accidentally ingested a shot of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. Treatments included washing the oral cavity with lots of tooth paste, drinking of 5% alginate syrup and ingestion of 5g small pieces of cork .The following adverse effects were experienced: headache, giddiness, mild mist, euphoria, stomachache, diarrhea and complete loss of taste sensation for 8h, which recurred gradually during the last 48 hours. According to the poor absorption, low toxicity and low concentration of conventional mouthwashes, systemic toxicity following drinking of some shots of this solution is rare. Ultimately if may cause gastritis. Other treatments which are helpful in the same cases are: drinking of hard water, kaolin and tragacant syrup, bicarbonates such as baking soda, carbonates such as beverage , citrates such as lemon-juice and chlorides such as brine and so on.

  1. Efficacy of a surgical scrub including 2% chlorhexidine acetate for canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Nobuo; Nagata, Masahiko; Terada, Yuri; Shibata, Sanae; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2010-12-01

    The clinical efficacy of a surgical scrub containing 2% chlorhexidine acetate (2CA; Nolvasan® Surgical Scrub; Fort Dodge Animal Health, USA) was evaluated for the topical management of canine superficial pyoderma. The first study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. The control was a shampoo containing 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (4CG; Skin Clinic Shampoo; CHD MEDICS, Goyang, Korea). Ten dogs with symmetrical lesions of canine superficial pyoderma were allocated to receive either 2CA or the control shampoo applied to either side of the body twice weekly for 1 week. Both the owners and the investigators subjectively scored skin lesions including pruritus, erythema, crusted papules and scales on a scale of 0-3. The 2CA and 4CG resulted in almost the same degree of improvement of skin lesions, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. The second study was an open trial of 2CA monotherapy in eight dogs with cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group-associated superficial pyoderma. The 2CA monotherapy was applied every 2 days for 2 weeks. Five dogs improved with 2CA monotherapy, one partially improved and two did not. No adverse reactions were seen in either trial. This suggests that a 2CA surgical scrub could be a useful and safe topical adjunct therapy for dogs with superficial pyoderma involving cefalexin-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius group. PMID:20529012

  2. Daya antibakteri obat kumur chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, fluoride suplementasi zinc terhadap, Streptococcus mutans dan Porphyromonas gingivalis (Antibacterial effect of mouth washes containing chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, fluoride plus zinc on Strep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betadion Rizki Sinaredi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental Caries and periodontal disease prevalence in Indonesian children are still high. Some efforts can be done to overcome the problem; one of them is the use of mouthwash to decrease pathogen microorganisms. The mouthwashes that commercially available in market are chlorhexidine, povidone Iodine and Fluoride with Zinc supplementation. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the anti bacterial effect of the mouthwashes chlorhexidine, povidone iodine and fluoride with zinc supplementation against mix bacteria that found in the plaque, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Methods: The antibacterial effect was measured using disk diffusion test. The bacteria samples (plaque polybacteria, S.mutans and P. gingivalis were inoculated and spread in the petridish containing MHA. Paper discs containing the mouthwashes were placed in the petridish and incubated for 24 hours at 37oC (anaerobe for P. gingivalis, aerobe for S. mutans and polybacteria. The diameter of inhibition zone surrounding the paper discs were measured and compared between each active ingredient contained in mouthwash. Results: Chlorhexidine had the strongest antibacterial effect than povidone iodine and fluoride. Chlorhexidine was more effective to inhibited the growth of S. mutans than to polybacteria or P.Gingivalis, while Povidone iodine and fluoride were more effective to inhibited the growth of polybacteria. Conclusion: The mouthwash chlorhexidine was more effective to inhibit the growth of plaque polybacteria, Streptoccous mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis compared with povidone iodine and fluoride with zinc supplementation.Latar belakang: Prevalensi karies gigi dan penyakit periodontal masih tinggi pada anak Indonesia. Usaha mengatasi hal tersebut antara lain melalui melalui penggunaan obat kumur untuk mengurangi jumlah kuman pathogen. Kandungan obat kumur yang beredar di pasar diantaranya adalah chlorhexidine, povidone iodine dan fluoride

  3. Essential oils compared to chlorhexidine with respect to plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.C. van Leeuwen; D.E. Slot; G.A. van der Weijden

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the effects of an essential-oil mouthwash (EOMW) compared to a chlorhexidine mouthwash with respect to plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched for studies

  4. Inhibition of early biofilm formation by glass-ionomer incorporated with chlorhexidine in vivo: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, X.; Huang, X.; Huang, C.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Yang, T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This pilot study investigated the antibiofilm effects of glass-ionomer cements (GICs) and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) incorporated with chlorhexidine (CHX) in vivo. METHODS: Experimental GICs and RMGICs containing 2% CHX were obtained by mixing CHX with the powder of GI

  5. Efficacy of chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwashes in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A comparative clinical study

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    Meena B Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intake of green tea has been increased recently due to its medicinal values. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of green tea were found to be beneficial in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The aim of this comparative study was to compare the efficacy of the mouthwash containing green tea and chlorhexidine in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who participated in the study were divided randomly into two groups, each group of 15 patients was prescribed with either chlorhexidine or green tea mouthwash. Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index, Löe and Silness gingival index, Ainamo and Bay bleeding index, tooth stain, and tongue stain (TS were recorded at baseline, 15 days, and 1 month. The subjects were asked to report any discomfort or alteration in taste. Results: There was a significant decrease in plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding index in both the groups. However, green tea mouthwash resulted in a statistically significant decrease in bleeding index compared to chlorhexidine group. There was no significant difference in tooth stain and TS in both the groups. Conclusion: The green tea-containing mouthwash is equally effective in reducing the gingival inflammation and plaque to chlorhexidine.

  6. Reduced costs for staphylococcus aureus carriers treated prophylactically with mupirocin and chlorhexidine in cardiothoracic and orthopaedic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.L. van Rijen (Miranda); L.G.M. Bode (Lonneke); D.A. Baak (Diane); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A multi centre double-blind randomised-controlled trial (M-RCT), carried out in the Netherlands in 2005-2007, showed that hospitalised patients with S. aureus nasal carriage who were treated prophylactically with mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine gluconate medicated

  7. Differences in efficacy of two commercial 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse solutions: a 4-day plaque re-growth study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arweiler, N.B.; Boehnke, N.; Sculean, A.; Hellwig, E.; Auschill, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this clinical cross-over study was to examine the antibacterial and plaque-inhibiting properties of two chlorhexidine solutions compared with a negative control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-one volunteers refrained from all oral hygiene measures, but rinsed instead twice

  8. Influence of application of chlorhexidine gel and curcumin gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing: A interventional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugar, Shweta S.; Patil, Suvarna; Metgud, Renuka; Nanjwade, Basavraj; Hugar, Shivayogi M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently, the most common therapy for periodontal diseases consists of professional scaling and root planing (SRP). However, it was found to be of limited efficacy especially in areas which are inaccessible to periodontal instrumentation. Therefore, treatment strategies using antimicrobials in conjunction with conventional therapy have evolved. Thus, the study was undertaken with an. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of application of chlorhexidine gel and curcumin gel as an adjunct to SRP. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on thirty chronic periodontitis patients who were divided into two groups as control and experimental groups using a split-mouth design. After SRP chlorhexidine gel was applied in control and curcumin gel in experimental groups. The plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth were recorded at baseline and subsequently after 1 month and 45 days. Results: The results revealed that both chlorhexidine gel and curcumin gel have an effect on mild to moderate periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis patients, but greater reduction was observed in the experimental group than the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that both control and experimental gel can be used as an adjunct to SRP, but the curcumin gel was more effective than the chlorhexidine gel in the treatment of mild to moderate periodontal pockets with a significant reduction in the indice scores when compared to the baseline values. PMID:27433065

  9. Long-term and controlled release of chlorhexidine-copper(II) from organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yue [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Zhou, Ninglin, E-mail: zhouninglin@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Technological Research Center for Interfacial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Wenhao; Gu, Hao; Fan, Yunting [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: bioalchem@yahoo.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biofunctional Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Function Materials, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097 (China); Jiangsu Technological Research Center for Interfacial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Drug/metal ion complexes exhibit improved antimicrobial activity and intercalating the above complexes into the interlayer of clay endows a long-term and controlled-release behavior. In this study, chlorhexidine was first complexed with copper (II) ion and then intercalated into the interlayer of MMT to form chlorhexidine-copper (II)/montmorillonite (CHX-Cu/MMT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A nearly lateral-monolayer arrangement of CHX-Cu was supposed for the intercalation. Release kinetics indicated that the release process satisfied a pseudo-second-order mode. The antibacterial results showed that the CHX-Cu/MMT composites had long-term and controlled-release behavior. - Graphical abstract: The antibacterial agent of chlorhexidine was first complexed with copper(II) chloride and then intercalated into the interlayer of MMT to form nanocomposites. The CHX-Cu/MMT composites exhibited long-term antibacterial activity and controlled release behaviors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chlorhexidine-copper (II)/montmorillonite (CHX-Cu/MMT) complex exhibits improved antimicrobial activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intercalating chlorhexidine-copper (II) complex into the interlayer of clay endows a long-term and controlled-release. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release kinetics indicated that the release process satisfied a pseudo-second-order mode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nearly lateral-monolayer arrangement of CHX-Cu was supposed for the intercalation.

  10. Effect of Chlorhexidine with Fluoride Mouthrinse on Plaque Accumulation, Plaque pH - A Double Blind Parallel Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouthwashes are important means used in chemical control of dental plaque. There is strong evidence suggestive of better effectiveness, when fluoride is added to chlorhexidine mouthwash. Aim To assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Chlorhexidine combined with Fluoride mouthwash and to measure its impact on plaque accumulation and on plaque pH. Materials and Methods Initially 100 subjects were screened. A double blind, parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted on 30 subjects after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Other independent variables were matched before randomly allocating them in three groups: Group A-Chlorhexidine as positive control, Group B-Chlorhexidine + Fluoride as test group and Group C- Distilled water as negative control. Oral prophylaxis of participants was done before onset of the study. Plaque pH was assessed before and immediately after rinsing at 0, 5 and 10 minutes interval and after 7 days with digital pH electrode (pHepR pH meter, Hanna Instruments R10285) and accumulation of plaque was recorded by Turesky et al., modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970). ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Results Although there was a statistically significant reduction in mean plaque scores from baseline to seven days in both Groups A and B, Group B showed better anti-plaque efficacy . Almost equal drop in plaque pH was seen for both the groups at 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusion Better anti-plaque efficacy was observed in Group B (Chlorhexidine and Fluoride combination) with minimum variation of plaque pH.

  11. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite, propolis, octenidine dihydrochloride and chlorhexidine on microorganisms

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    Demet Altunbaş

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Objectives: The aim of this present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of  2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 12.5% propolis, 25% propolis, octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX on microorganisms with different structural characteristics.

    Materials and Methods: S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli and C. albicans were included in the study. Pre-sterilized paper discs (6 mm in diameter were soaked with the test solutions and placed on the plates, following Muller-Hinton agar plates were inoculated with the microbial suspensions. Then zones of inhibition were recorded and the results were analysed statistically. 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX and OCT produced inhibitory zones against all microorganisms tested. Statistical analysis was carried out with analyses of variance (ANOVA. Differences were identified by post-hoc Bonferroni test. The level of significance was set at p=0.05.

    Results: NaCl was ineffective against all microorganisms; however, 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX and OCT produced inhibitory zones against all microorganisms tested. 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed significantly larger average zones of inhibition compared to the other experimental irrigants (p<0.05. While 12.5% propolis extract produced only slight inhibition on S. aureus, 25% propolis extract was effective on S. aureus, E. faecalis and C. albicans.

    Conclusions: The present study showed that 2.5% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine had superior antimicrobial effects than other irrigants used.

    Key words: Chlorhexidine, microorganisms, sodium hypochlorite, octenidine dihydrochloride, propolis.

     

  12. The Influence of Dentine on the pH of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Gel, and Experimental Bioactive Glass-Based Root Canal Medicament

    OpenAIRE

    Ceci Nunes Carvalho; Laila Gonzales Freire; Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de Carvalho; Evandro Luiz Siqueira; José Bauer; Giovana Cunha Gritti; Juliana Pereira de Souza; Giulio Gavini

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the influence of dentine on the pH of different medications in standardized simulated canals. Materials and Methods. Forty resin blocks were divided into groups with and without dentine powder, as follows: 2% chlorhexidine gel; 2% chlorhexidine gel associated with calcium hydroxide PA; calcium hydroxide PA delivered in propylene glycol 600; and NPG delivered in distilled water. The dentine powder was obtained from the root dentine of bovine teeth and added to the medic...

  13. Control of Streptococcus sanguinis oral biofilm by novel chlorhexidine-chitosan mouthwash: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Bangalore V. Karthikeyan; K. Selvan Arul; Munivenkatappa V. L. Prabhuji; Vilasan Archana

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The most common prevalent infectious oral diseases in humans are caries and periodontal diseases, which are usually associated with dental plaque. The present in vitro study was designed to evaluate and compare the impact of new mouthwash formulation consisting of chlorhexidine (0.1%) and bioadhesive chitosan (0.5%) on dental plaque bacterial reduction, to that of chlorhexidine or chitosan alone. Methods: In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Str...

  14. Effect of chlorhexidine-containing prophylactic agent on the surface characterization and frictional resistance between orthodontic brackets and archwires: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, Tahereh; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Farazdaghi, Habibeh; Mehrabi, Arash; Razavi, Elham S Emadian

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the surface characterization and frictional resistance between stainless steel brackets and two types of orthodontic wires made of stainless steel and nickel-titanium alloys after immersion in a chlorhexidine-containing prophylactic agent. Methods Stainless steel orthodontic brackets with either stainless steel (SS) or heat-activated nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wires were immersed in a 0.2% chlorhexidine and an artificial saliva environment for 1...

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate teat dip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddie, R L; Watts, J L; Nickerson, S C

    1990-03-15

    The activity of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate postmilking teat germicide in reducing the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae on the skin of excised teats from cows was determined. The product yielded logarithmic reductions of 4.09 and 4.10 against S aureus and Str agalactiae, respectively, compared with 3.80 and 3.81 reductions, using a 1% iodophor dip. Germicide tolerance to an organic load containing Serratia marcescens or Pseudomonas spp was also determined. Organisms were not recovered from the product 8 hours after introduction of a simulated organic load containing either species of bacteria. The germicide was further evaluated against S aureus and Str agalactiae, using experimental challenge-exposure procedures in a research dairy herd. Efficacy was 73.4% (P less than 0.001) against S aureus and 68.1% (P less than 0.005) against Str agalactiae. PMID:2179180

  16. Evaluation of a teat dip of chlorhexidine digluconate (.5%) with glycerin (6%).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, W G; Kennedy, T J; Keister, D M; Miller, M L

    1981-11-01

    Efficacy of a teat dip containing .5% chlorhexidine digluconate and 6% glycerin was tested on 46 clinically normal cows, each with functional quarters. Twice daily immediately after milking, all teats were exposed to a suspension containing 5 X 10(7) colony forming units of Staphylococcus aureus. After each exposure to the infective broth, the left teats were dipped in teat dip while the right teats remained as untreated controls. The study continued until sufficient number of infections occurred to establish efficacy. Mastitis screening followed standard procedures as established by the National Mastitis Council and identified 24 infected teats in the control group and 6 in the treated group for 75% efficacy. The tested teat dip was effective in reducing the incidence of intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus under experimental exposure. No chapping or irritation occurred with use of the teat dip. PMID:7334167

  17. Targeted chitosan-based bionanocomposites for controlled oral mucosal delivery of chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnainty, Renée; Onida, Barbara; Páez, Paulina; Longhi, Marcela; Barresi, Antonello; Granero, Gladys

    2016-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to develop sustained release systems based on chitosan (CS) and montmorillonite (MMT) for chlorhexidine (CLX). Nanocomposites were prepared by ion-exchange. CLX systems were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The mucoadhesion properties of CLX nanocomposites were evaluated by SEM. The release behavior of these systems was also studied by the dialysis technique. The antibacterial activity was investigated in vitro by the disk diffusion test. Results showed long-term sustained release of CLX from the hybrid carriers without initial burst release. The release profiles of CLX from the carriers suggested the diffusion through a swollen matrix and water filled pores as the controlled drug release mechanism. The CLX hybrid nanosystem containing the positively-charged chitosan exhibited good mucoadhesion properties maintaining the CLX antimicrobial properties. PMID:27282538

  18. Use of mupirocin-chlorhexidine treatment to prevent Staphylococcus aureus surgical-site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, X; Slekovec, C; Talon, D

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation of: Bode LGM, Kluytmans JAJW, Wertheim HFL et al.: Preventing surgical-site infections in nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus. N. Engl. J. Med. 362, 9-17 (2010). Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen responsible for surgical-site infections and nasal carriage is a major risk factor for subsequent infection with this bacteria. Mupirocin is considered to be the topical antibacterial agent of choice for eradication of nasal S. aureus. The paper by Bode et al. provides strong evidence that the combination of a rapid identification of a S. aureus nasal carrier, mupirocin nasal ointment and chlorhexidine gluconate soap, significantly reduces the rate of S. aureus surgical-site infection by nearly 60%. In conclusion, mupirocin nasal ointment use in S. aureus carriers before surgery has numerous advantages with few side effects. PMID:20441543

  19. Cetrimide-chlorhexidine-induced multiorgan failure in surgery of pulmonary hydatid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Swagata; Sasmal, Prakash; Rao, P Bhaskar; Mishra, Tushar S; Nayak, Sukdev

    2016-01-01

    Savlon (0.5% cetrimide/0.05% chlorhexidine) is used as a scolicidal during surgery of hydatid cysts. It is considered a safe and effective agent. However, there are no recommendations for the appropriate concentration or dosage of these agents. Previously reported to cause severe metabolic acidosis, its effects on the pulmonary system have not been explored. We present a case of acute lung injury and respiratory distress along with acute cardiopulmonary distress, severe metabolic acidosis, and renal failure following its use during surgical removal of pulmonary hydatid cyst. The agent may act as a chemical sclerosant causing pulmonary parenchymal damage through bronchial openings present in the pericyst. Till safe dose limits are known, use of this agent should be limited, especially in large or multiple cyst surgery. PMID:27397471

  20. Chlorhexidine as a root canal irrigant: Antimicrobial and scanning electron microscopic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Slavoljub

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Selection of irrigant is very important for longterm success of root canal therapy. Objective. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution (CHX against five selected microorganisms and to evaluate its efficacy in root canal cleaning. Methods. In this study, by agar diffusion test, were evaluated antimicrobial effects of three root canal irrigants: 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX. The microorganisms tested in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. A scanning electron microscope was used to evaluate root canal cleaning ability of 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 15% EDTA. Twelve extracted single-root human teeth were divided into four groups depending on the irrigant used during instrumentation. Mechanical preparation was performed with Step back technique and K files. Data were analyzed statistically by Student’s t-test. Results 5.25% NaOCl was the most effective against all tested microorganisms. 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed antimicrobial effects against all tested microorganisms but zones of inhibition were smaller. The best results in root canal walls cleaning were obtained in the group where the irrigant was 15% EDTA (score 2.33. In 5.25% NaOCl, 2.5% NaOCl and 2% CHX groups, there was more smear layer (score 4 and 5. Conclusion. 2% chlorhexidine digluconate showed strong antimicrobial effect on the tested microorganisms, but was not effective in cleaning root canal walls.

  1. In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Chlorhexidine Pretreatment on Immediate and Aged Dentin Bond Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Z; Yazici, A R; Cehreli, Z C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) pretreatment of dentin on the immediate and aged microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of different adhesives to dentin in vivo and in vitro. Class I cavities were prepared in 80 caries-free human third molars of 40 patients in a split-mouth fashion. In each tooth pair, one tooth received 2% CHX pretreatment after which both teeth were randomly assigned to one of the following groups with respect to the type of adhesive system applied: Adper Single Bond 2 (etch-and-rinse), Clearfil SE Bond (two-step self-etch), Clearfil S(3) Bond (one-step self-etch), and Adper Prompt-L-Pop (all-in-one self-etch). The teeth were restored with resin composite and extracted for μTBS testing either immediately or after six months in function. In vitro specimen pairs were prepared as with the clinical protocol in intact, freshly extracted human molars, and thereafter, subjected to testing immediately or after 5000× thermocycling. Data were analyzed with four-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Bonferroni test was utilized for pair-wise comparisons. The immediate bond strength values were significantly higher than "aged" ones for all tested adhesives (p=0.00). The in vitro immediate bond strength values were statistically higher than in vivo bond strength values (p0.05). In the absence of CHX pretreatment, all adhesives showed significantly higher immediate bond strength values than CHX-treated groups, while all "aged", non-pretreated adhesives exhibited significantly lower bond strength values (both pchlorhexidine pretreatment resulted in significantly higher aged bond strengths, regardless of the adhesive system and testing condition. Aging-associated decline in dentin bond strength of etch-and rinse and self-etch adhesives can be counteracted by chlorhexidine application. PMID:26919083

  2. The application of conductivity measurements for preliminary assessments of chlorhexidine and lidocaine hydrochloride release from methylcellulose gel at various temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2009-01-01

    For the evaluation of conductivity measurements in the control and monitoring of release process, high number of conductivity measurements was performed. The measurements were done for the compositions of chlorhexidine with methylcellulose, and lidocaine hydrochloride with methylcellulose. Chlorhexidine, a very slightly soluble substance is released from the methylcellulose bead in the amounts ca. 30%-70%, and it depends of temperature of the release process. The lidocaine hydrochloride at the same time is released from methylcellulose formulation in 70-100%. The conductivity in the donor compartment at the start point, and in the acceptor compartment at the termination point, reflect the released amounts of the drug. This study confirms the possibility of application of conductivity measurements for the preliminary assessments of the kinetics of release of soluble and practically insoluble substances from the nonionic polymeric matrix.

  3. Cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine digluconate to murine macrophages and its effect on hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonacorsi C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine, even at low concentrations, is toxic for a variety of eukaryotic cells; however, its effects on host immune cells are not well known. We evaluated in vitro chlorhexidine-induced cytotoxicity and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediate induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Thioglycollate-induced cells were obtained from Swiss mice by peritoneal lavage with 5 ml of 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline, washed twice and resuspended (10(6 cells/ml in appropriate medium for each test. Cell preparations contained more than 95% macrophages. The cytotoxicity was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. The midpoint cytotoxicity values for 1- and 24-h exposures were 61.12 ± 2.46 and 21.22 ± 2.44 µg/ml, respectively. Chlorhexidine did not induce synthesis or liberation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates. When macrophages were treated with various sub-toxic doses for 1 h (1, 5, 10, and 20 µg/ml and 24 h (0.5, 1, and 5 µg/ml and stimulated with 200 nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA solution, the H2O2 production was not altered; however, the NO production induced by 10 µg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS solution varied from 14.47 ± 1.46 to 22.35 ± 1.94 µmol/l and 13.50 ± 1.42 to 20.44 ± 1.40 µmol/l (N = 5. The results showed that chlorhexidine has no immunostimulating activity and sub-toxic concentrations did not affect the response of macrophages to the soluble stimulus PMA but can interfere with the receptor-dependent stimulus LPS.

  4. A randomized controlled clinical trial of Ocimum sanctum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation

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    Devanand Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases are ubiquitous, affecting all dentate animals. Regular methods for controlling it have been found to be ineffective, which have paved the way for the use of herbal products as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy as they are free to untoward effects and hence can be used for a long period of time. Ocimum sanctum is a plant which has the greater medicinal value and enormous properties for curing and preventing disease. Objective: In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of Ocimum sanctum on dental plaque, gingival inflammation and comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine and normal saline (placebo. Materials and Methods: A triple blind randomized control trial was conducted among volunteered medical students. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: (1 Ocimum sanctum mouthwash (n = 36; (2 Chlorhexidine (active control (n = 36; (3 normal saline (negative control (n = 36. Assessment was carried out according to plaque score and gingival score. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of both mouthwash. ANOVA (Analysis of variance and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS version 17. P ≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as Chlorhexidine. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in gingival bleeding and plaque indices in both groups over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that Ocimum sanctum mouthrinse may prove to be an effective mouthwash owing to its ability in decreasing periodontal indices by reducing plaque accumulation, gingival inflammation and bleeding. It has no side effect as compared to chlorhexidine.

  5. Effect of insertion of xanthan-based chlorhexidine gel in the maintenance phase following the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Ashish; Sanghi, Swati; Grover, Dimple; Aggarwal, Shweta; Gupta, Rajan; Pandit, Nymphea

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of subgingivally administered xanthan-based chlorhexidine gel when used in the maintenance phase following scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-center study was conducted involving 92 sites in 46 systemically healthy patients suffering from moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis with isolated pockets. The selected sites were randomized...

  6. Comparison of 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solutions on postoperative pain: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bashetty Kusum; Hegde Jayshree

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution i...

  7. Antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: A comparison between EDTA, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, MTAD and QMix

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Min; Lu, Yan; Guo, Xiangjun; Qiao, Feng; Wu, Ligeng

    2015-01-01

    We compared the antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities of five root canal irrigants (17% EDTA,2% chlorhexidine,0.2% cetrimide, MTAD, and QMix) in a model of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation. Sixty dentin blocks with 3-week E. faecalis biofilm were divided into six equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated. A blank control group was also established. Antibacterial activities of the irrigants were evaluated by counting colony forming units. To test r...

  8. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi S Lakade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy children aged 8-10 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups: The control or chlorhexidine group and the study group or combination mouth rinse. Both the groups practiced rinsing with respective mouth wash for 1 min for 15 d twice a day. The plaque samples were collected and after incubation Mutans streptococcus count was estimated on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and evaluated using manufacture′s chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the findings. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the Mutans streptococci count in the plaque was seen in the control and study group from baseline level. But when both the groups were compared, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine was more.

  9. Selecting an appropriate strategy to make quality 7.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate accessible for umbilical cord care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Mutsumi; Coffey, Patricia S

    2016-01-01

    Achieving increased access to medicines in low- and middle-income countries is a complex issue that requires a holistic approach. Choosing an appropriate manufacturing strategy that can ensure a sustainable supply of these medicines is an essential component of that approach. The Chlorhexidine Working Group, a consortium of more than 25 international organizations, donors, and manufacturers led by PATH, has been working to increase access to 7.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate for umbilical cord care in low- and middle-income countries to reduce neonatal mortality due to infection. The working group initially considered two strategies for manufacture of this commodity: (1) production and global distribution by a multinational company; and (2) production and regional distribution by locally owned companies or subsidiaries of multinational companies based in low- and middle-income countries. Local production may be beneficial to public health and economic development in these countries, yet capability and capacity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, regulatory and legal provisions, and market factors must be carefully assessed and addressed to ensure that local production is the correct strategy and that it contributes to improved access to the medicine. To date, this effort to implement a local production strategy has resulted in successful registration of 7.1 % chlorhexidine digluconate for umbilical cord care by manufacturers in Bangladesh, Kenya, Nepal, and Nigeria. Additionally, the product is now available in domestic and export markets. PMID:27066258

  10. The efficacy of chlorhexidine gel in reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species in patients treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xerostomia may develop in patients with cancer who receive radiotherapy that includes the salivary glands in the field. These patients are at high risk of rampant dental caries. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species have been associated with dental caries. Quantitative counts of these organisms demonstrated high caries risk due to streptococci in 66% and due to lactobacilli in 100% of patients studied. Use of chlorhexidine rinse was shown to reduce S. mutans counts 1.1 logs and lactobacilli 1.1 logs. The use of chlorhexidine gel resulted in a reduction of S. mutans 1.2 logs and lactobacilli 2.2 logs. In the subjects using the rinse, caries risk due to streptococci was reduced to low levels in 44% and due to lactobacilli in only one subject, with reduction to moderate risk in one third and no change in risk in the remaining patients. The use of chlorhexidine gel was found to reduce the caries risk associated with streptococci to low levels in all patients, and the risk associated with lactobacilli to low and moderate risk in two thirds of patients

  11. Control of White Spot Lesion Adjacent to Orthodontic Bracket with Use of Fluoride Varnish or Chlorhexidine Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Restrepo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine gel in controlling white spot lesions (WSLs adjacent to orthodontic brackets and to compare the ability of Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF to measure mineral uptake with that of transverse microradiography (TMR. Thirty premolars with artificially induced WSLs were randomly assigned to three groups: (1 two applications of 5% NaF-varnish (F, with one-week interval, (2 two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, with one-week interval, and (3 control (CO, no treatment. QLF was used to measure changes in fluorescence before and after caries induction, 1 week after each application and 1, 2, and 3 months after the last application of F or CHX. TMR was performed to quantify lesion depth and mineral content after caries induction to evaluate the effects of F, CHX, and CO 3 months after the last application of agents. The data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test. All treatments increased the mineral content during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. The correlation between QLF and TMR was significantly moderate. Two applications of fluoride varnish or 2% chlorhexidine gel at one-week intervals were effective in controlling WSLs.

  12. The efficacy of chlorhexidine gel in reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species in patients treated with radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, J.B.; McBride, B.C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Merilees, H.; Spinelli, J. (Cancer Control Agency of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    Xerostomia may develop in patients with cancer who receive radiotherapy that includes the salivary glands in the field. These patients are at high risk of rampant dental caries. Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species have been associated with dental caries. Quantitative counts of these organisms demonstrated high caries risk due to streptococci in 66% and due to lactobacilli in 100% of patients studied. Use of chlorhexidine rinse was shown to reduce S. mutans counts 1.1 logs and lactobacilli 1.1 logs. The use of chlorhexidine gel resulted in a reduction of S. mutans 1.2 logs and lactobacilli 2.2 logs. In the subjects using the rinse, caries risk due to streptococci was reduced to low levels in 44% and due to lactobacilli in only one subject, with reduction to moderate risk in one third and no change in risk in the remaining patients. The use of chlorhexidine gel was found to reduce the caries risk associated with streptococci to low levels in all patients, and the risk associated with lactobacilli to low and moderate risk in two thirds of patients.

  13. Perbandingan Antiseptik Chlorhexidine Alkohol dengan Povidone Iodine terhadap Penurunan Pertumbuhan Koloni Bakteri pada Kateter Epidural yang Dipasang di Kamar Operasi Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung

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    Andie Muhari Barzah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine-alcohol and povidone iodine are commonly used as antiseptic solutions in epidural anesthesia. Aseptic and antiseptic procedures must be performed before any epidural procedure to lower infection complications after the procedure. The objective of this study was to investigate the lowest bacterial growth on epidural catheter after chlorhexidine-alcohol or povidone iodine application as the antiseptic solution in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. This was a single blind randomized controlled trial on 78 patients underwent epidural anesthesia in the period of November 2014–February 2015. The subjects were divided in to 2 groups, each consisted of 38 patients. Aseptic and antiseptic procedures were performed using chlorhexidine-alcohol or povidone iodine with skin swab culture collected before and after the procedure. Epidural catheter culture was performed in the 3rd days after the installment. Data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test, and Mann Whitney test. The result of this study showed positive bacterial cultures prior to aseptic and antiseptics, 33 from 38 in chlorhexidine-alcohol and 35 from 38 in povidone iodine. Positive bacterial cultures became 4 from 38, both in chlorhexidine-alcohol and povidone iodine. Positive bacterial culture on the 3rd days after epidural catheter placement was 7 from 38 after chlorhexidine-alcohol and 5 from 38 after povidone iodine (p< 0.05. It is concluded that the ability of chlorhexidine-alcohol to reduce bacterial growth on epidural catheter is lower than povidone-iodine with regards to reducing infection after catheter epidural installment.

  14. Comparative evaluation of Green Tea- Aloe Vera mouthwash and chlorhexidine 0.2% on gingival indices (A randomized clinical trial

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    Naser Sargolzaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays in the field of dentistry, there is a trend to encourage the use of herbal and natural products. The high level of clinical research in terms of considering green tea and aloe vera, with various functionality for individual use is a typical example. The purpose of this randomized, controlled, and double-blind study was to evaluate comparative evaluation of green tea-aloe vera mouthwash and chlorhexidine 0.2% on gingival indices. Methods: A total of 60 patients (26 women and 34 men with periodontal disease were randomly allocated into one of the three double blind groups, 20 in each, to receive the following treatments :(1 0.2% chlorhexidine, (2 green tea-aloe vera and  (3 distilled water. Plaque and gingival indices were evaluated on the day of the beginning of the experiment and 14 days postoperative. Subjects were asked to rinse their mouth with the mouth rinse, twice a day, during a 14-day period. Paired t-test was used to test the mean difference on 0 and 14 days, respectively. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the mean difference between the groups while Tukey test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: Chlorhexidine 0.2%, green tea - aloe vera and placebo reduced the plaque index by 0.17±0.14, 0.10±0/08 and 0.02±0.18, respectively, with a statistical significance of p=0.008. This difference was related to Chlorhexidine 0.2% and green tea - aloe vera with Placebo. There exist a significant difference of p=0.001 in the bleeding index  between the three groups, and this difference was related to Chlorhexidine 0.2% and green tea - aloe vera with placebo. Conclusion: Green tea –aloe vera   mouthwash improves periodontal health status. Therefore, it can be used to improve oral and dental health status.

  15. Preclinical Bioassay of a Polypropylene Mesh for Hernia Repair Pretreated with Antibacterial Solutions of Chlorhexidine and Allicin: An In Vivo Study.

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    Bárbara Pérez-Köhler

    Full Text Available Prosthetic mesh infection constitutes one of the major complications following hernia repair. Antimicrobial, non-antibiotic biomaterials have the potential to reduce bacterial adhesion to the mesh surface and adjacent tissues while avoiding the development of novel antibiotic resistance. This study assesses the efficacy of presoaking reticular polypropylene meshes in chlorhexidine or a chlorhexidine and allicin combination (a natural antibacterial agent for preventing bacterial infection in a short-time hernia-repair rabbit model.Partial hernia defects (5 x 2 cm were created on the lateral right side of the abdominal wall of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 21. The defects were inoculated with 0.5 mL of a 106 CFU/mL Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 strain and repaired with a DualMesh Plus antimicrobial mesh or a Surgipro mesh presoaked in either chlorhexidine (0.05% or allicin-chlorhexidine (900 μg/mL-0.05%. Fourteen days post-implant, mesh contraction was measured and tissue specimens were harvested to evaluate bacterial adhesion to the implant surface (via sonication, S. aureus immunolabeling, host-tissue incorporation (via staining, scanning electron microscopy and macrophage response (via RAM-11 immunolabeling.The polypropylene mesh showed improved tissue integration relative to the DualMesh Plus. Both the DualMesh Plus and the chlorhexidine-soaked polypropylene meshes exhibited high bacterial clearance, with the latter material showing lower bacterial yields. The implants from the allicin-chlorhexidine group displayed a neoformed tissue containing differently sized abscesses and living bacteria, as well as a diminished macrophage response. The allicin-chlorhexidine coated implants exhibited the highest contraction.The presoaking of reticular polypropylene materials with a low concentration of chlorhexidine provides the mesh with antibacterial activity without disrupting tissue integration. Due to the similarities found with the antimicrobial

  16. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of different concentrations of chlorhexidine mouth rinses in reducing the mutants streptococci in saliva: An in vivo study

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    Jayaprakash R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Is low-concentration chlorhexidine effective against reducing the mutans streptococci (MS in saliva? Aim: To compare the efficacy of different concentrations of chlorhexidine mouth rinses, i.e. 0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12%, in reducing the mutants streptococci count in saliva. Design: Forty subjects in the age group of 12-14 years were selected from the schools of Chennai and were equally divided into four groups. The first three were study groups and the fourth group was the control group. The subjects were instructed to rinse with a measured amount of mouth rinse for 1 min, twice-daily, for 1 week. Salivary samples were collected at baseline and 1 week after mouth rinsing with various concentrations and were cultured on MSB agar. The number of MS colonies was counted on agar medium under anaerobic conditions. Results: The results of the study confirmed that children using chlorhexidine of concentration 0.12% showed the maximum reduction in MS when compared with subjects using 0.02% and 0.06% concentrations. But, children using chlorhexidine of concentration 0.06% also showed significant reduction in MS when compared with the control group. Conclusion: From the above study, we conclude that chlorhexidine used in different concentrations (0.02%, 0.06%, 0.12% efficiently reduced the mutans count.

  17. Spectroscopic analysis of the precipitate formed in the mixture of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine: study in vitro: part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of precipitate formed is determined as a product of the interaction between 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine. Three groups of samples have analyzed. Group A: Pure lyophilized chlorhexidine gluconate. Group B: mixture of 2 ml of 2% chlorhexidine with 2 ml of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. Group C: a mixture of 6 ml with 2 ml of 2% chlorhexidine with 2 ml of 2.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2 ml of 100% acetic acid. The analysis obtained by thin layer chromatography were generated over a chemical substance with similar characteristics. The method has allowed to isolate the compound part needed to be analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The nuclear magnetic resonance 13C at 100 MHz has determined that the signal appears at lower field (δ: 146.5 ppm) and indicated the presence or absence of Para-chlorophenylurea in samples from the precipitate formed by 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. The measurements have resulted in the lack of Para-chlorophenylurea, either the signal has occurred when acetic acid is included. (author)

  18. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: a systematic review

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    Carlos Estrela

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and chlorhexidine (CHX on Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated by systematic review and meta-analysis. The search strategies included search in electronic biomedical journal databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and handsearching records, using different matches of keywords for NaOCl, CHX and Enterococcus faecalis. From 41 in vivo studies, 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. In a sample containing 159 teeth, E. faecalis was detected initially in 16 (10% teeth by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and 42 (26.4% teeth by microbial culture techniques. After root canal disinfection, this species was observed in 11 (6.9% teeth by PCR and 12 (7.5% teeth by culture. Risk differences of included studies were combined as generic inverse variance data type (Review Manager Version 5.0 _ Cochrane Collaboration, http://www.cc-ims.net, accessed 15 May 2008, taking into account the separate tracking of positive and negative cultures/PCR. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. In conclusion, NaOCl or CHX showed low ability to eliminate E. faecalis when evaluated by either PCR or culture techniques.

  19. Calcium hydroxide mixed with camphoric p-monochlorophenol or chlorhexidine in delayed tooth replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Carolina Lunardelli; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Brandini, Daniela Atili; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Cláudia Letícia Vendrame; Saito, Célia Tomiko Hamada Matida

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the repair process after delayed replantation of rat teeth, using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) mixed with camphorated p-monochlorophenol (CMCP), chlorhexidine 2% (CHX), or saline as temporary root canal dressing to prevent and/or control inflammatory radicular resorption. Thirty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinos) had their right upper incisor extracted, which was bench-dried for 60 minutes. The dental papilla, the enamel organ, the dental pulp, and the periodontal ligament were removed. The teeth were immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride solution for 10 minutes. The root canals were dried with absorbent paper cones and divided into 3 groups of 10 animals according to root canal dressing used: group 1: Ca(OH)2 + saline, group 2: Ca(OH)2 + CMCP, and group 3: Ca(OH)2 + CHX 2%. Before replanting, the teeth sockets were irrigated with saline. Histological analysis revealed the presence of inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, and ankylosis in all 3 groups. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between group 3 and the other groups. The use of Ca(OH)2 mixed with CMCP or CHX did not show an advantage over the use of Ca(OH)2 mixed with saline in preventing and/or controlling inflammatory resorption in delayed replantation of rat teeth. PMID:22067873

  20. Efficacy of a barrier teat dip containing .55% chlorhexidine for prevention of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J S; Smith, K L; Todhunter, D A; Schoenberger, P S

    1995-11-01

    A natural exposure trial was conducted for 12 mo in a commercial herd of 125 lactating cows to compare the efficacy of an experimental barrier teat dip containing .55% chlorhexidine gluconate with the efficacy of a 1% iodophor for preventing new IMI and clinical mastitis. Teats of half of the cows were dipped in the experimental barrier product, and teats of the remaining half of the herd were dipped in the 1% iodophor product. Quarters dipped with the experimental barrier product had fewer new IMI caused by Escherichia coli, coagulase-negative staphylococci, or Gram-positive bacilli than did quarters dipped in the 1% iodophor. Incidence of new IMI caused by Serratia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. was greater for quarters dipped in the experimental barrier product than for quarters dipped in the 1% iodophor. Efficacy of the two teat dips against new IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus, environmental streptococci, and Klebsiella spp. did not differ. Incidence of bacteriologically negative clinical cases of mastitis was greater in quarters dipped in the 1% iodophor than in quarters dipped in the experimental barrier product. Incidence of clinical mastitis cases caused by Staph. aureus, environmental streptococci, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., and Pseudomonas spp. did not differ between treatment groups. PMID:8747340

  1. Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Chlorhexidine and Bacteria in a Model Wound

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    Timothy Hamerly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to generate two-dimensional images of a wound that contains information about the distribution of bacteria overlaid with the distribution of drugs and metabolites could enhance our understanding of wound healing processes. Advances in technology are leading to a rapid expansion in mass spectrometry-based imaging. When combined with the ability of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization to ionize a wide range of molecules, imaging mass spectrometry is a powerful biomedical research tool. However, this technique has yet to be used to investigate bacterial colonization of wounds or the distribution of antimicrobial agents on tissue. To address this, distribution and persistence of the antimicrobial agent chlorhexidine on a model human tissue was investigated. The ability to detect and localize Staphylococcus aureus on the same tissue model was also addressed. Sub-millimeter resolution ion images from these experiments show the promise of using mass spectrometry imaging to investigate the growth and treatment of bacteria on skin. This methodology will be of value in the development of wound dressings with improved antimicrobial properties and a more careful analysis of the concentration of antimicrobial agents required to prevent biofilm formation and persistence.

  2. [The efficacy of three hand asepsis techniques using chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG 2%)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Érika Rossetto; Matos, Fabiana Gonçalves de Oliveira Azevedo; da Silva, Adriana Maria; de Araújo, Eutália Aparecida Cândido; Ferreira, Karine Azevedo São Leão; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2011-12-01

    The scrubbing of hands and forearms using antiseptic agents has been the standard pre-operative procedure to prevent surgical site infection. With the introduction of antiseptic agents, the need to use brushes for pre-operative disinfection has been questioned and it has been recommended that the procedure be abandoned due to the injuries it may cause to the skin. With the purpose to provide the foundations for the efficacy of pre-operative asepsis without using brushes or sponges, the objective of this study was to evaluate three methods of pre-operative asepsis using an antimicrobial agent containing chlorhexidine gluconate - CHG 2%; hand-scrubbing with brush (HSB), hand-scrubbing with sponge (HSS), and hand-rubbing with the antiseptic agent (HRA) only. A comparative crossover study was carried with 29 healthcare providers. Antimicrobial efficacy was measured using the glove-juice method before and after each tested method. Statistical analyses showed there were no significant differences regarding the number of colony-forming units when comparing HRA, HSB, and HSS techniques (p=0.148), which theoretically disregards the need to continue using brushes or sponges for hand asepsis.

  3. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to 14C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to 3H2O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less

  4. Chlorhexidine-induced apoptosis or necrosis in L929 fibroblasts: A role for endoplasmic reticulum stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), widely used as antiseptic and therapeutic agent in medicine and dentistry, has a toxic effect both in vivo and in vitro. The intrinsic mechanism underlying CHX-induced cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells is, however, still unknown. A recent study from our laboratory has suggested that CHX may induce death in cultured L929 fibroblasts via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This hypothesis was further tested by means of light and electron microscopy, quantification of apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry, fluorescence visualization of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum, and evaluation of the expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), a marker of activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured L929 fibroblasts. Our finding showing increased Grp 78 expression in CHX-treated cells and the results of flow cytometry, cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum fluorescence visualization, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to suggest that CHX elicits accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which causes ER overload, resulting in ER stress and cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis. It must be pointed out, however, that this does not necessarily mean that ER stress is the only way that CHX kills L929 fibroblasts, but rather that ER stress is an important target or indicator of cell death induced by this drug

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Multispecies Oral Biofilm Resistance to Chlorhexidine Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhao, Jia; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Wang, Zhejun; Hancock, Robert E W; Roberts, Clive R; Ma, Jingzhi; Li, Jun; Haapasalo, Markus; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate recovery of multispecies oral biofilms following chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and CHX with surface modifiers (CHX-Plus) treatment. Specifically, we examine the percentage of viable bacteria in the biofilms following their exposure to CHX and CHX-Plus for 1, 3, and 10 minutes, respectively. Before antimicrobial treatment, the biofilms are allowed to grow for three weeks. We find that (a). CHX-Plus kills bacteria in biofilms more effectively than the regular 2% CHX does, (b). cell continues to be killed for up to one week after exposure to the CHX solutions, (c). the biofilms start to recover after two weeks, the percentage of the viable bacteria recovers in the 1 and 3 minutes treatment groups but not in the 10 minutes treatment group after five weeks, and the biofilms fully return to the pretreatment levels after eight weeks. To understand the mechanism, a mathematical model for multiple bacterial phenotypes is developed, adopting the notion that bacterial persisters exist in the biofilms together with regulatory quorum sensing molecules and growth factor proteins. The model reveals the crucial role played by the persisters, quorum sensing molecules, and growth factors in biofilm recovery, accurately predicting the viable bacterial population after CHX treatment. PMID:27325010

  6. Effects of chlorhexidine (gel) application on bacterial levels and orthodontic brackets during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bazi, Samar M; Abbassy, Mona A; Bakry, Ahmed S; Merdad, Leena A; Hassan, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of applying 0.50% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel using the dental drug delivery system (3DS) on salivary Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and on the surface topography of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets. The study involved 20 orthodontic patients with high levels of salivary S. mutans. The patients were treated with professional mechanical tooth cleaning followed by application of 0.50% CHX using individual trays (3DS). Salivary S. mutans levels were repeatedly measured 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-treatment. In vitro study utilized forty ceramic and metallic brackets that were immersed in 0.50% CHX gel for 10 min, whereas another untreated forty brackets served as controls. The frictional resistances of stainless steel wires to the brackets before and after CHX treatment were recorded using a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to compare changes in the surface topography of brackets. Statistical analyses were used to determine the effect of CHX on bacterial count and to evaluate the effect of CHX on frictional resistance. According to the results of this study, S. mutans levels were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in the frictional resistance and surface topography of brackets before or after application of CHX. (J Oral Sci 58, 35-42, 2016). PMID:27021538

  7. Effect of pre-treatment with chlorhexidine on the retention of restorations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Anelise Fernandes; Perroni, Ana Paula; Corrêa, Marcos Britto; Masotti, Alexandre Severo; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) application on etched dentin on the 6-month retention of restorations placed on non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). A randomized controlled split-mouth and triple blind trial was carried out. Patients (n=42) with at least two non-carious cervical lesions were included. NCCLs were randomly assigned to two groups: control (placebo solution) or test group (2% CHX solution for 60 s after acid etching and before the adhesive application). Class V restorations (n=169) were performed with an etch-and-rinse adhesive system and composite resin by 10 trained operators. A calibrated examiner evaluated the restorations at 1 week (baseline) and at 6 months using the FDI criteria. The primary outcome was retention of the restorations. The analysis of factors associated to failure of restorations was carried out by Fisher's exact test (α=0.05). After 6 months of follow-up, 3.4% (CI 95% 1.3-7.3) of the restorations failed. There was no statistically significant difference between control and CHX (p=0.920). Regarding the cavity variables, deeper (p=0.04), wider (p=0.004) and wedge-shaped (p=0.033) cavities failed more. Both treatments provided acceptable clinical performance of the restorations. The use of CHX as a adjuvant in dentin adhesion did not influence the retention of Class V restorations after 6 months of follow-up. PMID:26200146

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Multispecies Oral Biofilm Resistance to Chlorhexidine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ya; Zhao, Jia; de La Fuente-Núñez, César; Wang, Zhejun; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Roberts, Clive R.; Ma, Jingzhi; Li, Jun; Haapasalo, Markus; Wang, Qi

    2016-06-01

    We investigate recovery of multispecies oral biofilms following chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and CHX with surface modifiers (CHX-Plus) treatment. Specifically, we examine the percentage of viable bacteria in the biofilms following their exposure to CHX and CHX-Plus for 1, 3, and 10 minutes, respectively. Before antimicrobial treatment, the biofilms are allowed to grow for three weeks. We find that (a). CHX-Plus kills bacteria in biofilms more effectively than the regular 2% CHX does, (b). cell continues to be killed for up to one week after exposure to the CHX solutions, (c). the biofilms start to recover after two weeks, the percentage of the viable bacteria recovers in the 1 and 3 minutes treatment groups but not in the 10 minutes treatment group after five weeks, and the biofilms fully return to the pretreatment levels after eight weeks. To understand the mechanism, a mathematical model for multiple bacterial phenotypes is developed, adopting the notion that bacterial persisters exist in the biofilms together with regulatory quorum sensing molecules and growth factor proteins. The model reveals the crucial role played by the persisters, quorum sensing molecules, and growth factors in biofilm recovery, accurately predicting the viable bacterial population after CHX treatment.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Glass lonomer Cement Incorporated with Chlorhexidine-Loaded Zeolite Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-02-01

    A functional dental restorative system with antimicrobial properties was developed using zeolite (ZE) nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug delivery carrier. ZE NPs loaded with chlorhexidine (CHX) were prepared using the ionic immobilization method. The resulting CHX-loaded ZE NPs were then incorporated into commercial dental glass ionomer cement (GIC). The average size of the CHX-loaded ZE NPs was about 100 to 200 nm, and the NPs were dispersed homogeneously in the GIC. The in vitro release profile of encapsulated GIC containing CHX showed an early release burst of approximately 30% of the total CHX by day 7, whereas GIC containing CHX-loaded ZE NPs showed a sustained release of CHX without the early release burst in a 4-week immersion study. The agar diffusion test results showed that the GIC incorporated with CHX-loaded ZE NPs showed a larger growth inhibition zone of Streptococcus mutans than GIC alone, indicating that this innovative delivery platform potently imparted antimicrobial activity to the GIC. Moreover, these findings suggest that a range of antimicrobial drugs that inhibit the growth of oral bacteria can be incorporated efficiently into dental GIC using CHX-loaded ZE NPs.

  10. Does chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine preoperative antisepsis reduce surgical site infection in cranial neurosurgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B M; Patel, H C

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Surgical site infection (SSI) is a significant cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Effective preoperative antisepsis is a recognised prophylactic, with commonly used agents including chlorhexidine (CHG) and povidone-iodine (PVI). However, there is emerging evidence to suggest an additional benefit when they are used in combination. Methods We analysed data from our prospective SSI database on patients undergoing clean cranial neurosurgery between October 2011 and April 2014. We compared the case-mix adjusted odds of developing a SSI in patients undergoing skin preparation with CGH or PVI alone or in combination. Results SSIs were detected in 2.6% of 1146 cases. Antisepsis with PVI alone was performed in 654 (57%) procedures, while 276 (24%) had CHG alone and 216 (19%) CHG and PVI together. SSIs were associated with longer operating time (pSSI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.63) than either agent alone. There was no difference in SSI rates between CHG and PVI alone (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.24-1.5). Conclusions Combination skin preparation with CHG and PVI significantly reduced SSI rates compared to CHG or PVI alone. A prospective, randomized study validating these findings is now warranted. PMID:27055411

  11. Mucoadhesive Gels Designed for the Controlled Release of Chlorhexidine in the Oral Cavity

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    Adamo Fini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the in vitro/ex vivo buccal release of chlorhexidine (CHX from nine mucoadhesive aqueous gels, as well as their physicochemical and mucoadhesive properties: CHX was present at a constant 1% w/v concentration in the chemical form of digluconate salt. The mucoadhesive/gel forming materials were carboxymethyl- (CMC, hydroxypropylmethyl- (HPMC and hydroxypropyl- (HPC cellulose, alone (3% w/w or in binary mixtures (5% w/w; gels were tested for their mucoadhesion using the mucin method at 1, 2 and 3% w/w concentrations. CHX release from different formulations was assessed using a USP method and newly developed apparatus, combining release/permeation process in which porcine mucosa was placed in a Franz cell. The combination of HPMC or HPC with CMC showed slower drug release when compared to each of the individual polymers. All the systems proved suitable for CHX buccal delivery, being able to guarantee both prolonged release and reduced transmucosal permeation. Gels were compared for the release of previously studied tablets that contained Carbopol and HPMC, alone or in mixture. An accurate selection and combination of the materials allow the design of different pharmaceutical forms suitable for different purposes, by simply modifying the formulation compositions.

  12. Effect of fluoridated casein phospopeptide-amorphous-calcium phosphate complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: A comparative in vitro study

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    C A Abdul Shahariyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP complex, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash on shear bond strengths (SBSs of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: About sixty extracted healthy human premolar teeth with intact buccal enamel were divided into two equal groups to which brackets were bonded using self-etching primers (SEPs and conventional means respectively. These were further equally divided into three subgroups - (1 control (2 CPP-ACP (3 chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash. The SBSs were then measured using a universal testing machine. Results: SBS of the conventional group was significantly higher than the self-etching group. The intragroup differences were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: CPP-ACP, chlorhexidine fluoride mouthwash did not adversely affect SBS of orthodontic brackets irrespective of the method of conditioning. Brackets bonded with conventional technique showed greater bond strengths as compared to those bonded with SEP.

  13. Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential and cell death caused by the frequent use of mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and essential oils in ethanolic solution, compared to a placebo mouthwash. Study design: This double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial included 80 Caucasian patients. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group I used a mouthrinse, Triclosan; Group II used physiological saline; Group III used chlorhexidine; Group IV a mouthrinse with essential oils in ethanolic solution. All subjects used the mouthrinses for two weeks (15 ml, twice a day, rinsing for 30 s). Two cell samples per subject were collected, before and after mouthrinse use (on day 0 and day 15). Samples were processed as follows: cell collection from cheeks with a cytobrush; cell centrifuge; slide preparation, fixation and staining; and fluorescent microscope analysis. 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, particularly the presence of micronuclei by means of cytome assay. Results: No significant differences between study times (before and after use of mouthwash) were identified for any of the variables studied (p>0.05). Differences between mouthrinse groups were also compared but no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study did not observe any genotoxic effect resulting from mouthrinse use. - Highlights: • Mouthrinses are used widely, mainly for their capacity to control dental plaque. • No genotoxic effects from the mouthrinses triclosan, chlorhexidine essential oils solution. • The buccal cytome assay is a sensitive, non-invasive, and low cost technique

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of oral mucosa cells, induced by chlorhexidine, essential oils in ethanolic solution and triclosan mouthwashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Llor, Irene; Lopez-Jornet, Pia, E-mail: majornet@um.es

    2014-07-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate DNA damage and cytokinetic defects, proliferative potential and cell death caused by the frequent use of mouthrinses containing chlorhexidine, triclosan and essential oils in ethanolic solution, compared to a placebo mouthwash. Study design: This double-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial included 80 Caucasian patients. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group I used a mouthrinse, Triclosan; Group II used physiological saline; Group III used chlorhexidine; Group IV a mouthrinse with essential oils in ethanolic solution. All subjects used the mouthrinses for two weeks (15 ml, twice a day, rinsing for 30 s). Two cell samples per subject were collected, before and after mouthrinse use (on day 0 and day 15). Samples were processed as follows: cell collection from cheeks with a cytobrush; cell centrifuge; slide preparation, fixation and staining; and fluorescent microscope analysis. 2000 exfoliated cells were screened for nuclear abnormalities, particularly the presence of micronuclei by means of cytome assay. Results: No significant differences between study times (before and after use of mouthwash) were identified for any of the variables studied (p>0.05). Differences between mouthrinse groups were also compared but no significant differences were found (p>0.05). Conclusions: This study did not observe any genotoxic effect resulting from mouthrinse use. - Highlights: • Mouthrinses are used widely, mainly for their capacity to control dental plaque. • No genotoxic effects from the mouthrinses triclosan, chlorhexidine essential oils solution. • The buccal cytome assay is a sensitive, non-invasive, and low cost technique.

  15. Effect of Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol on the Sealing Ability of Biodentine Apical Plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Harshit; Prasad, Ashwini B; Raisingani, Deepak; Soni, Dileep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Teeth with immature apex are managed by establishing an apical plug using various materials and techniques. However, the use of previously placed intracanal medicament may affect the sealing ability of permanent filling material used as an apical plug. Aim To evaluate the effect of removal of previously placed Calcium Hydroxide, Chlorhexidine Digluconate and Camphorated Monochlorophenol as an intracanal medicament on the sealing ability of the Biodentine as an apical plug. Materials and Methods A total of 72 recently extracted human permanent teeth with single root were selected and stored in saline at room temperature. The crown portion of each tooth was removed at the level of cemento enamel junction; 14mm root length was taken as standard length. All the roots were submerged in 20% sulphuric acid up to 3 mm from the apex, for four days for root resorption. One sample was cut longitudinally to look for root resorption under stereo microscope. The canal preparation was done; the roots were kept in moist gauze after instrumentation. A total of 71 roots were randomly divided into three groups. GROUP 1:Calcium hydroxide paste, GROUP 2: Chlorhexidine digluconate, GROUP 3: Camphorated Monochlorophenol (CMCP). The medicaments were removed with stainless steel hand files and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. After removal of medicament Biodentine was placed in apical third of resorbed roots and the remaining portion of the canals was filled with gutta-percha. All the 71 roots were analysed with fluid filtration method for evaluating microleakage. Results Comparing all the three groups statistically there was no significant difference. The mean values were found more for group 1 followed by group 2 & 3. Conclusion All the groups showed microleakage. Calcium hydroxide showed the maximum microleakage followed by Chlorhexidine digluconate and least with CMCP. PMID:27504409

  16. Synthesis and purification of carbon-14 labelled 1, 1-hexamethylene-bis (5-(4-chlorophenyl)biguanide) (chlorhexidine, 'Hibitane')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, J. (Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., Macclesfield (UK). Pharmaceuticals Div.)

    1982-10-01

    Two syntheses of (/sup 14/C) chlorhexidine ('Hibitane') with the label specifically incorporated in two separate molecular positions are described. Ring labelled chlorhexidine prepared from p-chloro(U-/sup 14/C)aniline was obtained with a molar specific activity of 27.9 mCi/mmol. Chain labelled material, where the /sup 14/C label was incorporated in the 1 and 6 positions of the hexamethylene bridge, was prepared from (1, 6 /sup 14/C)-adiponitrile, with a molar specific activity of 11.5 mCi/mmol. Several methods of purification are described.

  17. Antiplaque effect of essential oils and 0.2% chlorhexidine on an in situ model of oral biofilm growth: a randomised clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Quintas

    Full Text Available To evaluate the in situ antiplaque effect after 4 days of using of 2 commercial antimicrobial agents in short term on undisturbed plaque-like biofilm.An observer-masked, crossover randomised clinical trial on 15 oral and systemically healthy volunteers between 20-30 years who were randomly and sequentially allocated in the same group which performed 3 interventions in different randomised sequences.The participants wore an appliance in 3 different rinsing periods doing mouthwashes twice a day (1/0/1 with essential oils, 0.2% chlorhexidine or sterile water (negative control. At the end of each 4-day mouthwash period, samples were removed from the appliance. Posteriorly, after bacterial vital staining, samples were analysed using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope.Bacterial vitality, thickness and covering grade by the biofilm after 4 days of applying each of the mouthwashes.The essential oils and the 0.2% chlorhexidine were significantly more effective than the sterile water at reducing bacterial vitality, thickness and covering grade by the biofilm. No significant differences were found between the 0.2% chlorhexidine and the essential oils at reducing the bacterial vitality (13.2% vs. 14.7%. However, the 0.2% chlorhexidine showed more reduction than the essential oils in thickness (6.5 μm vs. 10.0 μm; p<0.05 and covering grade by the biofilm (20.0% vs. 54.3%; p<0.001.The essential oils and 0.2% chlorhexidine showed a high antiplaque effect. Although the 0.2% chlorhexidine showed better results with regard to reducing the thickness and covering grade by the biofilm, both antiseptics showed a high and similar antibacterial activity.Daily essential oils or 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes are effective when reducing dental plaque formation in the short term. Although 0.2% chlorhexidine continues to be the "gold standard" in terms of antiplaque effect, essential oils could be considered a reliable alternative.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02124655.

  18. Prevention of biofilm colonization by Gram-negative bacteria on minocycline-rifampin-impregnated catheters sequentially coated with chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Mohamed A; Rosenblatt, Joel S; Hachem, Ray Y; Ying, Jiang; Pravinkumar, Egbert; Nates, Joseph L; Chaftari, Anne-Marie P; Raad, Issam I

    2014-01-01

    Resistant Gram-negative bacteria are increasing central-line-associated bloodstream infection threats. To better combat this, chlorhexidine (CHX) was added to minocycline-rifampin (M/R) catheters. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of CHX-M/R catheters against multidrug resistant, Gram-negative Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was tested. M/R and CHX-silver sulfadiazine (CHX/SS) catheters were used as comparators. The novel CHX-M/R catheters were significantly more effective (P catheters in preventing biofilm colonization and showed better antimicrobial durability.

  19. New trends in dentistry: plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Adriana Lígia de; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. Twenty-five plant extracts obtained from Brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic E. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and the disk diffusion assay (DDA), using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a control. Seven out of 25 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity and were tested in a biofilm assay, and three of these extracts were subjected to chemical fractionation. Residues were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the first chemical findings were described based on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba, Symphonia globulifera and Moronobea coccinea showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA. The same I. alba and S. globulifera extracts, as well as the extract obtained from Connarus ruber var. ruber, showed significant activity in the DDA. RH2O obtained from Psidium densicomum and Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum showed better antibacterial activity compared to the respective crude extracts and CHX. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds and triterpenes represent the first findings of chemical groups that may occur in all species. The results of the present study include the discovery of six active extracts against planktonic E. faecalis and support further testing via assays involving biofilm formation, as well as the determination of the compounds' chemical profiles, as their activity was significantly better than that observed for CHX. PMID:23538423

  20. Influence of chlorhexidine concentration on microtensile bond strength of contemporary adhesive systems

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    Edson Alves de Campos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX concentration on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS of contemporary adhesive systems. Eighty bovine central incisors were used in this study. The facial enamel surface of the crowns was abraded with 600-grit silicon carbide paper to expose flat, mid-coronal dentin surfaces. The tested materials were Scotchbond Multipurpose (SMP, Single-Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB and Clearfil Tri S Bond (CTSB. All the materials were applied according to manufacturer's instructions and followed by composite application (Z250. The teeth were randomly divided into 16 groups: for the etch-and-rinse adhesives (SMP and SB, 0.12% or 2% CHX was applied prior to or after the acid etching procedure. For the self-etch adhesives (CSEB and CTSB 0.12% or 2% CHX was applied prior to the primer. Control groups for each one of the adhesive systems were also set up. The specimens were immediately submitted to μTBS testing and the data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance and the Tukey post hoc test (alpha = .01. The failure patterns of the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The effects of 2% CHX were statistically significant (p < 0.01 for the self-etch adhesives but were not significant for the etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Analysis of the data demonstrated no statistical difference between the etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. CHX-based cavity disinfectants in concentrations higher than 0.12% should be avoided prior to the self-etch adhesive systems evaluated in this study to diminish the possibilities of reduction in bond strength.

  1. Synergistic Antibacterial Effects of Nanoparticles Encapsulated with Scutellaria baicalensis and Pure Chlorhexidine on Oral Bacterial Biofilms

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    Ken Cham-Fai Leung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria baicalensis (SB is a traditional Chinese medicine for treating infectious and inflammatory diseases. Our recent study shows potent antibacterial effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine (Nano-CHX. Herein, we explored the synergistic effects of the nanoparticle-encapsulated SB (Nano-SB and Nano-CHX on oral bacterial biofilms. Loading efficiency of Nano-SB was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, and its releasing profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatographyusing baicalin (a flavonoid compound of SB as the marker. The mucosal diffusion assay on Nano-SB was undertaken in a porcine model. The antibacterial effects of the mixed nanoparticles (Nano-MIX of Nano-SB and Nano-CHX at 9:1 (w/w ratio were analyzed in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral bacteria. The Nano-MIX was effective on the mono-species biofilms of Streptococcus (S. mutans, S. sobrinus, Fusobacterium (F. nucleatum, and Aggregatibacter (A. actinomycetemcomitans (MIC 50 μg/mL at 24 h, and exhibited an enhanced effect against the multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas (P. gingivalis (MIC 12.5 μg/mL at 24 h that was supported by the findings of both scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM. This study shows enhanced synergistic antibacterial effects of the Nano-MIX on common oral bacterial biofilms, which could be potentially developed as a novel antimicrobial agent for clinical oral/periodontal care.

  2. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of chlorhexidine tolerance in Delftia acidovorans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rema, Tara; Lawrence, John R; Dynes, James J; Hitchcock, Adam P; Korber, Darren R

    2014-10-01

    The physicochemical responses of Delftia acidovorans biofilms exposed to the commonly used antimicrobial chlorhexidine (CHX) were examined in this study. A CHX-sensitive mutant (MIC, 1.0 μg ml(-1)) was derived from a CHX-tolerant (MIC, 15.0 μg ml(-1)) D. acidovorans parent strain using transposon mutagenesis. D. acidovorans mutant (MT51) and wild-type (WT15) strain biofilms were cultivated in flow cells and then treated with CHX at sub-MIC and inhibitory concentrations and examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Specific morphological, structural, and chemical compositional differences between the CHX-treated and -untreated biofilms of both strains were observed. Apart from architectural differences, CLSM revealed a negative effect of CHX on biofilm thickness in the CHX-sensitive MT51 biofilms relative to those of the WT15 strain. STXM analyses showed that the WT15 biofilms contained two morphochemical cell variants, whereas only one type was detected in the MT51 biofilms. The cells in the MT51 biofilms bioaccumulated CHX to a similar extent as one of the cell types found in the WT15 biofilms, whereas the other cell type in the WT15 biofilms did not bioaccumulate CHX. STXM and IR spectral analyses revealed that CHX-sensitive MT51 cells accumulated the highest levels of CHX. Pretreating biofilms with EDTA promoted the accumulation of CHX in all cells. Thus, it is suggested that a subpopulation of cells that do not accumulate CHX appear to be responsible for greater CHX resistance in D. acidovorans WT15 biofilm in conjunction with the possible involvement of bacterial membrane stability.

  3. Chlorhexidine substantivity on salivary flora and plaque-like biofilm: an in situ model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía García-Caballero

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in situ antibacterial activity of a mouthrinse with 0.2% Chlorhexidine (M-0.2% CHX on undisturbed de novo plaque-like biofilm (PL-biofilm and on salivary flora up to 7 hours after its application. METHODS: A special acrylic appliance was designed, with 3 inserted glass disks on each buccal side, allowing for PL-biofilm growth. Fifteen healthy volunteers wore the appliance for 48 hours and then performed an M-0.2% CHX; disks were removed at 30 seconds and 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours after the mouth-rinsing. Applying a washout period, saliva samples were collected from each volunteer at 30 seconds and 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours after performing an M-0.2% CHX. The PL-biofilm and saliva samples were analysed by confocal laser scanning and epifluorescence microscopes, respectively. RESULTS: At 30 seconds after M-0.2% CHX, the levels of viable bacteria detected in saliva were significantly lower than those observed in PL-biofilm. The difference in the percentage of live bacteria detected in saliva was significantly higher than that observed in PL-biofilm at 5 and 7 hours after M-0.2% CHX. CONCLUSION: After a single mouthrinse of the 0.2% CHX formulation tested in the present study, the 2-day PL-biofilm presented a significantly higher resistance to this antiseptic in situ than that observed in salivary flora. However, this 0.2% CHX formulation showed a higher substantivity on PL-biofilm than on salivary flora at 5 and 7 hours after mouth-rinsing, which could be related to the slower growth rate of PL-biofilm and the possible reservoir function for antimicrobial agents associated with the undisturbed de novo PL-biofilm.

  4. Pitfalls in efficacy testing – how important is the validation of neutralization of chlorhexidine digluconate?

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    Heisig Peter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective neutralization of active agents is essential to obtain valid efficacy results, especially when non-volatile active agents like chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG are tested. The aim of this study was to determine an effective and non-toxic neutralizing mixture for a propan-1-ol solution containing 2% CHG. Methods Experiments were carried out according to ASTM E 1054-02. The neutralization capacity was tested separately with five challenge microorganisms in suspension, and with a rayon swab carrier. Either 0.5 mL of the antiseptic solution (suspension test or a saturated swab with the antiseptic solution (carrier test was added to tryptic soy broth containing neutralizing agents. After the samples were mixed, aliquots were spread immediately and after 3 h of storage at 2 – 8°C onto tryptic soy agar containing a neutralizing mixture. Results The neutralizer was, however, not consistently effective in the suspension test. Immediate spread yielded a valid neutralization with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Corynebacterium jeikeium but not with Micrococcus luteus (p Candida albicans (p Staphylococcus epidermidis (p Corynebacterium jeikeium (p = 0.044. In the carrier test, the neutralizing mixture was found to be effective and non toxic to all challenge microorganisms when spread immediately. However, after 3 h storage of the neutralized active agents significant carry-over activity of CHG against Micrococcus luteus (p = 0.004; Tukey HSD was observed. Conclusion Without effective neutralization in the sampling fluid, non-volatile active ingredients will continue to reduce the number of surviving microorganisms after antiseptic treatment even if the sampling fluid is kept cold straight after testing. This can result in false-positive antiseptic efficacy data. Attention should be paid during the neutralization validation process to the amount of antiseptic solution, the storage time and to the choice of

  5. Immobilization of antibacterial chlorhexidine on stainless steel using crosslinking polydopamine film: Towards infection resistant medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Daud, Nurizzati; Saeful Bahri, Ihda Fithriyana; Nik Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam; Hermawan, Hendra; Saidin, Syafiqah

    2016-09-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is known for its high antibacterial substantivity and is suitable for use to bio-inert medical devices due to its long-term antibacterial efficacy. However, CHX molecules require a crosslinking film to be stably immobilized on bio-inert metal surfaces. Therefore, polydopamine (PDA) was utilized in this study to immobilize CHX on the surface of 316L type stainless steel (SS316L). The SS316L disks were pre-treated, modified with PDA film and immobilized with different concentrations of CHX (10mM-50mM). The disks were then subjected to various surface characterization analyses (ATR-FTIR, XPS, ToF-SIMS, SEM and contact angle measurement) and tested for their cytocompatibility with human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells and antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results demonstrated the formation of a thin PDA film on the SS316L surface, which acted as a crosslinking medium between the metal and CHX. CHX was immobilized via a reduction process that covalently linked the CHX molecules with the functional group of PDA. The immobilization of CHX increased the hydrophobicity of the disk surfaces. Despite this property, a low concentration of CHX optimized the viability of HSF cells without disrupting the morphology of adherent cells. The immobilized disks also demonstrated high antibacterial efficacy against both bacteria, even at a low concentration of CHX. This study demonstrates a strong beneficial effect of the crosslinked PDA film in immobilizing CHX on bio-inert metal, and these materials are applicable in medical devices. Specifically, the coating will restrain bacterial proliferation without suffocating nearby tissues. PMID:27153117

  6. Chlorhexidine: beta-cyclodextrin inhibits yeast growth by extraction of ergosterol

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    K. I. R. Teixeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine (Cx augmented with beta-cyclodextrin (β-cd inclusion compounds, termed Cx:β-cd complexes, have been developed for use as antiseptic agents. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of Cx:β-cd complexes, prepared at different molecular ratios, with sterol and yeast membranes. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC against the yeast Candida albicans (C.a. was determined for each complex; the MICs were found to range from 0.5 to 2 µg/mL. To confirm the MIC data, quantitative analysis of viable cells was performed using trypan blue staining. Mechanistic characterization of the interactions that the Cx:β-cd complexes have with the yeast membrane and assessment of membrane morphology following exposure to Cx:β-cd complexes were performed using Sterol Quantification Method analysis (SQM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SQM revealed that sterol extraction increased with increasing β-cd concentrations (1.71 × 10³; 1.4 × 10³; 3.45 × 10³, and 3.74 × 10³ CFU for 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, respectively, likely as a consequence of membrane ergosterol solubilization. SEM images demonstrated that cell membrane damage is a visible and significant mechanism that contributes to the antimicrobial effects of Cx:β-cd complexes. Cell disorganization increased significantly as the proportion of β-cyclodextrin present in the complex increased. Morphology of cells exposed to complexes with 1:3 and 1:4 molar ratios of Cx:β-cd were observed to have large aggregates mixed with yeast remains, representing more membrane disruption than that observed in cells treated with Cx alone. In conclusion, nanoaggregates of Cx:β-cd complexes block yeast growth via ergosterol extraction, permeabilizing the membrane by creating cluster-like structures within the cell membrane, possibly due to high amounts of hydrogen bonding.

  7. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1984-10-01

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

  8. New trends in dentistry: plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lígia de Castilho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. Twenty-five plant extracts obtained from Brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic E. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (MDBA and the disk diffusion assay (DDA, using chlorhexidine (CHX as a control. Seven out of 25 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity and were tested in a biofilm assay, and three of these extracts were subjected to chemical fractionation. Residues were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the first chemical findings were described based on thin layer chromatography (TLC. Extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba, Symphonia globulifera and Moronobea coccinea showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA. The same I. alba and S. globulifera extracts, as well as the extract obtained from Connarus ruber var. ruber, showed significant activity in the DDA. RH2O obtained from Psidium densicomum and Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum showed better antibacterial activity compared to the respective crude extracts and CHX. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds and triterpenes represent the first findings of chemical groups that may occur in all species. The results of the present study include the discovery of six active extracts against planktonic E. faecalis and support further testing via assays involving biofilm formation, as well as the determination of the compounds' chemical profiles, as their activity was significantly better than that observed for CHX.

  9. Economic impact of Tegaderm chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) dressing in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokala, Praveen; Arrowsmith, Martin; Poku, Edith; Martyn-St James, Marissa; Anderson, Jeff; Foster, Steve; Elliott, Tom; Whitehouse, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the economic impact of a TegadermTM chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) gel dressing compared with a standard intravenous (i.v.) dressing (defined as non-antimicrobial transparent film dressing), used for insertion site care of short-term central venous and arterial catheters (intravascular catheters) in adult critical care patients using a cost-consequence model populated with data from published sources. Material and Methods: A decision analytical cost-consequence model was developed which assigned each patient with an indwelling intravascular catheter and a standard dressing, a baseline risk of associated dermatitis, local infection at the catheter insertion site and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), estimated from published secondary sources. The risks of these events for patients with a Tegaderm CHG were estimated by applying the effectiveness parameters from the clinical review to the baseline risks. Costs were accrued through costs of intervention (i.e. Tegaderm CHG or standard intravenous dressing) and hospital treatment costs depended on whether the patients had local dermatitis, local infection or CRBSI. Total costs were estimated as mean values of 10,000 probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) runs. Results: Tegaderm CHG resulted in an average cost-saving of £77 per patient in an intensive care unit. Tegaderm CHG also has a 98.5% probability of being cost-saving compared to standard i.v. dressings. Conclusions: The analyses suggest that Tegaderm CHG is a cost-saving strategy to reduce CRBSI and the results were robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:27582899

  10. Evaluation of the sealing ability of two sealers after using chlorhexidine as a final irrigant: An in vitro study

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    Hitesh Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the precipitate formed by using sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine as a root canal irrigant on the sealing ability of different root canal sealers, using a push-out bond strength test. Materials and Methods: Twenty single rooted premolars were used for this study. The teeth were divided into two groups (Groups I and II of ten teeth each, according to the obturation done with AH Plus with GuttaPercha and Resilon with epiphany, respectively. The groups were in turn divided into two subgroups of five teeth each (Subgroups A and B according to the irrigation protocol, and were evaluated using a micro push-out bond strength, with the help of a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done using the paired t test. Results: The mean value of the AH Plus GuttaPercha group with precipitate formation (17.66 ± 0.56 showed the highest mean value for the bond strength, which was statistically higher (P < 0.05 than the rest of the groups. In the Resilon Epiphany group, the samples with precipitate formation showed (13.28 ± 1.35 the least bond strength, which was statistically lower than all the groups, except the Resilon samples without precipitate (13.99 ± 0.48. Conclusion: The precipitate formed by a combination of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine tends to affect the bond strength of the sealers used for obturation.

  11. Effectiveness of the chlorhexidine containing dentifrice on reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation - A controlled clinical trial

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    Dinesh Bhopale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:The aim of the study was to determine the plaque and gingivitis reducing effect of a dentifrice containing chlorhexidine and compare with control toothpaste during the course of 3 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind study looked prospectively at participants over a 3 month period. Plaque score and gingivitis score was assessed in 40 participants, who were divided into two parallel groups. The participants used either chlorhexidine containing toothpaste (test group or commercially available fluoridated triclosan containing toothpaste (control group. Parameters were assessed at baseline and again after 1and 3 months. RESULTS:After 3 months of product use, both groups had less gingivitis compared with the baseline evaluation (p=0.001. At this time point, the test group showed a statistically significant lower gingival index values compared with the baseline (p=0.001. No statistically significant difference between either of the groups at various time points was detected with regard to plaque index score. CONCLUSION:Although there was a statistically significant difference at 3 months between test and control groups in reduction of gingival index values, this difference was too small to be considered clinically meaningful.

  12. Comparison of 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solutions on postoperative pain: A randomized clinical trial

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    Bashetty Kusum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution in group II were used as an irrigants. Access cavities were closed with a sterile cotton pellet and cavit. The patients recorded degree of pain at various time intervals after cleaning and shaping on a visual analogue scale for 1 week. Results: The mean pain score for group I was between 0.65 and 3.35 and for group II was between 0.95 and 4.50. There was significant difference in the pain level between the two groups only at 6 th hour postoperatively (P<0.05 and the pain was more in sodium hypochlorite group. Conclusions: More pain was present in teeth irrigated using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite when compared to that in teeth irrigated using 2% chlorhexidine solution. Significant difference in pain level was present only at 6th hour postoperatively, and at all other periods (24 th hour, 4 th and 7 th days there was no significant difference in pain level between the two groups.

  13. Carmellose Mucoadhesive Oral Films Containing Vermiculite/Chlorhexidine Nanocomposites as Innovative Biomaterials for Treatment of Oral Infections

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    Jan Gajdziok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious stomatitis represents the most common oral cavity ailments. Current therapy is insufficiently effective because of the short residence time of topical liquid or semisolid medical formulations. An innovative application form based on bioadhesive polymers featuring prolonged residence time on the oral mucosa may be a solution to this challenge. This formulation consists of a mucoadhesive oral film with incorporated nanocomposite biomaterial that is able to release the drug directly at the target area. This study describes the unique approach of preparing mucoadhesive oral films from carmellose with incorporating a nanotechnologically modified clay mineral intercalated with chlorhexidine. The multivariate data analysis was employed to evaluate the influence of the formulation and process variables on the properties of the medical preparation. This evaluation was complemented by testing the antimicrobial and antimycotic activity of prepared films with the aim of finding the most suitable composition for clinical application. Generally, the best results were obtained with sample containing 20 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate carried by vermiculite, with carmellose in the form of nonwoven textile in its structure. In addition to its promising physicomechanical, chemical, and mucoadhesive properties, the formulation inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus and Candida; the effect was prolonged for tens of hours.

  14. Bioadhesive chlorhexidine gel for reduction of alveolar osteitis incidence: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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    Mahmood Reza Kalantar Motamedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alveolar osteitis (AO creates severe and self-limiting pain, which needs to be treated with several postoperative visits, leading to increases in patient′s morbidity and costs. Hence, the most basic and best treatment could be prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of bioadhesive chlorhexidine (CHX gel in reducing AO occurrence with published studies. Materials and Methods: Medline/PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Ovid and Cochrane central registry for control trial were searched up to 28 February 2014 using "alveolar osteitis" and "chlorhexidine" as key words for systematic review and meta-analysis. Inclusion criteria were prospective and randomized controlled trials (RCTs published on this topic. From the chosen studies, the eligible articles were reviewed. Data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.2 software. Results: Out of 43 studies, seven eligible trials with 593 participants were selected. Bioadhesive 0.2% CHX gel prevented approximately 72% of AO (Odd ratio (OR = 0.28, 95% confidence Interval (CI: 0.18-0.44; P < 0.001. Conclusion: Bioadhesive 0.2% CHX gel may be effective as a post-medication to reduce incidence of AO.

  15. The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic individuals in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, M Gabriela; Rancel, Fernando; Coronado-Alvarez, Nieves M; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-11-01

    Pathogenic strains of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The prevalence of this infection has risen in the past 20 years, mainly due to the increase in number of contact lens wearers. In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, was evaluated. Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes were also determined after rDNA sequencing. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was subsequently established using previously described molecular and biochemical assays, which allowed the selection of three strains with high pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these isolates against two standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine, was analysed. As the three selected strains were sensitive to chlorhexidine, its activity and IC(50) were evaluated. Chlorhexidine was found to be active against these strains and the obtained IC(50) values were compared to the concentrations of this drug present in contact lens maintenance solutions. It was observed that the measured IC(50) was higher than the concentration found in these maintenance solutions. Therefore, the ineffectiveness of chlorhexidine-containing contact lens maintenance solutions against potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba is demonstrated in this study.

  16. The efficacy of mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine body scrubs in the eradication of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Watanakunakorn; J. Brandt; P. Durkin; S. Santore; B. Bota; C. J. Stahl

    1992-01-01

    textabstractPatients undergoing long-term hemodialysis have a high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, which may lead to serious infections. Mupirocin ointment has been used intranasally to eradicate S. aureus carriage in health human volunteers and health care workers. Chlorhexidine

  17. The plaque and gingivitis reducing effect of a chlorhexidine and aluminium lactate containing dentifrice (Lacalut aktiv) over a period of 6 months.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathe, F.; Auschill, T.M.; Sculean, A.; Gaudszuhn, C.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the plaque and gingivitis reducing effect of a dentifrice containing chlorhexidine and aluminium lactate compared with a control toothpaste during the course of 6 months. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind study looked prospectively at part

  18. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Coconut Oil, Probiotics, and Ketoconazole on Candida albicans Isolated in Children with Early Childhood Caries: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shino, Beena; Peedikayil, Faizal C; Jaiprakash, Shyamala R; Ahmed Bijapur, Gufran; Kottayi, Soni; Jose, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is associated with early colonisation and high levels of cariogenic microorganisms. With C. albicans being one of those, there is a need to determine the effectiveness of various chemotherapeutic agents against it. The study is aimed at isolating Candida species in children with ECC and at studying the antifungal effect of coconut oil, probiotics, Lactobacillus, and 0.2% chlorhexidine on C. albicans in comparison with ketoconazole. Materials and Methods. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs, swabbed on the tooth surfaces from children with ECC of 3 to 6 yrs and streaked on Sabouraud dextrose agar (HI Media) plates and incubated in a 5% CO2 enriched atmosphere at 37°C for 24 hours. Candida was isolated and its susceptibility to probiotics, chlorhexidine, ketoconazole, and coconut oil was determined using Disc Diffusion method. Results. The mean zone of inhibition for chlorhexidine was 21.8 mm, whereas for coconut oil it was 16.8 mm, for probiotics it was 13.5 mm, and for ketoconazole it was 22.3 mm. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (Chi-square value 7.42, P value 0.06). Conclusion. Chlorhexidine and coconut oil have shown significant antifungal activity which is comparable with ketoconazole.

  19. Effectiveness of 0.2% chlorhexidine gel and a eugenol-based paste on postoperative alveolar osteitis in patients having third molars extracted: a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesudasan, James Solomon; Wahab, P U Abdul; Sekhar, M R Muthu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of application of 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, a eugenol-based paste, together with a control group on the postoperative incidence of alveolar osteitis in patients having third molars extracted. A total of 270 patients who had this procedure at the Dept of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and divided into 3 groups: the first had a 0.2% chlorhexidine-based gel applied to the alveolar socket once after extraction; the second had a eugenol-based paste applied to the alveolar socket once after extraction; and the third group acted as controls, with no treatment. The incidence of alveolar osteitis was recorded for 7 days. We also recorded postoperative pain, inflammation, infection, and wound healing. Nine of the control group (10%) and 2 (2%) of the chlorhexidine group developed alveolar osteitis on the seventh postoperative day. The overall incidence (11/270) was 4%, which is less than reported elsewhere. The distribution of alveolar osteitis among the 3 groups was significant (p=0.002), with the eugenol group having no cases. The chlorhexidine group showed less incidence of alveolar osteitis than other reported studies and also less pain, inflammation, infection, and better wound healing than the control group. We conclude that eugenol was the better of the 2 interventions.

  20. Efecto inhibitorio en placa microbiana y propiedades antibacterianas de enjuagatorios de clorhexidina The effects of a chlorhexidine rinses on the development of plaque and antibacterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Yevenes L

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar en 20 voluntarios el efecto sobre el crecimiento de placa en 24 horas de enjuagatorios de clorhexidina, medir in vitro su actividad microbicida y determinar la concentración de clorhexidina. Tres enjuagatorio s comerciales fueron usados, denominados A, B y C, los dos primeros con 0,12% y el tercero con 0,1% de clorhexidina. El efecto sobre el crecimiento de placa en 24 horas se determino midiendo área de placa e índice de placa en tres estudios cruzados doble ciego. Las propiedades microbicidas fueron determinadas por un ensayo de inhibición del desarrollo del Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus y Candida albicans. La determinación de clorhexidina fue realizada por cromatografía HPLC. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la placa formada a las 24 horas después del uso de los enjuagatorios pero menos placa se desarrollo con clorhexidina al compararla con el control. Las concentraciones de clorhexidina fueron 0,1174%, 0,1168% Y0,091% para A, B y C respectivamente, valores estables después de 16 meses de elaboración. Las concentraciones en clorhexidina para A y B son valores normales mientras que el valor de C esta bajo el valor declarado. Los enjuagatorios presentan actividad microbicida contra los microorganismos usados con un tiempo de inactivación del crecimiento menor o igual a 30 segundos. Las metodologías usadas permiten confirmar la efectividad de los enjuagatorios con diferentes concentración de clorhexidina, donde los resultados claramente sugieren que 0,1% en clorhexidina es capaz de tener actividad antiplaca y antimicrobiana cuando es usada en colutorios, no siendo necesarias concentraciones mas elevadas.The purpose of this study was to measure plaque regrowth over 24 h.(in vivo and microbicidal activity (in vitro, and to determine the concentration of chlorhexidine in mouthwashes. Three commercial mouthwashes were used, A ,B, whit 0.12 % and C whit 0.10 % of

  1. Chlorhexidine Nanocapsule Drug Delivery Approach to the Resin-Dentin Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, B M; Selvan, S T; Lu, T B; Xie, H; Neo, J; Fawzy, A S

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we are introducing a new drug-delivery approach to demineralized dentin substrates through microsized dentinal tubules in the form of drug-loaded nanocapsules. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is widely used in adhesive dentistry due to its nonspecific matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory effect and antibacterial activities. Poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules (nano-PCL) loaded with CHX were fabricated by interfacial polymer deposition at PCL/CHX ratios of 125:10, 125:25, and 125:50. Unloaded nanocapsules (blank) were fabricated as control. The fabricated nanocapsules were characterized in vitro in terms of particle size, surface charges, particle recovery, encapsulation efficiency, and drug loading. Nanocapsule morphology, drug inclusion, structural properties, and crystallinity were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM/TEM), energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Initial screening of the antibacterial activities and the cytotoxicity of the nanocapsules were also conducted. Nanocapsules, as carried on ethanol/water solution, were delivered to demineralized dentin specimens connected to an ex vivo model setup simulating the pulpal pressure to study their infiltration, penetration depth, and retention inside the dentinal tubules by SEM/TEM. Nanocapsules were Ag labeled and delivered to demineralized dentin, followed by the application of a 2-step etch-and-rinse dentin adhesive. CHX-release profiles were characterized in vitro and ex vivo up to 25 d. Spherical nanocapsules were fabricated with a CHX core coated with a thin PCL shell. The blank nanocapsules exhibited the largest z-average diameter with negatively charged ζ-potential. With CHX incorporation, the nanocapsule size was decreased with a positive shift in ζ-potential. Nano-PCL/CHX at 125:50 showed the highest drug loading, antibacterial effect, and CHX release both in vitro and ex vivo. SEM and TEM revealed the deep

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Arimedadi Oil with 0.2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate in Prevention of Plaque and Gingivitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Vishwakarma, Prashanthkumar; Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chemical plaque control measures are advocated to maintain proper oral hygiene. Ayurvedic medicines are alternatives considered with minimal side effects to treat systemic diseases and dental diseases. So the present study was conducted to assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Arimedadi (herbal) oil against 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. Aim To assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Arimedadi (herbal) oil against 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. Materials and Methods A total of 45 patients aged 18 to 21 years, with mild to moderate gingivitis were recruited and were divided randomly into three groups with 15 subjects in each group. After baseline data, scaling and polishing was performed. Group A, as Control, Group B, Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash and Group C used experimental Arimedadi oil mouthwash. Instructions were given to use 10 ml mouthwash twice daily after 30 min of tooth brushing for 1 min till 21 days. Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were taken to assess Plaque and Gingival health on 7th day, 14th day and at 21st day. The statistical analysis was done using Paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Post Hoc test. Results There was similar improvement in gingival health among both groups compared to control group up to 21 days (p0.05). Conclusion Arimedadi oil is equally effective to Chlorhexidine gluconate as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control in prevention of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. Arimedadi oil could be an effective and safe alternative to 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash due to its prophylactic and therapeutic benefits.

  3. Prospective evaluation of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate as an antiseptic agent for blood donor arm preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the use of 2% (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate (2% AlcCHG in donor arm preparation, to monitor the contamination rate of blood products after the collection and to find incidence of transfusion associated bacteremia. Settings and Design: Optimal skin antisepsis of the phlebotomy site is essential to minimize the risk of contamination. Food and Drug Administration (FDA in India has recommended antisepsis with three-step regimen of spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit for donor arm antisepsis, but not with chlorhexidine, which is recommended by many other authors. Material and Methods: A total of 795 donors were studied from July 2011 to January 2012. Spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit was used for 398 donors and 2% AlcCHG was used for 397 donors with the two-step method for arm antisepsis. Swabs were collected before and after use of antiseptic agents for all the donors. All the blood products collected from donors with growth in post-antisepsis swabs were cultured. A total of 123 various blood products were cultured irrespective of the method and result of antisepsis was observed. A total of seven patients had mild transfusion reaction. The transfused blood products, blood and urine specimen of the patients who had transfusion reaction were also cultured. Results: Seven donors out of 398 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with spirit-10% povidone iodine-spirit protocol and three donors out of 397 donors had growth in post-antisepsis swab with 2% AlcCHG protocol. All blood products collected from donors who had growth in post-antisepsis swabs when cultured had no growth. There was no contamination of blood products. Conclusions: Two percent (w/v alcoholic chlorhexidine gluconate with two-step protocol can be used as an antiseptic agent for donor arm preparation without considerable cost difference. It is at par with spirit 10% povidone iodine spirit protocol as suggested by FDA in India

  4. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

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    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  5. Perubahan warna lempeng resin akrilik yang direndam dalam larutan desinfektan sodium hipoklorit dan klorhexidin (The color changes of acrylic resins denture base material which are immersed in Sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine)

    OpenAIRE

    David David; Elly Munadziroh

    2006-01-01

    One of the acrylic resins properties is the water absorption including color fluids and chemically fluids that affect on the color changes of the acrylic resins. This laboratory experiments studied sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine effect on the color changes of acrylic denture base resins material. The study was conducted by immersing heat cured acrylic plate samples of 26 mm of diameter and 0.4 mm of thickness in sodium hypochlorite for 10; 70 and 140 minutes and chlorhexidine for 15; 1...

  6. Effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol and a fluoride varnish on caries development in erupting permanent molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamee, S; Gizani, S; Caroni, C;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the caries preventive effect of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing antibacterial varnish with a fluoride varnish when topically applied during the eruption of permanent molars. METHODS: The study group consisted of 189 patients, 5-14 years of age, with one 1st or 2nd permanent molar...... in the process of eruption. After stratification for type of molar and stage of eruption, the patients were randomised to either quarterly topical applications with an antibacterial varnish (Cervitec(®) Plus; CV group) or biannual applications with a fluoride varnish plus biannual treatments with placebo varnish...... 0.94-1.25). Significantly lower levels of salivary MS were disclosed in the CV group at the end of the study (p fluoride...

  7. In vitro anti-Acanthamoeba synergistic effect of chlorhexidine and cationic carbosilane dendrimers against both trophozoite and cyst forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Sánchez-Nieves, J; Soliveri, J; Gómez, R; de la Mata, F J; Copa-Patiño, J L; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2016-07-25

    Acanthamoeba sp. are the causative agents of severe illnesses in humans such as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). Medical therapy is not yet well established. Treatments of AK last for several months and generate toxicity, resistances appear due to the cysts stage and recurrences can occur. In this study has been demonstrated that the combination of chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX) and carbosilane dendrimers containing ammonium or guanidine moieties has in vitro synergistic effect against Acanthamoeba polyphaga. This synergy provokes an important reduction in the minimal trophozoite amoebicidal concentration (MTAC) of CLX, which means a reduction of their toxic effects on human cells. Moreover, some CLX/dendrimer combinations show important activity against the cyst resistance stage. PMID:27173821

  8. Antibacterial efficiency of vermiculite/chlorhexidine nanocomposites and results of the in vivo test of harmlessness of vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay minerals have been proposed as very useful materials for modulating drug delivery. These are the commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. We focused on the development of suitable long-acting material for local treatment of oral infection where clay minerals act as inorganic drug carriers. Organovermiculites with antibacterial activity were prepared by ion exchange reactions using different concentrations of chlorhexidine diacetate. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis (TGA). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All studied organoclays possessed good antibacterial activity after 24 h exposure against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and particularly against Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa however proved very resistant as only the sample with the highest concentration of CA that successfully inhibited bacterial growth. Furthermore, clay mineral vermiculite was subjected to in vivo toxicological analysis and its influence on gastrointestinal tract during its oral application was investigated. Tissue samples from buccal mucosa, tongue, esophagus, stomach, terminal duodenum, small intestine, caecum, distal colon and liver were subjected to histological examination, both macroscopically and microscopically. Neither systemic nor local reactions were observed. Therefore the toxicity of vermiculite to a mammal model organism can be excluded. - Highlights: • Antibacterial chlorhexidine diacetate/vermiculite nanocomposites were prepared. • Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and TGA. • Efficiency against S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa was evaluated. • Influence of Ver on gastrointestinal tract during oral application was investigated. • In vivo toxicological analysis excluded neither systemic nor local reactions

  9. Effect of three disinfectants (chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide on the microleakage of 7th generation bonding agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salari Behzad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims : The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidin 2%, sodium hypochlorite 2.5% and hydrogen peroxide 3% as three effective and regular disinfectants on the microleakage of 7th generation bonding agents in vitro.   Materials and Methods: 45 extracted molar teeth without carries were collected and disinfected. On buccal and lingual aspects of these teeth conventional class V cavity preparation were done (90 cavities, then randomly divided to 4 groups, three of them had 10 teeth (20 cavities and one of them had 5 teeth (10 cavities as control group. Cavities in each experimental group prepared with one of the disinfectants and then 7th generation bonding (Optibond all in one, kerr was used as noted by manufacturer, then cavities filled with composite and polished. Bonding agent was used without our previous disinfectants manipulation in control group. Specimens were thermocycled with 1000 thermal cycles between 5 and 55 0 C each for 30 seconds and then immersed in the methylene blue 5%, then sectioned mesiodistally and investigated for microleakage under stereomicroscope (Olympus, Japan. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon mean rank tests.   Results: Despite the lower mean rank values for the untreated group at both occlusal and gingival aspects, the Kruskal-Wallis procedure (α=0.05 showed that the treatment factor did not significantly affect the mean rank values neither in occlusal (P=0.12 nor in gingival (P=0.39 part of cavities.   Conclusion: According to the results of this study, antimicrobial agents such as chlorhexidine 2%, sodium hypochloride 2.5% and hydrogen peroxide 3% can be used perior to 7th generation dentin bonding agent(Optibond all in one, kerr without much concern.

  10. Antibacterial efficiency of vermiculite/chlorhexidine nanocomposites and results of the in vivo test of harmlessness of vermiculite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holešová, Sylva, E-mail: sylva.holesova@vsb.cz [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB — Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB — Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 00 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Štembírek, Jan [Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Ostrava, 17. listopadu 1790/5, CZ-708 00 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Bartošová, Ladislava [Department of Human Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého 1/3, CZ-612 42 Brno (Czech Republic); Pražanová, Gabriela [Department of Pathology, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Žlutý kopec 7, CZ-65653 Brno (Czech Republic); Valášková, Marta; Samlíková, Magda [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB — Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB — Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, CZ-708 00 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic); Pazdziora, Erich [Institute of Public Health Ostrava, Centre of Clinical Laboratories, Partyzánské náměstí 7, CZ-702 00 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-01

    Clay minerals have been proposed as very useful materials for modulating drug delivery. These are the commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. We focused on the development of suitable long-acting material for local treatment of oral infection where clay minerals act as inorganic drug carriers. Organovermiculites with antibacterial activity were prepared by ion exchange reactions using different concentrations of chlorhexidine diacetate. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis (TGA). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All studied organoclays possessed good antibacterial activity after 24 h exposure against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and particularly against Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa however proved very resistant as only the sample with the highest concentration of CA that successfully inhibited bacterial growth. Furthermore, clay mineral vermiculite was subjected to in vivo toxicological analysis and its influence on gastrointestinal tract during its oral application was investigated. Tissue samples from buccal mucosa, tongue, esophagus, stomach, terminal duodenum, small intestine, caecum, distal colon and liver were subjected to histological examination, both macroscopically and microscopically. Neither systemic nor local reactions were observed. Therefore the toxicity of vermiculite to a mammal model organism can be excluded. - Highlights: • Antibacterial chlorhexidine diacetate/vermiculite nanocomposites were prepared. • Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and TGA. • Efficiency against S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa was evaluated. • Influence of Ver on gastrointestinal tract during oral application was investigated. • In vivo toxicological analysis excluded neither systemic nor local reactions.

  11. A Multicenter Pragmatic Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Chlorhexidine Gluconate Bathing in Community Hospital Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Kristen V; Lofgren, Eric; Lewis, Sarah S; Moehring, Rebekah W; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of intensive care unit (ICU) patients leads to a decrease in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), particularly infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). DESIGN Interrupted time series analysis. SETTING The study included 33 community hospitals participating in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network from January 2008 through December 2013. PARTICIPANTS All ICU patients at study hospitals during the study period. METHODS Of the 33 hospitals, 17 hospitals implemented CHG bathing during the study period, and 16 hospitals that did not perform CHG bathing served as controls. Primary pre-specified outcomes included ICU central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), primary bloodstream infections (BSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). MRSA and VRE HAIs were also evaluated. RESULTS Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing was associated with a significant downward trend in incidence rates of ICU CLABSI (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.99), ICU primary BSI (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), VRE CLABSIs (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98), and all combined VRE infections (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00). No significant trend in MRSA infection incidence rates was identified prior to or following the implementation of CHG bathing. CONCLUSIONS In this multicenter, real-world analysis of the impact of CHG bathing, hospitals that implemented CHG bathing attained a decrease in ICU CLABSIs, ICU primary BSIs, and VRE CLABSIs. CHG bathing did not affect rates of specific or overall infections due to MRSA. Our findings support daily CHG bathing of ICU patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:791-797. PMID:26861417

  12. Investigating Antibacterial Property of the ZatariaMultilflora Essence and Chlorhexidine on Orthodontic Elastic Rings Contaminated with Streptococcus Mutant In Vitro

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    AA jafari_nodoushan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With increasing usage of orthodontic treatments, disinfection of orthodontic appliances and rings is critical for maintaining dental and oral health. Using chemical disinfectants may cause allergic and mucosal disorders. The present study aimed to evaluate Zatariamultiflora essence and to compare it withChlorhexidine (0.2% mouth wash in controlling experimental plaque from Streptococcus mutant. Methods: In the current experimental study, 48 Iranian orthodontic rings were immersed in 1×108 CFU/ml Streptococcus mutant suspension. Firstly, Bacterial load on 12 rings was evaluated and then remained rings were randomly divided into 3 groups. They weredecontaminated respectivelyin 0.5mg/100cc Zataria essence, 0.02% Chlorhexidine and sterile distilled water (negative control. Finally the stability rate of Streptococcus mutantviable cells remained on rings was enumerated using culture. Moreover, they were analyzed via SPSS software. Results: Mann-Whitney test showed a statistically significant differences between mean streptococcus viable cells isolated from the contaminated rings before and after decontamination with Zataria essence and Chlorhexidine (P=0.0001, whereas this reduction wasn’t significant in negative control group (P=0.089. In addition, any statistically significant differences were not observed between zataria essence and Chlorhexidinemouth washes in controlling bacterial plaque (p=0.058. Conclusion: Since Zatariamultiflora essence solution was proved to be effectivein controlling microbial biofilm on orthodontic rings compared toChlorhexidine,it can be used in further in vivo studies. If the same useful results would be given, it can be regarded fruitful for decontamination of orthodontic appliances.

  13. The efficacy of mupirocin ointment and chlorhexidine body scrubs in the eradication of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Watanakunakorn, C; Brandt, J.; Durkin, P; Santore, S.; Bota, B.; Stahl, C.

    1992-01-01

    textabstractPatients undergoing long-term hemodialysis have a high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, which may lead to serious infections. Mupirocin ointment has been used intranasally to eradicate S. aureus carriage in health human volunteers and health care workers. Chlorhexidine, an antiseptic with excellent antistaphylococcal activity, is widely used for handwashing and skin cleansing. METHODS: Anterior nares cultures were obtained from patients older than 18 years who w...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

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    Raquel Lourdes Faria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash. First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group. After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group. For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL. RESULTS: The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. CONCLUSIONS: Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

    OpenAIRE

    FARIA, Raquel Lourdes; CARDOSO, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; Akisue, Gokithi; PEREIRA, Cristiane Aparecida; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SANTOS JÚNIOR, Paulo Villela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Material and Methods Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left toot...

  16. Comparison of the effectiveness of 0.5% tea, 2% neem and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral health: A randomized control trial

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    Aswini Y Balappanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of 0.5% tea, 2% neem, and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral health. Materials and Methods: A randomized blinded controlled trial with 30 healthy human volunteers of age group 18-25 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups i.e., group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (bench mark control, Group B - 2% neem, and group C - 0.5% tea of 10 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS. Salivary pH was assessed by indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after 1 st rinse, after 1 week, 2 nd week, and 3 rd week. The 3 rd week was skipped for group A. Results: Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 3 week trial period for experimental and control groups. Anti-plaque effectiveness was observed in all groups and the highest being in group C (P < 0.05. Neem and tea showed comparative effectiveness on gingiva better than chlorhexidine (P < 0.05. The salivary pH rise was sustained and significant in Group B and C compared to Group A. Oral hygiene improvement was better appreciated in Group B and Group C. Conclusion: The effectiveness of 0.5% tea was more compared to 2% neem and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse.

  17. Effect of aqueous and alcoholic Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) extracts against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Shamarao, Supreetha; Battur, Hemant; Tikare, Shreyas; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Al Sayed, Mohammed Sayed Al Esawy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stevia (S. rebaudiana) a herb which has medicinal value and was used in ancient times as a remedy for a great diversity of ailments and sweetener. Leaves of Stevia contain a high concentration of Stevioside and Rebaudioside which are supposed to be sweetening agents. Aim: To compare the efficacy of aqueous and alcoholic S. rebaudiana extract against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in comparison to chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In the first part of the ...

  18. The use of ozonated water and 0.2% chlorhexidine in the treatment of periodontitis patients: A clinical and microbiologic study

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    Kshitish Durga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease has been thought to be associated with several restricted members of the oral anaerobic species, such as black-pigmented Porphyromonas species and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, in the subgingival environment. Apart from bacteria, certain viruses and fungi that are associated with periodontal disease are also present in the subgingival plaque . Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-blind, crossover split-mouth design was performed. A total of 16 patients suffering from generalized chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The study period of 18 days was divided into two time-intervals, i.e. baseline (0 days to 7 th day, with a washout period of 4 days followed by a second time interval of 7 days. The use of ozone and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX irrigation was randomized. Both the patient and the clinician evaluating the clinical parameters were blinded regarding the type of irrigation used. Results: The interpretation of clinical and microbial data is from baseline to 7 th day. A higher percentage of plaque index (12%, gingival index (29% and bleeding index (26% reduction was observed using ozone irrigation as compared to chlorhexidine. The percentile reduction of Aa (25% using ozone was appreciable as compared to no change in Aa occurrence using chlorhexidine. By using O 3 and chlorhexidine, there was no antibacterial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg and Tannerella forsythensis. The antifungal effect of ozone from baseline (37% to 7 th day (12.5% was pronounced during the study period, unlike CHX, which did not demonstrate any antifungal effect. Conclusion: Ozone may be considered as an alternative management strategy due to its powerful ability to inactivate microorganisms. Also, there is growing evidence that ozone can be employed as a useful therapeutic agent in both dentistry and medicine.

  19. Alcohol handrubbing and chlorhexidine handwashing are equally effective in removing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from health care workers' hands: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hanley J; Poh, Bee-Fong; Choudhury, Saugata; Krishnan, Prabha; Ang, Brenda; Chow, Angela

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial in a tertiary-care hospital in a real-time setting to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 hand hygiene protocols in reducing hand carriage of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers. Our study shows that use of alcohol handrub, either covering all hand surfaces in no particular order or using the 7-step technique, and chlorhexidine handwashing were equally effective in removing hand carriage of these pathogens. PMID:26190381

  20. The Effect of Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse on the Colour Stability of Porcelain with Three Different Surface Treatments: An in Vitro Study

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    Khaledi AAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: The effect of mouth washes on discolouration of dental ceramics with different surface preparations is not well documented. Objectives: This in-vitro study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine (CHX mouth rinse on colour stability of overglazed (OP, autoglazed, (AP or polished porcelain (POP specimens. Materials and Methods: The restorative material investigated in this study was overglazed, autoglazed, or polished feldspathic porcelain. A total of 48 cylandrical specimens were prepared, (n=16 per each group. After baseline colour measurements, for a period of14 days 8 specimens of each group were immersed in 15 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse twice daily for 2 min. After each immersion, the specimens were washed and stored in artificial saliva. Half of the specimens from each group were selected randomly as controls and stored in artificial saliva that was changed daily. The colour change (ΔE of the specimens was measured by a spectrophotometer device. Data were statistically analyzed using 2-Way ANOVA followed by Tukey test Results: All the specimens displayed colour changes after immersion in chlorhexidine mouth rinse. POP specimens exhibited more colour change compared to AP and OP specimens (P=0.001. AP and OP specimens showed relatively the same colour change which was not significant compared to the control groups (P=0.9. Conclusion: Auto-glazed and over-glazed porcelain can tolerate chlorhexidine mouth rinse better than polished porcelain. However the colour changes of the ceramic with three different surface preparations were not perceivable clinically.

  1. Quality of control of compound chlorhexidine acetate ointment%复方醋酸氯己定软膏质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文军; 邓朝晖; 李爱红; 慈薇

    2016-01-01

    目的 提高复方醋酸氯己定软膏的质量控制标准.方法 增补处方中薄荷脑、樟脑的薄层色谱(T LC)法鉴别;建立高效液相色谱法同时测定处方中醋酸氯已定、盐酸丁卡因含量的方法.结果 薄荷脑、樟脑薄层色谱斑点清晰,可用于鉴别;醋酸氯己定在10.01~160.14μg/ml范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为101.5%,RSD为1.8%;盐酸丁卡因在10.01~160.14μg/ml范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为100.5%,RSD为2.8%.结论 提高后的质量标准可行.%Objective To improve the standard of the quality control of compound chlorhexidine acetate ointment . Methods TLC was used to control the quality of menthol crystal and camphor .A method to determine chlorhexidine acetate and cocaine hydrochloride simultaneously by HPLC was established .Results The spots of menthol crystal and camphor in TLC were clear .Chlorhexidine acetate and cocaine hydrochloride showed excellent linearity ,which were at the range of 10.01-160.14 μg/ml and 10 .01-160 .14 μg/ml ,respectively .The average recoveries were 101 .5% (RSD=1 .8% ) and 100 .5% (RSD=2 .8% ) .Conclusion The methods were simple ,sensitive and with good reproducibility and could be used to control the quality of compound chlorhexidine acetate ointment .

  2. A randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of Aloe Vera and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash efficacy on de-novo plaque formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhina, Shivjot; Singh, Avnish; Menon, Ipseeta; Singh, Rickypal; Sharma, Anubhav; Aggarwal, Vartika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group. Conclusions: Herbal mouthwash containing Aloe vera mouthwash has comparable antiplaque efficacy as the gold standard 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate with fewer side effects and can be considered as an alternative. PMID:27382543

  3. A comparative evaluation of the efficacy of probiotic and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on clinical inflammatory parameters of gingivitis: A randomized controlled clinical study

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    Purnima Vidyesh Nadkerny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our clinical trial was to assess and compare the antiplaque and anti-inflammatory potential of a probiotic mouthwash with 0.2% chlorhexidine and saline. Materials and Methods: A randomized parallel group study was designed for a period of 4 weeks on 45 systemically healthy subjects between 20 and 30 years having chronic gingivitis. The study population was divided into three groups. Group A - 15 subjects were advised experimental (probiotic mouthwash. Group B - 15 subjects were advised positive control (chlorhexidine mouthwash and Group C - 15 subjects into a negative control group (normal saline. Oral prophylaxis was done for all groups at baseline. After the proper oral hygiene instructions, all the three groups were instructed to rinse their mouth with 10 ml of their respective mouthrinse, undiluted for 1 min twice daily, 30 min after brushing. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, and oral hygiene index simplified (OHI-S were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks, respectively. Results: At day 28, the PI, GI, and OHI-S were significantly reduced by all treatment modalities ranking probiotic and chlorhexidine is greater than saline. Conclusion: The probiotic mouthrinses tested was effectively used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control in the prevention of plaque and gingivitis. Thus, the probiotic mouthrinse has a great therapeutic potential.

  4. Antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture, chlorhexidine gel, and two natural materials Propolis and Aloe vera against Enterococcus faecalis: An ex vivo study

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    Leila Bazvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of triantibiotic paste, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis in deep dentin. Materials and Methods: Ninety fresh extracted single-rooted teeth were used in a dentin block model. Seventy-five teeth were infected with E. faecalis and divided into four experimental groups (n = 15. Experimental groups were treated with triantibiotic mixture with distilled water, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, 70% ethanol + Propolis and Aloe vera. Fifteen teeth treated with distilled water as the positive control and 15 samples, free of bacterial contamination, were considered as the negative control. Gates-Glidden drill #4 was used for removal of surface dentin and Gates-Glidden drill #5 was used to collect samples of deep dentin. The samples were prepared and colony-forming units were counted. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Statistical significance was defined at P 0.05. Aloe vera had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, but in comparison with other medicaments, it was less effective (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This experimental study showed that triantibiotic mixture, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, Propolis and Aleo vera were relatively effective against E. faecalis. All the intracanal medicements had similar effects on E. faecalis in deep dentin except for Aloe vera.

  5. An in-vivo comparative evaluation of two herbal extracts Emblica officinalis and Terminalia Chebula with chlorhexidine as an anticaries agent: A preliminary study

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    Arumugam Velmurugan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinallis with chlorhexidine as an anticaries mouthwash - an in vivo study. Methodology: 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis were prepared. Forty five high caries risk patients were divided into group 1,2,3 [ n=15]and asked to rinse with 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis, 0.2% Chlorhexidine for 40 seconds respectively. Salivary samples were collected for pH, buffering capacity before and after rinsing at repeated intervals of 10, 30,60 and 90 minutes and except for microbial analysis for which it was collected before and 90 minutes after rinsing. The pH and the buffering capacity analysis was done using chairside kit and percentage of reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: For salivary pH, Group 2 showed the highest peak value followed by group 1. For salivary buffering capacity,there was no significant difference between any of the groups. For microbial count, highest percentage of reduction was seen in group 2 followed by group 1 and 3. However group 3 was more efficient at 90 minutes followed by group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Embilica officinalis extract and Terminalia chebula was more effective anticaries mouthwash but with less time of action than chlorhexidine.

  6. Reduction in catheter-related infections after switching from povidone-iodine to chlorhexidine for the exit-site care of tunneled central venous catheters in children on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Fabio; Consolo, Silvia; Biasuzzi, Antonietta; Assomou, Jolanda; Gattarello, Elisabetta; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Giannini, Alberto; Chidini, Giovanna; Napolitano, Luisa; Edefonti, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Only a few studies have investigated the optimal exit site management of tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs) in pediatric patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of chlorhexidine solutions and a 5% povidone-iodine solution on the incidence of CVC-related infections in children on HD. The incidence of exit-site infection (ESI), tunnel infection (TI), and bloodstream infection (BSI) was assessed in two groups of tunneled CVCs. The iodopovidone group consisted of 14 CVCs used between 1 January 2011 and 30 June 2012 in 10 children, whose median age at the time of CVC placement was 11.8 years (range 1.2-19.2): 5% povidone-iodine was used for CVC exit-site care. From 1 August 2012 to 31 January 2014, 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol was used for the exit site, and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate/70% isopropyl alcohol spray for the hub in 13 CVCs was used in 10 patients (chlorhexidine group), whose median age at the time of CVC placement was 10 years (range 1.2-19.2). Ten episodes of ESI were diagnosed in the iodopovidone group (incidence 3.4/1000 CVC days), and only one in the chlorhexidine group (incidence 0.36/1000 CVC days, P = 0.008). One TI was observed in the iodopovidone group (0.34/1000 CVC days), and none in the chlorhexidine group. The incidence of BSIs decreased from 1.7/1000 CVC days (5 cases) to 0.36/1000 CVC days (1 case, P = 0.06) after switching to chlorhexidine. Two CVCs were lost due to CVC-related infections in the iodopovidone group, whereas no CVC was lost due to infections in the chlorhexidine group. In comparison with 5% povidone-iodine, the use of chlorhexidine gluconate was associated with a reduction in the incidence of ESI, TI, and BSI in children on HD.

  7. The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods

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    Norhayati Luddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011, which analyze the related laboratory investigations of both irrigants, published in major endodontic journals.

  8. Antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: A comparison between EDTA, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, MTAD and QMix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Min; Lu, Yan; Guo, Xiangjun; Qiao, Feng; Wu, Ligeng

    2015-08-01

    We compared the antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities of five root canal irrigants (17% EDTA,2% chlorhexidine,0.2% cetrimide, MTAD, and QMix) in a model of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation. Sixty dentin blocks with 3-week E. faecalis biofilm were divided into six equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated. A blank control group was also established. Antibacterial activities of the irrigants were evaluated by counting colony forming units. To test residual antimicrobial activities, 280 dentin blocks were divided into seven equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated and then incubated with E. faecalis suspension for 48 h, or used as a blank. No bacteria were observed in the blank control group. The number of viable E. faecalis was significantly fewer in the irrigant-treated groups compared with the untreated control (P < 0.05). Among the five irrigants, QMix had the strongest antibacterial activity. Residual antimicrobial activities of CHX were significantly higher at 12 h, 24 h and 36 h compared to untreated control (P < 0.05). All five root canal irrigants were effective to some extent against E. faecalis, but QMix and CHX had the strongest, and CHX the longest (up to 36 h), antimicrobial activity.

  9. Ions Release and pH of Calcium Hydroxide-, Chlorhexidine- and Bioactive Glass-Based Endodontic Medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Freire, Laila Gonzales; Carvalho, Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days. PMID:27224568

  10. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. PMID:27656056

  11. Antibiofilm efficacy of photoactivated curcumin, triple and double antibiotic paste, 2% chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus fecalis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Sharmila; Jagannathan, Nithya; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Root canal disinfection is one of the most important factors governing success of root canal treatment, especially when regenerative strategies are used. This study evaluated the efficacy of 5 intracanal medicaments against mature biofilms of Enterococcus fecalis in vitro: Light activated curcumin, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), double antibiotic paste (DAP), chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide. Untreated teeth with biofilms served as controls. Confocal microscopy was used to analyse the biofilm mass and percentage of live/dead bacteria within the root canal as well as dentinal tubules. Dentinal shavings obtained from the root canal walls (at 200 and 400 microns depth) were used to quantify the colony forming units/mL. The results showed that light activated curcumin and triple antibiotic paste brought about complete disruption of the biofilm structure (P  0.05). Light activated curcumin brought about the highest percentage of dead cells at both depths, but this was not significantly different from triple antibiotic paste (P > 0.05). Curcumin, TAP and DAP brought about a significant reduction of CFU/mL at both depths compared to the control and other groups (P activated curcumin brought about a 7 log reduction of bacteria at both depths. PMID:27097667

  12. Effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in comparison to chlorhexidine mouthwash in patients with acute pericoronitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahakbari, R; Eshghpour, M; Rajaei, A; Rezaei, N M; Golfakhrabadi, P; Nejat, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in controlling the pain and trismus associated with acute pericoronitis in comparison to chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash. Ninety-seven patients with acute pericoronitis underwent debridement and received 5% green tea mouthwash (study group) or 0.12% CHX mouth rinse (control group). Pain (visual analogue scale; VAS), number of analgesics, maximum mouth opening (MMO), and number of patients with trismus were determined. There were no significant differences in demographic variables (P>0.05), or baseline VAS (P>0.006), MMO (P>0.017) or number of patients with trismus (P>0.017) between the two groups. The mean VAS score of the study group was statistically lower than that of the control group between post-treatment days 3 and 5 (P0.017). Fewer of the patients rinsing with green tea had trismus on days 3 and 7, but the difference was non-significant (P>0.017). Hence, green tea mouth rinse could be an appropriate and effective choice for the control of pain and trismus in acute pericoronitis.

  13. A comparison between zinc sulfate and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwashes in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mehdipour

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Background and the Purpose of the Study: Patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy for hematological malignancies are susceptible to development of oral mucositis, and no effective modality has been reported for its prophylaxis and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc mouthwash on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis lesions. "nMethods: In this double-blind randomized trial, patients under chemotherapy for acute leukemia were divided into two test and control groups of 15 patients each. The groups were homogeneous with respect to medical history, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. The test group received 10ml 0.2% zinc sulfate mouthwash, and the control group received 10ml 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, twice a day for a period of two weeks. Spijkervet scale was used to grade the severity of mucositis at every other week during eight weeks. The severity scores were analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA using SPSS 13.0 computer software. "nResults: Mean severity scores were generally lower in the test group compared to the controls at all four time intervals evaluated; but only, the differences in weeks of 2 and 3 were statistically significant (P=0.025. Conclusion: Zinc mouthwash used in conjunction with chemotherapy may reduce the severity of oral mucositis lesions in patients with leukaemia.

  14. The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

    2013-01-01

    Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment cases. For that reason, many in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated and compared the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine at varying concentrations using different experimental models against this microorganism. However, many controversies with regard to the ideal irrigant and concentration do in fact exist. Hence, this review aims to discuss the antibacterial activity of these two main root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis using the agar diffusion and direct contact methods and the possible modulating factors responsible for inconsistent findings among different studies. In addition, the disinfection potential of both chemical agents on gutta percha and Resilon cones are also discussed. The source of this review was conducted through an electronic literature search using PubMed database from December 1997 until December 2011, which analyze the related laboratory investigations of both irrigants, published in major endodontic journals. PMID:23349569

  15. Comparative effects of chlorhexidine and essential oils containing mouth rinse on stem cells cultured on a titanium surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Beom; Lee, Gil; Yun, Byeong Gon; Kim, Chang-Hyen; Ko, Youngkyung

    2014-04-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Listerine (LIS), an essential oil compound, are the two commonly used adjunctive agents for mechanical debridement, for reducing the bacterial load in the treatment of peri-implant inflammation. However, antimicrobial agents have been reported to be cytotoxic to the alveolar bone cells and gingival epithelial cells. The present study was performed to examine the effects of antiseptics CHX and LIS, on the morphology and proliferation of stem cells. Stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad were grown on machined titanium discs. Each disc was immersed in CHX or LIS for 30 sec, 1.5 min or 4.5 min. Cell morphology was evaluated with a confocal laser microscope and the viability of the cells was quantitatively analyzed with the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). The untreated cells attached to the titanium discs demonstrated well-organized actin cytoskeletons. No marked alterations in the cytoskeletal organization were observed in any of the treated groups. The treatment with CHX and LIS of the titanium discs decreased the viability of the cells grown on the treated discs (P<0.05). The stem cells derived from the buccal fat pad were sensitive to CHX and LIS, and a reduction in cellular viability was observed when these agents were applied to the discs for 30 sec. Further studies are required to determine the optimal application time and concentration of this antimicrobial agent for maximizing the reduction of the bacterial load and minimizing the cytotoxicity to the surrounding cells. PMID:24567172

  16. Effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in comparison to chlorhexidine mouthwash in patients with acute pericoronitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahakbari, R; Eshghpour, M; Rajaei, A; Rezaei, N M; Golfakhrabadi, P; Nejat, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of green tea mouthwash in controlling the pain and trismus associated with acute pericoronitis in comparison to chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash. Ninety-seven patients with acute pericoronitis underwent debridement and received 5% green tea mouthwash (study group) or 0.12% CHX mouth rinse (control group). Pain (visual analogue scale; VAS), number of analgesics, maximum mouth opening (MMO), and number of patients with trismus were determined. There were no significant differences in demographic variables (P>0.05), or baseline VAS (P>0.006), MMO (P>0.017) or number of patients with trismus (P>0.017) between the two groups. The mean VAS score of the study group was statistically lower than that of the control group between post-treatment days 3 and 5 (P0.017). Fewer of the patients rinsing with green tea had trismus on days 3 and 7, but the difference was non-significant (P>0.017). Hence, green tea mouth rinse could be an appropriate and effective choice for the control of pain and trismus in acute pericoronitis. PMID:24954134

  17. Antibiofilm efficacy of photoactivated curcumin, triple and double antibiotic paste, 2% chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus fecalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Sharmila; Jagannathan, Nithya; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Root canal disinfection is one of the most important factors governing success of root canal treatment, especially when regenerative strategies are used. This study evaluated the efficacy of 5 intracanal medicaments against mature biofilms of Enterococcus fecalis in vitro: Light activated curcumin, triple antibiotic paste (TAP), double antibiotic paste (DAP), chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide. Untreated teeth with biofilms served as controls. Confocal microscopy was used to analyse the biofilm mass and percentage of live/dead bacteria within the root canal as well as dentinal tubules. Dentinal shavings obtained from the root canal walls (at 200 and 400 microns depth) were used to quantify the colony forming units/mL. The results showed that light activated curcumin and triple antibiotic paste brought about complete disruption of the biofilm structure (P  0.05). Light activated curcumin brought about the highest percentage of dead cells at both depths, but this was not significantly different from triple antibiotic paste (P > 0.05). Curcumin, TAP and DAP brought about a significant reduction of CFU/mL at both depths compared to the control and other groups (P bacteria at both depths. PMID:27097667

  18. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles in combination with nystatin and chlorhexidine digluconate against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Gorup, Luiz F; de Camargo, Emerson R; Oliveira, Rosário; Barbosa, Debora B; Henriques, Mariana

    2013-11-01

    Although silver nanoparticles (SN) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional antifungal drugs in the control of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, the antifungal activity of SN in combination with antifungal drugs against Candida biofilms remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of SN in combination with nystatin (NYT) or chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. The drugs alone or combined with SN were applied on mature Candida biofilms (48 h), and after 24 h of treatment their antibiofilm activities were assessed by total biomass quantification (by crystal violet staining) and colony forming units enumeration. The structure of Candida biofilms was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The data indicated that SN combined with either NYT or CHG demonstrated synergistic antibiofilm activity, and this activity was dependent on the species and on the drug concentrations used. SEM images showed that some drug combinations were able to disrupt Candida biofilms. The results of this study suggest that the combination of SN with NYT or CHG may have clinical implications in the treatment of denture stomatitis. However, further studies are needed before recommending the use of these drugs safely in clinical situations. PMID:23773119

  19. Influence of the Culture Medium in Dose-Response Effect of the Chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Vanessa Salvadego; Ccahuana-Vásquez, Renzo Alberto; Tedesco, Alcides Fabiano; Lyra, Luzia; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of culture medium on dose-response effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) on Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm and validate the use of the cation-adjusted-Müller-Hinton broth (MH) for the evaluation of antibacterial activity. Ultrafiltered Tryptone-Yeast Extract Broth (UTYEB) was compared against MH and MH with blood supplementation (MHS). For each medium, six groups (n = 4) were assessed: two negative control groups (baseline 48 and 120 h) and four experimental groups (0.0001, 0.001, 0.012, and 0.12% CHX). S. mutans biofilm grew on glass slides of each media containing 1% sucrose. After 48 h of growth, biofilms of baseline 48 h were collected and the other groups were treated for 1 min, twice a day, for 3 days, with their respective treatments. The media were changed daily and pH was measured. After 120 h, biofilms were collected and dry weight and viable microorganisms were determined. Results showed CHX dose-response effect being observed in all media for all the variables. However, MH and MHS showed higher sensitivity than UTYEB (p culture medium does influence dose-response effect of CHX on Streptococcus mutans biofilm and that MH can be used for antibacterial activity.

  20. Influence of the Culture Medium in Dose-Response Effect of the Chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Vanessa Salvadego; Ccahuana-Vásquez, Renzo Alberto; Tedesco, Alcides Fabiano; Lyra, Luzia; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of culture medium on dose-response effect of chlorhexidine (CHX) on Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm and validate the use of the cation-adjusted-Müller-Hinton broth (MH) for the evaluation of antibacterial activity. Ultrafiltered Tryptone-Yeast Extract Broth (UTYEB) was compared against MH and MH with blood supplementation (MHS). For each medium, six groups (n = 4) were assessed: two negative control groups (baseline 48 and 120 h) and four experimental groups (0.0001, 0.001, 0.012, and 0.12% CHX). S. mutans biofilm grew on glass slides of each media containing 1% sucrose. After 48 h of growth, biofilms of baseline 48 h were collected and the other groups were treated for 1 min, twice a day, for 3 days, with their respective treatments. The media were changed daily and pH was measured. After 120 h, biofilms were collected and dry weight and viable microorganisms were determined. Results showed CHX dose-response effect being observed in all media for all the variables. However, MH and MHS showed higher sensitivity than UTYEB (p < 0.05). We can conclude that the culture medium does influence dose-response effect of CHX on Streptococcus mutans biofilm and that MH can be used for antibacterial activity. PMID:27293967

  1. In vivo comparison of cavity disinfection efficacy with APF gel, Propolis, Diode Laser, and 2% chlorhexidine in primary teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, P. V. M. Uday; Uloopi, K. S.; Vinay, C.; Rao, R. Chandrasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would be enhanced if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before placing a restoration. Thus, use of disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary dentistry. Aim: To assess and compare the cavity disinfection efficacy of APF gel, Brazilian Propolis, Diode Laser, and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX). Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, single blinded, parallel grouped, active controlled trial. Eighty primary molars in 68 children with cavitated dentinal occlusal caries were randomly assigned into four groups (20 teeth each) Group I: APF gel; Group II: Propolis; Group III: Diode Laser, and Group IV: 2% CHX (control). After cavity preparation using ART procedure, dentinal samples collected before and after disinfection with respective agent of the group. These samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation, for total viable count (TVC) on blood agar, Streptococcus mutans on mutans-sanguis (MS) agar, and Lactobacilli (LB) on Rogosa agar. Results: Intragroup comparison (Wilcoxon signed rank test) showed significant reductions in TVC, MS, and LB counts in all the groups. Pairwise Mann–Whitney test showed APF gel had least bacterial reductions among the agents tested. Conclusion: This study illustrated the need for cavity disinfection. Diode Laser and Brazilian Propolis are equally effective as 2% CHX in cavity disinfection. PMID:27041900

  2. In vivo comparison of cavity disinfection efficacy with APF gel, Propolis, Diode Laser, and 2% chlorhexidine in primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.M. Uday Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART restorations would be enhanced if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before placing a restoration. Thus, use of disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary dentistry. Aim: To assess and compare the cavity disinfection efficacy of APF gel, Brazilian Propolis, Diode Laser, and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, single blinded, parallel grouped, active controlled trial. Eighty primary molars in 68 children with cavitated dentinal occlusal caries were randomly assigned into four groups (20 teeth each Group I: APF gel; Group II: Propolis; Group III: Diode Laser, and Group IV: 2% CHX (control. After cavity preparation using ART procedure, dentinal samples collected before and after disinfection with respective agent of the group. These samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation, for total viable count (TVC on blood agar, Streptococcus mutans on mutans-sanguis (MS agar, and Lactobacilli (LB on Rogosa agar. Results: Intragroup comparison (Wilcoxon signed rank test showed significant reductions in TVC, MS, and LB counts in all the groups. Pairwise Mann–Whitney test showed APF gel had least bacterial reductions among the agents tested. Conclusion: This study illustrated the need for cavity disinfection. Diode Laser and Brazilian Propolis are equally effective as 2% CHX in cavity disinfection.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dakshita Joy; Jaiswal, Natasha; Vasudeva, Agrima; Garg, Paridhi; Tyagi, Shashi Prabha; Chandra, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of adhesive dentistry is to create an effective, durable union between the tooth structure and restorative material. However, degradation of adhesive dentine interface remains largely responsible for the relatively short lifetime of tooth colored resin restoration. Aim: The aim of the study is to compare the dentin collagen stabilization property of Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Aloe barbadensis Miller using shear bond strength testing. Materials and Methods: Occlusal reduction was done in sixty extracted human mandibular molars to expose the mid coronal dentin and divided into three groups n = 20. Following the surface pretreatment (Group 1 = control, Group 2 = CHX, Group 3 = Aloevera), dentine bonding agent and composite resin were applied and cured. The specimens were then subjected to shear bond strength testing. Results: From the results analyzed, it was noted that there was statistically significant difference between the groups Control and CHX and Control and A. barbadensis Miller (P 0.05). Hence, the following result for the shear bond strengths to dentin was obtained: Control < CHX ≈ A. barbadensis Miller. Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin.

  4. Levels of infection and colonization of some oral bacteria after use of naf, chlorhexidine and a combined chlorhexidine with naf mouthrinses Níveis de infecção e colonização de algumas bactérias orais após o uso de soluções de fluoreto de sódio, clorexidina e de uma combinação de fluoreto de sódio e clorexidina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenio Costa Lima

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate levels of infection of bacteria involved in caries and oral streptococci and their colonization after use of mouthrinses with NaF, chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine plus NaF. Combination of chlorhexidine and fluoride was the only agent that reduced levels of Streptococcus mutans (group for 30 days.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis de infecção de bactérias cariogênicas e estreptococos orais e sua colonização após uso de bochechos com NaF, clorexidina e clorexidina e NaF associados. Associação de clorexidina e NaF foi o único agente que reduziu os níveis de Streptococcus mutans (grupo por 30 dias.

  5. Clinical evaluation of chlorhexidine in the root canal treatment%洗必泰冲洗液在根管治疗中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静; 陈洪

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨洗必泰冲洗液在根管治疗中的疗效。方法选择需要根管治疗的牙髓炎患牙120例,随机分为两组,分别采用洗必泰冲洗和双氧水以及生理盐水冲洗,比较两组患者诊间疼痛发生率。结果试验组疼痛发生率(32.2%)低于对照组(73.3%),两组比较有显著性差异(P<0.01)。结论洗必泰冲洗液进行根管冲洗可减少诊间疼痛的发生,值得在临床推广和应用。%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of chlorhexidine in the root canal treatment.Methods 120 cases of pulpitis which need the root canal treatment were divided into two groups at random. Chlorhexidine was applied to the cases of experimental group and hydrogen peroxide and normal sodium were applied to the control group. The incidence of pain among appointment was evaluated and compared clinically.Results The incidence of pain in experimental group was lower than that of the control group(P < 0.01).Conclusion chlorhexidine can decrease the incidence of pain,thus it is worth the promotion and application in clinic.

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine, Calcium Hydroxide and Curcuma Longa Extract as Intracanal Medicament Against E.faecalis– An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rashmi; Asrani, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The increase of potential side effects and safety concerns of conventional medicaments have led to the recent popularity of herbal alternative medications. The herbal products are known for its high antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of Propolis, Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel, Curcuma Longa and Calcium Hydroxide for elimination of E.faecalis bacteria in extracted teeth samples. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single rooted intact teeth were taken for the study. Decoronation, removal of apices and chemomechanical preparation was done for all samples. These sterilized samples were then contaminated with pure culture of E.faecalis under laminar flow. The samples were incubated for a period of 21 days. The infected samples were assigned to 5 groups: Group I- Propolis; Group II- Metronidazole with Chlorhexidine gel; Group III- Calcium hydroxide; Group IV- Curcuma Longa; and control group- Saline. Efficacy of newer intracanal medicaments against E.faecalis were carried out in the samples at the end of 1, 2 & 5 days for each group with the help of colorimeter. Student paired t-test, ANOVA and multiple tukey test were used for statistical analysis. Results The value of optical density was statistically significant in all groups when compared to that of control group. Group I (Propolis) produced better antimicrobial efficacy followed by Chlorhexidine Metronidazole combination, Curcuma Longa and Calcium hydroxide. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Propolis showed better antimicrobial properties against E.faecalis than other medicaments. PMID:26673857

  7. To comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine, nisin and linezolid as an intracanal medicament on Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethu Somanath

    2015-01-01

    Results: In group Nisin, the mean CFU was 10.6250 at 24 hrs, 6.6250 at 72 hrs and 6.2500 after 1 week respectively (statistically significant. In group Chlorhexidine, mean CFU was found to be the lowest of 10.5000 at 24 hrs, with further gradual increase to 13.7500 at 72 hrs and further increase to 15.8750 by 1 week. Similarly, in group linezolid , the mean CFU was found to decrease from 49.0000 at 24 hrs to 29.8750 at 72hrs and then increase to 34.8750 in 1 week

  8. The effect of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque Streptococcus mutans count in 6- to 12-year-old school children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Treating a carious tooth in children with high caries experience by providing a restoration does not cure the disease. If the unfavorable oral environment that caused the cavity persists so will the disease and more restorations will be required in future. Treating the oral infection by reducing the number of cariogenic microorganisms and establishing a favorable oral environment to promote predominantly remineralization of tooth structure over time will stop the caries process. The present study was conducted: (1 To evaluate the efficacy of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque Streptococcus mutans when used as an adjunct to restoration. (2 To compare the anti-microbial effect of 1% povidone-iodine and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque S. mutans count. Study Design: Forty-five study participants in the age group of 6-12 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected from one government school in Bangalore city. They were divided into three groups after the restorative treatment. Group-A, Group-B, and Group-C received 1% povidone-iodine mouth rinse, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and placebo mouth rinse, respectively, twice daily for 14 days. The plaque sample was collected and S. mutans count was estimated at six phases: (1 Baseline, (2 3 weeks after restoration, (3 First day after mouth rinse therapy, (4 15 days after mouth rinse therapy, (5 1 month and (6 3 months after mouth rinse therapy Results: After the restoration the percentage change in S. mutans count was 28.4%. Immediately after mouth rinse therapy there was significant reduction in S. mutans count in all the three groups. After which the count started to increase gradually and after 3 months the bacterial counts in the povidone-iodine group and placebo group were almost near the postrestorative count. Conclusion: Mouth rinses can be used as adjunct to restoration for short duration as temporary measure in reduction of S

  9. CLEANING ABILITY OF CHLORHEXIDINE GEL AND SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ASSOCIATED OR NOT WITH EDTA AS ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS: A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Carvalho de Vasconcelos; Suyane Maria Luna-Cruz; Gustavo De-Deus; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes; Claudio Maniglia-Ferreira; Eduardo Diogo Gurgel-Filho

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate gel (CHX) compared to 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) associated or not with 17% EDTA used as irrigants during the biomechanical preparation. Fifty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth with complete apex formation were randomly divided into five groups: G1 - sterile saline, G2 - 2.5% NaOCl, G3 - 2% CHX, G4 - 2.5% NaOCl + EDTA and G5 - 2% CHX + EDTA. The specimens of G1 were subdivided in...

  10. Prevention and management guidelines to oral health care for patients with head and neck cancer: HCT20, Carisolv and Chlorhexidine varnish are suggested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orofacial complications are unfortunately common with all modalities used in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. It is well known that hypo salivation develops if radiation therapy involves the salivary glands. A significant decrease in salivary volume can adversely affect oral comfort, mucous health, dentition, deglutition and mastication. Xerostomia may lead to consumption of diet high in carbohydrates and make good oral hygiene difficult. The purpose of this study is to report a new prevention and management guidelines to oral and dental health care for patients with head and neck cancer who will treat with radiotherapy. New materials as HCT20, Carisolv and chlorhexidine varnish are suggested. (author)

  11. Comparison of the antibacterial activity of an ozonated oil with chlorhexidine digluconate and povidone-iodine. A disk diffusion test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montevecchi, Marco; Dorigo, Antonio; Cricca, Monica; Checchi, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Ozonated oils are antiseptics obtained from the chemical reaction between ozone and unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effectiveness of a commercially available ozonated oil (O3-Oil), in comparison with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and 10% povidone-iodine (PVP-I) through a disk diffusion test. For each antiseptic a series of two-fold dilutions was made, obtaining seven dilutions: 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 1:64 and 1:128. The undiluted antiseptics and the seven dilutions were tested against two freeze-dried bacterial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). O3-Oil showed significantly greater diameters of growth inhibition (p<0.01) than CHX and PVP-I in all dilutions for both tested strains. CHX lost any antibacterial efficacy when diluted more than 1:32. At the highest dilution, the diameters of growth inhibition against Sa were 20.67±0.58 mm and 15.33±0.58 mm, for O3-Oil and PVP-I, respectively. At the same dilution, the diameters of growth inhibition against Pg were: 19.00 mm for O3-Oil and 13.67±0.58 mm for PVP-I. The promising results obtained for the O3-Oil, against the opportunistic Sa, and Pg, one of the main periodontal pathogens, suggest its potential applicability for periodontal treatment. Further preclinical and clinical investigations are warranted.

  12. Antibacterial and Toxic Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide Combined with Different Concentrations of Chlorhexidine in Comparison with Sodium Hypochlorite

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    Hosein Mirhadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 has been suggested to be used in sequence or in combination with chlorhexidine (CHX to enhance the antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, but there is no research in the literature on the safety and effectiveness of this irrigation protocol. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity of different concentrations of CHX combined with H2O2 in comparison with the activity of 5.25 and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. Materials and Method: Different concentrations of H2O2 (10, 5, 3 and 1% were exposed to the PDL cells. Then, the solution with minimal cytotoxicity was selected (3% H2O2. The cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity of 0.1, 0.2, 1 and 2% CHX combined with 3% H2O2 were evaluated and compared with 5.25 and 2.5% NaOCl. The differences in the mean viability of PDL cells were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Dunn's tests were adopted to compare the antibacterial activity of the solutions against E.faecalis. Results: The viability of PDL cells was lower when treated with 5.25 or 2.5% NaOCl than all combinations of CHX and H2O2. There was no significant difference in the antibacterial activity of the solutions against E.faecalis, except for the 0.1% CHX + 3% H2O2 combination, which had significantly lower efficacy than other groups. Conclusion: All combinations of CHX and H2O2 (used in this study except 0.1% CHX + 3% H2O2 were efficient irrigants against planktonic E.faecalis and had a better cytocompatibility with PDL cells than 5.25 and 2.5% NaOCl.

  13. Effects of extracellular plaque components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinsky, L.E.; Hume, W.R.

    1985-08-01

    An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular plaque components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human plaque were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human plaque samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the plaque samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free plaque samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for plaque suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility.

  14. Effects of extracellular plaque components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular plaque components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human plaque were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of 3H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human plaque samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed 3H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the plaque samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of 3H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free plaque samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for plaque suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility

  15. The spherical nanoparticle-encapsulated chlorhexidine enhances anti-biofilm efficiency through an effective releasing mode and close microbial interactions

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    Li, Xuan; Wong, Chi-Hin; Ng, Tsz-Wing; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Leung, Ken Cham-Fai; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    We reported two forms (sphere and wire) of newly fabricated chlorhexidine (CHX)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and investigated their releasing capacities and anti-biofilm efficiencies. The interactions of the blank MSNs with planktonic oral microorganisms were assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The anti-biofilm effects of the two forms of nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX were examined by 2,3-bis (2-methoxy- 4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide. The profiles of biofilm penetration were analyzed by fluorescent-labeled MSNs using confocal microscopy and ImageJ. The spherical MSNs with an average diameter of 265 nm exhibited a larger surface area and faster CHX-releasing rate than the MSN wires. The field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that both shaped MSNs enabled to attach and further fuse with the surfaces of testing microbes. Meanwhile, the nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX could enhance the anti-biofilm efficiency with reference to its free form. Notably, the spherical nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX presented with a greater anti-biofilm capacity than the wire nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX, partly due to their difference in physical property. Furthermore, the relatively even distribution and homogeneous dispersion of spherical MSNs observed in confocal images may account for the enhanced penetration of spherical nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX into the microbial biofilms and resultant anti-biofilm effects. These findings reveal that the spherical nanoparticle-encapsulated CHX could preferably enhance its anti-biofilm efficiency through an effective releasing mode and close interactions with microbes. PMID:27330290

  16. Staining and calculus formation after 0.12% chlorhexidine rinses in plaque-free and plaque covered surfaces: a randomized trial

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    Fabrício Batistin Zanatta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Studies concerning side effects of chlorhexidine as related to the presence of plaque are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the side effects of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX on previously plaque-free (control group and plaque-covered surfaces (test group. METHODS: This study had a single-blind, randomized, split-mouth, 21 days-experimental gingivitis design, including 20 individuals who abandoned all mechanical plaque control methods during 25 days. After 4 days of plaque accumulation, the individuals had 2 randomized quadrants cleaned, remaining 2 quadrants with plaque-covered dental surfaces. On the fourth day, the individuals started with 0.12% CHX rinsing lasting for 21 days. Stain index intensity and extent as well as calculus formation were evaluated during the experimental period. RESULTS: Intergroup comparisons showed statistically higher (p<0.05 stain intensity and extent index as well as calculus formation over the study in test surfaces as compared to control surfaces. Thus, 26.19% of test surfaces presented calculus, whereas calculus was observed in 4.52% in control surfaces. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of plaque increased 0.12% CHX side effects. These results strengthen the necessity of biofilm disruption prior to the start of CHX mouthrinses in order to reduce side effects.

  17. Effects of catalase, 2% chlorhexidine gel and 1% sodium hypochlorite on the microtensile bond strength of teeth bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide

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    Ricardo Ferreira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Dental bleaching is an effective, relatively simple and noninvasive technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of catalase, 2% chlorhexidine gel, and 1% sodium hypochlorite on the microtensile bond strength to enamel of bovine teeth submitted to internal and external bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide. Material and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were used. They had their debris removed, washed in tap water and stored frozen. The samples were divided into five experimental groups according to the treatment applied after bleaching (n = 12: 1 − control/no bleaching (C; 2 − catalase (CA; 3 − 2% chlorhexidine gel (CG; 4 − 1% sodium hypochlorite (SH; 5 − distilled water (DW. For microtensile test, samples were prepared into blocks of enamel/resin, which were sectioned to obtain hourglass-like specimens. Bond strength was calculated in MPa and data analyzed statistically by Anova (p < 0.05. Results: Microtensile bond strength means decreased in comparison to control group, but no statistically significant difference between groups was found. Conclusion: The substances used after dental bleaching did not result in statistically significant microtensile bond strength means of the tested groups.

  18. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dejong, E. Schuyler; Deberardino, T. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Nelson, B. J.; Campbell, Allison A.; Bottoni, Craig R.; Pusateri, A. E.; Walton, R. S.; Guymon, C. H.; Mcmanus, Albert T.

    2001-06-01

    Background: Pin tract infection is a common complication of external fixation. An antiinfective external fixator pin might help to reduce the incidence of pin tract infection and improve pin fixation. Methods: Stainless steel and titanium external fixator pins, with and without a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating, were evaluated in a goat model. Two pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into each tibia of 12 goats. The pin sites were examined daily. On day 14, the animals were killed, and the pin tips cultured. Insertion and extraction torques were measured. Results: Infection developed in 100% of uncoated pins, whereas coated pins demonstrated 4.2% infected, 12.5% colonized, and the remainder, 83.3%, had no growth (p < 0.01). Pin coating decreased the percent loss of fixation torque over uncoated pins (p = 0.04). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating was successful in decreasing infection and improving fixation of external fixator pins.

  19. The comparative effects of 0.12% chlorhexidine and herbal oral rinse on dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A randomized clinical trial

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    Devaki Bhate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine (CHX is considered as a gold standard of antimicrobial rinses. Various herbal oral rinses are available in the market. However, little is known of its effectiveness. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical changes after the usage of herbal oral rinse and 0.12% CHX. Subjects and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 76 patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis were assigned to Group I (Herbal Oral Rinse - Hiora; and 76 patients with dental plaque-induced gingivitis to Group II (0.12% Chlorhexidine-Peridex; . Gingival index and Plaque index scores were recorded at baseline and 21 days after scaling. Results: Intragroup comparison in both groups showed that plaque index and gingival index scores were statistically significant after 21 days as compared to baseline. Intergroup comparison showed that plaque index scores and gingival index scores were statistically significant in Group II as compared to Group I. Conclusion: When herbal oral rinse was compared to 0.12% CHX, 0.12% CHX mouth rinse effectively reduced the clinical symptoms of plaque-induced gingivitis.

  20. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS: A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

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    Snyder John J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983 were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877

  1. Impact of umbilical cord cleansing with 4% chlorhexidine on rate of omphalitis and separation time among newborns in Khartoum state, Sudan

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    Abdelmoneim E.M. Kheir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the umbilical cord remains high in developing countries with subsequent increase in neonatal mortality rates. This may be due to the practice of applying potentially harmful substances to the freshly cut cord. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of umbilical cord care with 4% chlorhexidine on the rate of omphalitis and separation time among newborns in Khartoum State. This was a quasi-experimental research design that was carried out in the main maternity hospitals of Khartoum state between February and August 2012. One hundred mothers and their respective babies were selected by convenience sampling and were divided equally into intervention and control groups. The tools used for data collection were a questionnaire and an observational checklist. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17 for descriptive and inferential statistics. Umbilical cord training was effective in enhancing mothers’ knowledge and skills in the intervention group. The result showed that the omphalitis rate was reduced significantly in the intervention group; also the intervention group had a shorter separation time (mean=5.02 compared to the control group (mean=7.24. In conclusion, the application of 4% chlorhexidine on the freshly cut umbilical cord stump, significantly reduces omphalitis rate. This inexpensive and simple intervention can save a significant number of newborn lives in developing countries.

  2. EFEKTIFITAS PENGENCERAN CHLORHEXIDINE 0,2% 1:1 TERHADAP KASUS GINGIVITIS SERTA EVALUASI DISKOLORASI PADA GIGI (Penelitian

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    Dessy Rosmelita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlorhexidine (CHx mouthrinse was the first choice for gingivitis. The loss of taste and tooth discolorisation was motivated the clinician to dilute CHx 0.2% to 1:1. Aims: To compare the effectiveness of CHx 0.2% and diluted Chx 1:1 as mouthrinse on gingivitis and evaluate tooth discoloration. Method: Ninety nine students with mild and moderate gingivitis at SMU Lab School Jakarta, age between 14-15 years, had participated. The subjects were randomised selected and double-blind method was applied. The subjects were divided into 3 groups. The first group was instructed to rinse with CHx 0,2%, the second group rinsed with diluted CHx 1:1, and the third group as a control, without rinsing. The first and the second groups were rinsing the regimen for one minute, twice a day in 7 days, in the morning and night. Plaque and bleeding were scored using Plaque Index (Loe and Silness and modified Papilla Bleeding Index (Muhleman on the first and seventh day of the study. The changes of scores (PII and PBI before and after rinsing were analyzed using "paired t test". The differences of the effectivity of CHx 0.2%, Chx 1:1 and control groups using "ANOVA test" with 95% probability. Differences of tooth discoloration after rinsing were analyzed by "independent t test". Probabilities of less than 5 percents were taken to be statistically significant. Result: The results showed at day 7, not significant difference between CHx groups for plaque (CHx: 0.74, CHx 1:1: 0.66, and gingival bleeding (CHx: 1.02, CHx 1:1: 0.83. The proportion of tooth discoloration was not significant in the diluted CHx group (4.8% and in the CHx group (7.3%. Conclusion: Diluted 1:1 effectively on gingivitis. The clinician can be used in the clinic, whereas the lost of taste were reduced. No differences significant of tooth discolorisation between rinsing regimens on seventh days.

  3. Impact of 4.0% chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord on mortality and omphalitis among newborns of Sylhet, Bangladesh: design of a community-based cluster randomized trial

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    Ahmed Saifuddin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends dry cord care for newborns but this recommendation may not be optimal in low resource settings where most births take place in an unclean environment and infections account for up to half of neonatal deaths. A previous trial in Nepal indicated that umbilical cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine could substantially reduce mortality and omphalitis risk, but policy changes await additional community-based data. Methods The Projahnmo Chlorhexidine study was a three-year, cluster-randomized, community-based trial to assess the impact of three cord care regimens on neonatal mortality and omphalitis. Women were recruited mid-pregnancy, received a basic package of maternal and neonatal health promotion messages, and were followed to pregnancy outcome. Newborns were visited at home by local village-based workers whose areas were randomized to either 1 single- or 2 7-day cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine, or 3 promotion of dry cord care as recommended by WHO. All mothers received basic messages regarding hand-washing, clean cord cutting, and avoidance of harmful home-base applications to the cord. Death within 28 days and omphalitis were the primary outcomes; these were monitored directly through home visits by community health workers on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 28 after birth. Discussion Due to report in early 2010, the Projahnmo Chlorhexidine Study examines the impact of multiple or single chlorhexidine cleansing of the cord on neonatal mortality and omphalitis among newborns of rural Sylhet District, Bangladesh. The results of this trial will be interpreted in conjunction with a similarly designed trial previously conducted in Nepal, and will have implications for policy guidelines for optimal cord care of newborns in low resource settings in Asia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00434408

  4. Effect of topical applications of a novel chlorhexidine-thymol varnish formula on mutans streptococci and caries development in occlusal fissures of permanent molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Petersson, Lars G;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a new formula of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on mutans streptococci (MS) colonization and fissure caries development. METHODS: The study group consisted of 58 healthy adolescents (12-17 years old) undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances....... A double-blind split-mouth design was applied, and 116 pairs of molar teeth were randomly assigned to topical varnish applications with either the new Cervitec Plus or its predecessor Cervitec. Both varnishes contained 1% CHX and 1% thymol (CHX/T) as active ingredients, but differed with respect...... reduction in the levels of MS in the fissures after the initial treatment was displayed with both varnishes (p

  5. Comparison of an alcohol-based hand rub and water-based chlorhexidine gluconate scrub technique for hand antisepsis prior to elective surgery in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Eduardo Almeida; Bubeck, Kirstin A; Batista, Edisleidy Rodriguez; Piat, Perrine; Laverty, Sheila; Beauchamp, Guy; Archambault, Marie; Elce, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluates the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand rub (Avagard™) for pre-surgical hand antisepsis in an equine hospital and compares it with traditional scrubbing technique using 4% chlorhexidine gluconate sponges and water. Prior to elective surgery, 3 board-certified surgeons were randomly assigned to hand antisepsis with either technique. Culture samples of each hand were taken at 4 times: before and after neutral soap hand wash, after scrub or rubbing technique, and after surgery. There was no significant difference in mean bacterial colony forming units between scrub and rub techniques over the 3 time periods (P = 0.6), controlling for initial counts. One horse from the scrub group had a skin incision infection following stifle arthroscopy; this was resolved with medical treatment. The alcohol-based hand rub is equivalent in efficacy for pre-surgical hand antisepsis to traditional water-based scrubs in an equine hospital setting. PMID:26834268

  6. Efficacy of benzydamine hydrochloride, chlorhexidine, and povidone iodine in the treatment of oral mucositis among patients undergoing radiotherapy in head and neck malignancies: A drug trail

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    G Roopashri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Oral mucositis is a common and debilitating complication of radiotherapy, which is associated with significant morbidity. It is therefore extremely important that mucositis be prevented, or at least treated to reduce its severity and sequelae. The objective of the study was to manage oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and to reduce pain by using Benzydamine hydrochloride (0.15%, Chlorhexidine (0.2%, and Povidone iodine (5%. Results: Benzydamine hydrochloride was observed to be effective and delayed the development of severe form of mucositis and appears more efficient in the management of radiation-induced mucositis. Conclusion: Benzydamine hydrochloride (0.15% is safe, well tolerated, helps not just in delaying the progression of mucositis but also reduces the intensity of pain.

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid/ Peroxide hydrogen and Alcohol based compound on Isolated Bacteria in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran

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    Reza Ghotaslou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of chemical agents on the clinical isolates in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: The minimum bactericide concentration (MBC of disinfectants including chlorhexidine (Fort, peracetic acid (Micro and an alcohol based compound (Deconex on selected bacteria at various dilutions were determined by the standard suspension technique. Results: MBC of Micro, Fort and Deconex were 2-128 mg/L, 2-64 mg/L and 4 - 32 mg/L, respectively. The Gram negative bacteria were more resistance to disinfectant relation to Gram positive bacteria. Conclusion: The results showed that these agents are able to eradicate the bacteria and they can be used lonely.

  8. Cell Based Drug Delivery: Micrococcus luteus Loaded Neutrophils as Chlorhexidine Delivery Vehicles in a Mouse Model of Liver Abscesses in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Sebastian O; Menon, Sailesh; Alshetaiwi, Hamad; Shrestha, Tej B; Chlebanowski, Lauren; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Bossmann, Stefan H; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Troyer, Deryl L

    2015-01-01

    The recent WHO report on antibiotic resistances shows a dramatic increase of microbial resistance against antibiotics. With only a few new antibiotics in the pipeline, a different drug delivery approach is urgently needed. We have obtained evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of a cell based drug delivery system that utilizes the innate immune system as targeting carrier for antibacterial drugs. In this study we show the efficient loading of neutrophil granulocytes with chlorhexidine and the complete killing of E. coli as well as Fusobacterium necrophorum in in-vitro studies. Fusobacterium necrophorum causes hepatic abscesses in cattle fed high grain diets. We also show in a mouse model that this delivery system targets infections of F. necrophorum in the liver and reduces the bacterial burden by an order of magnitude from approximately 2•106 to 1•105.

  9. Cell Based Drug Delivery: Micrococcus luteus Loaded Neutrophils as Chlorhexidine Delivery Vehicles in a Mouse Model of Liver Abscesses in Cattle.

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    Sebastian O Wendel

    Full Text Available The recent WHO report on antibiotic resistances shows a dramatic increase of microbial resistance against antibiotics. With only a few new antibiotics in the pipeline, a different drug delivery approach is urgently needed. We have obtained evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of a cell based drug delivery system that utilizes the innate immune system as targeting carrier for antibacterial drugs. In this study we show the efficient loading of neutrophil granulocytes with chlorhexidine and the complete killing of E. coli as well as Fusobacterium necrophorum in in-vitro studies. Fusobacterium necrophorum causes hepatic abscesses in cattle fed high grain diets. We also show in a mouse model that this delivery system targets infections of F. necrophorum in the liver and reduces the bacterial burden by an order of magnitude from approximately 2•106 to 1•105.

  10. Low compliance with alcohol gel compared with chlorhexidine for hand hygiene in ICU patients: results of an alcohol gel implementation program

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    Luis Fernando Aranha Camargo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the introduction of alcohol based products have increased compliance with hand hygiene in intensive care units (ICU, no comparative studies with other products in the same unit and in the same period have been conducted. We performed a two-month-observational prospective study comparing three units in an adult ICU, according to hand hygiene practices (chlorhexidine alone-unit A, both chlorhexidine and alcohol gel-unit B, and alcohol gel alone-unit C, respectively. Opportunities for hand hygiene were considered according to an institutional guideline. Patients were randomly allocated in the 3 units and data on hand hygiene compliance was collected without the knowledge of the health care staff. TISS score (used for measuring patient complexity was similar between the three different units. Overall compliance with hand hygiene was 46.7% (659/1410. Compliance was significantly higher after patient care in unit A when compared to units B and C. On the other hand, compliance was significantly higher only between units A (32.1% and C (23.1% before patient care (p=0.02. Higher compliance rates were observed for general opportunities for hand hygiene (patient bathing, vital sign controls, etc, while very low compliance rates were observed for opportunities related to skin and gastroenteral care. One of the reasons for not using alcohol gel according to health care workers was the necessity for water contact (35.3%, 12/20. Although the use of alcohol based products is now the standard practice for hand hygiene the abrupt abolition of hand hygiene with traditional products may not be recommended for specific services.

  11. Prevalence of qacA/B Genes and Mupirocin Resistance Among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Isolates in the Setting of Chlorhexidine Bathing Without Mupirocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David K; Prager, Martin; Munigala, Satish; Wallace, Meghan A; Kennedy, Colleen R; Bommarito, Kerry M; Mazuski, John E; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine the frequency of qacA/B chlorhexidine tolerance genes and high-level mupirocin resistance among MRSA isolates before and after the introduction of a chlorhexidine (CHG) daily bathing intervention in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU). DESIGN Retrospective cohort study (2005-2012) SETTING A large tertiary-care center PATIENTS Patients admitted to SICU who had MRSA surveillance cultures of the anterior nares METHODS A random sample of banked MRSA anterior nares isolates recovered during (2005) and after (2006-2012) implementation of a daily CHG bathing protocol was examined for qacA/B genes and high-level mupirocin resistance. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was also performed. RESULTS Of the 504 randomly selected isolates (63 per year), 36 (7.1%) were qacA/B positive (+) and 35 (6.9%) were mupirocin resistant. Of these, 184 (36.5%) isolates were SCCmec type IV. There was a significant trend for increasing qacA/B (P=.02; highest prevalence, 16.9% in 2009 and 2010) and SCCmec type IV (P<.001; highest prevalence, 52.4% in 2012) during the study period. qacA/B(+) MRSA isolates were more likely to be mupirocin resistant (9 of 36 [25%] qacA/B(+) vs 26 of 468 [5.6%] qacA/B(-); P=.003). CONCLUSIONS A long-term, daily CHG bathing protocol was associated with a change in the frequency of qacA/B genes in MRSA isolates recovered from the anterior nares over an 8-year period. This change in the frequency of qacA/B genes is most likely due to patients in those years being exposed in prior admissions. Future studies need to further evaluate the implications of universal CHG daily bathing on MRSA qacA/B genes among hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:590-597. PMID:26828094

  12. Effect of Different Obturation Materials on Residual Antimicrobial Activity of 2% Chlorhexidine in Dentin at Different Time Intervals: An Ex Vivo Study

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    Behnam Bolhari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE on residual antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (CHX in human root dentin and suggest the best filling material when CHX is used as final irrigant.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty-four single-rooted human teeth were selected for this study. Canals were instrumented to the apical size #35. Smear layer was removed using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA and then 108 teeth were irrigated with 2% CHX and randomly divided into three groups of gutta percha/AH26, Resilon/RealSeal SE and positive controls. Each group was divided into three subgroups for different time intervals (one, three and six weeks. Thirty-six teeth, as negative controls, were irrigated with saline and obturated with gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE. Dentin powder was prepared at the afore-mentioned intervals. After exposure to Enterococcus faecalis for 24 hours, colony forming units (CFUs were counted and residual antimicrobial activity was calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test and one-way ANOVA. The significance level was set at P<0.05.Results: The antimicrobial activity of CHX gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner but it maintained over 95% of its antimicrobial activity after six weeks. Moreover, Resilon/RealSeal SE significantly decreased the antimicrobial activity of CHX in comparison with gutta-percha/AH26 (P<0.05.Conclusion: After a final irrigation with CHX, gutta-percha/AH26 is a better choice for root canal obturation.Key words: Chlorhexidine; Gutta-Percha; Epoxy resin AH-26; Resilon sealer. 

  13. Cleaning ability of chlorhexidine gel and sodium hypochlorite associated or not with EDTA as root canal irrigants: a scanning electron microscopy study

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    Bruno Carvalho de Vasconcelos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate gel (CHX compared to 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl associated or not with 17% EDTA used as irrigants during the biomechanical preparation. Fifty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth with complete apex formation were randomly divided into five groups: G1 - sterile saline, G2 - 2.5% NaOCl, G3 - 2% CHX, G4 - 2.5% NaOCl + EDTA and G5 - 2% CHX + EDTA. The specimens of G1 were subdivided into two control groups. The teeth were decoronated and the coronal and middle root thirds were prepared with Gates-Glidden burs, and the apical third was reserved to manual instrumentation. All procedures were performed by a single operator. In all groups, 2 mL of irrigant was delivered between each file change. The teeth were sectioned and prepared for analyses under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM micrographs were graded according to a score scale by two examiners. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests at 1% significance level. The best results were obtained in the groups in which the irrigant was used followed by the chelating agent. No statistically significant difference was observed among G4, G5 and the positive control group (p<0.01. The groups G2 and G3 were significantly different from the others, presenting the worst cleaning capacity. In conclusion, the use of the chelating agent is necessary to obtain clean canal walls, with open tubules and no heavy debris. The use of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate gel alone is not able to remove the smear layer.

  14. 氯己定碘溶液的制备与初步稳定性研究%Study on Preparation and Preliminary Stability of Chlorhexidine-iodine Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹; 邹清河; 刘辉; 吴龙川; 郭苗苗; 浦金辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 制备氯己定碘溶液并考察其初步稳定性.方法 合成氯己定碘,以非离子表面活性剂为增溶剂,以小分子有机溶剂为潜溶剂,采用单因素法优化氯己定碘溶液处方;并对优化处方进行低温实验和冻融实验.结果 增溶剂Cremophor EL、ELP、RH 40、Solutol HS 15与潜溶剂乙醇合用时,对氯己定碘的增溶效果最佳.0.5%氯己定碘溶液剂的优化处方为:10% Cremophor RH 40+1%乙醇,昙点为100℃,低温和冻融实验未见制剂性状、含量、昙点等发生变化.结论 采用增溶原理可制备性质稳定的氯己定碘溶液.%Objective To prepare chlorhexidine-iodine solution and to investigate its preliminary stability. Methods Hlorhexidine-iodine was synthesized. Single-factor method was used to optimize the prescription of chlorhexidine-iodine solution using non-ionic surfactants as solubilizer and a small molecule organic solvent as potential solvent. Low temperature experiment and freeze thawing test were designed to detect the stability of the optimized prescription. Results Chlorhexidine-iodine possessed the best dissolubility when such solubilizers as Cremophor EL, ELP, RH40, Solutol 15 combined with the potential solvent ethanol were used to solubilize chlorhexidine-iodine. The optimized prescription of 0. 5% chlorhexidine-iodine solution was as follows: 10% Cremophor RH40 +1% ethanol. Its cloud point was 100℃. No such changes as preparation characteristics, content and cloud point were found in low temperature test and freeze thawing test. Conclusion The stable chlorhexidine-iodine solution can be prepared successfully using the solubilization principle.

  15. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain and aloe vera (all in gel formulation), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj Bhardwaj; Suma Ballal; Natanasabapathy Velmurugan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain, and aloe vera (all in gel formulations), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis-an in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial efficacy was assessed in vitro using dentin shavings collected at 2 depths of 200 and 400 μm. The total colony forming units at the end of 1, 3, and 5 days were assessed. Results: The overall percentage ...

  16. Perubahan warna lempeng resin akrilik yang direndam dalam larutan desinfektan sodium hipoklorit dan klorhexidin (The color changes of acrylic resins denture base material which are immersed in Sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine

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    David David

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the acrylic resins properties is the water absorption including color fluids and chemically fluids that affect on the color changes of the acrylic resins. This laboratory experiments studied sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine effect on the color changes of acrylic denture base resins material. The study was conducted by immersing heat cured acrylic plate samples of 26 mm of diameter and 0.4 mm of thickness in sodium hypochlorite for 10; 70 and 140 minutes and chlorhexidine for 15; 105 and 210 minutes. Seven samples were used for each experiment. An optical spectrometer BPX-47 type photo cell and a digital microvoltage were used for the color changes observation. The statistical test used were t-test, One-way ANOVA and LSD with 0.05 significance degree level. The results of the studied showed that the color of acrylic resins denture base plate changed after immersion in sodium hypochlorite for 70 and 140 minutes and chlorhexidine for 105 and 210 minute of immersion.

  17. Content Determination of Chlorhexidine Acetate in Wash-free Antiseptic Lotion by Coefficient Multiplying Ratio Spectrophotometry%系数倍率法测定免洗手消毒液中醋酸氯己定的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青; 娄月芬; 唐跃年

    2012-01-01

    目的:测定免洗手消毒液中醋酸氯己定的含量.方法:采用系数倍率法,样品不经分离直接测定免洗手消毒液中醋酸氯已定的含量,测定波长为260、280 nm.结果:醋酸氯己定检测浓度线性范围为8~12 μg·mL-1(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为100.66%(RSD=0.21%).结论:本方法操作简便快速、结果准确,可用于该制剂的质量控制.%OBJECTIVE: To determine the content of chlorhexidine acetate in Wash-free antiseptic lotion. METHODS: The content of chlorhexidine acetate was directly determined at 260 nm and 280 nm by coefficient multiplying ratio spectrophotometry without preliminary separation. RESULTS: The linear range of chlorhexidine acetate was 8-12 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 9) with an recovery of 100.66% (RSD=0.21%). CONCLUSION: The method is proved to be simple, rapid, accurate and applicable for the quality control of wash-free antiseptic lotion.

  18. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells

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    Barbara Azzimonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine (CHX, one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl-5-[(phenyl amino carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT, and colony forming unit (CFU count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF and mucosal keratinocytes (HK. The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05 reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05. In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.

  19. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of QMix TM 2 in 1, sodium hypochlorite, and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans

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    Soujanya Elakanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of QMix TM 2 in 1, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, and chlorhexidine (CHX against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted, single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were instrumented and autoclaved. Samples were divided into two groups of 40 teeth each based on the type of microorganism used. Group I was inoculated with E. faecalis and Group II with C. albicans and incubated for 3 days. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups based on the type of irrigant used. Group IA, IIA, 5.25% NaOCl; Group IB, IIB, 2% CHX; Group IC, IIC, QMix TM 2 in 1; and Group ID, IID, 0.9% saline (the control group. Ten microliters of the sample from each canal was taken and was placed on Brain Heart Infusion agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h and colony forming units (CFUs that were grown were counted. Data was analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by post-hoc Games-Howell test. Results: The greatest antimicrobial effects were observed in samples treated with QMix TM 2 in 1 (P 0.001 against E. faecalis and C. albicans. Conclusion: QMix TM 2 in 1 demonstrated significant antimicrobial efficacy against E. faecalis and C. albicans.

  20. An in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma longa, Tachyspermum ammi, chlorhexidine gluconate, and calcium hydroxide on Enterococcus faecalis

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    Hemanshi Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: This in vitro study was designed to comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma longa (turmeric - T 1 -10%, T 2 -20%; Tachyspermum ammi (ajwain - A 1 -10%, A 2 -20%; chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate gel (hexigel - 1%; and calcium hydroxide (10% as intracanal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Agar plates were prepared using brain-heart infusion (BHI agar. Cultures of E. faecalis were grown in BHI broth at 37°C. Well diffusion method was used to derive results. Plates were inoculated for 72 h at 37°C and microbial zones of inhibition were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: C. longa (T 2 -20% and CHX gluconate gel (hexigel - CHX-1% showed larger zones of microbial inhibition than C. longa (T 1 -10% that were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and were highly significant when compared to T. ammi (ajwain - A 1 and A 2 and calcium hydroxide. Conclusion: C. longa can be used as intracanal medicament in endodontic failure cases.

  1. Modified Widman flap and non-surgical therapy using chlorhexidine chip in the treatment of moderate to deep periodontal pockets: A comparative study

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    Paul Grace

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a well established fact that periodontitis is caused by a group of highly specific microorganisms, organized as a bio-film on the tooth surface. Hence, therapeutic modalities are directed against elimination or adequate suppression of these organisms. Thorough debridement of these sites is possible mainly by scaling and root planing (SRP and open- flap debridement in deeper sites. Open- flap debridement includes conventional surgical procedures such as the modified Widman flap procedure. Surgical procedures, however, have a number of disadvantages and hence efforts have been on at improving various non-surgical approaches, which are directed more specifically at the microbial nature of periodontal disease. Use of local drug-delivery devices is one such approach. The combined therapy of SRP and local drug delivery has been showing promising results in improving all the parameters in periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study compares the clinical, as well as, microbiological results of a split-mouth trial using modified Widman flap and non-surgical therapy of SRP and the use of a controlled release drug-delivery device (Chlorhexidine chip, in the management of moderate to deep pockets. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that the non-surgical most sites subjected to the non-surgical treatment were found to be maintainable without further deterioration, during the study period.

  2. Effect of dentin on the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and 18% etidronic acid on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karale, Rupali; Odedra, Kamal Maldebhai; Srirekha, A.; Champa, C.; Shetty, Ashwija; Pushpalatha, S; Sharma, Rini

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentin on the antimicrobial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid against C. albicans. Methodology: Dentin powder was prepared from mandibular first premolar using electrical grinder and sterilized. 3% NaOCl, 2%CHX, 17% EDTA and 18% etidronic acid were tested against C. albicans in the presence and absence of dentin, in eppendorf tubes. Group 1 (presence of dentin):- 100ul dentin powder + 100ul C. albicans suspension + 100ul irrigating solution. Group 2 (absence of dentin):- 100ul C. albicans suspension+ 100ul irrigating solution. Control group:- 100ul C. albicans suspension.+ 100ul sterile saline Suspension was thoroughly mixed, submitted for serial dilution upto10-5 after 1 min and colony forming units were counted. Results: In group 2 (without dentin powder), 3% NaOCl and 2% CHX showed the lowest bacterial count compared to group 1 (with dentin powder). Dentin had a significant inhibitory effect on 3% NaOCl (P < 0.001) and 2% CHX (P<0.001). 17% EDTA showed lowest bacterial count in group 1 (with dentin powder) compared to group 2 (without dentin powder). 18% Etidronic acid showed similar bacterial counts in the both the groups. No reduction was observed in the control group. Conclusion: NaOCl & EDTA showed measurable antimicrobial effect even in the presence of dentin which can be promising in the reduction of C. albicans in root canal therapy. PMID:27656066

  3. Multiple applications of flurbiprofen and chlorhexidine chips in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized, double blind, parallel, 2-arms clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtei, Eli E; Hirsh, Ilan; Falah, Maher; Shoshani, Eyal; Avramoff, Avi; Penhasi, Adel

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present randomized, double blind, parallel, 2-arm clinical study was to examine the safety and efficacy of frequent applications of chlorhexidine chip (CHX) and flurbiprofen chip (FBP) in patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods Sixty patients were randomized into CHX and FBP groups. Following OHI and scaling and root planing (SRP), baseline pocket depth (PD) measurements, gingival recession and bleeding on probing (BOP) were performed and repeated at week 4 and 8. The assigned chip was placed at weeks 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7. Results Mean PD reduction in the CHX group was 2.08 mm (7.17 to 5.09, p < 0.0001). Mean PD reduction in the FBP group was 2.27 mm (6.72 to 4.45, p < 0.0001). Ninety-seven percentage and 95% of these sites exhibited PD reduction ≥1 mm, while 38% and 34% of the sites exhibited PD ≥3 mm (FBP and CHX, respectively). Clinical attachment level gain (1.66 and 1.95 mm, respectively) was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Baseline BOP dropped from 98% and 100% to 24% and 30% for the CHX and FBP groups, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion Frequent applications of CHX and FBP chips resulted in a significant improvement in the periodontal condition in these sites. Furthermore studies will be required to compare this new treatment regimen to SRP or SRP with single chip application. PMID:22092475

  4. An in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma longa, Tachyspermum ammi, chlorhexidine gluconate, and calcium hydroxide on Enterococcus faecalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemanshi

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: This in vitro study was designed to comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Curcuma longa (turmeric – T1-10%, T2-20%); Tachyspermum ammi (ajwain – A1-10%, A2-20%); chlorhexidine (CHX) gluconate gel (hexigel – 1%); and calcium hydroxide (10%) as intracanal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Agar plates were prepared using brain-heart infusion (BHI) agar. Cultures of E. faecalis were grown in BHI broth at 37°C. Well diffusion method was used to derive results. Plates were inoculated for 72 h at 37°C and microbial zones of inhibition were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: C. longa (T2-20%) and CHX gluconate gel (hexigel – CHX-1%) showed larger zones of microbial inhibition than C. longa (T1-10%) that were statistically significant (P < 0.05) and were highly significant when compared to T. ammi (ajwain – A1 and A2) and calcium hydroxide. Conclusion: C. longa can be used as intracanal medicament in endodontic failure cases. PMID:23716967

  5. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of two controlled release devices: Chlorhexidine chips and indigenous curcumin based collagen as local drug delivery systems

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    Sruthima N. V. S. Gottumukkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX chips (Periocol-CG and indigenous curcumin (CU based collagen as adjuncts to scaling and root planning in the nonsurgical management of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 sites from 60 patients presenting with chronic periodontitis (age group 25-55 years of both sexes, with pocket depth of ≥5 mm with radiographic evidence of bilateral bone loss were earmarked for the study. A split mouth design was employed, and all the clinical parameters-plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment levels (CAL were recorded at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. However, the microbiological parameters, i.e., N-benzoyl-DL-arginine-β-naphthylamide (BANA test and microbial colony count were recorded at baseline, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Significant reduction in plaque and gingival index scores were observed in both groups at the end of the study period, i.e., 6 months. The microbiological parameters (BANA test, microbial colony count, PPD and CAL levels also showed significant improvement in both groups. However, at the end of the study period CHX group showed greater improvement in all of these parameters compared to CU collagen group. Conclusion: Future directions of this study should include targeting the beneficial effects of these local drug delivery systems at varied concentrations so that they could be utilized to achieve the maximum beneficial therapeutic effects in the nonsurgical treatment of periodontal disease.

  6. Probiotic supplements (Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) do not affect regrowth of mutans streptococci after full-mouth disinfection with chlorhexidine: a randomized controlled multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M K; Hasslöf, P; Dahlén, G; Stecksén-Blicks, C; Twetman, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of tablets containing two probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains in inhibiting regrowth of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) after full-mouth disinfection (FMD) with chlorhexidine. The null hypothesis was that the levels of MS would not differ in comparison with a placebo protocol. The study population was comprised of 62 young adults (mean age 23 years) with moderate or high counts of salivary MS who volunteered after informed consent. The study was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. After a 3-day chlorhexidine regimen, the subjects were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 32) with probiotic lozenges (2/day) or a placebo group (n = 30). The intervention period was 6 weeks, and stimulated whole saliva was collected at baseline and after 1, 6, and 12 weeks. The samples were processed for MS by a chair-side test and DNA-DNA hybridization as an estimate of 19 bacterial strains associated with oral health and disease. There was no significant difference between the groups at inclusion, and FMD reduced the salivary MS levels significantly in both groups. The MS suppression lasted less than 6 weeks and there were no statistical differences in salivary MS regrowth between the test and control groups at any of the follow-ups. Likewise, there were no major differences in the regrowth patterns of the checkerboard panel between the two groups. We conclude that daily oral administration of L. reuteri did not seem to affect or delay the regrowth of salivary MS after FMD with chlorhexidine. PMID:22472585

  7. 洗必泰葡萄糖酸盐对感染根管细菌生物膜的实验研究%Evaluation of antimicrobial effect with chlorhexidine digluconate against endodontic bacterial biofilms.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜田丰; 马净植; 刘得玺; 曹颖光

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to evalute the antimicrobial effect with chlorhexidine against endodontic bacterial biofilms in vitro. Method: An aliquot of Enterococcus faecalis suspensions was inoculated in the sterile coverslip incubating anaerobically for 1 week to inform bacterial biofilm. The biofilms were exposed to 0.2 % or 5 %chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) for 1 min and 5 min, and then analyzed by viability staining and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Result:Them was a more remarkable (P < 0.05) antimicrobial effect with both agents for 5 min then that for 1 min. 5 % CHX killed more (P < 0.05) biofilm bacteria than 0.2 % CHX by exposure of 1 min,but killed bacteria similar to (P > 0.05) 0.2 % CHX for 5 min. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine digluconate showed a promoted bactericidal activity against endodontic bacteria biofilms attributing to the concentration and the exposure time. In addition,using chlorhexidine digluconate alone could not be obtained a successful irrigating and disinfecting outcome.%目的:探讨洗必泰葡萄糖酸盐作为根管冲洗药物,对粪肠球菌生物膜的灭菌作用.方法:在无菌盖玻片上制备粪肠球菌生物膜,应用 0.2%和 5%洗必泰葡萄糖酸盐冲洗,分别作用 1 min 和 5 min,激光扫描共聚焦显微镜观察灭菌效果.结果:0.2%或 5%洗必泰葡萄糖酸盐的灭菌效果随作用时间的延长而增加(P0.05).结论:洗必泰葡萄糖酸盐具有明显的杀灭粪肠球菌生物膜的作用,其不同浓度和不同作用时间的灭菌效果不同,然而尚不能达到完美的根管冲洗消毒目的.

  8. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of chlorhexidine prophylaxis for 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis with nonblinded randomized comparison to oral cooling (cryotherapy) in gastrointestinal malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, T.; Bork, E.; Damstrup, L.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose was to evaluate prevention of oral mucositis (OM) using chlorhexidine compared with placebo and with oral cooling (cryotherapy) during fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. METHODS: Patients with previously untreated GI cancer receiving......-grading) and duration of OM. RESULTS: Among 225 patients randomized, 206 answered the questionnaire (70, 64, and 63 patients in Arms A, B, and C, respectively) and were well balanced with respect to diagnoses, stage, age, sex, smoking habits, and performance status. Mucositis grade 3-4 occurred more frequently in Arm B...

  9. Management of Cyst-like Periapical Lesions by Orthograde Decompression and Long-term Calcium Hydroxide/Chlorhexidine Intracanal Dressing: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Soares, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; de Souza, Flávia Kelly; Zastrow, Eduardo Von; Cunha, Carla Oliveira da; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Nunes, Eduardo; César, Carlos Augusto Santos; Glória, José Cristiano Ramos; Soares, Janir Alves

    2016-07-01

    Cyst-like periapical lesions should be treated initially with conservative nonsurgical procedures. In this case series, we describe the clinical and radiographic outcomes of large cyst-like lesions that were treated by orthograde decompression and long-term intracanal use of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] mixed with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate. Ten cases of cyst-like periapical lesions involving 15 teeth from 10 patients were selected. Maximal radiographic diameters of the lesions ranged from 11 to 28 mm. Nonsurgical procedures were performed, including apical patency, orthograde puncture of cyst-like exudates, chemomechanical preparation, and placement of intracanal Ca(OH)2/CHX dressings, which were periodically replaced during 6-10 months. The root canals were then filled with gutta-percha and sealer. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 24 months, and the outcome was classified as healed, healing, or failure. Nine lesions drained copious exudates after canal patency. One lesion only drained bloody serous exudate after periapical overinstrumentation. In 9 patients, intracanal exudation ceased in the first follow-up visit. At the 24-month follow-up, 6 lesions (60.0%) had healed, and 3 lesions (30.0%) were healing, with the corresponding patients being without clinical signs or symptoms. The case of treatment failure was submitted to surgical treatment. Microscopically, the lesion appeared to be an apical cyst with exuberant extraradicular bacterial biofilms attached to the sectioned root apex. This case series supports the use of nonsurgical methods to resolve larger cyst-like periapical lesions. PMID:27325458

  10. Counteraction of reactive oxygen species and determination of antibacterial efficacy of proanthocyanidin and lycopene when mixed with calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine mixture: An in vitro comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Mageshwaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the neutralizing effect of proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract and lycopene (tomato extract on reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by the mixture when used as an intracanal medicament. The study also evaluated the effect of proanthocyanidin and lycopene on the antibacterial efficacy of a mixture of chlorhexidine (CHX and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH 2 ] against Enterococcus feacalis. Materials and Methods: Four sample groups were prepared as follows. Group I: 2% CHX gluconate (control group and group II: a mixture of 125 mg of Ca(OH 2 with 2% CHX gluconate solution. Group III was a mixture of 125 mg of Ca(OH 2 with 1 mL of 2% CHX gluconate solution and 1 mL of 5% proanthocyanidin solution and group IV, a mixture of 125 mg of Ca(OH 2 with 1 mL of 2% CHX gluconate solution and 1 mL of 5% lycopene solution. The groups were analyzed for ROS formation using the mass spectrometer (JEOL GC MATE II immediately after preparation. The antibacterial property was evaluated by using agar diffusion method and the results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. Results: The peak value of 196.96 denotes ROS formation. Group II shows a higher peak value than other groups. Group IV shows a drastic reduction in the peak value. Group IV shows a drastic reduction in ROS formation when compared with group II, group III, and the control group. Antibacterial efficacy was higher in group IV, followed by group III, group II, and group I. Conclusion: Lycopene and proanthocyanidin reduce the ROS significantly by virtue of their antioxidant property. Lycopene shows more antioxidant property when compared with proanthocyanidin.

  11. Vitamin D Can Ameliorate Chlorhexidine Gluconate-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis and Functional Deterioration through the Inhibition of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Mesothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Che Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritoneal dialysis (PD can induce fibrosis and functional alterations in PD patients’ peritoneal membranes, due to long-term unphysiological dialysate exposure, partially occurring via triggering of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT in peritoneal mesothelial cells (MCs. Vitamin D can ameliorate these negative effects; however, the mechanism remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated its possible links to MCs EMT inhibition. Methods. Peritoneal fibrosis was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by chlorhexidine gluconate (CG intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, with and without 1α,25(OH2D3 treatment. Morphological and functional evaluation and western blot analysis of EMT marker were performed upon peritoneum tissue. In vitro study was also performed in a primary human peritoneal MC culture system; MCs were incubated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in the absence or presence of 1α,25(OH2D3. EMT marker expression, migration activities, and cytoskeleton redistribution of MCs were determined. Results. 1α,25(OH2D3 ameliorated CG-induced morphological and functional deterioration in animal model, along with CG-induced upregulation of α-SMA and downregulation of E-cadherin expression. Meanwhile, 1α,25(OH2D3 also ameliorated TGF-β1-induced decrease in E-cadherin expression, increase in Snai1 and α-SMA expression, intracellular F-actin redistribution, and migration activity in vitro. Conclusion. 1α,25(OH2D3 can ameliorate CG-induced peritoneal fibrosis and attenuate functional deterioration through inhibiting MC EMT.

  12. Effects of Two Fluoride Varnishes and One Fluoride/Chlorhexidine Varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus Biofilm Formation in Vitro

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    Arzu Pinar Erdem, Elif Sepet, Güven Kulekci, Sule Can Trosola, Yegane Guven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the effect of two fluoride varnishes and one fluoride/chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus biofilm formation, in vitro.Study design: Standard acrylic discs were prepared and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surface: Fluor Protector, Bifluoride 12, and Fluor Protector + Cervitec (1:1. Untreated discs served as controls. In the study groups, biofilms of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were formed over 24 h, 48 h, and 5 days. The fluoride concentrations in the monospecies biofilms and viable counts of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were investigated.Results: In all study groups, a statistically significant increase in the viable number of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cells was observed between 24 h and 5 days. In both monospecies biofilms, the greatest antibacterial efficacy was detected in the Fluor Protector and Fluor Protector + Cervitec groups at 24 h. For all groups, the amount of fluoride released was highest during the first 24 h, followed by a significant decrease over the next 4 days. A negative correlation was detected between fluoride concentration and antibacterial effect in those groups with biofilms containing both species. Despite the release of high levels of fluoride, the greatest number of viable S. mutans and S. sobrinus cells was detected in the Bifluoride 12 group.Statistics: The data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism software (ver. 3.Conclusions: The Fluor Protector + Cervitec varnish exerted prolonged antibacterial effects on S. mutans and S. sobrinus biofilms compared to the other varnishes tested.

  13. Clinical implications of the growth-suppressive effects of chlorhexidine at low and high concentrations on human gingival fibroblasts and changes in morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Kotwicka, Malgorzata; Urbaniak, Paulina; Nowak, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak-Jankun, Ewa; Jankun, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) is considered the gold standard in the antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity, due to its high antibactericidal capability. With the use of CHX mouth-rinse formulations, the bacteriostatic effects are maintained by the adsorption and prolonged release of CHX from oral surfaces. It was believed that antiplaque formation ability and the lack of systemic toxicity of CHX render it an excellent antiseptic in post-surgical dental treatment. However, recent studies have demonstrated that CHX exerts cytotoxic effects on human periodontal tissues, such as gingival fibroblasts and other cells. It also reduces gingival fibroblast adhesion to fibronectin and prevents fibroblast attachment to root surfaces, thus interfering with periodontal regeneration. In this study, using human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), we investigated effects of CHX on the growth, morphology and proliferation of HGFs. We found that a low concentration (0.002%) of CHX does not interfere with the proliferation and morphology of HGFs. However, a higher concentration (≥0.04%) of CHX inhibits cell proliferation and to a certain extent, affects cell morphology in a time-dependent manner. A decrease in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and the accumulation of cells in the S phase following treatment with CHX also occurred in a dose-dependent manner. We thus concluded that CHX only at the concentration of 0.002% does not interfere with HGF growth, that is so critical to wound healing. Thus, the application of CHX in the post-surgical antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity should be limited. PMID:27082817

  14. Real-time microsensor measurement of local metabolic activities in ex vivo dental biofilms exposed to sucrose and treated with chlorhexidine.

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    von Ohle, Christiane; Gieseke, Armin; Nistico, Laura; Decker, Eva Maria; DeBeer, Dirk; Stoodley, Paul

    2010-04-01

    Dental biofilms are characterized by structural and functional heterogeneity. Due to bacterial metabolism, gradients develop and diverse ecological microniches exist. The aims of this study were (i) to determine the metabolic activity of microorganisms in naturally grown dental biofilms ex vivo by measuring dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH profiles with microelectrodes with high spatial resolution and (ii) to analyze the impact of an antimicrobial chlorhexidine (CHX) treatment on microbial physiology during stimulation by sucrose in real time. Biofilms were cultivated on standardized human enamel surfaces in vivo. DO and pH profiles were measured in a flow cell system in sterile human saliva, after sucrose addition (10%), again after alternative treatment of the sucrose exposed biofilms with CHX (0.2%) for 1 or 10 min or after being killed with paraformaldehyde (4%). Biofilm structure was visualized by vitality staining with confocal microscopy. With saliva as the sole nutrient source oxygen consumption was high within the superficial biofilm layers rendering deeper layers (>220 mum) anoxic. Sucrose addition induced the thickness of the anaerobic zone to increase with a concurrent decrease in pH (7.1 to 4.4). CHX exposure reduced metabolic activity and microbial viability at the biofilm surface and drove metabolic activity deeper into the biofilm. CHX treatment led to a reduced viability at the biofilm surface with minor influence on overall biofilm physiology after 1 min; even after 10 min there was measurable respiration and fermentation inside the biofilm. However, the local microenvironment was more aerated, less acidogenic, and presumably less pathogenic.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of QMiX, 2.5% Sodium Hypochlorite, 2% Chlorhexidine, Guava Leaf Extract and Aloevera Extract Against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans – An in-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamma, Shoba; Peedikayil, Faizal; Aman, Shibu; Tomy, Nithya; Mariodan, Jithin Pulickal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Debridement and disinfection of the root canal system is a critical step in endodontic treatment. Most of the irrigants presently used in the endodontic treatment can have an impact on the microbes surviving in the biofilm but none of them are able to do all of the required tasks. Researches are going on its full swing in order to produce an endodontic irrigant having ideal properties. Aim To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of different irrigants like QMiX, guava leaf extract, aloevera extract, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods The antimicrobial activity was determined using agar diffusion test. The solutions were divided into five groups: Group I- QMiX, Group II- Guava leaf extract and Group III-Aloevera extract, Group IV–2.5% Sodium hypochlorite and Group V-2% Chlorhexidine. The zones of inhibition of growth were recorded. Results Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey’s HSD. Values obtained were statistically analyzed (proot canal irrigants. PMID:27437354

  16. 氯己定醇皮肤消毒液应用于儿童浅静脉留置针的效果评价%Effect of chlorhexidine on disinfection of peripheral venous indwelling needles of pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许方蕾; 孙晓敏; 张丽亚; 毛懿雯

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨2%葡萄糖酸氯己定醇皮肤消毒剂对儿童浅静脉留置针消毒效果.方法 选择2012年8月-2013年1月在儿科行浅静脉留置针穿刺的患儿300例,随机分为观察组和对照组各150例;观察组使用2%葡萄糖酸氯己定醇进行皮肤消毒,对照组使用安尔碘进行皮肤消毒,分别在消毒前,第1、2次消毒后和消毒72 h后对两组进行细菌采样,比较消毒效果.结果 使用2%葡萄糖酸氯己定醇在第1次消毒和消毒72 h后的患儿皮肤菌落数低(P<0.05),且2%葡萄糖酸氯己定醇的消毒待干时间(16.81±1.47)h更短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 2%葡萄糖酸氯己定醇在儿童浅静脉留置针的消毒效果确切,且可视度高、待干时间短,为护理人员的临床工作提供了便利,较传统的安尔碘消毒液更具优越性,值得临床推广和应用.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of 2% chlorhexidine skin disinfectant on the disinfection of the peripheral venous indwelling needles of the pediatric patients. METHODS A total of 300 pediatric patients who had indications of using peripheral venous indwelling needle from Aug 2012 to Jan 2013 were enrolled in the study and were randomly and equally divided into the experimental group and the control group. The patients in the experimental group were sterilized by 2% chlorhexidine skin disinfectant, while the patients in the control group were sterilized by anerdian before the indwelling of the peripheral needle. The bacterial samples were respectively obtained before the disinfection, the first time and the second time after the disinfection, and 72 hours after the disinfection, then the disinfection effects were compared. RESULTS Compared with anerdian, the bacterial colony counts were significantly less in the 2% chlorhexidine skin disinfectant group at first time or 72 hours after the disinfection (P<0. 05) , and the 2% chlorhexidine needed less time to dry (16. 81 ±1. 47) h, the

  17. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF PREOPERATIVE SKIN PREPARATION WITH AQUEOUS POVIDONE IODINE ONLY AND IN COMBINATION WITH ALCHOLIC CHLORHEXIDINE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE AND EMERGENCY SURGERIES

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    Latchu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Many techniques are there for skin preparation before surgery, the commonest being initial scrub with antiseptic soap solution, followed by painting the prepared area with antiseptic paint solution. But degerming of the skin can be done with antiseptics us ed for less than one minute which is as effective as five minute scrub with germicidal soap solution followed by painting with antiseptics . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine with povidone iodine in preoperative skin preparation by taking swab culture. 2. To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups . METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study conducted on 100 patients in two groups. STUDY SETTING: Sri Venkateswara Medical College Tirupathi SOURCE OF DATA: 100 Patients (50 in each Group undergoing elective and emergency surgery admitted in the Department of General Surgery in S.V.R.R. Government General Hospital, Tirupati from 2013 to 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Patients undergoing elective & emergency surgery in department of general surgery. 2. Patients with no focus of infection anywhere on the body. 3. Patients irrespective of their age and sex. 4. Patients neither immunocompromised nor on any long term steroids. 5. Patients undergoing mes h repair of hernia are also included. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Immuno compromised patients and patients on long term steroids. 2. Patients with septicemia. 3. Patients suffering from malignancies or undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy. 4. Contaminat ed surgeries in which viscus was opened were excluded from the study. 5. Patients with co - morbid medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension etc. METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA: In each case preoperatively, detailed history was taken and routine investiga tions like haemoglobin, total count, differential count, ESR, RBS and chest X - ray, ultrasound were done to

  18. A pilot study of the efficacy of wipes containing chlorhexidine 0.3%, climbazole 0.5% and Tris-EDTA to reduce Malassezia pachydermatis populations on canine skin

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    Cavana, Paola; Peano, Andrea; Petit, Jean-Yanique; Tizzani, Paolo; Perrot, Sébastien; Bensignor, Emmanuel; Guillot, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Wipes containing chlorhexidine and azole derivates have been recommended for veterinary use. No study has been published about their activity against Malassezia pachydermatis. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the in vivo and in vitro activity of wipes soaked in a chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA solution against Malassezia pachydermatis. Animals Five research colony shar-pei dogs. Methods Wipes were applied once daily onto the left axilla, left groin and perianal area (protocol A), and twice daily on the right axilla, right groin and umbilical region (protocol B) for 3 days. In vivo activity was evaluated by quantifying Malassezia colonies through contact plates on the selected body areas before and after wipe application. The activity of the solution in which the wipes were soaked was assessed in vitro by contact tests following the European Standard UNI EN 1275 guidelines. Results Samples collected after wipe application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia yeast CFU. No significant difference in the Malassezia reduction was found between protocols A and B. In vitro assay showed 100% activity against Malassezia yeasts after a 15 min contact time with the wipe solution. Conclusions and clinical importance Wipes containing chlorhexidine, climbazole and Tris-EDTA substantially reduced the M. pachydermatis population on the skin of dogs. The results, although this was an uncontrolled study performed on a small number of dogs, suggest that these wipes may be useful for topical therapy of Malassezia dermatitis involving the lips, paws, perianal area and skin folds. Résumé Contexte Des lingettes contenant de la chlorhexidine et des dérivésazolés ont été recommandés en médicine vétérinaire. Aucune étude n'a été publiée sur leur activité contre Malassezia pachydermatis. Hypothèses/Objectifs Evaluer l'activité in vivo et in vitro de lingettes imprégnées d'une solution de chlorhexidine, climbazole et Tris

  19. A Report of At-Scale Distribution of Chlorhexidine Digluconate 7.1% Gel for Newborn Cord Care to 36,404 Newborns in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Initial Lessons Learned.

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    Nosakhare Orobaton

    Full Text Available With an annual estimated 276,000 neonatal deaths, Nigeria has the second highest of any country in the world. Global progress in accelerating neonatal deaths is hinged to scaled-up interventions in Nigeria. We used routine data of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel utilized by 36,404 newborns delivered by 36,370 mothers, to study lessons associated with at-scale distribution in Sokoto State, North West Nigeria.Under state government leadership, a community-based distribution system overseen by 244 ward development committees and over 3,440 community-based health volunteers and community drug keepers, was activated to deliver two locally stored medicines to women when labor commenced. Newborns and their mothers were tracked through 28 days and 42 days respectively, including verbal autopsy results. 36,404 or 26.3% of expected newborns received the gel from April 2013 to December 2013 throughout all 244 wards in the State. 99.97% of newborns survived past 28 days. There were 124 pre-verified neonatal deaths reported. Upon verification using verbal autopsy procedures, 76 deaths were stillborn and 48 were previously live births. Among the previous 48 live births, the main causes of death were sepsis (40%, asphyxia (29% and prematurity (8%. Underuse of logistics management information by government in procurement decisions and not accounting for differences in LGA population sizes during commodity distribution, severely limited program scalability.Enhancements in the predictable availability and supply of chlorhexidine digluconate 7.1% gel to communities through better, evidence-based logistics management by the state public sector will most likely dramatically increase program scalability. Infections as a cause of mortality in babies delivered in home settings may be much higher than previously conceived. In tandem with high prevalence of stillborn deaths, delivery, interventions designed to increase mothers' timely and regular use of quality

  20. Sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate as a root end filling material: An ex vivo evaluation

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    Sreegowri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA mixed with distilled water and 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX gluconate when used as a root-end filling material using the dye-penetration technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 48 single-rooted human teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was resected, and 3-mm deep root-end cavity preparations were made. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups, each containing 8 teeth, and 2 negative and positive control groups, each containing 8 teeth. Root-end cavities in the experimental groups were filled with the experimental materials. After application of nail polish, the teeth were exposed to India ink for 72 h and longitudinally sectioned, and the extent of dye penetration was measured with a stereomicroscope. Results : No statistically significant differences were observed in the sealing ability of gray and white MTA mixed with distilled water and 0.12% CHX. Conclusion : CHX appears to be a good alternative to replace distilled water, as a solution to be mixed with MTA.

  1. Detection of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in a Spanish population using the Schirmer strip test: pathogenic potential, molecular classification and evaluation of the sensitivity to chlorhexidine and voriconazole of the isolated Acanthamoeba strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabrera, Pedro; Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Martín-Barrera, Fernando; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a sight-threatening infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is often associated with the misuse of contact lenses. However, there is still a question remaining to be answered, which is whether these micro-organisms are present on the ocular surface of healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in healthy patients and also in those with other ocular surface infections. Sterile Schirmer test strips were used to collect samples from a group of patients who attended an ophthalmology consultation at the Hospital del Norte, Icod de los Vinos, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Most of the patients (46 individuals, 79.31  %) presented ocular surface pathologies such as blepharitis or conjunctivitis; the rest did not present any pathology. None of the patients included in the study wore contact lenses. The collected samples were cultured in 2  % non-nutrient agar plates and positive plates were then cultured in axenic conditions for further analyses. Molecular analysis classified all isolated strains as belonging to Acanthamoeba genotype tbl4, and osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays revealed that all strains were potentially pathogenic. Furthermore, all strains were assayed for sensitivity against voriconazole and chlorhexidine. Assays showed that both drugs were active against the tested strains. In conclusion, the Schirmer strip test is proposed as an effective tool for the detection of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface.

  2. 葡萄糖酸氯己定醇皮肤消毒液对多药耐药菌的杀菌效果评价%Evaluation of germicidal efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate ethanol skin disinfectant in multdrug-resistant bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春梅; 钟晓祝; 杨金城

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价葡萄糖酸氯己定醇皮肤消毒液对多药耐药菌的杀灭作用,为临床合理选用消毒剂提供依据.方法 采用悬液定量杀菌方法,设试验组:耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌、产ESBLs大肠埃希菌和泛耐药铜绿假单胞菌3种多药耐药菌;对照组:与试验组相对应的金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌和铜绿假单胞菌3种非耐药菌;比较葡萄糖酸氯己定醇皮肤消毒液对耐药菌和非耐药菌的杀灭作用.结果 2%葡萄糖酸氯己定醇皮肤消毒液原液作用30 s、1、3 min对试验组和对照组的杀灭对数值均>5.0.结论 2%葡萄糖酸氯己定醇皮肤消毒液对多药耐药菌的杀灭作用与非耐药菌同样快速和有效.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the germicidal efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate ethanol skindisinfection solution in multidrug-resistant bacteria so as to provide basis for reasonable use of disinfectants. METHODS By means of suspension quantitative germicidal test, three species of multidrug-resistant bacteria including methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli, and pan-drug resistant Pseudomonas pneu-moniae were set as the experiment group, and three species of non-drug resistant bacteria consisting of S. aureus, E.coli, and P. aeruginosa were set as the control group. The germicidal efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate ethanol skin disinfectants in the drug resistant bacteria and non-drug resistant bacteria was compared. RESULTS The killing logarithm value of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate ethanol the disinfectant was more than 5. 0 after the exposure for 30 s, 1 min, and 3 min. CONCLUSION The germicidal efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate ethanol skin disinfectant is as rapid and effective to the multidrug-resistant bacteria as to the non-drug resistant bacteria.

  3. The study on chlorhexidine acetate against pathogens bacteria of acute and chronic pharyngitis in vitro%醋酸氯己定对急慢性咽炎主要致病菌的体外抑菌活性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕; 靳芳庆; 张福成; 林敏; 陈雄

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antibacterial activity of different concentrations of chlorhelxidine acatate against several pharyngitis pathogens. Methods MICs of chlorhelxidine acatate at different concentrations on against β-Streptococcus pyogens, Proteusbacillus vulgaris, Dneumococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were determined by 96-well plates method and the antibacterial activity were determined by driling method. Results Chlorhexidine acetate can inhibit or kill the four acute and chronic pharyngitis bacteria effectively and the MICs of chlorhexidine acetate on β-Streptococcus pyogens, Proteusbacillus vulgaris, Dneumococcus and Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach was 7.81 ×10-3, 0.0313, 3.91×10-3 and 1.96×l0-3mg/mL respectively. Conclusion The activity of chlorhexidine acetate against β-Streptococcus pyogens, Proteusbacillus vulgaris, Dneumococcus and Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach was strong. Chlorhexidine acetate can be used to treat acute and chronic pharyngitis.%目的 考察不同浓度醋酸氯己定对引起急慢性咽炎的主要致病菌(乙型溶血型链球菌、变形菌、肺炎双球菌、金葡球菌)的体外抑菌作用.方法 采用96孔板测定醋酸氯己定对几种菌的最小抑菌浓度值(MIC),打孔法测定不同浓度醋酸氯己定对引起急慢性咽炎的几种主要致病菌的体外抑菌作用.结果 醋酸氯己定对乙型溶血型链球菌、变形菌、肺炎双球菌、金葡球菌均有明显的抑菌作用,且最小抑菌浓度分别7.81×10(-3)、0.0313、3.91×10(-3)和1.96×10(-3)mg/mL.结论 醋酸氯己定对引起急慢性咽炎的乙型溶血性链球菌、变形菌、肺炎双球菌以及金葡球菌等几种病原菌均有较强的抗菌活性,可用于急慢性咽炎的辅助治疗.

  4. Prevention and management guidelines to oral health care for patients with head and neck cancer: HCT20, Carisolv and Chlorhexidine varnish are suggested; Protocolo de prevencao e tratamento de sequelas bucais em pacientes submetidos a radioterapia: uso do HCT20, Carisolv e verniz de clorexidina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Guerra, Eliete Neves da; Melo, N.S. de

    2004-06-01

    Orofacial complications are unfortunately common with all modalities used in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. It is well known that hypo salivation develops if radiation therapy involves the salivary glands. A significant decrease in salivary volume can adversely affect oral comfort, mucous health, dentition, deglutition and mastication. Xerostomia may lead to consumption of diet high in carbohydrates and make good oral hygiene difficult. The purpose of this study is to report a new prevention and management guidelines to oral and dental health care for patients with head and neck cancer who will treat with radiotherapy. New materials as HCT20, Carisolv and chlorhexidine varnish are suggested. (author)

  5. 氯己定口腔护理预防呼吸机相关性肺炎中文文献的Meta分析%Oral Care with Chlorhexidine in Preventing Ventilator Associated Pneumonia among Chinese Patients:A Meta-anal-ysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志兰; 柴建华; 舒红文; 周建芳; 彭文涛

    2015-01-01

    目的 系统评价国内使用氯己定口腔护理预防呼吸机相关性肺炎的有效性. 方法 计算机联机检索CNKI、VIP、万方数据库(各数据库检索时间为创建至2014年12月)中关于使用氯己定口腔护理预防呼吸机相关性肺炎的随机对照试验( RCT) ,用RevMan5. 3软件对数据进行Meta分析. 结果 共纳入15篇RCT,包括1909例患者. Meta分析结果显示:使用氯己定口腔护理预防呼吸机相关性肺炎的效果优于对照组[RR=0. 45,95%CI(0. 38,0. 54),P<0. 01].结论 基于现有临床证据,使用氯己定口腔护理预防呼吸机相关性肺炎的有效性较高. 但由于纳入研究质量较差,本结论尚需要更高质量临床RCT予以证实.%Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral care with chlorhexidine in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia in Chinese patients. Methods Studies were identified through CNKI,VIP and WANFANG Data-bases. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials(RCT)of oral care with chlorhexidine in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia among Chinese patients. Meta analysis was carried out by RevMan 5. 3 software. Results 15 RCTs were included (1909 patients). The Meta analyses showed that oral care with chlorhexidine in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia were superior to those of the control group[RR=0. 45,95%CI(0. 38,0. 54), P<0. 01]. Conclusion The present meta-analysis in-dicates a beneficial effect of oral care with chlorhexidine in preventing ventilator associated pneumonia. However, further studies with rigorous design and large sample size are needed in the future because of study heteogeneity.

  6. A comparative evaluation of the effect of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine on the surface texture of Gutta-percha and resilon cones using atomic force microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima Tilakchand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX on Gutta-percha and Resilon cones using an atomic force microscope (AFM. Materials and Methods: Gutta-percha cones (n = 15 and Resilon cones (n = 15 were cut 3 mm from their tip, attached to a glass slide with cyanoacrylate glue and immersed in 5.25% NaOCl and CHX for 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min. Five each of Gutta-percha and Resilon cones not treated with any disinfectant were used as control. The analysis of the surface topography was performed on the region between 1 and 2 mm from the tip using the AFM. The root mean square (RMS parameters for contact mode imaging were measured. The differences between RMS values were tested by SPSS-16.0 version statistical software [IBM SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions Data Software, Chicago, US] using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Results: There was no deterioration in the surfac e topography of Gutta-percha and Resilon when treated with 2% CHX in comparison to baseline (P < 0.05. Resilon exhibited no deterioration in topography when immersed in 5.25% NaOCl. There was a significant decrease in the mean RMS values of Gutta-percha treated with NaOCl from the control at time intervals of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 min.

  7. Effectiveness of a controlled release chlorhexidine chip (PerioColTM‑CG as an adjunctive to scaling and root planing when compared to scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A comparative study

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    Kameswari Kondreddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled-release chlorhexidine chip as an adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing when compared with scaling and root planing alone in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with a total number of 40 posterior sites were selected. These sites were divided into two groups in a split mouth design,: Group A (control site had 20 sites treated with scaling and root planing alone and Group B (test site had 20 sites treated with scaling and root planing and PerioCol TM -CG. The clinical parameters (Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level were recorded at baseline, 90 th and 180 th day for both the groups. Results: When both groups were compared the change in Plaque index was significantly higher in Group B when compared to Group A on the 90 th day and 180 th day. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean percentage of gingival bleeding sites between the two groups on the 90 th day, though Group B showed a statistically higher reduction in the mean percentage of gingival bleeding sites at the end of 180 th day. There was no statistically significant difference in probing pocket depth between the two groups on both 90 th and 180 th day. Gain in clinical attachment level was significantly higher in Group B when compared to Group A on the 90 th and 180 th day. Conclusion: From the results observed in this study, it can be concluded that the adjunctive use of PerioCol TM -CG was safe and provided significant improvement in both Plaque index and gingival bleeding index. It was also more favorable than scaling and root planing alone for gain in clinical attachment level.

  8. Anti-microbial efficacy of green tea and chlorhexidine mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida albicans in children with severe early childhood caries: A randomized clinical study

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    Ann Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green tea is a beverage which is consumed worldwide and is reported to have anti-cariogenic effect. So, if it was as effective as chlorhexidine (CHX mouth rinse against cariogenic microbes it could be considered a natural, economical alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-microbial efficacy of 0.5% green tea and 0.2% CHX mouth rinses against Streptococcus Mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida Albicans. Materials and Methods: 30 children aged 4-6 years with S-ECC (based ondefs score were selected. Children were divided randomly into 2 equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. A base-line and post rinsing non-stimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml was collected and tested for the number of colony forming units. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS v16.0 software with one-way ANOVA and Tukey′sPOSTHOC test. Results: A statistically significant fall in colony count was found with both the mouth rinses in Streptococcus Mutans (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and lactobacilli (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 but not against Candida albicans (P = 0.264, P = 0.264. Against Streptococcus Mutans, green tea mouth rinse was found to be significantly better than CHX mouth rinse (P = 0.005. Against lactobacilli spp, CHX mouth rinse was significantly better than green tea mouth rinse (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse can be considered safe, economical and used without much concern. However, further studies are recommended.

  9. Efeito da clorexidina na mucosite induzida por radioterapia em câncer de cabeça e pescoço Effects of chlorhexidine mouthwash on radiation induced mucosistis in head and neck cancer

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    Rogério Labbate

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A radioterapia em pacientes com neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço causa alterações na mucosa oral comprometendo a execução terapêutica e o resultado final. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito protetor do gluconato de clorexidina, sobre a mucosa oral, durante o tratamento actínico fracionado e o seu reflexo na qualidade de vida referida pelos pacientes. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 21 portadores de câncer de Cabeça e Pescoço alocados em dois grupos: grupo Placebo (n=11, 9H e 2M, idade média 58 anos água destilada - dois bochechos diários e grupo Medicação (n=10, 7H e 2M, idade média 52 anos gluconato de clorexidina a 0,12% - dois bochechos diários. Os pacientes foram avaliados semanalmente com exame local para detecção das alterações de mucosa (classificação de acordo com a WHO e Grupo de Terapia por Radiação em Oncologia - graus 0 a IV e preenchimento de questionário de qualidade de vida ressaltando os aspectos de dor, apetite, paladar e hábitos alimentares. A análise estatística realizada pelo teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: A graduação da mucosite foi mais intensa no grupo Placebo em 6 das 10 semanas de avaliação. A freqüência e intensidade das dores foram piores no grupo Placebo na 4ª semana de radioterapia e a modificação de paladar foi mais intensa nos indivíduos que não usavam o medicamento apenas na 7ª semana. Não foram encontradas diferenças nos outros parâmetros de qualidade de vida. CONCLUSÃO: Podemos concluir que o gluconato de clorexidina não eliminou as lesões de mucosa mas diminuiu, significativamente, os seus efeitos deletérios e intensidade sem apresentar um reflexo persistente na qualidade de vida dos pacientes.The radiotherapy in patients with neoplasias of Head and Neck causes alterations in the oral mucous membrane interfering with the therapeutic execution and the final result. AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of the chlorhexidin

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of silver-coated dressing, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%), citric acid (3%), and silver sulfadiazine (1%) for topical antibacterial effects against the multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting full-skin thickness burn wounds on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 10(8) CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp.

  11. 复方氯己定联合苦丁茶对呼吸机相关性肺炎口腔的护理效果%Effect of the compound of chlorhexidine and"Kuding"tea on the oral hygiene and prevention of ventilator -associated pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李磊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨复方氯己定联合苦丁茶对机械通气患者预防呼吸机相关性肺炎口腔的护理效果。方法选取机械通气患者162例,随机分为A组、B组、C组。 A组患者采用复方氯己定擦洗联合苦丁茶冲洗,B组患者采用复方氯己定擦洗,C组患者采用苦丁茶冲洗。连续7d观察三组患者口腔霉菌、口臭、口腔溃疡、咽部和气管内细菌定植数、VAP的发生率,不良反应、口腔护理效果。结果口咽部细菌定植发生率A组患者明显低于B组(P<0.05),A组和B组均明显低于C组(均P<0.05);VAP发生率A组患者明显低于B组( P<0.05),A组和B组均明显低于C组(均P<0.05);牙齿、舌苔发黄等发生率A组和C组均明显低于B组(均P<0.05),A组患者明显低于C组(P<0.05)。结论采用复方氯己定冲洗、擦洗联合苦丁茶液冲洗对VAP患者进行口腔护理可以起到很好地抗菌消炎作用,降低VAP的发生率。%Objective To study the clinical effect of the compound comprising chlorhexidine and "Kuding"tea ( Folium Ilicis Latifoliae) in preventing patients who are connected to ventilator machines from contracting ventilator -associated pneumonia ( VAP) .Methods A total of 162 patients who were on ventilator machines were divided randomly into three groups , A, B, and C.Group A used a compound of chlorhexidine and "Kuding"tea ( Folium Ilicis Latifoliae ) for oral washing; Group B used chlorhexidine for oral washing;Group C used"Kuding"tea ( Folium Ilicis Latifoliae ) for oral washing.The effect on the oral hygiene of the patients were observed.Results The incidence of bacterial colonization in the pharynx oralis and trachea , VAP, and adverse effect of the oral cavity in group A patients were lower than that of group B and group C.Conclusions Using the compound of chlorhexidine and "Kuding"tea ( Folium Ilicis Latifoli-ae) for oral washing is better than using chlorhexidine or "Kuding

  12. Uso de clorexidina 2% gel e escovação mecânica na higiene bucal de pacientes sob ventilação mecânica: efeitos na pneumonia associada a ventilador The use of 2% chlorhexidine gel and toothbrushing for oral hygiene of patients receiving mechanical ventilation: effects on ventilator-associated pneumonia

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    Maria Cristina de Avila Meinberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da higiene bucal com clorexidina 2% e escovação mecânica sobre a taxa de pneumonia associada a ventilador em uma população mista de pacientes sob ventilação mecânica prolongada. MÉTODOS: Estudo piloto prospectivo, aleatório e placebo-controlado. Foram incluídos pacientes sob ventilação mecânica, com menos de 24 horas de internação e cuja perspectiva de duração da ventilação mecânica era a de um período >72 horas. Os pacientes foram randomizados para o grupo clorexidina (gel com clorexidina a 2% e escovação mecânica ou grupo placebo (gel da mesma coloração e consistência e escovação mecânica na higiene bucal. RESULTADOS: A análise interina planejada foi realizada quando 52 pacientes foram incluídos, e o estudo foi interrompido precocemente. Um total de 28 pacientes foi incluído no grupo clorexidina/escovação mecânica e 24 no grupo placebo. As taxas de pneumonia associada a ventilador foram de 45,8% no grupo placebo e de 64,3% no grupo clorexidine/escovação mecânica (RR=1,4; IC95%=0,83-2,34;p=0,29. CONCLUSÃO: Devido a interrupção precoce por futilidade, não foi possível avaliar o impacto do uso de clorexidina a 2% e escovação mecânica na higiene bucal na incidência de pneumonia associada a ventilador nessa população heterogênea de pacientes críticos sob ventilação mecânica prolongada, não tendo sido evidenciado nenhum efeito benéfico dessa intervenção.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of oral chlorhexidine hygiene with toothbrushing on the rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a mixed population of critically ill patients under prolonged mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, and placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients who were receiving mechanical ventilation, had been admitted less than 24 hours prior, and were anticipated to require mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours were included in the study. The patients were randomly

  13. 聚氨酯/醋酸洗必泰-蒙脱土复合抗菌材料的制备与研究%Preparation and Research of Polyurethane/Chlorhexidine Acetate-Montmorillonite Compound Antibacterial Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓林; 邱化廷; 毛植森; 李建通; 梁红军; 费长书

    2014-01-01

    A peel-dispersion polyurethane/chlorhexidine acetate-montmorillonite ( PU/CA-MMT ) antibacterial material was prepared by CA-MMT nano-antibacterial agent mixed with PU. It was characterized by TG, AFM, SEM test. The antibacterial properties were tested by the bacterial adhesion and film antibacterial experiment. The bacteria adhesion experimental results showed that, compared for the CA, adding MMT could make the CA-MMT resistance high temperature performance significantly improved. It could be adapted in high temperature. The CA-MMT had more excellent antibacterial properties because CA-MMT was stripped and released from the material more easily. The antibacterial experiments result showed that, the experimental group which didn.t adding CA had many colonies, while adding CA group had few bacteria. The PU/CA-MMT nano-antibacterial material had good antibac-terial properties which was excellent than PU/CA.%在聚氨酯( PU)中加入一定量的醋酸洗必泰-蒙脱土( CA-MMT)纳米抗菌剂,制备剥离弥散型的PU/CA-MMT抗菌材料。通过热重分析( TG)、原子力显微镜( AFM)、扫描电镜( SEM)、细菌粘附、贴膜抗菌实验等进行表征和测试抗菌性能。细菌粘附实验结果表明,相比于CA,MMT的加入使CA-MMT耐高温性能明显提高,能适应高温的加工条件,同时由于CA-MMT在材料中被剥离,易于释放出来,因此PU/CA-MMT的抗菌效果更优异。贴膜抗菌实验结果表明,未加CA的菌落数太多,无法计数;而含CA的,有明显的抗菌性,且PU/CA-MMT材料使PU基体具有良好抗菌性能,同时抗菌性能比PU/CA更优异。

  14. 不同类别护手霜对洗必泰类外科手消毒剂消毒效果的影响%Influence of different hand lotions on the efficacy of chlorhexidine surgical hand disinfectant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 葛妍麟; 仇海荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of different hand lotions on the efficacy of chlorhexidine surgical hand disinfectant. Methods Sixty health care workers were randomly divided into group A, B, and C. All subjects washed their hands for 1 minute according to six-step hand washing technique, and hands were dried with sterile paper towels. Group A didn't use hand lotion, group B and C used 3M 9260 hand lotion (water-in-oil emulsion) and certain brand vaseline hand lotion (oil-in-water emulsion) respectively. Bacterial cultures of hands in three groups were performed after washing hands, using hand lotions 30 minutes later and disinfecting with surgical hand disinfectant, bacterial colonies were counted. Results After washing hands, the difference in colony count was not significantly different among three groups (PX). 05). Thirty minutes after using hand lotions, colony count in group A, B, and C was (3. 33 ± 0. 64) CFU/cm2, (3. 32 ± 0. 97) CFU/cm2, and (4. 05 ± 1. 78) CFU/cm2 respectively, colony count in group C was significantly higher than group A and B (P0. 05). After surgical hand disinfection, both group A and B met requirements for surgical hand disinfection, the difference was not significantly different (PX). 05) ; two subjects in group C didn't meet requirements for surgical hand disinfection, and the colony count ([1. 28 ± 1. 45]CFU/cm2) was significantly higher than group A ([0. 07 ± 0. 10]CFU/cm2) and B ([0. 06 ± 0. 12]CFU/cm2) (P<0. 05). Conclusion Hand lotion containing latex and chlorhexidine can protect hand skin and doesn't reduce efficacy of surgical hand disinfection.%目的 探讨不同护手霜对洗必泰类外科手消毒剂消毒效果的影响.方法 将60名手术室医护人员随机分成A、B、C三组.受试者均按六步洗手法洗手1 min,用无菌擦手纸擦干双手.A组不使用护手霜,B、C组分别使用3M爱护佳9260护手霜(水包油乳化液)及某品牌凡士林护手霜(油包水乳化液).分别采集各组

  15. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding

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    Carolina Freire de Carvalho Calabrich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram armazenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana.OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in water for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in

  16. Avaliação da resistência adesiva e do padrão de descolagem de diferentes sistemas de colagem de braquetes associados à clorexidina Evaluation of the bond strength and debonding pattern of different bracket bonding systems associated with chlorhexidine

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    Jorge Luís de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar a resistência adesiva e o padrão de descolagem de diferentes sistemas de colagem de braquetes (Sistema Transbond XT / 3M-Unitek e Sistema Enlight / Ormco cujos respectivos adesivos foram pré-misturados ao verniz de clorexidina (Cervitec / Ivoclar-Vivadent. METODOLOGIA: a amostra utilizada foi constituída por 60 pré-molares humanos, extraídos por indicações ortodônticas, incluídos em cilindros de PVC e divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos: grupo 1 - Sistema Transbond XT conforme prescrito pelo fabricante; grupo 2 - Sistema Transbond XT associado a verniz de clorexidina; grupo 3 - Sistema Enlight conforme prescrito pelo fabricante; grupo 4 - Sistema Enlight associado a verniz de clorexidina. A resistência adesiva foi avaliada pelo teste de cisalhamento na máquina de ensaios universal EMIC (0,5mm/min; o padrão de descolagem foi avaliado, através da lupa estereoscópica STEMI 2000-C / Zeiss (20x, pela observação do Índice de Adesivo Remanescente (IAR na superfície do esmalte dentário, após a descolagem dos braquetes. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p AIM: The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength and the debonding pattern of different bracket bonding systems (Transbond XT System / 3M-Unitek and Enlight System / Ormco whose respective adhesives were pre-mixed with chlorhexidine varnish (Cervitec / Ivoclar-Vivadent. METHODS: The sample used consisted of sixty human pre-molars extracted for orthodontic purposes, included in PVC cylinder and randomly divided in four experimental groups: group 1 - Transbond XT System according to the manufacturer’s instructions; group 2 - Transbond XT System combined with chlorhexidine varnish; group 3 - Enlight System according to the manufacturer’s instructions; group 4 - Enlight System combined with chlorhexidine varnish. The bond strength evaluation was obtained through

  17. Clinical effects of a combination of metronidazole, clotrimazole, and chlorhexidine acetate effervescent tablets and a living preparation of lactobacillus on bacterial vaginosis%双唑泰泡腾片与乳酸杆菌活菌胶囊联合治疗细菌性阴道病的临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宇齐; 李桢理; 万贵平

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the clinical effects of a combination of metronidazole, clotrimazole, and chlorhexidine acetate effervescent tablets and a living preparation of lactobacillus on bacterial vaginosis. A total of 100 patients with bacterial vaginosis from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine were selected and equally divided into the control group and experimental group. The patients in the control group were only treated with metronidazole, clotrimazole, and chlorhexidine acetate effervescent tablets while the patients in the experimental group were treated with a combination of metronidazole, clotrimazole, and chlorhexidine acetate effervescent tablets and a living preparation of lactobacillus. The therapeutic effect in the two groups was compared after treatment. In the experimental group, 2 patients were lost to follow-up; in 35 patients, treatment was deemed markedly effective and in 8 patients, effective. The markedly effective rate was 72.92% and the total effective rate was 89.58%. In the control group, 1 patient was lost to follow-up, treatment was markedly effective in 31 patients and effective in 7. The markedly effective rate was 63.27% and the total effective rate was 77.56%. The total effective rate was significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). The recurrence rate in the experimental group was 6.25%, which was significantly lower than the 20.41% observed in the control group (P<0.05). The results suggest that a combination of metronidazole, clotrimazole, and chlorhexidine acetate effervescent tablets and a living preparation of lactobacillus is safe and effective in treatment of bacterial vaginosis.%本文旨在探讨双唑泰泡腾片与乳酸杆菌活菌胶囊联合治疗细菌性阴道病的临床疗效.将100例就诊于江苏省中西医结合医院妇产科的细菌性阴道病患者随机平均分为两

  18. Estudio clínico comparativo entre colutorio de p-clorofenol y peróxido de hidrógeno con colutorio de clorhexidina al 0.12% en el crecimiento de placa microbiana y gingivitis Mouthwash comparative study between p-chlorophenol and hydrogen peroxide with chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.12% in the growth of microbial plaque and gingivitis

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    PD Jaña

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se formuló un colutorio a base de p-clorofenol alcanforado y peróxido de hidrógeno, y considerando que no se disponían de antecedentes de eficacia y seguridad del colutorio, se realizó un ensayo clínico para medirlas utilizando un modelo de formación de placa microbiana y gingivitis en un período de cuatro días, como control positivo se uso un colutorio de clorhexidina al 0.12%. Participaron 26 sujetos en un estudio doble ciego cruzado y con distribución aleatoria. El colutorio en base a p-clorofenol alcanforado y peróxido de hidrógeno y el de clorhexidina tuvieron un similar efecto en el control de la formación de placa y antigingivitis. No hubo diferencias entre los acontecimientos adversos observados para el colutorio y el control. Por consiguiente, el colutorio en estudio podría ser una alternativa para el control químico de la placa microbiana y gingivitis en el tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal.A camphorated p-chlorophenol and hydrogen peroxide-based mouthwash was prepared, and a clinical trial to measure the efficiency and safety records of the mouthwash -considering the lack of them- was carried out using a formation model of microbial plaque and gingivitis over a 4-day period, with a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash as positive control. Twenty-six individuals participated in the randomized double-blind crossover study. The camphorated p-chlorophenol and hydrogen peroxide-based and chlorhexidine mouthwash had a similar effect in controlling the formation of plaque and antigingivitis. There was no difference between the adverse events observed for the mouthwash and the control. Therefore, the mouthwash in study might be an alternative to the chemical control of microbial plaque and gingivitis in the periodontal desease treatment.

  19. 氯己定醇皮肤消毒液在预防导管相关血流感染中的效果研究%Effect of chlorhexidine skin disinfectant on prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓琴; 李兰云; 郭晶; 何金; 李琳; 徐莉; 杜永川

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨2%葡萄糖酸氯己定(CHG)醇皮肤消毒液对预防经外周静脉导入中心静脉置管(PICC)导管相关血流感染(CRBSI)的消毒效果。方法对2013年1-12月行PICC置管的肿瘤患者进行前瞻性随机对照研究,将64例PICC置管的患者进行随机分组,观察组34例使用2% CHG醇进行皮肤消毒,对照组30例使用5%聚维酮碘进行皮肤消毒,分别于各组患者进行PICC置管前及置管后48 h对置管周围部位的皮肤采样,进行细菌监测并比较两组间的差异。结果观察组在 PICC置管前和置管后较对照组48h皮肤菌落数低、干燥时间短(P<0.05),观察组总置管日2356 d ,无CRBSI发生;对照组总置管日1970 d ,CRBSI 4例,2% CHG醇消毒液能降低CRBSI的发生率(P<0.05)。结论2% CHG醇皮肤消毒液可降低PICC导管相关血流感染的发生率,并可减少皮肤表面的暂居菌,抑制其生长从而降低CRBSI风险。%OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) on prevention of peripherally inserted central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections .METHODS The prospective randomized control study was conducted for the tumor patients who underwent PICC from Jan 2013 to Dec 2013;the 64 PICC patients were randomly divided into the observation group with 34 cases and the control group with 30 cases , the observation group was treated with 2% CHG for skin disinfection ,while the control group was given 5% povidone iodine for skin disinfection .The skins around the catheter insertion sites were respectively sampled before the PICC catheterization and at 48 hours after the PICC catheterization ;the bacterial species were monitored and compared between the two groups .RESULTS The bacterial colony counts in the skin were less in the observation group than in the control group before and after the PICC catheterization ,and the drying time of the observation group was shorter

  20. Er:Yag 激光系统照射联合2%双氯苯双胍己烷凝胶对单根管前磨牙粪肠球菌感染模型杀菌效果%Sterilization effect of Er:Yag laser irradiation combined with 2% chlorhexidine gel on single tube premolar Enterococcus faecalis infection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍红; 杜琛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the sterilization effect of Er:Yag laser irradiation combined with 2%chlorhexidine gel on single tube premolar enterococcus faecalis infection model.Methods After disinfection test was performed without molars bacterial infection,200 single rooted premolar root canal were selected.10μL enterococcus faecalis( ATCC 29212) bacterium suspension were inoculated into single intratracheal with high pressure sterilization and and then were cultured for 2 weeks.200 infected premolar model were divided into four groups:control group (n=50),A group (n=50),B group (n=50) and C group (n=50).The control group did not receive any disinfec-tion treatment,group A received Er:Yag laser irradiation and 2%chlorhexidine gel disinfection,B group received only Er:Yag laser irradiation,the C group received only 2% chlorhexidine gel disinfection.After disinfection,premolars were put into 10mL sterile water,mixed thoroughly,and then 1mL liquid were taken and diluted by10 times.Then the 200μL dilutions lipuid were coated on BHI agar plate,and plate could be selected for counting colony count.Results The average number of colonies was(127 ±12) in the control group,average number of group A(10 ±3) and which was lower than that group C (48 ±6)(t=12.005,P=0.000) and group C (43 ±5) (t=19.277,P=0.000). There were only 2 cases,which had obvious ablation phenomena in group A.Conclusion Disinfection effect of Er:Yag laser irradiation combined with 2%chlorhexidine gel is better than that of Er:Yag laser irradiation or 2% chlo-rhexidine gel disinfection.The incidence rate of the ablation phenomenon was low.%目的:评价Er:Yag激光系统照射联合2%双氯苯双胍己烷(洗必泰)凝胶对单根管前磨牙粪肠球菌感染模型杀菌效果。方法选择200颗单根直根管的前磨牙,进行消毒处理后检验磨牙无细菌感染。向高压灭菌后的单根管内接种粪肠球菌Enterococcus faecalis(ATCC 29212)菌悬液10μL,然后在37

  1. Effect of maintenance therapy with or without the use of chlorhexidine in teeth restored with composite resin in patients with diabetes mellitus%复合树脂修复联合氯已定维护治疗在糖尿病患者中应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐慕清; 庄则敬; 葛宇飞; 杨卫东

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价0.12%氯已定对已应用复合树脂充填患牙的糖尿病患者行牙周维护治疗的临床效果。方法选择20例有牙周炎病的糖尿病患者,对其前牙区龋齿进行复合树脂充填治疗后,分为研究组( n =10)和对照组(n =10)。在进行基础牙周治疗之前预防性应用抗生素,在牙周维护治疗阶段给予研究组患者0.12%氯已定15 d,对照组患者不应用氯已定。分别在治疗前和治疗后90 d 检测所有患者的菌斑指数、牙龈指数和牙周探诊深度,记录并应用方差分析和 Tukey 检验对数据进行统计。并对研究组患者进行糖化血红蛋白等血清生化指标的检测,比较治疗前后的差异。结果经过90 d 的治疗,研究组患者的菌斑指数、牙龈指数和牙周探诊深度均明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.01)。研究组患者经0.12%氯已定治疗后较治疗前比较,糖化血红蛋白降低,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);血清总胆红素水平较之前升高(P <0.05);血清磷水平升高(P <0.01);血清钙磷比下降( P <0.01);甘油三酯的水平下降( P <0.05);载脂蛋白 A1升高(P <0.01)。结论在牙周维护治疗中,应用0.12%氯已定能够有效改善糖尿病患者已行树脂修复患牙的牙周健康和糖化血红蛋白,此外还可能影响钙、磷、血脂等其他生化指标。%Objective To evaluate the effects of maintenance therapy with or without the use of 0. 12% chlorhexidine in the periodon-tal tissues of patients with diabetes mellitus who had carious lesions restored with composed resin. Methods Twenty patients were se-lected,all of whom had diabetes mellitus in addition to carious cervical lesions in previously treated teeth. All the patients were diveded into two groups(n = 10 in each). For all patients,antibiotic prophylaxis was performed before the basic periodontal treatment. The ex-perimental group

  2. 复方氯己定含漱液联合碘甘油治疗急性智齿冠周炎的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Compound Chlorhexidine Gargle With Iodine Glycerol in the Treatment of Acute Wisdom Teeth Pericoronitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘润梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clinical curative effect observation of Compound chlorhexidine gargle with iodine glycerol in treat-ment of acute wisdom teeth pericoronitis. Method 200 Acute wisdom teeth pericoronitis patients of outpatients in our hospital from 2010 to 2012 was selected. Firstly, according to without or with restriction of mouth opening were divided into group A and group B . Group A and group B were then randomly divided into A1、A2 group and B1、B2 group. The patients of A1、B1 group were rinsed blind bag with compound chlorhexidine gargle and probed the iodine glycerol into blind bag. The patients of A2、B2 group were rinsed blind bag with 3% hydrogen peroxide, iodine glycerol then were probed into blind bag with the same methods. A、B groups of patients were not systemic or topical medication within 3 days before the visit. Result In the early stageof acute wisdom tooth pericoronitis(A group),effective rate of compound chlorhexidine gargle with iodine glycerol treatment was 96% ,3%hydrogen peroxide combined with iodine glycerol was 82% . The differences between the two groups were significant( = 5. 005, P < 0. 05). With the development of the disease, just as in the B group, effective rates of B1 group and B2 group were obviously reduced (76% ,56% ). Conclusion Clinical curative effect of compound chlorhexidine gargle with iodine glycerol in treatment of early acute wisdom tooth pericoronitis is good,and it was worthy of promotion.%目的:观察复方氯己定含漱液联合碘甘油治疗急性智齿冠周炎的临床治疗效果。方法选择2010年1月至2012年12月我院口腔科门诊就诊的急性智齿冠周炎患者200例。根据患者疾病的严重程度,将无张口受限分为 A组,有张口受限分为 B 组;再将 A、B 两组患者分别随机分为 A1、A2组和 B1、B2组。 A1、B1组采用复方氯己定含漱液冲洗盲袋,再以探针将碘甘油导入盲袋内。 A2、B2组用3%双氧水冲洗盲袋,同样方法

  3. Effect of rotary instrumentation and of the association of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on the antisepsis of the root canal system in dogs Efeito da instrumentação automatizada e da associação hidróxido de cálcio e clorexidina na anti-sepsia de canais radiculares de cães

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    Janir Alves Soares

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the antisepsis of the root canal system (RCS and periapical region (PR provided by rotary instrumentation associated with chlorhexidine + calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament. Chronic periapical lesions were induced in 26 pre-molar roots in two dogs. After microbiological sampling, automatic instrumentation using the Profile system and irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution, with a final rinse of 14.3% EDTA followed by profuse irrigation with physiological saline were carried out in 18 root canals. After drying the canals, a paste based on calcium hydroxide associated with a 2% chlorhexidine digluconate solution was placed inside them. After 21 days, the medication was removed, leaving the root canals empty and coronally sealed. After 96 hours, a final microbiological sample was obtained, followed by histomicrobiological processing by the Brown & Brenn method. Eight untreated root canals represented the control group (C-G. Based on the Mann-Whitney test at a confidence level of 5% (p Este estudo objetivou avaliar a anti-sepsia do sistema de canais radiculares (SCR e da região periapical (RP proporcionada pela instrumentação automatizada associada a medicação intracanal à base de hidróxido de cálcio + clorexidina. Lesões periapicais crônicas foram induzidas em 26 raízes de pré-molares de dois cães. Após amostragem microbiológica, procedeu-se à instrumentação automatizada de 18 canais radiculares (CR utilizando-se o sistema Profile e a solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25%, com irrigação final com EDTA a 14,3%, seguida de irrigação profusa com soro fisiológico. Após se secarem os canais, foi colocada em seu interior uma pasta à base de hidróxido de cálcio P.A. associada à solução de digluconato de clorexidina a 2%. Transcorridos 21 dias, removeu-se a medicação, deixando-se os CR vazios e selados coronariamente. Após 96 horas, obteve-se a amostra microbiol

  4. Desenvolvimento de metodologia para determinação de 4-cloroanilina em frangos por cromatografia gasosa - espectrometria de massas: análise em tecidos tratados com digluconato de clorhexidina após o processamento térmico Methodology for 4-chloroaniline determination in poultry by GC-MS: analisys in chlorhexidine digluconate treated tissues after termical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A degradação do antimicrobiano digluconato de clorhexidina (DGCH durante armazenamento ou processamento térmico pode formar a 4-cloroanilina (CA, um composto potencialmente carcinogênico. Conseqüentemente, o uso deste sanitizante para descontaminação de carcaças de frangos representa uma fonte de risco para o consumidor, devendo ser avaliada a presença da CA no produto tratado. Um método foi desenvolvido para determinação de resíduos de CA em tecidos de frangos. Após a extração com diclorometano, foi feita a limpeza do extrato em cartucho C18 e quantificação por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas (CG-EM, sem derivação. A recuperação média (89,2% - CV 9,9%. e o limite de detecção (1,8ng/g foram considerados satisfatórios para os propósitos do estudo. Em amostras tratadas com DGCH e não submetidas a processamento térmico, a quantidade de CA detectada foi relativamente baixa, e provavelmente se originou da solução de tratamento. A fritura e a cocção em forno convencional resultaram em níveis elevados de CA, enquanto que a cocção em panela de pressão não alterou os níveis de CA presentes na amostra crua. Em vista destes resultados e, considerando-se o potencial tóxico da CA, recomenda-se que estes dados sejam levados em consideração quando avaliada a utilização de DGCH como sanitizante de carcaças em abatedouros de aves.The degradation of the antimicrobial agent chlorhexidine digluconate (CHDG during storage or thermal process originates 4-chloroaniline (CA, a compound which is potentially carcinogenic. As the use of this sanitizing agent to decontaminate poultry carcasses in processing plants may represent a risk to the consumers, it is important to search for the presence of CA residues in the treated products. A method was developed to quantify CA in poultry tissues. After dichloromethane extraction, the extract was cleaned on a C18 cartridge and the quantitation was performed, without

  5. 氯己定龈下冲洗辅助牙周基础治疗对冠心病伴牙周炎患者血清IL-10和TNF-α水平的影响%Effect on serum IL-10 and TNF-α levels of subgingival Chlorhexidine rinse aiding periodontal basic treatment in patients of coronary artery disease with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁旭; 王友山

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of subgingival Chlorhexidine rinse aiding periodontal basic treatment in patients of coronary artery disease with periodontitis and its effect on serum IL-10 and TNF-α levels. Methods 62 cases of stable coronary artery disease with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis patients were collected,all patients were given base periodontal treatment,including subgingival scaling therapy,oral health guidance,curettage and root planing subgingival,and were given subgingival Chlorhexidine rinse under adjuvant therapy at the same time.The probe depth,periodontal attachment loss,sulcus bleeding index,IL-10,TNF-αlevels of patients were compared before and after the treatment. Results The probe depth,sulcus bleeding index and periodontal attachment loss of patient after treatment were lower than prior treatment.The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).IL-10 level was higher than prior treatment.TNF-αlevel was lower than prior treatment,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Subgingival Chlorhexidine rinse aiding periodontal basic treatment in patients of coronary artery disease with periodon-titis can significantly improve periodontal index,elevate IL-10 levels,lower TNF-αlevel,and is conducive to the preven-tion,treatment and delaying of coronary heart disease.%目的:探讨氯己定龈下冲洗辅助牙周基础治疗对冠心病伴牙周炎患者的效果及对血清IL-10和TNF-α水平的影响。方法选择冠心病伴中重度慢性牙周炎患者62例,所有患者均给予牙周基础治疗,包括龈上洁治、口腔健康指导、龈下刮治术及根面平整术,同时给予氯己定龈下冲洗辅助治疗。比较治疗前后探针深度、牙周附着丧失、龈沟出血指数、白介素10(IL-10)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)水平。结果治疗后探针深度、龈沟出血指数和牙周附着丧失低于治疗前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)

  6. 骆驼蓬灵单独和与洗必泰联合对抗金黄色葡萄球菌悬浮菌和生物膜的抗菌活性研究%Antimicrobial Efficacy of Harmaline Alone and in Combination with Chlorhexidine Digluconate against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus Grown in Planktonic and Biofilm Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申凤鸽; 邢明勋; 刘丽慧; 袁鹏; 史祺云; 于录

    2011-01-01

    采用微量稀释法测骆驼蓬灵和洗必泰(CHG)单独抗金黄色葡萄球菌悬浮菌和生物膜的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBC);棋盘稀释法测定两种药物联合时的协同效果;以及激光共聚焦采集图片检测部分联合的效果.结果表明,骆驼蓬灵和CHG联合具有协同抗菌效果.在悬浮菌试验中,9株显示抗浮游菌协同活性,在生物膜试验中,11株显示协同抗生物膜活性.其余菌株显示相加活性,本试验中无颉颃作用.初步探索了体外试验协同作用的原因,为克服金黄色葡萄球菌耐药提供了一个可供选择的方法.%Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of harmaline and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were determined for each microorganism grown in suspension or biofilm using microbroth dilution method. Chequerboard assays were used to determine synergistic, indifferent or antagonistic interactions between harmaline and CHG; and some of the results were verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Harmaline and CHG showed effective antimicrobial activity against suspensions and biofilm cultures of S. aureus. Synergistic antimicrobial effects between harmaline and CHG were observed in 9 and 11 of the 13 S. aureus strains when in suspension and in biofilm, respectively. No antagonistic activity was observed in any of the strains tested. Synergistic activity of harmaline and CHG against clinical isolates of S. aureus (in suspension and in biofilm) were observed in vitro. This study might provide alternative methods to reduce the resistance of S. aureus both in suspension and biofilm.

  7. 葡萄糖酸盐氯己定应用于儿童静脉留置针皮肤消毒效果观察%Effect of glucose acid salt chlorhexidine on disinfection of venous indwelling catheter of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑慧萍; 朱惠莉; 胡苏军; 戎梅华

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过比较两种皮肤消毒剂使用的不同效果,探求幼儿留置针穿刺的最佳皮肤消毒剂.方法 选取2月龄~3岁患儿,按留置先后顺序随机抽取500例(静脉留置1次为1例),根据随机数字表将患儿分为观察组和对照组;两组患儿使用留置针、透明敷贴相同,分别为BD 24G安全型留置针、3M透明敷贴;观察组使用2%葡萄糖酸盐氯己定(CHG)进行皮肤消毒,对照组使用复合碘进行皮肤消毒.结果 观察组与对照组两组静脉留置患儿使用不同消毒剂消毒皮肤后相关数据比较,平均消毒待干时间观察组(14.64±1.31)s对照组(58.93±4.82)s(P<0.01);一次穿刺成功率观察组为88.4%、对照组为81.6%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);透明敷料松动率观察组为7.2%、对照组为25.6%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);穿刺部位发红率观察组为1.6%、对照组为4.8%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 2%葡萄糖酸盐氯己定能有效用于儿童临床留置针穿刺皮肤消毒,它具有消毒待干时间短、一次穿刺成功率高、引起透明敷料松动及穿刺部位发红较少等优点,值得在儿童静脉留置消毒中推广.%OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of two kinds of skin disinfectants so as to explore the best skin disinfectants for the indwelling catheter of the children.METHODS The children aged from 2 months to 3 years old were recruited,and 500 cases were randomly extracted according to the order of indwelling catheterization and were divided into the observation group and the control group according to the table of random number; the two groups of children used the same indwelling needle and transparent applicators,which were 24 G safe indwelling needle of BD and the transparent applicator of 3 M.The skin disinfection of the observation group was carried out by using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG),while the control group was treated with compound iodine.RESULTS As

  8. Chlorhexidine gluconate, its properties and applications in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2008-01-01

    The major objective in endodontic therapy is to disinfect the entire root canal system. This requires that the pulpal content be eliminated as sources of infection. This goal may be accomplished by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation, in conjunction with medication of the root canal between treatment sessions. Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major cause of pulpal and periradicular pathosis. In order to reduce or eliminate bacteria from the root can...

  9. Estudio sobre la prevención quimioterapéutica de la caries dental con barnices de clorhexidina y timol, en niños de 5-8 años de edad, con riesgo alto de caries.: Un reporte preliminar Study on the chemotherapeutic prevention of the caries with chlorhexidine/thymol varnish in children of 5-8 years old, with high caries risk.: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C García-Santos

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de reducir la caries de fisura en las caras oclusales de los primeros molares permanentes, a través de barnices antimicrobianos, en escolares con alta incidencia de caries. Se ha realizado un ensayo clínico aleatorio a doble ciego. Sujetos: 35 niños saludables con edades comprendidas entre los 6 y 8 años, con alto riesgo de caries, fueron seleccionados en un colegio de Madrid. Par ser incluidos en el estudio cada niño debería tener como mínimo dos primeros molares permanentes sanos, y presentar caries en dentina en sus molares temporales. Métodos: después de la profilaxis dental, el grupo de estudio se le aplicaba un barniz de clorhexidina 1% y timol 1% (Cervitec, y al grupo control un barniz de placebo. El barniz era colocado sobre todos los dientes (dentición temporal y permanente cada tres meses (al inicio a los 3,6 y 9 meses y el incremento de caries era comparado a los 12 meses. Resultados: al inicio del estudio no habían diferencias entre los grupos. Al año existía una diferencia significativa entre el grupo de estudio y el de control, en CAO-D P=0,001, CAO-S P=0,000 (en los primeros molares permanentes . Conclusión: la aplicación de Cervitec cada 3 meses, es efectiva previniendo la caries en los primeros molares permanentes de escolares con alta actividad de caries.Objective: the purpose of this study, was to evaluate the possibility of reducing occlusal fissures caries development, in permanent first molars, using an antimicrobial varnish, in schoolchildren with high caries activity. Randomised, a double-blind clinical trial was developed. Subjects: 35 healthy children aged 6-8 years with high caries risk, were selected from a schools in Madrid. To be included in the study, each child had to have least 2 sound permanent molars and primary molars with carious lesions in dentin. Methods: after prophylaxis, test groups received 1% chlorhexidine and 1% thymol

  10. Drug: D01345 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AA04 Chlorhexidine D01345 Chlorhexidine hydrochloride (JP16/USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Den...tal and Oral Agents Chlorhexidine D01345 Chlorhexidine hydrochloride (JP16/USAN) CA

  11. Microbiological evaluation of different antiseptic povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine formulations after intentional contamination of containers Evaluación microbiológica de las diferentes formulaciones antisépticas, polivinil-pirrolidona-yodo y clorexidina, después de la contaminación intencional de los recipientes Avaliação microbiológica das diferentes formulações anti-sépticas, polivinilpirrolidona-iodo e clorexidina, após contaminação intencional das almotolias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Moreira Padovani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the survival rate of microorganisms within different antiseptic formulations - povidone-iodine (PVP-I and chlorhexidine (CHX - after intentional contamination, and to establish the minimum care necessary to ensure sterilization of non-disposable antiseptic solution containers. A laboratory study was performed with 180 antiseptic containers, which were contaminated with Serratia marcescens [1 x 105 UFC/mL]. The containers were closed and stored, at room temperature, during seven days and shaken daily. The antiseptic cultures were evaluated to be 100% negative to Serratia marcescens in all of the non-disposable containers. These results suggested that antiseptic solutions inactivate microorganisms [1 x 105 UFC/mL]. Since cleaned antiseptic containers have around 102 UFC coming from tap water, it can be inferred that cleansing is a safe minimum procedure to ensure reuse of containers for distribution of CHX and PVP-I solutions in aqueous, detergent and alcoholic formulations.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar la sobre vivencia de los micro organismos en las diferentes formulaciones de los antisépticos clorexidina (CHX y polivinil-pirrolidona-yodo (PVP-Y, después de una contaminación intencional de los recipientes y extrapolar los resultados de los laboratorios para el cuidado mínimo a ser dispensado a los recipientes de múltiple uso para el envase de los antisépticos probados. Para esto, fue desarrollado un estudio de laboratorio, en que 180 recipientes fueron contaminados con 1 x 105 UFC/mL de suspensión conteniendo S.marcescens. Después de la contaminación, seis diferentes formulaciones de antisépticos (clorexidina y PVP-Y en los vehículos alcohólico, detergente y acuoso fueron distribuidos y sometidos a la cultura diaria durante siete días, a fin de verificar se hubo crecimiento del microorganismo. Los resultados de esta investigación permiten recomendar la limpieza como el procedimiento m

  12. New trends in dentistry: plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Lígia de Castilho; Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni; Ingrit Elida Collantes Díaz; Mateus Luís Barradas Paciencia; Ivana Barbosa Suffredini

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. Twenty-five plant extracts obtained from Brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic E. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and the disk diffusion assay (DDA), using chlo...

  13. Chlorhexidine resistance in a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from an aquatic source

    OpenAIRE

    Sekavec, Jeffrey G.; Moore, William T.; Gillock, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium of considerable importance in both clinical, especially nosocomial infections, and zoonotic respects, both aquatic and terrestrial infections. In addition to the ability to thrive in a wide range of conditions, A. hydrophila is resistant to numerous antibiotics and antimicrobials. In conjunction with Kansas State University and the Kansas Water Office, water samples from various locations within Kansas were screened for organisms resistant to ...

  14. Insights into bacterial colonization of intensive care patients' skin: the effect of chlorhexidine daily bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassir, N; Papazian, L; Fournier, P-E; Raoult, D; La Scola, B

    2015-05-01

    Skin is a major reservoir of bacterial pathogens in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the skin bacterial richness and diversity in ICU patients and the effect of CHG daily bathing on skin microbiota. Twenty ICU patients were included during an interventional period with CHG daily bathing (n = 10) and a control period (n = 10). At day seven of hospitalization, eight skin swab samples (nares, axillary vaults, inguinal creases, manubrium and back) were taken from each patient. The bacterial identification was performed by microbial culturomics. We used the Shannon index to compare the diversity. We obtained 5,000 colonies that yielded 61 bacterial species (9.15 ± 3.7 per patient), including 15 (24.5 %) that had never been cultured from non-pathological human skin before, and three (4.9 %) that had never been cultured from human samples before. Notably, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from all sites. In the water-and-soap group, there was a higher risk of colonization with Gram-negative bacteria (OR = 6.05, 95 % CI [1.67-21.90]; P = 0.006). In the CHG group, we observed more patients colonized by sporulating bacteria (9/10 vs. 3/10; P = 0.019) with a reduced skin bacterial richness (P = 0.004) and lower diversity (0.37, 95 % CI [0.33; 0.42] vs. 0.50, 95 % CI [0.48; 0.52]). Gram-negative bacteria are frequent and disseminated components of the transient skin flora in ICU patients. CHG daily bathing is associated with a reduction in Gram-negative bacteria colonization together with substantial skin microbiota shifts. PMID:25604707

  15. Chlorhexidine Gluconate Dressings Reduce Bacterial Colonization Rates in Epidural and Peripheral Regional Catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Kerwat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bacterial colonization of catheter tips is common in regional anesthesia and is a suspected risk factor for infectious complications. This is the first study evaluating the effect of CHG-impregnated dressings on bacterial colonization of regional anesthesia catheters in a routine clinical setting. Methods. In this prospective study, regional anesthesia catheter infection rates were examined in two groups of patients with epidural and peripheral regional catheters. In the first group, regional anesthesia was dressed with a conventional draping. The second group of patients underwent catheter dressing using a CHG-impregnated draping. Removed catheters and the insertion sites were both screened for bacterial colonization. Results. A total of 337 catheters from 308 patients were analysed. There was no significant reduction of local infections in either epidural or peripheral regional anesthesia catheters in both CHG and conventional groups. In the conventional group, 21% of the catheter tips and 41% of the insertion sites showed positive culture results. In the CHG-group, however, only 3% of the catheter tips and 8% of the insertion sites were colonised. Conclusion. CHG dressings significantly reduce bacterial colonization of the tip and the insertion site of epidural and peripheral regional catheters. However, no reductions in rates of local infections were seen.

  16. Antibacterial effects and physical properties of glass-ionomer cements containing chlorhexidine for the ART approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takahashi, Y.; Imazato, S.; Kaneshiro, A.V.; Ebisu, S.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Tay, F.R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) involves removal of carious lesions with manual instruments, improvement of filling materials to guarantee greater success should be considered. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial, physical, and bonding properties of glass-ionomer ceme

  17. Maximum inhibitory dilution of mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine and polyhexamethylene biguanide against salivary staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro maximum inhibitory dilution (MID of two chlorhexidinebased oral mouthwashes (CHX: Noplak®, Periogard®, and one polyhexamethylene biguanide-based mouthwash (PHMB: Sanifill Premium® against 28 field Staphylococcus aureus strains using the agar dilution method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For each product, decimal dilutions ranging from 1/10 to 1/655,360 were prepared in distilled water and added to Mueller Hinton Agar culture medium. After homogenization, the culture medium was poured onto Petri dishes. Strains were inoculated using a Steers multipoint inoculator and dishes were incubated at 37ºC for 24hours. For reading, MID was considered as the maximum dilution of the mouthwash still capable of inhibiting microbial growth. RESULTS: Sanifill Premium® inhibited the growth of all strains at 1/40 dilution and of 1 strain at 1/80 dilution. Noplak® inhibited the growth of 23 strains at 1/640 dilution and of all 28 strains at 1/320 dilution. Periogard® showed inhibited growth of 7 strains at 1/640 dilution and of all 28 strains at 1/320 dilution. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis statistical test, showing significant differences between the mouthwashes evaluated (p0.05. Sanifill Premium® was the least effective (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that CHX-based mouthwashes present better antimicrobial activity against S. Aureus than the PHMB-based mouthwash.

  18. The effects of propidium monoazide treatment on the measured composition of polymicrobial biofilms after treatment with chlorhexidine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M. Exterkate; E. Zaura; M.J. Buijs; J. Koopman; W. Crielaard; J.M. ten Cate

    2014-01-01

    Background: The treatment of polymicrobial biofilms with antimicrobial compounds results in not only an overall loss of viability, but also compositional shifts. While DNA-based technologies may be more appropriate for the assessment of bacterial composition than culturing, these techniques amplify

  19. Comparative evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine and Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera on dentin stabilization using shear bond testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshita Joy Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: CHX and A. barbadensis Miller, as pretreatment agents of acid demineralized dentin collagen, has no adverse effect on the immediate shear bond strength of a two-step etch and rinse adhesive to dentin.

  20. The synthesis of bisguanidinoalkanes and guanidinoalkanes, N- or N'-substitutes with pyrimidines, as analogues of chlorhexidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of N,N''' -alkanediylbis[N'-(5-halopyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine] salts has been synthesized along with N,N'''-(trans-cyclohexane-1,4-diyl)bis[N'-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine], N,N'''-(cis-cyclohexane-1,4-diyl)bis[N'-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine] dihydrochloride and N-(cis-4-aminocyclohexan-1-yl)-N'-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine dihydrochloride. Furthermore, a series of N-(alkan-1-yl)-N'-(5-chloropyrimidin-2yl)guanidine hydrochlorides and N-(6-aminohexan-1-yl)-N'-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine dihydrochloride were synthesized. This series of compounds was prepared by displacement reactions of 2-methylsulfonylpyrimidines with bisguanidinoalkanes or by condensation of 5-chloro-2-cyanoaminopyrimidine (5-chloropyrimidin-2-ylcyanamide) with alkylamines. 19 refs

  1. The synthesis of bisguanidinoalkanes and guanidinoalkanes, N- or N`-substitutes with pyrimidines, as analogues of chlorhexidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmes, B.C.; Holan, G.; Wernert, G.T.; Winkler, D.A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Div. of Materials Science

    1996-12-31

    A series of N,N``` -alkanediylbis[N`-(5-halopyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine] salts has been synthesized along with N,N```-(trans-cyclohexane-1,4-diyl)bis[N`-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine], N,N```-(cis-cyclohexane-1,4-diyl)bis[N`-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine] dihydrochloride and N-(cis-4-aminocyclohexan-1-yl)-N`-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine dihydrochloride. Furthermore, a series of N-(alkan-1-yl)-N`-(5-chloropyrimidin-2yl)guanidine hydrochlorides and N-(6-aminohexan-1-yl)-N`-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)guanidine dihydrochloride were synthesized. This series of compounds was prepared by displacement reactions of 2-methylsulfonylpyrimidines with bisguanidinoalkanes or by condensation of 5-chloro-2-cyanoaminopyrimidine (5-chloropyrimidin-2-ylcyanamide) with alkylamines. 19 refs.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite, chlorhexidine and MTAD® against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm on human dentin matrix in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Francescutti Murad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl, 2% gel and liquid CHX and MTAD against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms on human dentin. Material and methods: E. faecalis biofilms grown on dentin matrix of 216 root sections were submerged in test irrigants for 1, 5, 15 and 30 minutes. The antimicrobial activity of the test irrigants were assessed through CFU counts. Biofilm formation over the dentin surface was ensured by SEM analysis. Results: Results showed no statistic difference among CHX gel, 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl. However, the CHX liquid and MTAD were less effective than 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl. Only CHX liquid and MTAD had differences in its efficacy depending on the time. Conclusion: The most effective irrigants in eliminating E. faecalis biofilms were 2.5% and 5.25% NaOCl and 2% CHX gel, at all the tested time intervals, in comparison to CHX liquid and MTAD.

  3. The antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis: A review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods

    OpenAIRE

    Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly

    2013-01-01

    Complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. Despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment...

  4. Influence of temperature and concentration on the dynamic viscosity of sodium hypochlorite in comparison with 17% EDTA and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayutham Gopikrishna

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Analysis Used: The tests used for the statistical analysis were Kolmogorov- Smirnov and Shapiro Wilk tests, one-way ANOVA, and independent sample t-test. Results: Viscosity statistically increased with NaOCl concentration and decreased with increasing temperature. Amongst the tested NaOCl groups, 5.25% NaOCl at room temperature was significantly the most viscous (μ =1.5300 Cps while 1.25% NaOCl at 60°C was significantly the least viscous (μ =1.1800 Cps. Conclusions: 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA are significantly viscous at room temperature. Elevating the temperature of 1.25% NaOCl to 60°C significantly reduces the viscosity of the NaOCl.

  5. An evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite, high-frequency alternating current and 2% chlorhexidine on Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Karale

    2011-01-01

    Materials and Methods : Eighty extracted, single rooted permanent upper anterior teeth were instrumented up to size 50, teeth were sterilized and inoculated with E.faecalis, subcultured in BHI broth which had its optical density adjusted to approximately 1.5×10 8 colony forming units (CFUs ml -1 by comparing its turbidity to a McFarland 0.5 BaSO 4 standard solution. After incubation for 24 h, the contaminated root canals were divided into four groups and subjected to action of NaOCl 3%, CHX 2%, and HFAC with physiological saline as a positive control. Sterile paper points were selected to take the sample of the bacteria and transferred to tubes containing 5ml of BHI broth and then incubated for 24 and 48 h, followed by agar plating of the resultant broth turbidity on Enterococcus confirmatory agar. Results : Data obtained were analyzed statistically for differences using chi-squared test, comparing different groups, with a significance level established at P<0.05 and 3% NaOCl showed no growth postoperatively, CHX and HFAC showed reduction of postoperative growth compared to physiological saline and, were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion : In the present study, sodium hypochlorite, CHX, HFAC all were significantly effective in eliminating E. faecalis and sodium hypochlorite showed the maximum anti-bacterial activity against E. faecalis.

  6. Efficacy of Dental Floss and Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse as an Adjunct to Toothbrushing in Removing Plaque and Gingival Inflammation – A Three Way Cross Over Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Vikram; Tangade, Pradeep; T.L., Ravishankar; Tirth, Amit; Pal, Sumit; Tandon, Vaibhav

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maintaining good oral hygiene is important to combat periodontal diseases. The use of tooth brush alone does not serve the purpose of removing plaque which demands the use of some adjuncts such as proximal cleaning aids.

  7. Multivariate analysis of surface physico-chemical properties controlling biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives prior to and after fluoride and chlorhexidine treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; Pratten, Jonathan; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2006-01-01

    Biofilm formation on orthodontic adhesives is a serious clinical problem, as it leads to enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic appliances, often leaving white spot lesions after their removal. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of surface physico-chemical properties of fo

  8. Prevention of nosocomial infection in cardiac surgery by decontamination of the nasopharynx and oropharynx with chlorhexidine gluconate - A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Segers; R.G.H. Speekenbrink; D.T. Ubbink; M.L. van Ogtrop; B.A. de Mol

    2006-01-01

    Context Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Decolonization of endogenous potential pathogenic microorganisms is important in the prevention of nosocomial infections. Objective To determine the efficacy of perioperative decontamination of the

  9. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Triphala (an Indian Ayurvedic herbal formulation and 0.2% chlorhexidine against Streptococcus mutans biofilm formed on tooth substrate: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Triphala showed statistically significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. The incorporation of Triphala in mouth rinse could prove to be effective in reducing S. mutans count in the oral cavity.

  10. Evidence-based guidelines for chlorhexidine gluconate in preoperative skin preparation to reduce surgical site infection in patients undergoing general surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Shuk-tin; 黎淑鈿

    2013-01-01

    Surgical site infection not only brings morbidity and mortality to patients, but it also bring substantial financial burden to the hospital and the healthcare system. To minimize the clinical consequences of surgical site infection, it is crucial that all appropriate measures for reduction of surgical site infection should be implemented. Since patient’s skin is a potential source of pathogens, normal skin flora is a common cause of surgical site infections. Preoperative skin disinfection of ...

  11. Prevention and management guidelines to oral health care for patients with head and neck cancer: HCT20, Carisolv and chlorhexidine varnish are suggested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orofacial complications are unfortunately common with all modalities used in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. It is well known that hypo salivation develops if radiation therapy involves the salivary glands. A significant decrease in salivary volume can adversely affect oral comfort, mucosal health, dentition, deglutition and mastication. Xerostomia may lead to consumption of diet high in carbohydrates and make good oral hygiene difficult. (author)

  12. Drug: D04425 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e salicylate - hydrocortisone acetate - benzalkonium chloride - chlorhexidine hydrochloride mixt PubChem: 17398102 ... ...D04425 Mixture, Drug Diphenhydramine salicylate - hydrocortisone acetate - benzalkonium chloride - chlorhexi...dine hydrochloride mixt; Despa (TN) Diphenhydramine salicylate [DR:D02419], Hydroco

  13. Near fatal intra-operative anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine—is it time to change practice?

    OpenAIRE

    R. A. Khan; Kazi, T; O'Donohoe, B

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a near fatal anaphylactic reaction to chlorhexidine. Increasingly adverse reactions are being reported with the use of chlorhexidine. Serious reactions are related to use on mucous membranes and acceptable alternatives are readily available. Therefore, the fundamental question that must be asked is: is it time to withdraw chlorhexidine preparations used for mucous membranes?

  14. Optimization of preparation technology of hydrocortisone and chlorhexidine acetate cream and investigation of its in vitro realse%氢定乳膏制备工艺的优化及体外释放度考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨跃辉; 丁平田; 何溥汉

    2008-01-01

    目的:优化氢定乳膏的制备工艺,测定其体外释放速率.方法:以乳膏的均匀度和粒度为考察指标,采用正交设计优化制备工艺;采用高效液相色谱法测定氢定乳膏在释放介质中的含量及释放速率.结果:最佳制备工艺为三乙醇胺和聚山梨醇酯-80加入水相中,乳化温度85℃,变速搅拌,乳化40 min.氢化可的松和醋酸氯已定的释放速率分别为13.9,137.1 μg·cm-2·h-1/2,r=0.983 5,r=0.996.结论:以最优工艺制备的3批制剂释放参数无明显变化,质量稳定.

  15. Efeito da concentração de clorexidina na resistência de união à dentina em dentes decíduos =: Effect of chlorhexidine concentration on the bond strength to dentin in primary teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Manfro, Aline Rosler Grings

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do uso de digluconato de clorexidina 0,5% e 2% na resistência de união imediata à dentina de dentes decíduos para um sistema adesivo convencional. Metodologia: Vinte e um molares decíduos hígidos foram divididos em três grupos (n=7), sendo um controle e dois experimentais. Após a exposição da dentina, foi realizado no grupo controle (A) o procedimento adesivo utilizando ácido fosfórico gel a 37% (15 s); a superfície foi então lavada (15 s), seca com ar (30 s) e reid...

  16. The effects of a new mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc lactate on the microflora of oral halitosis patients : a dual-centre, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roldan, S; Winkel, EG; Herrera, D; Sanz, M; Van Winkelhoff, AJ

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the microbial effects of a newly formulated mouthwash (Halita((R)) ) on oral halitosis patients. Methods: Forty subjects were included in this dual-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select patients. At bas

  17. Severe anaphylaxis: the secret ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buergi, Andreas; Jung, Barbara; Padevit, Christian; John, Hubert; Ganter, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    In this case report, we describe a healthy urological patient who suffered severe intraoperative anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine, an ingredient contained in frequently used lubricants (Instillagel, Endosgel). Chlorhexidine is a well-known skin disinfectant and antiseptic component in mouthwash or other over the counter antiseptic pharmaceuticals. There is little awareness that commonly used lubricants may contain hidden chlorhexidine. After severe intraoperative anaphylaxis, it is important to investigate all potential (including hidden) agents that might have caused this life-threatening reaction. PMID:25611155

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation on disinfectant, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 60Co-γ irradiation on the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine hydrochloride was examined and the following results were obtained. 1. The radioresistance of B. pumilus ATCC 27142 spore suspended in the solution of chlorhexidine hydrochloride was apparently higher than that suspended in distilled water. 2. The antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine hydrochloride irradiated in wet state decreased with an increase of irradiation dose, but that in dry state did not decrease. Upon irradiating chlorhexidine hydrochloride adsorbed on cellulose product, the antibacterial acticity showed a similar tendency. (auth.)

  19. Perbandingan Pengaruh Larutan dan Gel Klorheksidin Terhadap Kekuatan Geser Perlekatan Breket Logam

    OpenAIRE

    Malayati

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the comparison of the influence of chlorhexidine solution and chlorhexidine gel as antiseptic agents on the shear bond strength of metallic brackets. For this purpose, 50 samples of man’s first maxillary premolars which were cleaned and extracted were divided into five equal clusters. Cluster 1 was controlling cluster, cluster 2 was the application of 0.2% of chlorhexidine solution, cluster 3 was the application of 0.2% of chlorhexidine gel, cluster 4 was the...

  20. Evaluation of the antimicrobial and physical properties of an orthodontic photo-activated adhesive modified with an antiplaque agent: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjyot Singh

    2013-01-01

    Results: The findings indicated that (1 addition of chlorhexidine to the orthodontic composite resin enhanced its antimicrobial properties, (2 there was no significant difference between the bond strengths of the control and the experimental resins tested after 24 h and 25 days and (3 maximum release of chlorhexidine from the modified resin was much higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration level.

  1. In vitro antiplaque activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (WIN 41464-2) against preformed plaques of selected oral plaque-forming microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, A M; O'Connor, J R

    1983-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of octenidine dihydrochloride (WIN 41464-2) against intact preformed in vitro plaques of four indigenous oral plaque-forming microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinomyces naeslundii, was studied. Both absolute (plaque bactericidal index) and relative (chlorhexidine coefficient) indices of antiplaque efficacy were established. Octenidine dihydrochloride compared favorably with chlorhexidine digluconate with respect...

  2. Irritancy of antiseptics tested by repeated open exposures on the human skin, evaluated by non-invasive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; Schuur, J; Coenraads, PJ

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the irritancy of 6 antiseptics in an open exposure model. The following agents were tested in their normal use concentrations using open exposures, 2x daily for 4 days in 20 subjects: chlorhexidine 4% (CH), chlorhexidine 0.5% in ethanol 70% (CE), ethanol 70% (ET), io

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Shahani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to 72 h, followed by 1% povidone iodine, and 2% sodium hypochlorite. Thus 2% chlorhexidine should be used as a final rinse irrigant in endodontic treatment protocols.

  4. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Topical Polysporin Triple Compound Versus Topical Mupirocin for the Eradication of Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Complex Continuing Care Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O’Grady

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intranasal mupirocin or Polysporin Triple (PT ointment (polymyxin B, bacitracin, gramicidin, in combination with chlorhexidine body washes, have been used for eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, but no comparative studies have been done.

  5. Preventing root caries development under oral biofilm challenge in an artificial mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, May Lei; CHU, CHUN HUNG; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To study the preventive effects of chlorhexidine against root caries under oral biofilm in an artificial mouth. Study Design: Sixteen human tooth-root disks were inoculated with a salivary sample that was produced by mixing the unstimulated saliva of three adults who had no untreated caries. The disks were incubated in an artificial mouth fed with a 5% sucrose solution three times daily for one week. Eight disks received a twice daily rinse of 0.12% chlorhexidine (test group). The...

  6. Comparison of the sensitivities of the Buehler test and the guinea pig maximization test for predictive testing of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Vølund, A; Wahlberg, J E;

    2001-01-01

    dose-response model. To compare the sensitivity of the 2 test procedures the test conditions were kept identical and the following chemicals with a range of sensitization potentials were tested: chloraniline, chlorhexidine, eugenol, formaldehyde, mercaptobenzothiazole and neomycin sulphate....... Formaldehyde and neomycin sulphate were strong sensitizers in both tests. Mercaptobenzothiazole, eugenol and chloraniline were all strong sensitizers in the GPMT, eugenol and mercaptobenzothiazole were negative in the Buehler test and equivocal results were obtained with chloraniline. Chlorhexidine...

  7. Effect of ozone water rinse on wound healing in rats withPseudomonas aeruginosa infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-Hua Ye; Jun-Wu Huang; Hong-Yun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the promoting effect of ozone water rinse on wound healing in rats with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.Methods:Wistar male rats were selected as experimental animals and randomly divided into control group, chlorhexidine group and ozone water group,Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected wounds were made and cleaned with normal saline, chlorhexidine and ozone water respectively; would healing of three groups was observed, wound tissue was collected and contents of inflammatory factors, apoptosis molecules and autophagy markers were detected.Results:Wound healing rates of chlorhexidine group and ozone water group were higher than that of control group and wound healing time was shorter than that of control group, wound healing rate of ozone water group was higher than that of chlorhexidine group and wound healing time was shorter than that of chlorhexidine group; TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, Fas, FasL and Beclin-1 contents and LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ ratios in wound tissue of chlorhexidine group and ozone water group were lower than those of control group, and TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, Fas, FasL and Beclin-1 contents and LC3Ⅱ/LC3Ⅰ ratios in wound tissue of ozone water group were lower than those of chlorhexidine group.Conclusions:Compared with normal saline and chlorhexidine, ozone water rinse helps to promote wound healing, improve wound healing rate and shorten wound healing time in rats withPseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and meanwhile it can inhibit cell apoptosis and autophagy in the wounds.

  8. Clinical efficacy analysis of the mouth rinsing with pomegranate and chamomile plant extracts in the gingival bleeding reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana Luzia Araújo; Lins, Ruthineia Diógenes Alves Uchôa; de Souza Coelho, Renata; do Nascimento Barbosa, Danielle; Moura Belém, Nayara; Alves Celestino, Frayni Josley

    2014-02-01

    Medicinal plants represent important therapeutic resources to health restoration, including the use of herbal products in the mouth conditions treatment. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of mouth rinse with pomegranate and chamomile plant extracts, against chlorhexidine 0.12% in the gingiva bleeding condition. The mouth rinses with the herbal products were effective for this case, showing thus, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties similar to that of chlorhexidine 0.12%. PMID:24439653

  9. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    M N Shahani; Subba Reddy, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to ...

  10. Accuracy of Root ZX in teeth with simulated root perforation in the presence of gel or liquid type endodontic irrigant

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyeong-Soon; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Ri; Ko, Hyun-Jung; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Park, Se-Hee; Kim, Jin-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the accuracy of the Root ZX in teeth with simulated root perforation in the presence of gel or liquid type endodontic irrigants, such as saline, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine liquid, 2% chlorhexidine gel, and RC-Prep, and also to determine the electrical conductivities of these endodontic irrigants. Materials and Methods A root perforation was simulated on twenty freshly extracted teeth by means of a small perforation made on the proximal surface o...

  11. Comparative evaluation of the effect of cavity disinfectants on the fracture resistance of primary molars restored with indirect composite inlays: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effect of cavity disinfectants on the fracture resistance of primary molars restored with indirect composite inlays. Thirty-six non-carious primary second molars were selected and divided randomly into three groups (n = 12: control group (no disinfectant, chlorhexidine group (disinfected with 2% chlorhexidine for 40 seconds and sodium hypochlorite group crowns (disinfected with 2% chlorhexidine for 40 seconds. The inlays were fabricated by indirect method using Ceram X nanocomposite on plaster die. All the groups were submitted to compression mechanic test in a Hounsfield universal testing machine at 1 mm/min cross-head speed and the results were calculated in Newtons. Descriptive statistics, independent t test, and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA test revealed the mean fracture resistance of three groups, i.e., control group, chlorhexidine group and sodium hypochlorite group to be 2260.66, 1858.08 and 1310.66, respectively. When intragroup comparisons were made, a significant difference was observed in all the groups (P<0.001. Scheffe′s post hoc test revealed that control group had the highest fracture resistance, followed by chlorhexidine group, and sodium hypochlorite group had the least fracture resistance. Each value differed significantly from the other (P<0.05. Cavity disinfectants used in the present study had detrimental effect on the fracture resistance of primary molars. Among the disinfectants employed in the present study, chlorhexidine showed a better resistance to fracture than sodium hypochlorite.

  12. Estudio clínico comparativo entre colutorio de p-clorofenol y peróxido de hidrógeno con colutorio de clorhexidina al 0.12% en el crecimiento de placa microbiana y gingivitis Mouthwash comparative study between p-chlorophenol and hydrogen peroxide with chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.12% in the growth of microbial plaque and gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    PD Jaña; LI Yévenes; AS Rivera

    2010-01-01

    Se formuló un colutorio a base de p-clorofenol alcanforado y peróxido de hidrógeno, y considerando que no se disponían de antecedentes de eficacia y seguridad del colutorio, se realizó un ensayo clínico para medirlas utilizando un modelo de formación de placa microbiana y gingivitis en un período de cuatro días, como control positivo se uso un colutorio de clorhexidina al 0.12%. Participaron 26 sujetos en un estudio doble ciego cruzado y con distribución aleatoria. El colutorio en base a p-cl...

  13. Efeito de gomas de mascar contendo clorofenol / peróxido de hidrogênio, xilitol ou clorexidina no fluxo salivar, pH, capacidade tampão e escores salivares de Streptococcus mutans = Effects of chlorophenol / hydrogen peroxide versus xylitol or chlorhexidine as chewing gum on salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity and salivary Streptococcus mutans scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yévenes López, Ismael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Gomas de mascar medicadas são preparações sólidas, de dose única, que devem ser mastigadas por um determinado período de tempo a fim de que um ou mais agentes farmacológicos sejam admnistrados. Neste contexto, gomas de mascar medicadas com três ingredientes farmacêuticos ativos – cânfora, p-clorofenol e peróxido de hidrogênio – foram avaliadas como agentes terapêuticos para cárie dentária. O objetivo deste estúdio foi comparar o efeito de gomas de mascar contendo chlorophenol / peróxido de hidrogênio, xilitol ou clorexidina sobre Streptococos mutans salivares, pH, capacidade tampão, a taxa de secreção salivar. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo duplo-cego, com deliamento de randomização cruzada de tratamento em 24 pacientes. Esses foram submetidos a seis sequências diferentes de tratamento. Gomas de mascar foram administradas três vezes ao dia durante 20 minutos, pela manhã, tarde e noite. No início e no final das três fases de amostras de saliva experimentais foram obtidas para a determinação de pH, capacidade tampão, fluxo salivar e enumeração quantitativa de S. mutans. Resultados: O uso de goma medicado de cânfora com p-clorofenol e peróxido de hidrogénio não modificaram os parâmetros químicos salivares medidos, e reduziram o número de S. mutans, após 7 dias. Gomas de mascar contendo clorexidina reduziram significativamente a contagem quantitativa de S. mutans e a taxa de fluxo salivar em um período de 7 dias. Conclusões: O uso de gomas de mascar medicadas com base de cânfora / p-clorofenol ou com peróxido de hidrogênio não altera significativamente os parâmetros químicos salivares e não reduz significativamente o número de S. mutans após a utilização por período de 7 dias

  14. Prevention and management guidelines to oral health care for patients with head and neck cancer: HCT20, Carisolv and chlorhexidine varnish are suggested; Protocolo de prevencao e tratamento de sequelas bucais em pacientes submetidos a radioterapia: uso deo HCT20, Carisolv e verniz de clorexidina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Eliete Neves da Silva; Melo, Nilce Santos de [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Odontologia]. E-mail: elieteneves@terra.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Orofacial complications are unfortunately common with all modalities used in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. It is well known that hypo salivation develops if radiation therapy involves the salivary glands. A significant decrease in salivary volume can adversely affect oral comfort, mucosal health, dentition, deglutition and mastication. Xerostomia may lead to consumption of diet high in carbohydrates and make good oral hygiene difficult. (author)

  15. O gluconato de clorexidina ou o álcool-iodo-álcool na anti-sepsia de campos operatórios em cães Chlorhexidine gluconate or alcohol-iodine-alcohol in the antisepsis of surgical area in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Décio Adair Rebellatto da Silva; Mateus Matiuzzi da Costa; Agueda Castagna de Vargas; Marcelo Meller Alievi; João Eduardo Wallau Schossler; Tatiana Resende da Silva

    2000-01-01

    Foi comparada a efetividade da anti-sepsia de sítios operatórios em vinte e quatro animais, subdivididos em três grupos, utilizando água destilada (grupo controle), álcool-iodo-álcool (grupo I) e gluconato de clorexidina (grupo II). As amostras foram coletadas através de swab da pele, depois da tricotomia (T0), após anti-sepsia (T1) e duas horas após o uso do anti-séptico (T2), e submetidas à contagem de Unidades Formadoras de Colônia(UFC)/ml. Nos três grupos, ocorreu crescimento bacteriano e...

  16. Preparation and evaluation of antimicrobial activity of nanosystems for the control of oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pupe CG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Gonçalves Pupe1, Michele Villardi1, Carlos Rangel Rodrigues1, Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha2, Lucianne Cople Maia3, Valeria Pereira de Sousa1, Lucio Mendes Cabral11Depto de Medicamentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, 2Farmanguinhos/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, 3Faculdade de Odontologia, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Diseases that affect the buccal cavity are a public health concern nowadays. Chlorhexidine and nystatin are the most commonly used drugs for the control of buccal affections. In the search for more effective antimicrobials, nanotechnology can be successfully used to improve the physical chemical properties of drugs whilst avoiding the undesirable side effects associated with its use. Herein described are studies using nystatin and chlorhexidine with sodium montmorillonite (MMTNa, and chlorhexidine with ß-cyclodextrin and two derivatives methyl-β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in the development of antimicrobial nanosystems.Methods: The nanosystems were prepared by kneading and solubilization followed by freeze-drying technique. The nanosystems were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Nanosystem antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans strains was evaluated with inhibition halo analysis.Results: The nanocarriers MMTNa and cyclodextrins showed good yields. XRPD, FTIR, and DSC analysis confirmed the proposed nanosystems formation and the suitability of the production methods. The nanosystems that showed best antimicrobial effect were chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX and cyclodextrin inclusion complexes and CHX:MMTNa 60% cation exchange capacity – 24 hours.Conclusion: The nanosystem formulations present higher stability for all chlorhexidine inclusion complexes compared with pure chlorhexidine. The nystatin nanosystems have the potential to mask the

  17. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis. L leaves against salivary Mutans streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves in the selective reduction of Mutans streptococci count in saliva compared to chlorhexidine through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Ethanolic extract (2%) was prepared and screened by UV-visible spectrophotometer to detect peaks of active compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of myrtle extract as well as chlorhexidine (0.12%) were determined against Mutans streptococci isolated from human saliva and identified bacteriologically in vivo experiments, the effect of single mouth rinse of myrtle extract or chlorhexidine was investigated against the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Mutans streptococci for two hours after rinse. The results showed the presence of one large peak at λ266.5 nm and a small one at λ672 of the extract in UV-visible spectra suggesting the presence of flavanoid. The MIC of myrtle was 106.6 μg/mL compared with 3.3 μg/mL of chlorhexidine. Single mouth rinse of myrtle extract significantly reduced the number of CFU of salivary Mutans streptococci but its effect was significantly less than that of chlorhexidine. It was concluded that the antibacterial effect of myrtle on Mutans streptococci was due to its flavanoid content. Therefore, ethanolic extract of myrtle could be a potential remedy for the prevention of colonization by Mutans streptococci thereby preventing or retarding development of dental caries. (author)

  18. Comparison of two commercially available mouth rinses on gingival inflammation, pain and acceptability after third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Bertrand; Cheng, Wu Loo; Tay, Sylvia; Fei, Yeo Jin

    2007-12-01

    A randomized clinical trial was carried out to compare the difference in the effects of using two different mouth rinses on healing after surgical removal of wisdom teeth. One mouth rinse contained chlorhexidine with alcohol whereas the other was chlorhexidine without alcohol. Twenty-one patients without any medical conditions underwent surgical removal of their 3rd molars by the same operator on both the sides. Data were analysed by the non-parametric function test. Significant differences were shown in the pain score and the number of inflammation sites (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the acceptability of the two mouth rinses. In this study, nonalcohol chlorhexidine mouth rinse seemed better than an alcohol-containing chlorhexidine mouth rinse in diminishing patients' post-operative pain and wound inflammation. Non-alcohol chlorhexidine mouth rinse had similar properties without the adverse effects of alcohol, such as dryness of the mouth and addiction. Likewise, they were less likely to result in alcohol-induced pain. PMID:18472528

  19. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary. PMID:19162371

  20. Cu(II AND Zn(II COMPLEX COMPOUNDS WITH BIGUANIDES AROMATIC DERIVATIVES. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticuţa Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis, physical-chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new complex compounds of hetero-aromatic biguanides ligands, chlorhexidine base (CHX and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHXac2 with metallic ions Cu(II and Zn(II, in different molar ratio. The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis and differential thermal analysis. The stereochemistry of the metallic ions was determined by infrared spectra, UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility in the aim to establish the complexes structures. The biological activity of the new complex compounds was identified in solid technique by measuring minimum inhibition diameter of bacterial and fungal culture, against three standard pathogen strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results show an increased specific antimicrobial activity for the complexes chlorhexidine:Cu(II 1:1 and 1:2 compared with the one of the Zn(II complexes.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil, xylitol and papain: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria de Siqueira Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus essential oil, and of the xylitol and papain substances against the following microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Samonella sp.; Staphylococus aureus; Proteus vulgaris; Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. METHOD The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation was used by means of the agar diffusion test and evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of the tested substances. Chlorhexidine 0.5% was used as control. RESULTS The Eucalyptus globulus oil showed higher inhibition than chlorhexidine when applied to Staphylococcus aureus, and equal inhibition when applied to the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Papain 10% showed lower antimicrobial effect than chlorhexidine in relation to Candida albicans. Xylitol showed no inhibition of the tested microorganisms. CONCLUSION The Eucalyptus globulus oil has antimicrobial activity against different microorganisms and appears to be a viable alternative as germicidal agent hence, further investigation is recommended.

  2. Effectiveness of sanitizing agents in inactivating Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 in food cutting board surfaces. Removal E. coli using different sanitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEZAR AUGUSTO BELTRAME

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate Escherichia coli adhesion on new and used polyethylene cutting board surface and evaluate it’s removal using different sanitizer (peracetic acid,chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite and organic acids. Results indicated that the number of adherent cells increased with time in both surfaces evaluated. Evaluating the sanitizer action, 0.5%peracetic acid was more effective in removal E. coli than chlorhexidine and organic acids at same concentration in both surfaces. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite also showed effectiveness at concentrations of 0.2% and 0.5% on new surfaces, respectively. 0.8% of chlorhexidine and 2.0% of organic acids showed similar effectiveness in the removal E. coli on new and used surfaces, respectively.These results suggest that peracetic acid is considerable promise sanitizer for application in surfaces of the food processing industry.

  3. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK+/-) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 370C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author)

  4. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of opthalmic solution preservatives and UVA radiation in L5178Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withrow, T.J.; Brown, N.T.; Hitchins, V.M.; Strickland, A.G. (Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD (USA). Center for Devices and Radiological Health)

    1989-09-01

    Four preservatives used in ophthalmic solutions were tested for toxic and mutagenic potential in mouse lymphoma cells with and without exposure of cells to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation. The preservatives tested were benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorhexidine, thimerosal and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Cell survival and mutagenesis were measured using the L5178Y mouse lymphoma (TK{sup +/-}) system. Cells were exposed to varying amounts of preservatives for 1 h at 37{sup 0}C, and aliquots irradiated with UVA radiation (during exposure to preservative). Cells were then assayed for survival, and mutagenesis at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. In concentrations commonly found in ophthalmic solutions, BAK, chlorhexidine, and thimerosal were toxic to cells, and thimerosal was slightly mutagenic. When cells were exposed to preservative and UVA radiation, chlorhexidine was mutagenic and the mutagenic activity of thimerosal was enhanced. (author).

  5. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination alongwith the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health.

  6. [Comparison of the efficacy of 2 antiseptic solutions in the prevention of infection from peridural catheters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, M N; Dinulescu, T; Mathieu, P; Giacomini, T; Le Pennec, M P

    1996-01-01

    Two antiseptic solutions (iodine polyvidone and chlorhexidine) were compared-in a prospective non-randomized study including 294 parturient women. This study aimed to assess their efficacy against infections through epidural catheters. All catheters were subsequently cultivated. Cultures were significantly positive in 3% of cases after iodine polyvidone and 1% after chlorhexidine decontamination (not significant). No clinical or biological infections were detected. Notwithstanding some apparently unavoidable but moderate contaminations, prevention of infections post epidural analgesia depends principally on a complete adherence to asepsia rules.

  7. Effect of a disinfectant udder wash and a post-milking teat dip on the bacterial population of the teat end and on the rate of new intramammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, R F; Hoare, R J

    1980-10-01

    A pre-milking wash disinfectant procedure employing a 2% (w/v) chlorhexidine solution in a detergent basic did not reduce the rate of new intramammary infection in a lactating herd challenged with Staphylococcus aureus. Teat-end swabs showed no significant difference in the number of Staph. aureus isolated from the teat-ends pre-washed with either water, or water and chlorhexidine. In contrast, disinfecting teats after milking with a solution containing 5000 mg available iodine/l significantly reduced the staphylococcal population of the teat-ends and the rate of new intramammary infection, compared with teats not disinfected. PMID:7451707

  8. Committee Opinion No. 571: Solutions for surgical preparation of the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Currently, only povidone-iodine preparations are approved for vaginal surgical-site antisepsis. However, there are compelling reasons to consider chlorhexidine gluconate solutions for off-label use in surgical preparation of the vagina, especially in women with allergies to iodine. Although chlorhexidine gluconate solutions with high concentrations of alcohol are contraindicated for surgical preparation of the vagina, solutions with low concentrations of alcohol (eg, 4%) are both safe and effective for off-label use as vaginal surgical preparations and may be used as an alternative to iodine-based preparations in cases of allergy or when preferred by the surgeon. PMID:23963423

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Morus alba leaf against periodontal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Gunjal

    2015-01-01

    Results: P. gingivalis was the most sensitive organism against the M. alba extract with an MIC value of 1.95 mg/ml; while T. forsythia and P. gingivalis both were most sensitive organisms against chlorhexidine gluconate with MIC values of 0.00781 mg/ml. Conclusion: M. alba possess good antibacterial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia and thus would be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. However, chlorhexidine gluconate was found to be more effective when compared to M. alba.

  10. Differential effect of CLK SR Kinases on HIV-1 gene expression: potential novel targets for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobson Wendy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA processing plays a critical role in the replication of HIV-1, regulated in part through the action of host SR proteins. To explore the impact of modulating SR protein activity on virus replication, the effect of increasing or inhibiting the activity of the Cdc2-like kinase (CLK family of SR protein kinases on HIV-1 expression and RNA processing was examined. Results Despite their high homology, increasing individual CLK expression had distinct effects on HIV-1, CLK1 enhancing Gag production while CLK2 inhibited the virus. Parallel studies on the anti-HIV-1 activity of CLK inhibitors revealed a similar discrepant effect on HIV-1 expression. TG003, an inhibitor of CLK1, 2 and 4, had no effect on viral Gag synthesis while chlorhexidine, a CLK2, 3 and 4 inhibitor, blocked virus production. Chlorhexidine treatment altered viral RNA processing, decreasing levels of unspliced and single spliced viral RNAs, and reduced Rev accumulation. Subsequent experiments in the context of HIV-1 replication in PBMCs confirmed the capacity of chlorhexidine to suppress virus replication. Conclusions Together, these findings establish that HIV-1 RNA processing can be targeted to suppress virus replication as demonstrated by manipulating individual CLK function and identified chlorhexidine as a lead compound in the development of novel anti-viral therapies.

  11. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  12. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different cleaning methods on the growth of Candida albicans over acrylic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Das, Samiran; Biswas, Shibendu; Ghati, Amit; Ghosh, Soumitra; Goel, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Context: This study evaluated the efficacy of denture adhesive, cleanser, chlorhexidine, and brushing against Candida albicans biofilm developed on an acrylic surface and predicted the most effective, simple, and inexpensive way to maintain denture health, thereby preventing denture stomatitis. Aims: To find the best possible method for maintaining denture hygiene. Settings and Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted in the Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, and this in vitro study was designed to minimize denture stomatitis among denture wearing population. Subjects and Methods: Sixty acrylic discs of equal dimensions after exposure to C. albicans were treated for a duration of 24 h with denture adhesive, cleanser, 0.2% chlorhexidine individually, or in combinations simulating clinical conditions dividing in six groups, ten samples each (n = 10). Statistical Analysis Used: After treatment, colony count was evaluated and statistically analyzed by post hoc Tukey's test and Dunnett's test to determine the most effective way of prevention. Results: The statistical post hoc analysis (Tukey's test and Dunnett's test) showed high significance (P Denture adhesive increases the adherence of C. albicans to denture surface. Other cleaning chemicals such as cleanser and chlorhexidine decrease the adherence. Moreover, among the all denture cleaning protocol, chlorhexidine drastically inhibit the adherence, as well as growth of C. albicans over denture surface. PMID:27630498

  13. Antiseptic properties of two calix[4]arenes derivatives on the human coronavirus 229E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, C; Fontanay, S; Mourer, M; Dibama, H Massimba; Regnouf-de-Vains, J-B; Finance, C; Duval, R E

    2010-12-01

    Facing the lack in specific antiviral treatment, it is necessary to develop new means of prevention. In the case of the Coronaviridae this family is now recognized as including potent human pathogens causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections as well as nosocomial ones. Within the purpose of developing new antiseptics molecules, the antiseptic virucidal activity of two calix[4]arene derivatives, the tetra-para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene (C[4]S) and the 1,3-bis(bithiazolyl)-tetra-para-sulfonato-calix[4]arene (C[4]S-BTZ) were evaluated toward the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV 229E). Comparing these results with some obtained previously with chlorhexidine and hexamidine, (i) these two calixarenes did not show any cytotoxicity contrary to chlorhexidine and hexamidine, (ii) C[4]S showed as did hexamidine, a very weak activity against HCoV 229E, and (iii) the C[4]S-BTZ showed a stronger activity than chlorhexidine, i.e. 2.7 and 1.4log₁₀ reduction in viral titer after 5min of contact with 10⁻³mol L⁻¹ solutions of C[4]S-BTZ and chlorhexidine, respectively. Thus, the C[4]S-BTZ appeared as a promising virucidal (antiseptic) molecule.

  14. Component Analysis of Multipurpose Contact Lens Solutions To Enhance Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leo; Kim, Janie; Chen, Hope; Kowalski, Regis; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    More than 125 million people wear contact lenses worldwide, and contact lens use is the single greatest risk factor for developing microbial keratitis. We tested the antibacterial activity of multipurpose contact lens solutions and their individual component preservatives against the two most common pathogens causing bacterial keratitis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus The in vitro antibacterial activity of five multipurpose contact lens solutions (Opti-Free GP, Boston Simplus, Boston Advance, Menicare GP, and Lobob) was assayed by the standard broth dilution method. Synergy between the preservative components found in the top performing solutions was assayed using checkerboard and time-kill assays. The ISO 14729 criteria and the standard broth dilution method were used to define an optimized contact lens solution formulation against a clinical panel of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains. Preservatives with the biguanide function group, chlorhexidine and polyaminopropylbiguanide (PAPB), had the best antistaphylococcal activity, while EDTA was the best antipseudomonal preservative. The combination of chlorhexidine and EDTA had excellent synergy against P. aeruginosa A solution formulation containing chlorhexidine (30 ppm), PAPB (5 ppm), and EDTA (5,000 ppm) had three to seven times more antipseudomonal activity than anything available to consumers today. A multipurpose contact lens solution containing a combination of chlorhexidine, PAPB, and EDTA could help to reduce the incidence of microbial keratitis for contact lens users worldwide. PMID:27139484

  15. Long-term effect of maternal xylitol exposure on their children's caries prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorild, I; Lindau, B; Twetman, S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the long-term outcome of a motherchild project in which mothers (n=173) with high counts of salivary mutans streptococci were randomly assigned to daily chewing gums containing xylitol (A), chlorhexidine/ xylitol/sorbitol (B), or sodium fluoride/xylitol/sorbitol (C) for one year...

  16. [Estimation of antimicrobial means action efficacy in children oral cavities by pH-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliamov, S S

    2009-01-01

    Possibility of mixed saliva pH determination in the efficacy of antimicrobial mean action was assessed using fluctuations in hydrogen index (pH following consumption of sweets in teenagers according to Stephan curve). Antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine-containing preparation Eludrile and Elgidium-tooth paste, as well as furacillin solution in oral cavities of teenagers was estimated. PMID:19365352

  17. The effectiveness of commonly used mouthwashes for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.J. Potting (C. M J); R. Uitterhoeve (R.); W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer (Wilma); T. van Achterberg (Theo)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractDaily chlorhexidine mouthwash is often recommended for preventing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Povidone-iodine, NaCl 0.9%, water salt soda solution and chamomile mouthwash are also recommended. However, the effectiveness of these mouthwashes is unclear. Therefore, we performed a

  18. The effectiveness of commonly used mouthwashes for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, C.M.J.; Uitterhoeve, R.J.; Reimer, W.S. op; Achterberg, T. van

    2006-01-01

    Daily chlorhexidine mouthwash is often recommended for preventing chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Povidone-iodine, NaCl 0.9%, water salt soda solution and chamomile mouthwash are also recommended. However, the effectiveness of these mouthwashes is unclear. Therefore, we performed a systematic r

  19. 940 nm diode laser therapy in management of recurrent apthous ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, Neeta; Maiti, Debasmita; Misra, Pradyumna; Singh, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent apthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases characterised by painful recurrent ulcerations of the orofacial region. The ulcers occur in three clinical forms: minor, major and herpetiform. Several therapies have been advocated to manage these lesions such as topical corticosteroids (triamcinolone acetonide, hydrocortisone acetate and clobetasol propionate), chlorhexidine mouth rinses, tetracycline oral rinses, thalidomide, fluocinonide, colchicines a...

  20. Evidence of Effectiveness of Current Therapies to Prevent and Treat Early Childhood Caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Dhar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    and Evaluation) system. RESULTS: There was moderate and limited quality of evidence in support of fluoride toothpaste and fluoride varnish for ECC prevention, while the evidence for fluoride tablets/drops was insufficient. The support for the use of silver diamine fluoride, xylitol, chlorhexidine varnish...

  1. A randomized, double‑blind clinical study to assess the antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of Aloe vera mouth rinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathini Chandrahas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of Aloe Vera mouth rinse on experimental plaque accumulation and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, controlled, and double-blind study, a total of 148 systemically healthy subjects were screened in the age group of 18-25 years. Finally, 120 subjects were requested to abstain from oral hygiene (tooth brushing for 14 days and used a specially fabricated plaque guard. Following cessation of tooth brushing in the specified area, the subjects were randomly divided into Group A (test group who received 100% Aloe vera, Group B (negative control group who received placebo (distilled water, and Group C (positive control group who received 0.2% chlorhexidine. The rinse regimen began on the 15 th day and continued for 7 days. Plaque accumulation was assessed by Plaque Index (PI and gingivitis was assessed by Modified Gingival Index (MGI and Bleeding Index (BI at baseline (0, 7 th , 14 th , and 22 nd days. Results: There was statistically significant decrease in PI, MGI, and BI scores after the rinse regimen began in both Group A (test group and Group C (chlorhexidine compared with Group B. Mouth wash containing Aloe vera showed significant reduction of plaque and gingivitis but when compared with chlorhexidine the effect was less significant. Conclusion: Aloe vera mouthwash can be an effective antiplaque agent and with appropriate refinements in taste and shelf life can be an affordable herbal substitute for chlorhexidine.

  2. Diversity of Streptococcus mutans strains in bacterial interspecies interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Li; M.A. Hoogenkamp; J. Ling; W. Crielaard; D.M. Deng

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are matrix-enclosed microbial population adhere to each other and to surfaces. Compared to planktonic bacterial cells, biofilm cells show much higher levels of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to investigate Streptococcus mutans strain diversity in biofilm formation and chlorhexidine (CHX

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF A DENTAL VARNISH, INVITRO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETERSSON, LG; EDWARDSSON, S; ARENDS, J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of a polymer based antimicrobial releasing varnish Cervitec(R) were investigated against different grampositive and gramnegative bacterial strains as well as a yeast using the agar diffusion inhibitory test (ADT-test in vitro). As positive controls a 1 % chlorhexidine gel and 1 % aqueous

  4. Mouthwashes for the control of supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients: evidence-based recommendations for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Nogueira HAAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Properly performed daily mechanical biofilm control is the most important prevention strategy for periodontal diseases. However, proper mechanical biofilm control is not performed effectively by the majority of the population, mainly due to lack of motivation and of manual dexterity. Local biofilm retention factors may aggravate home oral hygiene quality. For this reason, patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances comprise a group that may benefit from the daily use of mouthwashes. The purpose of this review was to perform a systematic search in the literature on antiseptics used to control supragingival biofilm and gingivitis in orthodontic patients. Six studies investigating the effect of chlorhexidine and 5 studies evaluating the effect of the daily use of antiseptics were found. Chlorhexidine showed better results in reducing plaque and gingivitis. However, because of its adverse effects after continuous use, it should not be indicated for long-term periods. Among the agents considered for daily use, the fixed combination of essential oils was the only one evaluated in a clinical trial, in which a comparative group presented a statistically significant clinical impact. There is no direct evidence supporting the indication of antiseptic agents for orthodontic patients other than chlorhexidine and essential oils. It can be concluded that, for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, chlorhexidine should be considered for treating acute gingival inflammation, whereas essential oils should be indicated for long-term daily use in controlling supragingival biofilm.

  5. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement.

  6. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement.

  7. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  8. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Results after Decolonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tennison L. Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1 whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone and (2 whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (n=3,927 and were not screened (n=1,751 for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received chlorhexidine body wipes preoperatively. Patients carrying MSSA and MRSA were treated preoperatively with mupirocin and vancomycin, respectively, along with the standard preoperative antibiotics and chlorhexidine body wipes. Screened patients were 50% less likely to require revision due to prosthetic joint infection compared to those not screened (p=0.04. Multivariate regression models were poorly accurate in predicting colonization with MSSA (AUC = 0.58 and MRSA (AUC = 0.62. These results support the routine screening and decolonization of S. aureus prior to TJA.

  9. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Chandra Shekar

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the polyherbal combinations in animal models and effectiveness has to be assessed using in vivo studies on humans.

  10. Shear bond strength of composite resin to dentin after application of cavity disinfectants - SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different cavity disinfectants on dentin bond strengths of composite resin applied with two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred mandibular molars were sectioned parallel to the occlusal surface to expose dentin in the midcoronal one-third. The dentinal surfaces were polished with waterproof-polishing papers. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups of 40 teeth each as follows: group 1(control -- specimens were not treated with any cavity disinfectants. Groups 2--5 (experimental groups -- dentin surfaces were treated with the following cavity disinfectants, respectively; 2% chlorhexidine solution, 0.1% benzalkonium chloride-based disinfectant, 1% chlorhexidine gel, and an iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectant. The specimens were then randomly divided into two subgroups including 20 teeth each to evaluate the effect of different bonding systems. Dentin bonding systems were applied to the dentin surfaces and the composite buildups were done. After the specimens were stored in an incubator for 24 hours, the shear bond strength was measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The specimens were then statistically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: One way analysis of variance and Tukey-HSD tests were used. Results: There was no significant difference between chlorhexidine gel and control groups regardless of the type of the bonding agent used (P>0.05. On the other hand, pretreatment with benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions had a negative effect on the shear bond strength of self-etching bonding systems. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that when benzalkonium chloride-based, iodine potassium iodide/copper sulfate-based disinfectants or chlorhexidine solutions are used as a cavity disinfectant, an etch-and-rinse bonding system should be preferred.

  11. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different cleaning methods on the growth of Candida albicans over acrylic surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhajit Gantait

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study evaluated the efficacy of denture adhesive, cleanser, chlorhexidine, and brushing against Candida albicans biofilm developed on an acrylic surface and predicted the most effective, simple, and inexpensive way to maintain denture health, thereby preventing denture stomatitis. Aims: To find the best possible method for maintaining denture hygiene. Settings and Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted in the Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, and this in vitro study was designed to minimize denture stomatitis among denture wearing population. Subjects and Methods: Sixty acrylic discs of equal dimensions after exposure to C. albicans were treated for a duration of 24 h with denture adhesive, cleanser, 0.2% chlorhexidine individually, or in combinations simulating clinical conditions dividing in six groups, ten samples each (n = 10. Statistical Analysis Used: After treatment, colony count was evaluated and statistically analyzed by post hoc Tukey′s test and Dunnett′s test to determine the most effective way of prevention. Results: The statistical post hoc analysis (Tukey′s test and Dunnett′s test showed high significance (P < 0.0001. The group treated with adhesive showed high fungal growth compared to the control group, whereas chlorhexidine showed high potency to prevent C. albicans, whereas adhesive increased the adhesion of C. albicans to acrylic surface. Conclusions: Denture adhesive increases the adherence of C. albicans to denture surface. Other cleaning chemicals such as cleanser and chlorhexidine decrease the adherence. Moreover, among the all denture cleaning protocol, chlorhexidine drastically inhibit the adherence, as well as growth of C. albicans over denture surface.

  12. The effectiveness of a pre-procedural mouthrinse in reducing bacteria on radiographic phosphor plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Allison; Kalathingal, Sajitha; Shrout, Michael; Plummer, Kevin; Looney, Stephen [Georgia Regents University, College of Dental Medicine, Augusta (United States)

    2014-06-15

    This study assessed the effectiveness of three antimicrobial mouthrinses in reducing microbial growth on photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates. Prior to performing a full-mouth radiographic survey (FMX), subjects were asked to rinse with one of the three test rinses (Listerine, Decapinol, or chlorhexidine oral rinse 0.12%) or to refrain from rinsing. Four PSP plates were sampled from each FMX through collection into sterile containers upon exiting the scanner. Flame-sterilized forceps were used to transfer the PSP plates onto blood agar plates (5% sheep blood agar). The blood agar plates were incubated at 37 degree C for up to 72 h. An environmental control blood agar plate was incubated with each batch. Additionally, for control, 25 gas-sterilized PSP plates were plated onto blood agar and analyzed. The mean number of bacterial colonies per plate was the lowest in the chlorhexidine group, followed by the Decapinol, Listerine, and the no rinse negative control groups. Only the chlorhexidine and Listerine groups were significantly different (p=0.005). No growth was observed for the 25 gas-sterilized control plates or the environmental control blood agar plates. The mean number of bacterial colonies was the lowest in the chlorhexidine group, followed by the Decapinol, Listerine, and the no rinse groups. Nonetheless, a statistically significant difference was found only in the case of Listerine. Additional research is needed to test whether a higher concentration (0.2%) or longer exposure period (two consecutive 30 s rinse periods) would be helpful in reducing PSP plate contamination further with chlorhexidine.

  13. Antibacterial effect of an herbal product persica on porphyromonas gingivalis and aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: an in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jelvehgaran Esfahani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Salvadora persica is used for oral hygiene in many parts of the world. It has been suggested that it has antibacterial properties, in addition to its ability to mechanically remove plaques. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of the herbal product Persica containing Salvadora persica against periodontopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro.Fifty patients with moderate and severe periodontitis were recruited. Using paper points, subgingival plaque samples were taken from pockets with attachment loss ≥ 3mm. The samples were subjected to microbial culture to yield P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The ditch plate method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacteria to Persica compared to chlorhexidine and distilled water. The growth inhibition zones of microorganisms around the ditches were measured in millimeters. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Freidman test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test with Bonferroni adjustment were used for analysis of variance with 5% significance level. P<0.05 for main comparisons and P< 0.017 for multiple comparisons were considered statistically significant.P. gingivalis was sensitive to chlorhexidine and persica. There was a significant difference (P=0.001 between antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (mean 28.733mm, SD 5.216 and Persica (mean 16.333mm, SD 5.259 compared to water against P. gingivalis. There was a significant difference (P< 0.001 between the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (24.045mm, SD 3.897 and Persica (0.545mm, SD 2.558 with respect to A. actinomycetemcomitans. There was no significant difference (P=0.317 between the antimicrobial activity of Persica and water against A. actinomycetemcomitans.The herbal product Persica had significant antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and negligible antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans compared to 0

  14. Preventive effect of toothpastes with MMP inhibitors on human dentine erosion and abrasion in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannas, Angelica Reis; Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Cardoso, Cristiane de Almeida Baldini; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Pereira, José Carlos; Tjäderhane, Leo; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of gels and mouthrinses with MMP inhibitors (chlorhexidine, and green tea extract) was shown to prevent erosive wear. The aim of this study was to analyze the protective effect of toothpastes containing MMP inhibitors on dentine loss induced by erosion in vitro. Material and Methods Five groups each containing 12 specimens of human root dentine were prepared. The specimens were subjected to 1 min erosion by immersion in a cola drink, 4 times a day, for 5 d. Each day, after the first and last erosive challenges, the specimens were brushed for 15 s with a slurry of dentifrice and water (1:3) containing placebo, 1,100 ppm fluoride, 0.61% green tea extract, 0.12% chlorhexidine or 0.004% chlorhexidine (commercial toothpaste). Between the acid challenges, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva with remineralizing potential until the next treatment. Dentine loss was determined using profilometry. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA after log transform (p<0.05). Results The mean wear values (μm) were as follows: placebo 1.83±0.53; 0.61% green tea extract 1.00±0.21; fluoride 1.27±0.43; 0.12% chlorhexidine 1.19±0.30; and 0.004% chlorhexidine 1.22±0.46. There was a significant difference in wear between placebo and all the treatment toothpastes, which did not differ from each other. Conclusion The results suggest that toothpastes containing MMP inhibitors are as effective as those based on NaF in preventing dentine erosion and abrasion. PMID:27008258

  15. The effectiveness of a pre-procedural mouthrinse in reducing bacteria on radiographic phosphor plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the effectiveness of three antimicrobial mouthrinses in reducing microbial growth on photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plates. Prior to performing a full-mouth radiographic survey (FMX), subjects were asked to rinse with one of the three test rinses (Listerine, Decapinol, or chlorhexidine oral rinse 0.12%) or to refrain from rinsing. Four PSP plates were sampled from each FMX through collection into sterile containers upon exiting the scanner. Flame-sterilized forceps were used to transfer the PSP plates onto blood agar plates (5% sheep blood agar). The blood agar plates were incubated at 37 degree C for up to 72 h. An environmental control blood agar plate was incubated with each batch. Additionally, for control, 25 gas-sterilized PSP plates were plated onto blood agar and analyzed. The mean number of bacterial colonies per plate was the lowest in the chlorhexidine group, followed by the Decapinol, Listerine, and the no rinse negative control groups. Only the chlorhexidine and Listerine groups were significantly different (p=0.005). No growth was observed for the 25 gas-sterilized control plates or the environmental control blood agar plates. The mean number of bacterial colonies was the lowest in the chlorhexidine group, followed by the Decapinol, Listerine, and the no rinse groups. Nonetheless, a statistically significant difference was found only in the case of Listerine. Additional research is needed to test whether a higher concentration (0.2%) or longer exposure period (two consecutive 30 s rinse periods) would be helpful in reducing PSP plate contamination further with chlorhexidine.

  16. The effects of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants on the endospores of Rhinosporidium seeberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arseculeratne S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No data exists on the activity of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants on Rhinosporidium seeberi that causes rhinosporidiosis in humans and animals. On account of the inability to culture R. seeberi, in vitro , dyes were used to assess the morphological integrity and viability of biocide-treated endospores that are considered to be the infective stage of this pathogen. Evan′s Blue (EvB identifies the morphological integrity of the endospores while MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide identifies metabolic activity through its reduction by cellular dehydrogenases to microscopically visible deposits of insoluble formazan. MTT-negativity has earlier been shown to correlate with absence of growth of yeast and mycelial fungi in culture and could thus indicate the loss of viability of MTT-negative rhinosporidial endospores. Hydrogen peroxide, glutaraldehyde, chloroxylenol, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, thimerosal, 70% ethanol, iodine in 70% ethanol, 10% formalin, povidone-iodine, sodium azide and silver nitrate were tested on freshly-harvested endospores and all biocides caused metabolic inactivation with or without altered structural integrity as shown by absence of MTT-staining after 3, 24 or 36 hour after exposure, while EvB stained only the endospores treated with sodium azide, ethanol, thimerosal, chloroxylenol, glutaraldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. With clinically useful biocides - chlorhexidine, cetrimide-chlorhexidine, 70% ethanol, povidone-iodine and silver nitrate, a total period of exposure of endospores to the biocide, for seven minutes, produced metabolic inactivation of the endospores. Anti-rhinosporidial antiseptics that could be used in surgery on rhinosporidial patients include povidone-iodine in nasal packs for nasal and naso-pharyngeal surgery, chlorhexidine and cetrimide-chlorhexidine on the skin, while povidone-iodine and silver nitrate could have application in ocular rhinosporidiosis.

  17. Reduction of Salivary Streptococcus mutans Colonies in Children After Rinsing with 2.5% Green Tea Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajriani Fajriani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a problematic area in pediatric dentistry, with Streptococcus mutans as the dominant bacterial cause. Green tea solution and chlorhexidine were effective in reducing the number of Streptococcus mutans. But study about the differences of these two materials has not been done. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of rinsing with 0.2% chlorhexidine and 2.5% green tea solution in reducing the number of Streptococcus mutans. Methods: This study is quase experimental study with cross-over design. Thirty children aged 6-12 years with poor OHI-S index were participated. Samples of saliva were taken respectively before rinsing for 3 seconds with 0.2% chlorhexidine solution and a solution of 2.5% green tea and 15 minutes followed 30 minutes after rinsing intervention. Saliva samples were taken to the laboratory then the number of Streptococcus mutans count were evaluated. The statistical analysis were performed by SPSS version 18.0 with ANOVA, t-paired and LSD test. Results: ANOVA test result showed that the decrease generated by each mouthwash is a significant reduction. T-paired test result showed that there is no difference in the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies significantly between chlorhexidine and green tea solution at 15 minutes dan 30 minutes after rinsing. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between chlorhexidine and green tea solution in reducing the number of Streptococcus mutans.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v21i3.211

  18. PREPARATIVE SKIN PREPARATION AND SURGICAL WOUND INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjanappa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It is an established fact now that the normal skin of healthy human beings harbours a rich bacterial fl ora. Normally considered non - pathogenic , these organisms way be a potential source of infection of the surgical wound. Approximately 20% of the resident flora is beyond the reach of surgical scrubs and antiseptics. The goal of surgical preparation of the skin with antiseptics is to remove transient and pathogenic microorganisms on the skin surface and to reduce the resident flora to a low level. Povidone iodine (I odophors and chlorhexidine are most often used antiseptics for pre - operative skin preparation. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and in combination with antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine in preoperative skin p reparation by taking swab culture. (2 To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups. METHODS: One hundred patients (fifty in each group undergoing clean elective surgery with no focus of infection on the body were included in th e study. The pre - operative skin preparation in each group is done with the respective antiseptic regimen. In both the groups after application of antiseptics , sterile saline swab culture was taken immediately from site of incision. In cases which showed gr owth of organisms , the bacteria isolated were identified by their morphological and cultural characteristics. Grams staining , coagulase test and antibiotic sensitivity test were done wherever necessary and difference in colonization rates was determined as a measure of efficacy of antiseptic regimen. RESULTS: The results of the study showed that when compared to povidone iodine alone , using a combination of povidone iodine and alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine , the colonization rates of the site of incisi on were reduced significantly. As for the rate of post - operative wound infection , it is also proven that wound infections are also

  19. The metabolically active subpopulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms survives exposure to membrane-targeting antimicrobials via distinct molecular mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Pamp, Sünje Johanna; Nilsson, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    have found that membrane-targeting antimicrobials such as colistin, EDTA, SDS, and chlorhexidine specifically kill the inactive subpopulation in P. aeruginosa biofilms, whereas the active subpopulation survives exposure to these compounds. Because treatment of P. aeruginosa biofilms with the membrane......-targeting compounds colistin, EDTA, SDS, and chlorhexidine resulted in the same spatial distribution of live and dead bacteria, we investigated whether tolerance to these compounds originated from the same molecular mechanisms. Development of colistin-tolerant subpopulations was found to depend on the pmr genes......, but does not depend on the pmr, mexAB-oprM, mexPQ-opmE, or muxABC-opmB genes. Tolerance to SDS and EDTA in P. aeruginosa biofilms is linked to metabolically active cells, but does not depend on the pmr, mexAB, mexCD, mexPQ, or muxABC genes. Our data suggest that the active subpopulation in P. aeruginosa...

  20. Prolonged in vitro exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to germicidal teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J S; Smith, K L

    1989-04-01

    Eight strains of Staphylococcus aureus were tested to determine if prolonged exposure to commercial teat dips could enhance bacterial tolerance to teat dips in vitro. All strains of S. aureus were serially plated 15 times on chemically defined agar medium containing sublethal concentrations of linear dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, and iodophor teat dips. Growth responses of S. aureus to chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, and iodophor were not affected by prolonged exposure to these teat dips. Isolates subcultured on agar containing .1% linear dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid teat dip subsequently had a greater mean growth response to .1% solution of the germicide than did controls subcultured on basal medium. Hemolytic patterns, tube coagulase, clumping factor, and protein A reactions of S. aureus were not altered by exposure to any of the teat dips tested. In general, prolonged exposure to commercial teat dips did not alter germicidal susceptibility of S. aureus. PMID:2745808

  1. Germicidal activities of representatives of five different teat dip classes against three bovine mycoplasma species using a modified excised teat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddie, R L; Owens, W E; Ray, C H; Nickerson, S C; Boddie, N T

    2002-08-01

    Six representative teat dips from five different teat dip classes were tested for germicidal activity against challenge exposure to Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma californicum, and Mycoplasma bovigenitalium using a modified excised teat model. All teat dip formulations tested were efficacious against all of the Mycoplasma species, providing bacterial logarithmic reductions above 4. The germicides performed best against M. bovigenitalium with an average log reduction (LR) of 6.29. Average LR were 5.41 and 5.70 against M. bovis and M. californicum, respectively. The iodine and chlorhexidine products performed best against M. bovis and M. californicum, respectively, with complete kill of all organisms. The chlorhexidine and the barrier chlorine product also had complete kill of M. bovigenitalium organisms. PMID:12214982

  2. Evaluation of a nisin-based germicidal formulation on teat skin of live cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, P M; Smith, B S; Stewart, W K; Gonzalez, R N; Rubino, S D; Gusik, S A; Kulisek, E S; Projan, S J; Blackburn, P

    1992-11-01

    A purified preparation of the nontoxic antimicrobial peptide, nisin (AMBICIN N), was used in the formulation of a germicidal sanitizer suitable for use on cow teats. The germicidal activity of the formulation against mastitis pathogens was measured on teat skin of live cows. The nisin-based formulation gave a mean log reduction of 3.90 against Staphylococcus aureus and 4.22 log reduction against Escherichia coli after exposure for 1 min to the germicide. This activity was comparable with that exhibited by a 1% iodophor teat dip but was significantly greater than that exhibited by the .1 and .5% iodophors and by the .5% chlorhexidine digluconate teat dips. The nisin-based formulation showed little or no potential for skin irritation after multiple application to skin, but iodophor and chlorhexidine digluconate teat dips showed significant potential for skin irritation in comparable studies. PMID:1460143

  3. Evaluation of nine teat dip formulations under experimental challenge to staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankey, J W; Philpot, W N; Boddie, R L; Watts, J L

    1983-01-01

    Nine postmilking teat dips were evaluated by an experimental challenge model against either Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, or both. Formulations containing .9 and .6% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium dichloro-s-triazene-trione, .55% chlorhexidine gluconate, and .35% povidone iodine reduced incidence of Staphylococcus aureus infections 56.8, 28.3, 75.9, 92.5, and 77.9%. Incidence of infections with Streptococcus agalactiae was reduced 48.1 and 63.2% by 1.7 and 1% sodium dichloro-s-triazene-trione formulations. The 1% chlorhexidine gluconate and .35% povidone iodine products reduced Streptococcus agalactiae infections 71.0 and 67.0%. Three experimental 1% iodophor formulations reduced Streptococcus agalactiae infections 28.9, 44.8, and 50.7%. The experimental challenge model was refined further and provided an efficient method to determine efficacy of postmilking teat dips. PMID:6339575

  4. Influence of subinhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials on hydrophobicity, adherence and ultra-structure of Fusobacterium nucleatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Ana C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium nucleatum is considered a bridge organism between earlier and later colonizers in dental biofilms and a putative periodontopathogen. In Dentistry, antimicrobial agents are used for treatment and control of infectious diseases associated with dental plaque. Antiseptics have been used in association with antibiotics to reduce infections after oral surgeries. In this study, the influence of subinhibitory concentrations (SC of chlorhexidine, triclosan, penicillin G and metronidazole, on hydrophobicity, adherence to oral epithelial cells, and ultra-structure of F. nucleatum was examined. All isolates were susceptible to chlorhexidine, triclosan, and metronidazole; however, most of the isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, and all of them were hydrophilic when grown with or without antimicrobials. Adherence was decreased by all antimicrobials. Results suggest that adherence of F. nucleatum was influenced by adhesins because structures such as fimbries or capsule were not observed by transmission electronic microscope.

  5. Effects of three Commercial Mouth Rinses on the Cultured Fibroblasts: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabanchi J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: An ideal antimicrobial agent should have minimal cytotoxic effect to host cells.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effect of three commercial mouthwashes (Chlorhexidine, Persica and Irsha on the cultured fibroblasts.Material and Methods: For determining the cytotoxic effect of Irsha, Chlorhexidine and Persica, uninfected cells were grown in the absence and presence of various concentration (2,4,8,16,32,64,128 of these mouth washes for 1, 2, 3 and 4 days.Results: In this study, three mouth washes show cytotoxic effect on the cultured cells, at commercially available concentration and even diluted and Irsha was found to be the most toxic one. Cytotoxicity of three mouthwashes was reduced with decreasing concentration.Conclusion: Our results showed that all three solutions were toxic to the cultured fibroblast. Other studies which investigate their clinical effect are recommended.

  6. The apical leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate as the retrograde filling material with various mixing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ema Mulyawati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is relatively considered as a new material in endodontic. It even has been used as retrograde filling material due to its biocompatibility, antibacterial effect, sealing ability and anti-moist effect. Some materials have been used as mixing agent to achieve an appropiate setting of MTA. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the mixing agents of MTA towards the apical leakage when they are used together as retrograde filling materials. Method: The samples of this research consist of 30 human extracted upper central incisors. First, the crown of each tooth is sectioned. The root canals are prepared by using the conventional technique and then are obturated with gutta percha. After cutting the root apex, 2 mm from apical, class 1 cavities are prepared by using fissure bur with the depth of 3 mm. The samples then are divided into 3 groups with 10 teeth for each. Group I uses aquabidest as mixing agent of MTA (MTA-aquabidest, group II uses saline (MTA-saline, while group III uses 0.12% chlorhexidine (MTA-chlorhexidine. The apex of each group then is filled with the mixing MTA determined already. Afterwards, clearing method is used to evaluate the apical leakage. The apical leakage actually is determined by measuring the depth of methylene blue penetration with stereomicroscope. The statictical analyses of the linear dye penetration then are performed with analysis of varians ANOVA. Result: The dye penetration for both MTA-aquadest and MTA-saline groups indicates the lowest penetration, and there is even a significant difference compared with MTA-0.12% chlorhexidine group (p<0.005. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aquabidest and saline as mixing agents of MTA produce less apical leakage compared with 0.12% chlorhexidine.Latar belakang: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA merupakan bahan yang relatif baru dalam bidang endodontik. Bahan tersebut diindikasikan sebagai bahan pengisi

  7. STUDY TO ASSESS THE DISINFECTION OF DENTAL PROSTHESES TO CLEAR LOCALLY PREVALENT MICROBIAL STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of four disinfectant solutions (Sodium hypochlorite 1%, chlorhexidine gluconate 2%, 100% vinegar and sodium perborate 3.8% in making acrylic resin specimens free of locally prevalent strains of three different micro-organisms. The organisms tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The study was conducted following a request by the Prosthodontics Department in the college, as part of the annual quality appraisal. One hundred and fifty samples of the standardized acrylic resin specimens were participated in the study, of which, 30 specimens were run as controls. It was concluded that 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 100% vinegar and 3.8% sodium perborate are all useful as disinfectants of acrylic resin, to make it free from local strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.

  8. Effectiveness of different chemical agents in rapid decontamination of gutta-percha cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Celso Luíz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of seven disinfectant compounds used in dentistry for a rapid decontamination of 32 gutta-percha cones adhered with Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli strains or Bacillus subtilis spores was compared. Cones were treated with 2% glutaraldehyde, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethyl alcohol, 1% and 0.3% iodine alcohol, 2% chlorhexidine, 6% hydrogen peroxide, and 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine, for 1, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. After treatment, each cone was transferred to thioglycollate broth and incubated at 37ºC for 7 days. The products were bactericidal after 1 to 5 minutes and, with exception of ethyl alcohol and iodine-alcohol, sporicidal after 1 to 15 minutes of exposure. Results suggest that chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine, hydrogen peroxide, and glutaraldehyde were the most effective products in the decontamination of gutta-percha cones.

  9. Substaniation of antimicrobial dressings use in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliy G.K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial materials incorporate in their structure modern antiseptics, which have the ability of dischargeng in the environment and provide death of opportunistic microorganisms. The results of the research of antimicrobial qualities of modern dressings, which include decamethoxine, chlorhexidine digluconate, furagin are shown. It was found that strains of Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia spp., Pseudomonas spp. are of high sensitivity to decamethoxin in dressing materials in comparison with textile materials, finished with chlorhexidine digluconate, furagin. The kinetics of decamethoxin release from antimicrobial materials is presented in the article. It was proven, that the release of decametoxin from antimicrobial materials in the environment occurs due to the diffusion and hydrolytic destruction of polymers in aqueous phase, which continues during 15 days.

  10. In vitro efficacy of several disinfectants against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli strains from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Martínez-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The efficacy of 28 individual or blended disinfectants against avian Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli strains was determined. An in vitro test in the presence and absence of serum as source of organic material was conducted. Povidone-iodine (releasing 1% available iodine, 1% potassium permanganate, 70% ethanol, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and three commercial formulations based on quaternary ammonium compounds + formaldehyde or cresol derivates were the most effective against all strains tested and reduced bacterial counts by more than 106 times (6-log10 regardless of the presence of organic matter. These commercial compounds as well as ethanol and chlorhexidine among the individual substances tested might be helpful in the adoption of environmental control measures against these two enterobacteria in poultry industry.

  11. Evaluation of topical therapies for the treatment of dermatophyte-infected hairs from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Weithers, N; Medleau, L

    1995-01-01

    Seven commonly used, topical antifungal products (i.e., lime sulfur, chlorhexidine, captan, povidone-iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and enilconazole solutions, and ketoconazole shampoo) were evaluated for their antifungal activity on Microsporum canis-infected hairs from dogs and cats in an in vitro study. Hairs were soaked or shampooed in each product for five minutes twice a week for four weeks. Of the seven products used in this study, lime sulfur and enilconazole solutions were superior in inhibiting fungal growth; no growth occurred on fungal cultures after two treatments with either product. Chlorhexidine and povidone iodine solutions were effective after four treatments, and sodium hypochlorite solution and ketoconazole shampoo inhibited fungal growth after eight treatments. Captan did not inhibit fungal growth during the test period.

  12. Evaluation of topical therapies for the treatment of dermatophyte-infected hairs from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Weithers, N; Medleau, L

    1995-01-01

    Seven commonly used, topical antifungal products (i.e., lime sulfur, chlorhexidine, captan, povidone-iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and enilconazole solutions, and ketoconazole shampoo) were evaluated for their antifungal activity on Microsporum canis-infected hairs from dogs and cats in an in vitro study. Hairs were soaked or shampooed in each product for five minutes twice a week for four weeks. Of the seven products used in this study, lime sulfur and enilconazole solutions were superior in inhibiting fungal growth; no growth occurred on fungal cultures after two treatments with either product. Chlorhexidine and povidone iodine solutions were effective after four treatments, and sodium hypochlorite solution and ketoconazole shampoo inhibited fungal growth after eight treatments. Captan did not inhibit fungal growth during the test period. PMID:7634061

  13. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    A total of 569 different bacterial isolates (156 Salmonella, 202 E. coli, 43 S. aureus, 38 S. hyicus, 52 E. faecalis, 78 E faecium) were tested for susceptibility to copper sulphate, benzalkonium chloride, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine using MIC determinations. A total of 442 isolates were ...... bacterial species to these compounds, and Salmonella especially seems intrinsically less susceptible than the other bacterial species, which might have human health implications. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes

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    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO 2 and silver (Ag nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-based solution, six groups were prepared. Groups I to IV included colloidal solutions containing nanoZnO, nanoCuO, nanoTiO 2 and nanoAg, respectively. Groups V and VI consisted of 2.0% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes, respectively as controls. We used serial dilution method to find minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and with subcultures obtained minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of the solutions against S. mutans and S. sangius. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan test and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The sodium fluoride mouthrinse did not show any antibacterial effect. The nanoTiO 2 -containing solution had the lowest MIC against both microorganisms and also displayed the lowest MBC against S. mutans (P < 0.05. The colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO 2 and nanoZnO showed the lowest MBC against S. sangius (P < 0.05. On the other hand, chlorhexidine showed the highest MIC and MBC against both streptococci (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The nanoTiO 2 -containing mouthwash proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent and thus it can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride mouthrinses in the oral cavity provided the lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on biologic tissues.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of poplar propolis on mutans streptococci and caries development in rats

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Soley; SİLİCİ, Sibel; PERÇİN, Duygu; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Er, Özgür

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the different extracts of propolis and chlorhexidine on mutans streptococci and the development of dental caries in rats was examined in this study. Specifically, the antimicrobial effects of propolis extracts (including ethanol, methanol, chloroform, hexane, propylene glycol, and ethyl acetate) on Streptococcus mutans UA159 and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 were studied. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined using the National ...

  16. In-Vitro Archaeacidal Activity of Biocides against Human-Associated Archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Saber Khelaifia; Jean Michel Brunel; Michel Drancourt

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several methanogenic archaea have been detected in the human intestinal microbiota. These intestinal archaea may contaminate medical devices such as colonoscopes. However, no biocide activity has been reported among these human-associated archaea. METHODOLOGY: The minimal archaeacidal concentration (MAC) of peracetic acid, chlorhexidine, squalamine and twelve parent synthetic derivatives reported in this study was determined against five human-associated methanogenic archaea inclu...

  17. Evaluation of holy basil mouthwash as an adjunctive plaque control agent in a four day plaque regrowth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anirudh B.; Vij, Chhavi; Trivedi, Dhiraj; Setty, Swati B.; Thakur, Srinath L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various antibacterial and antiplaque agents are used in chemical plaque control but none are without their shortcomings. Chlorhexidine considered a gold standard, also has an array of side effects. To overcome these, numerous herbal extracts have been tried and tested and one among them is holy basil. The present study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of holy basil in vitro against some periodontopathogens and its antiplaque effect in vivo. Study Design: Thirty periodontally healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups and refrained from all mechanical oral hygiene measures for 4 days and used one of the randomly assigned mouthwash (1- chlorhexidine; 2- holy basil; and 3- sterile water [placebo]) twice daily. The Plaque Index (PI) was assessed at days 0 and 5. Aqueous extract of holy basil was tested against Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F.nucleatum). Results: Holy basil extract showed inhibition of both the tested periodontopathogens (P.intermedia and F.nucleatum) at various concentrations. In all groups, the PI increased from baseline to day 5. There was a statistically significant difference (p < .05) between the chlorhexidine and placebo rinse and the holy basil and placebo rinse, but no statistically significant difference was found between the chlorhexidine and holy basil rinse with respect to PI. Conclusions: These results indicate that the holy basil mouthwash has an antiplaque effect and is efficacious against P. intermedia and F. nucleatum strains in vitro. Hence holy basil mouthwash may have potential as an antiplaque mouthwash with prophylactic benefits. Key words:Antibacterial agent, basil, Fusobacterium nucleatum, mouthwashes, Prevotella intermedia. PMID:25674314

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Two Different Ultrasonic Liquid Coolants on Dental Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vishnudas; Ugale, Gauri; Taru, Snehal; Khaparde, Surbhi; Kulkarni, Arun; Ardale, Mukesh; Marde, Shraddha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dentists are more prone for developing infectious diseases especially related to respiratory system. The ultrasonic scaler which is a major source of dental aerosol production is most frequently used contrivance in a dental set up. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate as an ultrasonic liquid coolant on aerosols in comparison with distilled water. The objectives of this study were to compare the potency of povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate on reducing dental aerosols and quantitative assessment of microbial content of dental aerosols at right, left and behind the dental chair. Materials and Methods In this study 30 subjects were selected who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were divided into three groups. Group 1 (Control group): Ultrasonic scaling with distilled water (10 subjects), Group 2 (Test group): Ultrasonic scaling with 2% povidone iodine (10 subjects), Group 3 (Test group): Ultrasonic scaling with 0.12% chlorhexidine (10 subjects). At the baseline one blood agar plate was kept for 10 minutes in the fumigated chamber before ultrasonic scaling, thereafter three blood agar plates were kept at a distance of 0.4 meters away on either side of the patient and 2 meters behind the patient’s mouth during ultrasonic scaling. Blood agar plates were kept for gravitometric settling of dental aerosols. Results At baseline, no significant numbers of Colony-Forming Units (CFU) were detected. It is found that Group 3 (chlorhexidine gluconate) showed effective CFU reduction (27.17 ±12.5 CFU) when compared to distilled water (124.5 ± 30.08 CFU) and povidone iodine (60.43 ± 33.33 CFU). More CFU were found on blood agar plates which were kept on right side in all the three groups. The results obtained were statistically significant (pliquid coolant for reducing the number of dental aerosols during ultrasonic scaling. PMID:27630954

  19. The effect of two different oral antiseptics on dental plaque formation (De Novo Biofilm) and on gingival inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Zelić Obrad; Čakić Saša; Luković Natalija

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Since the discovery that periodontal diseases are caused by microbial plaque the interest of many scientists has been focused on oral antiseptics. There are very few mouthrinses with oral antiseptic effect originally designed in our country. One of these is Ozosept® solution. Objective. This study evaluated the effect of Ozosept® solution (phenol compound) on the oral hygiene and gingival inflammation, in comparison with Hibidex DAP® solution (chlorhexidine digluconate). Methods...

  20. Current and new strategies for the delivery of antiseptic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Hélène; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice

    2006-07-01

    The present mini-review explores the current methods used for the delivery of antiseptics and topical antimicrobials. Relevance of hand scrub with antiseptic liquid soap (e.g. chlorhexidine, PVP-iodine, triclosan) and alcohol-based hand rub is discussed and compared in terms of bactericidal activity, skin tolerance, and medical staff observance. New strategies for antibacterial delivery focus on the challenge of colloidal drug carrier such as liposomes, micro- and nanoparticles enabling sustained bactericidal effect and effective bacterial targeting.