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Sample records for chlorella vulgaris intake

  1. Epigenetic modulation of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) on exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi; Youn, Je-In; Kim, Seung Joon; Park, Jong Y

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation in promoter region can be a new chemopreventive marker against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We performed a randomized, double blind and cross-over trial (N=12 healthy females) to evaluate chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris)-induced epigenetic modulation on exposure to PAHs. The subjects consumed 4 tablets of placebo or chlorella supplement (total chlorophyll ≈ 8.3mg/tablet) three times a day before meals for 2 weeks. When the subjects consumed chlorella, status of global hypermethylation (5-methylcytosine) was reduced, compared to placebo (p=0.04). However, DNA methylation at the DNMT1 or NQO1 was not modified by chlorella. We observed the reduced levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a typical metabolite of PAHs, by chlorella intake (pchlorella-induced changes in global hypermethylation and urinary 1-OHP (pchlorella works for PAH-detoxification through the epigenetic modulation, the interference of ADME of PAHs and the interaction of mechanisms.

  2. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Hala Yassin El-Kassas; Laila Abdelfattah Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE) was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD). This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE) and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production...

  3. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  4. Genetic diversity analysis with ISSR PCR on green algae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Songdong

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, genetic polymorphism and diversity in unicellular clones of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck and Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick were studied with Inter Simple Sequence Repeats PCR (ISSR PCR). Samples including four clones of C. vulgaris and three clones of C. pyrenoidosa were purified by single-clone-choice method. For four C. vulgaris unicellular clones, the total number of the bands scored for 18 primers was 298; and the number of the polymorphic bands was 118, of which 39.6% were polymorphic. The size of PCR products ranged from 200 to 2 500 bp. The total number of bands scored for 18 primers, the number of polymorphic bands and the percentage of three C. pyrenoidosa unicellular clones was 194.83 and 30.8%, respectively. POPGENE analysis show that the average Nei genetic diversity (h *) and Shannon index of diversity (I *) in the four C. vulgaris unicellular clones was 0.2181 and 0.3208, respectively, which is slightly higher than those of the three C. pyrenoidosa unicellular clones (0.190 3 and 0.274 8), which agreed with the percentage of polymorphic bands in the mixed samples of the two species. The results suggest that ISSR is a useful method to Chlorella for intra-species genetic analysis.

  5. Chlorella vulgaris triggers apoptosis in hepatocarcinogenesis-induced rats*

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azamai, Emey Suhana; Sulaiman, Suhaniza; Mohd Habib, Shafina Hanim; Looi, Mee Lee; Das, Srijit; Abdul Hamid, Nor Aini; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2009-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has been reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. We evaluated the effect of CV on apoptotic regulator protein expression in liver cancer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats (200~250 g) were divided into eight groups: control group (normal diet), CDE group (choline deficient diet supplemented with ethionine in drinking water to induce hepatocarcinogenesis), CV groups with three different doses of CV (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg body weight), and CDE groups treated...

  6. Bioremediation of the textile waste effluent by Chlorella vulgaris

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    Hala Yassin El-Kassas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae biomass production from textile waste effluent is a possible solution for the environmental impact generated by the effluent discharge into water sources. The potential application of Chlorella vulgaris for bioremediation of textile waste effluent (WE was investigated using 22 Central Composite Design (CCD. This work addresses the adaptation of the microalgae C. vulgaris in textile waste effluent (WE and the study of the best dilution of the WE for maximum biomass production and for the removal of colour and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD by this microalga. The cultivation of C. vulgaris, presented maximum cellular concentrations Cmax and maximum specific growth rates μmax in the wastewater concentration of 5.0% and 17.5%, respectively. The highest colour and COD removals occurred with 17.5% of textile waste effluent. The results of C. vulgaris culture in the textile waste effluent demonstrated the possibility of using this microalga for the colour and COD removal and for biomass production. There was a significant negative relationship between textile waste effluent concentration and Cmax at 0.05 level of significance. However, sodium bicarbonate concentration did not significantly influence the responses of Cmax and the removal of colour and COD.

  7. Stability and loading properties of curcumin encapsulated in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Yaser; Sabahi, Hossein; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2016-11-15

    Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenols with pharmacological function, was successfully encapsulated in algae (Alg) cell (Chlorella vulgaris) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Fluorescence micrographs, TGA, DSC and FTIR spectra suggested the hypothesis inclusion Cur in Nano-empty spaces inside cell wall of Alg. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of Alg and Cur at algae/curcumin complex was 3.8% and 33% higher than their free forms at 0-300°C and 300-600°C ranges, respectively. After encapsulation in Alg cells, the photostability of Cur was enhanced by about 2.5-fold. Adsorption isotherm of Cur into Alg was fitted with the Freundlich isotherm. The microcapsules were loaded with Cur up to about 55% w/w which is much higher than other reported bio-carriers. In conclusion, the data proved that Chlorella vulgaris cell can be used as a new stable carrier for Cur. PMID:27283686

  8. Enhancement of hydrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris by hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Charnho; Lee, Ja Hyun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yoo, Hah Young; Lee, Ju Hun; Lee, Soo Kweon; Kim, Seung Wook

    2016-06-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is considered as one of the potential sources of biomass for bio-based products because it consists of large amounts of carbohydrates. In this study, hydrothermal acid hydrolysis with five different acids (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, peracetic acid, phosphoric acid, and sulfuric acid) was carried out to produce fermentable sugars (glucose, galactose). The hydrothermal acid hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid showed the highest sugar production. C. vulgaris was hydrolyzed with various concentrations of hydrochloric acid [0.5-10 % (w/w)] and microalgal biomass [20-140 g/L (w/v)] at 121 °C for 20 min. Among the concentrations examined, 2 % hydrochloric acid with 100 g/L biomass yielded the highest conversion of carbohydrates (92.5 %) into reducing sugars. The hydrolysate thus produced from C. vulgaris was fermented using the yeast Brettanomyces custersii H1-603 and obtained bioethanol yield of 0.37 g/g of algal sugars. PMID:26899601

  9. The Optimizing of Growth and Quality of Chlorella vulgaris as ASUH feed supplement for Broiler

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    Salvia Salvia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella is spherical single celled freshwater micro-algae.   Chlorella  has potentials as element of ration or natural ASUH (safe, healthy, whole and halal feed supplement for it contains nutrition and active component, decreases cholesterol level and resulting darker yolk.  Chlorella vulgaris  is type of green algae   which, its economical potential need to be revealed. Variety of components of growing media is one of factors determining quality of microalgae. In terms of mass production, it is important to find correct, cheap and easy to feed nutrition for breeders. The objective of the research is to find out the optimizing of growth and quality of Chlorella vulgaris   as ASUH feed supplement for broiler. Test using sedgwick rafter method conducted to find out the optimizing of growth and quality of  Chlorella vulgaris  while AOAC method applied to test quality of its nutrition. The result shows that.  Chlorella vulgaris  grew well at technical medium 10 % of Phyto-s, crude protein 57.63%, fat  5.84%, b Carotene 6.44 mg/gram, Vitamin C 4.12 mg/gram and vitamin E 1.32 mg/gram. We can say that Chlorella vulgaris  potential to be natural and ASUH feed supplement and Phyto-s can be used as nutrition for mass production.

  10. Polyphosphate during the Regreening of Chlorella vulgaris under Nitrogen Deficiency

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    Fei-Fei Chu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphate (Poly-P accumulation has been reported in Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency conditions with sufficient P supply, and the process has been demonstrated to have great impact on lipid productivity. In this article, the utilization of polyphosphates and the regreening process under N resupplying conditions, especially for lipid production reviving, were investigated. This regreening process was completed within approximately 3–5 days. Polyphosphates were first degraded within 3 days in the regreening process, with and without an external P supply, and the degradation preceded the assimilation of phosphate in the media with an external P offering. Nitrate assimilation was markedly influenced by the starvation of P after polyphosphates were exhausted in the medium without external phosphates, and then the reviving process of biomass and lipid production was strictly impeded. It is, thus, reasonable to assume that simultaneous provision of external N and P is essential for overall biodiesel production revival during the regreening process.

  11. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments.

  12. Bioproduction, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Compounds from Chlorella vulgaris

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    Danielli M.M. Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Various crude extract preparations (ethanol, methanol, buthanol, acetone, DMSO and water from the green alga Chlorella vulgaris were examined for Antioxidant activity, Phytochemical screening and Antimicrobial properties. In vitro free radical quenching and total antioxidant activity of extracts were investigated with 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, and compared with cathequin and Gallic acid as positive controls. In most cases, results showed a significant association between the antioxidant potency and the total phenolics content. The aqueous extract showed both the highest antioxidant activity for inhibition scavenging (68.5% and highest phenolic content (3.45 mg/ mL. Antimicrobial activities were carried out using disc diffusion assays and the broth dilution method against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Results demonstrated activity between the aqueous extract and most specimens (Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enteretidis, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. These results suggest that the aqueous crude extract of C. vulgaris could be considered as a biological antioxidant and antimicrobial agent, and a valuable tool for the biotechnology field.

  13. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  14. Chlorella vulgaris triggers apoptosis in hepatocarcinogenesis-induced rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emey Suhana MOHD AZAMAI; Suhaniza SULAIMAN; Shafina Hanim MOHD HABIB; Mee Lee LOOI; Srijit DAS; Nor Aini ABDUL HAMID; Wan Zurinah WANG NGAH; Yasmin Anum MOHD YUSOF

    2009-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris (CV) has been reported to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. We evaluated the effect of CV on apoptotic regulator protein expression in liver cancer-induced rats. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into eight groups: control group (normal diet), CDE group (choline deficient diet supplemented with ethionine in drinking water to induce hepatocarcinogenesis), CV groups with three different doses of CV (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg body weight), and CDE groups treated with different doses of CV (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg body weight). Rats were sacrificed at various weeks and liver tissues were embedded in paraffin blocks for immunohistochemistry studies. CV, at increasing doses, decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein, caspase 8, in CDE rats, which was correlated with decreased hepatoctyes proliferation and increased apoptosis as determined by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively. Our study shows that CV has definite chemopreventive effect by inducing apoptosis via decreasing the expression of Bcl-2 and increasing the expression of caspase 8 in hepatocarcinogenesis-induced rats.

  15. Toxicological Response of the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris, to Some Heavy Metals

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    E. Afkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: The disturbance of aquatic ecosystems provoked by heavy metals pollution from industrial and domestic sources, has as consequence the loss of biological diversity, as well as increased bioaccumulation and magnification of toxicants in the food chain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some heavy metals on some physiological activities of Chlorella vulgaris beyerinck with special references to metal bioaccumulation. Approach: Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck was isolated from Al-Asfar Lake, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A standard initial inoculum of the isolated algae was inoculated to culture flasks. The culture flasks were supplied with various concentrations of Cobalt, Copper and Zinc ranging from 10-6-10-9 M. At the end of the incubation period cultures were filtered and washed several times by distilled water for measurements the various experimental parameters. Results: The data show that the lower doses of the three tested metals had stimulatory effect in biomass yield of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas the higher doses were inhibitory depending on the type of the metal. The inhibitory effect of copper to the growth parameters of Chlorella vulgaris was more pronounced than other two tested metals. The total protein content, total carbohydrate and the total free amino acids of the tested green alga Chlorella vulgaris gradually decreased in a manner dependent on the metal concentration in the medium. On the other hand, bioaccumulation of cobalt, copper and zinc by Chlorella vulgaris cells were parallel to increasing the concentrations in the culture medium. Conclusion: The inhibitory and stimulatory effects of either of the used heavy metals depend on concentration. Different organisms, however, have different sensitivities to the same metal and the same organisms may be more or less damaged by different metals. The uptake of an element from the surrounding medium is seldom exactly proportional to the amount present

  16. The Use of Chlorella Vulgaris in a Simple Demonstration of Heavy Metal Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipps, J. F.; Biro, P.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental system, suitable for secondary schools, uses Chlorella vulgaris to demonstrate the effects of mercury and cadmium. Very low concentrations of mercury or cadmium decrease growth, whereas lead or arsenic have little effect. Further experiments show additive interactions between mercury and cadmium and antagonistic interactions…

  17. Subcellular Localization of Cadmium in Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck Strain Bt-09

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    P.B. Lintongan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth response curves of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck strain Bt-09 to sublethal concentrations of cadmium were evaluated. The growth responses of this microalgal isolate was determined through analysis of chlorophyll a levels. Cadmium was effectively taken up by the cells as determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (F-AAS. Subcellular fractionation was undertaken to locate sites that accumulate cadmium.

  18. Production of lipids in 10 strains of Chlorella and Parachlorella, and enhanced lipid productivity in Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pribyl, Pavel; Cepak, Vladislav [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Algological Centre and Centre for Bioindication and Revitalization; Zachleder, Vilem [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Lab. of the Cell Cycles of Algae

    2012-04-15

    We tested 10 different Chlorella and Parachlorella strains under lipid induction growth conditions in autotrophic laboratory cultures. Between tested strains, substantial differences in both biomass and lipid productivity as well as in the final content of lipids were found. The most productive strain (Chlorella vulgaris CCALA 256) was subsequently studied in detail. The availability of nitrates and/or phosphates strongly influenced growth and accumulation of lipids in cells by affecting cell division. Nutrient limitation substantially enhanced lipid productivity up to a maximal value of 1.5 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1}. We also demonstrated the production of lipids through large-scale cultivation of C. vulgaris in a thin layer photobioreactor, even under suboptimal conditions. After 8 days of cultivation, maximal lipid productivity was 0.33 g l{sup -1} day{sup -1}, biomass density was 5.7 g l{sup -1} dry weight and total lipid content was more than 30% dry weight. C. vulgaris lipids comprise fatty acids with a relatively high degree of saturation compared with canola oil offering a possible alternative to the use of higher plant oils. (orig.)

  19. Interaction between Chlorella vulgaris and bacteria:interference and resource competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Liang; WANG Renjun; ZHAO Peng; CHEN Ruinan; ZHOU Wenli; TANG Liuqing; TANG Xuexi

    2014-01-01

    Research of interaction mechanism between Chlorella vulgaris and two bacterial strains (Z-QD08 and Z-QS01) were conducted under laboratory conditions. Growth rates of bacteria and C. vulgaris were tested under co-culture conditions to evaluate the effects of concentrations of C. vulgaris and bacteria on their interactions. To test whether the availability of inorganic nutrients, vitamins and trace metals affects the interactions between C. vulgaris and bacteria, experiments were performed with or without the culture medium filtrate of C. vulgaris or bacteria. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was promot-ed at low concentrations of bacteria (5×106 cells/ml), and expressed a positive correlation with the bacteria density, whereas opposite trend was observed for treatments with high bacteria density (10×106 cells/ml and 20×106 cells/ml). The growth rate of bacteria decreased with the increasing concentrations of C. vul-garis. The growth of bacteria Z-QD08 was inhibited by C. vulgaris through interference competition, while the mechanism for interaction between bacteria Z-QS01 and C. vulgaris was resource competition. The influence of cell density on the interaction between microalgae and bacteria was also discussed. These ex-periments confirm some elements of published theory on interactions between heterotrophic bacteria and microalgae and suggest that heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in the development of blooms in natural waters.

  20. Electrical performance of distribution insulators with chlorella vulgaris growth on its surface

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    H. E. Rojas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about electrical performance of ceramic and polymeric insulators bio-contaminated with alga Chlorella vulgaris. The performed tests involve ANSI 55-2 and ANSI 52-1 ceramic insulators and ANSI DS-15 polymeric insulators, all of them used in distribution systems of Colombia. Biological contamination of insulators is realized using a controlled environment chamber that adjusts the temperature, humidity and light radiation. The laboratory tests include measurements of flashover voltages and leakage currents and they were performed to determine how insulators are affected by biological contamination. After a series of laboratory tests, it was concluded that the presence of Chlorella vulgaris on the contaminated ceramic insulators reduces the wet flashover voltage up to 12% and increases their leakage currents up to 80%. On the other hand, for polymeric insulators the effect of algae growth on flashover voltages was not to strong, although the leakage currents increase up to 60%.

  1. Enhanced methane production of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by hydrolytic enzymes addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methane production of microalgae biomass is hampered by their cell wall. • Pretreatment should be designed in accordance to the microalgae specie. • Fresh Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibited high anaerobic biodegradability. • Chlorella vulgaris anaerobic biodegradability was enhanced by 50% using protease pretreatment. - Abstract: The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on microalgae organic matter solubilisation and methane production was investigated in this study. Even though both biomasses, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris, exhibited similar macromolecular distribution, their cell wall composition provided different behaviors. The addition of carbohydrolase (Viscozyme) and protease (Alcalase) resulted in high carbohydrates and protein solubilisation on both biomasses (86–96%). Despite the high carbohydrate solubilisation with the carbohydrolase, methane production was enhanced by 14% for C. vulgaris, while hydrolyzed C. reinhardtii did not show any improvement. The addition of protease to C. reinhardtii increased methane production by 1.17-fold. The low enhancement achieved together with the inherent high biodegradability of this biomass would not justify the cost associated to the enzyme addition. On the other hand, C. vulgaris hydrolyzed with the protease resulted in 86% anaerobic biodegradability compared to 54% of the raw biomass. Therefore, the application of protease prior anaerobic digestion of C. vulgaris could be a promising approach to decrease the energetic input required for cell wall disruption

  2. Rapid Induction of Lipid Droplets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris by Brefeldin A

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwoo Kim; Hanul Kim; Donghwi Ko; Yasuyo Yamaoka; Masumi Otsuru; Maki Kawai-Yamada; Toshiki Ishikawa; Hee-Mock Oh; Ikuo Nishida; Yonghua Li-Beisson; Youngsook Lee

    2013-01-01

    Algal lipids are the focus of intensive research because they are potential sources of biodiesel. However, most algae produce neutral lipids only under stress conditions. Here, we report that treatment with Brefeldin A (BFA), a chemical inducer of ER stress, rapidly triggers lipid droplet (LD) formation in two different microalgal species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. LD staining using Nile red revealed that BFA-treated algal cells exhibited many more fluorescent bodies t...

  3. Effects of Pb(Ⅱ) exposure on Chlorella protothecoides and Chlorella vulgaris growth, malondialdehyde, and photosynthesis-related gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bang; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Guo, Mei-Jin; Wang, Wei-Liang; Cui, Xin-Hong; Bi, Hua-Song; Wang, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Greater exposure to Pb(Ⅱ) increases the likelihood of harmful effects in the environment. In this study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella protothecoides (C. protothecoides) and Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were chosen to assess the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb(Ⅱ) exposure. Results of the observations show dose-response relationships could be clearly observed between Pb(Ⅱ) concentration and percentage inhibition (PI). Exposure to Pb(Ⅱ) increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content by up to 4.22 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. ANOVA analysis shows that Pb(Ⅱ) decreased chlorophyll (chl) content, indicating marked concentration-dependent relationships, and the lowest levels of chl a, chl b, and total-chl were 14.53, 18.80, and 17.95% of the controls, respectively. A real-time PCR assay suggests the changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic-related genes. After 120 h exposure Pb(Ⅱ) reduced the transcript abundance of rbcL, psaB, and psbC, and the relative abundances of the three genes of C. protothecoides and C. vulgaris in response to Pb(Ⅱ) were 54.66-98.59, 51.68-95.59, 37.89-95.48, 36.04-94.94, 41.19-91.20, and 58.75-96.80% of those of the controls, respectively. As for 28 d treatments, the three genes displayed similar inhibitory trend. This research provides a basic understanding of Pb(Ⅱ) toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  4. Bioremoval of the azo dye Congo Red by the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Montes-Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2015-07-01

    Discharge of dye-containing wastewater by the textile industry can adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and human health. Bioremoval is an alternative to industrial processes for detoxifying water contaminated with dyes. In this work, active and inactive biomass of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was assayed for the ability to remove Congo Red (CR) dye from aqueous solutions. Through biosorption and biodegradation processes, Chlorella vulgaris was able to remove 83 and 58 % of dye at concentrations of 5 and 25 mg L(-1), respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity at equilibrium was 200 mg g(-1). The Langmuir model best described the experimental equilibrium data. The acute toxicity test (48 h) with two species of cladocerans indicated that the toxicity of the dye in the effluent was significantly decreased compared to the initial concentrations in the influent. Daphnia magna was the species less sensitive to dye (EC50 = 17.0 mg L(-1)), followed by Ceriodaphnia dubia (EC50 = 3.32 mg L(-1)). These results show that Chlorella vulgaris significantly reduced the dye concentration and toxicity. Therefore, this method may be a viable option for the treatment of this type of effluent.

  5. Effects of sodium pentaborate pentahydrate exposure on Chlorella vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueqing; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-10-01

    Sodium pentaborate pentahydrate (SPP) is a rare mineral. In this study, SPP was synthesized from boric acid and borax through low-temperature crystallization, and its effects on the growth of the alga, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were assessed. The newly synthesized SPP was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The changes in C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activities upon exposure to SPP for 168h were evaluated. Results showed that SPP treatment was detrimental to C. vulgaris growth during the first 24-120h of exposure. The harmful effects, however, diminished over time (168h), even at an effective medium concentration of 226.37mg BL(-1) (the concentration of boron applied per liter of culture medium). A similar trend was observed for chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a and b) and indicated that the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris was not affected and that high levels of SPP may even promote chlorophyll synthesis. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of C. vulgaris increased during 24-120h exposure to SPP, but these activities gradually decreased as culture time progressed. In other words, the initial detrimental effects of synthetic SPP on C. vulgaris were temporary and reversible. This research provides a scientific basis for applications of SPP in the environment. PMID:27367150

  6. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT(®)) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S T; Zheng, L; Kwon, H J; Choo, Y K; Lee, K W; Kang, C W; An, B K

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT(®)) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats.

  7. Lipid accumulation from pinewood pyrolysates by Rhodosporidium diobovatum and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Luis; Orr, Valerie C A; Chen, Sean; Westerhof, Roel; Oudenhoven, Stijn; Rossum, Guus van; Kersten, Sascha; Berruti, Franco; Rehmann, Lars

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of pinewood pyrolysates as a carbon source for lipid production and cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Thermal decomposition of pinewood and fractional condensation were used to obtain an oil rich in levoglucosan which was upgraded to glucose by acid hydrolysis. Blending of pyrolytic sugars with pure glucose in both nitrogen rich and nitrogen limited conditions was studied for R. diobovatum, and under nitrogen limited conditions for C. vulgaris. Glucose consumption rate decreased with increasing proportions of pyrolytic sugars increasing cultivation time. While R. diobovatum was capable of growth in 100% (v/v) pyrolytic sugars, C. vulgaris growth declined rapidly in blends greater than 20% (v/v) until no growth was detected in blends >40%. Finally, the effects of pyrolysis sugars on lipid composition was evaluated and biodiesel fuel properties were estimated based on the lipid profiles. PMID:27208736

  8. Chlorella vulgaris vs cyanobacterial biomasses: Comparison in terms of biomass productivity and biogas yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cyanobacteria and C. vulgaris were compared in terms of growth and methane production. • Biomasses were subjected to anaerobic digestion without applying any disruption method. • Cyanobacteria showed an increased methane yield in comparison with C. vulgaris. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare cyanobacteria strains (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, Anabaena planctonica, Borzia trilocularis and Synechocystis sp.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) in terms of growth rate, biochemical profile and methane production. Cyanobacteria growth rate ranged 0.5–0.6 day−1 for A. planctonica, A. ovalisporum and Synecochystis sp. and 0.4 day−1 for B. tricularis. Opposite, C. vulgaris maximum growth rate was double (1.2 day−1) than that of cyanobacteria. Regarding the methane yield, microalgae C. vulgaris averaged 120 mL CH4 g COD in−1 due to the presence of a strong cell wall. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of cyanobacteria supported higher methane yields. B. trilocularis and A. planctonica presented 1.42-fold higher methane yield than microalgae while this value was raised to approximately 1.85-fold for A. ovalisporum and Synechochystis sp. In the biogas production context, this study showed that the low growth rates of cyanobacteria can be overcome by their increased anaerobic digestibility when compared to their microalgae counterpartners, such is the case of C. vulgaris

  9. Separation of Chlorella vulgaris from liquid phase using bioflocculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Günay

    2014-12-01

    results showed that C. vulgaris was partially separated from the liquid phase. However, the experiments will continue for the purpose of increasing the flocculating activity. Getting successfully experimental results with kaolin showed that bioflocculant has a potential use in wastewater treatment. For this reason, it also is thought to analyze the effect of bioflocculant on the wastewater treatment with further studies.[¤

  10. Culture of a high-chlorophyll-producing and halotolerant Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koichi; Deuchi, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    In order to increase the value of freshwater algae as raw ingredients for health foods and feed for seawater-based farmed fish, we sought to breed high-chlorophyll halotolerant Chlorella with the objective of generating strains with both high chlorophyll concentrations (≥ 5%) and halotolerance (up to 1% NaCl). We used the Chlorella vulgaris K strain in our research institute culture collection and induced mutations with UV irradiation and acriflavine which is known to effect mutations of mitochondrial DNA that are associated with chlorophyll production. Screenings were conducted on seawater-based "For Chlorella spp." (FC) agar medium, and dark-green-colored colonies were visually selected by macroscopic inspection. We obtained a high-chlorophyll halotolerant strain (designated C. vulgaris M-207A7) that had a chlorophyll concentration of 6.7% (d.m.), a level at least three-fold higher than that of K strain. This isolate also exhibited a greater survival rate in seawater that of K strain.

  11. Preliminary study of the green algae chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) for control on the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) in tomato plants and ectoparasite Xiphinema indexin grape seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleva, B; Bileva, T; Tzvetkov, Y; Barakov, P

    2005-01-01

    The alternative ecological methods require investigation of many organo-biological means for plant protection against dangerous root parasites such as root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria and some ectoparasites (Xiphinema index). The Bulgarian organic product - dry extract of green alga Chlorella vulgaris ("The Golden Apple"-Plamen Barakov) is the latest product, which in comparative aspect gives the best results. Series of laboratory and pot experiments are carried out with tomato (cv. Bele and cv. Ideal) and grape seedlings (cv. Cabernet Sauvignon). Different dosages of Chlorella from 0.5 g to 2 g per plant/pot are investigated. The first results show that even low dosages had double effect - on the one hand they suppress the parasite development and on the other hand they strongly stimulate plant growing. The very important conclusion is that Chlorella vulgaris ignores the negative influence of M. arenaria and X. index. These results give us opportunity for future model and field investigations of Chlorella vulgaris with the aim of its practical application.

  12. Lipids, fatty acids composition and carotenoids of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcelos Oliveira, Jorge Luiz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative culture media have been evaluated for the cultivation of microalgae, among them are, industrial and agriculture wastewaters, that make residue recycling possible by bioconverting it into a rich, nourishing biomass that can be used as a feeding complement in aquaculture and in diverse areas. The objective of this research is to determine the lipid, fatty acid profile and carotenoid produced by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in a hydroponic wastewater, with different dilutions. The results showed that lipid contents did not present significant differences. Fatty acids were predominantly 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:3n-6. For total carotenoids, the dilution of hydroponic wastewater did not stimulate the production of these pigments. From this study, it was determined that, the use of hydroponic wastewater as an alternative culture medium for  the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris generates good perspectives for lipid, fatty acid and carotenoid production.Medios de cultivo alternativos vienen siendo evaluados para el cultivo de microalgas, entre ellos, están los afluentes industriales y agrícolas, que posibilitan la reciclaje del residuo, bioconvirtiéndose en una biomasa enriquecida bajo el punto de vista nutricional, que puede ser utilizada como complemento alimenticio, para la acuacultura y en varias otras áreas de actuación. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar los contenidos de lípidos, composición de ácidos grasos y carotenoides producidos por la microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada en solución hidropónica residual, con diferentes diluciones. Los resultados de los contenidos de lípidos totales no presentaron diferencia significativa. Los ácidos grasos predominantes fueron los 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 e 18:3n-6. Para los carotenoides totales, la dilución de la solución hidropónica residual no estimuló la producción de estos pigmentos por la microalga. La utilización de la solución hidrop

  13. Biofuels from the Fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV) for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy; Talal Yusaf; Raed A. Al-Juboori

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to investigate biofuels for diesel engines produced on a lab-scale from the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV). The impact of growing conditions on the properties of biodiesel produced from FWM-CV was evaluated. The properties of FWM-CV biodiesel were found to be within the ASTM standards for biodiesel. Due to the limited amount of biodiesel produced on the lab-scale, the biomass of dry cells of FWM-CV was used to yield emulsified water fuel. The preparation of...

  14. Metabolitic activity of 11-deoxycorticosterone and prednisolone in the alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck

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    Romuald Czerpak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of optimal concentrations 5 x 10-6M - 10-6M of 11-deoxycorticosterone (mineralocorticoid and prednisolone (glucocorticoid on the growth (fresh and dry weight and content of soluble proteins, reducing sugars and nucleic acids in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae. Both corticosteroids at concentration 5 x 10-6M were most strongly active metabolically between the 5th-15th day of the cultivation and this probably was caused by their chemical biotransformation. The applied corticosteroids induced the strongest stimulative effect on the content of soluble proteins in the range of 167-196% and reducing sugars (233-275% when compared to the control (100%. Prednisolone showed lower stimulative activity on the content of proteins. But 11-deoxycorticosterone showed weaker stimulation of on the content of sugar. Both of the corticosteroids showed a stimulating or inhibitory influence upon the content of nucleic acids in C. vulgaris cells without regard to the concentration.

  15. Effect of isomers of hydroxybenzoic acid on the growth and metabolism of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bajguz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isomers o-, m-, and p- of hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA in the concentration range 10-1-10-4 M in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae display marked biological activity. The o-HBA isomer, commonly known as salicylic acid, in a concentration of 10-4 M exerted the most stimulating effect on the parameters analysed (the number of cells, dry mass, the content of chlorophylls a and h, carotenoids, soluble proteins and their secretion, monosaccharides, DNA and RNA whereas p-HBA had weak stimulating properties. On the other hand, m-HBA had a weak inhibitory effect on the growth of C. vulgaris and all the biochemical parameters analysed in comparison with the control culture of algae devoid of HBA isomers.

  16. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris in a recycled supernatant: Effects on biomass production and medium quality

    KAUST Repository

    Hadj-Romdhane, F.

    2013-03-01

    Reusing supernatant of microalgae culture medium can have inhibitory or toxic effects on the biomass production because of the release of organic metabolites by cells in the culture medium during their growth. This work investigated the impact of Chlorella vulgaris medium recycling on culture productivity, cells quality and accumulation of excreted metabolites in the culture medium. No significant impact on the C. vulgaris growth was observed after 63days of recycling, the productivity remained stable at around 0.55kgm-3day-1. Organic matters accumulated in supernatant were identified as biopolymers (BP) poor in nitrogen and with a size above 40kDa (probably polysaccharides), and small organic molecules (SOM) richer in nitrogen with a molecular size ranging from 1 to 3kDa. The concentration of biopolymers in the supernatant increased till to a maximum and then decreased, possibly consumed by bacteria, whereas small organic compounds accumulated in the medium. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Power generation enhancement in novel microbial carbon capture cells with immobilized Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; He, Huanhuan; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hongyu

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing concerns for global climate change, a sustainable, efficient and renewable energy production from wastewater is imperative. In this study, a novel microbial carbon capture cell (MCC), is constructed for the first time by the introduction of immobilized microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) into the cathode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to fulfill the zero discharge of carbon dioxide. This process can achieve an 84.8% COD removal, and simultaneously the maximum power density can reach 2485.35 mW m-3 at a current density of 7.9 A m-3 and the Coulombic efficiency is 9.40%, which are 88% and 57.7% greater than that with suspended C. vulgaris, respectively. These enhancements in performance demonstrate the feasibility of an economical and effective approach for the simultaneous wastewater treatment, electricity generation and biodiesel production from microalgae.

  18. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Jing; Li, Yonghong; Zhang, Yongkui

    2013-05-01

    To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C. vulgaris grew better in C. esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH(1)) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. PMID:23548401

  19. Saline wastewater treatment by Chlorella vulgaris with simultaneous algal lipid accumulation triggered by nitrate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiao-Hui; Gong, Yu-Peng; Fang, Wen-Zhe; Bi, Zi-Cheng; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Chlorella vulgaris, a marine microalgae strain adaptable to 0-50 g L(-1) of salinity, was selected for studying the coupling system of saline wastewater treatment and lipid accumulation. The effect of total nitrogen (T N) concentration was investigated on algal growth, nutrients removal as well as lipid accumulation. The removal efficiencies of TN and total phosphorus (TP) were found to be 92.2-96.6% and over 99%, respectively, after a batch cultivation of 20 days. To illustrate the response of lipid accumulation to nutrients removal, C. vulgaris was further cultivated in the recycling experiment of tidal saline water within the photobioreactor. The lipid accumulation was triggered upon the almost depletion of nitrate (nitrate, nitrite, and then to ammonium in the effluents was finally integrated with previous discussions on metabolic pathways of algal cell under nitrogen deficiency. PMID:26117237

  20. Temporal Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea biodiversity during cultivation of an alkaliphilic algae, Chlorella vulgaris, in an outdoor raceway pond

    OpenAIRE

    Tisza Ann Szeremy Bell; Bharath ePrithiviraj; Wahlen, Brad D.; Matthew W Fields; Peyton, Brent M.

    2016-01-01

    Algal biofuels and valuable co-products are being produced in both open and closed cultivation systems. Growing algae in open pond systems may be a more economical alternative, but this approach allows environmental microorganisms to colonize the pond and potentially infect or outcompete the algal crop. In this study, we monitored the microbial community of an outdoor, open raceway pond inoculated with a high lipid-producing alkaliphilic alga, Chlorella vulgaris BA050. The strain C. vulgari...

  1. Evaluation of inhibitory effects of Chlorella vulgaris extract on growth, proliferation and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and evaluation of its toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Dental caries is the most important disease caused by some bacteria specially Streptococcus Mutans from Viridans family. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Chlorella vulgaris extract on growth, proliferation, and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. Materials & Methods: Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was extracted via maceration using chloroform, methanol, and acetone (2/1/1 as solvents. The antibacterial activities were evaluated through methods such as disk diffusion, well diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC; besides, the anti-biofilm formation of Chlorella vulgaris extract was indicated. In the present study, a method utilizing brine shrimp lethality was used to screen the toxicity of Chlorella vulgaris extract, and the mortality of brine shrimps was counted by Magnifying glass in a 24-hour period. Results: The results of disc diffusion and well diffusion of Chlorella vulgaris extract revealed the averages of 16.5 and 23 mm zones of inhibition in Mueller-Hinton agar, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 25 mg/ml and the minimal bactericidal concentration was 50 mg/ml. The anti-biofilm formation concentration of Chlorella vulgaris extract was 50 mg/ml, and the concentration of brine shrimp toxicity was100 mg/ml. Conclusion: The present study showed that Chlorella vulgaris extract has more significant antimicrobial properties than ampicillin and is able to eliminate Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

  2. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of lipids from Chlorella vulgaris using [Bmim][MeSO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipids from Chlorella vulgaris were successfully extracted using an ionic liquid, [Bmim][MeSO4]. [Bmim][MeSO4] dissolved C. vulgaris, leaving the lipids insoluble. The undissolved lipids could easily be recovered due to the lower density of the lipid phase. Furthermore, ultrasound irradiation highly enhanced the extraction rate and yield with [Bmim][MeSO4]. The total amounts of lipid extracted from C. vulgaris by the Soxhlet method and the Bligh and Dyer's method were 21 and 29 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), respectively, whereas it was 47 mg/g DCW with [Bmim][MeSO4]. Additionally, the amount of lipid extracted using [Bmim][MeSO4] was 1.6 times greater with ultrasound irradiation. The rate of extraction of lipids from C. vulgaris with [Bmim][MeSO4] was also 2.7 times greater with ultrasound irradiation. The fatty acid profiles of the lipids extracted using [Bmim][MeSO4] were very similar to those of the lipids obtained by Bligh and Dyer's method. -- Highlights: •[Bmim][MeSO4] efficiently extracted lipids from algae without pretreatment. •Ultrasound irradiation highly enhanced the extraction rate and yield of the extraction system using IL. •Fatty acid profiles of lipids extracted using [Bmim][MeSO4] were similar to those of the lipids obtained by conventional methods

  3. Novel bioconversions of municipal effluent and CO₂ into protein riched Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Li, Yuji; Cheng, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-03-01

    Batch, modified semi-continuous and continuous cultivations of Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN 2010 cells in municipal effluent were performed and analyzed. The experiments were carried out in 7.5-L photo-bioreactors, to which 2% of CO2 was supplied. Biomass and specific growth rate of C. vulgaris were 0.528-0.760gl(-1) and 0.200-0.374d(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, it could efficiently remove ammonia-N, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, CODCr and BOD5 by around 98.0%, 90.9-93.6%, 89.9-91.8%, 60.7-90.0% and 83.4-88.4%, respectively. Algal protein content was 550±30.0mgg(-1) of the harvested biomass of C. vulgaris which was rich in eight kinds of essential amino acids (around 44.5% of the total). The processes of cultivation of C. vulgaris in municipal effluent could be proposed as dual-beneficial approaches, which could produce profitable byproducts and simultaneously reduce the contaminations to environment. PMID:23399495

  4. The effect of cadmium on the growth and antioxidant response for freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinfeng; Qiu, Hongchen; Chang, Zhaoyang; Jiang, Zaimin; Yin, Wenke

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of exogenously applied cadmium on the physiological response of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. The study investigated the long-term effect (18 days) of cadmium on the levels of algae biomass, assimilation pigment composition, soluble protein, oxidative status (production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion), antioxidant enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase enzyme) in C. vulgaris. The results showed that growth, the amount of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids gradually decreased with increasing cadmium over 18 days exposure. Cadmium at concentration of 7 mg L(-1) inhibited algal growth expressed as the number of cells. Our research found that C. vulgaris has a high tolerance to cadmium. Contents of chlorophylls (Chl a and Chl b) and carotenoids (Car) of C. vulgaris was significantly decline with rising concentration of cadmium (p alga with exposure to Cd(II) seemed to be parameters as biomarkers for metal-induced oxidative stress. PMID:27652004

  5. Effects of brassinazole, an inhibitor of brassinosteroid biosynthesis, on light- and dark-grown Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Asami, Tadao

    2004-03-01

    Treatment of cultured Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck cells with 0.1-10 microM brassinazole (Brz2001), an inhibitor of brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis, inhibits their growth during the first 48 h of cultivation in the light. This inhibition is prevented by the co-application of BR. This result suggests that the presence of endogenous BRs during the initial steps of the C. vulgaris cell cycle is indispensable for their normal growth in the light. In darkness, a treatment with 10 nM brassinolide (BL) promotes growth through the first 24 h of culture, but during the following 24 h the cells undergo complete stagnation. Treatment of dark-grown cells with either Brz2001 alone, or a mixture of 10 nM BL and 0.1/10 microM Brz2001, also stimulates their growth. The effects of treatment with 10 nM BL mixed with 0.1-10 microM of a mevalonate-pathway inhibitor (mevinolin), or a non-mevalonate-pathway inhibitor (clomazone), were also investigated. Mevinolin at these concentrations did not inhibit growth of C. vulgaris; however, clomazone did. Addition of BL overcame the inhibition. These results suggest that the mevalonate pathway does not function in C. vulgaris, and that the non-mevalonate pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis is responsible for the synthesis of one of the primary precursors in BR biosynthesis.

  6. The Bioconcentration and Degradation of Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol Polyethoxylates by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs, a major class of nonionic surfactants, can easily enter into aquatic environments through various pathways due to their wide applications, which leads to the extensive existence of their relative stable metabolites, namely nonylphenol (NP and mono- to tri-ethoxylates. This study investigated the bioconcentration and degradation of NP and NPnEO oligomers (n = 1–12 by a green algae, Chlorella vulgaris. Experimental results showed that C. vulgaris can remove NP from water phase efficiently, and bioconcentration and degradation accounted for approximately half of its loss, respectively, with a 48 h BCF (bioconcentration factor of 2.42 × 103. Moreover, C. vulgaris could concentrate and degrade NPnEOs, distribution profiles of the series homologues of the NPnEOs in algae and water phase were quite different from the initial homologue profile. The 48 h BCF of the NPnEO homologues increased with the length of the EO chain. Degradation extent of total NPnEOs by C. vulgaris was 95.7%, and only 1.1% remained in water phase, and the other 3.2% remained in the algal cells. The algae removed the NPnEOs mainly through degradation. Due to rapid degradation, concentrations of the long chain NPnEO homologous in both water (n ≥ 2 and the algal phase (n ≥ 5 was quite low at the end of a 48 h experiment.

  7. Cultivating Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda microalgae to degrade inorganic compounds and pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglieri, Andrea; Sidella, Sarah; Barone, Valeria; Fragalà, Ferdinando; Silkina, Alla; Nègre, Michèle; Gennari, Mara

    2016-09-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of cultivating Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella vulgaris microalgae in wastewater from the hydroponic cultivation of tomatoes with the aim of purifying the water. S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris were also used in purification tests carried out on water contaminated by the following active ingredients: metalaxyl, pyrimethanil, fenhexamid, iprodione, and triclopyr. Fifty-six days after the inoculum was placed, a reduction was found in the concentration of nitric nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and soluble and total phosphorus. The decrease was 99, 83, 94, and 94 %, respectively, for C. vulgaris and 99, 5, 88, and 89 %, respectively, for S. quadricauda. When the microalgae were present, all the agrochemicals tested were removed more quickly from the water than from the sterile control (BG11). The increase in the rate of degradation was in the order metalaxyl > fenhexamid > iprodione > triclopyr > pyrimethanil. It was demonstrated that there was a real degradation of fenhexamid, metalaxyl, triclopyr, and iprodione, while in the case of pyrimethanil, the active ingredient removed from the substrate was absorbed onto the cells of the microalgae. It was also found that the agrochemicals used in the tests had no significant effect on the growth of the two microalgae. The experiment highlighted the possibility of using cultivations of C. vulgaris and S. quadricauda as purification systems for agricultural wastewater which contains eutrophic inorganic compounds such as nitrates and phosphates and also different types of pesticides. PMID:27259964

  8. Mechanistically harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris and Rhodotorula glutinis via modified montmorillonoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the flocculation process of Chlorella vulgaris and Rhodotorula glutinis induced by inorganic salts modified montmorillonoid was conducted. The maximum flocculation efficiency (FE) of 98.50% for C. vulgaris and 11.83% for R. glutinis were obtained with 4g/L and 5g/L flocculant within the dosage scope of 1-5g/L. The difference of FE was then thermodynamically explained by the extended DLVO theory and the FE of R. glutinis was mechanically enhanced to 90.66% with 0.06g/L cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) at an optimum pH of 9. After that, aimed to utilize the remainder flocculant capacity, C. vulgaris culture was added to the aggregation of R. glutinis. Fortunately, the coagulation of R. glutinis and C. Vulgaris was achieved with 0.05g/L CPAM and 5g/L flocculant at pH 9 and the FE reached 90.15% and 91.24%, respectively. PMID:27420162

  9. Investigation of mixotrophic, heterotrophic, and autotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris under agricultural waste medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B

    2016-01-01

    Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and its lipid production were investigated under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions. Cheap agricultural waste molasses and corn steep liquor from industries were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris grew remarkably under this agricultural waste medium, which resulted in a reduction in the final cost of the biodiesel production. Maximum dry weight of 2.62 g L(-1) was obtained in mixotrophic growth with the highest lipid concentration of 0.86 g L(-1). These biomass and lipid concentrations were, respectively, 140% and 170% higher than autotrophic growth and 300% and 1200% higher than heterotrophic growth. In mixotrophic growth, independent or simultaneous occurrence of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms was investigated. The growth of the microalgae was observed to take place first heterotrophically to a minimum substrate concentration with a little fraction in growth under autotrophic metabolism, and then the cells grew more autotrophically. It was found that mixotrophic growth was not a simple combination of heterotrophic and autotrophic growth.

  10. Modulation of Cell Cycle Profile by Chlorella vulgaris Prevents Replicative Senescence of Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyebeh Saberbaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Chlorella vulgaris (CV on replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs were investigated. Hot water extract of CV was used to treat HDFs at passages 6, 15, and 30 which represent young, presenescence, and senescence ages, respectively. The level of DNA damage was determined by comet assay while apoptosis and cell cycle profile were determined using FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Our results showed direct correlation between increased levels of damaged DNA and apoptosis with senescence in untreated HDFs (P<0.05. Cell cycle profile showed increased population of untreated senescent cells that enter G0/G1 phase while the cell population in S phase decreased significantly (P<0.05. Treatment with CV however caused a significant reduction in the level of damaged DNA and apoptosis in all age groups of HDFs (P<0.05. Cell cycle analysis showed that treatment with CV increased significantly the percentage of senescent HDFs in S phase and G2/M phases but decreased the population of cells in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05. In conclusion, hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris effectively decreased the biomarkers of ageing, indicating its potential as an antiageing compound.

  11. Investigation of mixotrophic, heterotrophic, and autotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris under agricultural waste medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B

    2016-01-01

    Growth of Chlorella vulgaris and its lipid production were investigated under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions. Cheap agricultural waste molasses and corn steep liquor from industries were used as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Chlorella vulgaris grew remarkably under this agricultural waste medium, which resulted in a reduction in the final cost of the biodiesel production. Maximum dry weight of 2.62 g L(-1) was obtained in mixotrophic growth with the highest lipid concentration of 0.86 g L(-1). These biomass and lipid concentrations were, respectively, 140% and 170% higher than autotrophic growth and 300% and 1200% higher than heterotrophic growth. In mixotrophic growth, independent or simultaneous occurrence of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms was investigated. The growth of the microalgae was observed to take place first heterotrophically to a minimum substrate concentration with a little fraction in growth under autotrophic metabolism, and then the cells grew more autotrophically. It was found that mixotrophic growth was not a simple combination of heterotrophic and autotrophic growth. PMID:25807048

  12. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment. PMID:27344399

  13. Selective extraction of intracellular components from the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by combined pulsed electric field-temperature treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Pataro, G.; Capitoli, M.; Barbosa, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Olivieri, G.; Ferrari, G.

    2016-01-01

    The synergistic effect of temperature (25-65°C) and total specific energy input (0.55-1.11kWhkgDW -1) by pulsed electric field (PEF) on the release of intracellular components from the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was studied. The combination of PEF with temperatures from 2

  14. Quantification of nutrient-replete growth rates in five-ion hyperspace for Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of five ions, NO3-, PO43-, K+, Na+ and Cl- on growth rates and cell densities were quantified for Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophycea) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophycea) in batch cultures. A five dimensional experimental design, the five component mixture design projected across a total i...

  15. Isolation of Chlorella vulgaris and Its DNA Extraction Methods%小球藻的分离及其DNA提取方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒强; 孔庆军; 任雪艳; 占东霞; 张海黎

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to isolate Chlorella vulgaris (chlorella) and extract its genomic DNA. [Method] Both the dilution method and drip method were employed to isolate chlorella from lake water samples; the conditions for culturing chlorella were optimized and its genomic DNA was extracted by improved CTAB method and SDS method. [Result] The proper conditions for chlorella culture were as following: temperature 20-25 ℃, illumination 4.39-5.86 W/m2 and rotational speed 100-150r/min; improved CTAB method was suitable for extracting genomic DNA from chlorella. [Conclusion] The study is helpful to study the chlorella at molecular level and promote the exploitation and utilization of chlorella resources.

  16. INMOVILIZACIÓN DE LAS MICROALGAS Scenedesmus ovalternus (Scenedesmaceae Y Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorellaceae EN ESFERAS DE ALGINATO DE CALCIO

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    Mario Andres Forero-Cujiño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe la técnica de inmovilización de microalgas en esferas de alginato de calcio. Se emplearon las especies Scenedesmus ovalternus y Chlorella vulgaris, se determinó la estabilidad de las esferas, la cinética de crecimiento y la concentración de las microalgas en el interior de las esferas. Chlorella vulgaris alcanzó mayores densidades poblacionales y tasas de crecimiento más altas cuando se inmovilizó en concentraciones del 10 % v/v con el alginato (1,31*106 cél/ml. Para Scenedesmus ovalternus se observó una mayor densidad poblacional y una mayor tasa de crecimiento cuando se inmovilizó en concentraciones del 20 % v/v (7,06*105 cél/ml. Estos resultados son útiles para aplicaciones prácticas de las algas encapsuladas, tales como el biomonitoreo o la biorremediación.Immobilization of Microalgae Scenedesmus ovalternus (Scenedesmaceae and Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorellaceae in Calcium Alginate BeadsThis paper describes the immobilization technique of microalgae in calcium alginate beads. Scenedesmus ovalternus and Chlorella vulgaris species were used. The stability of beads, the kinetics of growth and the concentrations of microalgae inside the beads were determined. The higher density and the upper growth rate of Chlorella vulgaris occurred when it was immobilized in alginate at a concentration of 10 %v/v (1,31*106 cél/ml. Scenedesmus ovalternus achieved a higher population density and an elevated growth rate when it was immobilized at a concentration of 20 % v/v (7,06*105 cél/ml. These results are useful for subsequent applications of the encapsulated algae, such as biomonitoring and bioremediation.

  17. PENGGUNAAN MEMBRAN SERAT BERONGGA SEBAGAI AERATOR DALAM SISTEM KULTIVASI UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PRODUKSI BIOMASSA DAN BIOFIKSASI CO2 DARI Chlorella vulgaris

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    D Dianursanti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemanasan global yang memicu terjadinya perubahan iklim, sebagian besar disebabkan karena merebaknya gas CO2.  Pemanfaatan mikroalga Chlorella sp. untuk mereduksi gas CO2 menjadi potensi yang menjanjikan. Hal ini mengingat, bahwa Chlorella dapat dengan efisien mereduksi CO2 karena mereka dapat tumbuh dengan cepat dan mudah diadaptasikan ke dalam rekayasa sistem fotobioreaktor. Dalam penelitian ini akan diupayakan pengaturan sistem aerasi berfilter untuk kultivasi Chlorella vulgaris dalam reaktor agar proses transfer massa gas CO2 dalam kultur mikroalga menjadi lebih baik. Dengan demikian nilai KLa (CO2 menjadi salah satu parameter penentu dalam peningkatan produksi biomassa Chlorella. Nilai KLa yang tinggi menunjukkan proses transfer massa CO2 yang lebih baik dalam kultur mikroalga. Namun nilai KLa (CO2 yang terlalu besar sangat mungkin menyebabkan terjadinya shear stress pada alga.Dengan menggunakan membran serat berongga sebagai aerator, permasalahan shear stress pada alga dapat dihindari. Dengan diameter pori yang sangat kecil, membran ini dapat memberikan laju alir dan transfer massa CO2 dalam kultur yang optimal, tanpa menimbulkan efek shear strees. Dengan demikian penggunaan membran ini dapat menghasilkan produktivitas Chlorella yang lebih baik serta dapat meningkatkan kemampuan biofiksasi CO2 selama proses kultivasinya. Penggunaan membran serat berongga sebagai aerator telah terbukti mampu meningkatkan produksi biomassa C. vulgaris  sebesar 27,2 %. Abstract Global warming triggering climate change is largely due to the presence of CO2. Utilization of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris to reduce CO2 gas is potential as it efficiently reduces CO2while growing quickly and adapting to the photobioreactor systems engineering. This study explored filter aeration system settings for cultivating C. vulgaris in the reactor thus mass transfer of CO2 in microalgae cultures becomes more efficient. Value of KLa (CO2 is one of the parameters in

  18. Chlorella vulgaris culture as a regulator of CO2 in a bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Hu, Dawei; Liu, Hong; Hu, Enzhu; Xie, Beizhen; Tong, Ling

    2013-08-01

    It is the primary task for a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) to maintain the stable concentrations of CO2 and O2. However, these concentrations could fluctuate based on various factors, such as the imbalance between respiration/assimilation quotients of the heterotrophic and autotrophic components. They can even be out of balance through catastrophic failure of higher plants in the emergency conditions. In this study, the feasibility of using unicellular Chlorella vulgaris of typically rapid growth as both “compensatory system” and “regulator” to control the balance of CO2 and O2 was analyzed in a closed ecosystem. For this purpose, a small closed ecosystem called integrative experimental system (IES) was established in our laboratory where we have been conducting multi-biological life support system experiments (MLSSE). The IES consists of a closed integrative cultivating system (CICS) and a plate photo-bioreactor. Four volunteers participated in the study for gas exchange by periodical breathing through a tube connected with the CICS. The plate photo-bioreactor was used to cultivate C. vulgaris. Results showed that the culture of C. vulgaris could be used in a situation of catastrophic failure of higher plant under the emergencies. And the productivity could recover itself to the original state in 3 to 5 days to protect the system till the higher plant was renewed. Besides, C. vulgaris could grow well and the productivity could be affected by the light intensity which could help to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 in the IES efficiently. Thus, C. vulgaris could be included in the design of a BLSS as a “compensatory system” in the emergency contingency and a “regulator” during the normal maintenance.

  19. Adjusting irradiance to enhance growth and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Nie, Changliang; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming

    2016-09-01

    Light is one of the most important factors affecting microalgae growth and biochemical composition. The influence of illumination on Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) was investigated. Six progressive illumination intensities (0, 30, 90, 150, 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1)), were used for C. vulgaris cultivation at 25°C. Under 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1), the corresponding specific light intensity of 750×10(-6)μmol·m(-2)s(-1) per cell, algae obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.46g·L(-1)) on the 7th day, which was 3.5 times of that under 0μmol·m(-2)s(-1), and the greatest average specific growth rate (0.79 d(-1)) in the first 7days. The results showed the importance role of light in mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris. High light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1) would inhibit microalgae growth to a certain degree. The algal lipid content was the greatest (30.5%) at 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1) light intensity, which was 2.42 times as high as that cultured in dark. The protein content of C. vulgaris decreased at high light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1). The effect of irradiance on carbohydrate content was inversely correlated with that on protein. The available light at an appropriate intensity, not higher than 200μmol·m(-2)s(-1), was feasible for economical cultivation of C. vulgaris in MSGW. PMID:27484967

  20. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO DEL HIDROCARBURO FENANTRENO SOBRE EL CRECIMIENTO DE Chlorella vulgaris (CHLORELLACEAE Effect of the Hydrocarbon Phenanthrene on Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorellaceae Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGÉLICA OTEROPATERNINA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del hidrocarburo policíclico aromático fenantreno sobre el crecimiento de la microalga Chlorella vulgaris bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Las microalgas fueron expuestas a diferentes concentraciones de fenantreno (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 y 10000 µg/l. El tiempo de exposición fue de 72 h, determinándose diariamente la densidad algal mediante recuento en cámara de Neubauer. Se determinó la tasa promedio de crecimiento, la biomasa total y el porcentaje de inhibición de la biomasa. También se evaluó el contenido de clorofila a, al inicio y final del experimento. Los ensayos fueron realizados en recipientes de vidrio de 0,4 l, utilizando como medio de cultivo fertilizante inorgánico del complejo NPK (REMITAL® m - 17-6-18 a razón de 1 g/l. Los resultados mostraron que el fenantreno inhibió progresivamente el crecimiento de la microalga, observándose el menor crecimiento celular en el medio con la mayor concentración de fenantreno, el cual alcanzó un porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento del 59 %. Las tasas de crecimiento diario se mantuvieron relativamente constantes en los demás tratamientos. La concentración de clorofila a, medida mediante espectrofotometría, no se afectó por las diferentes concentraciones del hidrocarburo. En conclusión, el crecimiento de la microalga C. vulgaris puede afectarse negativamente por la exposición a concentraciones nominales superiores a 1 µg/l de fenantreno.The effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris alga were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The algae were exposed during 72 h to different concentrations of phenanthrene (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10000 µg/l. The alga density was daily determined by a Neubauer chamber. The average growth average, total biomass and inhibition percentage of the biomass were also determined. In addition, the content of chlorophyll a was determined at the beginning and the end of the

  1. Evaluation of Cell Disruption of Chlorella Vulgaris by Pressure-Assisted Ozonation and Ultrasonication

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    Yuanxing Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of pressure-assisted ozonation (PAO in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris cell disruption, and compared the disruption result with that of the ultrasonication (US by using four quantification indicators: cell counting, ultra violet (UV absorbance, turbidity and visible light absorbance. It was found that under the condition of 0.8 MPa and 80 cycles, PAO treatment achieved cell rupture of 80.3%, with the power of 1080 W and treatment time of 60 min, US achieved cell rupture of 83.8%. Cell counting was a reliable indicator and applicable to both PAO and US treatments. Turbidity and visible light absorbance gave similar results and featured as the simplest operation. UV absorbance reflected the metabolite release due to cell breakage; however, it was less reproducible when it was applied to quantify the cell rupture by PAO. Its trend indicated that during cell disruption metabolite degradation occurred, especially after significant rupture in the case of excessive PAO treatment. The cellular morphology of C. vulgaris cells during PAO and US treatments was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM which certified that the cells damage was caused by both physical and chemical attack.

  2. Cloning and Expression of a Cytosolic HSP90 Gene in Chlorella vulgaris

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    Zhengyi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, a highly conserved molecular chaperone, plays essential roles in folding, keeping structural integrity, and regulating the subset of cytosolic proteins. We cloned the cDNA of Chlorella vulgaris HSP90 (named CvHSP90 by combining homology cloning with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Sequence analysis indicated that CvHSP90 is a cytosolic member of the HSP90 family. Quantitative RT-PCR was applied to determine the expression level of messenger RNA (mRNA in CvHSP90 under different stress conditions. C. vulgaris was kept in different temperatures (5–45°C for 1 h. The mRNA expression level of CvHSP90 increased with temperature from 5 to 10°C, went further from 35 to 40°C, and reached the maximum at 40°C. On the other hand, for C. vulgaris kept at 35°C for different durations, the mRNA expression level of CvHSP90 increased gradually and reached the peak at 7 h and then declined progressively. In addition, the expression level of CvHSP90 at 40 or 45 in salinity (‰ was almost fourfold of that at 25 in salinity (‰ for 2 h. Therefore, CvHSP90 may be a potential biomarker to monitor environment changes.

  3. Optimization of culture media for large-scale lutein production by heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Young; Kwon, Ji-Sue; Kang, Soon Tae; Kim, Bo-Ra; Jung, Yuchul; Han, Jae Gap; Park, Joon Hyun; Hwang, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with a purported role in protecting eyes from oxidative stress, particularly the high-energy photons of blue light. Statistical optimization was performed to growth media that supports a higher production of lutein by heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella vulgaris. The effect of media composition of C. vulgaris on lutein was examined using fractional factorial design (FFD) and central composite design (CCD). The results indicated that the presence of magnesium sulfate, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution significantly affected lutein production. The optimum concentrations for lutein production were found to be 0.34 g/L, 0.06 g/L, and 0.4 mL/L for MgSO4 ·7H2 O, EDTA-2Na, and trace metal solution, respectively. These values were validated using a 5-L jar fermenter. Lutein concentration was increased by almost 80% (139.64 ± 12.88 mg/L to 252.75 ± 12.92 mg/L) after 4 days. Moreover, the lutein concentration was not reduced as the cultivation was scaled up to 25,000 L (260.55 ± 3.23 mg/L) and 240,000 L (263.13 ± 2.72 mg/L). These observations suggest C. vulgaris as a potential lutein source. PMID:24550199

  4. Comparison of Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterial biomass: cultivation in urban wastewater and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Lara; Sialve, Bruno; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Steyer, Jean Philippe; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of microalgae is hampered by its complex cell wall. Against this background, cyanobacteria cell walls render this biomass as an ideal substrate for overcoming this drawback. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Anabaena planctonica) and a microalga (Chlorella vulgaris) in urban wastewater when varying the temperature (22, 27 and 32 °C). Cyanobacterial optimal growth for both strains was attained at 22 °C, while C. vulgaris did not show remarkable differences among temperatures. For all the microorganisms, ammonium removal was higher than phosphate. Biomass collected was subjected to anaerobic digestion. Methane yield of C. vulgaris was 184.8 mL CH4 g COD in(-1) while with A. ovalisporum and A. planctonica the methane production was 1.2- and 1.4-fold higher. This study showed that cyanobacteria growth rates could be comparable to microalgae while presenting the additional benefit of an increased anaerobic digestibility.

  5. 小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)净化沼液和提纯沼气%Purifying biogas slurry and upgrading biogas by Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 颜诚; 王东; 钱俊成; 聂耳; 郑正

    2013-01-01

    为了研究同时提纯沼气和净化沼液的可能,利用沼液作为小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)的培养基,同时把沼气中的CO2作为小球藻培养的碳源.在无菌培养条件下,得出了最适生长条件为沼液浓度50%、初始pH值6.0、接种小球藻干重为0.20 mg/mL、光质为红光.在此条件下沼液中的COD、TN、TP和BOD5的去除率分别达到了88.5%、91.2%、95.3%和87.6%,沼气中甲烷含量由原先的40%提升到60.2%.很好地同时解决了沼气品质低下和高浓度污染物沼液污染环境的问题.

  6. On the uptake and binding of uranium (VI) by the green alga Chlorella Vulgaris; Zur Aufnahme und Bindung von Uran(VI) durch die Gruenalge Chlorella Vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja

    2011-07-01

    Uranium could be released into the environment from geogenic deposits and from former mining and milling areas by weathering and anthropogenic activities. The elucidation of uranium behavior in geo- and biosphere is necessary for a reliable risk assessment of radionuclide migration in the environment. Algae are widespread in nature and the most important group of organisms in the aquatic habitat. Because of their ubiquitous occurrence in nature the influence of algae on the migration process of uranium in the environment is of fundamental interest e.g. for the development of effective and economical remediation strategies for contaminated waters. Besides, algae are standing at the beginning of the food chain and play an economically relevant role as food and food additive. Therefore the transfer of algae-bound uranium along the food chain could arise to a serious threat to human health. Aim of this work was the quantitative and structural characterization of the interaction between U(VI) and the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in environmental relevant concentration and pH range with special emphasis on metabolic activity. Therefore a defined medium was created which assures the survival/growth of the algae as well as the possibility to predict the uranium speciation. The speciation of uranium in the mineral medium was calculated and experimentally verified by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results of the sorption experiments showed that both metabolic active and inactive algal cells bind uranium in significant amounts of around 14 mg U/g dry biomass and 28 mg U/g dry biomass, respectively. Another interesting observation was made during the growth of Chlorella cells in mineral medium at the environmental relevant uranium concentration of 5 {mu}M. Under these conditions and during ongoing cultivation a mobilization of the algae-bound uranium occurred. At higher uranium concentrations this effect was not observed due to the die off

  7. Protease cell wall degradation of Chlorella vulgaris: effect on methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Ahmed; Mendez, Lara; Blanco, Saul; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    In order to optimize the enzymatic dosage and microalgae biomass loads subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis prior anaerobic digestion of Chlorella vulgaris, organic matter solubilisation and methane production were investigated. Experimental data using protease dosage of 0.585 AU g DW(-1) showed that increasing biomass loads up to 65 g L(-1) did not affect markedly the hydrolysis efficiency (51%). Enzymatically pretreated biomasses subjected to anaerobic digestion enhanced methane production by 50-70%. The attempt of decreasing the enzymatic dosages revealed diminished hydrolysis efficiency concomitantly with a decreased methane production enhancement. In agreement with the good results observed for organic matter conversion into biogas, total nitrogen mineralization was attained for enzymatically pretreated biomass. Despite the high protein content of the biomass and the biocatalyst used in the present study no ammonia inhibition was detected.

  8. Isolation and purification of lutein from the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by extraction after saponification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2002-02-27

    A simple and efficient method for the isolation and purification of lutein from the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was developed. Crude lutein was obtained by extraction with dichloromethane from the microalga after saponification. Partition values of lutein in the two-phase system of ethanol-water-dichloromethane at different ratios were measured by HPLC so as to assist the determination of an appropriate condition for washing water-soluble impurities in the crude lutein. Partition values of lutein in another two-phase system of ethanol-water-hexane at different ratios were also measured by HPLC for determining the condition for removing fat-soluble impurities. The water-soluble impurities in the crude lutein were removed by washing with 30% aqueous ethanol, and the fat-soluble impurities were removed by extraction with hexane. The final purity of lutein obtained was 90-98%, and the yield was 85-91%.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF CELL DISRUPTION IN RAPHIDOCELIS SUBCAPITATA AND CHLORELLA VULGARIS FOR BIOMARKER EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu Aderemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris are bioassay microalgae with rigid cellulosic cell wall which can hinder the release of intracellular proteins often studied as toxicity biomarkers. Since cell disruption is necessary for recovering intracellular biomolecules in these organisms, this study investigated the efficiency of ultrasonication bath; ultrasonication probe; vortexer; and bead mill in disintegrating the microalgae for anti-oxidative enzyme extraction. The extent of cell disruption was evaluated and quantified using bright field microscopy. Disrupted algae appeared as ghosts. The greatest disintegration of the microalgae (83-99.6 % was achieved using bead mill with 0.42-0.6 mm glass beads while the other methods induced little or no disruption. The degree of cell disruption using bead mill increased with exposure time, beads-solution ratio and agitation speed while larger beads caused less disruption. Findings revealed that bead milling, with specific parameters optimized, is one of the most effective methods of disintegrating the robust algal cells.

  10. First evidence of bioflocculant from Shinella albus with flocculation activity on harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2016-10-01

    Bioflocculant from Shinella albus xn-1 could be used to harvest energy-producing microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass for the first time. In this study, we investigated the flocculation activity and mode of strain xn-1, the characteristics of bioflocculant, the effect of flocculation conditions and optimized the flocculation efficiency. The results indicated that strain xn-1 exhibited flocculation activity through secreting bioflocculant; the bioflocculant with high thermal stability, pH stability and low molecular weight was proved to be not protein and polysaccharide, and flocculation active component was confirmed to contain triple bond and cumulated double bonds; algal pH, temperature and metal ions showed great impacts on the flocculation efficiency of bioflocculant; the maximum flocculation activity of bioflocculant reached 85.65% after the response surface optimization. According to the results, the bioflocculant from S. albus xn-1 could be a good potential in applications for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae. PMID:27423548

  11. Effect of moderate static electric field on the growth and metabolism of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezammahalleh, Hassan; Ghanati, Faezeh; Adams, Thomas A; Nosrati, Mohsen; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2016-10-01

    An electric field (EF) generator device was fabricated and applied to the treatment of Chlorella vulgaris ISC33 at three distinct concentrations before cultivation. The EF of moderate intensity (2.7kVcm(-1)) has a hormetic effect on algal growth. The highest growth stimulation of 51% was observed after 50min treatment of 0.4gL(-1) algal suspension. The influence of EF on the system was then studied from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. The growth rate increased with treatment time up to a maximum because of improved membrane permeability, and then declined afterwards due to peroxide accumulation in the medium. The contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins were also measured to understand possible changes on algal metabolism. The EF treatment of algal suspension has no observable effect on the cell metabolism while both algal growth and metabolism was significantly affected by the inoculum size. PMID:27420157

  12. Effect of moderate static electric field on the growth and metabolism of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezammahalleh, Hassan; Ghanati, Faezeh; Adams, Thomas A; Nosrati, Mohsen; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2016-10-01

    An electric field (EF) generator device was fabricated and applied to the treatment of Chlorella vulgaris ISC33 at three distinct concentrations before cultivation. The EF of moderate intensity (2.7kVcm(-1)) has a hormetic effect on algal growth. The highest growth stimulation of 51% was observed after 50min treatment of 0.4gL(-1) algal suspension. The influence of EF on the system was then studied from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. The growth rate increased with treatment time up to a maximum because of improved membrane permeability, and then declined afterwards due to peroxide accumulation in the medium. The contents of chlorophylls, carotenoids, soluble carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins were also measured to understand possible changes on algal metabolism. The EF treatment of algal suspension has no observable effect on the cell metabolism while both algal growth and metabolism was significantly affected by the inoculum size.

  13. Evaluation of sample extraction methods for proteomics analysis of green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qingsong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2016-05-01

    Many protein extraction methods have been developed for plant proteome analysis but information is limited on the optimal protein extraction method from algae species. This study evaluated four protein extraction methods, i.e. direct lysis buffer method, TCA-acetone method, phenol method, and phenol/TCA-acetone method, using green algae Chlorella vulgaris for proteome analysis. The data presented showed that phenol/TCA-acetone method was superior to the other three tested methods with regards to shotgun proteomics. Proteins identified using shotgun proteomics were validated using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) technique. Additionally, SWATH provides protein quantitation information from different methods and protein abundance using different protein extraction methods was evaluated. These results highlight the importance of green algae protein extraction method for subsequent MS analysis and identification. PMID:26935773

  14. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines by Chlorella Vulgaris extracts

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    G Sibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of solvent fractions from Chlorella vulgaris by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Methods: Methanolic extracts (80% of C. vulgaris were prepared and partitioned with solvents of increasing polarity viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. Various concentrations of the fractions were tested for cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the concentrations inducing cell growth inhibition by about 50% (IC50 were chosen for further studies. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with varying concentrations of C. vulgaris fractions and examined for its effects on nitric oxide (NO production by Griess assay. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Celecoxib and polymyxin B as positive controls. Results: MTT assay revealed all the solvent fractions that inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Of all the extracts, 80% methanolic extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production (P < 0.01, PGE2 (P < 0.05, TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.001 release in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. Both hexane and chloroform fractions recorded a significant (P < 0.05 and dose-dependent inhibition of LPS induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts was not significant in the study. Conclusion: The significant inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by fractions from C. vulgaris suggests that this microalga would be a potential source of developing anti-inflammatory agents and a good alternate for conventional steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  15. Optimising the bioreceptivity of porous glass tiles based on colonization by the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz-Mas, V; Bond, T; Zhang, Z; Melchiorri, J; Cheeseman, C R

    2016-09-01

    Green façades on buildings can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. An option to obtain green facades is through the natural colonisation of construction materials. This can be achieved by engineering bioreceptive materials. Bioreceptivity is the susceptibility of a material to be colonised by living organisms. The aim of this research was to develop tiles made by sintering granular waste glass that were optimised for bioreceptivity of organisms capable of photosynthesis. Tiles were produced by pressing recycled soda-lime glass with a controlled particle size distribution and sintering compacted samples at temperatures between 680 and 740°C. The primary bioreceptivity of the tiles was evaluated by quantifying colonisation by the algae Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris), which was selected as a model photosynthetic micro-organism. Concentrations of C. vulgaris were measured using chlorophyll-a extraction. Relationships between bioreceptivity and the properties of the porous glass tile, including porosity, sorptivity, translucency and pH are reported. Capillary porosity and water sorptivity were the key factors influencing the bioreceptivity of porous glass. Maximum C. vulgaris growth and colonisation was obtained for tiles sintered at 700°C, with chlorophyll-a concentrations reaching up to 11.1±0.4μg/cm(2) of tile. Bioreceptivity was positively correlated with sorptivity and porosity and negatively correlated with light transmittance. The research demonstrates that the microstructure of porous glass, determined by the processing conditions, significantly influences bioreceptivity. Porous glass tiles with high bioreceptivity that are colonised by photosynthetic algae have the potential to form carbon-negative façades for buildings and green infrastructure. PMID:27135568

  16. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zhiyong [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China)], E-mail: zhyhuang@jmu.edu.cn; Li Lianping; Huang Gaoling [College of Bioengineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Yan Qingpi [College of fisheries, Jimei University, Xiamen, 361021 (China); Shi Bing; Xu Xiaoqin [Xiamen Products Quality Inspection Institute, Xiamen, 361004 (China)

    2009-01-18

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of ({gamma}-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n = 2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5 cm x 80 cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5 cm x 30 cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p < 0.05) on the cell growth were observed when excessive metals such as 80 {mu}mol l{sup -1} of Cd, and 60 and 80 {mu}mol l{sup -1} of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152 Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga.

  17. Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

    At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

  18. High efficient treatment of citric acid effluent by Chlorella vulgaris and potential biomass utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Li, Yuji; Chen, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of treating citric acid effluent by green algae Chlorella was investigated. With the highest growth rate, Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010 that could efficiently remove nutrients in the citric acid effluent was selected for scale-up batch experiments under the optimal conditions, where its maximum biomass was 1.04 g l(-1) and removal efficiencies of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) were above 90.0%. Algal lipid and protein contents were around 340.0 and 500.0 mg · g(-1) of the harvested biomass, respectively. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipids and eight kinds of essential amino acids in algal protein were 74.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Three major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosadienoic acid. This specific effluent treatment process could be proposed as a dual-beneficial approach, which converts nutrients in the high strength citric acid effluent into profitable byproducts and reduces the contaminations.

  19. Protein hydrolysates from the alga Chlorella vulgaris 87/1 with potentialities in immuno nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Chlorophyceae) has received a particular attention in the programmes of microalgae utilisation in biotechnology. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cell proteins represents a very promising method to increase protein digestibility and thus, for obtaining hydrolysates with improved nutritional and functional properties. However, this technology has been little approached and the biological evaluation of hydrolysates has had a strictly nutritional nature. The design of hydrolysis conditions that combined for the first time, the use of C.vulgaris 87/1 treated with ethanol and pancreatin at pH values of 7.5-8.0, led to a product with a degree of hydrolysis of 20-22% and yields of 50-55%, characterised by a high digestibility (97.2%) and nitrogen solubility over a wide pH range (2.0-10.0). Hydrolysis curves were fitted to an exponential model, common to many food proteins. The bulk of the product dry matter consists of soluble peptides and free amino acids (47.7%) with three main peptides of molecular masses between 2 and 5 kDa. The oral administration of Chlorella hydrolysate (500 mg/kg) to undernourished Balb/c mice provided benefits in terms of liver protein metabolism and the induction of anabolic processes in gut mucosa. The hydrolysate also enhanced the immunological recovery, as judged by the stimulation of haemopoiesis, monocyte macrophage system activation, as well as humoral and cell mediated immune functions, like T-dependent antibody response and the reconstitution of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. These results represent the first findings in the world concerning the immunomodulating effects of a microalgae protein hydrolysate. (author)

  20. Effects of iron and manganese on the formation of HAAs upon chlorinating Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Fei, E-mail: gefei@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Egongtang Road, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Wu, Xiuzhen; Wang, Na; Zhu, Runliang; Wang, Tong; Xu, Yin [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Egongtang Road, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the role of iron and manganese on the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs) when algae are chlorinated at different pHs. The results showed that both iron and manganese can reduce the yields of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) on chlorinating green alga Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) at a pH range of 6.0-9.0, and the decline of DCAA and TCAA was shown to be more significant at the low pH range. At pH 6.0, DCAA and TCAA yields decreased by 44.5% and 57.3%, respectively with the addition of 0.5 mg L{sup -1} iron, and decreased 39.5% and 49.4%, respectively with the addition of 0.5 mg L{sup -1} manganese. The main reason for decreasing the yields of HAAs as shown by scanning electron microscope (SEM) is that Fe(OH){sub 3(am)} or MnO{sub 2(am)} coat the algal cells{sub ,} which then improves their agglomeration of algal cells which is also revealed by the laser particle size analysis (LPSA).

  1. Toxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris

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    Lotfi Barhoumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION was investigated on Chlorella vulgaris cells exposed during 72 hours to Fe3O4 (SPION-1, Co0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 (SPION-2, or Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (SPION-3 to a range of concentrations from 12.5 to 400 μg mL−1. Under these treatments, toxicity impact was indicated by the deterioration of photochemical activities of photosynthesis, the induction of oxidative stress, and the inhibition of cell division rate. In comparison to SPION-2 and -3, exposure to SPION-1 caused the highest toxic effects on cellular division due to a stronger production of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of photochemical activity of Photosystem II. This study showed the potential source of toxicity for three SPION suspensions, having different chemical compositions, estimated by the change of different biomarkers. In this toxicological investigation, algal model C. vulgaris demonstrated to be a valuable bioindicator of SPION toxicity.

  2. Rapid induction of lipid droplets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris by Brefeldin A.

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    Sangwoo Kim

    Full Text Available Algal lipids are the focus of intensive research because they are potential sources of biodiesel. However, most algae produce neutral lipids only under stress conditions. Here, we report that treatment with Brefeldin A (BFA, a chemical inducer of ER stress, rapidly triggers lipid droplet (LD formation in two different microalgal species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. LD staining using Nile red revealed that BFA-treated algal cells exhibited many more fluorescent bodies than control cells. Lipid analyses based on thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography revealed that the additional lipids formed upon BFA treatment were mainly triacylglycerols (TAGs. The increase in TAG accumulation was accompanied by a decrease in the betaine lipid diacylglyceryl N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS, a major component of the extraplastidic membrane lipids in Chlamydomonas, suggesting that at least some of the TAGs were assembled from the degradation products of membrane lipids. Interestingly, BFA induced TAG accumulation in the Chlamydomonas cells regardless of the presence or absence of an acetate or nitrogen source in the medium. This effect of BFA in Chlamydomonas cells seems to be due to BFA-induced ER stress, as supported by the induction of three homologs of ER stress marker genes by the drug. Together, these results suggest that ER stress rapidly triggers TAG accumulation in two green microalgae, C. reinhardtii and C. vulgaris. A further investigation of the link between ER stress and TAG synthesis may yield an efficient means of producing biofuel from algae.

  3. Selenium accumulation in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris and its effects on antioxidant enzymes and content of photosynthetic pigments.

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    Xian Sun

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤ 75 mg L(-1 positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L-1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L-1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health.

  4. Lipid composition of Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) as a function of different cadmium and phosphate concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We studied the effect of Cd and phosphorus (P) on lipids of Chlorella vulgaris. ► Triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration increased under P limitation and Cd stress. ► Fatty acids (FA) saturation increased with P limitation and Cd exposure. ► Lower PUFA were obtained under P limitation and Cd stress. ► Combined P limitation/Cd stress increased total lipid production of the microalga. -- Abstract: Fatty acids are the fundamental structural components of membrane lipids, and the degree of saturation of the long hydrocarbon chains in microalgae contributes to regulation of growth, biomass production and reproduction of aquatic consumers. This research aimed at evaluating the effects of cadmium (2 × 10−8; 10−7 mol L−1 Cd) on lipid class and fatty acid composition of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris under varying phosphate (PO43−) concentrations (6.0 × 10−7 to 2.3 × 10−4 mol L−1). Under PO43− limitation and Cd stress, the storage lipid class triacylglycerol (TAG) was the most accumulated among the lipid classes. Fatty acid composition revealed that the degree of saturation increased with increasing Cd stress and PO43− limitation. Decreasing PO43− and increasing Cd concentrations resulted in higher saturated fatty acid (SAFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) concentrations. Total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and ω3 PUFA, and PUFA:SAFA ratios were higher in the control (2.3 × 10−4 mol L−1 PO43−) cells than in either PO43− limitation or Cd stress, or in the combination of both stresses. Contrasting with all the other PUFAs, 18:2n – 6 increased as PO43− limitation increased. A significant positive relationship of PUFAs, acetone mobile polar lipids (AMPL) and phospholipids (PL) with phosphate concentration in the culture media was obtained, while TAG concentrations had a positive association with total MUFA and SAFA. Total SAFA, 14:0, 18:1n – 9 and 18:2n – 6 were positively correlated with Cd and negatively with PO43

  5. Single and mixture toxicity of pharmaceuticals and chlorophenols to freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Elisabeth; Hornek-Gausterer, Romana; Saçan, Melek Türker

    2016-07-01

    Organisms in the aquatic environment are exposed to a variety of substances of numerous chemical classes. The unintentional co-occurrence of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern may pose risk to non-target organisms. In this study, individual and binary mixture toxicity experiments of selected pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen and ciprofloxacin) and chlorophenols (2.4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 3-chlorophenol (3-CP)) have been performed with freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris. All experiments have been carried out according to the 96-h algal growth inhibition test OECD No. 201. Binary mixture tests were conducted using proportions of the respective IC50s in terms of toxic unit (TU). The mixture concentration-response curve was compared to predicted effects based on both the concentration addition (CA) and the independent action (IA) model. Additionally, the Combination Index (CI)-isobologram equation method was used to assess toxicological interactions of the binary mixtures. All substances individually tested had a significant effect on C. vulgaris population density and revealed IC50 values ciprofloxacin>3-CP>ibuprofen. Generally, it can be concluded from this study that toxic mixture effects of all tested chemicals to C. vulgaris are higher than the individual effect of each mixture component. It could be demonstrated that IC50 values of the tested mixtures predominately lead to additive effects. The CA model is appropriate to estimate mixture toxicity, while the IA model tends to underestimate the joint effect. The CI-isobologram equation method predicted the mixtures accurately and elicited synergism at low effect levels for the majority of tested combinations. PMID:27045919

  6. Teor de clorofila e perfil de sais minerais de Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual Chlorophyll content and minerals profile in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Cleber Bertoldi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de microalgas representa uma potencial fonte de biomassa rica em clorofila e sais minerais como: fósforo, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, magnésio e cálcio. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a composição de minerais, bem como determinar o teor de clorofila a e b da microalga Chlorella vulgaris cultivada em solução hidropônica residual em três diferentes concentrações comparadas com um cultivo controle. Os resultados mostraram que os teores de clorofila a e b da microalga não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os cultivos. Com relação à composição dos sais minerais, a Chlorella cultivada na solução residual mais concentrada apresentou valores superiores quando comparada com a cultivada nos demais cultivos. Dessa forma, a biomassa da Chlorella vulgaris demonstrou ser uma potencial fonte de clorofila e de sais minerais, quando cultivada em solução hidropônica residual, possibilitando a utilização desse resíduo de forma sustentável.The microalgaes cultive represents a potential source of biomass rich in chlorophyll and minerals as: P, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mg and Ca. This research was aimed at evaluating the composition of minerals, as well as, determining the content of chlorophyll a and b from the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in hydroponic wastewater in three different concentrations compared with the control cultive. The results showed that the contents of chlorophyll a and b of the microalgae did not show significant difference between the cultives. In relation to the composition of the minerals, the Chlorella cultivated in the most concentrated wastewater, showed higher values when compared with the one cultivated in the others cultures. In this manner, the Chlorella vulgaris biomass demonstrated to be a potential source of chlorophyll and minerals, when cultivated in hydroponic wastewater, allowing the use of this residue in a sustainable way.

  7. BIOACCUMULATION OF ARSENIC IN CHLORELLA VULGARIS (CHLOROPHYTA: CHLORELLACEAE) IN EFFLUENT FROM INDUSTRIAL PARK RÍO SECO (IPRS) AND ACUTE TOXICITY IN DAPHNIA MAGNA (CRUSTACEA: DAPHNIIDAE), AREQUIPA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    A. Dueñas; Huarachi, R.; Yapo, U.; Apfata, P.; Gonzalez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Arsenic III (As III), was determined in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in effluent samples from Industrial Park Rio Seco (IPRS) at laboratory scale. Through serial dilutions, a pure microalgae culture was obtained from effluents from the Chilpina treatment station; the resistance was tested through the growth of C. vulgaris in flasks of 250 mL with the application of As III in the form of Na HAsO . The C. vulgaris bioaccumulation capacity was 2 3 tested th...

  8. Removal of Nitrate and Phosphate from Municipal Wastewater Sludge by Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal K.C.A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate and phosphorus in wastewater contribute to health and environmental threats as they are linked to illnesses as well as ecosystem disruption via algal blooms in contaminated water bodies. Based on above perspectives a comparative study was conducted on three local freshwater microalgae:Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis and Scenedesmus quadricauda to evaluate their effects on nitrate and phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Algae performance in removing nitrate and phosphorus was evaluated by measuring nitrate and phosphorus content of MWS incubated with the strains for 7 days. Instantaneous readings were taken every 48 hours to determine periodic levels of the nutrients phosphate and nitrate. BOD5 was also evaluated to identify the strain with the most robust growth that would demand for oxygen the most in the dark. Spirulina platensis was shown as the most efficient microalgae to reduce nitrate in MWS and the best-growing among the three strains, while Chlorella vulgaris removed phosphorus the most effectively. Thus Spirulina and Chlorella could be potential candidates by showing their intrinsic merit for the reduction of phosphate and nitrate in wastewater treatment.ABSTRAK: Nitrat dan fosforus dalam air sisa menggugat kesihatan dan mengancam alam sekitar memandangkan ia berkait dengan penyakit-penyakit serta gangguan terhadap ekosistem melalui pembiakan alga dalam air yang tercemar. Berdasarkan perspektif di atas, satu kajian perbandingan telah dijalankan terhadap tiga mikro alga air tawar tempatan : Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina platensis dan Scenedesmus quadricauda untuk dinilai kesannya terhadap penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dari enap cemar air sisa bandaran (municipal wastewater sludge (MWS. Kebolehan alga dalam penyingkiran nitrat dan fosforus dikaji dengan menyukat kandungan nitrat dan fosforus dalam MWS yang dieramkan dengan strain ini selama 7 hari. Bacaan serta-merta diambil setiap 48 jam untuk

  9. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

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    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  10. The influence of extracellular compounds produced by selected Baltic cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates on growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żak, Adam; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2015-12-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants could affect the growth and development of biological and agricultural systems. This natural process that occurs worldwide is known as allelopathy. The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of metabolites obtained from phytoplankton monocultures on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We selected 6 species occurring in the Baltic Sea from 3 different taxonomic groups: cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Planktothrix agardhii), diatoms (Thalassiosira pseudonana; Chaetoceros wighamii) and dinoflagellates (Alexandrium ostenfeldii; Prorocentrum minimum). In this study we have demonstrated that some of selected organisms caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. Both the negative and positive effects of collected cell-free filtrates on C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll a concentration and fluorescence parameters (OJIP, QY, NPQ) have been observed. No evidence has been found for the impact on morphology and viability of C. vulgaris cells.

  11. Temporal Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea biodiversity during cultivation of an alkaliphilic algae, Chlorella vulgaris, in an outdoor raceway pond

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    Tisza Ann Szeremy Bell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal biofuels and valuable co-products are being produced in both open and closed cultivation systems. Growing algae in open pond systems may be a more economical alternative, but this approach allows environmental microorganisms to colonize the pond and potentially infect or outcompete the algal crop. In this study, we monitored the microbial community of an outdoor, open raceway pond inoculated with a high lipid-producing alkaliphilic alga, Chlorella vulgaris BA050. The strain C. vulgaris BA050 was previously isolated from Soap Lake, Washington, a system characterized by a high pH (approximately 9.8. An outdoor raceway pond (200L was inoculated with C. vulgaris and monitored for ten days and then the culture was transferred to a 2,000L raceway pond and cultivated for an additional six days. Community DNA samples were collected over the 16-day period in conjunction with water chemistry analyses and cell counts. Universal primers for the SSU rRNA gene sequences for Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea were used for barcoded pyrosequence determination. The environmental parameters that most closely correlated with C. vulgaris abundance were pH and phosphate. Community analyses indicated that the pond system remained dominated by the Chlorella population (93% of eukaryotic sequences, but was also colonized by other microorganisms. Bacterial sequence diversity increased over time while archaeal sequence diversity declined over the same time period. Using SparCC co-occurrence network analysis, a positive correlation was observed between C. vulgaris and Pseudomonas sp. throughout the experiment, which may suggest a symbiotic relationship between the two organisms. The putative relationship coupled with high pH may have contributed to the success of C. vulgaris. The characterization of the microbial community dynamics of an alkaliphilic open pond system provides significant insight into open pond systems that could be used to control photoautotrophic

  12. CO2 Biofixation and Growth Kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Michał; Lasek, Janusz; Skawińska, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    CO2 biofixation was investigated using tubular bioreactors (15 and 1.5 l) either in the presence of green algae Chlorella vulgaris or Nannochloropsis gaditana. The cultivation was carried out in the following conditions: temperature of 25 °C, inlet-CO2 of 4 and 8 vol%, and artificial light enhancing photosynthesis. Higher biofixation were observed in 8 vol% CO2 concentration for both microalgae cultures than in 4 vol%. Characteristic process parameters such as productivity, CO2 fixation, and kinetic rate coefficient were determined and discussed. Simplified and advanced methods for determination of CO2 fixation were compared. In a simplified method, it is assumed that 1 kg of produced biomass equals 1.88 kg recycled CO2. Advance method is based on empirical results of the present study (formula with carbon content in biomass). It was observed that application of the simplified method can generate large errors, especially if the biomass contains a relatively low amount of carbon. N. gaditana is the recommended species for CO2 removal due to a high biofixation rate-more than 1.7 g/l/day. On day 10 of cultivation, the cell concentration was more than 1.7 × 10(7) cells/ml. In the case of C. vulgaris, the maximal biofixation rate and cell concentration did not exceed 1.4 g/l/day and 1.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, respectively.

  13. Ecotoxicity of Ag-nanoparticles on two microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazani Amal A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing application of nanotechnology highlights the need to clarify and understand it. In this work, the subacute toxicity of Ag-NPs to the fresh water microalga Chlorella vulgaris and marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta were assessed. The effect of Ag-NPs was induced by exposing both algae to increasing concentrations of Ag-NPs (0, 10, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L. Cellular viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation were determined to evaluate the toxic effect of Ag-NPs on algal growth. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD activities and lipid peroxidation (MDA levels in the algal cells varied with the concentration of Ag-NPs suspensions and exposure times (up to 8 d. As a result, 100 and 200 mg/L Ag-NPs caused a statistically significant decrease in cell viability, as well as SOD, CAT and POD activities, and a significant increase in ROS formation and MDA levels in tissues (P <0.05, suggesting that the algal cells exposed to these two concentrations of Ag-NPs suffered from oxidative stress. The extent of depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities and the elevation of MDA in Dunaliella tertiolecta was the greatest, indicating that Dunaliella tertiolecta might be the most susceptible to Ag-NP exposure. These results indicated a potential risk from Ag-NPs released into the aqueous environment.

  14. Microalgae Harvest through Fungal Pelletization—Co-Culture of Chlorella vulgaris and Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarman Oktovianus Gultom

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process and new approaches to harvesting microalgae need to be developed in order to decrease the costs. In this study; co-cultivatation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris to form cell pellets was evaluated under different conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose; glycerol; and sodium acetate concentration; initial concentration of fungal spores and microalgal cells and light. Results showed that 2 g/L of glucose with a 1:300 ratio of fungi to microalgae provided the best culturing conditions for the process to reach >90% of cell harvest efficiency. The results also showed that an organic carbon source was required to sustain the growth of fungi and form the cell pellets. The microalgae/fungi co-cultures at mixotrophic conditions obtained much higher total biomass than pure cultures of each individual strains; indicating the symbiotic relationship between two strains. This can benefit the microbial biofuel production in terms of cell harvest and biomass production.

  15. Combined effect of copper and cadmium on Chlorella vulgaris growth and photosynthesis-related gene transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Li Jingjing; Sun Liwei; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei, E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2009-08-13

    Chlorella vulgaris was tested to assess their toxicities in freshwater contaminated by the metal compounds of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both singly and combined. Exposure to 0.5 and 1.5 {mu}M Cu or 1.0 and 2.0 {mu}M Cd alone significantly decreased algal growth and chlorophyll content and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. Two-way ANOVA analysis shows that the combination of these two metal compounds decreased cell growth, chlorophyll content and increased ROS content synergistically. The highest algal cell inhibition was 78.55%, the lowest levels of chl a, chl b and total-chl were 10.59%, 33.33% and 17.94% of the control, respectively. The highest increase in ROS was 9.15-fold greater than that of the control when exposed to Cu(1.5) + Cd(2.0). Real-time PCR shows that Cu and Cd reduced the transcript abundance of psbA and rbcL, but without a synergistic interaction, whereas Cu and Cd increased the transcript abundance of psaB synergistically. These results demonstrate that Cu and Cd independently inhibit PSII activity and CO{sub 2} assimilation, but synergistically increase ROS content to disrupt chlorophyll synthesis and inhibit cell growth.

  16. Combined Extraction Processes of Lipid from Chlorella vulgaris Microalgae: Microwave Prior to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Chemat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction yields and fatty acid profiles from freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris by microwave pretreatment followed by supercritical carbon dioxide (MW-SCCO2 extraction were compared with those obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction alone (SCCO2. Work performed with pressure range of 20–28 Mpa and temperature interval of 40–70 °C, gave the highest extraction yield (w/w dry weight at 28 MPa/40 °C. MW-SCCO2 allowed to obtain the highest extraction yield (4.73% compared to SCCO2 extraction alone (1.81%. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of microalgae oil showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acid were the most abundant identified fatty acids. Oils obtained by MW-SCCO2 extraction had the highest concentrations of fatty acids compared to SCCO2 extraction without pretreatment. Native form, and microwave pretreated and untreated microalgae were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. SEM micrographs of pretreated microalgae present tearing wall agglomerates. After SCCO2, microwave pretreated microalgae presented several micro cracks; while native form microalgae wall was slightly damaged.

  17. Photoreduction of chromium(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Lin [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang Hongli [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: nsdengwhu@163.com

    2006-11-16

    In this thesis, the photochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was investigated under the irradiation of metal halide lamps ({lambda}=365nm, 250W). The affecting factors of photochemical reduction were studied in detail, such as exposure time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, initial algae concentration and pH. The rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction increased with algae concentration increasing, exposure time increasing, initial Cr(VI) concentration decreasing and the decrease of pH. When pH increased to 6, the rate of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction nearly vanished. When initial Cr(VI) concentration ranged from 0.4 to 1.0mgL{sup -1} and initial algae concentration ranged from ABS{sub algae} (the absorbency of algae)=0.025 to ABS{sub algae}=0.180, According to the results of kinetic analyses, the kinetic equation of Cr(VI) photochemical reduction in aqueous solution with algae under 250W metal halide lamps was V{sub 0}=kC{sub 0}{sup 0.1718}A{sub algae}{sup 0.5235} (C{sub 0} was initial concentration of Cr(VI); A{sub algae} was initial concentration of algae) under the condition of pH 4.

  18. Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris-A useful tool in hazardous effluents management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aurora [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politecnico do Porto, R. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Figueiredo, Sonia A., E-mail: saf@isep.ipp.pt [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politecnico do Porto, R. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Sales, M. Goreti; Delerue-Matos, Cristina [REQUIMTE, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politecnico do Porto, R. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 431 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-08-15

    The treatment efficiency of laboratory wastewaters was evaluated and ecotoxicity tests with Chlorella vulgaris were performed on them to assess the safety of their environmental discharge. For chemical oxygen demand wastewaters, chromium (VI), mercury (II) and silver were efficiently removed by chemical treatments. A reduction of ecotoxicity was achieved; nevertheless, an EC50 (effective concentration that causes a 50% inhibition in the algae growth) of 1.5% (v/v) indicated still high level of ecotoxicity. For chloride determination wastewaters, an efficient reduction of chromium and silver was achieved after treatment. Regarding the reduction of ecotoxicity observed, EC50 increased from 0.059% to 0.5%, only a 0.02% concentration in the aquatic environment would guarantee no effects. Wastewaters containing phenanthroline/iron (II) complex were treated by chemical oxidation. Treatment was satisfactory concerning chemical parameters, although an increase in ecotoxicity was observed (EC50 reduced from 0.31% to 0.21%). The wastes from the kinetic study of persulphate and iodide reaction were treated with sodium bisulphite until colour was removed. Although they did not reveal significant ecotoxicity, only over 1% of the untreated waste produced observable effects over algae. Therefore, ecotoxicity tests could be considered a useful tool not only in laboratory effluents treatment, as shown, but also in hazardous wastewaters management.

  19. Growth and biochemical composition of Chlorella vulgaris in different growth media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATHIAS A. CHIA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for clean and low-cost algae production demands for investigations on algal physiological response under different growth conditions. In this research, we investigated the growth, biomass production and biochemical composition of Chlorella vulgaris using semi-continuous cultures employing three growth media (LC Oligo, Chu 10 and WC media. The highest cell density was obtained in LC Oligo, while the lowest in Chu medium. Chlorophyll a, carbohydrate and protein concentrations and yield were highest in Chu and LC Oligo media. Lipid class analysis showed that hydrocarbons (HC, sterol esthers (SE, free fatty acids (FFA, aliphatic alcohols (ALC, acetone mobile polar lipids (AMPL and phospholipids (PL concentrations and yields were highest in the Chu medium. Triglyceride (TAG and sterol (ST concentrations were highest in the LC Oligo medium. The results suggested that for cost effective cultivation, LC Oligo medium is the best choice among those studied, as it saved the cost of buying vitamins and EDTA associated with the other growth media, while at the same time resulted in the best growth performance and biomass production.

  20. Mechanisms of ammonium assimilation by Chlorella vulgaris F1068: Isotope fractionation and proteomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Li, Feng; Ge, Fei; Tao, Nengguo; Zhou, Qiongzhi; Wong, Minghung

    2015-08-01

    Removal of ammonium (NH4(+)-N) by microalgae has evoked interest in wastewater treatment, however, the detailed mechanisms of ammonium assimilation remain mysterious. This study investigated the effects of NH4(+)-N concentration on the removal and biotransformation efficiency by Chlorella vulgaris F1068, and explored the mechanisms by (15)N isotope fractionation and proteome approaches. The results showed NH4(+)-N was efficiently removed (84.8%) by F1068 at 10mgL(-1) of NH4(+)-N. The isotope enrichment factor (ε=-2.37±0.08‰) of (15)N isotope fractionation revealed 47.6% biotransformation at above condition, while 7.0% biotransformation at 4mgL(-1) of NH4(+)-N (ε=-1.63±0.06‰). This was due to the different expression of glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in ammonium assimilation, which was up-regulated 6.4-fold at proteome level and 18.0-fold at transcription level. The results will provide a better mechanistic understanding of ammonium assimilation by microalgae and this green technology is expected to reduce the burden of NH4(+)-N removal for municipal sewage treatment plants. PMID:25965256

  1. Exploration of upstream and downstream process for microwave assisted sustainable biodiesel production from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Sahoo, Pradeepta Kumar; Singhal, Shailey; Joshi, Girdhar

    2016-09-01

    The present study explores the integrated approach for the sustainable production of biodiesel from Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. The microalgae were cultivated in 10m(2) open raceway pond at semi-continuous mode with optimum volumetric and areal production of 28.105kg/L/y and 71.51t/h/y, respectively. Alum was used as flocculent for harvesting the microalgae and optimized at different pH. Lipid was extracted using chloroform: methanol (2:1) and having 12.39% of FFA. Effect of various reaction conditions such as effect of catalyst, methanol:lipid ratio, reaction temperature and time on biodiesel yields were studied under microwave irradiation; and 84.01% of biodiesel yield was obtained under optimized reaction conditions. A comparison was also made between the biodiesel productions under conventional heating and microwave irradiation. The synthesized biodiesel was characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FTIR and GC; however, fuel properties of biodiesel were also studied using specified test methods as per ASTM and EN standards. PMID:27318156

  2. Subcritical Water Technology for Enhanced Extraction of Biochemical Compounds from Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaluddin, S A; Thiruvenkadam, Selvakumar; Izhar, Shamsul; Hiroyuki, Yoshida; Danquah, Michael K; Harun, Razif

    2016-01-01

    Subcritical water extraction (SWE) technology has been used for the extraction of active compounds from different biomass materials with low process cost, mild operating conditions, short process times, and environmental sustainability. With the limited application of the technology to microalgal biomass, this work investigates parametrically the potential of subcritical water for high-yield extraction of biochemicals such as carbohydrates and proteins from microalgal biomass. The SWE process was optimized using central composite design (CCD) under varying process conditions of temperature (180-374°C), extraction time (1-20 min), biomass particulate size (38-250 μm), and microalgal biomass loading (5-40 wt.%). Chlorella vulgaris used in this study shows high volatile matter (83.5 wt.%) and carbon content (47.11 wt.%), giving advantage as a feedstock for biofuel production. The results showed maximum total carbohydrate content and protein yields of 14.2 g/100 g and 31.2 g/100 g, respectively, achieved under the process conditions of 277°C, 5% of microalgal biomass loading, and 5 min extraction time. Statistical analysis revealed that, of all the parameters investigated, temperature is the most critical during SWE of microalgal biomass for protein and carbohydrate production. PMID:27366748

  3. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase II from Chlorella vulgaris in bio-CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Fu, Ming-Lai; Zhao, Yong-Hao; Zhu, Yun-Tian

    2012-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) can catalyze the reversible hydration reaction of CO(2) at a maximum of 1.4 × 10(6) molecules of CO(2) per second. The crude intracellular enzyme extract containing CA II was derived from Chlorella vulgaris. A successful CO(2) capture experiment with the presence of calcium had been conducted on the premise that the temperature was conditioned at a scope of 30-40 °C, that the biocatalyst-nurtured algal growth period lasted 3 days, and that pH ranged from7.5 to 8.5. Ions of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) at 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M were found to exhibit no more than 30 % inhibition on the residual activity of the biocatalyst. It is reasonable to expect that calcification catalyzed by microalgae presents an alternative to geological carbon capture and sequestration through a chain of fundamental researches carried on under the guidance of sequestration technology. PMID:22821342

  4. Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris-A useful tool in hazardous effluents management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment efficiency of laboratory wastewaters was evaluated and ecotoxicity tests with Chlorella vulgaris were performed on them to assess the safety of their environmental discharge. For chemical oxygen demand wastewaters, chromium (VI), mercury (II) and silver were efficiently removed by chemical treatments. A reduction of ecotoxicity was achieved; nevertheless, an EC50 (effective concentration that causes a 50% inhibition in the algae growth) of 1.5% (v/v) indicated still high level of ecotoxicity. For chloride determination wastewaters, an efficient reduction of chromium and silver was achieved after treatment. Regarding the reduction of ecotoxicity observed, EC50 increased from 0.059% to 0.5%, only a 0.02% concentration in the aquatic environment would guarantee no effects. Wastewaters containing phenanthroline/iron (II) complex were treated by chemical oxidation. Treatment was satisfactory concerning chemical parameters, although an increase in ecotoxicity was observed (EC50 reduced from 0.31% to 0.21%). The wastes from the kinetic study of persulphate and iodide reaction were treated with sodium bisulphite until colour was removed. Although they did not reveal significant ecotoxicity, only over 1% of the untreated waste produced observable effects over algae. Therefore, ecotoxicity tests could be considered a useful tool not only in laboratory effluents treatment, as shown, but also in hazardous wastewaters management.

  5. Inhibition of Alkaline Flocculation by Algal Organic Matter for Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandamme, Dries; Beuckels, Annelies; Vadelius, Eric; Depraetere, Orily; Noppe, Wim; Dutta, Abhishek; Foubert, Imogen; Laurens, Lieve; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline flocculation is a promising strategy for the concentration of microalgae for bulk biomass production. However, previous studies have shown that biological changes during the cultivation negatively affect flocculation efficiency. The influence of changes in cell properties and in the quality and composition of algal organic matter (AOM) were studied using Chlorella vulgaris as a model species. In batch cultivation, flocculation was increasingly inhibited over time and mainly influenced by changes in medium composition, rather than biological changes at the cell surface. Total carbohydrate content of the organic matter fraction sized bigger than 3 kDa increased over time and this fraction was shown to be mainly responsible for the inhibition of alkaline flocculation. The monosaccharide identification of this fraction mainly showed the presence of neutral and anionic monosaccharides. An addition of 30–50 mg L-1 alginic acid, as a model for anionic carbohydrate polymers containing uronic acids, resulted in a complete inhibition of flocculation. Furthermore, these results suggest that inhibition of alkaline flocculation was caused by interaction of anionic polysaccharides leading to an increased flocculant demand over time.

  6. On the uptake and binding of uranium (VI) by the green alga Chlorella Vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium could be released into the environment from geogenic deposits and from former mining and milling areas by weathering and anthropogenic activities. The elucidation of uranium behavior in geo- and biosphere is necessary for a reliable risk assessment of radionuclide migration in the environment. Algae are widespread in nature and the most important group of organisms in the aquatic habitat. Because of their ubiquitous occurrence in nature the influence of algae on the migration process of uranium in the environment is of fundamental interest e.g. for the development of effective and economical remediation strategies for contaminated waters. Besides, algae are standing at the beginning of the food chain and play an economically relevant role as food and food additive. Therefore the transfer of algae-bound uranium along the food chain could arise to a serious threat to human health. Aim of this work was the quantitative and structural characterization of the interaction between U(VI) and the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in environmental relevant concentration and pH range with special emphasis on metabolic activity. Therefore a defined medium was created which assures the survival/growth of the algae as well as the possibility to predict the uranium speciation. The speciation of uranium in the mineral medium was calculated and experimentally verified by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results of the sorption experiments showed that both metabolic active and inactive algal cells bind uranium in significant amounts of around 14 mg U/g dry biomass and 28 mg U/g dry biomass, respectively. Another interesting observation was made during the growth of Chlorella cells in mineral medium at the environmental relevant uranium concentration of 5 μM. Under these conditions and during ongoing cultivation a mobilization of the algae-bound uranium occurred. At higher uranium concentrations this effect was not observed due to the die off of

  7. Lipid composition of Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) as a function of different cadmium and phosphate concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, São Carlos, SP, Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria -PMB 1013, Postal Code 810001 (Nigeria); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, São Carlos, SP, Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Melão, Maria da Graça G. [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, São Carlos, SP, Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Ocean Sciences Centre, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We studied the effect of Cd and phosphorus (P) on lipids of Chlorella vulgaris. ► Triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration increased under P limitation and Cd stress. ► Fatty acids (FA) saturation increased with P limitation and Cd exposure. ► Lower PUFA were obtained under P limitation and Cd stress. ► Combined P limitation/Cd stress increased total lipid production of the microalga. -- Abstract: Fatty acids are the fundamental structural components of membrane lipids, and the degree of saturation of the long hydrocarbon chains in microalgae contributes to regulation of growth, biomass production and reproduction of aquatic consumers. This research aimed at evaluating the effects of cadmium (2 × 10{sup −8}; 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} Cd) on lipid class and fatty acid composition of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris under varying phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}) concentrations (6.0 × 10{sup −7} to 2.3 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1}). Under PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} limitation and Cd stress, the storage lipid class triacylglycerol (TAG) was the most accumulated among the lipid classes. Fatty acid composition revealed that the degree of saturation increased with increasing Cd stress and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} limitation. Decreasing PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and increasing Cd concentrations resulted in higher saturated fatty acid (SAFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) concentrations. Total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and ω3 PUFA, and PUFA:SAFA ratios were higher in the control (2.3 × 10{sup −4} mol L{sup −1} PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}) cells than in either PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} limitation or Cd stress, or in the combination of both stresses. Contrasting with all the other PUFAs, 18:2n – 6 increased as PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} limitation increased. A significant positive relationship of PUFAs, acetone mobile polar lipids (AMPL) and phospholipids (PL) with phosphate concentration in the culture media was obtained, while TAG concentrations had a positive association

  8. Biomass Production Potential of a Wastewater Alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under Elevated Levels of CO2 and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Chinnasamy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth response of Chlorella vulgaris was studied under varying concentrations of carbon dioxide (ranging from 0.036 to 20% and temperature (30, 40 and 50oC. The highest chlorophyll concentration (11 µg mL-1 and biomass (210 µg mL-1, which were 60 and 20 times more than that of C. vulgaris at ambient CO2 (0.036%, were recorded at 6% CO2 level. At 16% CO2 level, the concentrations of chlorophyll and biomass values were comparable to those at ambient CO2 but further increases in the CO2 level decreased both of them. Results showed that the optimum temperature for biomass production was 30oC under elevated CO2 (6%. Although increases in temperature above 30oC resulted in concomitant decrease in growth response, their adverse effects were significantly subdued at elevated CO2. There were also differential responses of the alga, assessed in terms of NaH14CO3 uptake and carbonic anhydrase activity, to increases in temperature at elevated CO2. The results indicated that Chlorella vulgaris grew better at elevated CO2 level at 30oC, albeit with lesser efficiencies at higher temperatures.

  9. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10−7 and 2.0 × 10−8 mol L−1 Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10−6, 1.1 × 10−5 and 1.1 × 10−3 mol L−1 N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production

  10. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  11. PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DAS MICROALGAS Chlorella vulgaris E Chlorella minutissima CULTIVADAS EM DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. V. COSTA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudos recentes têm explorado o uso de microalgas para obtenção de lipídios, principalmente os de maior valor comercial como o ácido -linolênico. A microalga Chlorella possui ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, vitaminas e alto conteúdo protéico, e, além disso, possui o certificado GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o cultivo das microalgas Chlorella vulgaris e Chlorella minutissima, a fim de verificar o perfil de ácidos graxos frente à variação de diferentes fatores físicoquímicos e nutricionais. Foi utilizado um Planejamento Fatorial Fracionário 24-1 IV para cada cepa estudada, onde foram variados os fatores temperatura, iluminância, fonte de carbono e concentração de nitrato no meio de cultivo. C. vulgaris cultivada a 35ºC, 2500 Lux, 16,8 g.L-1 de NaHCO3 e 1,0 g.L-1 de NO3 - apresentou biomassa máxima de 5,06 g.L-1 em 22 dias de cultivo. Para C. minutissima foi obtida biomassa máxima de 1,5g.L-1 em 22 dias quando cultivada a 35ºC, 1250 Lux, 16,8 g.L-1 de NaHCO3 e 0,5 g.L-1 de NO3 -. Os maiores teores de lipídios obtidos para C. vulgaris e C. minutissima foram 6,96% e 7,98%, respectivamente. A 35ºC e 2500 Lux foi obtido 7,66% de ácido linolênico.

  12. Noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of ChlorellaI vulgaris into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with charcoal via a thermo-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Jeon, Young Jae; Yi, Haakrho

    2013-02-01

    The noncatalytic transformation of the crude lipid of Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) via a thermo-chemical process was mainly investigated in this work. The crude lipid of C. vulgaris was recovered by means of solvent extraction from C. vulgaris cultivated in a raceway pond. The conventional catalyzed transesterification of crude lipid of C. vulgaris is notably inhibited by the impurities contained in the crude lipid of C. vulgaris. These impurities are inevitably derived from the solvent extraction process for C. vulgaris. However, this work presents the noncatalytic transesterification of microalgal lipid into FAME, which could be an alternative option. For example, the noncatalytic transformation of microalgal lipid into FAME provides evidence that the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides can be combined into a single step less susceptible to the impurities and with a high conversion efficiency (∼97%). PMID:23294646

  13. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis with Recovered Phosphorus from Wastewater by Means of Zeolite Sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Markou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zeolite was employed for the separation and recovery of P from synthetic wastewater and its use as phosphorus (P source for the cultivation of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis. At P-loaded zeolite concentration of 0.15–1 g/L, in which P was limited, the two species displayed quite different behavior regarding their growth and biomass composition. C. vulgaris preferred to increase the intracellular P and did not synthesize biomass, while A. platensis synthesized biomass keeping the intracellular P as low as possible. In addition under P limitation, C. vulgaris did display some little alteration of the biomass composition, while A. platensis did it significantly, accumulating carbohydrates around 70% from about 15%–20% (control. Both species could desorb P from zeolite biologically. A. platensis could recover over 65% and C. vulgaris 25% of the P bounded onto zeolite. When P-loaded zeolite concentration increased to 5 g/L, P was adequate to support growth for both species. Especially in the case of C. vulgaris, growth was stimulated from the presence of P-loaded zeolite and produced more biomass compared to the control.

  14. Effects of arsenate (AS5+) on growth and production of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCS) in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Purchase, Diane; Jones, Huw; Garelick, Hemda

    2011-09-01

    The effect of arsenate (As5+) on growth and chlorophyll a production in Chlorella vulgaris, its removal by C. vulgaris and the role of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) were investigated. C. vulgaris was tolerant to As5+ at up to 200 mg/L and was capable of consistently removing around 70% of the As5+ present in growth media over a wide range of exposure concentrations. Spectral analysis revealed that PCs and their arsenic-combined complexes were absent, indicating that the high bioaccumulation and tolerance to arsenic observed was not due to intracellular chelation. In contrast, GSH was found in all samples ranging from 0.8 mg/L in the control to 6.5 mg/L in media containing 200 mg/L As5+ suggesting that GSH plays a more prominent role in the detoxification of As5+ in C. vulgaris than PC. At concentrations below 100 mg/L cell surface binding and other mechanisms may play the primary role in As5+ detoxification, whereas above this concentration As5+ begins to accumulate inside the algal cells and activates a number of intracellular cell defense mechanisms, such as increased production of GSH. The overall findings complement field studies which suggest C. vulgaris as an increasingly promising low cost As phytoremediation method for developing countries.

  15. Enhanced activity of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase and formation of starch induced by Azospirillum brasilense in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-05-10

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) regulates starch biosynthesis in higher plants and microalgae. This study measured the effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on AGPase activity in the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris and formation of starch. This was done by immobilizing both microorganisms in alginate beads, either replete with or deprived of nitrogen or phosphorus and all under heterotrophic conditions, using d-glucose or Na-acetate as the carbon source. AGPase activity during the first 72h of incubation was higher in C. vulgaris when immobilized with A. brasilense. This happened simultaneously with higher starch accumulation and higher carbon uptake by the microalgae. Either carbon source had similar effects on enzyme activity and starch accumulation. Starvation either by N or P had the same pattern on AGPase activity and starch accumulation. Under replete conditions, the population of C. vulgaris immobilized alone was higher than when immobilized together, but under starvation conditions A. brasilense induced a larger population of C. vulgaris. In summary, adding A. brasilense enhanced AGPase activity, starch formation, and mitigation of stress in C. vulgaris.

  16. Analytical evaluation of different carbon sources and growth stimulators on the biomass and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris – Implications for biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The key challenges in lipid production from marine microalgae include the selection of appropriate strain, optimization of the culture conditions and enhancement of biolipid yield. This study is aimed at evaluating the optimal harvest time and effect of chlorella growth factor (CGF) extract, carbon sources and phytohormones on the biomass and lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris. CGF, extracted using hot water from Chlorella has been reported to possess various medicinal properties. However, in the present study, for the first time in C. vulgaris, CGF was found as a best growth stimulator by enhancing the biomass level (1.208 kg m−3) significantly on day 5. Gibberellin and citrate augmented the biomass by 0.935 kg m−3 and 1.025 kg m−3. Combination of CGF and phytohormones were more effective than CGF and carbon sources. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters indicated that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids is higher in cytokinin, abscisic acid and CGF, and are also rich in short chain carbon atoms, ideal criteria for biodiesel. Nitrogen starvation favoured synthesis of more unsaturated fatty acids than saturated. This study shows that CGF enhances the biomass and lipid significantly and thus can be used for large scale biomass production. - Highlights: • Optimization studies revealed 7th day to be the ideal period for harvesting Chlorella vulgaris. • Chlorella growth factor extract acted as a chief growth promoting factor of C. vulgaris. • Chlorella growth factor with carbon sources or phytohormones was not effective than chlorella growth factor extract alone. • Cytokinin treatment increased saturated fatty acids level, although the biomass production was not significant

  17. Effect of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella growth factor on growth performance, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byoung-Ki; Kim, Kwan-Eung; Jeon, Jin-Young; Lee, Kyung Woo

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dried chlorella powder (Chlorella vulgaris; DCP) and chlorella growth factor (CGF) on growth performance, serum characteristics, meat qualities and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 1050 day-old Ross male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 35 pens (30 chicks/pen) and subjected to one of seven dietary treatments. A non-medicated corn-soybean meal base diet was considered as negative control (NC) and added with either antibiotic (PC), three levels of DCP (NC diets added with 0.05, 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP) or two levels of CGF (NC diets added with 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF). The final body weight and daily weight gain in PC and groups fed diets with 0.15 or 0.5 % DCP were heavier (p < 0.001) than those of NC and CGF-treated groups. Serum total lipid concentrations were lower (p = 0.001) in groups fed diets with 0.5 % DCP and 0.05 or 0.15 % CGF compared with PC group. The levels of serum IgG (p = 0.050) and IgM (p = 0.010) were elevated in chicks fed diets with DCP and CGF compared with the PC or NC group. Meat qualities such as cooking loss, meat color, and pH, of edible meats were not altered by dietary treatments. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary DCP, but not CGF, exerted growth-promoting effect, and both DCP and CGF affected humoral immune response in broiler chicks. PMID:27375987

  18. Photo-induced transformations of mercury(II) species in the presence of algae, Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Lin, E-mail: dlwhu@163.com [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Fu Dafang [Department of Municipal Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-05-30

    The effects of algae (i.e., Chlorella vulgaris), Fe(III), humic substances, and pH on the photoreduction of Hg(II) under the irradiation of metal halide lamps ({lambda} {>=} 365 nm, 250 W) were investigated in this paper. The photoreduction rate of Hg(II) was found to increase with the increasing concentration of algae, Fe(III), and humic substances. The cooperation action of Fe(III) and humic substances accelerated the photoreduction of Hg(II). When the initial concentration of Hg(II) was in the range of 0.0-200.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} with initial algae concentrations 7.0 x 10{sup 9} cells L{sup -1} at pH 7.0, the initial photoreduction rate of Hg(II) could be expressed by the equation: -dC{sub Hg(II)}/dt = 0.65 x [C{sub Hg(II)}]{sup 0.39} with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9912. The study on the photochemical process in terms of total mercury mass balance revealed that more than 40.86% of Hg(II) from the algal suspension was reduced to volatile metallic mercury. This paper discussed the photoreduction mechanism of Hg(II) in the presence of algae. This research will provide information for predicting the photoreduction of Hg(II) in the real environment. It will be helpful for understanding the photochemical transformation of Hg(II) and the formation of DGM in natural water in the presence of algae complexes. It will also be helpful for providing new methods to deal with heavy metal pollution.

  19. Candida utilis and Chlorella vulgaris counteract intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Grammes

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE. In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM, a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU, Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV. Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.

  20. Biofuels from the Fresh Water Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam H. Al-lwayzy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate biofuels for diesel engines produced on a lab-scale from the fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (FWM-CV. The impact of growing conditions on the properties of biodiesel produced from FWM-CV was evaluated. The properties of FWM-CV biodiesel were found to be within the ASTM standards for biodiesel. Due to the limited amount of biodiesel produced on the lab-scale, the biomass of dry cells of FWM-CV was used to yield emulsified water fuel. The preparation of emulsion fuel with and without FWM-CV cells was conducted using ultrasound to overcome the problems of large size microalgae colonies and to form homogenized emulsions. The emulsified water fuels, prepared using ultrasound, were found to be stable and the size of FWM-CV colonies were effectively reduced to pass through the engine nozzle safely. Engine tests at 3670 rpm were conducted using three fuels: cottonseed biodiesel CS-B100, emulsified cottonseed biodiesel water fuel, water and emulsifier (CS-E20 and emulsified water containing FWM-CV cells CS-ME20. The results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC was increased by about 41% when the engine was fueled with emulsified water fuels compared to CS-B100. The engine power, exhaust gas temperature, NOx and CO2 were significantly lower than that produced by CS-B100. The CS-ME20 produced higher power than CS-E20 due to the heating value improvement as a result of adding FWM-CV cells to the fuel.

  1. Phytochelatin induction by selenate in Chlorella vulgaris, and regulation of effect by sulfate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Denina B D; Emery, R J Neil

    2011-02-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are short metal detoxification peptides made from the sulfur-rich molecule glutathione. The production of PCs by algae caused by Se exposure has never been studied, although many algae accumulate Se, forming Se-rich proteins and peptides, and higher plants have demonstrated PC production when treated with Se; therefore, a goal of the current study was to examine whether Se induces PC production in algae. Furthermore, selenate is thought to compete with sulfate in the S assimilation pathway, and sulfate therefore may have a protective effect against the toxic effects of high doses of Se in algae. Hence, the interaction of selenate and sulfate was investigated with respect to the induction of PCs. Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in media with either low (31.2 µM) or high (312 µM) concentrations of sulfate. These cultures were exposed to selenate in doses of 7, 35, and 70 nM for 48 h. In a separate treatment, Cd (890 nM) was added as a positive PC-inducing control, and one no-metal negative control was used. Total Se and Se speciation were determined, and glutathione, phytochelatin-2, and phytochelatin-3 were quantified in each of cell digests, cell medium, and cell lysates. We found that PCs and their precursor glutathione were induced by selenate as well as by a Cd control. The high concentration of sulfate was able to counter selenate-induced production of PCs and glutathione. These data support two possible mechanisms: a negative feedback system in the S assimilation pathway that affects PC production when sulfate is abundant, and competition for uptake at the ion transport level between selenate and sulfate.

  2. Characterization of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles from aqueous extract of Chlorella vulgaris and their anti-pathogenic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Jayshree; Nallamuthu, Thangaraju

    2015-06-01

    In this study, biosynthesis of self-assembled gold nanoparticles (GNPs) was accomplished using an aqueous extract of green microalga, Chlorella vulgaris. The optical, physical, chemical and bactericidal properties of the GNPs were investigated to identify their average shape and size, crystal nature, surface chemistry and toxicity, via UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and antimicrobial activity. The sizes of the spherical self-assembled cores of the synthesized GNPs ranged from 2 to 10 nm. The XRD patterns showed a (111) preferential orientation and the crystalline nature of the GNPs. The results of the FTIR analysis suggested that the peptides, proteins, phenol and flavonoid carried out the dual function of effective Au III reduction and successful capping of the GNPs. Human pathogen Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to synthesized aqueous GNPs. Thus, biosynthesis, stabilization and self-assembly of the GNPs by Chlorella vulgaris extract can be an example of green chemistry and effective drug in the medicinal field.

  3. A study of the growth for the microalga Chlorella vulgaris by photo-bio-calorimetry and other on-line and off-line techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patino, R.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Stockar, von U.

    2007-01-01

    Calorimetry and other on-line techniques are used for the first time as complement to the traditional off-line methods in order to follow the growth of the green Chlorella vulgaris microalgae. A 2-L photo-bio-reactor was adapted from a commercial calorimeter used previously to study heterotrophic mi

  4. Polishing of Anaerobic Secondary Effluent and Symbiotic Bioremediation of Raw Municipal Wastewater by Chlorella Vulgaris

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Tuoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To assess polishing of anaerobic secondary effluent and symbiotic bioremediation of primary effluent by microalgae, bench scale bubbling column reactors were operated in batch modes to test nutrients removal capacity and associated factors. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) together with oil and grease in terms of hexane extractable material (HEM) in the reactors were measured after batch cultivation tests of Chlorella Vulgaris, indicating the releasing algal metabolites were oleaginous (dissolved HEM up to 8.470 mg/L) and might hazard effluent quality. Ultrafiltration adopted as solid-liquid separation step was studied via critical flux and liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Although nutrients removal was dominated by algal assimilation, nitrogen removal (99.6% maximum) was affected by generation time (2.49 days minimum) instead of specific nitrogen removal rate (sN, 20.72% maximum), while phosphorus removal (49.83% maximum) was related to both generation time and specific phosphorus removal rate (sP, 1.50% maximum). COD increase was affected by cell concentration (370.90 mg/L maximum), specific COD change rate (sCOD, 0.87 maximum) and shading effect. sCOD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress, generally from lipid accumulation to starch accumulation when phosphorus lower than 5 mg/L, while HEM for batches with initial nitrogen of 10 mg/L implied this threshold around 8 mg/L. HEM and COD results implied algal metabolic pathway shift under nutrients stress. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent polishing showed similar results to synthetic anaerobic secondary effluent with slight inhibition while 4 symbiotic bioremediation of raw municipal wastewater with microalgae and activated sludge showed competition for ammonium together with precipitation or microalgal luxury uptake of phosphorus. Critical flux was governed by algal cell concentration for ultrafiltration membrane with pore size of 30 nm, while

  5. Involvement of indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense in accumulating intracellular ammonium in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular ammonium and activities of the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were measured when the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild type strains of Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-attenuated mutants. After 48 h of immobilization, both wild types induced higher levels of intracellular ammonium in the microalgae than their respective mutants; the more IAA produced, the higher the intracellular ammonium accumulated. Accumulation of intracellular ammonium in the cells of C. vulgaris followed application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and its IAA-attenuated mutants, which had a similar pattern for the first 24 h. This effect was transient and disappeared after 48 h of incubation. Immobilization of C. vulgaris with any bacteria strain induced higher GS activity. The bacterial strains also had GS activity, comparable to the activity detected in C. vulgaris, but weaker than when immobilized with the bacteria. When net activity was calculated, the wild type always induced higher GS activity than IAA-attenuated mutants. GDH activity in most microalgae/bacteria interactions resembled GS activity. When complementing IAA-attenuated mutants with exogenous IAA, GS activity in co-immobilized cultures matched those of the wild type A. brasilense immobilized with the microalga. Similarity occurred when the net GS activity was measured, and was higher with greater quantities of exogenous IAA. It is proposed that IAA produced by A. brasilense is involved in ammonium uptake and later assimilation by C. vulgaris.

  6. Demography of zooplankton (Anuraeopsis fissa, Brachionus rubens and Moina macrocopa) fed Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus acutus cultured on different media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ventura, Jesús; Nandini, S; Sarma, S S S; Castellanos-Páez, Maria Elena

    2012-09-01

    Generally zooplankton growth is often limited by the quality of their algal diet. A cheaper common practice in aquaculture, is to culture algae with fertilizers; however, the demography of zooplankton when fed these algae has not yet been evaluated. We studied the population growth and life table demography of the rotifers Anuraeopsis fissa and Brachionus rubens, and the cladoceran Moina macrocopa. For this, the algae Scenedesmus acutus or Chlorella vulgaris were cultured on defined (Bold's basal) medium or the commercial liquid fertilizer (Bayfolan). Experiments were conducted at one algal concentration 1.0 x 10(6) cells/mL of C. vulgaris or its equivalent dry weight of 0.5 x 10(6) cells/mL of S. acutus. The population dynamics were tested at 23 +/- 1 degrees C in 100 mL transparent jars, each with 50mL of the test medium, with an initial density of 0.5indiv/mL, for a total of 48 test jars (3 zooplankton 2 algal species x 2 culture media x 4 replicates). For the life table experiments with M. macrocopa, we introduced 10 neonates (<24h old) into each test jar containing the specific algal type and concentration. For the rotifer experiments, we set 5mL tubes with one neonate each and 10 replicates for each algal species and culture medium. We found that the average rotifer life span was not influenced by the diet, but for M. macrocopa fed S. acutus cultured in Bold's medium, the average lifespan was significantly lower than with the other diets. The gross and net reproductive rates of A. fissa (ranging from 18-36 offspring per female) were significantly higher for C vulgaris cultured in Bold medium. Regardless of the culture medium, Chlorella resulted in significantly higher gross and net reproductive rates for B. rubens than S. acutus diets. The reproductive rates of M. macrocopa were significantly higher in all the tested diets except when fed with S. acutus in Bold medium. The population increase rate, derived from growth experiments of A. fissa and B. rubens

  7. Effect of nutrients on the biodegradation of tributyltin (TBT) by alginate immobilized microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, in natural river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Jing [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yang Lihua [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chan, Sidney M.N. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Luan Tiangang, E-mail: cesltg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Safety, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tam, Nora F.Y., E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-30

    The removal and degradation of tributyltin (TBT) by alginate immobilized Chlorella vulgaris has been evidenced in our previously published work. The present study was further to investigate the effect of spiked nutrient concentrations on the TBT removal capacity and degradation in the same alginate immobilized C. vulgaris. During the 14-d experiment, compared to the control (natural river water), the spiked nutrient groups (50% or 100% nutrients of the commercial Bristol medium as the reference, marked as 1/2N or 1N) showed more rapid cell proliferation of microalgae and higher TBT removal rate. Moreover, significantly more TBT was adsorbed onto the alginate matrix, but less TBT was taken up by the algal cells of the nutrient groups than that of the control. Mass balance data showed that TBT was lost as inorganic tin in the highest degree in 1N group, followed by 1/2N group and the least was in the control, but the relative abundance of the intermediate products of debutylation (dibutyltin and monobutyltin) were comparable among three groups. In conclusion, the addition of nutrients in contaminated water stimulated the growth and physiological activity of C. vulgaris immobilized in alginate beads and improved its TBT degradation efficiency.

  8. First report of Pseudobodo sp, a new pathogen for a potential energy-producing algae: Chlorella vulgaris cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangran Chen

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris, is a kind of single-celled green algae, which could serve as a potential source of food and energy because of its photosynthetic efficiency. In our study, a pathogenic organism targeting C. vulgaris was discovered. The algae-lytic activity relates to a fraction from lysates of infected C. vulgaris that was blocked upon filtration through a 3 µm filter. 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that it shared 99.0% homology with the protist Pseudobodo tremulans. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 cells were approximately 4-5 µm long, biflagellate with an anterior collar around the anterior part of the cell in unstressed feeding cells. Besides the initial host, Pseudobodo sp. KD51 could also kill other algae, indicating its relatively wide predatory spectrum. Heat stability, pH and salinity tolerance experiments were conducted to understand their effects on its predatory activities, and the results showed that Pseudobodo sp. KD51 was heat-sensitive, and pH and salinity tolerant.

  9. A MULTISTAGE GRADUAL NITROGENREDUCTION STRATEGY FOR INCREASED LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND NITROGEN REMOVAL IN WASTEWATER USING Chlorella vulgaris AND Scenedesmus obliquus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Robles-Heredia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractChlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquuswere grown in artificial-wastewater using a new nitrogen-limitation strategy aimed at increasing lipid productivity. This strategy consisted in a multi-stage process with sequential reduction of N-NH4 concentration (from 90 to 60, 40, and 20 mg.L-1 to promote a balance between cell growth and lipid accumulation. Lipid productivity was compared against a reference process consisting of nitrogen reduction in two stages, where the nitrogen concentration was suddenly reduced from 90 mg.L-1 to three different concentrations (10, 20, and 30 mg.L-1. In the multi-stage mode, only C. vulgaris exhibited a net lipid-productivity increase. Lipid content of S. obliquus did not present a significant increase, thus decreasing lipid productivity. The highest lipid productivities were observed in the two-stage mode for both S. obliquus and C. vulgaris (194.9 and 133.5 mg.L-1.d-1, respectively, and these values are among the highest reported in the literature to date.

  10. Toxicity of Cu (II) to the green alga Chlorella vulgaris: a perspective of photosynthesis and oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zunwei; Song, Shufang; Wen, Yuezhong; Zou, Yuqin; Liu, Huijun

    2016-09-01

    The toxic effects of Cu (II) on the freshwater green algae Chlorella vulgaris and its chloroplast were investigated by detecting the responses of photosynthesis and oxidant stress. The results showed that Cu (II) arrested the growth of C. vulgaris and presented in a concentration- and time-dependent trend and the SRichards 2 model fitted the inhibition curve best. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including qP, Y (II), ETR, F v /F m , and F v /F 0, were stimulated at low concentration of Cu (II) but declined at high concentration, indicating the photosystem II (PSII) of C. vulgaris was destroyed by Cu (II). The chloroplasts were extracted, and the Hill reaction activity (HRA) of chloroplast was significantly decreased with the increasing Cu (II) concentration under both illuminating and dark condition, and faster decline speed was observed under dark condition. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were also significantly decreased at high concentration Cu (II), companied with a large number of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. All these results indicated a severe oxidative stress on algal cells occurred as well as the effect on photosynthesis, thus inhibiting the growth of algae, which providing sights to evaluate the phytotoxicity of Cu (II). PMID:27255311

  11. Culture of the microalga chlorella vulgaris on different proportions of sugar mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p < 0.0 I) from those of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, followed by other SMEM concentrations. Total biomass of C. vulgaris. cultured in 50% SMEM, was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0 I) than that of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, and 25, 75 and 100% SMEM concentrations. Similar trend was also observed in the case of optical density. Cell number and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris were highly (p < 0.01) and directly correlated with chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.991) of C. vulgaris and optical density (r2 = 0.989) for the culture media containing C. vulgaris, respectively. Crude proteins and crude lipids of C. vulgaris. grown in 50% SMEM, were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of C. vulgaris cultured in other SMEM concentrations. Due to good growth performance exhibited in the 50% SMEM dilution, the sugar mill effluent may be used for efficient cultivation of C. vulgaris and possibly other micro algae. (author)

  12. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a pilot-scale sequential-baffled column photobioreactor for biomass and biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new sequential baffled photobioreactor was developed to cultivate microalgae. • Organic fertilizer was used as the main nutrients source. • Negative energy balance was observed in producing microalgae biodiesel. - Abstract: Pilot-scale cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a 100 L sequential baffled photobioreactor was carried out in the present study. The highest biomass yield attained under indoor and outdoor environment was 0.52 g/L and 0.28 g/L, respectively. Although low microalgae biomass yield was attained under outdoor cultivation, however, the overall life cycle energy efficiency ratio was 3.3 times higher than the indoor cultivation. In addition, negative energy balance was observed in producing microalgae biodiesel under both indoor and outdoor cultivation. The minimum production cost of microalgae biodiesel was about RM 237/L (or USD 73.5/L), which was exceptionally high compared to the current petrol diesel price in Malaysia (RM 3.6/L or USD 1.1/L). On the other hand, the estimated production cost of dried microalgae biomass cultivated under outdoor environment was RM 46/kg (or USD 14.3/kg), which was lower than cultivation using chemical fertilizer (RM 111/kg or USD 34.4/kg) and current market price of Chlorella biomass (RM 145/kg or USD 45/kg)

  13. Chlorella vulgaris Attenuates Dermatophagoides Farinae-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Symptoms in NC/Nga Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heerim Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic and inflammatory skin disease that can place a significant burden on quality of life for patients. AD most frequently appears under the age of six and although its prevalence is increasing worldwide, therapeutic treatment options are limited. Chlorella vulgaris (CV is a species of the freshwater green algae genus chlorella, and has been reported to modulate allergy-inducible factors when ingested. Here, we examined the effect of CV supplementation on AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice. CV was orally administrated for six weeks while AD-like symptoms were induced via topical application of Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE. CV treatment reduced dermatitis scores, epidermal thickness, and skin hydration. Histological analysis also revealed that CV treatment reduced DFE-induced eosinophil and mast cell infiltration into the skin, while analysis of serum chemokine levels indicated that CV treatment downregulated thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC levels. In addition, CV treatment downregulated mRNA expression levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ. Taken together, these results suggest that CV extract may have potential as a nutraceutical ingredient for the prevention of AD.

  14. The mechanisms of detoxification of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V) in the microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja Munoz, L; Purchase, D; Jones, H; Raab, A; Urgast, D; Feldmann, J; Garelick, H

    2016-06-01

    The response of Chlorella vulgaris when challenged by As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was assessed through experiments on adsorption, efflux and speciation of arsenic (reduction, oxidation, methylation and chelation with glutathione/phytochelatin [GSH/PC]). Our study indicates that at high concentrations of phosphate (1.62mM of HPO4(2-)), upon exposure to As(V), cells are able to shift towards methylation of As(V) rather than PC formation. Treatment with As(V) caused a moderate decrease in intracellular pH and a strong increase in the concentration of free thiols (GSH). Passive surface adsorption was found to be negligible for living cells exposed to DMA and As(V). However, adsorption of As(III) was observed to be an active process in C. vulgaris, because it did not show saturation at any of the exposure periods. Chelation of As(III) with GS/PC and to a lesser extent hGS/hPC is a major detoxification mechanism employed by C. vulgaris cells when exposed to As(III). The increase of bound As-GS/PC complexes was found to be strongly related to an increase in concentration of As(III) in media. C. vulgaris cells did not produce any As-GS/PC complex when exposed to As(V). This may indicate that a reduction step is needed for As(V) complexation with GSH/PC. C. vulgaris cells formed DMAS(V)-GS upon exposure to DMA independent of the exposure period. As(III) triggers the formation of arsenic complexes with PC and homophytochelatins (hPC) and their compartmentalisation to vacuoles. A conceptual model was devised to explain the mechanisms involving ABCC1/2 transport. The potential of C. vulgaris to bio-remediate arsenic from water appeared to be highly selective and effective without the potential hazard of reducing As(V) to As(III), which is more toxic to humans.

  15. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  16. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  17. 水芹(Oenanthe javaica)浸出液对小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)生长及超微结构的影响%Effects of Oenanthe javaica Extracts on Growth and Ultrastructure of Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亚光; 李思宇; 宰学明; 钦佩

    2012-01-01

    Pure culture of chlorella was done in solutions different in concentration of Oenanthe javaica extracts added, to explore effects of 0. javaica extracts on growth, chlorophyll content and ultrastrueture of chlorella. Results show that in the treatment of 10 g ? L-1 O. javaica extract growth of chlorella was significantly promoted, and in the treatment of 20 g ■ L-1 O. javaica extract the number of cells and chlorophyll content of chlorella increased with a margin narrower than that in the control in the first 7 days, and afterwards, the growth was inhibited. In the treatments of 30 -50 g ? L-1 O. javaica extract, phenomenon of the inhibition became obvious on the fifth day and more obvious with the time going on and with the increasing concentration of theextract added as well. In the treatment of 40 g ? L-1 O. javaica extract, cell walls of the algae broke up and even vanished, chloroplast lamellas in the cells swelled and even disintegrated, and karyolem-mas ripped with karyoplasm extravasating. The findings indicate that O. javaica extract had an allelopathic effect on chlorella, and when low in concentration, it promotes growth of the algae, but when high, it acts reversely.%采用在不同浓度水芹(Oenanthe javaica)浸出液中纯培养小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)的方法,研究水芹浸出液对小球藻细胞数量、叶绿素含量和藻细胞超微结构的影响.结果显示,10g· L-1水芹浸出液对小球藻的生长和叶绿素含量具有明显的促进作用;20 g·L-1水芹浸出液处理组藻细胞数量和叶绿素含量增加持续至第7天,但增幅低于对照组,7d后抑制作用增强;高浓度(30~50g· L-1)水芹浸出液对小球藻细胞数量和叶绿素含量的抑制作用在第5天开始变得显著,并随时间延长而加剧,具有浓度效应;经40g·L-1水芹浸出液处理后,小球藻细胞壁断裂甚至消失,细胞中叶绿体片层肿胀甚至解体,核膜破裂,核质外渗.结果表明水芹浸出液对小

  18. Mapping the Fundamental Niches of Two Freshwater Microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae, in 5-Dimensional Ion Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence J. Evens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental niche defined by five ions, NO3 −, PO4 3−, K+, Na+, and Cl−, was mapped for Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae growth rates and maximum cell densities in batch cultures. A five dimensional ion-mixture experimental design was projected across a total ion concentration gradient of 1 to 30 mM to delineate the ion-based, “potential” niche space, defined as the entire n-dimensional hypervolume demarcated by the feasible ranges of the independent factors under consideration. The growth rate-based, fundamental niche volumes overlapped for ca. 94% of the ion mixtures, although the regions of maximal growth rates and cell densities were different for each alga. Both C. vulgaris and P. cinctum exhibited similar positive responses to cations and negative responses to anions. It was determined that total ion concentration for these five ions, from 1 to 30 mM, did not directly affect either growth rate or maximal cell density for either alga, although it did play an interactive role with several ions. This study is the first that we are aware of to attempt the mapping of a multivariate, ion-based, fundamental niche volume. The implications of the experimental design utilized and the potential utility of this type of approach are discussed.

  19. Purifying synthetic high-strength wastewater by microalgae chlorella vulgaris under various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhigang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Yuejin; Yan, Cheng; Zhao, Yongjun

    2013-01-01

    The high-strength wastewater is now well known as a threat to the natural water since it is highly possible to arouse water eutrophication or algal blooms. The effects of various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities on the microalgae biological wastewater treatment system was studied in this research. The various nutrient removals and economic efficiencies represented similar variation trends, and these variations under both high C and N loading treatments were similar too. The order for microalgae C. vulgaris reproduction in terms of dry weight and nutrient removal efficiency both were red > white > yellow > blue, under high carbon and nitrogen loading treatments, indicating that the red light was the optimum light wavelength. Furthermore, considering the optimal light intensity in terms of nutrient removal efficiency was 2500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s, while in terms of economic efficiency was 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s. Therefore, the optimum light intensity was found to be 2000 μmol/m2•s. In addition, the optimal experimental illumination time was determined as 120 h. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biological wastewater treatment system utilized in this research was able to purify the high-strength carbon and nitrogen wastewater effectively under optimum light wavelength and intensity. PMID:24499586

  20. Nitrous Oxide (N2O production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris microalgae cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guieysse

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O is generated from axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favouring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO, the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems (e.g. 1.38–10.1 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1 in a 0.25 m deep raceway pond operated under Mediterranean climatic conditions. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  1. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris microalgae cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guieysse, B.; Plouviez, M.; Coilhac, M.; Cazali, L.

    2013-10-01

    Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O) is generated from axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favouring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR) activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO) acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO), the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems (e.g. 1.38-10.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in a 0.25 m deep raceway pond operated under Mediterranean climatic conditions). These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  2. Purifying Synthetic High-Strength Wastewater by Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris Under Various Light Emitting Diode Wavelengths and Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Ge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The high-strength wastewater is now well known as a threat to the natural water since it is highly possible to arouse water eutrophication or algal blooms. The effects of various light emitting diode wavelengths and intensities on the microalgae biological wastewater treatment system was studied in this research. The various nutrient removals and economic efficiencies represented similar variation trends, and these variations under both high C and N loading treatments were similar too. The order for microalgae C. vulgaris reproduction in terms of dry weight and nutrient removal efficiency both were red > white > yellow > blue, under high carbon and nitrogen loading treatments, indicating that the red light was the optimum light wavelength. Furthermore, considering the optimal light intensity in terms of nutrient removal efficiency was 2500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s, while in terms of economic efficiency was 1000, 1500 and 2000 μmol/m2•s. Therefore, the optimum light intensity was found to be 2000 μmol/m2•s. In addition, the optimal experimental illumination time was determined as 120 h. The Chlorella vulgaris microalgae biological wastewater treatment system utilized in this research was able to purify the high-strength carbon and nitrogen wastewater effectively under optimum light wavelength and intensity.

  3. A hermetic self-sustained microbial solar cell based on Chlorella vulgaris and a versatile charge transfer chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keliang; Zhou, Peijiang

    2015-10-01

    A hermetic noble-metal-free membrane-less microbial solar cell (MSC) is established. The substances decomposition and regeneration in this MSC are carried out only by Chlorella vulgaris simultaneously. The conversion of metabolism types of C. vulgaris is controlled only by illumination. By using a pleiotropic redox mediator and a cupric hexacyanoferrate modified cathode, a two-phase three-stage charge transfer chain is formed. Through this pathway, the one microorganism self-sustained system gets a long-term power output up to 0.04773 mW/cm2 at 0.423 V without any material exchange with external, which is 50 times higher than that obtained from the original system. Benefiting from this electron buffer system, the battery will achieve an electricity generation in both light and dark conditions. There is almost no consumption of any substrates throughout the stabilized process, and no more additions are required. This maintenance-free and extremely inexpensive reactor with a simple structure and a long service life demonstrates the possibility of combining the microbial, chemical and photo cells.

  4. SINTESIS BIODIESEL DARI MINYAK MIKROALGA Chlorella vulgaris DENGAN REAKSI TRANSESTERIFIKASI MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS KOH

    OpenAIRE

    Catur Rini Widyastuti; Ayu Candra Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel merupakan salah satu energi alternatif yang dianggap mampu menjawab permasalahan kelangkaan bahan bakar minyak. Biodiesel dapat disintesis dari minyak nabati melalui reaksi transesterifikasi. Sumber minyak nabati yang potensial adalah mikroalga yang memiliki produktifitas minyak yang lebih tinggi per satuan luas lahan yang digunakan jika dibandingkan dengan tanaman darat. Mikroalga jenis Chlorella sp diketahui mengandung komponen lipid cukup tinggi yaitu sebesar 14-22%. Langkah-lang...

  5. The interactive effects of microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin on the growth rate of the freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Carlos; Azevedo, Joana; Campos, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Vítor; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-05-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) are the most representative cyanobacterial cyanotoxins. They have been simultaneously detected in aquatic systems, but their combined ecotoxicological effects to aquatic organisms, especially microalgae, is unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of these cyanotoxins individually and as a binary mixture on the growth rate of the freshwater algae Chlorella vulgaris. Using the MIXTOX tool, the reference model concentration addition (CA) was selected to evaluate the combined effects of MC-LR and CYN on the growth of the freshwater green algae due to its conservative prediction of mixture effect for putative similar or dissimilar acting chemicals. Deviations from the CA model such as synergism/antagonism, dose-ratio and dose-level dependency were also assessed. In single exposures, our results demonstrated that MC-LR and CYN had different impacts on the growth rates of C. vulgaris at the highest tested concentrations, being CYN the most toxic. In the mixture exposure trial, MC-LR and CYN showed a synergistic deviation from the conceptual model CA as the best descriptive model. MC-LR individually was not toxic even at high concentrations (37 mg L(-1)); however, the presence of MC-LR at much lower concentrations (0.4-16.7 mg L(-1)) increased the CYN toxicity. From these results, the combined exposure of MC-LR and CYN should be considered for risk assessment of mixtures as the toxicity may be underestimated when looking only at the single cyanotoxins and not their combination. This study also represents an important step to understand the interactions among MC-LR and CYN detected previously in aquatic systems. PMID:26910533

  6. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  7. Effects of glufosinate on antioxidant enzymes, subcellular structure, and gene expression in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Xu Xiaoyan; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)], E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-07-30

    Greater exposure to herbicide increases the likelihood of harmful effects in humans and the environment. Glufosinate, a non-selective herbicide, inhibits glutamine synthetase (GS) and thus blocks ammonium assimilation in plants. In the present study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris was chosen to assess the effects of acute glufosinate toxicity. We observed physiological changes during 12-96 h of exposure, and gene transcription during 6-48 h of exposure. Exposure to glufosinate increased malondialdehyde content by up to 2.73 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. Electron microscopy also showed that there were some chloroplast abnormalities in response to glufosinate. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) also increased markedly in the presence of glufosinate. Maximum activities of SOD, POD, and CAT were 2.90, 2.91, and 2.48 times that of the control, respectively. These elevated activities may help alleviate oxidative damage. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic genes, psaB, psbC, and rbcL. The results showed that glufosinate reduced the transcript abundances of the three genes after 12 h exposure. The lowest abundances of psaB, psbC and rbcL transcripts in response to glufosinate exposure were 38%, 16% and 43% of those of the control, respectively. Our results demonstrate that glufosinate affects the activities of antioxidant enzymes, disrupts chloroplast ultrastructure, and reduces transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. vulgaris.

  8. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

    2012-09-14

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  9. RNA is required for enzymatic conversion of glutamate to delta-aminolevulinate by extracts of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, J D; Beale, S I

    1985-05-15

    Formation of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) from glutamete catalyzed by a soluble extract from the unicellular green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, was abolished after incubation of the cell extract with bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase). Cell extract was prepared for the ALA formation assay by high-speed centrifugation and gel-filtration through Sephadex G-25 to remove insoluble and endogenous low-molecular-weight components. RNA hydrolysis products did not affect ALA formation, and RNase did not affect the ability of ATP and NADPH to serve as reaction substrates, indicating that the effect of RNase cannot be attributed to degradation of reaction substrates or transformation of a substrate or cofactor into an inhibitor. The effect of RNase was blocked by prior addition of placental RNase inhibitor (RNasin) to the cell extract, but RNasin did not reverse the effect of prior incubation of the cell extract with RNase, indicating that RNase does not act by degrading a component generated during the ALA-forming reaction, but instead degrades an essential component already present in active cell extract at the time the ALA-forming reaction is initiated. After inactivation of the cell extract by incubation with RNase, followed by administration of RNasin to block further RNase action, ALA-forming activity could be restored to a higher level than originally present by addition of a C. vulgaris tRNA-containing fraction isolated from an active ALA-forming preparation by phenol extraction and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. Baker's yeast tRNA, wheat germ tRNA, Escherichia coli tRNA, and E. coli tRNAglu type II were unable to reconstitute ALA-forming activity in RNase-treated cell extract, even though the cell extract was capable of catalyzing the charging of some of these RNAs with glutamate.

  10. Toxic Effects of Ethyl Cinnamate on the Photosynthesis and Physiological Characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Flow Cytometry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of ethyl cinnamate on the photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris were studied based on chlorophyll fluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. Parameters, including biomass, Fv/Fm (maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII, ФPSII (actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light, FDA, and PI staining fluorescence, were measured. The results showed the following: (1 The inhibition on biomass increased as the exposure concentration increased. 1 mg/L ethyl cinnamate was sufficient to reduce the total biomass of C. vulgaris. The 48-h and 72-h EC50 values were 2.07 mg/L (1.94–2.20 and 1.89 mg/L (1.82–1.97. (2 After 24 h of exposure to 2–4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris almost ceased, manifesting in ФPSII being close to zero. After 72 h of exposure to 4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the Fv/Fm of C. vulgaris dropped to zero. (3 Ethyl cinnamate also affected the cellular physiology of C. vulgaris, but these effects resulted in the inhibition of cell yield rather than cell death. Exposure to ethyl cinnamate resulted in decreased esterase activities in C. vulgaris, increased average cell size, and altered intensities of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Overall, esterase activity was the most sensitive variable.

  11. Synergistic effects of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for enhancement of biomass and lipid yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiping; Ji, Hairui; Gong, Guiping; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-07-01

    The optimal mixed culture model of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was confirmed to enhance lipid production. A double system bubble column photo-bioreactor was designed and used for demonstrating the relationship of yeast and alga in mixed culture. The results showed that using the log-phase cultures of yeast and alga as seeds for mixed culture, the improvements of biomass and lipid yields reached 17.3% and 70.9%, respectively, compared with those of monocultures. Growth curves of two species were confirmed in the double system bubble column photo-bioreactor, and the second growth of yeast was observed during 36-48 h of mixed culture. Synergistic effects of two species for cell growth and lipid accumulation were demonstrated on O2/CO2 balance, substance exchange, dissolved oxygen and pH adjustment in mixed culture. This study provided a theoretical basis and culture model for producing lipids by mixed culture in place of monoculture. PMID:24841576

  12. Investigation and modeling of the effects of light spectrum and incident angle on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliès, Antoine; Legrand, Jack; Marec, Hélène; Pruvost, Jérémy; Castelain, Cathy; Burghelea, Teodor; Cornet, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    An in-depth investigation of how various illumination conditions influence microalgal growth in photobioreactors (PBR) has been presented. Effects of both the light emission spectrum (white and red) and the light incident angle (0° and 60°) on the PBR surface were investigated. The experiments were conducted in two fully controlled lab-scale PBRs, a torus PBR and a thin flat-panel PBR for high cell density culture. The results obtained in the torus PBR were used to build the kinetic growth model of Chlorella vulgaris taken as a model species. The PBR model was then applied to the thin flat-panel PBR, which was run with various illumination conditions. Its detailed representation of local rate of photon absorption under various conditions (spectral calculation of light attenuation, incident angle influence) enabled the model to take into account all the tested conditions with no further adjustment. This allowed a detailed investigation of the coupling between radiation field and photosynthetic growth. Effects of all the radiation conditions together with pigment acclimation, which was found to be relevant, were investigated in depth. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:247-261, 2016.

  13. Growing Chlorella vulgaris in Photobioreactor by Continuous Process Using Concentrated Desalination: Effect of Dilution Rate on Biochemical Composition

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    Ângelo Paggi Matos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desalination wastewater, which contains large amount of salt waste, might lead to severely environmental pollution. This study evaluated the effect of dilution rate (0.1≤D≤0.3 day−1 on microalgal biomass productivity, lipid content, and fatty acid profile under steady-state condition of Chlorella vulgaris supplemented with concentrated desalination. Continuous culture was conducted for 55 days. Results show that the biomass productivity (Px varied from 57 to 126 mg L−1 d−1 (dry mass when the dilution rate ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 day−1. At lowest dilution rate (D=0.1 day−1, the continuous culture regime ensured the highest values of maximum biomass concentration (Xm=570±20 mL−1 and protein content (52%. Biomass lipid content was an increasing function of D. The most abundant fatty acids were the palmitic (25.3±0.6% at D=0.1 day−1 and the gamma-linolenic acid (23.5±0.1% at D=0.3 day−1 ones. These fatty acids present 14 to 18 carbons in the carbon chain, being mainly saturated and polyunsaturated, respectively. Overall, the results show that continuous culture is a powerful tool to investigate the cell growth kinetics and physiological behaviors of the algae growing on desalination wastewater.

  14. The influence of salinity on the toxicity of selected sulfonamides and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecka, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Haliński, Łukasz P; Pazdro, Ksenia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the investigation of the influence of salinity variations on the toxicity of sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris after exposure times of 48 and 72 h. In freshwater the EC50 values ranged from 0.98 to 123.22 mg L(-1) depending on the compound. The obtained results revealed that sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the most toxic, while trimethoprim was the least toxic pharmaceutical to the selected organism. Deviations between the nominal and real test concentrations were determined via instrumental analysis to support the interpretation of ecotoxicological data. The toxicity effects were also tested in saline water (3, 6 and 9 PSU). The tendency that the toxicity of selected pharmaceuticals decreases with increasing salinity was observed. Higher salinity implies an elevated concentration of inorganic monovalent cations that are capable of binding with countercharges available on algal surfaces (hydroxyl functional groups). Hence it can reduce the permeability of pharmaceuticals through the algal cell walls, which could be the probable reason for the observed effect. Moreover, for the classification of the mode of toxic action, the toxic ratio concept was applied, which indicated that the effects of the investigated drugs towards algae are caused by the specific mode of toxic action. PMID:26835894

  15. Photodegradation of 17α -Ethynylestradiol in Aqueous Solution with Nitzschia hantzschiana or Chlorella vulgaris and Fe3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xian-li; Wu Feng; Liao Zhen-huan; Li Shun-xing; Deng Nan-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The photodegradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) induced by high-pressure mercury lamp (λ≥313 nm, 250 W) in aqueous solution with algae (e.g. Nitzschia hantzschiana and Chlorella vulgaris) and Fe3+ was investigated initially. The affecting factors on the photodegradation were studied and described in details, such as algae concentration, Fe3+, exposure time, and so on. The concentration of EE2 in distilled water was determined using fluorescence spectrophotometer. The photodegradation of EE2 in aqueous solution exposed to 250 W high-pressure mercury lamp was evident in the presence of algae and Fe3+. With the algae concentration increasing, photodegradation rate increased. Fe3+ could accelerate the photocatalytic degradation of EE2 in aqueous solution with algae. The colloidal ferric hydroxide particles that might have adsorbed on the algae cells could enhance the photocatalytic degradation of EE2 by algae. The catalysis in photocatalytic degradation reaction mainly resulted from the active oxygen (H2 O2,1O2 and *OH) that was caused by algae and Fe3+ under 250 W HPML. In this paper, the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of EE2 by algae and Fe3+ is discussed theoretically in details.

  16. Improved lipid and biomass productivities in Chlorella vulgaris by differing the inoculation medium from the production medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrbanoo Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of biomass and lipid productivities is now one of the main concerns in commercialization of microalgae cultivation as a feedstock for algal biofuel production. Conventional photoautotrophic processes using well-studied and rich in oil strain of Chlorella vulgaris are not able to meet such demands. A new strategy of inoculating algae production medium with cells grown in a different medium from the production medium was proposed herein. More specifically, when SH4 was used as production medium and N8 was used as inoculation medium, biomass and lipid productivities increased by 2.33 folds and 1.44 fold, respectively, compared with when the production and inoculation media were the same, such as SH4. The findings of the present investigation showed that this cultivation scheme resulted in 52% increase in cell number and 54% increase in dry weight leading to improved productivities. Although by even considering this improvement, photoautotrophic cultivation of algae can hardly compete with the heterotrophic cultivation, the high cost of hydrocarbon supply required in large-scale heterotrophic processes marks the technique proposed in the present study as a promising approach for commercialization of algal biofuel production.

  17. Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Beatriz; de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate, as polyphosphate, was measured when the microalga Chlorella vulgaris was immobilized in alginate with either of two wild-type strains of the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense or their corresponding IAA-attenuated mutants. Wild type strains of A. brasilense induced higher amounts of intra-cellular phosphate in Chlorella than their respective mutants. Calculations comparing intra-cellular phosphate accumulation by culture or net accumulation by the cell and the amount of IAA that was produced by each of these strains revealed that higher IAA was linked to higher accumulations of intra-cellular phosphate. Application of four levels of exogenous IAA reported for A. brasilense and their IAA-attenuated mutants to cultures of C. vulgaris enhanced accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate; the higher the content of IAA per culture or per single cell, the higher was the amount of accumulated phosphate. When an IAA-attenuated mutant was complemented with exogenous IAA, accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate at the culture level was even higher than phosphate accumulation with the respective wild type strains. When calculating the net accumulation of intra-cellular phosphate in the complementation experiment, net intra-cellular phosphate induced by the IAA-attenuated mutant was completely restored and was similar to the wild strains. We propose that IAA produced by A. brasilense is linked to polyphosphate accumulation in C. vulgaris.

  18. The Effect of Chlorella vulgaris Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Serum Glucose and Lipid Profile in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

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    Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a public health problem worldwide and using microalgae is a new approach on its treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Chlorella vulgaris supplementation on liver enzymes, serum glucose and lipid profile in patients with NAFLD. Methods: This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 NAFLD patients from specialized clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from December 2011 to July 2012. The subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: 1 “intervention” (n=30 received 400 mg/day vitamin E plus four 300 mg tablets of Chlorella vulgaris and, 2 “placebo” (n=30 received 400 mg/day vitamin E and four placebo tablets per day for 8 weeks. Weight, liver enzymes and metabolic factors were assessed in fasting serum and dietary data was collected at baseline and end of the study. Results: Weight, liver enzymes, fasting blood sugar (FBS and lipid profile decreased significantly in both groups (P<0.05. The differences in weight, ALP and FBS between the two groups were statistically significant (P=0.01, P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: C. vulgaris seems to improve FBS and lipid profile and therefore could be considered as an effective complementary treatment in NAFLD.

  19. ROLE OF GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE AND GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN CHLORELLA VULGARIS DURING ASSIMILATION OF AMMONIUM WHEN JOINTLY IMMOBILIZED WITH THE MICROALGAE-GROWTH-PROMOTING BACTERIUM AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Bashan, Luz E; Magallon, Paola; Antoun, Hani; Bashan, Yoav

    2008-10-01

    Enzymatic activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) participating in the nitrogen metabolism and related ammonium absorption were assayed after the microalga Chlorella vulgaris Beij. was jointly immobilized with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. At initial concentrations of 3, 6, and 10 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) , joint immobilization enhances growth of C. vulgaris but does not affect ammonium absorption capacity of the microalga. However, at 8 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) , joint immobilization enhanced ammonium absorption by the microalga without affecting the growth of the microalgal population. Correlations between absorption of ammonium per cell and per culture showed direct (negative and positive) linear correlations between these parameters and microalga populations at 3, 6, and 10 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) , but not at 8 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) , where the highest absorption of ammonium occurred. In all cultures, immobilized and jointly immobilized, having the four initial ammonium concentrations, enzymatic activities of Chlorella are affected by A. brasilense. Regardless of the initial concentration of ammonium, GS activity in C. vulgaris was always higher when jointly immobilized and determined on a per-cell basis. When jointly immobilized, only at an initial concentration of 8 mg · L(-1)  NH4 (+) was GDH activity per cell higher.

  20. Exploration of using stripped ammonia and ash from poultry litter for the cultivation of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis and the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Iconomou, Dimitris; Sotiroudis, Theodore; Israilides, Cleanthes; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2015-11-01

    Herein a new approach of exploiting poultry litter (PL) is demonstrated. The suggested method includes drying of PL with simultaneously striping and recovery of ammonia, followed by the direct combustion of dried PL. The generated ash after the combustion, and the striped ammonia consequently, could be used as nutrient source for the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria to produce feed additives. The present study explored the application of PL ash and recovered ammonia for the cultivation of Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris. For a simultaneously 90% dissolution of ash potassium and phosphorus, a ratio of acid to ash of 0.02mol-H(+)/g was required. The optimum mass of ash required was 0.07-0.08g/g dry biomass, while the addition of ammoniac nitrogen of 8-9mgN per g of dry biomass per day was adequate for a satisfactory production of A. platensis and C. vulgaris. PMID:26280098

  1. Kinetic characteristics and modeling of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth and CO2 biofixation considering the coupled effects of light intensity and dissolved inorganic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hai-Xing; Huang, Yun; Fu, Qian; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and optimizing the microalgae growth process is an essential prerequisite for effective CO2 capture using microalgae in photobioreactors. In this study, the kinetic characteristics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth in response to light intensity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration were investigated. The greatest values of maximum biomass concentration (Xmax) and maximum specific growth rate (μmax) were obtained as 2.303 g L(-1) and 0.078 h(-1), respectively, at a light intensity of 120 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and DIC concentration of 17 mM. Based on the results, mathematical models describing the coupled effects of light intensity and DIC concentration on microalgae growth and CO2 biofixation are proposed. The models are able to predict the temporal evolution of C. vulgaris growth and CO2 biofixation rates from lag to stationary phases. Verification experiments confirmed that the model predictions agreed well with the experimental results.

  2. Toxicity of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanobeads in Chlorella vulgaris: interaction, adaptation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Yao, Hongzhou; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    The potential toxicity of CoFe2O4 nanobeads (NBs) in Chlorella vulgaris was observed up to 72h. Algal cell morphology, membrane integrity and viability were severely compromised due to adsorption and aggregation of NBs on algal surfaces, release of Fe(3+) and Co(2+) ions and possible mechanical damage by NBs. Interactions with NBs and effective decrease in ions released by aggregation and exudation of algal cells as a self defense mechanism were observed by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results corroborated CoFe2O4 NBs induced ROS triggered oxidative stress, leading to a reduction in catalase activity, activation of the mutagenic glutathione s-transferase (mu-GST) and acid phosphatase (AP) antioxidant enzymes, and an increase in genetic aberrations, metabolic and cellular signal transduction dysfunction. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the weak interactions of NBs with BSA, with slight changes in the α-helix structure of BSA confirming conformational changes in structure, hence the potential for functional interactions with biomolecules. Possible interferences of CoFe2O4 NBs with assay techniques and components indicated CoFe2O4 NBs at lower concentration do not show any significant interference with ROS, catalase, mu-GST and no interference with CD measurements. This study showed ROS production is one of the pathways of toxicity initiated by CoFe2O4 NBs and illustrates the complex processes that may occur between organisms and NBs in natural complex ecosystem. PMID:26291677

  3. Cultivo de Chlorella vulgaris sobre residual de soja con la aplicación de un campo magnético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gómez Luna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Culture of Chlorella vulgaris using soy waste and applying a magnetic field Cultivo de C. vulgaris con soja y CMChlorella ha ocupado la atención de los biotecnólogos al ser una importante fuente de biomasa para la producción de metabolitos de interés químico farmacéutico e industrial; sin embargo, el manejo de cultivos a gran escala sigue siendo un proceso que necesita economizarse, a partir de alternativas viables. Este trabajo presenta un estudio exploratorio en el que se evaluó la viabilidad del uso del residual de la línea de ablandamiento del grano de soya, como medio de cultivo para la microalga Chlorella vulgaris, obteniéndose excelentes valores de densidad celular máxima (Kmáx: 360 x 106 cél.mL-1. Posteriormente se evalúan los efectos de la aplicación de un campo magnético (CM de 0.03T, obteniéndose densidades celulares máximas en un menor tiempo de cultivo, lo que puede constituir un fundamento esencial para una nueva metodología de cultivo. La calidad de la biomasa de C. vulgaris se evalúa desde el punto de vista bioquímico, lo que permite determinar la concentración de proteínas, carbohidratos y lípidos en la fase exponencial, cuya acumulación se ve favorecida dependiendo del protocolo de aplicación del CM, mientras que la concentración de lípidos es máxima si el CM es aplicado en la fase estacionaria, variando desde 1.70 ±0.02 hasta 3.48 ±0.03 pg cél; lo que constituiría una ventaja para el manejo de cultivos comerciales de esta microalga que depende de su destino. Palabras clave: imán de neodimio, pigmentos, nitrógeno, biomasa, microalga.  ABSTRACT Chlorella has occupied the attention of biotechnologists to be an important source of biomass for the production of metabolites with a pharmaceutical, industrial and chemical interest; however, managing large-scale cultures, remains a process that needs to find alternatives become

  4. Bio-conversion rate and optimum harvest intervals for Moina australiensis using digested piggery effluent and Chlorella vulgaris as a food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A J; Kumar, M S

    2010-04-01

    The bio-conversion rate of Moina australiensis fed with Chlorella vulgaris grown on digested piggery effluent at three different feeding rates was determined and a 2, 3 and 4-day harvest interval strategy was investigated. This study indicates that C. vulgaris is a suitable food source for M. australiensis. A significant difference (P < or = 0.001) in the feeding rate against mean total populations was found among treatments. The increase in the amount of algae fed accelerated the production rate, and the population density peaked faster in the high C. vulgaris fed treatment. The BCR calculated from this experiment indicates that for every 1000 mg of C. vulgaris fed there was an increase of 437.9 mg of M. australiensis biomass produced. A significant difference (P < or = 0.001) in biomass production among the different harvest interval treatments was observed. The 2-day harvest interval treatment produced 7.78 g of M. australiensis followed by 6.89 g in the 3 day and 5.01 g in the 4-day harvest interval treatment. This study provides strong evidence that M. australiensis can utilise the bacterial blooms and bio-films associated with digested piggery effluent as a food source. PMID:20006491

  5. Statistical evaluation and modeling of cheap substrate-based cultivation medium of Chlorella vulgaris to enhance microalgae lipid as new potential feedstock for biolubricant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B

    2016-05-18

    Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) microalga was investigated as a new potential feedstock for the production of biodegradable lubricant. In order to enhance microalgae lipid for biolubricant production, mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was optimized using statistical analysis of Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodology (RSM). A cheap substrate-based medium of molasses and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used instead of expensive mineral salts to reduce the total cost of microalgae production. The effects of molasses and CSL concentration (cheap substrates) and light intensity on the growth of microalgae and their lipid content were analyzed and modeled. Designed models by RSM showed good compatibility with a 95% confidence level when compared to the cultivation system. According to the models, optimal cultivation conditions were obtained with biomass productivity of 0.123 g L(-1) day(-1) and lipid dry weight of 0.64 g L(-1) as 35% of dry weight of C. vulgaris. The extracted microalgae lipid presented useful fatty acid for biolubricant production with viscosities of 42.00 cSt at 40°C and 8.500 cSt at 100°C, viscosity index of 185, flash point of 185°C, and pour point of -6°C. These properties showed that microalgae lipid could be used as potential feedstock for biolubricant production. PMID:25844976

  6. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on growth, protein and chlorophyll-a content of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygideger, Saadet Demirors; Okkay, Ozlem

    2008-03-01

    In this study, effect of different 2,4 -dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) concentrations (0.0, 9.10(-5), 9.10(-4), 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM) on growth rate, content of protein and chlorophyll-a in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells was investigated. The most stimulatory effect on growth rate, protein and pigment ratio of C. vulgaris and S. platensis was observed at 9.10(-4) mM concentrations of 2,4-D. The results show that low concentrations of 2,4-D have hormonal effect due to being a synthetic auxin. Cell number protein and pigment rates were inhibited at 9.10(-2) mM concentration in C. vulgaris. Such parameters were inhibited in S. platensis, both at 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM 2,4-D concentrations. This is due to herbicidal effect of high concentrations of 2,4-D. S. platensis was found to be more sensitive than S. vulgaris to 2,4-D applications. The use of algae as bio-indicators in herbicide contaminated fresh water habitats, was discussed. PMID:18831369

  7. Evaluation of growth and survival rate of Artemia parthenogenetica feed with micro algae (Isochrysis galbana and Chlorella vulgaris and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate growth and survival rate of Maharloo lake artemia (ArtemiaParthenogenetica (Bowen & Sterling, 1978 which feed with two species of microalgae (IsochrysisGalbana and Chlorella vulgaris and bakery yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae with different nutritiousingredients for 15 days. We evaluated them in 3rd, 7th, 11th and 15thdays of cultivation period for 4 times. This experiment was done in completely randomized design with 4 treatments (3 treatments and 1 control and each treatment has 3 replicates. Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii were feed with three different types of food that includes Isochrysis galbana microalgae (T1, Chlorella vulgaris (T2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (T4. Control had feed with blend of these three matters. After 15 days the highest survival rate was observed in control (84.00 and the lowest one was related to the T4 (59.58 which feed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (p<0.05. The highest growth rate was observed in T4, T3, followed by T1 and T2 respectively. Achievement results showed significantdifferences between control and other treatments (p<0.05. This study proved that treatments whichfeed with blend of two micro algae's species and bakery yeast have higher survival ability than theother treatments.

  8. Physiological Response of Autotrophy and Polyculture Chlorella vulgaris to Salt Stress%自养和混养小球藻对 NaCl 胁迫的生理响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葸玉琴; 马春林; 曹云涛; 孔维宝; 杨红

    2013-01-01

      本文研究了 NaCl 胁迫下,自养和混养小球藻的生长特性以及类胡萝卜素、蛋白质、多糖、脯氨酸和 MDA 的积累量。结果表明,在 NaCl 胁迫下,混养小球藻的生物量、细胞内多糖和 MDA 含量都明显高于自养小球藻,其类胡萝卜素含量、细胞内蛋白质含量和脯氨酸含量都明显低于自养小球藻。说明自养和混养小球藻都具有一定的抵抗盐胁迫的能力,但两者抵抗盐胁迫的表现形式各有差异。%  Accumulation of carotenoid, cell protein, polysaccharose and proline in autotrophy or polyculture Chlorella vulgaris as well as its growth characteristics under NaCl stress were studied in this paper. The results indicated that the content of biomass, polysaccharose and MDA for polyculture Chlorella vulgaris was significantly superior to that for autotrophy Chlorella vulgaris, while the content of carotenoid, cell protein and proline content was significantly inferior to that for autotrophy Chlorella vulgaris, which illustrated that autotrophy and polyculture Chlorella vulgaris both had certain resistance to salt stress, but the pattern manifestation to resist salt stress was different between each other.

  9. Effect of light wavelengths on lipid accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris in photoautotrophic culture%不同光质对小球藻光自养培养积累油脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹继龙; 唐小红; 郑洪立; 尹丰伟; 高振; 黄和

    2014-01-01

    研究了5种光质对小球藻( Chlorella vulgaris) M209256生长和产油的影响。结果表明:蓝光为小球藻的最适生长和产油光质;与其他光质相比,蓝光培养的小球藻生物量和油脂含量均较高,为2�40×107个/mL和28%;红光培养的小球藻生长最慢且油脂含量最低,为1�32×107个/mL和15�13%,表现出明显的“红降”现象。在GC MS分析的基础上,对油脂甲酯化后的十六烷值进行评估,结果发现:蓝光的十六烷值最高;5种光质培养的小球藻所产油脂,甲酯十六烷值均在47以上。因此,小球藻油脂所制备的生物柴油具有较好的燃烧性能。%The effect of five kinds of light wavelengths on the growth and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris M209256 was studied. The results showed that the optimal wavelength for growth and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris was blue light. Compared with other light wavelengths,the higher biomass and lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris,2�40 × 107 mL-1 and 28%,respectively,were obtained under blue light�Both the biomass and lipid content,1�32 × 107 mL-1 and 15�13%,respectively,were the lowest when Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to red light�It was a phenomenon of "red drop"�Cetane number ( CN) was estimated in this work based on GC-MS analysis. It was found that Chlorella vulgaris under blue light had the highest CN and all CNs of fatty acid methyl esters ( FAMEs) from Chlorella vulgaris under the tested light wavelengths were above 47�

  10. THE FEATURES OF BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF STRAIN CHLORELLA VULGARIS IGF № С-111, GROWN IN CLOSED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Flerova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides optimal concentrations of macro-and micronutrients nutrient medium for microalgae strain SPT S-111 grown as a feed additive for cattle. Utilization of proposed components in the denoted quantity allows getting suspension of chlorella with concentration of 67.2 million cells/ml on the third day of cultivation in the bioreactor gated. It is shown that chlorella grown on our nutritional medium contains is 43.7% of protein, more than 7% of mineral substances, Ca-0.3%, F-0.9%, and less than 5% of fat and carbohydrates in 100 g of dry matter. In 1 g of the chlorella biomass the catalase activity is 0,13 IU/g of tissue, superoxide dismutase - 24.5 IU/g of tissue. The composition of nutrients in chlorella cells indicates that the content of protein, fat and minerals comparable high protein plant products. From the standpoint of the enzyme complex (SOD and catalase chlorella biomass higher than in other types of plants used for food and medical industries. Grown on this medium chlorella slurry may be used as an additional protein rich provender in the diets to cattle without substantial cost in comparison with synthetic protein additives.

  11. Oxygen-18 Exchange as a Measure of Accessibility of CO2 and HCO3− to Carbonic Anhydrase in Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 263) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C. K.; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Wynns, George C.; Silverman, David N.

    1986-01-01

    We have measured the exchange of 18O between CO2 and H2O in stirred suspensions of Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 263) using a membrane inlet to a mass spectrometer. The depletion of 18O from CO2 in the fluid outside the cells provides a method to study CO2 and HCO3− kinetics in suspensions of algae that contain carbonic anhydrase since 18O loss to H2O is catalyzed inside the cells but not in the external fluid. Low-CO2 cells of Chlorella vulgaris (grown with air) were added to a solution containing 18O enriched CO2 and HCO3− with 2 to 15 millimolar total inorganic carbon. The observed depletion of 18O from CO2 was biphasic and the resulting 18C content of CO2 was much less than the 18O content of HCO3− in the external solution. Analysis of the slopes showed that the Fick's law rate constant for entry of HCO3− into the cell was experimentally indistinguishable from zero (bicarbonate impermeable) with an upper limit of 3 × 10−4 s−1 due to our experimental errors. The Fick's law rate constant for entry of CO2 to the sites of intracellular carbonic anhydrase was large, 0.013 per second, but not as great as calculated for no membrane barrier to CO2 flux (6 per second). The experimental value may be explained by a nonhomogeneous distribution of carbonic anhydrase in the cell (such as membrane-bound enzyme) or by a membrane barrier to CO2 entry into the cell or both. The CO2 hydration activity inside the cells was 160 times the uncatalyzed CO2 hydration rate. PMID:16664755

  12. Oxygen-18 Exchange as a Measure of Accessibility of CO(2) and HCO(3) to Carbonic Anhydrase in Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 263).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C K; Acevedo-Duncan, M; Wynns, G C; Silverman, D N

    1986-04-01

    We have measured the exchange of (18)O between CO(2) and H(2)O in stirred suspensions of Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 263) using a membrane inlet to a mass spectrometer. The depletion of (18)O from CO(2) in the fluid outside the cells provides a method to study CO(2) and HCO(3) (-) kinetics in suspensions of algae that contain carbonic anhydrase since (18)O loss to H(2)O is catalyzed inside the cells but not in the external fluid. Low-CO(2) cells of Chlorella vulgaris (grown with air) were added to a solution containing (18)O enriched CO(2) and HCO(3) (-) with 2 to 15 millimolar total inorganic carbon. The observed depletion of (18)O from CO(2) was biphasic and the resulting (18)C content of CO(2) was much less than the (18)O content of HCO(3) (-) in the external solution. Analysis of the slopes showed that the Fick's law rate constant for entry of HCO(3) (-) into the cell was experimentally indistinguishable from zero (bicarbonate impermeable) with an upper limit of 3 x 10(-4) s(-1) due to our experimental errors. The Fick's law rate constant for entry of CO(2) to the sites of intracellular carbonic anhydrase was large, 0.013 per second, but not as great as calculated for no membrane barrier to CO(2) flux (6 per second). The experimental value may be explained by a nonhomogeneous distribution of carbonic anhydrase in the cell (such as membrane-bound enzyme) or by a membrane barrier to CO(2) entry into the cell or both. The CO(2) hydration activity inside the cells was 160 times the uncatalyzed CO(2) hydration rate. PMID:16664755

  13. Oxygen-18 exchange as a measure of accessibility of CO2 and HCO3- to carbonic anhydrase in Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 263)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exchange of 18O between CO2 and H2O in stirred suspensions of Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 263) was measured using a membrane inlet to a mass spectrometer. The depletion of 18O from CO2 in the fluid outside the cells provides a method to study CO2 and HCO3- kinetics in suspensions of algae that contain carbonic anhydrase since 18O loss to H2O is catalyzed inside the cells but not in the external fluid. Low-CO2 cells of Chlorella vulgaris (grown with air) were added to a solution containing 18O enriched CO2 and HCO3- with 2 to 15 millimolar total inorganic carbon. The observed depletion of 18O from CO2 was biphasic and the resulting 18O content of CO2 was much less than the 18O content of HCO3- in the external solution. Analysis of the slopes showed that the Fick's law rate constant for entry of HCO3- into the cell was experimentally indistinguishable from zero (bicarbonate impermeable) with an upper limit of 3 x 10-4 s-1 due to experimental errors. The Fick's law rate constant for entry of CO2 to the sites of intracellular carbonic anhydrase was large, 0.013 per second, but not as great as calculated for no membrane barrier to CO2 flux (6 per second). The experimental value may be explained by a nonhomogeneous distribution of carbonic anhydrase in the cell (such as membrane-bound enzyme) or by a membrane barrier to CO2 entry into the cell or both. The CO2 hydration activity inside the cells was 160 times the uncatalyzed CO2 hydration rate

  14. Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 395 Accurately Predicts Phenotypes under Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, and Mixotrophic Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuñiga, Cristal; Li, Chien-Ting; Huelsman, Tyler; Levering, Jennifer; Zielinski, Daniel C; McConnell, Brian O; Long, Christopher P; Knoshaug, Eric P; Guarnieri, Michael T; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Zengler, Karsten

    2016-09-01

    The green microalga Chlorella vulgaris has been widely recognized as a promising candidate for biofuel production due to its ability to store high lipid content and its natural metabolic versatility. Compartmentalized genome-scale metabolic models constructed from genome sequences enable quantitative insight into the transport and metabolism of compounds within a target organism. These metabolic models have long been utilized to generate optimized design strategies for an improved production process. Here, we describe the reconstruction, validation, and application of a genome-scale metabolic model for C. vulgaris UTEX 395, iCZ843. The reconstruction represents the most comprehensive model for any eukaryotic photosynthetic organism to date, based on the genome size and number of genes in the reconstruction. The highly curated model accurately predicts phenotypes under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic conditions. The model was validated against experimental data and lays the foundation for model-driven strain design and medium alteration to improve yield. Calculated flux distributions under different trophic conditions show that a number of key pathways are affected by nitrogen starvation conditions, including central carbon metabolism and amino acid, nucleotide, and pigment biosynthetic pathways. Furthermore, model prediction of growth rates under various medium compositions and subsequent experimental validation showed an increased growth rate with the addition of tryptophan and methionine. PMID:27372244

  15. Cultivation factors and population size control the uptake of nitrogen by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris when interacting with the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Bashan, Luz E; Antoun, Hani; Bashan, Yoav

    2005-10-01

    Growth of and the capacity to take up nitrogen in the freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris were studied while varying the concentrations of ammonium and nitrate, the pH and the source of carbon in a synthetic wastewater growth medium when co-immobilized in alginate beads with the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Analyses of 29 independent experiments showed that co-immobilization of the microalgae with A. brasilense could result in two independent phenomena directly affected by cultivation factors, such as nitrogen species, pH and presence of a carbon source. First, growth of the microalgal population increased without an increase in the capacity of the single cells to take up nitrogen, or second, the capacity of cells to take up nitrogen increased without an increase of the total microalgal population. These phenomena were dependent on the population density of the microalgae, which was in turn affected by cultivation factors. This supports the conclusion that the size of the microalgal population controls the uptake of nitrogen in C. vulgaris cells - the higher the population (regardless the experimental parameters), the less nitrogen each cell takes up.

  16. Amelioration of arsenic toxicity in rice: Comparative effect of inoculation of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis sp. on growth, biochemical changes and arsenic uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Singh, N K; Singh, R; Rai, U N

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the responses of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Triguna) by inoculating alga; Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochlropsis sp. supplemented with As(III) (50µM) under hydroponics condition. Results showed that reduced growth variables and protein content in rice plant caused by As toxicity were restored in the algae inoculated plants after 7d of treatment. The rice plant inoculated with Nannochloropsis sp. exhibited a better response in terms of increased root, shoot length and biomass than C. vulgaris under As(III) treatment. A significant reduction in cellular toxicity (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, APX and GR) activities were observed in algae inoculated rice plant under As(III) treatment in comparison to uninoculated rice. In addition, rice treated with As(III), accumulated 35.05mgkg(-1)dw arsenic in the root and 29.96mgkg(-1)dw in the shoot. However, lower accumulation was observed in As(III) treated rice inoculated with C. vulgaris (24.09mg kg(-1)dw) and Nannochloropsis sp. (20.66mgkg(-1)dw) in the roots, while in shoot, it was 20.10mgkg(-1)dw and 11.67mgkg(-1)dw, respectively. Results demonstrated that application of these algal inoculum ameliorates toxicity and improved tolerance in rice through reduced As uptake and modulating antioxidant enzymes. Thus, application of algae could provide a low-cost and eco-friendly mitigation approach to reduce accumulation of arsenic in edible part of rice as well as higher yield in the As contaminated agricultural field. PMID:26473328

  17. Amelioration of arsenic toxicity in rice: Comparative effect of inoculation of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis sp. on growth, biochemical changes and arsenic uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Singh, N K; Singh, R; Rai, U N

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the responses of rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Triguna) by inoculating alga; Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochlropsis sp. supplemented with As(III) (50µM) under hydroponics condition. Results showed that reduced growth variables and protein content in rice plant caused by As toxicity were restored in the algae inoculated plants after 7d of treatment. The rice plant inoculated with Nannochloropsis sp. exhibited a better response in terms of increased root, shoot length and biomass than C. vulgaris under As(III) treatment. A significant reduction in cellular toxicity (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, APX and GR) activities were observed in algae inoculated rice plant under As(III) treatment in comparison to uninoculated rice. In addition, rice treated with As(III), accumulated 35.05mgkg(-1)dw arsenic in the root and 29.96mgkg(-1)dw in the shoot. However, lower accumulation was observed in As(III) treated rice inoculated with C. vulgaris (24.09mg kg(-1)dw) and Nannochloropsis sp. (20.66mgkg(-1)dw) in the roots, while in shoot, it was 20.10mgkg(-1)dw and 11.67mgkg(-1)dw, respectively. Results demonstrated that application of these algal inoculum ameliorates toxicity and improved tolerance in rice through reduced As uptake and modulating antioxidant enzymes. Thus, application of algae could provide a low-cost and eco-friendly mitigation approach to reduce accumulation of arsenic in edible part of rice as well as higher yield in the As contaminated agricultural field.

  18. Lysine acetylsalicylate increases the safety of a paraquat formulation to freshwater primary producers: A case study with the microalga Chlorella vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltazar, Maria Teresa, E-mail: mteresabaltazar@gmail.com [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); IINFACTS-Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, Advanced Institute of Health Sciences-North, CESPU, CRL, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra (Portugal); Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); IINFACTS-Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, Department of Sciences, Advanced Institute of Health Sciences-North, CESPU, CRL, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra (Portugal); Department of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); CENCIFOR-Forensic Sciences Center, Largo da Sé Nova, 3000-213, Coimbra (Portugal); Martins, Alexandra [CIIMAR Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology and Ecology, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); ICBAS-Institute of Biomedical Sciences of Abel Salazar, University of Porto, Department of Populations Studies, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, Maria de Lourdes [REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Duarte, José Alberto [CIAFEL, Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa, 91-4200-450 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •The formulation has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when compared to Gramoxone{sup ®}. •The highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8 (PQ/LAS). •LAS conferred a protection of approximately 1.8 fold (% of inhibition of growth). •Salicylic acid is biotransformed by C. vulgaris after 48 h, and not detectable at 96 h. -- Abstract: Large amounts of herbicides are presently used in the industrialized nations worldwide, with an inexorable burden to the environment, especially to aquatic ecosystems. Primary producers such as microalgae are of especial concern because they are vital for the input of energy into the ecosystem and for the maintenance of oxygen in water on which most of other marine life forms depend on. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) is known to cause inhibition of photosynthesis and irreversible damage to photosynthetic organisms through generation of reactive oxygen species in a light-dependent manner. Previous studies have led to the development of a new formulation of PQ containing lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) as an antidote, which was shown to prevent the mammalian toxicity of PQ, while maintaining the herbicidal effect. However, the safety of this formulation to primary producers in relation to commercially available PQ formulations has hitherto not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the PQ + LAS formulation in comparison with the PQ, using Chlorella vulgaris as a test organism. Effect criterion was the inhibition of microalgal population growth. Following a 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of PQ, C. vulgaris growth was almost completely inhibited, an effect that was significantly prevented by LAS at the proportion used in the formulation (PQ + LAS) 1:2 (mol/mol), while the highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8. In conclusion, the present work demonstrated that the new formulation with PQ + LAS has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when

  19. Effects of different carbon sources and light intensities on the growth and the lipid properties of Chlorella vulgaris%不同碳源及光照对小球藻生长和产油脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘香华; 刘雷; 曾慧卿

    2012-01-01

    The essay is inclined to present our experimental results of the effects of the three carbon sources, i.e. glucose, NaHC03 and sodium acetate. We have also studied the effects of their respective initial concentrations on the growth and lipid properties of Chlorella vulgaris at different light intensities. In our experiments, we have also used OD680 and biomass for evaluation of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and extracted the microalgae oil with the solvent extraction method. In addition, the lipid properties and the percentage of lipid and lipid production were used for the lipid properties. The results of our experiments demonstrate that, after nine-day cultivation, of the three carbon sources, glucose proves to be the best organic carbon source. When glucose was added as the carbon source, Chlorella vulgaris tends to grow fatter than the other two. When NaHC03 was used as the carbon source, the growth rate tends to be too slow, moreover, no great help would there be found to promote the growth of Chlorella vulgaris . What is more, if the initial concentration of NaHCO3 was too high, it might inhibit the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. And, then, when sodium acetate was added as the carbon source, it wouldn' t make any obvious help to the growth of Chlorella vulgari, neither could it be the optimal carbon source for the growth of Chlorella vulgaris . Furthermore, under the three light intensities as was mentioned above, when the light intensity was increased, the photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris tends to improve gradually. And, when the light intensity was set at 5 000 lx, Chlorella vulgaris began to grow faster, and, then, its biomass would grow much faster. Thus, it can be concluded that 5 000 be should be the optimal light intensity for the growth of Chlorella vulgaris . Therefore, of the three light intensities, 1 600 lx proves to be much more beneficial for the lipid accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris than the other two. And, last of all

  20. 光照对普通小球藻和鱼腥藻生长竞争的影响%Effect of Light Intensity on Growth and Competition between Chlorella Vulgaris and Anabaena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟顺龙; 邴旭文; 裘丽萍; 王菁; 胡庚东; 瞿建宏; 范立民; 宋超; 吴伟; 陈家长

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena sp. are the most common algae in eutrophication ponds. In order to know the growth process of the two species of algae in eutrophication ponds and the relationship between algae growth and light intensity, the experiment was carried out to research the interspecies competition between Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena sp. at different light intensity (660, 2 200, 4 400, 6 600 lx) by the methods of special growth rate, growth curve and inhibition parameters through indoors experiment. For the experiment could help clarify how to promote the growth of useful algae and restrain the growth of harmful algae by the way of regulating the environment factors, so the study is very important for regulating aquaculture eco-environment and improving primary productivity of water body. The results indicated that maximum biomass of both Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena sp. increased with the increase of light intensity in the uni-culture system, and the maximum biomass of Chlorella vulgaris in the light intensity of 660, 2200, 4 400, 6 600 lx were 961.2×104, 1 858.3×104, 3 258.8×104, 3 227.2×104 cells·mL-1 respectively, and the maximum biomass of Anabaena sp. in the light intensity of 660, 2 200, 4 400, 6600 lx were 4 018.3×104, 8 325.0×104, 10 552.8×104, 10 073.4×104 cells·mL-1 respectively. Light intensity could influence the competition between Chlorella vulgaris and Anabaena sp. significantly. The results of inhibition parameter of interspecies competition showed that the inhibition parameters of Anabaena sp. against Chlorella vulgaris were all lower than that of Chlorella vulgaris against Anabaena sp. at the experiment condition. The inhibition parameter of Chlorella vulgaris against Anabaena sp. reached the peak at the 6 600 lx group, and the maximum was 7.94. The inhibition parameter of Anabaena sp. against Chlorella vulgaris reached the peak at the 4 400 lx group, and the maximum was 0.45. Chlorella vulgaris dominated in the 2 200

  1. Section of the Best Culture Conditions in Chlorella Fatty Acid Croduction%小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)产油脂最佳培养条件的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁咏恩; 彭少泓; 谢旋; 王莹

    2010-01-01

    以低温作为环境条件诱导小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)产脂,采用正交试验的方法来研究不同水平下Mn,K,Mg和S各元素对小球藻生长及脂肪产量的影响.本实验C N-1比为41.2:1,pH值范围为7.4~7.5之间,培养温度为15 ℃,P浓度为0.2~0.4 mmol·L-1,Fe浓度为0.04 mmol·L-1,以自养生长型式培养,而培养基成份根据BG11培养基作为基础进行改良.根据实验结果显示,脂肪产量最高为实验编号10(64.59 mg (100 mL)-1,64.59%),即锰及镁在一定程度上能促进小球藻的生长,且脂肪产率更高.

  2. Effects of changing nitrogen sources on lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris C95%氮源对C. vulgaris油脂积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金花; 夏小乐; 杨海麟; 王武; 张玲

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different nitrogen sources on the growth and oil accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris were studied and the optimum nitrogen source was obtained. Meanwhile,the growth,oil accumulation,nitrogen consumption,cell yield coefficient to nitrogen and lipid yield coefficient to nitrogen under the conditions of nitrogen cultivation and nitrogen starvation cultivation were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the maximum biomass was obtained at 1. 6 g/L NaNO3 and the maximum lipid accumulation was obtained at 0. 8 g/L NaNO3;the optimal nitrogen source of Chlorella type and its concentration was 0. 8 g/L NaNO3 . Under the condition of nitrogen starvation cultivation,cultivate chlorella in stages of oil content was 13 . 49%,increased 15% if compared with that of the nitrogen training;the highest biomass was 626. 3 mg/L under single step training,about 1. 9 times higher than that of the nitrogen starvation cultivation. These results collectively suggested that nitrogen sources could obviously affect the biomass,oil content,cell yield coefficient to nitrogen and lipid yield coefficient to nitrogen. Therefore,nitrogen source could be modified to regulate physiological metabolism during the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.%实验室条件下,考察了在发酵过程中不同氮源对小球藻的生物量和油脂积累的影响,确定了小球藻的最佳氮源;并对比分析了含氮培养与缺氮培养的生物量、油脂含量、氮消耗量、生物量氮消耗比率和油脂氮消耗比率的不同。结果表明:小球藻在1.6 g/L NaNO3时获得最大生物量,为562.2 mg/L,在0.8 g/L NaNO3时获得最大相对油脂含量为12.01%;以油脂含量为考察指标时,培养小球藻的最佳氮源为0.8 g/L NaNO3;缺氮培养时,最大油脂含量为13.49%,比含氮培养高约15%;含氮培养时,最高生物量为626.3 mg/L,比缺氮培养高约1.9倍。氮源对生物量,相对油脂

  3. Oxygen-18 exchange as a measure of accessibility of CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ to carbonic anhydrase in Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 263)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, C.K.; Acevedo-Duncan, M.; Wynns, G.C.; Silverman, D.N.

    1986-04-01

    The exchange of /sup 18/O between CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O in stirred suspensions of Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 263) was measured using a membrane inlet to a mass spectrometer. The depletion of /sup 18/O from CO/sub 2/ in the fluid outside the cells provides a method to study CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ kinetics in suspensions of algae that contain carbonic anhydrase since /sup 18/O loss to H/sub 2/O is catalyzed inside the cells but not in the external fluid. Low-CO/sub 2/ cells of Chlorella vulgaris (grown with air) were added to a solution containing /sup 18/O enriched CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/ with 2 to 15 millimolar total inorganic carbon. The observed depletion of /sup 18/O from CO/sub 2/ was biphasic and the resulting /sup 18/O content of CO/sub 2/ was much less than the /sup 18/O content of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ in the external solution. Analysis of the slopes showed that the Fick's law rate constant for entry of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ into the cell was experimentally indistinguishable from zero (bicarbonate impermeable) with an upper limit of 3 x 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/ due to experimental errors. The Fick's law rate constant for entry of CO/sub 2/ to the sites of intracellular carbonic anhydrase was large, 0.013 per second, but not as great as calculated for no membrane barrier to CO/sub 2/ flux (6 per second). The experimental value may be explained by a nonhomogeneous distribution of carbonic anhydrase in the cell (such as membrane-bound enzyme) or by a membrane barrier to CO/sub 2/ entry into the cell or both. The CO/sub 2/ hydration activity inside the cells was 160 times the uncatalyzed CO/sub 2/ hydration rate.

  4. TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER FROM AMINO ACID FACTORY BY CHLORELLA VULGARIS C9-JN2010%利用普通小球藻Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010处理氨基酸工业废水的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇佶; 李昌灵; 徐国华; 王武; 杨海麟

    2012-01-01

    This research was to treat amino acid wastewater by chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010 and to achieve the use of waste water harmless. Therefore, feasibility of microalgae culture of chlorella vulgaris was studied the in bubbled column photo-bioreactor with different content amino acid wastewater medium, which the photo-bioreactor was illuminated at 4 000 lux (Light-dark cycle is l6h:8h) and air flow was 0.lvvm. The algae inoculums were cultivated at (25±1)℃ and pH(6.5±0.5). Results were as follows: different content amino acid wastewaters had significant effects on chlorella vulgaris, at optimum 40% wastewater medium, which its biomass yield, special growth rate and production intensity were 0.731 g/L, 0.565 d-1 and 0.243 g/ (L.d) respectively; there were hardly total nitrogen and phosphorus residues in culture medium after three or four days cultunng, which removal of total nitrogen, phosphorus and COD were 92.0%, 98.0% and 80.0% and their removal intensities were 30.7,3.28 and 133.3 mg/(L.d) respectively. Therefore, nutrition of N, P and COD form amino acid wastewater was thoroughly removed to treat wastewater successfully.%用普通小球藻Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010处理氨基酸工业废水,实现废水无害化利用.在微型鼓泡式光反应器中,(25±1)℃,pH(6.5±0.5),0.1 vvm空气流速,4 000 lux,16h∶8h光暗比条件下,分别考察小球藻在体积分数为20%、40%、60%、80%及100%的氨基酸废水中培养生物量变化及TN、TP、COD的去除率.结果表明,体积分数40%氨基酸废水处理效果最好,停留时间3~4 d,藻细胞干重、比生长速率和最大生产强度分别为0.731g/L、0.565 d-1、0.243g /(L·d);废水中TN、TP及COD的去除率分别为92.0%、98.0%及80.0%,对应去除强度分别为30.7、3.28、133.3mg/(L·d).利用小球藻可以较彻底的去除氨基酸废水中氮、磷及COD等营养,达到污水处理效果.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of the toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Selenastrum capricornutum, Chlorella vulgaris, Lemna gibba, Daphnia magna, and Daphnia pulicaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, T M; Sibley, P K; Mabury, S A; Muir, D G C; Solomon, K R

    2003-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an anthropogenic compound found in trace amounts in many environmental compartments far from areas of production. This, along with the highly persistent nature of PFOS, presents a concern for possible effects in aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of PFOS in representative freshwater organisms. Toxicity testing using standard laboratory protocols was performed on the green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Chlorella vulgaris, the floating macrophyte Lemna gibba, and the invertebrates Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulicaria. No observable effect concentration (NOEC) values were generated from the most sensitive endpoints for all organisms. Autotroph inhibition of growth NOEC values were 5.3, 8.2, and 6.6 mg/L for S. capricornutum, C. vulgaris, and L. gibba, respectively. The 48-h immobility NOEC values for D. magna and D. pulicaria were 0.8 and 13.6 mg/L, respectively. In comparison to immobility, the 21-day lethality NOEC for D. magna was 5.3 mg/L. Based on effect (immobility) values, the most sensitive of all test organisms was D. magna. The most sensitive organism based on 50% inhibition of growth (IC(50)) was L. gibba, with an IC(50) value of 31.1 mg/L determined from wet weight. This is 4.3 times less than the LC(50) for D. pulicaria, which was 134 mg/L. Significant adverse effects (p 134 mg/L. The results indicate that under laboratory conditions PFOS is acutely toxic to freshwater organisms at concentrations at or near 100 mg/L. Based on known environmental concentrations of PFOS, which occur in the low ng/L to low microg/L range, there is no apparent risk to freshwater systems. However, further work is required to investigate long-term effects in these and other freshwater organisms.

  6. Flow cytometry pulse width data enables rapid and sensitive estimation of biomass dry weight in the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Chioccioli

    Full Text Available Dry weight biomass is an important parameter in algaculture. Direct measurement requires weighing milligram quantities of dried biomass, which is problematic for small volume systems containing few cells, such as laboratory studies and high throughput assays in microwell plates. In these cases indirect methods must be used, inducing measurement artefacts which vary in severity with the cell type and conditions employed. Here, we utilise flow cytometry pulse width data for the estimation of cell density and biomass, using Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as model algae and compare it to optical density methods. Measurement of cell concentration by flow cytometry was shown to be more sensitive than optical density at 750 nm (OD750 for monitoring culture growth. However, neither cell concentration nor optical density correlates well to biomass when growth conditions vary. Compared to the growth of C. vulgaris in TAP (tris-acetate-phosphate medium, cells grown in TAP + glucose displayed a slowed cell division rate and a 2-fold increased dry biomass accumulation compared to growth without glucose. This was accompanied by increased cellular volume. Laser scattering characteristics during flow cytometry were used to estimate cell diameters and it was shown that an empirical but nonlinear relationship could be shown between flow cytometric pulse width and dry weight biomass per cell. This relationship could be linearised by the use of hypertonic conditions (1 M NaCl to dehydrate the cells, as shown by density gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometry for biomass estimation is easy to perform, sensitive and offers more comprehensive information than optical density measurements. In addition, periodic flow cytometry measurements can be used to calibrate OD750 measurements for both convenience and accuracy. This approach is particularly useful for small samples and where cellular characteristics, especially cell size, are expected to vary

  7. Effect of Cu and Ni on Growth,Mineral Uptake,Photosynthesis and Enzyme Activities of Chlorella vulgaris at different pH Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.K.RAI; NirupamaMALLICK; 等

    1994-01-01

    A pH dependent reduction in growth,pigment,ATP content,O2 evolution,carbon fixation,photosynthetic electron transport system,nutrient uptake(No3- and NH4+) nitrate reductase,and ATPase activities and increase in K+-efflux of Chlorella vulgaris was noticed following supplementation of Cu and Ni to the culture medium.PSⅡ was found to be more sensitive to both pH and metals than PS I.Though.nitrate reductase(NR)was more sensitive to both pH and metals,the ATP ase was however,more sensitive to metals but less sensitive to acidic pH.Acid pH was found to inhibit the nutrinent(NO3-and NH4+) uptake and nitrate reductase in a non-competitive manner.The inhibition produced by the test metals alone was of non-competitive type for NO3- uptake,nitrate reductase and ATPase and competitive for NH4+ uptake.Acidity not only inhibited the metabolic variables directly but also through facilitated uptake of metals and increased membrane permeability.A very low sensitivity of ATPase to acidic pH seems to be responsible for the survival of algae in acid environment.

  8. Mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production from industrial wastes and its use as biodiesel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Suwannarat, Warangkana; Niyomdecha, Rujira

    2011-07-01

    A mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was performed to enhance lipid production from industrial wastes. These included effluent from seafood processing plant and molasses from sugar cane plant. In the mixed culture, the yeast grew faster and the lipid production was higher than that in the pure cultures. This could be because microalga acted as an oxygen generator for yeast, while yeast provided CO(2) to microalga and both carried out the production of lipids. The optimal conditions for lipid production by the mixed culture were as follows: ratio of yeast to microalga at 1:1; initial pH at 5.0; molasses concentration at 1%; shaking speed at 200 rpm; and light intensity at 5.0 klux under 16:8 hours light and dark cycles. Under these conditions, the highest biomass of 4.63±0.15 g/L and lipid production of 2.88±0.16 g/L were obtained after five days of cultivation. In addition, the plant oil-like fatty acid composition of yeast and microalgal lipids suggested their high potential for use as biodiesel feedstock. PMID:21255692

  9. Effect of light intensity on the degree of ammonia toxicity on PSII activity of Arthrospira platensis and Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-09-01

    Herein the effect of increasing light intensity on the degree of ammonia toxicity and its impact on the photosynthetic performance of Arthrospira and Chlorella was investigated using Chl fluorescence as a technique to characterize their photosystem II (PSII) activity. The results revealed that the increase of light intensity amplifies the ammonia toxicity on PSII. Chl fluorescence transients shown that at a given free ammonia (FA) concentration (100mg-N/L), the photochemistry potential decreased by increasing light intensity. The inhibition of the PSII was not reversible either by re-incubating the cells under dark or under decreased FA concentration. Moreover, the decrease of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of fluorescence suggest that ammonia toxicity decreases the open available PSII centers, as well the inability of PSII to transfer the generated electrons beyond QA. The collapse of NPQ suggests that ammonia toxicity inhibits the photoprotection mechanism(s) and hence renders PSII more sensitive to photoinhibition. PMID:27262720

  10. Nitrous oxide (N2O) production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guieysse, B.; Plouviez, M.; Coilhac, M.; Cazali, L.

    2013-06-01

    Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O) is generated from axenic C. vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favoring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR) activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO) acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO), the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  11. Nitrous oxide (N2O production in axenic Chlorella vulgaris cultures: evidence, putative pathways, and potential environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guieysse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using antibiotic assays and genomic analysis, this study demonstrates nitrous oxide (N2O is generated from axenic C. vulgaris cultures. In batch assays, this production is magnified under conditions favoring intracellular nitrite accumulation, but repressed when nitrate reductase (NR activity is inhibited. These observations suggest N2O formation in C. vulgaris might proceed via NR-mediated nitrite reduction into nitric oxide (NO acting as N2O precursor via a pathway similar to N2O formation in bacterial denitrifiers, although NO reduction to N2O under oxia remains unproven in plant cells. Alternatively, NR may reduce nitrite to nitroxyl (HNO, the latter being known to dimerize to N2O under oxia. Regardless of the precursor considered, an NR-mediated nitrite reduction pathway provides a unifying explanation for correlations reported between N2O emissions from algae-based ecosystems and NR activity, nitrate concentration, nitrite concentration, and photosynthesis repression. Moreover, these results indicate microalgae-mediated N2O formation might significantly contribute to N2O emissions in algae-based ecosystems. These findings have profound implications for the life cycle analysis of algae biotechnologies and our understanding of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle.

  12. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat [Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)]. E-mail: krsuneer@kmitl.ac.th; Wongrat, Ladda [Faculty of Fishery, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2006-06-10

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l{sup -1}, referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l{sup -1} Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 {mu}g l{sup -1}, lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 {mu}g l{sup -1}). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 194 {+-} 1.80 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 {+-} 20.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 {+-} 2.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 {+-} 3.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 {+-} 0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and

  13. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l-1, referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l-1 Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 μg l-1, lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 μg l-1). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 194 ± 1.80 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 ± 20.06 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 ± 2.23 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 ± 3.23 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 ± 0.00 μg g-1 (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 ± 0.02 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 ± 0.06 μg g-1 (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and experimental group 2 (10.00 g). The results showed that the measurement of Cd concentration in water does not necessarily give

  14. UV Mutagenesis and Screening for Ammonium Tolerant Strains of Chlorella vulgaris%小球藻(Chlorellavulgaris)抗铵品系的紫外诱变选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓菲; 丰圣伟; 宋新伟; 徐涤

    2016-01-01

    【目的】获得耐受高铵浓度的优良养殖小球藻(Chlorellavulgaris )品系,可以有效防止其在养殖过程中被轮虫,纤毛虫等污染生物吞食。【方法】首先对小球藻进行紫外线诱变,然后用高浓度 NH4 HCO3作为筛选压力对其进行筛选。【结果】筛选到具有生长优势的小球藻突变株 B4和 C6,培养12 d,在 NH4 HCO3浓度为800 mg/L、1000 mg/L、1200 mg/L条件下,B4和C6的生物量比出发藻株分别提高41.18%和9.54%,32.64%和29.41%,37.74%和22.85%;对比出发藻株,B4和C6的最大光能转化效率有显著提高。【结论】突变株 B4和C6在高铵培养条件下更能显示生长优势,且它们的生长优势可能来自光合效率的提高。%Objective]Breeding the new strains of Chlorella vulgaris that have a tolerance to high concentration of ammonium can efficiently avoid being eaten by the contamination animals such as rotifer,ciliate and so on during cultivation.[Methods]The original strain of Chlorella vulgaris was first mutated by exposing to UV light and then was screened by the high concen-tration of ammonium in media.[Results]Two mutants,B4 and C6,were acquired with better growth rate than the original one.The biomass of strains B4 and C6 after being cultivated for 12 d increased 41.18% and 9.54%,32.64% and 29.41%,37.74% and 22.85%,respectively, under different ammonium concentration,which was 800 mg/L,1 000 mg/L,and 1 200 mg/L. The Fv/Fm results also proved a significant improvement on their maximum light conversion efficiency.[Conclusion]The mutants B4 and C6 showed growing advantages under higher am-monium concentration,which may be gained from the enhancement of photosynthesis efficien-cy.

  15. Effect of Mercury and Cadmium on the Growth of Chlorella vulgaris%重金属汞和镉对普通小球藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿红; 刘剑锋; 王诺

    2014-01-01

    以普通小球藻( Chlorella vulgaris)为研究材料,研究了不同浓度的Hg2+和Cd2+对其生长的影响.结果表明:低浓度(0~0.50 mg/L)的Hg2+和Cd2+由于毒性兴奋效应能刺激普通小球藻细胞密度的增长,促进叶绿素含量的增加和蛋白质的合成;当Hg2+和Cd2+浓度进一步增加,则抑制普通小球藻的生长;当Hg2+和Cd2+的浓度分别为2 mg/L时,无蛋白积累.%The effect of the concentration of Hg 2+and Cd2+on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris was studied.The results showed that low concentrations of Hg 2+and Cd2+(0 ~0.50 mg/L) could stimulate the increase of cell density , increase chlorophyll and protein content because of the hormesis effect , while the growth of Chlorella vulgaris was inhibited by high concentrations of Hg2+ and Cd2+.When the concentration of Hg2+ and Cd2+ reached 2 mg/L, there was no protein accumulation in the algae cells .

  16. Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes Kavala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid disorders may affect all of the organ systems of the body and they are also highly associated with a wide variety of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV and to determine the association between thyroid disorders and clinical involvement and systemic corticosteroid treatment in patients with PV. Methods. The study consisted of eighty patients with PV and eighty healthy individuals. Thyroid functions (fT3, fT4, and TSH and thyroid autoimmunity (anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg antibodies were investigated in both groups. Primary thyroid disease (PTD was diagnosed with one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i positive antithyroid antibodies, (ii primary thyroid function abnormalities. Results. Significant changes in the serum thyroid profile were found in 16% (13/80 of the PV group and 5% (4/80 of the control group. Positive titers of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-Tg were observed in 7 patients (9% with PV and one in the control group (1,2%. Hashimoto thyroiditis was diagnosed in 9% of PV patients and it was found to be more prevalent in the mucosal form of PV. PTD was found in 13 of (%16 PV patients which was significantly high compared to controls. PTD was not found to be associated with systemic corticosteroid use. Free T3 levels were significantly lower in PV group compared to the control group and free T4 levels were significantly higher in PV group compared to the controls. Conclusions. PV may exist together with autoimmune thyroid diseases especially Hashimoto thyroiditis and primer thyroid diseases. Laboratory work-up for thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies should be performed to determine underlying thyroid diseases in patients with PV.

  17. Biosorption of U(VI) by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris in dependence of pH value and cell activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, M., E-mail: M.Vogel@fzd.de; Guenther, A.; Rossberg, A.; Li, B.; Bernhard, G.; Raff, J.

    2010-12-15

    Biosorption of uranium(VI) by the green alga Chlorella vulgaris was studied at varying uranium concentrations from 5 {mu}M to 1 mM, and in the environmentally relevant pH range of 4.4 to 7.0. Living cells bind in a 0.1 mM uranium solution at pH 4.4 within 5 min 14.3 {+-} 5.5 mg U/g dry biomass and dead cells 28.3 {+-} 0.6 mg U/g dry biomass which corresponds to 45% and 90% of total uranium in solution, respectively. During 96 h of incubation with uranium initially living cells died off and with 26.6 {+-} 2.1 mg U/g dry biomass bound similar amounts of uranium compared to dead cells, binding 27.0 {+-} 0.7 mg U/g dry biomass. In both cases, these amounts correspond to around 85% of the initially applied uranium. Interestingly, at a lower and more environmentally relevant uranium concentration of 5 {mu}M, living cells firstly bind with 1.3 {+-} 0.2 mg U/g dry biomass to 1.4 {+-} 0.1 mg U/g dry biomass almost all uranium within the first 5 min of incubation. But then algal cells again mobilize up to 80% of the bound uranium during ongoing incubation in the time from 48 h to 96 h. The release of metabolism related substances is suggested to cause this mobilization of uranium. As potential leachates for algal-bound uranium oxalate, citrate and ATP were tested and found to be able to mobilize more than 50% of the algal-bound uranium within 24 h. Differences in complexation of uranium by active and inactive algae cells were investigated with a combination of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Obtained results demonstrated an involvement of carboxylic and organic/inorganic phosphate groups in the uranium complexation with varying contributions dependent on cell status, uranium concentration and pH.

  18. 三种小球藻生物柴油品质指标评价%Evaluation of quality items for biodiesel made from three kinds of Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅帅; 赵凤敏; 曹有福; 刘威; 苏丹; 丁进锋; 李树君

    2013-01-01

      为了评价当前具有开发潜能的产油小球藻生产的生物柴油品质指标是否合格,该文对三种小球藻生物柴油品质指标进行评价。该文通过含油率及FAME(脂肪酸甲酯)组成分析,利用前人已建立的FAME碳链结构与4项重要的生物柴油品质指标运动黏度、碘值、十六烷值和冷滤点间的数学模型,并参照美国、欧盟、德国和中国4个生物柴油标准,对3种小球藻F-5,F-1067,F-31油脂制取生物柴油的4项品质指标进行评价。结果表明:F-5,F-1067,F-31含油率分别为15.30%,13.13%,11.12%。F-5生物柴油运动黏度为8.3,满足美国和中国标准要求,不满足欧盟和德国标准要求,F-5生物柴油碘值、十六烷值和冷滤点分别为77,56,-3℃,均满足4个标准要求;F-1067生物柴油运动黏度和冷滤点分别为9.2和9℃,均不满足4个标准要求,F-1067生物柴油碘值和十六烷值分别为77和56,能满足各标准要求;F-31生物柴油运动黏度为11.8,不满足各标准要求,F-31生物柴油碘值和冷滤点分别为112和-9℃,能满足各国标准要求,F-31生物柴油十六烷值为47,能满足美国标准要求,但不满足其余3个标准要求。因此F-5的含油率最高,且其生物柴油在运动黏度、碘值、十六烷值和冷滤点综合表现为最佳,在3种产油小球藻中最适合生产生物柴油,为合理利用生物柴油小球藻藻种提供理论依据。%In order to evaluate the quality items of microalgae biodiesel which has the potential to be exploited, this paper evaluated three kinds of Chlorella vulgaris biodiesel, providing a theoretical foundation for choosing an appropriate biodiesel Chlorella vulgaris species to produce biodiesel. Compared to petro-diesel, biodiesel has many advantages: higher biodegradability, lower sulphur content, lower carbon dioxide emission, no aromatic hydrocarbon, and lower flash point which

  19. Evaluation of quality items for biodiesel made from three kinds of Chlorella vulgaris%三种小球藻生物柴油品质指标评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅帅; 赵凤敏; 曹有福; 刘威; 苏丹; 丁进锋; 李树君

    2013-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quality items of microalgae biodiesel which has the potential to be exploited, this paper evaluated three kinds of Chlorella vulgaris biodiesel, providing a theoretical foundation for choosing an appropriate biodiesel Chlorella vulgaris species to produce biodiesel. Compared to petro-diesel, biodiesel has many advantages: higher biodegradability, lower sulphur content, lower carbon dioxide emission, no aromatic hydrocarbon, and lower flash point which makes the usage, transportation, management, and storage much safer. As a source of raw material for biodiesel production, oil productive Chlorella vulgaris commands high attention because of many strengths such as taking up less cultivated area, high growth rate, high oil-production efficiency, and renewability. The direct determination of biodiesel quality items is time wasting and costly, and for not yet industrialized microalgae cultivation, it is hard to acquire sufficient quantities of microalgae biodiesel. Through precursors’ mathematical model between biodiesel FAME(fatty acid methyl ester) carton chain structure and Vis(viscosity), IV(iodine value), CN(cetane number), CFPP(cold filter plugging point), compared to the biodiesel standards of America、EU、Germany and China of Vis, IV, CN, CFPP, the Chlorella vulgaris biodiesel quality items can be indirectly forecasted. This paper through analysis of the oil content and the constituting of FAME which is made from oils in three kinds of oil productive Chlorella vulgaris cells, makes use of the established mathematical model between FAME carbon chain structure and biodiesel quality items, by reference to biodiesel standards of America、EU、Germany and China, and assesses the biodiesel quality items concluding Vis, IV, CN and CFPP of Chlorella vulgaris F-5,F-1067,F-31 biodiesel. The results show that:the oil contents of Chlorella vulgaris F-5,F-1067,F-31 are 15.30%,13.13%,and 11.12%. The Vis of F-5 biodiesel is 8.3, which can meet the

  20. Effect of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris concentration and inoculation density on the competition among three planktonic Brachionidae (Rotifera: Monogononta Efecto de la concentración de algas (Chlorella vulgaris y la densidad de inoculación sobre la competencia entre tres Brachionidae (Rotifera: Monogononta planctónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.S. Sarma

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Competitive outcomes among three rotifer species (Anuraeopsis fissa, Brachionus havanaensis and B. angularis were quantified with different inoculation densities of two competing species at a time (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and using different algal (Chlorella vulgaris densities (0.2 x 10(6, 0.4 x 10(6 and 0.8 x 10(6 cells ml-1. In control cultures, when each species was grown alone, the population growth of rotifers increased with increasing food availability in the medium, but in mixed cultures, decreased with increasing proportion of the competing species. At low food level, compared to B. havanaensis, B. angularis had stronger negative impact on A. fissa. However, with increasing algal density, both species of Brachionus had similar but reduced impact on A. fissa. Population growth of B. havanaensis was more adversely affected by A. fissa than B. angularis at low and intermediate concentrations. At high food level, the impact of either A. fissa or B. angularis on the growth of B. havanaensis was similar. When grown alone, for a given food density, A. fissa was more numerically (4 to 6 times abundant than the other two species. The rate of population increase (r of rotifers increased with increasing food levels. Depending on the rotifer species and the test conditions, the r varied from -0.001 to 0.34 d-1. Results showed that the competitive outcome in the tested rotifers depended on the initial inoculation density of the competing species, the offered food concentration as well as the interaction of these two factors.Se evaluaron los resultados de la competencia entre tres especies de rotíferos (Anuraeopsis fissa, Brachionus havanaensis y B. angularis usando dos especies a la vez con diferentes densidades de inóculo (0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% y diferentes niveles de alga (Chlorella vulgaris; 0.2 x 10(6, 0.4 x 10(6 y 0.8 x 10(6 células ml-1. En cultivos monoespecíficos, utilizados como control, el crecimiento poblacional de rotíferos aument

  1. CONSTRUCTION OF COSMID LIBRARIES OF THE ANTARCTIC AND TEMPERATE STRAINS OF CHLORELLA VULGARIS%小球藻南极株和温带株基因组cosmid 文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅丽; 徐旭东

    2011-01-01

    @@ 小球藻属(Chlorella)是一类单细胞绿藻, 广泛分布于各种水体和土壤表面.Huss, et al.根据分子系统关系分析将其分为四个种, 分别为Chlorella vulgaris (小球藻)、C.lobophora、C.sorokiniana 和C.kessleri [1].其中一些种类被研究人员作为模式生物来进行植物生理、生化(如光合作用)方面的研究 [2, 3].Hatano, et al.发现小球藻C-27藻细胞经3℃处理后, 再缓慢冻至-196℃仍可存活[4].因为这一特点, 小球藻被作为研究植物抗冻机理的模式材料.

  2. Measurement of lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris via flow cytometry and liquid-state ¹H NMR spectroscopy for development of an NMR-traceable flow cytometry protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Bono

    Full Text Available In this study, we cultured Chlorella vulgaris cells with a range of lipid contents, induced via nitrogen starvation, and characterized them via flow cytometry, with BODIPY 505/515 as a fluorescent lipid label, and liquid-state 1H NMR spectroscopy. In doing so, we demonstrate the utility of calibrating flow cytometric measurements of algal lipid content using triacylglyceride (TAG, also known as triacylglycerol or triglyceride content per cell as measured via quantitative 1H NMR. Ensemble-averaged fluorescence of BODIPY-labeled cells was highly correlated with average TAG content per cell measured by bulk NMR, with a linear regression yielding a linear fit with r2 = 0.9974. This correlation compares favorably to previous calibrations of flow cytometry protocols to lipid content measured via extraction, and calibration by NMR avoids the time and complexity that is generally required for lipid quantitation via extraction. Flow cytometry calibrated to a direct measurement of TAG content can be used to investigate the distribution of lipid contents for cells within a culture. Our flow cytometry measurements showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells subjected to nitrogen limitation exhibited higher mean lipid content but a wider distribution of lipid content that overlapped the relatively narrow distribution of lipid content for replete cells, suggesting that nitrogen limitation induces lipid accumulation in only a subset of cells. Calibration of flow cytometry protocols using direct in situ measurement of TAG content via NMR will facilitate rapid development of more precise flow cytometry protocols, enabling investigation of algal lipid accumulation for development of more productive algal biofuel feedstocks and cultivation protocols.

  3. Research on Basic Characteristics of a Microbial Fuel Cell with Chlorella vulgaris Biocathode%小球藻生物阴极型微生物燃料电池的基础特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴夏芫; 宋天顺; 支银芳; 周楚新; 俞俊杰; 朱隽瑶

    2012-01-01

    利用自行设计的阴极管状光生物反应器式微生物燃料电池(MFC)作为实验模型,考察了阴极室投加小球藻后不同光暗周期下电池的产电、阴极溶氧及阴极藻的生长情况.结果表明,阴极投加小球藻后,电池产电性能明显提高,光暗间歇组最大功率密度为24.4 mW/m2,持续光照组最大功率密度为27.5 mW/m2.阴极溶氧及电化学分析证实溶氧是影响电压变化的主要因素,持续光照组溶氧较稳定,但比光暗间歇组光照阶段溶氧水平低:MFC阴极室培养小球藻不会对其造成毒害,光暗间歇时小球藻生长较好.运行小球藻生物阴极型MFC采用光暗间歇培养较好,并可适当延长光照时间.%Using the modified microbial fuel cell (MFC) with a tubular photo-bioreactor for a cathode compartment as the experimental model, the electricity generation of MFC, catholyte dissolved oxygen (DO), and growth of Chlorella vulgaris in the cathode chamber were investigated under different light-dark cycles, when C. vulgaris was added in the chamber. The results showed the electricity generation of MFC with C. vulgaris biocathode was obviously enhanced, the maximum power density reached 27.5 mW/m2 in constant illumination group, and 24.4 mW/m2 in light-dark group. The analysis of DO and cyclic voltammetry curve proved that DO was the key factor affecting the electricity generation, and the DO value was more stable in constant illumination group, but lower than that in light-dark group in lighting phase. Moreover, no poison against the cultivation of C. vulgaris was found in the chamber. C. vulgaris grew well, especially in light-dark group. It is suggested that the MFC with C. vulgaris biocathode is better operated under light-dark cycle, and the period of cycle prolonged.

  4. 曝气间隔对普通小球藻生物质积累的影响%Effects of different aeration intervals on biomass accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 杨俊红; 康利改; 罗梦圆; 左鹏鹏; 巩启涛

    2014-01-01

    High-density cell culture could reduce the cost of large-scale cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel. Aeration is one of the important factors in high-density culture of microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris was cultured for 15 days in a novel concentric-tube photobioreactor with BG11 medium. The effect of different aeration intervals on cell density of Chlorella vulgaris,pH and dissolved oxygen changes of medium was studied. Air was passed into the concentric-tube photobioreactor at aeration flow rate 10L/min for 0.5h each aeration. The aeration manner of the novel concentric-tube photobioreactor could exclude dissolved oxygen timely. When biomass accumulation was stable,the pH of culture medium was substantially constant;the cell density was 7.22×106 cells/mL at aeration interval 0.5h. Compared to the cell concentration at aeration interval 1h , 1.5h , 2h , the cell concentrations at aeration interval 0.5h increased by 9.56%,41.02%,122.1%,respectively. Therefore, with the decrease of aeration interval time,concentration of Chlorella vulgaris increased.%细胞高密度培养有利于降低微藻规模化培养成本及其生物柴油制造的成本,曝气是影响微藻规模化高密度培养的重要因素之一。以普通小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris,FACHB-1227)为研究对象,采用BG11培养基,于新型套管式沿程曝气光生物反应系统中,以细胞密度为检测指标,实验研究了曝气间隔时间对藻液中细胞密度、藻液pH值、溶氧量变化的影响。控制每次曝气时气体流量为10L/min、持续时间为0.5h,培养周期为15天。结果表明,藻液中积累的溶解氧能够及时排除,进入生物质积累稳定期时,藻液的pH值基本恒定;微藻生长稳定期时(培养12天),曝气间隔0.5h时细胞密度为7.22×106个/mL,相比于1h、1.5h、2h分别提高了9.56%、41.02%和122.1%。可见,适当减少曝气间隔时间,可显著提高藻细胞密度。

  5. Assessing the effect of leachate of copper slag from the ISASMELT process on cell growth and proximate components in microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (Beijerinck)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harish, V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Suryavanshi, U.; Shanmuganathan, P.; Sumathy, A.

    vulgaris (Beijerinck), were assessed under laboratory conditions. An inhibitory effect of CSL on cell growth (14.3%) was well below the defined criteria of 50% using algal growth inhibition test. Cellular concentrations of the total protein (TP) in CSL...

  6. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly. PMID:27240237

  7. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly.

  8. Effect of pH on growth and lipid accumulation kinetics of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris grown heterotrophically under sulfur limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarika, Myrsini; Kornaros, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the pH range that can support the growth of C. vulgaris, and, more specifically, to identify the optimal pH for the microalga's growth, under heterotrophic conditions. Furthermore, the effect of pH on the accumulation of intracellular lipids was studied. A wide range of pH values was tested using the respective buffer solutions. The optimal pH for biomass growth and lipid accumulation under sulfur limitation was found to be 7.5, resulting in maximum specific growth rate of 0.541days(-1) and maximum total lipid content of 53.43%ggDW(-1). The fatty acid composition of C. vulgaris was found to be unrelated to pH, as the lipid content did not present significant variations in the pH values tested. The fatty acid profile was mainly composed of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) with the dominant one being oleic acid (C18:1). PMID:27544920

  9. 沼液培养的普通小球藻对CO2的去除%Reduction of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris Cultured in Biogas Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钦琪; 李环; 王翠; 韦萍

    2011-01-01

    The use of microalgae for CO2 fixation and wastewater treatment has been one of the most important research fields of microalgal utilization. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in nutritious effluent from methane zymolysis, and after domestication, C. Vulgaris grew well in different concentrations of biogas slurry. C. Vulgaris had excellent growth and tolerance to high concentrations of CO2, and the largest biomass productivity was obtained at the aeration of 1.5% CO2. Therefore, the CO2 reduction by C. Vulgaris in biogas slurry was investigated. The results showed that increasing the growth rate of C. Vulgaris and CO2 concentration could enhance the amount of CO2 reduction by C. Vulgaris, and reducing the aeration also improved the removal efficiency of CO2 The CO2 removal efficiency reached 30.61% when the cultures were aerated with 1.5% CO2 at a rate of 60 mL min-1. Furthermore, When the cultures were aerated with 10% CO2 at a rate of 100 mL min-1, the maximum reduction amount of CO2 was 279.7 mg L-1 h-1. A six series-wound photobioreactor was used to reduce CO2 in crude biogas by C. Vulgaris. The results revealed that the reduction amount of CO2 was similar in the single photobioreactor and in the six series-wound photobioreactor [(205.80 ± 13.20) mg L-1 h-1]. But the reduction rate in the latter was 60.32% ± 3.73%, about six times higher than that in the former. The above results indicated that C. Vulgaris had a remarkable removal effect on the CO2 in biogas. Fig 4, Tab 2, Ref 17%利用微藻同定CO2和处理污水已成为微藻应用的一个重要研究方向.利用营养丰富的沼气发酵废液培养小球藻,藻种经驯化后在不同浓度沼液中能良好生长.小球藻在高浓度的CO2中有较好的生长和较强的耐受能力,在l.5%CO2通气下生物量最高.在此基础上考察了沼液中小球藻对CO2的去除情况.结果表明,提高小球藻生长速率和CO2浓度可以增加小球藻对CO2的去除

  10. Selection of microalgae for high CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid accumulation from ten Chlorella strains using municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xia; Zhou, Jiti; Liu, Guangfei; Gui, Bing

    2016-08-01

    As significant differences in cellular physiology, metabolic potential and genetics occur among strains with morphological similarity, the screening of appropriate microalgae species for effective CO2 fixation and biodiesel production is extremely critical. In this study, ten strains of Chlorella were cultivated in municipal wastewater influent (MWI) and their tolerance for MWI, CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid productivity were assessed. The results showed that the biomass concentrations of four strains (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella 64.01, Chlorella regularis var. minima and Chlorella sp.) were significantly higher than other strains. When the cultivation systems were aerated with 10% CO2, Chlorella sp. showed the highest CO2 fixation efficiency (35.51%), while the highest lipid accumulation (58.48%) was observed with C. vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the cells of both Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris kept their normal morphologies after 15day batch culture. These findings indicated that Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris have fairly good tolerance for MWI, and moreover, Chlorella sp. was appropriate for CO2 fixation while C. vulgaris represented the highest potential for producing biodiesel.

  11. Selection of microalgae for high CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid accumulation from ten Chlorella strains using municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xia; Zhou, Jiti; Liu, Guangfei; Gui, Bing

    2016-08-01

    As significant differences in cellular physiology, metabolic potential and genetics occur among strains with morphological similarity, the screening of appropriate microalgae species for effective CO2 fixation and biodiesel production is extremely critical. In this study, ten strains of Chlorella were cultivated in municipal wastewater influent (MWI) and their tolerance for MWI, CO2 fixation efficiency and lipid productivity were assessed. The results showed that the biomass concentrations of four strains (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella 64.01, Chlorella regularis var. minima and Chlorella sp.) were significantly higher than other strains. When the cultivation systems were aerated with 10% CO2, Chlorella sp. showed the highest CO2 fixation efficiency (35.51%), while the highest lipid accumulation (58.48%) was observed with C. vulgaris. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the cells of both Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris kept their normal morphologies after 15day batch culture. These findings indicated that Chlorella sp. and C. vulgaris have fairly good tolerance for MWI, and moreover, Chlorella sp. was appropriate for CO2 fixation while C. vulgaris represented the highest potential for producing biodiesel. PMID:27521939

  12. 基于QSAR模型研究芳烃化合物对小球藻的抑制活性%Study on aromatic hydrocarbons inhibition activity to Chlorella vulgaris based on QSAR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠华; 杨胜龙; 邬旸; 于红霞; 王连生

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid industrial development and frequent ocourrence of oil spill accident, the health of marine ecosystems are affected by aromatic hydrocarbons, the unknown aromatic hydrocarbons toxicity of predicting ability based on the QSAR model is one of the task of security precaution. To establish the QSAR model between the physical and chemical properties of aromatic hydrocarbons and the inhibition activity of Chlorella vulgaris, the optimized geometries, based on the 96 hr-EC50 of 21 aromatic hydrocarbons with Chlorella vulgaris were carried out at the B3LYP/6-311G** level by density functional theory (DFT) calculation. With SPSS 12.0 for Windows, the structural parameters obtained from the optimized geometries were taken as theoretical descriptors to establish the predicting QSAR model of algal inhibition activity QSAR model. The correlation coefficient (R2) and a cross-validated (q2) of the best QSAR model are 0.925 and 0898, respectively, indicating the model has the better predicting ability and stronger stability. The model including two parameters-V, and qH+,V1 is the main parameter in affecting the algal inhibition activity.%芳烃化合物正随着工业的快速发展和溢油事故的频繁发生影响着海洋生态系统的健康,提高定量构效关系(QSAR)模型预测未知芳烃化合物毒性的能力是做好芳烃化合物安全防范措施的任务之一.为建立芳烃化合物物化性质与小球藻抑制活性间的QSAR模型,以实验获取的21种芳烃化合物对小球藻96 h的抑制活性数据为基础,采用密度泛函理论(DFT)中的B3LYP方法,在6-311G**基组上全优化计算21种芳烃化合物结构参数,运用SPSS 12.0 for Windows程序,将这些结构参数作为理论描述符,逐步回归得到芳烃化合物对藻类抑制活性的QSAR模型.该模型相关系数R2为0.925,交叉验证相关系数q2为0.898,说明所建模型具有良好的预测能力和较强的稳定性;所建模型包含2个参数(分子体

  13. 毒性有机物BPA与普通小球藻的相互影响特性研究%Research on Characteristic of Interrelationship Between Toxic Organic Compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善佳; 陈秀荣; 闫龙; 赵建国; 章斐; 江子建

    2014-01-01

    考察了不同浓度双酚A(BPA)对普通小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)生长特性的影响,以及普通小球藻生长过程对BPA的去除效能.研究表明,低浓度BPA(0~20 mg·L-1)对普通小球藻生长具有促进作用,而高浓度BPA(20~50 mg·L-1)对普通小球藻生长具有抑制作用,且抑制效应与BPA浓度呈正相关关系.低剂量BPA( <20 mg·L-1)对叶绿素含量并无明显的影响,高剂量BPA(>20 mg·L-1)造成叶绿素含量降低.在BPA初始浓度2~50 mg·L-1的范围内,普通小球藻对其都有一定的去除效能,单位普通小球藻对BPA去除速率与其初始浓度呈正相关关系.BPA投加量为50 mg·L-1时,BPA去除速率最大,且最大速率出现于延滞期与对数期之间.

  14. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced changes in oil content, fatty acid profiles and expression of four fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris at early stationary growth phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Malinna; Loh, Saw Hong; Chuah, Tse Seng; Aziz, Ahmad; Cha, Thye San

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae lipids and oils are potential candidates for renewable biodiesel. Many microalgae species accumulate a substantial amount of lipids and oils under environmental stresses. However, low growth rate under these adverse conditions account for the decrease in overall biomass productivity which directly influence the oil yield. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exogenously added auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) on the oil content, fatty acid compositions, and the expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Chlorella vulgaris (UMT-M1). Auxin has been shown to regulate growth and metabolite production of several microalgae. Results showed that oil accumulation was highest on days after treatment (DAT)-2 with enriched levels of palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, while the linoleic (C18:2) and α-linolenic (C18:3n3) acids levels were markedly reduced by IAA. The elevated levels of saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were consistent with high expression of the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KAS I) gene, while low expression of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD) gene was consistent with low production of C18:2. However, the increment of stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) gene expression upon IAA induction did not coincide with oleic acid (C18:1) production. The expression of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD) gene showed a positive correlation with the synthesis of PUFA and C18:3n3.

  15. Spectroscopic probe to contribution of physicochemical transformations in the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to Chlorella vulgaris: new insight into the variation of toxicity of ZnO NPs under aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Huang, Qing; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are one of the most abundantly applied nanomaterials in nanotechnology-based industries and they may cause unexpected environmental and health risks with their physicochemical transformations in the environment. Currently, there is still a lack of the in-depth understanding of the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to aquatic organisms, particularly demanding quantitative analysis of the physicochemical transformations to distinguish their contributions in the toxicity assessment. For this purpose, therefore, we initiated the study of the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs to the model aquatic microalga, i.e. Chlorella vulgaris, and with the aid of spectroscopic tools for characterization and quantification of the physicochemical transformations, we scrutinized the toxicity variations for ZnO NPs with different aging times. As a result, we found that the toxicity altered in an abnormal manner with the aging time, i.e. the toxicity of aged ZnO NPs for 30 days showed the higher toxicity to the green alga than the fresh ZnO NPs or the ZnO NPs aged for longer time (e.g. 120 and 210 days). Through spectroscopic tools such as XRD, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, we made both the qualitative and quantitative assessments of the physicochemical changes of the ZnO NPs, and confirmed that in the early stage, the toxicity mainly stemmed from the release of zinc ions, but with longer aging time, the neoformation of the nanoparticles played the critical role, leading to the overall reduced toxicity due to the less toxic hydrozincite and zinc hydroxide in the transformed compounds. PMID:27248459

  16. Effects of hydrophytes on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliqnus and Chlorella vulgaris%水生花卉对铜绿微囊藻、斜生栅藻和小球藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田如男; 孙欣欣; 魏勇; 王守攻

    2011-01-01

    选择黄菖蒲(Iris pseudacorus)、溪荪(I.sanguinea)、梭鱼草(Pontederia cordata)、白花水龙(Jussiaea repens)、水罂粟(Hydrocleys nymphoides)和大藻(Pistia stratiotes)6种具有较高观赏价值的水生花卉,通过将植物种植水与藻类共同培养的方式研究了不同种植时间的种植水对铜绿微囊藻(Microcystis aeruginosa)、斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliqnus)和小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)生长的影响.结果表明:6种水生花卉种植水对3种藻类的化感作用具有选择性.通过6d的处理,种植水对铜绿微囊藻生长的抑制率为31.22% ~ 96.53%,除白花水龙外,其余5种花卉的种植水对铜绿微囊藻生长的抑制率均超过70%,表现出很好的抑藻效果;种植水对斜生栅藻生长的抑制率为23.15%~77.25%;而种植水对小球藻有抑制也有促进,抑制率为-26.07% ~75.70%,大藻、梭鱼草和溪荪抑制小球藻的生长,黄菖蒲、白花水龙表现为低促高抑,水罂粟表现为促进作用.随着种植时间的延长,种植水对3种藻类的抑制作用增强.6种水生花卉种植水对铜绿微囊藻生长的抑制作用由大到小依次为水罂粟>黄菖蒲>梭鱼草>大藻>溪荪>白花水龙;对斜生栅藻生长的抑制作用由大到小依次为梭鱼草>溪荪>黄菖蒲>水罂粟>白花水龙>大藻;对小球藻生长的抑制作用由大到小依次为大藻>梭鱼草>溪荪>黄菖蒲、白花水龙>水罂粟.试验表明,6种水生花卉在控制城市景观水体中的藻类水华有一定的推广价值.%cordata, and /. Sanguined had stronger inhibiting effect on the growth of C. Vulgaris, but the cultured water of I. Pseudacorus and J. Repens promoted the C. Vulgaris growth at lower concentration while inhibited the C. Vulgaris growth at higher concentration. The cultured water of H. Nymphoides promoted the growth of C. Vulgaris. The inhibiting effect of the cultured water on the growth of the three

  17. 不同高压脉冲电场条件对小球藻破壁的影响研究%Effects of Different Conditions of Pulsed Electric Field on Electroporation Rate of Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周连宁; 刘晓东; 余麟; 洪钟; 郝文龙; 王波

    2016-01-01

    Response surface analysis ( Box-Behnken ) was carried out to investigate the effect of pulsed electric field treatment on electroporation rate of Chlorella vulgaris cells.Four factors, treatment time, electric field strength , pulsed-frequency and pulsed-width were considered .Based on ANOVA and quadratic regression of exper-imental data, a significantly correlated model (P0.05 ) .The highest electroporation rate , of which the predicted and experimental values were 72.51% and 71.97%±1.65%, corresponding condition in which treatment time was 68.96 min, electric field strength was 15 kV/cm, pulsed-frequency was 1 500 Hz, and pulsed-width was 6 μs. Making treatment time 60 min, pulsed-frequency 1 500 Hz, pulsed-width 6 μs, when electric field strength increa-ses up to 18.45 kV/cm, according the model , electroporation rate can reach 100%.It can provide theoretical guidance for further research .%采用响应面法( box-behnken )对影响小球藻破壁的4个因素(处理时间、脉冲场强、脉冲频率和脉冲宽度)进行了研究。通过对试验数据进行方差分析和多项式回归,建立了拟合度良好的模型(模型显著,失拟项不显著,R2=0.9803,R2adj =0.9573),发现处理时间和脉冲场强对小球藻破壁的影响达到了极显著(P<0.0001),其他两个因素影响不显著(P>0.05)。模型预测的最高破壁率和试验验证的值分别为72.51%和71.97%±1.65%,对应的条件为处理时间68.96 min、脉冲场强15 kV/cm、脉冲频率1500 Hz、脉冲宽度6μs。固定处理时间为60 min、脉冲频率为1500 Hz、脉冲宽度为6μs,求解破壁率为100%时的脉冲场强,为18.45 kV/cm,可作进一步研究参考。

  18. 季铵盐阳离子表面活性剂对普通小球藻和斜生栅藻的急性毒性%Acute Toxicity of Quaternary Ammonium Cationic Surfactants to Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻方琴; 葛飞; 朱门君; 梁志杰; 刘燕

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus, two green freshwater alga in environment, have been widely used to evaluate the impacts of xenobiotics duo to their sensitivity to contaminants. In this study, we investigated the acute toxicity of quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants(QACS) with different length of alkyl chain(CL=8~18) to C. vulgaris and S. obliquus. The results indicated that the 96 h-EC50 value of thirteen kinds of QACS on C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were 0.108~9.472 mg·L‐1 and 0.085~12.188 mg·L‐1, respectively. Furthermore, the acute toxicity of QACS with the same substituent group on the two species of algae gradually increased with the increasing of CL. However, the different substituent groups had little effect on the acute toxicity of QACS with the same CL to the two green algae. The relationship between acute toxicity[lg( I/EC50)] and octanol-water partition coefficients(lgKow), CL could be better fitted by parabola model than linear equation, and the fitting trends were same for the two green algae. The parabola equations for C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were lg( l/EC50)=-0.106 lgK2ow+0.746 lgKow,-0.830(R2=0.944), lg( 1/EC50)=-0.034 CL2+1.051 CL-7.725(R2=0.945) and lg( l/EC50=-0.l 19 lgK2ow +0.830 lgAow-0.812(R2=0.941), lg( l/EC50)=-0.039 CL2+1.218 CL-8.772(R2=0.945), respectively, which could provide references for the prediction of acute toxicity for similar compounds to freshwater algae.%以普通小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)和斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliquus)为受试生物,采用批量培养方法研究了13种季铵盐阳离子表面活性剂(QACS,烷基链长度CL=8~18)对两种淡水藻的急性毒性.结果表明,13种QACS对普通小球藻和斜生栅藻的96h-EC50分别在0.108~9.472 mg· L-1和0.085~12.188 mg·L-1之间;且随着烷基链长度CL的增加,取代基相同的QACS对两种淡水藻的急性毒性逐渐增大.抛物线模型较线性方程能更好地拟合QACS的急性毒性参数lg(1/EC50)与辛醇/

  19. Generic concept in Chlorella-related coccoid green algae (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W; Pröschold, T; Bock, C; Krienitz, L

    2010-05-01

    Using a combined set of sequences of SSU and ITS regions of nuclear-encoded ribosomal DNA, the concept of the experimental algal genus Chlorella was evaluated. Conventionally in the genus Chlorella, only coccoid, solitary algae with spherical morphology that do not possess any mucilaginous envelope were included. All Chlorella species reproduce asexually by autospores. However, phylogenetic analyses showed that within the clade of 'true'Chlorella species (Chlorella vulgaris, C. lobophora, and C. sorokiniana), taxa with a mucilaginous envelope and colonial lifeform have also evolved. These algae, formerly designated as Dictyosphaerium, are considered as members of the genus Chlorella. In close relationship to Chlorella, five different genera were supported by the phylogenetic analyses: Micractinium (spherical cells, colonial, with bristles), Didymogenes (ellipsoidal cells, two-celled coenobia, with or without two spines per cell), Actinastrum (ellipsoidal cells within star-shaped coenobia), Meyerella (spherical cells, solitary, without pyrenoids), and Hegewaldia (spherical cells, colonial, with or without bristles, oogamous propagation). Based on the secondary structures of SSU and ITS rDNA sequences, molecular signatures are provided for each genus of the Chlorella clade. PMID:20522192

  20. Retraction: Hazani A, Ibrahim M, Shehata A, El-Gaaly G, Daoud M, Fouad D, Rizwana H, Moubayed N. Ecotoxicity of Ag-nanoparticles on two microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta. Arch Biol Sci. 2013;65(4:1447-1457. DOI: 10.2298/ABS1304447H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a notice of retraction of the article: Ecotoxicity of Ag-nanoparticles on two microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta, published in the Archives of Biological Sciences in 2013, Vol. 65, Issue 4. The Editor-in-Chief has been informed that this paper is a duplicate of an earlier paper: Hazani A, Ibrahim M, Arif I, Shehata A, EL-Gaaly G, Daoud M, Fouad D, Rizwana H, Moubayed N. Ecotoxicity of Ag-Nanoparticles to Microalgae. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2013;7(Spl. Ed.: 233-241. This claim is correct and the entire paper is a verbatim copy of the earlier one. After confirmation of this fact, the Editor-in-Chief of the Archives of Biological Sciences has decided to retract the paper immediately. We apologize to the readers of the journal that it took so many years to notice this error and to retract the paper. We request readers of the journal to directly get in touch with the editorial office and the editors of the journal for similar cases in the future, so that they can be handled promptly. Link to the retracted article 10.2298/ABS1304447H

  1. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein. PMID:27386352

  2. Widespread green algae Chlorella and Stichococcus exhibit polar-temperate and tropical-temperate biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodač, Ladislav; Hallmann, Christine; Spitzer, Karolin; Elster, Josef; Faßhauer, Fabian; Brinkmann, Nicole; Lepka, Daniela; Diwan, Vaibhav; Friedl, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Chlorella and Stichococcus are morphologically simple airborne microalgae, omnipresent in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. The minute cell size and resistance against environmental stress facilitate their long-distance dispersal. However, the actual distribution of Chlorella- and Stichococcus-like species has so far been inferred only from ambiguous morphology-based evidence. Here we contribute a phylogenetic analysis of an expanded SSU and ITS2 rDNA sequence dataset representing Chlorella- and Stichococcus-like species from terrestrial habitats of polar, temperate and tropical regions. We aim to uncover biogeographical patterns at low taxonomic levels. We found that psychrotolerant strains of Chlorella and Stichococcus are closely related with strains originating from the temperate zone. Species closely related to Chlorella vulgaris and Muriella terrestris, and recovered from extreme terrestrial environments of polar regions and hot deserts, are particularly widespread. Stichococcus strains from the temperate zone, with their closest relatives in the tropics, differ from strains with the closest relatives being from the polar regions. Our data suggest that terrestrial Chlorella and Stichococcus might be capable of intercontinental dispersal; however, their actual distributions exhibit biogeographical patterns. PMID:27279416

  3. Вплив звукового опромінення на метаболізм клітин Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Natalia; Levtun, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Розглянуто можливість збільшення біомаси Chlorella vulgaris та вмісту в клітинах ліпідної фракції за допомогою звукового опромінення. Показано, що найбільший приріст біомаси і ліпідної фракції спостерігається при опроміненні ультразвуком частотою 20 кГц. Опромінення нижчими частотами призводить до зниження приросту біомаси, але підвищує питомий вміст ліпідної фракції....

  4. Peculiarities of the submicroscopic organization of chlorella cells cultivated on a solid medium in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytnik, K. M.; Popova, A. F.; Nechitailo, G. S.; Mashinsky, A. L.

    The submicroscopic organization of Chlorella vulgaris cells (strain LARG-1) growing over 30 days on a solid agarized medium aboard the orbital station ``Mir'' was studied. A number of differences in the ultrastructure of cells of the experimental population compared to the control has been revealed. Thus, changes in the membrane system of plastids, in particular, appearance of numerous vesicles of different diameter and outgrowths of the plastids and their contact with the plasmalemma as well as a considerable decrease of reserve polysaccharide number in the plastids. Moreover, an increase in the size of mitochondria, their cristae and lipid drops in cytoplasm, the formation of more complicated configuration folding of plasmalemma and appearance of small-granular material of mean electron density in the periplasmic space of Chlorella cells grown during space flight, are demonstrated. Comparative cytological analysis has revealed general regularities of rearrangements of the submicroscopic organization in Chlorella cells cultivated on both solid and semiliquid agarized nutrient media.

  5. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó; Kilár Ferenc; Felinger Attila; Pernyeszi Tímea

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was eval...

  6. Ichthyosis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Godoy-Gijon, E; Elias, P M

    2013-01-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and is characterized clinically by xerosis, scaling, keratosis pilaris, palmar and plantar hyperlinearity, and a strong association with atopic disorders. According to the published studies presented...... in this review article, FLG mutations are observed in approximately 7·7% of Europeans and 3·0% of Asians, but appear to be infrequent in darker-skinned populations. This clinical review article provides an overview of ichthyosis vulgaris epidemiology, related disorders and pathomechanisms. Not only does...... ichthyosis vulgaris possess a wide clinical spectrum, recent studies suggest that carriers of FLG mutations may have a generally altered risk of developing common diseases, even beyond atopic disorders. Mechanistic studies have shown increased penetration of allergens and chemicals in filaggrin...

  7. Inhibition of lipase and inflammatory mediators by Chlorella lipid extracts for antiacne treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its treatment is challenging due to the multifactorial etiology and emergence of antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. This study was focused to reduce antibiotics usage and find an alternate therapeutic source for treating acne. Lipid extracts of six Chlorella species were tested for inhibition of lipase, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, cytokine production using P. acnes (Microbial Type Culture Collection 1951. Lipase inhibitory assay was determined by dimercaprol Tributyrate - 5, 5′- dithiobis 2-nitrobenzoic acid method and ROS production assay was performed using nitro-blue tetrazolium test. The anti-inflammatory activity of algal lipid extracts was determined by in vitro screening method based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of lipid extracts were determined by microdilution method, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Chlorella ellipsoidea has the highest lipase inhibitory activity with 61.73% inhibition, followed by Chlorella vulgaris (60.31% and Chlorella protothecoides (58.9%. Lipid extracts from C. protothecoides and C. ellipsoidea has significantly reduced the ROS production by 61.27% and 58.34% respectively. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α showed the inhibition ranging from 58.39% to 78.67%. C. vulgaris has exhibited the MICvalue of 10 μg/ml followed by C. ellipsoidea, C. protothecoides and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (20 μg/ml. FAME analysis detected 19 fatty acids of which 5 were saturated fatty acids, and 14 were unsaturated fatty acids ranging from C14 to C24. The results suggest that lipid extracts of Chlorella species has significant inhibitory activity on P. acnes by inhibiting lipase activity. Further, anti-inflammatory reaction caused

  8. Effect of maternal Chlorella supplementation on carotenoid concentration in breast milk at early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Junya; Noda, Kiyoshi; Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Shimomura, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Michiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Breast milk carotenoids provide neonates with a source of vitamin A and potentially, oxidative stress protection and other health benefits. Chlorella, which has high levels of carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene, is an effective dietary source of carotenoids for humans. In this study, the effect of maternal supplementation with Chlorella on carotenoid levels in breast milk at early lactation was investigated. Ten healthy, pregnant women received 6 g of Chlorella daily from gestational week 16-20 until the day of delivery (Chlorella group); ten others did not (control group). Among the carotenoids detected in breast milk, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations in the Chlorella group were 2.6-fold (p = 0.001), 2.7-fold (p = 0.001) and 1.7-fold (p = 0.049) higher, respectively, than those in the control group. Our study shows that Chlorella intake during pregnancy is effective in improving the carotenoid status of breast milk at early lactation.

  9. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. Patients and Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenien...

  10. COMPARISON OF THE ABILITY TO ABSORB METALLIC IONS IN WASTEWATER BY DIFFERENT STRAINS OF CHLORELLA%不同小球藻对工业废水中金属离子吸附能力比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴能表; 付启昌; 龙云; 阳义健; 朱利泉; 王小佳

    2005-01-01

    研究了5种小球藻(Chlorella phyrenoidosa,Chlorella vulgaris,Chlorella ellipsoidea,Chlorella sorokiniana,Chlorellasp.)对电镀厂污水中部分金属离子的吸附情况.结果表明:各种小球藻对测定的Zn2+,Cu2+,Ni2+,Cr3+等金属离子都有一定吸附能力,不同小球藻对同一离子的吸附能力存在差异,同一小球藻对不同离子的吸附能力有不同.综合看来,Chlorellaphyrenoidosa和Chlorella vulgaris对上述离子都有较好的吸收.

  11. Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin a secretion increases after 4-weeks ingestion of chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement in humans: a randomized cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iemitsu Motoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorella, a unicellular green alga that grows in fresh water, contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. Some studies have reported favorable immune function-related effects on biological secretions such as blood and breast milk in humans who have ingested a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement. However, the effects of chlorella-derived supplement on mucosal immune functions remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chlorella ingestion increases the salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA secretion in humans using a blind, randomized, crossover study design. Methods Fifteen men took 30 placebo and 30 chlorella tablets per day for 4 weeks separated by a 12-week washout period. Before and after each trial, saliva samples were collected from a sterile cotton ball that was chewed after overnight fasting. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured using ELISA. Results Compliance rates for placebo and chlorella ingestions were 97.0 ± 1.0% and 95.3 ± 1.6%, respectively. No difference was observed in salivary SIgA concentrations before and after placebo ingestion (P = 0.38. However, salivary SIgA concentrations were significantly elevated after chlorella ingestion compared to baseline (P P = 0.36, it significantly increased after 4-week chlorella ingestion than before intake (P Conclusions These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans.

  12. Electroporation of Chlorella vulgaris to enhance biomethane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoma, Temesgen; Shackelford, Trevor

    2014-10-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of using electroporation (EP) as a pretreatment method for algal biomass used as feedstock for anaerobic digestion. The results showed that pretreating algal biomass with EP significantly improved the soluble COD (SCOD), increasing it to more than 830% at 28 kWh/m(3) treatment intensity (TI). Besides TI, culture conditions also affected the performance of the EP process. On the basis of SCOD, a sample pH of 7.0 and cell concentration of 13.2g/L were found to be optimal for the EP process. Despite a direct relationship between TI and ionic strength (IS), SCOD decreased with increasing IS. At 35 kWh/m(3) TI, bio-CH4 production increased by as high as 110%. It was also observed that lower TI levels resulted in high rates of gain per energy input compared to higher degrees of treatment. PMID:25066903

  13. Cultivation Of Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris For Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of biofuel from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels. Biofuels are also viable means of environmental and economic sustainability. Biofuels are divided into four generations, depending on the type of biomass used for biofuels production. At present, microalgae are presented as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate. They also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Cultivation conditions (temperature, pH, light, nutrient quantity and quality, salinity, aerating are the major factors that influence photosynthesis activity and behaviour of the microalgae growth rate. In this paper, we present an overview about the effect of cultivation conditions on microalgae growth.

  14. Cultivation Of Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) For Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Gerulová, Kristína

    2015-06-01

    Production of biofuel from renewable sources is considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to petroleum sourced fuels. Biofuels are also viable means of environmental and economic sustainability. Biofuels are divided into four generations, depending on the type of biomass used for biofuels production. At present, microalgae are presented as an ideal third generation biofuel feedstock because of their rapid growth rate. They also do not compete with food or feed crops, and can be produced on non-arable land. Cultivation conditions (temperature, pH, light, nutrient quantity and quality, salinity, aerating) are the major factors that influence photosynthesis activity and behaviour of the microalgae growth rate. In this paper, we present an overview about the effect of cultivation conditions on microalgae growth.

  15. Pheophorbide b ethyl ester from a chlorella vulgaris dietary supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seik Weng Ng

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C37H38N4O6, four five-membered nitrogen-bearing rings are nearly coplanar. Two N atoms in two these five-membered rings have attached H atoms, which contribute to the formation of intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonds [N...N = 2.713 (5–3.033 (6 Å].

  16. 4种不同培养基对小球藻Chlorella spp.生长和油脂累积的影响%Effects of Four Different Culture Medium on Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Chlorella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 费晓雯; 彭世清; 邓晓东

    2010-01-01

    在25℃,230 r/min,24 h全光照,光照强度50~110 μE/m2/s的培养条件下,用SE、BG11、HSM1、DS 4种培养基分别对3株小球藻Chlorella vugaris FACHB-31、Chlorella vulgaris Y-019、Chlorella pyrenoidosa Y-041进行培养.通过对生物量、生长速率及细胞内油脂含量的测定,比较不同培养基对小球藻生长与油脂累积的影响.结果表明.HSM1培养基更适合小球藻的快速培养,而DS培养基更有利于油脂的累积;本地分离藻种Chlorella vulgaris Y019更适合做为制备生物柴油的原料,在HSM1培养基中其生长速率为1.57,培养4 d细胞干重为0.48 g/L.在DS培养基中培养12d油脂累积为其它藻种的1.84~2.64倍.

  17. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense jointly immobilized with Chlorella vulgaris or C. sorokiniana in alginate beads on total carbohydrates and starch was studied under dark and heterotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic growth medium supplemented with either d-glucose or Na-acetate as carbon sources. In all treatments, enhanced total carbohydrates and starch content per culture and per cell was obtained after 24h; only jointly immobilized C. vulgaris growing on d-glucose significantly increased total carbohydrates and starch content after 96 h. Enhanced accumulation of carbohydrate and starch under jointly immobilized conditions was variable with time of sampling and substrate used. Similar results occurred when the microalgae was immobilized alone. In both microalgae growing on either carbon sources, the bacterium promoted accumulation of carbohydrates and starch; when the microalgae were immobilized alone, they used the carbon sources for cell multiplication. In jointly immobilized conditions with Chlorella spp., affinity to carbon source and volumetric productivity and yield were higher than when Chlorella spp. were immobilized alone; however, the growth rate was higher in microalgae immobilized alone. This study demonstrates that under heterotrophic conditions, A. brasilense promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates in two strains Chlorella spp. under certain time-substrate combinations, producing mainly starch. As such, this bacterium is a biological factor that can change the composition of compounds in microalgae in dark, heterotrophic conditions.

  18. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  19. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioboo, Carmen [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); O' Connor, Jose Enrique [Laboratorio de Citomica, Unidad Mixta de Investigacion CIPF-UVEG, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda. Autopista del Saler, 16, 46013 Valencia (Spain); Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, Angeles, E-mail: cid@udc.es [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  20. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  1. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew-Yen Wong

    Full Text Available Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237, temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248 and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001 environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm, PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm radiation (PAR + UV-A and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek and light harvesting efficiency (α were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k and repair (r rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  2. Interactive Effects of Temperature and UV Radiation on Photosynthesis of Chlorella Strains from Polar, Temperate and Tropical Environments: Differential Impacts on Damage and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chiew-Yen; Teoh, Ming-Li; Phang, Siew-Moi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Beardall, John

    2015-01-01

    Global warming and ozone depletion, and the resulting increase of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), have far-reaching impacts on biota, especially affecting the algae that form the basis of the food webs in aquatic ecosystems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interactive effects of temperature and UVR by comparing the photosynthetic responses of similar taxa of Chlorella from Antarctic (Chlorella UMACC 237), temperate (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 248) and tropical (Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 001) environments. The cultures were exposed to three different treatments: photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), PAR plus ultraviolet-A (320-400 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A) and PAR plus UV-A and ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) radiation (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) for one hour in incubators set at different temperatures. The Antarctic Chlorella was exposed to 4, 14 and 20°C. The temperate Chlorella was exposed to 11, 18 and 25°C while the tropical Chlorella was exposed to 24, 28 and 30°C. A pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer was used to assess the photosynthetic response of microalgae. Parameters such as the photoadaptive index (Ek) and light harvesting efficiency (α) were determined from rapid light curves. The damage (k) and repair (r) rates were calculated from the decrease in ΦPSIIeff over time during exposure response curves where cells were exposed to the various combinations of PAR and UVR, and fitting the data to the Kok model. The results showed that UV-A caused much lower inhibition than UV-B in photosynthesis in all Chlorella isolates. The three isolates of Chlorella from different regions showed different trends in their photosynthesis responses under the combined effects of UVR (PAR + UV-A + UV-B) and temperature. In accordance with the noted strain-specific characteristics, we can conclude that the repair (r) mechanisms at higher temperatures were not sufficient to overcome damage caused by UVR in the Antarctic Chlorella strain

  3. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: I. Autotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the microalgae-growth promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense on accumulation of total carbohydrates and starch in two species of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella sorokiniana), when the bacterium and each microalga were jointly immobilized in alginate beads was studied under autotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic medium. The interaction of the bacterium with the microalgae enhanced accumulation of total carbohydrate and starch. Cells of Chlorella accumulated the highest amounts of carbohydrate after incubation for 24h. Yet, this did not coincide with the highest affinity and volumetric productivity measured in these cultures. However, after incubation for 72 h, mainly in jointly immobilized treatments of both microalgae species, the cultures reached their highest total carbohydrate content (mainly as starch) and also the highest affinity and volumetric productivity. These results demonstrate the potential of A. brasilense to affect carbohydrates and starch accumulation in Chlorella spp. when both microorganisms are co-cultured, which can be an important tool for applications of microalgae.

  4. Chlorella: 125 years of the green survivalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienitz, Lothar; Huss, Volker A R; Bock, Christina

    2015-02-01

    Chlorella, the archetype of unicellular green algae, is a high-performance primary producer in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Under the simple spherical morphology of Chlorella, many other 'green balls' unfolded as independent phylogenetic lineages as a result of convergent evolution. By contrast, green algae with strikingly different phenotypes were unmasked as close relatives of Chlorella by modern molecular techniques. Here, we point to the increasing impact of these diverse protists on ecology, evolution, and biotechnology in the light of integrative taxonomy.

  5. Growth of Chlorella in vanillin enriched medium

    OpenAIRE

    Miazek, Krystian; Goffin, Dorothée; Richel, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    In this work the effect of different concentration of vanillin on the growth of Chlorella culture was evaluated. Two concentrations of vanillin: 60 mg/L and 300 mg/L in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) were tested and an inoculum from a two month Chlorella sp. (CCBA) culture was used. Vanillin at concentration of 60 mg/L showed to possess stimulating effect on Chlorella growth during 11 days of cultivation. Stimulation of Chlorella started on 3rd day of growth and was accompanied by 87% decrease of va...

  6. COPPER STRESS ON CELLULAR CONTENTS AND FATTY ACID PROFILES IN CHLORELLA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher photosynthetic efficiency and biomass production with rapid growth makes microalgae as potential candidates over other energy crops in many applications. Heavy metals influence the production of secondary metabolites and lipd content of microalgae in particular. A study was conducted using six Chlorella species under heavy metal exposure to evaluate the copper stress on biomass, cellular and lipid contents. Preliminary growth studies indicated the growth tolerance levels of Chlorella in the presence of copper at 4.0 mg L-1 concentration. The total chlorophyll, protein and lipid content of the isolates were 1.7-3.45%, 0.43-0.70 mg g-1 and 0.02-0.11 mg g-1 respectively. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the percent composition of fatty acids varied among the species studied and the major group of fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1 and C18:2. Highest percent of fatty acids were found in C. vulgaris, C. protothecoides and C. pyrenoidosa. Copper have an impact on Chlorella species where biomass content was directly proportional to the lipid productivity. The results reflects the fact that copper stress on Chlorella species as the evidence of lipid production in both qualitative and quantitative manner. In conclusion, Chlorella species can be used for the sustainable producion of renewable energy through copper stress and removal of copper from aqueous solutions.

  7. Acne (Acne Vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Acne (Acne Vulgaris) Information for adults A A A Whiteheads (closed comedones) are the earliest lesions of acne. Overview Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is ...

  8. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne. PMID:27189872

  9. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-09-17

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne.

  10. Starch and lipid accumulation in eight strains of six Chlorella species under comparatively high light intensity and aeration culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Shuhei; Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Hirata, Aiko; Zachleder, Vilém; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-01

    The microalgae family Chlorella species are known to accumulate starch and lipids. Although nitrogen or phosphorous deficiencies promote starch and lipids formation in many microalgae, these deficiencies also limit their growth and productivity. Therefore, the Chlorellaceae strains were attempted to increase starch and lipids productivity under high-light-intensity conditions (600-μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)). The 12:12-h light-dark (LD) cycle conditions elicited more stable growth than the continuous light (LL) conditions, whereas the starch and lipids yields increased in LL conditions. The amount of starch and lipids per cell increased in Chlorella viscosa and Chlorella vulgaris in sulfur-deficient medium, and long-chain fatty acids with 20 or more carbon atoms accumulated in cells grown in sulfur-deficient medium. Accumulation of starch and lipids was investigated in eight strains. The accumulation was strain-dependent, and varied according to the medium and light conditions. Five of the eight Chlorella strains exhibited similar accumulation patterns.

  11. Chlorella suppresses methylmercury transfer to the fetus in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Ando, Yotaro; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effects of chlorella on methylmercury (MeHg) transfer to the fetus during pregnancy, female C57BL/6N mice (aged 10 weeks) were housed for 7 to 8 weeks, from 4 weeks before mating to birth, with diets containing 0% or 10% chlorella powder (CP) and MeHg-containing drinking water (2 µg Hg/ml). The consumption volume of the MeHg-containing water was limited to 15 ml/mouse/week throughout the experiment. Distilled water and a basal diet (0% CP) was given to control mice. Except for the mating period, during the 5(th) week, mice were housed individually until parturition. Two neonates were randomly selected from each mother mouse within 24 hr after parturition for Hg analysis of the blood, brain, liver, and kidneys. Mother mice were sacrificed on the same day as neonates to obtain tissue samples for Hg analysis. The blood and brain Hg levels of both neonates and mothers in the CP diet group were significantly lower than those in the basal diet group. Although the hepatic and renal Hg levels were not significant in mothers between the two dietary groups, in neonates, the CP diet group showed significantly lower Hg levels in these tissues than the basal diet group. The results obtained here revealed that continuous CP intake suppressed MeHg transfer to the fetus, in addition to effective suppressing MeHg accumulation in brains of the mothers.

  12. [Studies on chemical compounds of Chlorella sorokiniana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Ping-huai; Wu, Jiao-na; Yang, Guo-fu; Suo, Yang-yang; Luo, Ning; Chen, Chen

    2015-04-01

    Chemical constituents of Chlorella sorokiniana were isolated and purified by repeated column chromatographies, over silicagel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Five compounds were obtained from the petroleum ether extract of Chlorella sorokiniana, and their structures were identified as (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 3beta-epidioxiergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol(1),(24S)-ergosta-7-en-3beta-ol(2), loliolide(3), stigmasta-7,22-dien-3beta,5alpha,6alpha-triol(4), and 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha,6alpha-epoxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(5). The main liposoluble fractions from Chlorella sorokiniana maiuly contain fatty acids, alkyl acids and olefine acids. Components 1-5 were isolated from the genus Chlorella for the first time.

  13. Biology and Industrial Applications of Chlorella: Advances and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella represents a group of eukaryotic green microalgae that has been receiving increasing scientific and commercial interest. It possesses high photosynthetic ability and is capable of growing robustly under mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions as well. Chlorella has long been considered as a source of protein and is now industrially produced for human food and animal feed. Chlorella is also rich in oil, an ideal feedstock for biofuels. The exploration of biofuel production by Chlorella is underway. Chlorella has the ability to fix carbon dioxide efficiently and to remove nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous, making it a good candidate for greenhouse gas biomitigation and wastewater bioremediation. In addition, Chlorella shows potential as an alternative expression host for recombinant protein production, though challenges remain to be addressed. Currently, omics analyses of certain Chlorella strains are being performed, which will help to unravel the biological implications of Chlorella and facilitate the future exploration of industrial applications.

  14. Combining and Comparing Coalescent, Distance and Character-Based Approaches for Barcoding Microalgaes: A Test with Chlorella-Like Species (Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmei Zou

    Full Text Available Several different barcoding methods of distinguishing species have been advanced, but which method is the best is still controversial. Chlorella is becoming particularly promising in the development of second-generation biofuels. However, the taxonomy of Chlorella-like organisms is easily confused. Here we report a comprehensive barcoding analysis of Chlorella-like species from Chlorella, Chloroidium, Dictyosphaerium and Actinastrum based on rbcL, ITS, tufA and 16S sequences to test the efficiency of traditional barcoding, GMYC, ABGD, PTP, P ID and character-based barcoding methods. First of all, the barcoding results gave new insights into the taxonomic assessment of Chlorella-like organisms studied, including the clear species discrimination and resolution of potentially cryptic species complexes in C. sorokiniana, D. ehrenbergianum and C. Vulgaris. The tufA proved to be the most efficient barcoding locus, which thus could be as potential "specific barcode" for Chlorella-like species. The 16S failed in discriminating most closely related species. The resolution of GMYC, PTP, P ID, ABGD and character-based barcoding methods were variable among rbcL, ITS and tufA genes. The best resolution for species differentiation appeared in tufA analysis where GMYC, PTP, ABGD and character-based approaches produced consistent groups while the PTP method over-split the taxa. The character analysis of rbcL, ITS and tufA sequences could clearly distinguish all taxonomic groups respectively, including the potentially cryptic lineages, with many character attributes. Thus, the character-based barcoding provides an attractive complement to coalescent and distance-based barcoding. Our study represents the test that proves the efficiency of multiple DNA barcoding in species discrimination of microalgaes.

  15. Combining and Comparing Coalescent, Distance and Character-Based Approaches for Barcoding Microalgaes: A Test with Chlorella-Like Species (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shanmei; Fei, Cong; Song, Jiameng; Bao, Yachao; He, Meilin; Wang, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    Several different barcoding methods of distinguishing species have been advanced, but which method is the best is still controversial. Chlorella is becoming particularly promising in the development of second-generation biofuels. However, the taxonomy of Chlorella-like organisms is easily confused. Here we report a comprehensive barcoding analysis of Chlorella-like species from Chlorella, Chloroidium, Dictyosphaerium and Actinastrum based on rbcL, ITS, tufA and 16S sequences to test the efficiency of traditional barcoding, GMYC, ABGD, PTP, P ID and character-based barcoding methods. First of all, the barcoding results gave new insights into the taxonomic assessment of Chlorella-like organisms studied, including the clear species discrimination and resolution of potentially cryptic species complexes in C. sorokiniana, D. ehrenbergianum and C. Vulgaris. The tufA proved to be the most efficient barcoding locus, which thus could be as potential "specific barcode" for Chlorella-like species. The 16S failed in discriminating most closely related species. The resolution of GMYC, PTP, P ID, ABGD and character-based barcoding methods were variable among rbcL, ITS and tufA genes. The best resolution for species differentiation appeared in tufA analysis where GMYC, PTP, ABGD and character-based approaches produced consistent groups while the PTP method over-split the taxa. The character analysis of rbcL, ITS and tufA sequences could clearly distinguish all taxonomic groups respectively, including the potentially cryptic lineages, with many character attributes. Thus, the character-based barcoding provides an attractive complement to coalescent and distance-based barcoding. Our study represents the test that proves the efficiency of multiple DNA barcoding in species discrimination of microalgaes.

  16. Combining and Comparing Coalescent, Distance and Character-Based Approaches for Barcoding Microalgaes: A Test with Chlorella-Like Species (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shanmei; Fei, Cong; Song, Jiameng; Bao, Yachao; He, Meilin; Wang, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    Several different barcoding methods of distinguishing species have been advanced, but which method is the best is still controversial. Chlorella is becoming particularly promising in the development of second-generation biofuels. However, the taxonomy of Chlorella-like organisms is easily confused. Here we report a comprehensive barcoding analysis of Chlorella-like species from Chlorella, Chloroidium, Dictyosphaerium and Actinastrum based on rbcL, ITS, tufA and 16S sequences to test the efficiency of traditional barcoding, GMYC, ABGD, PTP, P ID and character-based barcoding methods. First of all, the barcoding results gave new insights into the taxonomic assessment of Chlorella-like organisms studied, including the clear species discrimination and resolution of potentially cryptic species complexes in C. sorokiniana, D. ehrenbergianum and C. Vulgaris. The tufA proved to be the most efficient barcoding locus, which thus could be as potential "specific barcode" for Chlorella-like species. The 16S failed in discriminating most closely related species. The resolution of GMYC, PTP, P ID, ABGD and character-based barcoding methods were variable among rbcL, ITS and tufA genes. The best resolution for species differentiation appeared in tufA analysis where GMYC, PTP, ABGD and character-based approaches produced consistent groups while the PTP method over-split the taxa. The character analysis of rbcL, ITS and tufA sequences could clearly distinguish all taxonomic groups respectively, including the potentially cryptic lineages, with many character attributes. Thus, the character-based barcoding provides an attractive complement to coalescent and distance-based barcoding. Our study represents the test that proves the efficiency of multiple DNA barcoding in species discrimination of microalgaes. PMID:27092945

  17. Substitution of stable isotopes in Chlorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.; Uphaus, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Replacement of biologically important isotopes in the alga Chlorella by corresponding heavier stable isotopes produces increasingly greater deviations from the normal cell size and changes the quality and distribution of certain cellular components. The usefulness of isotopically altered organisms increases interest in the study of such permuted organisms.

  18. CLONING AND EXPRESSING TRYPSIN MODULATING OOSTATIC FACTOR IN Chlorella desiccata TO CONTROL MOSQUITO LARVAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Dov; Sterner, Andeas; Powell, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    The insect peptide hormone trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF), a decapeptide that is synthesized by the mosquito ovary and controls the translation of the gut's trypsin mRNA was cloned and expressed in the marine alga Chlorella desiccata. To express Aedes aegypti TMOF gene (tmfA) in C. desiccata cells, two plasmids (pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA) were engineered with pKYLX71 DNA (5 Kb) carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter 35S(2) and the kanamycin resistant gene (neo), as well as, a 8 Kb nitrate reductase gene (nit) from Chlorella vulgaris. Transforming C. desiccata with pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA show that the engineered algal cells express TMOF (20 ± 4 μg ± SEM and 17 ± 3 μg ± SEM, respectively in 3 × 10(8) cells) and feeding the cells to mosquito larvae kill 75 and 60% of Ae. aegypti larvae in 4 days, respectively. Southern and Northern blots analyses show that tmfA integrated into the genome of C. desiccata by homologous recombination using the yeast 2 μ circle of replication and the nit in pYES2/TMOF and pYDB4-tmfA, respectively, and the transformed algal cells express tmfA transcript. Using these algal cells it will be possible in the future to control mosquito larvae in the marsh.

  19. Biosorption characteristics of Spirulina and Chlorella cells to accumulate heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal biosorption of dried Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis-Spirulina maxima cells was studied under various experimental conditions. The effect of biosorbent dosage, pH, adsorption time, temperature, initial metal concentration on biosorption was studied. Biosorption process can be divided into two parts: the first part follows zero-order, the second part pseudo second-order kinetics. Characterization of biosorption equilibrium was evaluated with Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models using non-linear regression. The optimum pH range was found to be 5.0 − 6.0 for Pb(II and 4.0 − 6.0 for Cu(II and Cd(II adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II, Cd(II and Cu(II were 144, 161 and 138 mg g-1 by Chlorella cells and 370, 201 and 165 by Spirulina cells, based on the experimental data. The same values for activated carbon were 86, 134 and 43 mg g-1, respectively.

  20. Lupus vulgaris of external nose

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B. Usha

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  1. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  2. Lupus vulgaris: difficulties in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Julia; Caccetta, Tony Philip; Tait, Clare

    2013-05-01

    Lupus vulgaris is one of the most common forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. It presents a diagnostic challenge due to its paucibacillary nature. This is a report of a case of a delayed diagnosis of lupus vulgaris, presenting as perianal and peristomal plaques, followed by a review of the diagnostic tools for lupus vulgaris and their limitations.

  3. Identification of an Oil-producing Microalgae——Chlorella and Its Medium Selected%一株油微藻——小球藻的纯化鉴定与培养基的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁颖; 冯俊丽; 徐方娇; 陈集双

    2013-01-01

    In this study the Chlorella species came from Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering of Nanjing University of technology. It was purified by crossed culture after several generations, and was determined to be Chlorella vulgaris strain by 18S rDNA sequence. The medium selected result shows that BG11 medium was the best for the growth of Chlorella. Then, the cow dung leaching solution was used for Chlorella culture insteaded of the traditional medium. The results showed that Chlorella growth well in cow dung leaching solution, and the higher of the concentration, the better for Chlorella growth. At the same time, we measured the Chlorella crude fat content of the cultived Chlorella and the result was that about 0.206g crude fat in each grams of Chlorella powder, which accounted for about 20% of Chlorella dry weight. These results have an important significance for the development of new energy.%从南京工业大学生物与制药工程学院获得一株小球藻藻种,经划线培养数代后,得到分离纯化的小球藻,18S rDNA鉴定确定其种属为普通小球藻.小球藻的常见几种培养基筛选结果表明,BG11培养基最适合该小球藻的生长.用牛粪浸出液代替传统培养基培养小球藻的梯度对照实验中,发现牛粪浸出液培养小球藻的效果很好,且浓度越高,生长状况越好.同时还对小球藻的粗脂含量做了测定,每克小球藻干粉中粗脂的含量约为0.206 g,占小球藻干重的20%左右.本研究为新能源的开发和利用积累了信息.

  4. Psoriasiform lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Ethirajan, N; Dhanlaklshmi, M

    2008-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Cutaneous Tuberculosis constitutes a minor proportion of extra-pulmonary manifestations of Tuberculosis. Lupus Vulgaris (LV) is one of the clinical variants of Cutaneous Tuberculosis. A case of a large plaque type psoriasiform lesion of lupus vulgaris on the thigh, of 15 years' duration, in an 18-year-old girl is reported. This case highlights the ignorance level among the patients and consequent failure to avail proper anti-tuberculous treatment despite campaign in print and audio visual media.

  5. Validation of a rapid method for detecting nitrate in chard (Beta vulgaris cycla. Analysis of Spanish commercial samples marketed in the Region of Huesca, Spain, and estimation of the daily intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Menal-Puey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents the validation of a rapid method for the determination of nitrate content in chard samples, in order to determine, during two periods (winter and summer of 2012, the current levels of nitrate in this typical vegetable, and the toxicological risk associated with this intake.Material and Methods: A rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in chard samples by nitration of salicylic acid was validated. The validated method was applied to analyze the content of nitrate in 56 chard samples marketed in Huesca (Spain and collected in winter and summer seasons, and the toxicological risk associated with the intake for adult and children population was evaluated.Results: The method was specific and robust enough for the required purposes. The main performance characteristics of the method were: limits of detection and quantitation of 0.29 mg L-1 and 0.59 mg L-1, respectively; recoveries from 80.0% to 107.4%; and coefficients of variation lower than 11.4%. The detected mean nitrate content was 2293 mg kg-1 and there was evidence of risk only for extreme consumers (adults and children, especially in winter period.Conclusions: A high percentage of chard samples with a considerable concentration of nitrate were found. Taking into account the estimated dairy intake of nitrate associated with them, it could be recommended to establish a regulatory limit of nitrate to chard, a vegetable of important consumption in Spain.

  6. Lupus vulgaris on keloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man presented with multicentric lupus vulgaris on keloids over chest, axilla, neck and back for last 6 months. He had pulmonary tuberculosis. All the laboratory investigations were in favour of clinical diagnosis. The patient responded to antituberculosis therapy.

  7. Cloning and Analysis of Three Genes Encoding the Subunits of Light-Independent Protochlorophyllide Reductase in Chlorella protothecoides CS-41%原壳小球藻中不依赖于光的原叶绿素酸酯还原酶基因的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施春雷; 史贤明

    2007-01-01

    从原壳小球藻CS-41(Chlorella protothecoides CS-41)中分离到了不依赖于光的原叶绿素酸酯还原酶(LIPOR)3个亚基的编码基因--chlL、chlN和chlB.通过测序和序列比对分析,发现这3个基因与普通小球藻C-27 (Chlorella vulgaris C-27)相关基因高度同源,同源性高达99%以上,其中chlL基因有内含子,与有关C. vulgaris C-27的报道相吻合.

  8. Lung and lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukta, V; Jayachandran, K

    2011-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is chronic, postprimary, paucibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. We present the case of a 38 year old lady who was admitted with complaints of worsening breathlessness and low grade fever of one month duration. Examination showed multiple, nontender skin ulcers on bilateral lumbar areas, two oozing serosanguinous discharge and others scarred in the centre. Respiratory system examination and chest X-ray revealed right sided pleural effusion. On investigation, pleural fluid was tuberculous in nature. Skin biopsy from the edge of ulcer was also suggestive of tuberculosis. Patient is doing well on antituberculous drugs. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease and is an example of the unusual presentation of lupus vulgaris in a case of pleural effusion.

  9. Strongylus vulgaris and colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup;

    , warmblooded, coldblooded), age, gender, and admitted in the same month and year, but for problems unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract. Serum samples were analyzed for antibodies to migrating S. vulgaris larvae using a recently developed ELISA. Three case definitions were used; colic sensu latum (n=274...... result should be interpreted as exposure to the parasite within the preceding five months. Nonetheless, the ELISA may be helpful in evaluating the more severe colic categories involving infarctions in the abdominal cavity....

  10. Structural organization of DNA in chlorella viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Wulfmeyer

    Full Text Available Chlorella viruses have icosahedral capsids with an internal membrane enclosing their large dsDNA genomes and associated proteins. Their genomes are packaged in the particles with a predicted DNA density of ca. 0.2 bp nm(-3. Occasionally infection of an algal cell by an individual particle fails and the viral DNA is dynamically ejected from the capsid. This shows that the release of the DNA generates a force, which can aid in the transfer of the genome into the host in a successful infection. Imaging of ejected viral DNA indicates that it is intimately associated with proteins in a periodic fashion. The bulk of the protein particles detected by atomic force microscopy have a size of ∼60 kDa and two proteins (A278L and A282L of about this size are among 6 basic putative DNA binding proteins found in a proteomic analysis of DNA binding proteins packaged in the virion. A combination of fluorescence images of ejected DNA and a bioinformatics analysis of the DNA reveal periodic patterns in the viral DNA. The periodic distribution of GC rich regions in the genome provides potential binding sites for basic proteins. This DNA/protein aggregation could be responsible for the periodic concentration of fluorescently labeled DNA observed in ejected viral DNA. Collectively the data indicate that the large chlorella viruses have a DNA packaging strategy that differs from bacteriophages; it involves proteins and share similarities to that of chromatin structure in eukaryotes.

  11. Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Gianluca; Bertapelle, Carla; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system in any animal is the primary sensory system that responds to chemical stimuli emanating from a distant source. In aquatic animals "Odours" are molecules in solution that guide them to locate food, partners, nesting sites, and dangers to avoid. Fish, crustaceans and aquatic molluscs possess sensory systems that have anatomical similarities to the olfactory systems of land-based animals. Molluscs are a large group of aquatic and terrestrial animals that rely heavily on chemical communication with a generally dispersed sense of touch and chemical sensitivity. Cephalopods, the smallest class among extant marine molluscs, are predators with high visual capability and well developed vestibular, auditory, and tactile systems. Nevertheless they possess a well developed olfactory organ, but to date almost nothing is known about the mechanisms, functions and modulation of this chemosensory structure in octopods. Cephalopod brains are the largest of all invertebrate brains and across molluscs show the highest degree of centralization. The reproductive behaviour of Octopus vulgaris is under the control of a complex set of signal molecules such as neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and sex steroids that guide the behaviour from the level of individuals in evaluating mates, to stimulating or deterring copulation, to sperm-egg chemical signalling that promotes fertilization. These signals are intercepted by the olfactory organs and integrated in the olfactory lobes in the central nervous system. In this context we propose a model in which the olfactory organ and the olfactory lobe of O. vulgaris could represent the on-off switch between food intake and reproduction.

  12. The effect of AgNO{sub 3} on the bioenergetic processes and the ultrastructure of Chlorella and Dunaliella cells exposed to different saline conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loseva, N.L. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: loseva@mail.knc.ru; Alyabyev, A.Ju. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111 (Russian Federation); Gordon, L.Kh. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111 (Russian Federation); Andreyeva, I.N. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111 (Russian Federation); Kolesnikov, O.P. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111 (Russian Federation); Ponomareva, A.A. [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 30, Kazan 420111 (Russian Federation); Kemp, R.B. [Institute of Biological Sciences, Edward Llwyd Building, Penglais, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-25

    The effect of AgNO{sub 3}, an inhibitor of the H{sup +} pump in the plasma membrane, on the bioenergetic processes and on the ultrastructure of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (salt sensitive) and Dunaliella maritima (salt resistant) was examined under varying salt concentrations. Differences between them were observed in changes of the cellular energy metabolism depending on their salt sensitivity and the inhibition of the H{sup +} pump activity. A decrease was observed in the rates of heat production (about 45%), O{sub 2} uptake (greater than 40-50% of the control) and particularly photosynthesis (more than 80%) in Chlorella cells under the simultaneous action of NaCl and AgNO{sub 3}. Dunaliella cells showed small to moderate rate increases for heat production (less than 7%), O{sub 2} uptake (10-15%) and O{sub 2} evolution (40%) in higher salt concentrations and under the action of AgNO{sub 3}. The production of active oxygen species was studied as an early unspecific response of microalgal cells to possible unfavorable conditions, including salt stress. The amount of superoxide formed by the Dunaliella cells was higher than that by the Chlorella cells. However, Ag{sup +} ions increased the generation rate of superoxide radicals considerably in both Chlorella and Dunaliella cells. The electron microscopy showed that changes of the algal ultrastructure of cells exposed to the action of Ag{sup +} ions were connected with the observed physiological changes and to a large extent with the alteration of the bioenergetic processes in them.

  13. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Pablo Ferrer-Gallego; Albert J. Navarro Peris; Emilio Laguna Lumbreras; Gonzalo Mateo Sanz

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  14. Optimized inorganic carbon regime for enhanced growth and lipid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Egan J. Lohman; Gardner, Robert D; Pedersen, Todd; Peyton, Brent M; Cooksey, Keith E; Gerlach, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-scale algal biofuel production has been limited, among other factors, by the availability of inorganic carbon in the culture medium at concentrations higher than achievable with atmospheric CO2. Life cycle analyses have concluded that costs associated with supplying CO2 to algal cultures are significant contributors to the overall energy consumption. Results A two-phase optimal growth and lipid accumulation scenario is presented, which (1) enhances the growth rate and (2) the...

  15. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS, AND VIBRO FISCHERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is a continuation of work designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (W...

  16. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS, AND VIBRIO FISCHERI TO TOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here is a continuation of work designed to further the science of available and developing online toxicity monitors(OTMs) and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system. Source waters o...

  17. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone). PMID:16821451

  18. Effect of Bensulfuron-Methyl on Growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Xia-li; YU Xiao-qing; LIU Yong-hong; DONG Yuan-yan

    2007-01-01

    To study the growth effects of differing concentrations of bensulfuron-methyl on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and to evaluate the ecological risk, the effects of bensulfuron-methyl on the growth and the content change of chlorophyll and protein in Chlorella pyrenoidosa were studied through 96 h acute toxicity tests. Bensulfuron-methyl accelerated the growth of algae at lower concentrations (< 1 mg L-1) with content increase of chlorophyll or protein, and it inhibited the growth of algae at higher concentrations (>5 mg L-1). The content of chlorophyll or protein in algae cells reduced with the increasing concentration of bensulfuron-methyl, exhibiting the good concentration-effect relationship. The 96 h-EC50 of bensulfuronmethyl upon the algae was 15.7 mg L-1. Bensulfuron-methyl has inhibiting effect on the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and is low in toxicity.

  19. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity ofChorella vulgaris isolated from Unkal Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shakeel Ahmed Adhoni; Basappa Basawanneppa Kaliwal

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine the presence of bioactive molecules and to check their antimicrobial activity from green algaeChlorella vulgaris (AS-3) (C. vulgaris) isolated from Unkal Lake in Dharwad District, Karnataka, India. Methods: Based on the polarity, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane, methanol, petroleum ether and distilled water were the solvents used for the preparation of algal extracts using Soxhlet apparatus, which were further subjected to phytochemical analysis and screening of antimicrobial activity. Human pathogens such asStaphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium,Bacillus subtilis,Streptococcus,Escherichia coli,Salmonella Paratyphi B, Klebsiella pneumoniae,Aerobacter aerogenes,Candida albicans andAspergillus niger were used for antimicrobial assay. Standard methods were followed for qualitative estimation of phytochemicals. Results: Phytochemical determination of bioactive molecules showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, carotenoids, phenols, lignins, saponins, sterols, tannins, reducing sugars, volatile oil, fats, amino acids and carbohydrates. In vitro analysis of organic solvent extracts ofC. vulgaris, a green microalgae, showed an activity by suppressing the proliferation of bacterial, fungal and human pathogens. Four extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol) showed effective inhibitory activity against the tested pathogens. Depending on the percentage of bioactive molecules present in each of the organic extracts, different extracts showed different inhibition zone diameters against the pathogens. Among the eight organic extracts used for the study, excellent inhibitory effects were shown by chloroform and methanol extracts. Conclusions: The present study indicates that green algaeC. vulgaris is rich in natural compounds which are highly important in pharmacology and nutraceuticals. Although the presence of bioactive molecules is very less in the algae, excellent effect on the microbial pathogens was

  20. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Chorella vulgaris isolated from Unkal Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmed Adhoni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the presence of bioactive molecules and to check their antimicrobial activity from green algae Chlorella vulgaris (AS-3 (C. vulgaris isolated from Unkal Lake in Dharwad District, Karnataka, India. Methods: Based on the polarity, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane, methanol, petroleum ether and distilled water were the solvents used for the preparation of algal extracts using Soxhlet apparatus, which were further subjected to phytochemical analysis and screening of antimicrobial activity. Human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Paratyphi B, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aerobacter aerogenes, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were used for antimicrobial assay. Standard methods were followed for qualitative estimation of phytochemicals. Results: Phytochemical determination of bioactive molecules showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, carotenoids, phenols, lignins, saponins, sterols, tannins, reducing sugars, volatile oil, fats, amino acids and carbohydrates. In vitro analysis of organic solvent extracts of C. vulgaris, a green microalgae, showed an activity by suppressing the proliferation of bacterial, fungal and human pathogens. Four extracts (chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol showed effective inhibitory activity against the tested pathogens. Depending on the percentage of bioactive molecules present in each of the organic extracts, different extracts showed different inhibition zone diameters against the pathogens. Among the eight organic extracts used for the study, excellent inhibitory effects were shown by chloroform and methanol extracts. Conclusions: The present study indicates that green algae C. vulgaris is rich in natural compounds which are highly important in pharmacology and nutraceuticals. Although the presence of bioactive molecules is very less in the algae, excellent effect

  1. 3种克藻物质对蛋白核小球藻(Chlorella pyrenoidose)的组合抑制效应%Combined-effect Tests of Three Kinds of Allelopathic Chemical against Chlorella pyrenoidose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 孙长虹; 季民

    2012-01-01

    通过世界经合组织推荐的藻类生长抑制实验方法,对气相色谱一质谱联机鉴定出的3种克藻物质进行对蛋白核小球藻的克藻效应的组合实验,得出棕榈酸+琥珀酸、棕榈酸+琥珀酸+乙酸丁酯,这两种组合对蛋白核小球藻的克藻效应为协同作用;棕榈酸+乙酸丁酯、琥珀酸+乙酸丁酯组合出现拮抗作用。光学显微镜照片显示,克藻物质组合作用后,蛋白核小球藻的细胞个数明显减少,藻体凝聚沉淀,部分藻体死亡。%According to the methods of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development for algal growth inhibition test, in the combined-effect tests of the three allelopathic chemicals identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the groups of palmitic acid + succinic acid and palmitic acid + succinic acid + butyl acetate had additive effect on Chlorella pyrenoidose. Two groups of palmitic acid + butyl acetate and succinic acid + butyl acetate had inhibitory effect. Optical microscopic photos showed that Chlorella vulgaris cells were damaged by allelopathic compounds and algal cells were flocculated and died.

  2. Pigments content in Сhlorella vulgaris under the influence of the sodium selenite and the ions of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Bodnar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the content of pigments in Chlorella vulgaris Beij. (Chlorophyta under the influence of sodium selenite in concentrations based on Se4+ 0.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/dm3 during one, three and seven days and under the influence of the simultaneous action of selenite in concentrations 10 mg Se4+/dm3 and ions of Zn2+, Mn2+, Co2+,Cu2+, Fe3+ in concentrations 5.00, 0.25, 0.05, 0.008 and 0.002 mg/dm3over seven days. This research was carried out to establish the conditions for obtaining algal lipidis substance enriched with selenium and biogenic metals in the aquaculture. The content of pigments was determined spectrophotometrically, the cellular walls were separatedby centrifuge in the percoll gradient and investigated microscopically. The pigments content in the Ch. vulgaris increased by 1.5–2.5 times in comparison with the control sample under the influence of 10 mg Se4+/dm3 with and without metal ions, in all variants of experimental influence due to binding of SeО32– with proteins and lipids. We found that selenium was included in all lipid fractions (triacylglycerols, dyacylglycerols, phospholipids, nonetherified fatty acids; the maximum amount of selenium-containing lipids wasrecorded in chloroplasts. The increase in the contents of carotenoids caused by the actions of experimental factors played an exceptional role in the mechanism of antioxidant protection that prevents destruction of chlorophyll and, accordingly, increases its amount in cells. Changes in the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus of Ch. vulgaris affect the whole complex of metabolic transformation. Thus, the successful cultivation of chlorella, enriched with selenium and biogenic metals, is possible within seven days under the influence of 10 mg Se4+/dm3 and the above-mentioned concentration of metal ions.

  3. Screening and characterization of oleaginous Chlorella strains and exploration of photoautotrophic Chlorella protothecoides for oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Zhou, Zhi-gang; Gerken, Henri; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jin

    2015-05-01

    The growth and oil production of nine Chlorella strains were comparatively assessed and Chlorellaprotothecoides CS-41 demonstrated the greatest lipid production potential. The effects of different nitrogen forms and concentrations, phosphorus concentrations and light intensities on growth and oil production were studied in laboratory columns. C. protothecoides CS-41 accumulated lipids up to 55% of dry weight, with triacylglycerol and oleic acid being 71% of total lipids and 59% of total fatty acids, respectively. High biomass and lipid productivities were achieved in outdoor panel PBRs, up to 1.25 and 0.59 g L(-1) day(-1), or 44. 1 and 16.1 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively. A two-stage cultivation strategy was proposed to enhance the algal biomass and lipid production. This is the first comprehensive investigation of both indoor and outdoor photoautotrophic C. protothecoides cultures for oil production, and C. protothecoides CS-41 represents a promising biofuel feedstock worthy of further exploration.

  4. Comparative analyses of three Chlorella species in response to light and sugar reveal distinctive lipid accumulation patterns in the Microalga C. sorokiniana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian N Rosenberg

    Full Text Available While photosynthetic microalgae, such as Chlorella, serve as feedstocks for nutritional oils and biofuels, heterotrophic cultivation can augment growth rates, support high cell densities, and increase triacylglycerol (TAG lipid content. However, these species differ significantly in their photoautotrophic and heterotrophic characteristics. In this study, the phylogeny of thirty Chlorella strains was determined in order to inform bioprospecting efforts and detailed physiological assessment of three species. The growth kinetics and lipid biochemistry of C. protothecoides UTEX 411, C. vulgaris UTEX 265, and C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 were quantified during photoautotrophy in Bold's basal medium (BBM and heterotrophy in BBM supplemented with glucose (10 g L-1. Heterotrophic growth rates of UTEX 411, 265, and 1230 were found to be 1.5-, 3.7-, and 5-fold higher than their respective autotrophic rates. With a rapid nine-hour heterotrophic doubling time, Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1230 maximally accumulated 39% total lipids by dry weight during heterotrophy compared to 18% autotrophically. Furthermore, the discrete fatty acid composition of each strain was examined in order to elucidate lipid accumulation patterns under the two trophic conditions. In both modes of growth, UTEX 411 and 265 produced 18:1 as the principal fatty acid while UTEX 1230 exhibited a 2.5-fold enrichment in 18:2 relative to 18:1. Although the total lipid content was highest in UTEX 411 during heterotrophy, UTEX 1230 demonstrated a two-fold increase in its heterotrophic TAG fraction at a rate of 28.9 mg L(-1 d(-1 to reach 22% of the biomass, corresponding to as much as 90% of its total lipids. Interestingly, UTEX 1230 growth was restricted during mixotrophy and its TAG production rate was suppressed to 18.2 mg L-1 d-1. This constraint on carbon flow raises intriguing questions about the impact of sugar and light on the metabolic regulation of microalgal lipid biosynthesis.

  5. Utilization of papaya waste and oil production by Chlorella protothecoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algae derived oils have outstanding potential for use in biodiesel production. Chlorella protothecoides has been shown to accumulate lipid up to 60% of its cellular dry weight with glucose supplementation under heterotrophic growth conditions. To reduce production costs, alternative carbon feedstock...

  6. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed un

  7. Chlorella protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced pancreatic β-cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yu; Huang, Pei-Jane; Chao, Che-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Studies have shown that chlorella could be important in health promotion or disease prevention through its antioxidant capacity. However, whether chlorella has a cytoprotective effect in pancreatic β-cells remains to be elucidated. We investigated the protective effects of chlorella on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in INS-1 (832/13) cells. Chlorella partially restored cell viability after H2O2 toxicity. To further investigate the effects of chlorella on mitochondria function and cellular oxidative stress, we analyzed mitochondria membrane potential, ATP concentrations, and cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chlorella prevented mitochondria disruption and maintained cellular ATP levels after H2O2 toxicity. It also normalized intracellular levels of ROS to that of control in the presence of H2O2. Chlorella protected cells from apoptosis as indicated by less p-Histone and caspase 3 activation. In addition, chlorella not only enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but also partially restored the reduced GSIS after H2O2 toxicity. Our results suggest that chlorella is effective in amelioration of cellular oxidative stress and destruction, and therefore protects INS-1 (832/13) cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis and increases insulin secretion. Chlorella should be studied for use in the prevention or treatment of diabetes.

  8. Benefits of Preventive Administration of Chlorella sp. on Visceral Pain and Cystitis Induced by a Single Administration of Cyclophosphamide in Female Wistar Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Violle, Nicolas; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Hélène; Bisson, Jean-François

    2016-05-01

    Chlorella sp. is a green microalgae containing nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella sp. is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. In a rat model, ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) benefits were investigated on visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by cyclophosphamide (CYP). RCs was orally administered every day from day 1-16 (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Six hours after an intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg body weight of CYP, body temperature, general behavior, food intake, and body weight were recorded. Twenty-four hours after CYP injection, rats were tested in two behavioral tests, an open field and the aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning test, to evaluate the influence of pain on general activity and learning ability of rats. After euthanasia, bladders were weighed, their thickness was scored, and the urinary hemoglobin was measured. RCs orally administered at the two dosages significantly reduced visceral pain and associated inflammatory parameters related to cystitis both induced by CYP injection, and improved rat behavior. To conclude, RCs demonstrated beneficial effects against visceral pain and cystitis. PMID:27152976

  9. Atopic dermatitis and ichthyosis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, L G; Esterly, N B

    1994-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis remains a common skin problem in the pediatric age group. General approaches to management focus on reducing inflammation and pruritus as well as preventing xerosis. Ichthyosis vulgaris is the most common form of the ichthyoses and often is associated with atopic dermatitis. Recognition of these conditions is necessary to institute therapy that will alleviate the discomfort experienced by affected individuals.

  10. [Research status and prospect on hot water extract of Chlorella: the high value-added bioactive substance from Chlorella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiuyuan; Huang, Yingming; Zhang, Daojing; Tao, Liming; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Chlorella is nutritious and has been used as a functional food much earlier than the other microalgae. C. pyrenoidosa, the potential microalgae which is currently cultured and developed for the new strategic industry of biofuels production and biological CO2 fixation, is a new resource food announced by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China late 2012. Accumulation of high value-added substances in C. pyrenoidosa during the cultivation for lipid makes it possible to reduce the costs for C. pyrenoidosa-based biofuels production. Among these potential substances, hot water extract of Chlorella (CE), commercially known as "Chlorella growth factor", is the unique one that makes Chlorella more precious than the other algae, and the market price of CE is high. It is believed that CE is effective in growth promotion and immunoregulation. However, there is no systematic analysis on the research status of CE and its bioactivity. The present report summarized recent research progress of CE and its bioactivity. Generally, besides the main effect on immunoregulation and tumor inhibition, CE was efficient in improving metabolic syndrome, scavenging for free radicals, protecting against ultraviolet damage, chelating heavy metals, and protecting liver and bowel. Several major challenges in CE research as well as its prospects were also analysed in the present report.

  11. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    follicular plugging and multiple epithelioid cell granulomas, rimmed by lymphocytes in the deeper portion of the dermis, mainly peri-appendageal. Stain for acid-fast bacteria was negative. Cultures from the skin lesions were negative. The patient was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris with multiple lesions of varying morphology at different sites with pulmonary tuberculosis and healed lymph node involvement. PMID:21548522

  12. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    follicular plugging and multiple epithelioid cell granulomas, rimmed by lymphocytes in the deeper portion of the dermis, mainly peri-appendageal. Stain for acid-fast bacteria was negative. Cultures from the skin lesions were negative. The patient was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris with multiple lesions of varying morphology at different sites with pulmonary tuberculosis and healed lymph node involvement.

  13. Evaluation of Chlorella (Chlorophyta) as Source of Fermentable Sugars via Cell Wall Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcoaurélio Almenara Rodrigues; Elba Pinto da Silva Bon

    2011-01-01

    The cell wall of Chlorella is composed of up to 80% carbohydrates including cellulose. In this study, Chlorella homosphaera and Chlorella zofingiensis were evaluated as source of fermentable sugars via their cell wall enzymatic degradation. The algae were cultivated in inorganic medium, collected at the stationary growth phase and centrifuged. The cell pellet was suspended in citrate buffer, pH 4.8 and subjected to 24 hours hydrolysis at 50°C using a cellulases, xylanases, and amylases ble...

  14. Coagulant effect of ferric chloride for separation of biomass from the microalgae Chlorella sp. of the water; Efeito coagulante do cloreto ferrico para separacao da biomassa da microalga Chlorella sp. da agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Tamara Daiane de; Mendes, Mucio Andre dos Santos Alves [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental], E-mail: tamara_daiane@yahoo.com.br; Matos, Antonio Teixeira de [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Lo Monaco, Paola Alfonsa Vieira [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo (IFES), Santa Teresa, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2010-07-01

    Currently, much interest has been focused on the biotechnological potential of microalgae, mainly in the production of biofuels. For this to become viable the biomass of algae should be separated from the water and the process of coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation may be an alternative. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric chloride as coagulant agent of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Were tested five concentrations of ferric chloride in the suspension containing the microalgae: 20,0; 30,0; 40,0; 50,0 e 100,0 g L{sup -1}. The tests were performed using the Jar-test apparatus and the turbidity was measured in suspensions after 2 hours of sedimentation. Mathematical equations were adjusted by regression, relating the concentration used in the tests according to the turbidity of the suspension. There was a linear decrease in turbidity with the addition of ferric chloride, and for concentration of 100.0 g L{sup -1} was achieved a removal efficiency of turbidity of 58%. However, it is necessary to conduct further research, evaluating the economic feasibility of the technique in the separation of microalgae from the water. (author)

  15. Laser Treatment of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Jih, Ming H.; Kimyai-Asadi, Arash

    2007-01-01

    Traditional medical treatments for acne vulgaris include a variety of topical and oral medications. The combination of poor compliance, lack of durable remission, and potential side effects are common drawbacks to these treatments. The use of lasers and light devices has increased dramatically in recent years due to the overall ease of treatment, predictable clinical efficacy, and minimal adverse effects. A variety of light and laser devices has been used for the treatment of acne, including ...

  16. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4′-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6′′-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  17. Fuel Property of Biodiesel Made from Microalgae (Chlorella Sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    S. V. Kelaiya,; P. M. Chauhan; S. H. Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae chlorella is an organism capable of photosynthesis that is less than 2mm in diameter. The biodiesel extracted from algae using chloroform/methanol extraction solvent system then undergone three different transesterification processes based on three different catalysts viz. Alkali catalyst, Acid catalyst and Enzymatic catalyst with two temperature (50°C and 60 °C) and with 1:5 methanol to bio-oil ratio. After transesterification using different catalysts, the fuel properties were ...

  18. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

  19. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.

  20. Pemphigus Vulgaris with Solitary Toxic Thyroid Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alfishawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together?

  1. Unrecognized dermatophyte infection in ichthyosis vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahovac, Maja; Budimcić, Dragomir

    2009-01-01

    A case of unrecognized widespread dermatophyte infection associated with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopy is described. Our patient was a young woman in which the diagnosis of ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis blocked the recognition of widespread dermatophyte infection for more than six months. The case showed some clinical peculiarities in terms of both extent of lesions and their clinical appearance.

  2. Arare cause of dysphagia: Pemfigus Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    SARIKAYA, Murat; Doğan, Zeynal; Ergül, Bilal; FİLİK, Levent; TAŞER, Nesibe

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality by affecting the mucous membranes and skin. Pemphigus vulgaris affecting especially the oral mucosa can also be observed in the esophagus. Herein, we describe a patient with odynophagia and dysphagia who was diagnosed as pemphigus vulgaris.

  3. Sporotrichoid lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Anshul; Tiwari, Siddhi; Mathur, Deepak K; Bhargava, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common presentation of cutaneous tuberculosis in India and can present as papular, nodular, plaque, ulcerative, vegetating, and tumid forms. Unusual variants include the frambesiform, gangrenous, ulcerovegetating, lichen simplex chronicus, myxomatous, and sporotrichoid types. We describe a rare sporotrichoid presentation of lupus vulgaris on the leg of a 28-year-old female of 12 years duration.

  4. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavoured beverage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaru, Alessandro; Maccioni, Paola; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2013-06-01

    Treatment with a rational combination of standardized extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus reduced food intake and glycemia in rats. The present study was designed to assess the effect of this extract combination and of each single extract in an experimental model of food craving, made up of rats displaying exaggerated seeking and taking behaviors for a chocolate-flavoured beverage. After training to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavoured beverage, rats were treated with vehicle, Phaseolus vulgaris extract alone (200 mg/kg), Cynara scolymus extract alone (400 mg/kg), or combination of Phaseolus vulgaris (200 mg/kg) and Cynara scolymus (400 mg/kg) extracts. The Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the extract combination exerted similar and substantial decrements in the number of lever-responses and amount of self-administered chocolate-flavoured beverage; conversely, the Cynara scolymus extract was totally ineffective. These results suggest that (i) the capacity of the extract combination to reduce the self-administration of the chocolate-flavoured beverage entirely relied on the Phaseolus vulgaris extract, (ii) Phaseolus vulgaris extract may interfere with the mechanisms regulating food-related addictive-like behaviors, and (iii) combinations of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts may possess a broad spectrum of activities, from treatment of metabolic syndrome to overweight, obesity, and possibly food-related addictive disorders. PMID:22899449

  5. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  6. Pseudoainhum associated with Psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoainhum is the term applied to constricting bands around the digits or the limb which are either congenital or secondary to another disease. Progression of the constriction bands can lead to irreversible damage and autoamputation of the affected digit. Congenital pseudoainhum usually results due to amniotic bands or adhesions in utero while acquired pseudoainhum is usually secondary to trauma, neuropathy, systemic sclerosis or infections like leprosy. Psoriasis is a rare cause of acquired pseudoainhum with only five cases reported till date. We report a case of pseudoainhum secondary to psoriasis vulgaris in a 45 year old male which was successfully treated with topical corticosteroids and systemic methotrexate therapy.

  7. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  8. Screening of the Gene for Chlorella Identification and Identification of Oil-producing Microalgae%小球藻鉴定基因的筛选及高产油微藻的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何茹; 刘君寒; 王士安; 李福利

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to select suitable gene for Chlorella identification and to identify the oil-producing microalgae. [Method] Four candidate gene sequences, the nuclear genomic rDNA of the 18S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), internal transcribed spacer Ⅱ (ITS Ⅱ ) and the chloroplast rbcL gene, were selected for Chlorella molecular identification. Through these four candidate genes, the genetic variability and distinguish ability between intra-species and inter-species was analyzed to choose the right genes for identification of the high oil-content Chlorella. On this basis, application of these gene segments were classified and identified for five fresh-water isolated Chlorella, which oil-content is more than 30%. [Result] ITS gene was a suitable gene because of its high variation and short fragment length, meanwhile its genetic distance intra-species (0.439 6 ± 0.135 9) was larger than inter-species (0.045 7 ± 0.084 3). Its sequence length varied between different species whereas highly conserved in the same species. By the application of ITS sequences, respectively, five high oil-content stains were identified as one C. Vulgaris, two strains of C. Sorokiniana and two strains of algae Chlorella sp. [ Conclusion] This study had provided reference for the establishment of identification gene pool of Chlorella.%[目的]选择合适的小球藻种属鉴定基因,对高产油微藻进行分子鉴定.[方法]从分子鉴定常用的4条基因[核基因组rDNA的18S,rRNA gene、内转录间隔区(TTS)、内转录间隔区2(ITS-2)和叶绿体rbcL基因]中筛选出最为适用的小球藻鉴定基因,并对从自然水体中分离筛选出的5株油脂含量在30%以上的小球藻(Chlorella sp.)进行了分类鉴定.[结果]ITS序列变异程度高,片段长度短,序列长度在种间变异较大,而在小球藻种内高度保守,且种间距离(0.439 6±0.135 9)远大于种内距离(0.045 7±0.084 3),适用于小球藻属内种

  9. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney KM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristen M Whitney1, Chérie M Ditre21Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Skin Enhancement Center and Cosmetic Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USADate of preparation: 30th November 2010Conflicts of interest: None declaredClinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne?Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients.Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of childbearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral.Keywords: acne vulgaris, benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, photopneumatic therapy, chemical peels

  10. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Kamal; Jain, Sarika; Singh, Sunita

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in previously sensitized individuals with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a very large hypertrophic lupus vulgaris lesion over left side of chest since 22 years. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous infiltration without caseation necrosis. The Mantoux reaction was strongly positive. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris of such a giant size and that too at an unusual site is extremely rare and hence is being reported.

  11. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  12. The inactivation of Chlorella spp. with dielectric barrier discharge in gas-liquid mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Sun, Bing; Zhu, Xiaomei; Yan, Zhiyu; Liu, Hui; Liu, Yongjun

    2013-03-01

    The inactivation of Chlorella spp. with high voltage and frequency pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in hybrid gas-liquid reactor with a suspension electrode was studied experimentally. In the hybrid gas-liquid reactor, a steel plate was used as high voltage electrode while a quartz plate as a dielectric layer, another steel plate placing in the aqueous solution worked as a whole ground electrode. A suspension electrode is installed near the surface of solution between high voltage and ground electrode to make the dielectric barrier discharge uniform and stable, the discharge gap was between the quartz plate and the surface of the water. The effect of peak voltage, treatment time, the initial concentration of Chlorella spp. and conductivity of solution on the inactivation rate of Chlorella spp. was investigated, and the inactivation mechanism of Chlorella spp. preliminarily was studied. Utilizing this system inactivation of Chlorella spp., the inactivation rate increased with increasing of peak voltage, treatment time and electric conductivity. It was found that the inactivation rate of Chlorella spp. arrived at 100% when the initial concentration was 4 × 106 cells mL-1, and the optimum operation condition required a peak voltage of 20 kV, a treatment time of 10 min and a frequency of 7 kHz. Though the increasing of initial concentration of the Chlorella spp. contributed to the addition of interaction probability between the Chlorella spp. and O3, H2O2, high-energy electrons, UV radiation and other active substances, the total inactivation number raise, but the inactivation rate of the Chlorella spp. decreased.

  13. [Culture medium based on biogas slurry and breeding of oil Chlorella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Min; Mei, Shuai; Cao, You-Fu; Ding, Jin-Feng; Xu, Jia-Jie; Li, Shu-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The oil chlorella cultivation and biogas slurry treatment were combined. The biogas slurry provided water and nutrient for growing chlorella, at the same time, harmless treatment of biogas slurry was realized. This paper cultivated 4 species of oil chlorella in the mixed medium of biogas slurry and green algae medium (the volume ratios were 1 : 9, 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively), and compared their oil productivity to select the best oil chlorella species and the optimal culture medium. The results showed that, the combination of medium and chlorella species to reach the highest oil productivity was a volume ratio of 1 : 3 and the chlorella species BJ05, and the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05 was 9.20 mg x (L x d)(-1), higher than that in green algae medium [8.66 mg x (L x d)(-1)]. In mixed medium with a volume ratio of 1:3, the effect of adding different nutrients into the green algae medium on the oil productivity was examined, and the results showed that, sodium carbonate and citric acid had no negative effect on the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05. in the absence of sodium carbonate and citric acid, the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05 was 9.36 mg x (L x d)(-1), and the removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand), total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen rates were 59%, 75%, 61% and 100%, respectively. Deficiency in other nutrients had negative effect on the oil productivity. Therefore, the culture medium was further optimized to the mixed medium of biogas slurry and green algae medium with a volume ratio of 1 : 3 and without addition of sodium carbonate and citric acid.

  14. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the common dermatological diseases and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of oxidative stress in acne vulgaris. Forty-three consecutive acne patients and 46 controls were enrolled. The parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the venous blood of cases were measured spectrophotometrically. The values compared wi...

  15. Pulse Clarithromycin Therapy In Severe ACNE Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with severe acne vulgaris, not responding with long courses of doxycycline, minocycline and erythromycin were given oral clarithromycin in pulsed regimen. The patients were given 7 days course of clarithromycin 250mg twice daily, which was repeated after a gap of 10 days. Such 3 courses were given. The lesions responded significantly. No significant side effect was noted. Pulse clarithromycin therapy seems to be a good alternative and effective tool in the management of severe acne vulgaris.

  16. Viabilidade económica e energética do biodiesel produzido a partir de Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Tiago Joel Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Contemporaneamente o Homem depara-se com um dos grandes desafios que é o de efetivar a transição para um futuro sustentável. Assim, o setor da energia tem um papel fundamental neste processo de transição, com principal enfoque no setor dos automóveis, sendo este um setor que contribui com elevadas quantidades de gases de efeito estufa libertados para a atmosfera. Também a escassez dos recursos petrolíferos constitui um ponto fundamental no tema apresentado. Com a necessidade de combater esses...

  17. Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus From Reject Water Using Chlorella vulgaris Algae After Partial Nitrification/Anammox Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutwinski, Piotr; Cema, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater containing nutrients like ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphates have been identified as the main cause of eutrophication in natural waters. Therefore, a suitable treatment is needed. In classical biological processes, nitrogen and phosphorus removal is expensive, especially due to the lack of biodegradable carbon, thus new methods are investigated. In this paper, the new possibility of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in side stream after the partial nitrification/Anammox process is proposed. Research was carried out in a lab-scale vertical tubular photobioreactor (VTR) fed with real reject water, from dewatering of digested sludge, after partial nitrification/Anammox process from lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were measured every three days. The average nitrogen and phosphorus loads were 0.0503 ± 0.036 g N g(vss)/d and 0.0389 ± 0.013 g P g(vss)/d accordingly. Results have shown that microalgae were able to efficiently remove nitrogen and phosphorus. The average nitrogen removal was 36.46% and phosphorus removal efficiency varied between 93 and 100%. PMID:26803028

  18. Mapping the fundamental niches of two freshwater microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae), in 5-dimensional ion space

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five dimensional experimental design, i.e. a five component ion mixture design for nitrate, phosphate, potassium, sodium and chloride projected across a total ion concentration gradient of 1-30 mM was utilized to map the ion-based, scenopoetic, or ‘Grinnellian’, niche space for two freshwater alga...

  19. BEHAVIORAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF DAPHNIA MAGNA, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, CORBICULA FLUMINEA, AND LEPOMIS MACROCHIRUS TO COPPER AND CYANIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research presented here was designed to further the science of available and developing continuous, automated water quality monitors and how they may be most effectively deployed in a watershed management plan and/or water quality early warning system (WQEWS). Source waters ...

  20. Improvement on light penetrability and microalgae biomass production by periodically pre-harvesting Chlorella vulgaris cells with culture medium recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Fu, Qian; Xia, Ao; Zhu, Xun

    2016-09-01

    To improve light penetrability and biomass production in batch cultivation, a cultivation mode that periodically pre-harvesting partial microalgae cells from suspension with culture medium recycling was proposed. By daily pre-harvesting 30% microalgae cells from the suspension, the average light intensity in the photobioreactor (PBR) was enhanced by 27.05-122.06%, resulting in a 46.48% increase in total biomass production than that cultivated in batch cultivation without pre-harvesting under an incident light intensity of 160μmolm(-2)s(-1). Compared with the semi-continuous cultivation with 30% microalgae suspension daily replaced with equivalent volume of fresh medium, nutrients and water input was reduced by 60% in the proposed cultivation mode but with slightly decrease (12.82%) in biomass production. No additional nutrient was replenished when culture medium recycling. Furthermore, higher pre-harvesting ratios (40%, 60%) and lower pre-harvesting frequencies (every 2, 2.5days) were not advantageous for the pre-harvesting cultivation mode. PMID:27289058

  1. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  2. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  3. 温度对普通小球藻和鱼腥藻生长竞争的影响%EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON GROWTH AND COMPETITION OF CHLORELLA VULGARISRIS AND ANABAENA SP. STRAIN PCC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菁; 裘丽萍; 孟顺龙; 范立民; 宋超; 陈家长

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris is a common freshwater alga. Anabaena sp. strain PCC is one of the most common blue-green alga in eutrophic lakes. To better understand the growth of water bloom blue-green alga in eutrophic lakes and the relationship between alga growth and temperature, we investigate the interspecies competition between C. vul-garis and Anabaena sp. strain PCC at different temperatures. The results showed that in both uni-culture and co-culture systems, C. vulgaris and Anabaena sp. strain PCC reached the maximum growth rates at 35℃ and 30-35℃ respec-tively. We also found that the inhibition parameters of interspecies competition could be significantly influenced by the temperature. The maximum inhibition parameter of Anabaena sp. strain PCC against C. vulgaris, 0.9111, was observed at 15℃. This value was 1.24, 1.14, and 1.12 times higher than the parameters at 25, 30℃, and 35℃ respectively. The maximum inhibition parameter of C. vulgaris against Anabaena sp. strain PCC, 18.38, was observed at 30℃, which was 4.25, 2.03, and 1.20 times higher than those at 15℃, 25℃, and 35℃ respectively. According to the Lotka-Volterra model, we deducted that the coexistence of Anabaena sp. strain PCC and C. vulgaris was unstable in the co-culture system at these four temperatures.%通过室内实验研究了不同温度条件下主要水华藻类--鱼腥藻(Anabaena sp. strain PCC)和常见淡水藻类--普通小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)的生长和种间竞争,结果表明在单种培养和共同培养体系中,普通小球藻的最大藻细胞浓度随着温度的升高而增加;鱼腥藻生长最适温度为30-35℃。温度对藻类种间竞争抑制参数能够产生明显影响,鱼腥藻在温度为15℃时对普通小球藻的竞争抑制参数最大,分别是25℃、30℃、35℃时的1.24倍、1.14倍和1.12倍;而普通小球藻在30℃时对鱼腥藻的竞争抑制参数最大,分别是15℃、25℃、35℃条件下的4.25倍、2.03

  4. Optical Manipulation of Symbiotic Chlorella in Paramecium Bursaria Using a Fiber Axicon Microlens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, K.; Hirota, S.; Nakayama, H.; Kunugihara, D.; Mihara, Y.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, chemically etched axicon fiber was proposed for laser trapping of symbiotic chlorella from paramecium bursaria. We fabricated axicon micro lenses on a single-mode bare optical fiber by selective chemical etching technique. The laser beam from fiber axicon microlens was strongly focused and optical forces were sufficient to move a symbiotic chlorella. From experimental results, it was found that our proposed fiber axicon microlens was a promising tool for cell trapping without physical contact.

  5. Viruses of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae isolated from Paramecium bursaria and Hydra viridis

    OpenAIRE

    James L Van Etten; Meints, Russel H.; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Burbank, Dwight E.; Lee, Kit

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from the Florida strain of Hydra viridis induced replication of a virus (designated HVCV-1) in the algae. We now report that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from four other sources of green hydra and one source of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria also induced virus synthesis. Algae from one of these hydra contained a virus identical to HVCV-1 (based on its rate of sedimentation, buoyant density, reaction to H...

  6. Optimal extraction and hydrolysis of Chlorella pyrenoidosa proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xuewu

    2012-12-01

    In this study, for the first time, the applications of two new methods, ionic liquid and low-temperature high-pressure cell breakage methods, to the extraction of whole proteins in Chlorella pyrenoidosa cells were explored. Meanwhile, the comparison with three traditional methods was also made. The results indicated that the extraction rate for ionic liquid is only at moderate level, but the new low-temperature high-pressure cell breakage method can obviously increase the protein extraction rate up to 2- to 15-fold. Subsequently, the hydrolysis of the extracted proteins was conducted with three enzymes (papain, trypsin and alcalase). The data presented that the degree of hydrolysis for each enzyme under the optimal conditions is in the order of: alcalase (18.31%)>papain (14.33%)>trypsin (8.47%), demonstrating the potential of C. pyrenoidosa protein hydrolysates obtained here in nutritional supplement and medical foods. PMID:23117187

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on growth, productivity and protein content of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa; Efecto de la radiacion gamma sobre el crecimiento, productividad y contenido proteico de Chlorella Pyrenoidosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Fernandez, J.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy at a dose rate of 4.500 Gy/h on growth, productivity and protein content of Chlorella pyroneidosa has been studied. High doses of gamma radiation have been observed to inhibit cellular division of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Culture growth stopped 48 hours after irradiation at 5.000 Gy and 72 hours after irradiation at 500 and 1000 Gy. The lowest dose (10 Gy) produced a little growth stimulation that not statistically significative. Protein and aminoacid content did not show any change for gamma radiation doses studied. (Author) 32 refs.

  8. Combining and Comparing Coalescent, Distance and Character-Based Approaches for Barcoding Microalgaes: A Test with Chlorella-Like Species (Chlorophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmei Zou; Cong Fei; Jiameng Song; Yachao Bao; Meilin He; Changhai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Several different barcoding methods of distinguishing species have been advanced, but which method is the best is still controversial. Chlorella is becoming particularly promising in the development of second-generation biofuels. However, the taxonomy of Chlorella-like organisms is easily confused. Here we report a comprehensive barcoding analysis of Chlorella-like species from Chlorella, Chloroidium, Dictyosphaerium and Actinastrum based on rbcL, ITS, tufA and 16S sequences to test the effic...

  9. The adaptive genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Margarida; Crasnier-Mednansky, Martine

    2006-07-01

    Peculiar attributes revealed by sequencing the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough are analyzed, particularly in relation to the presence of a phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS is a typical bacterial carbohydrate transport system functioning via group translocation. Novel avenues for investigations are proposed emphasizing the metabolic diversity of D. vulgaris Hildenborough, especially the likely utilization of mannose-type sugars. Comparative analysis with PTS from other Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates regulatory functions for the PTS of D. vulgaris Hildenborough, including catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. Chemotaxis towards PTS substrates is considered. Evidence suggests that this organism may not be a strict anaerobic sulfate reducer typical of the ocean, but a versatile organism capable of bidirectional transmigration and adaptation to both water and terrestrial environments.

  10. Comparison of Biomass and Lipid Production under Ambient Carbon Dioxide Vigorous Aeration and 3% Carbon Dioxide Condition Among the Lead Candidate Chlorella Strains Screened by Various Photobioreactor Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Naoko [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Barnes, Austin [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Jensen, Travis [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Noel, Eric [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Andlay, Gunjan [Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rosenberg, Julian N. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Betenbaugh, Michael J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oyler, George A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Chlorella species from the UTEX collection, classified by rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis, were screened based on biomass and lipid production in different scales and modes of culture. Lead candidate strains of C. sorokiniana UTEX 1230 and C. vulgaris UTEX 395 and 259 were compared between conditions of vigorous aeration with filtered atmospheric air and 3% CO2 shake-flask cultivation. We found that the biomass of UTEX 1230 produced 2 times higher at 652 mg L-1 dry weight under both ambient CO2 vigorous aeration and 3% CO2 conditions, while UTEX 395 and 259 under 3% CO2 increased to 3 times higher at 863 mg L-1 dry weight than ambient CO2 vigorous aeration. The triacylglycerol contents of UTEX 395 and 259 increased more than 30 times to 30% dry weight with 3% CO2, indicating that additional CO2 is essential for both biomass and lipid accumulation in UTEX 395 and 259.

  11. Pemphigus vulgaris: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder affecting skin and mucous membranes with a characteristic of intraepithelial blistering. The first common sign of this disease is involvement of oral mucosa followed by skin involvement. We here in report a rare case one such recently seen by us, where oral lesions and skin lesions in a 24 year old female patient presenting with a five months history of multiple fluid filled lesions all over the body, who is known case of psychosis finally diagnosed as having pemphigus vulgaris. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1543-1544

  12. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A M; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a "reinstatement" procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding - being unreinforced - diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40-45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  13. A PHASEOLUS VULGARIS EXTRACT REDUCES CUE-INDUCED REINSTATEMENT OF CHOCOLATE SEEKING IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eLorrai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a reinstatement procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR 10 (FR10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding – being unreinforced – diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg reduced lever-responding by 40-45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food.

  14. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

  15. Dietary Chlorella supplementation effect on immune responses and growth performances of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, S; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    , with dietary Chlorella administration (0, 5 and 10 g kg-1) and feeding time post hatch (hour 0 and 48) as the factors. The Chlorella supplemented diets were provided to chicks either immediately (early) or after 48 hours (late) post hatch until day 35. Irrespective of the post hatch feeding times, Chlorella......The study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Chlorella sp. supplementation on immune response and growth performance of broiler chickens exposed to post hatch holding time. Allotted in 36 pens, a total of 180 newly hatched chicks were assigned in a 3 × 2 factorial design...... of broilers was lowered (Ppost hatch. In conclusion, post hatch holding time resulted in lower final BW of broilers. Although feeding 1% Chlorella could not alleviate the retarded growth rate in feed withheld-birds, the treatment may be useful...

  16. Ichthyosis vulgaris: the filaggrin mutation disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, J P; Godoy-Gijon, E; Elias, P M

    2013-06-01

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) and is characterized clinically by xerosis, scaling, keratosis pilaris, palmar and plantar hyperlinearity, and a strong association with atopic disorders. According to the published studies presented in this review article, FLG mutations are observed in approximately 7·7% of Europeans and 3·0% of Asians, but appear to be infrequent in darker-skinned populations. This clinical review article provides an overview of ichthyosis vulgaris epidemiology, related disorders and pathomechanisms. Not only does ichthyosis vulgaris possess a wide clinical spectrum, recent studies suggest that carriers of FLG mutations may have a generally altered risk of developing common diseases, even beyond atopic disorders. Mechanistic studies have shown increased penetration of allergens and chemicals in filaggrin-deficient skin, and epidemiological studies have found higher levels of hand eczema, irritant contact dermatitis, nickel sensitization and serum vitamin D levels. When relevant, individuals should be informed about an increased risk of developing dermatitis when repeatedly or continuously exposed to nickel or irritants. Moreover, with our current knowledge, individuals with ichthyosis vulgaris should be protected against neonatal exposure to cats to prevent atopic dermatitis and should abstain from smoking to prevent asthma. Finally, they should be advised against excessive exposure to factors that decrease skin barrier functions and increase the risk of atopic dermatitis.

  17. Autoinoculation lupus vulgaris of the perineum.

    OpenAIRE

    Sehgal, V N; Chaudhry, A K; Gupta, R.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a young heterosexual male, with a 7 year history of an asymptomatic progressive plaque over the right side of the perineum is described, which 4 years later involved the left perineum and scrotal skin, indicating autoinoculation. The diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made by strongly positive tuberculin test, histopathology, and a favourable response to a short course of intensive antitubercular therapy.

  18. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  19. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Noor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. Methods A case–control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent’s family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Results Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35 compared to controls (122 ± 28 (p  0.05. Conclusions Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris.

  20. Effects of diets on growth and survival rates of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae%不同饵料对真蛸浮游幼体生长和存活的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷斌; 钟建兴; 宁岳; 刘波; 曾武斌

    2012-01-01

    为了满足真蛸浮游幼体阶段的营养需要,研究了几种饵料生物对真蛸浮游幼体的育苗效果。结果表明:轮虫不宜作为真蛸浮游幼体的生物饵料;恒温培养试验得出混合营养强化的丰年虫幼体的育苗效果优于混合营养强化的蒙古裸腹溞,并优于小球藻强化的丰年虫幼体及蒙古裸腹溞;常温试验得出梭子蟹溞状幼体+丰年虫幼体组合的饵料效果最好,而微囊营养强化剂强化的丰年虫幼体的育苗效果好于混合营养组合。综上所述,可认为:梭子蟹溞状幼体+丰年虫幼体组合是真蛸浮游幼体期比较适宜的饵料。%Growth and survival rates of Octopus vulgaris paralarvae feeding on rotifers, enriched anaemia nauplii, enriched Moina mongolica, Daphnia - like larvae of Ponaunus trituberculatus were tested. The result showed that rotifer was not appropriate for Octopus vulgaris paralarvae as diet; the effect sequence of diets on growth and survival rates of octopus vulgaris paralarvae in constant temperature test was mix enriched anaemia nauplii 〉 mix enriched Moina mongolica 〉 anaemia nauplii enriched by Chlorella 〉 Moina mongolica enriched by Chlorella; the effect sequence of diets on growth and survival rates of octopus vulgaris paralarvae at room temperature test was daphnia - like larvae of Ponaunus trituberculatu + anaemia nauplii 〉 anaemia nauplii enriched by fish oil 〉 mix enriched anaemia nauplii. It may be considered that the "daphnia - like larvae of Portunus trituberculatu + anaemia nauplii" was the better food for the paralarvae of Octopus vulgaris.

  1. Sulfur Deprivation Results in Oxidative Perturbation in Chlorella sorokiniana (211/8k).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbitani, Giovanna; Vona, Vincenza; Bottone, Claudia; Petriccione, Milena; Carfagna, Simona

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur deficiency in plant cells has not been considered as a potential abiotic factor that can induce oxidative stress. We studied the antioxidant defense system of Chlorella sorokiniana cultured under sulfur (S) deficiency, imposed for a maximum period of 24 h, to evaluate the effect of an S shortage on oxidative stress. S deprivation induced an immediate (30 min) but transient increase in the intracellular H2O2 content, which suggests that S limitation can lead to a temporary redox disturbance. After 24 h, S deficiency in Chlorella cells decreased the glutathione content to Chlorella cells. The accumulation of total ascorbate, changes in the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratios and an increase in the activity of SOD and APX enzymes indicate that oxidative perturbation occurs during S deprivation.

  2. Construction of a transformation system for the stable expression of foreign genes in Chlorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yiyun; Gao Xiaorong; Wang Changhai

    2007-01-01

    A stable transformation system for the expression of foreign genes in the unicellular green marine alga (Chlorella sp. MACC/C95) was established. Using electroporation, the alga was transformed with a plasmid containing the phytase gene under the control of CaMV35S promoter and the neomycin phosphotransferase(npt)as a seleetable marker gene. The integration of the phytase gene into the Chlorella genome was revealed by PCR and Southern blotting analysis. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of phytasegene at the transcript level. The enhanced activity of phytase enzyme in the transformants confirmed the integration and successful expression of phytase gene. The introduced phytase gene and its protein expression were stably maintained for at least 30 generations in media devoid of selectable antibiotics G418. This is an important step toward the production of useful foreign proteins in Chlorella sp. MACC/C95.

  3. Assessment of photosynthesis regulation in mixotrophically cultured microalga Chlorella sorokiniana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingting; Kirchhoff, Helmut; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Feng, Jie; Cousins, Asaph B.; Pienkos, Philip T.; Gang, David R.; Chen, Shulin

    2016-11-01

    Mixotrophic growth of microalgae offers great potential as an efficient strategy for biofuel production. In this study, photosynthetic regulation of mixotrophically cultured Chlorella sorokiniana cells was systematically evaluated. Mixotrophic cells in the exponential growth phase showed the highest photosynthetic activity, where maximum photosynthetic O2 evolution was approximately 3- and 4-fold higher than cells in the same phase grown photoautotrophically in 1% CO2 (in air) and air, respectively. Additionally, characteristic chlorophyll fluorescence parameters demonstrated that no limitation in electron transport downstream of PSII was detected in mixotrophic cells. Up-regulation of photosynthetic activity was associated with high total ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylase activity and expression level of phosphoribulokinase (PRK). After 3 days, photosynthetic O2 evolution of mixotrophic cells that went to the stationary phase, was strongly reduced, with reduced photochemical efficiency and reorganization of the PSII complex. Simultaneously, enzymatic activity for Rubisco carboxylase and mRNA levels of Rubisco and PRK diminished. Importantly, there was almost no non-photochemical quenching for mixotrophic cells, whether grown in log or stationary phase. A decline in the quantum efficiency of PSII and an oxidized plastoquinone pool (PQ pool) was observed under N-depleted conditions during mixotrophic growth. These results demonstrate that photosynthesis is regulated differently in mixotrophically cultured C. sorokiniana cells than in cells grown under photoautotrophic conditions, with a particularly strong impact by nitrogen levels in the cells.

  4. Fuel Property of Biodiesel Made from Microalgae (Chlorella Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kelaiya,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae chlorella is an organism capable of photosynthesis that is less than 2mm in diameter. The biodiesel extracted from algae using chloroform/methanol extraction solvent system then undergone three different transesterification processes based on three different catalysts viz. Alkali catalyst, Acid catalyst and Enzymatic catalyst with two temperature (50°C and 60 °C and with 1:5 methanol to bio-oil ratio. After transesterification using different catalysts, the fuel properties were measured. All the properties were compared with standard value of ASTM D 6751 standards. Alkali catalyst yield highest biodiesel (92 % at 60 °C temperature. Also, the closest value of different fuel properties found at par with standard value of ASTM D 6751 standards viz. moisture content, carbon residue, calorific value, specific gravity, acid value, flash point, viscosity, density, viscosity were found to be 0.01%, 0.04%, 40.41 MJ/kg, 0.83, 0.23 mg KOH/g, 143.67 °C, 5.16 mm2/s, 0.83 g/cm3 respectively in the biodiesel which was yield by transesterification done using Alkali catalyst (0.56 % NaOH at 60 °C temperature.

  5. Enantioselective toxic effects of cyproconazole enantiomers against Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Cheng, Cheng; Chen, Li; Di, Shanshan; Liu, Chunxiao; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-01

    Enantioselectivity in ecotoxicity, digestion and uptake of chiral pesticide cyproconazole to Chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied. The 96h-EC50 values of rac- and the four enantiomers were 9.005, 6.616, 8.311, 4.290 and 9.410 mg/L, respectively. At the concentrations of 8 mg/L and 14 mg/L, the contents of pigments exposed in rac-, enantiomer-2 and 4 were higher than that exposed in enantiomer-1 and 3. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity of algae exposed to enantiomer-1 and 3 was higher than that exposed to the rac-, enantiomer-2 and 4 at three levels. In addition, the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in algae disposed with enantiomer-1 and 3 were increased remarkably at three levels. For the digestion experiment, the half-lives of four enantiomers in algae suspension were 28.06, 19.10, 21.13, 15.17 days, respectively. During the uptake experiment, the order of the concentrations of cyproconazole in algae cells was enantiomer-4, 2, 3 and 1. Based on these data, we concluded that ecotoxicity, digestion and uptake of chiral pesticide cyproconazole to C. pyrenoidosa were enantioselective, and such enantiomeric differences must be taken into consideration when assessing the risk of cyproconazole to environment. PMID:27268794

  6. 小球藻Chlorella sorokiniana C74营养素分析%Nutrient Analysis of Chlorella sorokiniana C74

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 刘平怀; 罗宁; 陈晨; 何沂飞; 李昂

    2016-01-01

    测定小球藻Chlorella sorokiniana C74营养成分,为其综合利用提供依据。结果显示,Chlorella sorokiniana C74含有丰富的营养物质,粗蛋白、多糖、油脂、灰分、粗纤维和色素分别占藻粉干重的20.4%、34.28%、22.16%、12.20%、20.22%和4.50%。脂肪酸分析显示Chlorella sorokiniana C74中含有多种不饱和脂肪酸,其中亚油酸和亚麻酸含量分别为22.73%和14.87%;氨基酸含量为17.50%,其中必需氨基酸为6.17%,通过必需氨基酸指数评价,说明Chlorella sorokiniana C74是一种优质的蛋白来源;维生素含量丰富,尤其是维生素B1、B3和B6;藻粉含有多种矿物质元素,其中钾、镁、钙、铁和锌5种元素含量较高,重金属铅、汞、砷和镉含量均未超标。%Determination of Chlorella sorokiniana C74 nutrients, the results showed that Chlorella sorokiniana C74 contains kinds of nutrients, crude protein, carbohydrates, fat, ash, crude fiber and pigment was account-ed for 20.4%, 34.28%, 22.16%, 12.20%, 20.22%and 4.50%by algae powder dry weight respectively. Fatty acid analysis showed that algae powder contains a variety of unsaturated fatty acids, and linoleic acid and linolenic acid contents were 22.73 % and 14.87%. Contents of amino acid in Chlorella sorokiniana C74 was 17.50%, of which the essential amino acids was 6.17%. Through essential amino acid index evaluation, indi-cating that Chlorella sorokiniana C74 was an excellent source of protein;Chlorella sorokiniana C74 was rich in vitamins, especially vitamin B1, B3 and B6. Algae powder contains a variety of trace mineral elements, and potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc was higher, the heavy metal lead, mercury, arsenic and cad-mium was no more than the national standard.

  7. Changes in salivary flow rate following Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Decreases in saliva secretion compromise food mastication and swallowing, reduce mucosal immune function, and increase the risk for oral diseases like dental caries. Chlorella is a green alga that contains a variety of nutrients including amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. In our previous study, Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation did not affect salivary flow rates in healthy young individuals, but Chlorella-derived supplementation attenuated a decrease in saliva secretion that was observed during a kendo training camp. Hence, we hypothesized that Chlorella-derived supplementation increases saliva secretion in individuals with lower rates of saliva flow. Sixty-four subjects took Chlorella-derived tablets for four weeks. Before and after supplementation, saliva samples were collected by chewing cotton. In the complete study group, there was no difference in saliva production before and after supplementation (1.91 ± 0.11 ml/min before vs 2.01 ± 0.12 ml/min after). Analysis of subgroups based on saliva production before supplementation found an increase in saliva secretion in the lower saliva flow group (1.18 ± 0.06 vs 1.38 ± 0.08 ml/min), but no change in the higher saliva flow group (2.63 ± 0.11 vs 2.64 ± 0.15 ml/min). These results suggest that Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation increases saliva production in individuals with lower levels of saliva secretion. PMID:27499578

  8. Thymus vulgaris L., Glycyrrhiza glabra or Combo® enzyme in corn vs. barley-based broiler diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Kalantar; Mostafa Rezaei; Jalal Salary; Hamid Reza Hemati Matin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the effect of supplementation of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris) or Glycyrrhizaglabra (G. glabra) in corn-soybean meal diets as well as the inclusion of an exogenous enzyme i.e. Combo ® in barley-soybean meal diets together with mentioned medicinal plants in broiler diets. Methods: A total of 270 unsexed 1-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) was randomly assigned to 6 treatments with 3 replications of 15 birds in each. Diets were comprised of the control (T1), the inclusion of T. vulgaris, G. glabra, their mixture (equal amount), Combo ® supplementation (T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively) in diets based on corn-soybean meal diets and enzyme supplementation plus equal amount of tested medicinal plants (T6) based on barley-soybean meal diets. Medicinal plants and enzyme were included in diets at level 0.5% and 0.2% of diets, respectively.Results:The highest feed intake was obtained by T1 at 1-21 d of age (P<0.05). All diets caused significant increases in weight gain and significant decreases in feed conversion ratio compared to control at this age (P<0.05). Significant reductions were acquired in feed intake by T3 and T6 at 22-42 d of age (P<0.05). All diets significantly decreased total number of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Gram-negative bacteria and increased lactic acid bacteria compared to control (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that basal diet has vital character to effectiveness of medicinal plants in broiler diets. Beneficial effects on intestinal microflora were brought by use of T. vulgaris L. and G. glabra in corn-based diets or in barley-based diets together with enzyme. Thus, this capability can support growth performance of broiler chickens at lower age.

  9. Effect of gamma radiation on growth, productivity and protein content of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy at a dose rate of 4.500 Gy/h on growth, productivity and protein content of Chlorella pyroneidosa has been studied. High doses of gamma radiation have been observed to inhibit cellular division of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Culture growth stopped 48 hours after irradiation at 5.000 Gy and 72 hours after irradiation at 500 and 1000 Gy. The lowest dose (10 Gyl produced a little growth stimulation that not statistically significative. Protein and aminoacid content did not show any change for gamma radiation doses studied. (Author) 32 refs

  10. Complete genome sequence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Costelli, Cristina; Malavasi, Veronica; Cusano, Roberto; Concas, Alessandro; Angius, Andrea; Cao, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    The complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of the Chlorella sorokiniana strain (SAG 111-8 k) is presented in this work. Within the Chlorella genus, it represents the second species with a complete sequenced and annotated mitochondrial genome (GenBank accession no. KM241869). The genome consists of circular chromosomes of 52,528 bp and encodes a total of 31 protein coding genes, 3 rRNAs and 26 tRNAs. The overall AT contents of the C. sorokiniana mtDNA is 70.89%, while the coding sequence is of 97.4%.

  11. [Effects of light quality on the growth characteristics and biochemical component of Chlorella pyrenoidosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qing-Qing; Fang, Zhi-Guo; Ji, Wen-Wen; Xia, Hui-Long

    2014-11-01

    Effect of light quality, including red light, blue light, white light, red and blue mixing light with ratios of 8: 1, 8:2 and 8 : 3, on the growth characteristics and biochenmical composition of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was investigated based on light emitting diode (LED). Results showed that Chlorella pyrenoidosa grew best under blue light, and the optical density, specific growth rate and biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was about 2.4, 0.10 d(-1) and 0.64 g x L(-1), respectively, while the optical density of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was between 1.0 and 1.7, the specific growth rate was between 0.07-0.10 d(-1) and the biomass was between 0.27 and 0.38 g x L(-1) under other light quality after 30 days of cultivation. Under blue light, the optical density, specific growth rate and biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was approximately 2.05 times, 1.33 times and 2.06 times higher than red light, respectively. Moreover, red and blue mixing light was conducive to the synthesis of chlorophyll a and β-carotene of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and blue light could promote the synthesis of chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll a and carotenoids content of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was 13.5 mg xg(-1) and 5.8 mg x g(-1) respectively under red and blue mixing light with a ratio of 8:1, while it was 8.4 mg x g(-1) and 3.6 mg x g(-1) respectively under blue light. Red and blue mixing light was more conducive to protein and total lipid content per dry cell of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Protein and total lipid content was 489.3 mg x g(-1) and 311.2 mg x g(-1) under red and blue mixing light with a ratio of 8 : 3, while it was 400.9 mg x g(-1) and 231.9 mg x g(-1) respectively under blue light.

  12. Esophageal Involvement of Pemphigus Vulgaris Associated with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Sooyun; Park, Soo Jung; Kim, Sun Wook; Jin, Moo-Nyun; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal involvement of pemphigus vulgaris is rare, and when present, the most common presenting symptoms reported in the medical literature are odynophagia and dysphagia. Here, we present two cases of pemphigus vulgaris presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage because of esophageal involvement of the disease. In case 1, a 41-year-old female patient with a prior diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris presented with hematemesis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed diffuse mucosal exfoliation...

  13. The Influence of Chlorella and Its Hot Water Extract Supplementation on Quality of Life in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-control, randomized, and open-label clinical trial was performed to test the effects of the unicellular green algae Chlorella and hot water extract supplementation on quality of life (QOL in patients with breast cancer. Forty-five female patients with breast cancer who were living at home and not hospitalized were randomly assigned to 3 groups receiving vitamin mix tablet (control, Chlorella granules (test food-1, or Chlorella extract drink (test food-2 daily for one month. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B, the Izumo scale for abdominal symptom-specific QOL, and a narrative-form questionnaire were used to determine outcomes. Data of thirty-six subjects were included for final analysis. FACT-B scores at presupplementation found no significant group differences in all subscales. Scores on the breast cancer subscale in the Chlorella granule group significantly increased during the supplementation period (P=0.042. Fifty percent of the Chlorella extract group reported positive effects by the test food such as reduction of fatigue and improvements of dry skin (P<0.01 versus control group. The findings suggested the beneficial effects of Chlorella on breast cancer-related QOL and of Chlorella extract on vitality status in breast cancer patients. These findings need to be confirmed in a larger study.

  14. The acclimation of Chlorella to high-level nitrite for potential application in biological NOx removal from industrial flue gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianpei; Xu, Gang; Rong, Junfeng; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Giordano, Mario; Wang, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the components of fossil flue gas that give rise to the greatest environmental concerns. This study evaluated the ability of the green algae Chlorella to acclimate to high level of NOx and the potential utilization of Chlorella strains in biological NOx removal (DeNOx) from industrial flue gases. Fifteen Chlorella strains were subject to high-level of nitrite (HN, 176.5 mmolL(-1) nitrite) to simulate exposure to high NOx. These strains were subsequently divided into four groups with respect to their ability to tolerate nitrite (excellent, good, fair, and poor). One strain from each group was selected to evaluate their photosynthetic response to HN condition, and the nitrite adaptability of the four Chlorella strains were further identified by using chlorophyll fluorescence. The outcome of our experiments shows that, although high concentrations of nitrite overall negatively affect growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella strains, the degree of nitrite tolerance is a strain-specific feature. Some Chlorella strains have an appreciably higher ability to acclimate to high-level of nitrite. Acclimation is achieved through a three-step process of restrict, acclimate, and thriving. Notably, Chlorella sp. C2 was found to have a high tolerance and to rapidly acclimate to high concentrations of nitrite; it is therefore a promising candidate for microalgae-based biological NOx removal. PMID:27010349

  15. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  16. Effects of feeding Beta vulgaris saccharifera bulb for fattening desert lambs under tropical conditions of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of introducing Sugar Beet bulb as a cheap substitute for grains in rations formulated for sheep fattening. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Experimental unit of Rural Development and extension center, Faculty of animal production, University of Gezira. Twenty four Sudanese desert lambs (Ashgur ecotype were purchased from local markets to assess the effects of replacing grain with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris saccharifera Bulb on feed lot performance, carcass traits under tropical conditions of Sudan. Sugar Beet bulb was incorporated in three rations with a control ration (A: control, B, C, D at percentages of 0, 11, 22, and 33. Results: The results showed that total weight gain and daily feed intake in group D were significantly different at (P<0.05 where values of 5.59±1.73 and 0.94± 0.13 kg were recorded. Total weight gain, daily dry matter intake, daily energy intake and feed conversion ratio were in the range of 10.67- 5.59, 1.03-0.83, 0.33-0.27and 11.77- 7.70 kg respectively. Treatments showed no significant differences at (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, empty body weight, dressing % on slaughter weight basis and dressing % on empty weight basis, the obtained results for these traits were 27.78-25.37, 24.76- 22.22, 45.80- 43.45% and 51.41- 49.65%. Carcass cuts (Leg, Loin, Rack, Plate and Neck & shoulder weight and percentages showed no significant differences among treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that replacing expensive grains with Beta vulgaris bulb can be practiced in sheep fattening project up to 22% with excellent results. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 330-334

  17. Treatment of acne vulgaris with anti androgens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaswani Neena

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of spironolactone and cimetidine in moderately severe acne vulgaris. Fifteen women were treated with spironolactone (100 mg daily given cyclically, while 14 women were given cimetidine (1400 mg daily cyclically. The response was evaluated at 12 weeks. Spironolactone produced a good to excellent response in 11 (73. 3% acne patients while with cimetidine 6 (42.8% patients showed a good to excellent response. The mean reduction of the non-inflammatory and inflammatory lesion count was 29. 3 + 3. 6 and 9. 7 + 1. 3 respectively with spironolactone and 18.6 + 5.8 and 6.4 + 2.1 respectively with cimetidine. The response of acne vulgaris to spironolactone was superior to that of cimetidine and this difference was statistically significant (p< .05. The side effects were minimal and did not necessitate withdrawal of treatment.

  18. Giant lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchidanand, S; Sharavana, S; Mallikarjun, M; Nataraja, H V

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be an important public health problem even with the availability of highly effective anti-tuberculous drugs. It constitutes 0.1% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis that occurs in previously sensitized individuals with a moderate degree of immunity against tubercle bacilli. The different types of lupus vulgaris include plaque, ulcerative, vegetative, papular and nodular, and tumor forms. A 40-year-old man presented with large multiple plaques over right upper limb, right side of chest and back, and right lower limb for the past 30 years. Histopathology showed numerous noncaseating granulomas with Langhan's type of giant cells. The Mantoux test showed strong positivity and there was excellent response to anti-tuberculous treatment. This case is being reported because of its extreme chronicity of 30 years duration, unusually large size and multiplicity of lesions.

  19. Influence of culture conditions on growth and protein metabolism in chlorella pyranosides; Influencia de las condiciones de cultivo sobre el crecimiento y metabolismo proteico de chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Batuecas Suarez, B.

    1981-07-01

    Growth and protein metabolism of Chlorella pyranoside under different conditions of temperature, photo period and CO{sub 2} concentration was studied. The optimum of biomass production was observed at 25 degree centigree, 40.000 ppm of CO{sub 2} in air and a 20 h. light period, followed of 4 h. of darkness. Some variations in free aminoacids content was observed under different conditions but no change did occur in protein. (Author) 68 refs.

  20. ACNE VULGARIS TREATMENT : THE CURRENT SCENARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Acne Vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders which dermatologists have to treat. It mainly affect adolescent, though may present at any age. In recent years, due to better understanding of the pathogenesis of acne, new therapeutic modalities and various permutation and combinations have been designed. In topical agents; benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, etc are the mainstay of treatment; can be given in combinations. While systemic therapy includes oral antibiotics, hormonal...

  1. The Historic Panorama of Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Humyra Tabasum; Tanzeel Ahmad; Farzana Anjum; Hina Rehman

    2013-01-01

    Although acne is described in very ancient writings dating back to Eber’s Papyrus, its clear description is found after Fuch’s coined the term ‘Acne Vulgaris’ and Erasmus Wilson separated it from acne rosacea. The early treatment of acne was based upon the witchcraft. Later new therapies got evolved with the discoveries in the field of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The following review focuses the historical overview of acne vulgaris, highlighting persons and discoveries in medival an...

  2. Treatment of acne vulgaris with anti androgens

    OpenAIRE

    Vaswani Neena; Pandhi R

    1990-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of spironolactone and cimetidine in moderately severe acne vulgaris. Fifteen women were treated with spironolactone (100 mg daily) given cyclically, while 14 women were given cimetidine (1400 mg daily) cyclically. The response was evaluated at 12 weeks. Spironolactone produced a good to excellent response in 11 (73. 3%) acne patients while with cimetidine 6 (42.8%) patients showed a good to excellent response. The mean re...

  3. Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Emiroğlu, Nazan; Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Kemeriz, Funda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acne vulgaris is a pilosebaceous gland disease that usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood. It is seen especially on the face, neck, trunk and arms. Its severity differs from patient to patient and its pathogenesis is multifactorial. The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. Diet is always thought a probable reason for acne and...

  4. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neirita Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire. Results: Females (56%, 15–20 year olds (61%, facial lesions (60%, and Grade II acne (70% were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10 interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05 found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  5. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Neirita Hazarika; M Archana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January...

  6. [ACNE VULGARIS--AETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, TREATMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Chwilkowska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    A spotless skin is a rarity. Both women and men have different problems related to the complexion. One of the most common problems is acne, which affects an increasing number of people of all ages. Seborrhea skin areas rich in sebaceous glands, the formation of comedones, inflammation, and scars are characteristic for this disease. The aim of the study was to discuss the causes of acne vulgaris, methods of treatment, and proper care of the skin affected by this problem.

  7. Mutate Chlorella sp. by nuclear irradiation to fix high concentrations of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Yun; Feng, Jia; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-05-01

    To improve biomass productivity and CO2 fixation of microalgae under 15% (v/v) CO2 of flue gas, Chlorella species were mutated by nuclear irradiation and domesticated with high concentrations of CO2. The biomass yield of Chlorella pyrenoidosa mutated using 500 Gy of (60)Co γ irradiation increased by 53.1% (to 1.12 g L(-1)) under air bubbling. The mutants were domesticated with gradually increased high concentrations of CO2 [from 0.038% (v/v) to 15% (v/v)], which increased the biomass yield to 2.41 g L(-1). When light transmission and culture mixing in photo-bioreactors were enhanced at 15% (v/v) CO2, the peak growth rate of the domesticated mutant (named Chlorella PY-ZU1) was increased to 0.68 g L(-1) d(-1). When the ratio of gas flow rate (L min(-1)) to 1L of microalgae culture was 0.011, the peak CO2 fixation rate and the efficiency of Chlorella PY-ZU1 were 1.54 g L(-1) d(-1) and 32.7%, respectively. PMID:23567722

  8. Vitmin A, nutrition, and health values of algea: spirulina, chlorella, and dunaliella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro ...

  9. Effective harvesting of the microalgae Chlorella protothecoides via bioflocculation with cationic starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letelier Gordo, Carlos Octavio; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; De Francisci, Davide;

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the flocculation efficiency of cationic starch (Greenfloc 120) was tested on the fresh water microalga Chlorella protothecoides under different conditions (pH and flocculant concentrations). Different concentrations of Greenfloc 120 (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40mgL-1) were screened...

  10. Presence of a chlorophyll d-like pigment in Chlorella extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel-Wolwertz, M.R.; Sironval, C.; Goedheer, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Three chlorophyll a isomers (a₁, a₂ and a₃) were separated by the chromatography of Chlorella extracts on paper 1. One of these, chlorophyll (a₃) showed additional absorption bands at 688 and 455 mμ in diethyl ether. Chromatographic analysis could not decide whether these bands were due to a₃ or to

  11. First case of Chlorella wound infection in a human in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old man developed an infected knee wound 2 days after jumping his bicycle into a freshwater dam. He required repeated debridement and tissue grew bright green colonies typical of the alga Chlorella plus Aeromonas hydrophila. This, and one previously reported case, responded to surgical debridement and careful wound management.

  12. Physiological and ultralstructural changes of Chlorella sp. induced by UV-B radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Juan; TANG Xuexi; ZHANG Peiyu; TIAN Jiyuan; DONG Shuanglin

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of enhanced UV-B radiation on algae, the effects of UV-B radiation on the physiological and ultrastructural changes of Chlorella sp. were examined. The results showed that UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of microalgae. UV-B radiation at lower doses increased the photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll a (Chla) and carotenoid (Car)) contents, while at higher doses of UV-B radiation Chla and Car contents were decreased. The ultrastructure of Chlorella sp.without exposure to UV-B showed that the thylakoidlamellae were clear and regular, the stroma of its chloroplast was apparent and clear.The globules with photosynthetic pigments and the cristae of mitochondria were clearly seen. After exposure to UV-B radiation at dose of 2.88 kJ/m2, the thylakoid lamellae of Chlorella sp. were lost and dissolved, the globules which contained photosynthetic pigments in chloroplast were bleached; some mitochondria cristae were dissolved; slight plasmolysis was found in some Chlorella sp. cells. After exposure to 5.76 kJ/m2 UV-B radiation, the thylakoid was in disarray and disintegration, plasmolysis was found in most cells, and the cell wall was broken and began to fall out. Many blank areas were observed in cells, mitochondria were seriously deformed and most of the mitochondria cristae were dissolved. Also, globules containing photosynthetic pigments in chloroplast were bleached and some empty globules were found in chloroplast. Therefore, UV-B radiation could damage cell structure of Chlorella sp., and this damage increased with the dose of UV-B radiation they exposed to.

  13. Variation in the Breeding System of Prunella vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunella vulgaris (Lamiaceae), commonly known as selfheal, is a perennial herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine. Recent studies have found that P. vulgaris possesses anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-bacterial properties, which may lead to increased commercial demand. To date...

  14. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H;

    1998-01-01

    and caffeine intake from different sources on the probability of conception. From 1992 to 1995, a total of 430 couples were recruited after a nationwide mailing of a personal letter to 52,255 trade union members who were 20 to 35 years old, lived with a partner, and had no previous reproductive experience...... between caffeine intake and fecundability was analyzed in a logistic regression model with the outcome at each cycle (pregnant or not pregnant) in a Cox discrete model calculating the fecundability odds-ratio (FR). Compared to nonsmoking women with caffeine intake less than 300 mg/d, nonsmoking women who...... caffeine and smoking is biologically plausible, and the lack of effect among smokers may be due to faster metabolism of caffeine. Our findings suggest that especially nonsmoking women who wish to achieve a pregnancy might benefit from a reduced caffeine intake....

  15. Chlorella for protein and biofuels: from strain selection to outdoor cultivation in a Green Wall Panel photobioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Guccione, Alessia; Biondi, Natascia; Sampietro, Giacomo; Rodolfi, Liliana; Bassi, Niccolò; Tredici, Mario R

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlorella is one of the few microalgae employed for human consumption. It typically has a high protein content, but it can also accumulate high amounts of lipids or carbohydrates under stress conditions and, for this reason, it is of interest in the production of biofuels. High production costs and energy consumption are associated with its cultivation. This work describes a strategy to reduce costs and environmental impact of Chlorella biomass production for food, biofuels and oth...

  16. Research Advances on Chlorella Cell-breakage Technology%小球藻破壁技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟韵山; 徐仰仓; 荆柏林; 王晓燕

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella contained plentiful nutrients, and it had many healthcare functions. Now chlorella has been applied in food industry as functional food or nutrition fortifier. However, the cell wall of chlorella was very hard so that it was difficult to break, and the activate component in cell was difficult to release. All of these restricted chlorella application. Therefore, the cell-breakage was one of the key technologies in chlorella industry. This paper reviewed various cell-breakage technology of chlorella and gave some own ideas.%小球藻含有丰富的营养物质,具有多种保健功能,已作为功能食品和营养强化剂应用于食品工业。但由于小球藻的细胞壁十分坚硬,很难破碎,其内的有效成分不易释放,应用价值因此而受到了影响。因此,破壁技术是小球藻产业的关键技术之一。本文对现有的各种破壁技术进行了综述,并在此基础上提出一些自己的想法。

  17. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT NITROGEN SOURCES ON GROWTH AND LIPID ACCUMULATION OF A HETEROTROPHIC MICROALGAE-CHORELLA VULGARIS%不同氮源对异养小球藻生物量和油脂积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱义平; 宋东辉; 杨国兰

    2012-01-01

    biomass concentration and accumulation of much higher lipid content than classical photoautotrophic culture. Instead of using glucose, using low cost materials, such as starch or cellulose-hydrolyzed solution, is a good strategy to reduce the cost of culture medium and the cost of microalgae-based biofuels from heterotrophic fermentation of Chlorella. Potato starch is relatively cheap material in comparison with cornstarch or cassava starch, hence it could be an ideal carbon source for cultivating Chlorella. In a number of oil-producing microalgal species, Chlorella has the capacity of accumulating much higher proportion of fatty acids by nitrogen starvation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of various nitrogen resources on cell growth and lipid accumulation in heterotrophic Chlorella vulgaris using potato starch hydrolysate (PSH) as the sole carbon source. In order to illustrate the influence of various nitrogen sources on biomass and lipid content in C. vulgaris, the effects of these nitrogen source including inorganic and organic nitrogen source such as alanine or tyrosine on cell growth and lipid accumulation of C. vulgaris were examined. As the sole carbon source PSH was added to SE medium for algal cultivation prior to addition of all nitrogen sources. NaNO3 and alanine were added to yield starting concentrations of 1.5 mmol /L, 3.0 mmol/L and 6.0 mmol/L, respectively. Tyrosine was added to yield starting concentrations of 0.75 mmol/L, 1.5 mmol /L and 3.0 mmol/L, respectively. Continuous cultivation of C. vulgaris was carried out under dark condition for 10 days. The cell number, special growth rate, cellular chlorophyll content, neutral lipid content and total lipid content of C. vulgaris under present cultural condition were determined throughout the entire experimental period. The results showed that: (1) Higher chlorophyll content and biomass production were observed with higher nitrate-nitrogen concentration, although low

  18. CADMIUM IN OCTOPUS VULGARIS: AN INPUT TO ASSESS HUMAN HEALTH RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ceci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium concentrations has been evaluated in Octopus vulgaris sampled from two sites of Apulian coast (South Italy and compared with import cephalopods to estimate if maximum levels of cadmium established for these organisms by the European Commission were exceed. In all local samples mean cadmium concentrations were higher in hepatopancreas than in flesh, this is an important evaluation if consider the traditional and unusual consumption in certain population of Mediterranean region of raw and whole cephalopods. The cadmium estimated weekly intake for whole cephalopods between 2,25 and 2,84 g Kg -1 of body weight underlines the necessity to determine the real risk and implications for public health through a correct assessment of contribution made by this specie among certain consumers group to the TWI set by the EFSA. A particular attention from competent authorities to prevent human toxicity is required.

  19. The Historic Panorama of Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humyra Tabasum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although acne is described in very ancient writings dating back to Eber’s Papyrus, its clear description is found after Fuch’s coined the term ‘Acne Vulgaris’ and Erasmus Wilson separated it from acne rosacea. The early treatment of acne was based upon the witchcraft. Later new therapies got evolved with the discoveries in the field of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The following review focuses the historical overview of acne vulgaris, highlighting persons and discoveries in medival and modern period.

  20. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  1. Clinico- Pathological Study Of Ichthyosis Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Utpal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinico- pathological study of 28 cases of ichthyosis vulgaris appeared with in the age of 5 years. The presence of the disease since birth was also found. While most (24 patients showed a diminution of severity in summer with an aggravation during winter, 4 patients followed the opposite seasonal pattern. Only in 4 patients, fine scales in the scalp were detected. One patient showed an affection of flexures. There was also a low occurrence of palmo- planter hyperkeratosis, follicular keratosis, fissuring of hands and feet and atopy.

  2. Annular lupus vulgaris mimicking tinea cruris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun; Oh, Chil Hwan

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress.

  3. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.

  4. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  5. Lupus vulgaris: unusual presentation on face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilani, A; Vora, R V

    2014-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. As the disease has potential to mutilate when left untreated, leaving deforming scars and disfigurement, an early diagnosis is of paramount importance. Though the common type is plaque type, rarely mutilating and vegetative forms also are found. A 28 year old female, labourer presented with progressive annular plaque over right side of cheek extending upto right lower lid and ala of nose. There were two satellite plaques near the right side of giant lesion. On diascopy apple jelly nodule was seen. There was no regional lymhadenopathy. Histopathological examination showed many granulomas in upper dermis extending to deep dermis comprising of epitheloid cells with langhans' type of giant cells, lymphocytic infiltration & focal necrosis suggestive of lupus vulgaris. The consequences of failing to make an early diagnosis can be disastrous for the patients, as the progression of the disease can lead to necrosis, destruction of bones and cartilage leading to permanent deformity. Thus it is vital for clinicians to have a high index of suspicion of such atypical forms and take biopsy samples for histological and bacteriological studies.

  6. LIPID CHARACTERISTICS AND TAXONOMIC IMPLICATION OF MARINE MICROALGAE CHLORELLA SP.1061%海洋微藻Chlorella sp.1061的脂类特征与分类探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯福应; 杨文; 林伟; 姜桂珍; 许亦农; 匡廷云

    2004-01-01

    采用生化分析方法研究了海洋微藻Chlorella sp. 1061色素、极性脂及其脂肪酸组成特点.结果表明,Chlorella sp. 1061色素、极性脂及其脂肪酸组成均与小球藻属的其它藻类存在着很大差异.绿藻纲中的主要化合物, 如叶绿素b、十六碳四烯酸[16:4(n-3)]和亚麻酸[18:3(n-3)]均未在Chlorella sp. 1061中检测到.从Chlorella sp. 1061中分离到占总极性甘油脂8mol%的甜菜碱-1,2-二酰基甘油-O-4'-(N, N, N-三甲基)高丝氨酸(DGTS),并从半乳糖脂和DGTS等极性甘油脂中检测到大量的二十碳五烯酸[20:5(n-3)] (EPA).但是一般认为,小球藻属藻类中不含这两种化合物.根据Chlorella sp. 1061的这些特点,作者认为它不应该被归到小球藻属中.由于Chlorella sp. 1061在色素、极性甘油脂及其脂肪酸组成特征方面与大眼藻纲(Eustigmatophyceae)中的拟微绿球藻(Nannochloropsis)非常相似,因此, Chlorella sp. 1061可能是Nannochloropsis中的一个种.

  7. Cloning and Characterization of the -Carotene Desaturase Gene from Chlorella protothecoides CS-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the lutein biosynthesis pathway in the lutein-producing alga, Chlorella protothecoides CS-41, the -carotene desaturase gene (zds was isolated from Chlorella protothecoides using the approach of rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA sequence was 2031 bp and contained 1755 bp putative open reading frame which encodes a 584 amino acid deduced polypeptide whose computed molecular weight was 63.7 kDa. Sequence homology research indicated that the nucleotide and putative protein had sequence identities of 72.5% and 69.5% with those of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the ZDS from C. protothecoides CS-41 had a closer relationship with those of chlorophyta and higher plants than with those of other species. In addition, we also found that the zds gene expression was upregulated in response to light.

  8. Utilization of carbon dioxide in industrial flue gases for the cultivation of microalga Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Chiu, Tzai-Wen; Lin, Hsiun-Yu; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The biomass and lipid productivity of Chlorella sp. MTF-15 cultivated using aeration with flue gases from a coke oven, hot stove or power plant in a steel plant of the China Steel Corporation in Taiwan were investigated. Using the flue gas from the coke oven, hot stove or power plant for cultivation, the microalgal strain obtained a maximum specific growth rate and lipid production of (0.827 d(-1), 0.688 g L(-1)), (0.762 d(-1), 0.961 g L(-1)), and (0.728 d(-1), 0.792 g L(-1)), respectively. This study demonstrated that Chlorella sp. MTF-15 could efficiently utilize the CO₂, NOX and SO₂ present in the different flue gases. The results also showed that the growth potential, lipid production and fatty acid composition of the microalgal strain were dependent on the composition of the flue gas and on the operating strategy deployed.

  9. Improving cell growth and lipid accumulation in green microalgae Chlorella sp. via UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyu; Zhao, Yueping; Liu, Li; Ao, Xiyong; Ma, Liyan; Wu, Minghong; Ma, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Microalgae with high biomass and high lipid content are the ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. To obtain such microalgae, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was applied to Chlorella sp. to induce mutagenesis. The growth characteristics, total nitrogen (TN), and biochemical compositions of the control and UV mutation strains were analyzed. Compared to the control strain, the biomass for the UV mutation strain was 7.6 % higher and it presented a higher growth rate. The lipid content of the UV mutation strain showed different levels of increase and reached the maximum value of 28.1 % on day 15. Furthermore, the lipid productivity of the UV mutation strain showed a desired increase. The nitrogen consumption and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity contributed to the lipid production by UV. All these results indicate that UV mutagenesis is an efficient method to improve probability for using Chlorella sp. as the potential raw material for biodiesel production.

  10. Cultivation of microalgal Chlorella for biomass and lipid production using wastewater as nutrient resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Yu-Bin; Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Using wastewater for microalgal cultures is beneficial for minimizing the use of freshwater, reducing the cost of nutrient addition, removing nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and producing microalgal biomass as bioresources for biofuel or high-value by-products. There are three main sources of wastewater, municipal (domestic), agricultural and industrial wastewater, which contain a variety of ingredients. Some components in the wastewater, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are useful ingredients for microalgal cultures. In this review, the effects on the biomass and lipid production of microalgal Chlorella cultures using different kinds of wastewater were summarized. The use of the nutrients resource in wastewater for microalgal cultures was also reviewed. The effect of ammonium in wastewater on microalgal Chlorella growth was intensively discussed. In the end, limitations of wastewater-based of microalgal culture were commented in this review article.

  11. Biomass and lipid production of a local isolate Chlorella sorokiniana under mixotrophic growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntila, D J; Bautista, M A; Monotilla, W

    2015-09-01

    A local Chlorella sp. isolate with 97% rbcL sequence identity to Chlorella sorokiniana was evaluated in terms of its biomass and lipid production under mixotrophic growth conditions. Glucose-supplemented cultures exhibited increasing growth rate and biomass yield with increasing glucose concentration. Highest growth rate and biomass yield of 1.602 day(-1) and 687.5 mg L(-1), respectively, were achieved under 2 g L(-1) glucose. Nitrogen starvation up to 75% in the 1.0 g L(-1) glucose-supplemented culture was done to induce lipid accumulation and did not significantly affect the growth. Lipid content ranges from 20% to 27% dry weight. Nile Red staining showed more prominent neutral lipid bodies in starved mixotrophic cultures. C. sorokiniana exhibited enhanced biomass production under mixotrophy and more prominent neutral lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation with no significant decrease in growth; hence, this isolate could be further studied to establish its potential for biodiesel production.

  12. Cultivation of Microalgae Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. as a Potentional Biofuel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. dr. Violeta Makareviciene

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of two robust algae strains Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. growing in Lithuanian lakes was investigated with the aim to obtain optimum conditions for biomass cultivation for biofuel production in the Lithuanian environment. Samples were taken from different nitrogen sources and of different concentrations, with addition of various concentrations of CO2 and in the presence of salt. The best biomass productivity was achieved using urea as a nitrogen source or modified growing medium BG11 with decreased concentration of NaNO3. The positive impact on the growth of biomass was achieved by aeration with CO2 (especially with concentration of 24%. Additional research into the removal of pollutants, such inorganic salts of nitrogen and phosphorus and organic materials from wastewater using microalgae has revealed good possibilities of using both algae strains in wastewater treatment plants. A content of oil in Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp. has suggested their potential use as biodiesel feedstock.

  13. Nitrogen balancing and xylose addition enhances growth capacity and protein content in Chlorella minutissima cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, B C B; Esquível, M G; Matos, R G; Arraiano, C M; Morais, M G; Costa, J A V

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the metabolic changes in Chlorella minutissima cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions and with the addition of xylose. The cell density, maximum photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll and lipid levels were measured. The expression of two photosynthetic proteins, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and the beta subunit (AtpB) of adenosine triphosphate synthase, were measured. Comparison of cells grown in medium with a 50% reduction in the nitrogen concentration versus the traditional medium solution revealed that the cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions exhibited an increased growth rate, higher maximum cell density (12.7×10(6)cellsmL(-1)), optimal PSII efficiency (0.69) and decreased lipid level (25.08%). This study has taken the first steps toward protein detection in Chlorella minutissima, and the results can be used to optimize the culturing of other microalgae. PMID:27359061

  14. Calcinosis cutis secondary to facial acne vulgaris: A rare complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Srimanta Kumar; Gupta, Nikhil; Vohra, Suruchi

    2015-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disease commonly affecting the adolescent and young adults. It is characterized by the presence of pleomorphic skin lesions such as comadones, papules, pustules, and nodules. The common complications are postacne hyperpigmentation and scarring causing psychological impact. Calcinosis cutis is the pathologic deposition of insoluble calcium salt in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Calcinosis cutis following acne vulgaris is rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of calcinosis cutis in acne vulgaris in a 55-year-old man.

  15. Influence of culture conditions on growth and protein metabolism in chlorella pyranosides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth and protein metabolism of Chlorella pyranoside under different conditions of temperature, photo period and CO2 concentration was studied. The optimum of biomass production was observed at 25 degree centigree, 40.000 ppm of CO2 in air and a 20 h. light period, followed of 4 h. of darkness. Some variations in free aminoacids content was observed under different conditions but no change did occur in protein. (Author) 68 refs

  16. Can Chlorella pyrenoidosa be a bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Li-Fang, E-mail: hulif127@163.com [College of Quality and Safety Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Long, Yu-Yang; Shen, Dong-Sheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012 (China); Jiang, Chen-Jing [The Second Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2012-02-01

    Four kinds of solid waste residue (SWR, S1 to S4) from different stages in a sequential detoxification process were chosen. The biotoxicity of the leachates from S1 to S4 was tested by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The growth inhibition, the chlorophyll a (chla) and chlorophyll b (chlb) concentrations, and the ultrastructural morphology of cells of C. pyrenoidosa were studied. It shows that the growth inhibition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased with increasing leachate concentration when exposed to the leachates from S1, S2, S3, and S4, respectively. It well reflects the toxicity difference of leachate from SWR at different treatment stages, namely S1 > S2 > S3 > S4. Correspondingly, the chla and chlb concentrations of C. pyrenoidosa increased gradually as SWR was treated deeply. Leachate disrupted chlorophyll synthesis and inhibited cell growth. The changing of the ultrastructural morphology of cells under different leachate exposures, such as volume of chloroplasts and quantity of thylakoids reducing, confirmed the toxicity decrease of leachates from different stages. C. pyrenoidosa is a good bioindicator for hazardous solid waste detoxification. The EC{sub 50} at difference scenarios also suggests that it was feasible to estimate ecological toxicity of leachates to C. pyrenoidosa after exposure times of 72 h. C. pyrenoidosa can be introduced to evaluate the effect of hazardous solid waste disposal by biotoxicity assessment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detoxification process of hazardous solid waste was evaluated by Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best exposure time of ecological toxicity assessment of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible toxicity of the hazardous solid waste at different disposal stage on Chlorella pyrenoidosa was explored from cell tissue.

  17. Physicochemical effects on sulfite transformation in a lipid-rich Chlorella sp. strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Wen, Xiaobin; Luo, Liming; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2014-11-01

    SO2 is very rapidly hydrated to sulfurous acid in water solution at pH value above 6.0, whereby sulfite is yielded from the disassociation of protons. We aimed to improve the sulfite transformation efficiency and provide a basis for the direct utilization of SO2 from flue gas by a microalgal suspension. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 was cultured in a medium with 20 mmol/L sodium sulfite under different physicochemical conditions. Under light conditions, sulfite concentration in the algal suspension reduced linearly over time, and was completely converted into sulfate within 8 h. The highest sulfite transformation rate (3.25 mmol/(L·h)) was obtained under the following conditions: 35°C, light intensity of 300 μmol/(m2·s), NaHCO3 concentration of 6 g/L, initial cell density (OD540) of 0.8 and pH of 9-10. There was a positive correlation between sulfite transformation rate and the growth of Chlorella, with the conditions favorable to algal growth giving better sulfite transformation. Although oxygen in the air plays a role in the transformation of SO2- 3 to SO2- 4, the transformation is mainly dependent on the metabolic activity of algal cells. Chlorella sp. XQ-20044 is capable of tolerating high sulfite concentration, and can utilize sulfite as the sole sulfur source for maintaining healthy growth. We found that sulfite ≤20 mmol/L had no obvious effect on the total lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the algae. Thus, the results suggest it is feasible to use flue gas for the mass production of feedstock for biodiesel using Chlorella sp. XQ-20044, without preliminary removal of SO2, assuming there is adequate control of the pH.

  18. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    H Hadiyanto; Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur; Ganang Dwi Hartanto

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%). The objective of the ...

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on photosynthetic metabolism of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa studied by 14CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation (10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy) on photosynthetic activity and metabolism of the primary products of photosynthesis has been studied on Chlorella pyrenoidosa cultures, by 14CO2 assimilation. The photosynthetic assimilation rate is remarkably depressed after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy doses, which also produce a significant change in radioactivity distribution pattern of primary compounds from photosynthetic metabolism after irradiation at 10 and 100 Gy. (author)

  20. DRY BIOMASS OF FRESH WATER ALGAE OF CHLORELLA GENUS IN THE COMBINED FORAGES FOR LAYING HENS

    OpenAIRE

    SVETLANA GRIGOROVA

    2006-01-01

    Dry biomass of algae is a good source of nutrients and biologically active substances, which in the last years attracted the interest of the specialists in their search for natural, ecologically and healthy sound foods for the animals. The aim of the present study was to characterize the chemical composition and the nutritive value of the dry biomass of fresh water algae of Chlorella genus cultivated in Bulgaria and to establish its effect on the laying hen productivity and the morphological ...

  1. Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of algae: Spirulina, Chlorella, and Dunaliella

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, G.; Suter, P M

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina, chlorella, and dunalliella are unicellular algae that are commercially produced worldwide. These algae are concentrated sources of carotenoids (especially provitamin A carotenoids) and other nutrients, such as vitamin B12. Their health benefits as a complementary dietary source for macro and micro nutrients have been studied and confirmed in various populations. The safety of human consuming these algae and products derived from these algae by humans has been widely studied. It is ...

  2. Cultivation of Chlorella on brewery wastewater and nano-particle biosynthesis by its biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyam, Vidhyasri; Subashchandrabose, Suresh Ramraj; Ganeshkumar, Vimalkumar; Thavamani, Palanisami; Chen, Zuliang; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated an integrated and sustainable approach for iron nanoparticles synthesis using Chlorella sp. MM3 biomass produced from the remediation of brewery wastewater. The algal growth characteristics, biomass production, nutrient removal, and nanoparticle synthesis including its characterisation were studied to prove the above approach. The growth curve of Chlorella depicted lag and exponential phase characteristics during the first 4days in a brewery wastewater collected from a single batch of brewing process (single water sample) indicating the growth of algae in brewery wastewater. The pollutants such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total organic carbon in single water sample were completely utilised by Chlorella for its growth. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra showed peaks at 706.56eV, 727.02eV, 289.84eV and 535.73eV which corresponded to the zero-valent iron, iron oxides, carbon and oxygen respectively, confirming the formation of iron nanoparticle capped with algal biomolecules. Scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis confirmed the presence of spherical shaped iron nanoparticles of size ranging from 5 to 50nm. To our knowledge, this is the first report on nanoparticle synthesis using the biomass generated from phycoremediation of brewery wastewater. PMID:27060245

  3. Optimization of simultaneous biomass production and nutrient removal by mixotrophic Chlorella sp. using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Ru; Chen, Jen-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    The bioprospecting of potentially mixotrophic microalgae in a constructed wetland was conducted. A locally isolated microalga, Chlorella sp., was grown to determine the effect of temperature, aeration rate, and cultivation time on simultaneous biomass production and nutrient removal from piggery wastewater using central composite design (CCD). The most important variable for the biomass productivity of Chlorella sp. was aeration rate, while that for lipid content and nutrient removal efficiency was cultivation time. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies were higher than that of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from piggery wastewater. The CCD results indicate that the highest biomass productivity (79.2 mg L(-1) d(-1)) and simultaneous nutrient removal efficiency (TN 80.9%, TP 99.2%, COD 74.5%) were obtained with a cultivation temperature of 25 °C, a cultivation time of 5 days, and an air aeration rate of 1.6 L L(-1) min(-1). Palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were both abundant in Chlorella sp. cells under mixotrophic cultivation with piggery wastewater.

  4. Effect of Selenate on Viability and Selenomethionine Accumulation of Chlorella sorokiniana Grown in Batch Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živan Gojkovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of Se(+VI on viability, cell morphology, and selenomethionine accumulation of the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana grown in batch cultures. Culture exposed to sublethal Se concentrations of 40 mg·L−1 (212 μM decreased growth rates for about 25% compared to control. A selenate EC50 value of 45 mg·L−1 (238.2 μM was determined. Results showed that chlorophyll and carotenoids contents were not affected by Se exposure, while oxygen evolution decreased by half. Ultrastructural studies revealed granular stroma, fingerprint-like appearance of thylakoids which did not compromise cell activity. Unlike control cultures, SDS PAGE electrophoresis of crude extracts from selenate-exposed cell cultures revealed appearance of a protein band identified as 53 kDa Rubisco large subunit of Chlorella sorokiniana, suggesting that selenate affects expression of the corresponding chloroplast gene as this subunit is encoded in the chloroplast DNA. Results revealed that the microalga was able to accumulate up to 140 mg·kg−1 of SeMet in 120 h of cultivation. This paper shows that Chlorella sorokiniana biomass can be enriched in the high value aminoacid SeMet in batch cultures, while keeping photochemical viability and carbon dioxide fixation activity intact, if exposed to suitable sublethal concentrations of Se.

  5. Variability of cadmium accumulation in cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Todarodes sagittatus collected in Sardinia in 2008-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Piras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cephalopods are known to accumulate cadmium and play an important role in its biomagnification. They are an essential link in marine trophic chain and represent an important case in studies on cadmium transfer to man through the food chain. Since cadmium concentration widely varies in different tissues of the cephalopods – mainly accumulating in the hepatopancreas – evisceration represents a recommended preliminary step to reduce cadmium intake in view of cephalopods consumption; yet, the residual concentration in the edible part may still be a risk for public health. This study is intended to assess cadmium levels variability in the muscles of Cephalopoda, considering the different feeding habitats and marine trophic webs. In compliance with EU regulation, a survey on cadmium and other heavy metal levels in various sea food, including cephalopods, was conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico of Sardinia in co-operation with local health authorities. During a five-year survey (2008- 2012, 90 samples were collected from the following species: commons octopus (Octopus vulgaris, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis, European squid (Loligo vulgaris, and flying squid (Todarodes sagittatus, located in different coastal areas and representatives of either benthic or nektonic habitats. Determination of cadmium levels was carried out according to Regulations (EC No. 882/2004, No. 1881/2006 and No. 333/2007. Analysis of the edible portion (muscle of fresh homogenised samples was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The results showed a highly skewed distribution of data. No statistically significant differences were observed among four distributions of the natural logs of cadmium levels in the species considered.

  6. Chlorella Resistance to Dehydration Conditions and Protection Effect of Different Cryoprotecants on Chlorella Cells%小球藻的风干致死及干燥保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会; 李环; 韦萍

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective]The aim was to study the chlorella resistance to dehydration conditions and effect of different cryoprotecants on drying of chorella cells. [ Method ] The protection effect of seven kinds of cryoprotecants on chlorella cells was analyzed. [ Result ] The protection effect of trehalose on chlorella cells was the best,and the survival rate of chlorella cells had improved by 50% with the applied trehalose concentration of 5%. [ Conclusion ] The result in this study had important guidance effect on the mutation breeding of chlorella.%[目的]研究小球藻的风干致死及干燥保护方法.[方法]比较7种保护剂对处于对数生长期的小球藻细胞的保护作用.[结果]海藻糖对藻细胞的保护效果最好,当海藻糖用量为5%时,藻细胞存活率提高了50%.[结论]该研究结果对淡水微藻的诱变育种具有重要指导意义.

  7. Propionibacterium acnes in the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei-Feng; Hsieh, Yao-Dung; Lin, Ya-Ching; Two, Aimee; Shu, Chih-Wen; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, a multi-factorial disease, is one of the most common skin diseases, affecting an estimated 80% of Americans at some point during their lives. The gram-positive and anaerobic Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) bacterium has been implicated in acne inflammation and pathogenesis. Therapies for acne vulgaris using antibiotics generally lack bacterial specificity, promote the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, and cause adverse effects. Immunotherapy against P. acnes or its antigens (sialidase and CAMP factor) has been demonstrated to be effective in mice, attenuating P. acnes-induced inflammation; thus, this method may be applied to develop a potential vaccine targeting P. acnes for acne vulgaris treatment. This review summarizes reports describing the role of P. acnes in the pathogenesis of acne and various immunotherapy-based approaches targeting P. acnes, suggesting the potential effectiveness of immunotherapy for acne vulgaris as well as P. acnes-associated diseases.

  8. URIC ACID: A NEW ANTIOXIDANT IN PATIENTS WITH PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Yousefi; Hoda Rahimi; Behrooz Barikbin; Parviz Toossi; Sara Lotfi; Mehdi Hedayati; Shima Younespour

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation are seen in many dermatologic disorders, for example, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo, acne vulgaris, pemphigus vulgaris (PV), lichen planus, and alopecia areata. ROS has an important role in the inflammation process. In PV, increased production of ROS leads to decline of antioxidants in plasma and red blood cells which results in oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate the level of these antioxidants in PV patie...

  9. Ichthyosis Vulgaris Coexisted with Acrokeratosis Verruciformis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Serarslan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyosis vulgaris is an autosomal dominant inherited, keratinization disorder and characterized by diffuse scaling. Acrokeratosis verruciformis is also an autosomal dominant, rare keratinization disorder and characterized by warty, brownish to skin colored papules on the dorsa of the hands and feet. We present a case of ichthyosis vulgaris coexisted with acrokeratosis verruciformis in a 24-year-old woman. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 134-6

  10. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovtun M. F.; Stepanyuk Ya. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata). Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata) was studied, during the developmental period starting with olfactory pit laying and finishing with definitive olfactory organ formation. Special attention is paid to vomeronasal organ and vomeronasal gland development. Reasoning from obtained data,...

  11. Pemphigus vulgaris and laser therapy: Crucial role of dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlić Verica; Vujić-Aleksić Vesna; Zubović Nina; Veselinović Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Pemphigus vulgaris is a relatively rare, chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disorder characterized by formation of intraepithelial vesiculae and/or bullae in the skin and mucous membrane. Systemic steroids are considered to be the standard first-line therapy for pemphigus vulgaris. However, for patients unresponsive to standard therapy, the new treatment modalities are being sought. Low-level laser therapy has been accepted as an alternative ...

  12. Lupus vulgaris of external nose--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, J S; Naveen, K N; Prasad, K C; Santhosh, S G; Hegde, J S

    2013-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis accounting for approximately 59% of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in India. We present a case of lupus vulgaris of external nose diagnosed early and treated with CAT-3 RNTCP regimen for six months without any nasal deformity except for a small scar over the dorsum of the nose. Patient followed up for one year after completion of the prescribed regimen, there being no recurrence of the lesion.

  13. Pemphigus vulgaris and laser therapy: Crucial role of dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlić Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pemphigus vulgaris is a relatively rare, chronic, autoimmune vesiculobullous disorder characterized by formation of intraepithelial vesiculae and/or bullae in the skin and mucous membrane. Systemic steroids are considered to be the standard first-line therapy for pemphigus vulgaris. However, for patients unresponsive to standard therapy, the new treatment modalities are being sought. Low-level laser therapy has been accepted as an alternative or adjunctive treatment modality for many conditions in medicine and dentistry. Therefore, this study was aimed at presenting the effects of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris and to emphasize the crucial role of dentists in early recognition and diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. Material and Methods. The articles published until May 2013 were obtained from the Medline/PubMed online database, using following search terms and key words: ”laser therapy” and ”pemphigus vulgaris”, ”low-level laser irradiation” and ”pemphigus vulgaris”, ”lasers” and ”pemphigus vulgaris” and ”pemphigus vulgaris”. Results. Low-level laser therapy could result in immediate and significant analgesia and improved wound healing within the observation period and follow-up. Furthermore, a decrease in patients’ discomfort as well as the absence of recurrence of the pemphigus vulgaris lesions has been claimed. Conclusion. Even though available literature suggests that low-level laser therapy can be efficiently used in treatment of oral pemphigus vulgaris, either independently or as a part of combined therapy approach, these results should be interpreted with caution since there are no solid evidence-based proofs to provide the guidelines for the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris with low-level laser therapy. Therefore, further long-term randomized controlled clinical studies are necessary in order to give any solid recommendations on the use of low-level laser therapy in

  14. Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, J.H.; Baek, S.H.; Woo, Y.; Han, J.K.; Lee, van L.

    2012-01-01

    Background - In vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods - This study was designed for

  15. [Mapping of pathogenic genes in two families with autosomal dominant ichthyosis vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hui-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Zheng-Mao; Wu, Ling-Qian; Liang, De-Sheng; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Pan, Qian; Bu, Feng-Xiao; Peng, Yu; Xia, Kun; Xia, Jia-Hui

    2008-07-01

    To localize the pathogenic genes of autosomal dominant ichthyosis vulgaris, we ascertained two ichthyosis vulgaris families from Hunan Province. Venous blood samples were collected from affected and unaffected family members and genomic DNA was extracted. We then performed genome scan and linkage analysis using microsatellite markers around known ichthyosis vulgaris loci in chromosomes 1 and 10. In family 1, the locus linked to ichthyosis vulgaris was located near D1S498 (1q21), which overlapped with known ichthyosis vulgaris loci. In family 2, however, all known loci for ichthyosis vulgaris were excluded and the new locus remains to be identified.

  16. Ichthyosis vulgaris and pycnodysostosis: an unusual occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Vinayak Y; Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Nagarsenkar, Suhel; Sahoo, Kulmani; Shah, Kuldeep B

    2012-01-01

    Pycnodysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder whose gene responsible for this phenotype (CTSK), mapped to human chromosome 1q21, code for the enzyme cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease; with an estimated incidence of 1.7 per 1 million births. This clinical entity includes micromelic dwarfism, increased radiological bone density, dysplasia of the skull, acro-osteolysis, straightening of the mandibular angle and in some cases, dysplasia of the acromial end of the clavicle. Oral and maxillo-facial manifestations of this disease are very clear. Herein we reported a case of pycnodysostosis, showing short stature with widening of the sutures, unfused anterior and posterior fontanelles, crowding of teeth with dental caries and typical radiological features associated with ichthyosis vulgaris and palmoplantar keratoderma.

  17. Ichthyosis vulgaris and pycnodysostosis: An unusual occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Y. Kshirsagar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pycnodysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder whose generesponsible for this phenotype (CTSK, mapped to human chromosome1q21, code for the enzyme cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteineprotease; with an estimated incidence of 1.7 per 1 million births. This clinical entity includes micromelic dwarfism, increased radiological bone density, dysplasia of the skull, acro-osteolysis, straightening of the mandibular angle and in some cases, dysplasia of the acromial end of the clavicle. Oral and maxillo-facial manifestations of this disease are very clear. Herein we reported a case of pycnodysostosis, showing short stature with widening of the sutures, unfused anterior and posterior fontanelles, crowding of teeth with dental caries and typical radiological features associated with ichthyosis vulgaris and palmoplantar keratoderma.

  18. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  19. Acne vulgaris and rosacea: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, G F

    2001-01-01

    Acne vulgaris, commonly termed acne, is an extremely common disease. It can be found in nearly all teenagers to some degree as well as in women in their 30s. Regardless of severity, acne often has a greater psychologic effect than cutaneous effect. Indeed, most patients overestimate the severity of their disease, while most physicians underestimate its impact on their patients. Studies have shown that people with severe acne as teens are less employable as adults and that self-esteem is low. When combined with other adolescent tensions, acne can be a difficult disease to treat. Rosacea, which usually starts in the late 20s, may affect the eyes as well as the skin. This article describes the pathogenesis of acne and rosacea and treatment approaches the primary care physician can use. PMID:12739318

  20. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  1. Pemphigus vulgaris: a multidisciplinary approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinall, Christopher; Stevens, Lucy; McArdle, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare but potentially life-threatening autoimmune disease affecting the mucosa and the skin. The disease is caused by circulating antibodies to desmosomes (important adhesion proteins linking cells together). Disruption of these intercellular connections results in a loss of cohesion between cells (acantholysis). The clinical result of this process is the development of multiple blisters that easily rupture, leaving behind painful sloughing eroded areas of mucosa and/or skin. We report a case of severe PV in a 56-year-old man presenting with widespread, painful, eroded mucocutaneous lesions. The severity of the disease demanded a range of medical and surgical specialties to successfully manage the problem. This paper highlights the importance of an early multidisciplinary team approach to improve the outcome of patients suffering with this disease. PMID:24343801

  2. Study of hydrogen production by three strains of Chlorella isolated from the soil in the Algerian Sahara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chader, Samira [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables Bouzareah, BP 62, Alger (Algeria); Hacene, Hocine [Laboratory of Microbiology, USTHB, BP 32, Alger (Algeria); Agathos, Spiros N. [Unit of Bioengineering, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud 2, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the photosynthetic hydrogen production rates by some strains of green microalgae were investigated. Three strains of Chlorella isolated from arid soil and foggaras's water in the Algerian Sahara were used. Chlorella sorokiniana strain Ce, Chlorella salina strain Mt and Chlorella sp strain Pt6 produced hydrogen gas under sulphur-deprived conditions, but its rate was dependent on strain type and oxygen partial pressure in medium. In C. sorokiniana strain Ce, the maximum value of hydrogen accumulated was 147 ml at 222 h at 2% of O{sub 2} pressure. Compared to C. sorokiniana strain Ce, C. salina strain Mt and Chlorella sp strain Pt6 produced less amount of hydrogen, but they were able to sustain with an O{sub 2} partial pressure of up to 11-15.4%. Our data were compared with hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In this communication, the relationship between physiological behaviour, biochemical characteristic (starch and protein) and rates gas production (O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) was also specified. (author)

  3. Chlorella Protein Hydrolysate Attenuates Glucose Metabolic Disorder and Fatty Liver in High-fat Diet-induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Naoto; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Rahman, Shaikh Mizanoor; Ando, Yotaro

    2016-07-01

    Chlorella (Parachlorella beijerinckii) powder is reported to show a preventive effect against metabolic syndromes such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Approximately 60% of the chlorella content is protein. In order to understand the role of chlorella protein, we prepared a chlorella protein hydrolysate (CPH) by protease treatment. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: a normal diet group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, and high-fat diet supplemented with CPH (HFD+CPH) group. The CPH administration improved glucose intolerance, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue hypertrophy in the high-fat diet-fed mice. In addition, the HFD+CPH group had significantly decreased liver total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared with those in the HFD group. Furthermore, the HFD+CPH group had a decreased level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in serum and a lower MCP-1 mRNA expression level in adipose tissue compared with the HFD group. The present study suggests that chlorella protein hydrolysate can prevent a high-fat diet-induced glucose disorder and fatty liver by inhibiting adipocyte hypertrophy and reducing the MCP-1 protein and gene expression. PMID:27321121

  4. Killing Chlorella with chlorine dioxide%二氧化氯杀灭小球藻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍秀; 夏文琴; 赵德骏; 袁秀丽; 王志红; 李冬梅; 谢葆红

    2012-01-01

    The experiments of the effect of the ClO2 dosage,initial algal concentration,pH,organic matter and ammonia nitrogen concentration on killing Chlorella in water from reservoir with chlorine dioxide were carried out.The Chlorella removal effect by combining chlorine dioxide oxidation with coagulation was investigated,and the process conditions were optimized.The results showed that the efficiency of killing Chlorella was 71.93% after 10 minutes when chlorine dioxide dosage was 1.1 mg/L.The efficiency of killing Chlorella rose with the increase of chlorine dioxide dosage and initial algal concentration,but decreased remarkably with the increase of organic matter concentration.Ammonia nitrogen had little effect on killing Chlorella.In acidity and basicity conditions,the efficiency of killing Chlorella sharp declined with the increase of pH,but descended slowly from neutral to weak base.For the raw water from reservoir which Chlorella was the advantage alga,the removal efficiency of algae was 98.47% when chlorine dioxide oxidation was combined with coagulation.The best process conditions were that the dosages of ClO2 and aluminium polychlorid were 0.5 mg/L and 5 mg/L,respectively,adding ClO2 and PAC simultaneously.%实验研究了二氧化氯投加量、小球藻的初始浓度、pH、有机物和氨氮含量对ClO2杀灭来自于水库水的小球藻的影响,考察了ClO2氧化与混凝工艺结合时去除小球藻的效果并对工艺条件进行优化。结果表明,ClO2在投加量1.1 mg/L下,接触10 min,小球藻的杀灭率为71.93%。小球藻的杀灭率随着ClO2投加量的增大和藻初始浓度的升高而提高,随水中有机物含量的增加而显著降低,氨氮含量对小球藻杀灭的效果影响很小。在酸性条件和碱性条件下,小球藻的杀灭率均随pH升高而急剧下降,而在中性至弱碱性区间内,藻的杀灭率随pH升高而缓慢下降。对于某以小球藻为优势藻的供水水库源水,ClO2氧化与混凝工

  5. Pemphigus Vulgaris and Infections: A Retrospective Study on 155 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Esmaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autoimmune process and immunosuppressive therapy of pemphigus vulgaris would predispose the patients to infections. Aim. We aimed to study the prevalence of infection and pathogenic agents in pemphigus vulgaris patients admitted to dermatology service. Material and methods. This retrospective study was conducted on 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients (68 males, 87 females admitted to dermatology service between 2009 and 2011. In this study, the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by light microscopic and direct immunofluorescence findings. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Results. Of 155 pemphigus vulgaris patients, 33 had infection at admission and 9 acquired nosocomial infection. In addition, 37 cases of oral candidiasis and 15 cases of localized herpes simplex were recorded. Totally, 94 cases of infection were recorded. The occurrence of infection was significantly related to the severity of disease, number of hospital admissions, and presence of diabetes mellitus. The most common pathogenic germs isolated from cultures were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion. Severity of pemphigus vulgaris and diabetes were directly related with tendency to infections. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogenic agents. Due to limitations of retrospective study, a prospective study is recommended.

  6. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.;

    2012-01-01

    to protect public health.OBJECTIVES: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure.METHODS: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human......BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...... Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use.RESULTS: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds...

  7. Treatment of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus wastewater utilizing phytoremediation of microalgae, Chlorella sp. with Aspergillus niger bio-harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Nurfarahana Mohd; Bakar, Nur Syuhada Abu; Lananan, Fathurrahman; Abdul Hamid, Siti Hajar; Lam, Su Shiung; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of the performance of Chlorella sp. in removing nutrient in aquaculture wastewater and its correlation with the kinetic growth of Chlorella sp. The treatment was applied with various Chlorella sp. inoculation dosage ranging from 0% to 60% (v/v) of wastewater. The optimum inoculation dosage was recorded at 30% (v/v) with effluent concentration of ammonia and orthophosphate recording at 0.012mgL(-1) and 0.647mgL(-1), respectively on Day 11. The optimum dosage for bio-flocculation process was obtained at 30mgL(-1) of Aspergillus niger with a harvesting efficiency of 97%. This type of development of phytoremediation with continuous bio-harvesting could promote the use of sustainable green technology for effective wastewater treatment.

  8. Research on Optimization of Lipid Productivity by Chlorella sp. U4341 with Response Surface Method%响应面法优化微藻 Chlorella sp.U4341油脂产率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 余旭亚; 徐军伟

    2015-01-01

    为了提高微藻 Chlorella sp.U4341的油脂产率,采用响应面法对异养培养条件进行优化研究.通过单因素试验筛选出促进 Chlorella sp.U4341油脂产率的最佳碳源、氮源分别为葡萄糖、NaNO3.利用 Plackett -Burman 试验筛选出显著影响 Chlorella sp.U4341油脂产率的三个因子,通过最陡爬坡试验逼近最大油脂产率区域,运用中心组合试验及响应面分析确定了三个因子的最佳浓度:葡萄糖为24.81 g/L,NaNO3为1.68 g/L,K2 HPO4·3H2 O 为0.58 g/L.优化后的条件培养微藻 Chlorella sp.U4341的油脂产率为273.34 mg/L·d,比优化前提高了58%.%To increase the lipid productivity of microalgae Chlorella sp.U4341 ,optimization of heterotrophic cul-tivation condition is carried out by response surface method.The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Chlorella sp.U4341 are glucose and sodium nitrate,respectively.Three most important influencing factors for lipid produc-tivity of Chlorella sp.U4341 are screened via Plackett -Burman experiment.Subsequently,the steepest ascent ex-periment is used to guide key factors to approach the maximum lipid productivity region.Optimal concentrations of the three influencing factors are confirmed by central composite design and response surface analysis.The re-sults are 24.81 g/L of glucose,1 .68 g/L of sodium nitrate and 0.58 g/L of dipotassium phosphate trihydrate. Cultivated with the optimized condition,the lipid productivity of Chlorella sp.U4341 reaches 273.34 mg/L·d, increased by 58% compared with the original cultivation condition.

  9. Pretreatment process for mineral analysis in FFH using INAA-method and evaluation of mineral intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study were aimed to set up the pre-treatment process for FFH and analyse Pretreatment processes for the analysis of food mineral contents by INAA were established according to FFH state using freeze-drying and homogenization. The Se contents showed higher precision with INAA-method than ICP-method. The content of Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Co in FFH measured using INAA-method showed that the mineral contents in the amount of recommended intakes by manufacturer were not significantly different according to FFH type. The average Ca contents was the highest in Yousanguns > nutritional supplement> glucosamines. The average K content of FFH with one serving size were the highest in glucosamines>aloes> nutritional supplements. I content among FFH was the highest in nutritional supplements. The average Mg contents were highest in Chlorella-Spirurina and Aloes. The average Cu content of FFH was the highest in Yeasts. The contents of Fe, Zn and Se were the highest in nutritional supplements. The mineral contents in recommended intake amounts by manufacturer were over the maximum contents regulated by Korean FDA in some imported FFH products. their mineral contents of FFH using NAA-method and to assess the mineral intakes by FFH

  10. Salt Stress in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: An integratedgenomics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Arkin, Adam P.; Baidoo, Edward E.; Borglin, Sharon C.; Chen, Wenqiong; Hazen, Terry C.; He, Qiang; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Huang, Katherine; Huang, Rick; Hoyner,Dominique C.; Katz, Natalie; Keller, Martin; Oeller, Paul; Redding,Alyssa; Sun, Jun; Wall, Judy; Wei, Jing; Yang, Zamin; Yen, Huei-Che; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling Jay D.

    2005-12-08

    The ability of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to reduce, and therefore contain, toxic and radioactive metal waste has made all factors that affect the physiology of this organism of great interest. Increased salinity is an important and frequent fluctuation faced by D. vulgaris in its natural habitat. In liquid culture, exposure to excess salt resulted in striking elongation of D. vulgaris cells. Using data from transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolite assays, phospholipid fatty acid profiling, and electron microscopy, we used a systems approach to explore the effects of excess NaCl on D. vulgaris. In this study we demonstrated that import of osmoprotectants, such as glycine betaine and ectoine, is the primary mechanism used by D. vulgaris to counter hyperionic stress. Several efflux systems were also highly up-regulated, as was the ATP synthesis pathway. Increases in the levels of both RNA and DNA helicases suggested that salt stress affected the stability of nucleic acid base pairing. An overall increase in the level of branched fatty acids indicated that there were changes in cell wall fluidity. The immediate response to salt stress included up-regulation of chemotaxis genes, although flagellar biosynthesis was down-regulated. Other down-regulated systems included lactate uptake permeases and ABC transport systems. The results of an extensive NaCl stress analysis were compared with microarray data from a KCl stress analysis, and unlike many other bacteria, D. vulgaris responded similarly to the two stresses. Integration of data from multiple methods allowed us to develop a conceptual model for the salt stress response in D. vulgaris that can be compared to those in other microorganisms.

  11. Optimal N:P ratios of growth media: quantification of nutrient-replete growth rates in five ion hyperspace for Chlorella vulgaris (Dinophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study our principal goal was to quantify the main effects and interactions of several primary nutrient and bulk solution ions. The total ion concentration range chosen spans fresh to brackish waters (1-30 milliMolar) and explores most of the hypervolume delineated by the five ion/concentrat...

  12. Medición de la capacidad de chlorella vulgaris y scenedesmus acutus para la remoción de cromo de aguas de curtiembre

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Forero, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    El proceso de curtido de pieles es una actividad contaminante debido a la liberación de agentes tóxicos al medio ambiente; el más importante de aquellos es el cromo trivalente, usado como agente curtiente. Se han planteado diferentes alternativas para la remoción de este metal del agua residual del proceso de curtido, incluyendo la optimización de los procesos y operaciones dentro de las curtiembres, y soluciones de final de tubo como los procesos fisicoquímicos de adsorción y precipitación a...

  13. Identification and quantification of glutathione and phytochelatins from Chlorella vulgaris by RP-HPLC ESI-MS/MS and oxygen-free extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Denina B D; Hayward, Allison R; Hutchinson, Thomas C; Emery, R J Neil

    2009-10-01

    Phytochelatins are short, cysteine-containing, detoxification peptides produced by plants, algae, and fungi in response to heavy metal exposure. These peptides auto-oxidize easily. Current extraction protocols do not adequately address losses of phytochelatins because of their oxidation and the use of indirect methods for quantification. Method enhancements include the use of an argon environment during extraction to reduce auto-oxidation, the use of glycine-(13)C2-labeled glutathione as an internal standard, and an electrospray ionization source with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer as a detector. The method-detection limits were 0.081 microM for glutathione, 0.440 microM for phytochelatin 2, and 0.120 microM for phytochelatin 3. These detection limits were comparable to similar studies and were not compromised incorporating these adjustments. The use of a labeled internal standard and an inert gaseous environment during sample preparation greatly improved calibration linearity and sensitivity. Furthermore, phytochelatin degradation was significantly reduced and more accurately tracked. Previous studies involving phytochelatin analyses have likely been subject to higher variability caused by this propensity for phytochelatins to degrade rapidly in air. The method adjustments were simple and cost-effective and allowed phytochelatin analyses to be performed for hours at a time with minimal auto-oxidation.

  14. Suppression subtractive hybridization reveals transcript profiling of Chlorella under heterotrophy to photoautotrophy transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microalgae have been extensively investigated and exploited because of their competitive nutritive bioproducts and biofuel production ability. Chlorella are green algae that can grow well heterotrophically and photoautotrophically. Previous studies proved that shifting from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy in light-induced environments causes photooxidative damage as well as distinct physiologic features that lead to dynamic changes in Chlorella intracellular components, which have great potential in algal health food and biofuel production. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the trophic transition remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, suppression subtractive hybridization strategy was employed to screen and characterize genes that are differentially expressed in response to the light-induced shift from heterotrophy to photoautotrophy. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained from 770 and 803 randomly selected clones among the forward and reverse libraries, respectively. Sequence analysis identified 544 unique genes in the two libraries. The functional annotation of the assembled unigenes demonstrated that 164 (63.1% from the forward library and 62 (21.8% from the reverse showed significant similarities with the sequences in the NCBI non-redundant database. The time-course expression patterns of 38 selected differentially expressed genes further confirmed their responsiveness to a diverse trophic status. The majority of the genes enriched in the subtracted libraries were associated with energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and stress defense. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data presented here offer the first insights into the molecular foundation underlying the diverse microalgal trophic niche. In addition, the results can be used as a reference for unraveling candidate genes associated with the transition of Chlorella from heterotrophy to

  15. Enhanced production of lutein in heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides by oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The fast growing unicellular green microalgae Chlorella protothecoides has attracted interest as a promising organism for commercial production of a high-value carotenoid, lutein, by heterotrophic fermentation. Effects of two oxidant-forming reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the biomass concen-tration, and yield and content of lutein in batch culture of heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides were investigated in this study. The addition of 0.1 mmol/L H2O2 and 0.01 mmol/L NaClO plus 0.5 mmol/L Fe2+ to the culture led to the generation of ·OH and enhanced the lutein content from 1.75 to 1.90 and 1.95 mg/g, respectively. The lutein content further increased to 1.98 mg/g when 0.01 mmol/L H2O2 and 0.5 mmol/L NaClO were added to generate 1O2. The maximum yield of lutein (28.5, 29.8 and 31.4 mg/L) and a high biomass concentration (15.0, 15.3 and 15.9 g/L) were also achieved through the above treatments. The results indicated that 1O2 could promote lutein formation and enhance lutein production in hetero-trophic Chlorella protothecoides. Moreover, 1O2 produced from the reaction of H2O2 and NaClO was more effective in enhancing lutein production and reducing biomass loss than ·OH from the reaction of H2O2 or NaClO plus Fe2+.

  16. Enhanced production of lutein in heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides by oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Dong; CHEN Feng; CHEN Gu; ZHANG XueWu; LIU LongJun; ZHANG Hao

    2008-01-01

    The fast growing unicellular green microalgae Chlorella protothecoides has attracted interest as a promising organism for commercial production of a high-value carotenoid, lutein, by heterotrophic fermentation. Effects of two oxidant-forming reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the biomass concentration, and yield and content of lutein in batch culture of heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides were investigated in this study. The addition of 0.1 mmol/L H2O2 and 0.01 mmol/L NaClO plus 0.5 mmol/L Fe2+ to the culture led to the generation of OH and enhanced the lutein content from 1.75 to 1.90 and 1.95 mg/g, respectively. The lutein content further increased to 1.98 mg/g when 0.01 mmol/L H2O2 and 0.5 mmol/L NaClO were added to generate 1O2. The maximum yield of lutein (28.5, 29.8 and 31.4 mg/L) and a high biomass concentration (15.0, 15.3 and 15.9 g/L) were also achieved through the above treatments. The results indicated that 1O2 could promote lutein formation and enhance lutein production in heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. Moreover, 1O2 produced from the reaction of H2O2 and NaClO was more effective in enhancing lutein production and reducing biomass loss than OH from the reaction of H2O2 or NaClO plus Fe2+.

  17. Peptides and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  18. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E; Bennett, Braden W; Lyons, Eric M; Carney, Laura T

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The "crash" of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  19. Administration of Thiamine and Thiochrome Enhanced Reproduction of Chlorella, Drosophila melanogaster, and Danio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Sergiy Anatoliyovich; Zamorov, Veniamin Veniaminovich; Ustyanskaya, Olga Volodymyrivna; Budnyak, Olexandr Kostyantynovich; Chernadchuk, Snizhana Sergiivna; Andrievskiy, Olexandr Michaelovich; Semyonova, Olga Olexandrivna; Karavanskiy, Yuriy Viktorovych; Yakimenko, Viktoriya Evgenievna; Kravchuk, Ilona Olegivna

    2016-01-01

    Thiochrome, a natural metabolite of thiamine, has scarcely attracted the attention of researchers, since many of them considered it to be a biologically inactive substance. We examined a possible effect of thiochrome upon the reproduction of the organisms of Chlorella, Drosophila, and Danio. We added thiamine or thiochrome to the culture medium or to the aquaria. Our data showed that the number of cells and organisms were increased in the presence of thiamine and thiochrome. We suggest possible effect(s) of thiamine and thiochrome on the reproduction of these organisms.

  20. Direct Biodiesel Production from Wet Microalgae Biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa through In Situ Transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Hechun Cao; Zhiling Zhang; Xuwen Wu; Xiaoling Miao

    2013-01-01

    A one-step process was applied to directly converting wet oil-bearing microalgae biomass of Chlorella pyrenoidosa containing about 90% of water into biodiesel. In order to investigate the effects of water content on biodiesel production, distilled water was added to dried microalgae biomass to form wet biomass used to produce biodiesel. The results showed that at lower temperature of 90°C, water had a negative effect on biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield decreased from 91.4% to 10.3% a...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharide from Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, S; Gato, A; Lamela, M; Freire-Garabal, M; Calleja, J M

    2003-06-01

    Crude polysaccharide extracts were obtained from aqueous extracts of the microalgae Chlorella stigmatophora and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The crude extracts were fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose columns. The molecular weights of the polysaccharides in each fraction were estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl columns. The crude polysaccharide extracts of both microalgae showed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. In assays of effects on the delayed hyper-sensitivity response, and on phagocytic activity assayed in vivo and in vitro, the C. stigmatophora extract showed immunosuppressant effects, while the P. tricornutum extract showed immunostimulatory effects. PMID:12820237

  2. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls contents, net photosynthesis and respiration of chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first 'b' chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than 'a' chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observations after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Net photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% have got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. (author)

  3. Complete genome sequence of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Cusano, Roberto; Costelli, Cristina; Malavasi, Veronica; Concas, Alessandro; Angius, Andrea; Cao, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Chlorella sorokiniana strain (SAG 111-8 k) is presented in this study. The genome consists of circular chromosomes of 109,811 bp, which encode a total of 109 genes, including 74 proteins, 3 rRNAs and 31 tRNAs. Moreover, introns are not detected and all genes are present in single copy. The overall AT contents of the C. sorokiniana cpDNA is 65.9%, the coding sequence is 59.1% and a large inverted repeat (IR) is not observed.

  4. Synthesis and degradation of nitrate reductase during the cell cycle of Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, P. J.; Tischner, R.; Huffaker, R. C.; Whitaker, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the diurnal variations of nitrate reductase (NR) activity during the life cycle of synchronized Chlorella sorokiniana cells grown with a 7:5 light-dark cycle showed that the NADH:NR activity, as well as the NR partial activities NADH:cytochrome c reductase and reduced methyl viologen:NR, closely paralleled the appearance and disappearance of NR protein as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and immunoblots. Results of pulse-labeling experiments with [35S]methionine further confirmed that diurnal variations of the enzyme activities can be entirely accounted for by the concomitant synthesis and degradation of the NR protein.

  5. Comparison of mixotrophic to cyclic autotrophic/heterotrophic growth strategies to optimize productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wagenen, Jonathan Myerson; De Francisci, Davide; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    to autotrophic growth. Chlorella sorokiniana was cultivated in medium supplemented with sodium acetate in concentrations equivalent to the volatile fatty acid concentration found in anaerobic digester effluent. Flat-panel photobioreactors were operated using 16:8 light:dark cycles, with different strategies...... for acetate addition. Acetate was added during the light period for the mixotrophic strategy and during the dark one for the cyclic autotrophic/heterotrophic strategy. Autotrophic productivity of up to 0.99 g L−1 day−1 was obtained using the optimal tested dilution rate of 0.031 h−1. The highest mixotrophic...

  6. A Novel Treatment Protects Chlorella at Commercial Scale from the Predatory Bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Eneko; Sellers, Charles E.; Bennett, Braden W.; Lyons, Eric M.; Carney, Laura T.

    2016-01-01

    The predatory bacterium, Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus, can destroy a Chlorella culture in just a few days, rendering an otherwise robust algal crop into a discolored suspension of empty cell walls. Chlorella is used as a benchmark for open pond cultivation due to its fast growth. In nature, V. chlorellavorus plays an ecological role by controlling this widespread terrestrial and freshwater microalga, but it can have a devastating effect when it attacks large commercial ponds. We discovered that V. chlorellavorus was associated with the collapse of four pilot commercial-scale (130,000 L volume) open-pond reactors. Routine microscopy revealed the distinctive pattern of V. chlorellavorus attachment to the algal cells, followed by algal cell clumping, culture discoloration and ultimately, growth decline. The “crash” of the algal culture coincided with increasing proportions of 16s rRNA sequencing reads assigned to V. chlorellavorus. We designed a qPCR assay to predict an impending culture crash and developed a novel treatment to control the bacterium. We found that (1) Chlorella growth was not affected by a 15 min exposure to pH 3.5 in the presence of 0.5 g/L acetate, when titrated with hydrochloric acid and (2) this treatment had a bactericidal effect on the culture (2-log decrease in aerobic counts). Therefore, when qPCR results indicated a rise in V. chlorellavorus amplicons, we found that the pH-shock treatment prevented the culture crash and doubled the productive longevity of the culture. Furthermore, the treatment could be repeatedly applied to the same culture, at the beginning of at least two sequential batch cycles. In this case, the treatment was applied preventively, further increasing the longevity of the open pond culture. In summary, the treatment reversed the infection of V. chlorellavorus as confirmed by observations of bacterial attachment to Chlorella cells and by detection of V. chlorellavorus by 16s rRNA sequencing and qPCR assay. The p

  7. [Lupus vulgaris manifestation as a destructive nose and facial tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, D; Reisser, C

    2009-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most frequent manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis, but in Europe it is limited to isolated cases. Mainly immunocompetent individuals are affected by this result of an endogenous reinfection on a lymphogenous-less frequently hematogenous-pathway. Lupus vulgaris has been observed to develop in more than 50% of all patients who already suffer from other manifestations of tuberculosis. The development of a squamous cell carcinoma in the lupus vulgaris is a rare complication; therefore, lupus vulgaris is deemed a facultative precancerosis.A 68-year-old female Serbo-Croatian patient presented with an extensive ulcerative nose and facial tumor. Her anamnesis included a squamous cell carcinoma of the nose that had been excised alio loco 3 years before. Further examinations revealed enlarged cervical lymphoma on both sides, and pulmonary metastases were also suspected. The tumor biopsy revealed a necrotic, granulomatous inflammation. No acid-fast rods were seen on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. The tuberculous origin of this ulcerative skin tumor-the lupus vulgaris-as an endogenous reinfection of pulmonary tuberculosis manifestation was confirmed by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in polymerase chain reaction and the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies in the bacterial culture (skin biopsy and bronchial secretion). The skin tumor as well as the pulmonary manifestation were successfully treated with combined tuberculostatic therapy and showed a dramatic response within 3 months.

  8. Changes in Botrytis cinerea Conidia Caused by Berberis vulgaris Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel PARVU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing plant extracts for controlling fungal diseases is a main biocontrol method. More interesting is to see what happens to the fungus treated with the plant extract. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Berberis vulgaris extract on Botrytis cinerea and to examine the ultrastructural changes in B. cinerea conidia caused by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, using SEM and TEM. The antifungal activity of B. vulgaris bark extract was investigated using agar dilution method, and compared to that of berberine. Fluconazole was used as the positive antimycotic control. It was found that (1 B. vulgaris bark extract had significant antifungal activity against B. cinerea, and its effect was stronger than that of pure berberine. It was also noted that (2B. vulgaris MIC caused severe structural changes of the conidia, comparable with berberine MIC effect; therefore (3 B. vulgaris bark extract might be recommended to be tested as a biocontrol agent against B. cinerea.

  9. Acne vulgaris: diagnosis and management by the family physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease worldwide. It affects 85-100% of the population at any point in life. Consequently, it is a frequent reason for primary care visits. It usually begins at puberty, reaching its peak between the age of 14-17 in girls, and 16-19 in boys, and it is more severe and prevalent in males. Although widely discussed, Acne vulgaris still requires constant updating. We conducted a survey of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published over the past 15 years, concerning acne vulgaris and its treatment. Acne vulgaris is usually divided in three clinical types: comedonal, papulopustular, and nodular. The diagnosis is based on clinical signs; however, other conditions should be considered. There are several pharmacological therapies available, especially retinoids, antimicrobials, and hormone therapy, which should be used after considering its indications (type of acne and its severity and side effects. Thus, the family physician plays a leading role in addressing acne vulgaris, from diagnosis to management of therapeutic options. 

  10. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  11. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider.

  12. Impaired water barrier function in acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A; Takenouchi, K; Ito, M

    1995-01-01

    In acne vulgaris, abnormal follicular keratinization is important for comedo formation, yet the precise mechanisms of comedogenesis are not known. The present study examined the interrelationship between sebum secretion rate (SSR), lipid content and water barrier function (WBF) of the stratum corneum (SC) in 36 acne patients and 29 control subjects. All major SC lipid classes were separated and quantified by thin-layer chromatography/photodensitometry. WBF was evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the hygroscopic properties and waterholding capacity of the SC. The SSR over a period of 3 h was significantly higher in patients with moderate acne than in control subjects, but no significant difference was noticed between patients with mild acne and control subjects. Significant differences between patients with both moderate and mild acne and control subjects were noted in the amount of sphingolipids (ceramides and free sphingosine), but not for any other lipid classes. Furthermore in acne patients, lower amounts of sphingolipids were observed corresponding with a diminished WBF. These results suggest that an impaired WBF caused by decreased amounts of ceramides may be responsible for comedo formation, since barrier dysfunction is accompanied by hyperkeratosis of the follicular epithelium.

  13. Balance de la producción de Chlorella sp y Moina sp en la UEB PISPAVÓN, Villa Clara, Cuba (Balance of Chlorella sp and Moina sp production in the UEB PISPAVÓN, Villa Clara, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-López, Teresita de J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio fue implementado con la información histórica existente en los archivos de PISPAVÓN, cuantificándose la producción de Chlorella sp y Moina sp en los años 2003, 2004 y 2005, las que fueron de 7 777, 5 174 y 1 988 m3 de algas y de 4 695, 3 075 y 1 557 kg del cladócero respectivamente. Esta disminución se debió al déficit de miel y cal, así como las excesivas lluvias que azotaron laregión. Mediante los estudios efectuados se determinó que la producciónde 1 kg de Moina requiere disponibilidades de Chlorella entre 1,5 y 2,0 m3.SummaryThe present study was implement with the existing historicalinformation in the PISPAVÓN archives, quantifying the production ofChlorella sp and Moina sp in 2003, 2004 and 2005, those that were of7 777, 5 174 and 1 988 m3 of microalgae and 4 695, 3 075 and 1 557kg of the cladocera respectively. This diminishing had to the deficit of honey and lime, as well as excessive rains that whipped the region. By means of the conducted studies was determined that the production of 1 kg of Moina requires availabilities of Chlorella between 1.5 and 2.0 m3.

  14. Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, F Sule; Afsar, Ilhan; Diniz, Gulden; Asilsoy, Suna; Sorguc, Yelda

    2008-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.

  15. Lupus vulgaris in a pediatric patient: a clinicohistopathological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sule Afsar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis which usually occurs in patients previously sensitized to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We present a case of a 10-year-old boy who was diagnosed as lupus vulgaris clinically and histopathologically. He had well demarcated, irregularly bordered, pink, infiltrated plaques on his left cheek showing apple-jelly appearance on diascopy. The histopathological examination showed tuberculoid granulomas with Langhans type giant cells. The Mantoux reactivity was in normal limits, and no acid-fast bacilli was found in the lesion, either by direct stained smears or by culture. The lesions showed marked improvement on anti-tuberculosis treatment. We want to emphasize that histopathological examination has diagnostic value in lupus vulgaris in correlation with clinical appearance, when direct analysis or culture is negative.

  16. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  17. Efficacy of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus abundans for Nutrient Removal in Rice Mill Effluent (Paddy Soaked Water).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinandan, S; Bhattacharya, Ribhu; Shanthakumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are product of sustainable development owing to its ability to treat variety of wastewater effluents and thus produced biomass can serve as value added product for various commercial applications. This paper deals with the cultivation of microalgae species namely Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus abundans in rice mill effluent (i.e., paddy soaked water) for nutrient removal. In order to investigate the nutrient removal capability, microalgae are subjected to cultivation in both raw and autoclaved samples. The maximum phosphate removal by Scenedesmus abundans and Chlorella pyrenoidosa in raw sample was 98.3% and 97.6%, respectively, whereas, the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen by Scenedesmus abundans and Chlorella pyrenoidosa in raw sample was 92% and 90.3%, respectively. The growth (measured in terms of chlorophyll content) of Scenedesmus abundans and Chlorella pyrenoidosa in raw sample was 3.88 mg/l and 5.55 mg/l, respectively. The results indicate the suitability of microalgae cultivation in rice mill effluent treatment for nutrient removal.

  18. Use of De Novo Transcriptome Libraries to Characterize a Novel Oleaginous Marine Chlorella Species during the Accumulation of Triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfeldt, Cresten B; Richter, Lubna V; Ahner, Beth A; Cochlan, William P; Richardson, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Marine chlorophytes of the genus Chlorella are unicellular algae capable of accumulating a high proportion of cellular lipids that can be used for biodiesel production. In this study, we examined the broad physiological capabilities of a subtropical strain (C596) of Chlorella sp. "SAG-211-18" including its heterotrophic growth and tolerance to low salt. We found that the alga replicates more slowly at diluted salt concentrations and can grow on a wide range of carbon substrates in the dark. We then sequenced the RNA of Chlorella strain C596 to elucidate key metabolic genes and investigate the transcriptomic response of the organism when transitioning from a nutrient-replete to a nutrient-deficient condition when neutral lipids accumulate. Specific transcripts encoding for enzymes involved in both starch and lipid biosynthesis, among others, were up-regulated as the cultures transitioned into a lipid-accumulating state whereas photosynthesis-related genes were down-regulated. Transcripts encoding for two of the up-regulated enzymes-a galactoglycerolipid lipase and a diacylglyceride acyltransferase-were also monitored by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. The results of these assays confirmed the transcriptome-sequencing data. The present transcriptomic study will assist in the greater understanding, more effective application, and efficient design of Chlorella-based biofuel production systems.

  19. The Chlorella variabilis NC64A Genome Reveals Adaptation to Photosymbiosis, Coevolution with Viruses, and Cryptic Sex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Guillaume; Duncan, Garry A.; Agarakova, Irina; Borodovsky, Mark; Gurnon, James; Kuo, Alan; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Pangailinan, Jasmyn; Polle, Juergen; Salamov, Asaf; Terry, Astrid; Yamada, Takashi; Dunigan, David D.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Etten, James L. Van

    2010-05-06

    Chlorella variabilis NC64A, a unicellular photosynthetic green alga (Trebouxiophyceae), is an intracellular photobiont of Paramecium bursaria and a model system for studying virus/algal interactions. We sequenced its 46-Mb nuclear genome, revealing an expansion of protein families that could have participated in adaptation to symbiosis. NC64A exhibits variations in GC content across its genome that correlate with global expression level, average intron size, and codon usage bias. Although Chlorella species have been assumed to be asexual and nonmotile, the NC64A genome encodes all the known meiosis-specific proteins and a subset of proteins found in flagella. We hypothesize that Chlorella might have retained a flagella-derived structure that could be involved in sexual reproduction. Furthermore, a survey of phytohormone pathways in chlorophyte algae identified algal orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes involved in hormone biosynthesis and signaling, suggesting that these functions were established prior to the evolution of land plants. We show that the ability of Chlorella to produce chitinous cell walls likely resulted from the capture of metabolic genes by horizontal gene transfer from algal viruses, prokaryotes, or fungi. Analysis of the NC64A genome substantially advances our understanding of the green lineage evolution, including the genomic interplay with viruses and symbiosis between eukaryotes.

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF 3D MODEL FOR CYCLOBUTANE PYRIMIDINE (CPD PHOTOLYASE FROM CHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Rishi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a freshwater green alga and belongs to class Chlorophyceae, order Chlorellales and family Chlorellaceae. CPD photolyase is an enzyme found in Chlrella pyrnoidosa and responsible for repairing of DNA damages caused by UV radiations. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmer (CPDs and 6-4 pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4 PPs are major form of DNA damages and these damages are caused by various physical and chemical agents occurs in the environment such as UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens fungal and bacterial toxins, and free radicals or alkalizing agents produced by metabolism. Mostly DNA damages induced by UV radiations, about 75% cyclobutane pyrimidinedimers (CPDs and rest 6-4 photoproducts (6-4PPs.If these are not repaired then both dimmers may be block transcription and DNA replication. CPD photolyase binds to the DNA and prevent the production of CPDs and 6-4 PPs. The three dimensional structure of CPD photolyase of Chlorella pyrenoidosa is not available for the further investigation , so it is required to generate a computational model by using Modeler 9v3 program. The quality of modeled structure is verified through various online (ProSA as well as offline (Procheck, Swiss PDB viewer tools. This protein may be useful in prevention of skin cancer.

  1. Assessment of bioavailability of heavy metal pollutants using soil isolates of Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurti, Gummuluru S R; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Biotests conducted with plants are presently used to estimate metal bioavailability in contaminated soils. But when plants are grown in soils, especially the plants with fine roots, root collection is easily biased and tedious. Indeed, at harvest, small amounts of soil can adhere to roots, resulting in overestimation of root metal content, and the finest roots are often discarded from the analysis because of their difficult and almost impossible recovery. This report presents a novel method for assessing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils using microalgae. Two species of green unicellular microalgae were isolated from two highly contaminated soils and identified by phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses as Chlorella sp. RBM and Chlorella sp. RHM. These two cultures were used to determine the metal uptake from metal-contaminated soils of South Australia as a novel, cost-effective, simple and rapid method for assessing the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. The suggested method is an attempt to achieve a realistic estimate of bioavailability which overcomes the inherent drawback of root metal contamination in the bioavailability indices so far reported.

  2. Increment of carbohydrate concentration of Chlorella minutissima microalgae for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Freitas Margarites

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae, like any other microorganism react to changes in the external environment with changes in their intracellular environment. Thus, the manipulation of cultivation conditions, especially the presence or absence of certain nutrients, stimulates the biosynthesis of compounds of interest. Their carbohydrates can be used to produce bioethanol. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the medium and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphate components used in the culture medium of the microalgae Chlorella minutissima in the carbohydrate concentration of the same. Box-Behnken Planning was used, totaling 15 trials. The cultivations were carried out until early stationary phase of growth of the microalgae in closed 2 L reactors. At the end of the cultivation, the carbohydrate concentrations of dry biomass (% and yield in carbohydrates (g.L-1 .d-1 were determined. According to the analysis of effects, the microalgae Chlorella minutissima cultivated in Basal medium, with the addition of 0.125 gL-1 of the nitrogenized component (KNO3 and without addition of phosphatized components (K2HPO4 and KH2PO4 had a higher yield in carbohydrates in the cultivation (0,030 ± 0.002 g.L-1 .d-1 .

  3. Acne Vulgaris and Acne Rosacea: An Update in Etiopathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ekiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by comedones, papules, pustules, nodules, and scars rarely. The major pathogenic factors are abnormal follicular differentiation and increased ductal cornification, abnormal activity of sebaceous glands, microbial colonization of pilosebaceous units by Propionibacterium acnes and inflammation. Rosacea is a common, chronic inflammatory relapsing skin disorder of the central area of the face characterized by transient or persistent erythema, telangiectasia, papules and pustules. Although several hypotheses have been suggested for the etiopathogenesis of rosacea, the exact etiology is still unknown. In this review, we tried to summarize up-to-date information about etiopathogenesis of acne vulgaris and rosocea.

  4. Use of tazarotene foam for the treatment of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoriou S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stamatis Gregoriou, Eleftheria Kritsotaki, Alexandros Katoulis, Dimitris RigopoulosSecond Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Attikon Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Acne vulgaris is a common inflammatory chronic disease of the pilosebaceous unit. It often requires long-term treatment, resulting in increased demand for topical medications that are popular with patients in order to achieve long-term compliance. Tazarotene foam 1% is a novel formulation of tazarotene. We review efficacy and tolerability studies of the new formulation, and suggest a possible place for the product in the management of acne vulgaris.Keywords: retinoids, efficacy, safety, tolerability

  5. [Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumangali Chandra; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Bygum, Anette

    2011-02-14

    Ichthyosis vulgaris is a common genetic skin disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1:250 caused by mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin. This disorder manifests itself within the first year of life and is clinically characterized by dry, scaly skin, keratosis pilaris, palmar hyperlinearity and atopic manifestations. Patients with a severe phenotype are homozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutations, whereas heterozygous patients show mild disease, suggesting semidominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. We present a patient with classic severe ichthyosis vulgaris, atopic eczema and two loss-of-function mutations.

  6. The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton Vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovtun M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Olfactory Organ of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata. Kovtun, M. F, Stepanyuk, Ya. V. - Using common histological methods, the morphogenesis of olfactory analyzer peripheral part of Lissotriton vulgaris (Amphibia, Caudata was studied, during the developmental period starting with olfactory pit laying and finishing with definitive olfactory organ formation. Special attention is paid to vomeronasal organ and vomeronasal gland development. Reasoning from obtained data, we consider that vomeronasal organ emerged as the result of olfactory epithelium and nasal cavity differentiation.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Topical Niacinamide for Acne Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Nurhan Saraçoğlu; Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu; Tuğçe Köksüz; İlham Sabuncu; İnci Arıkan

    2011-01-01

    Background and Design: To investigate the efficacy and safety of topical 4% naicinamide gel cream in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris and to assess the quality of life of acne patients.Material and Method: Twenty-nine female patients aged 16-38 (mean: 23.57±5.42) years with mild to moderate acne vulgaris who presented in dermatology outpatient clinic were enrolled in the study. All patients applied 4% niacinamide gel cream (Vivatinell-acnecinamide gel cream®) on their faces twi...

  8. Coincident systemic lupus erythematosus and psoriasis vulgaris: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Da, G; Yu, Y; Han, J; Li, H

    2015-12-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease, but its association with other typical autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus has only occasionally been reported. We presented a 25-year-old female who developed systemic lupus erythematosus associated with psoriasis vulgaris. Her conditions were in good control after she got administration of prednisolone (5 mg/day) and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook (20 mg/day). It is necessary to integrate past history and physical examination to diagnose coincident SLE and psoriasis, and combined treatment with prednisolone and Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook proves effective.

  9. Investigation of Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Vitiligo Vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Ustun, Ihsan; Seraslan, Gamze; Gokce, Cumali; Motor, Sedat; Can, Yesim; Ugur Inan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Nigar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D3) levels in patients with vitiligo vulgaris in terms of causal relation and extension of the disorder.This study is a clinical cross-sectional study carried out in order to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among 25 patients with vitiligo vulgaris and in 41 controls. Fitzpatrick skin phototypes, history of autoimmune disease, family history of vitiligo, and duration of the disease were also evaluated.The mean level...

  10. Nutritional quality of extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) and its effects on growth and skeletal muscle nitrogen fractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, F; Alonso, R; Urdaneta, E; Arricibita, F J; Ibáñez, F

    2002-04-01

    The influence of extrusion cooking on the protein content, amino acid profile, and concentration of antinutritive compounds (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and hemagglutinating activity) in kidney bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Pinto) was investigated. Growing male rats were fed diets based on casein containing raw or extruded kidney beans with or without methionine supplementation for 8 or 15 d. Rates of growth, food intake, and protein efficiency ratio were measured and the weight of the gastrocnemius muscle and the composition of its nitrogenous fraction was determined. Extrusion cooking reduced (P cooking improved food intake and utilization by the rats and they gained BW. Supplementation of extruded kidney bean with methionine further enhanced (P food conversion efficiency and growth. However, BW gains and muscle composition still differed (P < 0.01) from those of rats fed a high-quality protein.

  11. Efecto del AIB y el TDZ en el enraizamiento in vitro de plantas de Bambusa vulgaris var vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl

    OpenAIRE

    Yudith García Ramírez; Marisol Freire-Seijo; Blanca Rosa Pérez Mederos; Ortelio Hurtado Rivalta

    2012-01-01

    Título en ingles: Effect of IBA and TDZ on in vitro rooting of plants Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl. Resumen: Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schard. ex Wendl. sobresale dentro del género por sus propiedades físico-mecánicas y por el tamaño de sus culmos. Desarrollar la propagación vía organogénesis sería una alternativa para propagar esta especie. Sin embargo, los bajos porcentajes de enraizamiento y de superviviencia ex vitro han sido elementos que han afectado la propagac...

  12. Management of pemphigus vulgaris during acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience with 21 patients of pemphigus vulgaris seen over a period of 10 years managed in service hospitals during acute phase of the disease. Age groups of patients ranged from 25-45 years. Eighteen (85.7% were young adults, 30-40 years of age. Fifteen (71.4% were men and 6(28.6% were women. All the cases were hospitalized in ICU, till the acute phase of the disease subsided. Complete hematological profile, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and repeated bacterial cultures from the skin were carried out in all patients at the time of admission and thereafter weekly. The treatment comprised of potassium permanganate lotion bath (1:10000 and 1 framycetin gauze dressing of the denuded areas, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. All suspected infections and septicemia were treated with appropriate antibiotics. The corticosteroids were usually administered as a single dose of prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. Cyclophosphamide was given at an initial dose of 50mg/day and the dose was escalated to 100mg/day. Once the bulk of the lesions were healed, the dose of corticosteroids was gradually lowered by approximately 50% every two weeks and cyclophosphamide was continued till patients were symptomfree. Out of 21 patients receiving corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and other supportive therapy, 20(95% had undergone clinical resolution of the disease. During follow up study 15(71.4% patients remained symptom-free and undergone clinical remission. Five patients (23.8% had relapse, out of which 4(19% remained symptom free, after subsequent treatment. There was one death (4.7% in our study.

  13. Study on the Enhancement of Immobilized Chlorella Balls' Performance%固定化藻球的强化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严清; 冯国忠

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problems that chlorella balls loose their integrity and algae cells leach easily in the wastewater with phosphate, 1% of activated carbon was added into the balls and then hardened by marinating in CaCl2 solution. The results showed that adding activated carbon could improve the performance of immobilized chlorella balls, and the optimal adding amount of activated carbon was 1 percent of alginate sodium. Hardening could enhance the ability of immobilized chlorella balls in removing NH4+-N and PO43--P from waste water and improve the density of chlorella in ball. The removal efficiency of hardened chlorella balls of NH4+-N and PO43-P were above 80% and 96% respectively.%为解决褐藻胶球在含磷污水中结构易疏松、小球藻易泄漏及胶球易破碎的问题,进行了添加质量分数为1%的活性炭和CaCl2溶液浸泡固定化藻球的加固强化的试验.结果表明,采用添加活性炭的方法可以很好地改进固定化小球的性能,其最佳的添加量为海藻酸钠凝胶的1%;加固胶球系统对氨氮(NH4+-N)的去除率持续增加,最高可增至80%左右;对正磷酸盐(PO43--P)也有较好地去除效果,去除率可达96%以上:胶球经过加固后,胶球内藻细胞密度得到较大提高,固定化性能得到改善.

  14. The Effects of Physicochemical Factors and Cell Density on Nitrite Transformation in a Lipid-Rich Chlorella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang; Du, Kui; Wen, Xiaobin; Luo, Liming; Geng, Yahong; Li, Yeguang

    2015-12-28

    To understand the effects of physicochemical factors on nitrite transformation by microalgae, a lipid-rich Chlorella with high nitrite tolerance was cultured with 8 mmol/l sodium nitrite as sole nitrogen source under different conditions. The results showed that nitrite transformation was mainly dependent on the metabolic activities of algal cells rather than oxidation of nitrite by dissolved oxygen. Light intensity, temperature, pH, NaHCO3 concentrations, and initial cell densities had significant effects on the rate of nitrite transformation. Single-factor experiments revealed that the optimum conditions for nitrite transformation were light intensity: 300 μmol/m(2); temperature: 30°C; pH: 7-8; NaHCO3 concentration: 2.0 g/l; and initial cell density: 0.15 g/l; and the highest nitrite transformation rate of 1.36 mmol/l/d was achieved. There was a positive correlation between nitrite transformation rate and the growth of Chlorella. The relationship between nitrite transformation rate (mg/l/d) and biomass productivity (g/l/d) could be described by the regression equation y = 61.3x (R(2) = 0.9665), meaning that 61.3 mg N element was assimilated by 1.0 g dry biomass on average, which indicated that the nitrite transformation is a process of consuming nitrite as nitrogen source by Chlorella. The results demonstrated that the Chlorella suspension was able to assimilate nitrite efficiently, which implied the feasibility of using flue gas for mass production of Chlorella without preliminary removal of NOX.

  15. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  16. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  17. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized ... Intake Disorder Binge Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: ...

  18. Resistances to an Insect Herbivore and a Phytopathogenin Barbarea vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stina

    The crucifer Barbarea vulgaris grows naturally in Europe and Western Asia. In Denmark and neighbouring countries, the subspecies arcuata exists in two types that differ in insect and pathogen resistance, as well as in several other traits. The types have been named after the degree of leaf pubesc...

  19. Acne vulgaris: A review of causes and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Danielle

    2013-10-10

    Acne vulgaris is a disorder of the sebaceous follicle. The cause is multifactorial, and both adolescents and adults can be affected. Acne is associated with a significant financial burden and considerable psychological distress. Treatment options are reviewed, including over-the-counter medications, prescription medications, and in-office procedures.

  20. POD DEVELOPMENT INCREASES THE OZONE SENSITIVITY OF PHASEOLUS VULGARIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the O3 sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. changed with plant development. Plants exposed to charcoal-filtered air or elevated O3 throughout the study were compared to those exposed only during the vegetative or reproductive s...

  1. An update on the management of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonette Keri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Jonette Keri1,2, Michael Shiman11Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Dermatology Service, Miami VA Hospital, FL, USAAbstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that can affect individuals from childhood to adulthood, most often occurring in the teenage years. Acne can have a significant physical, emotional, and social impact on an individual. Many different treatment options are available for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Commonly used topical treatments include benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, sulfur and sodium sulfacetamide, azelaic acid, and retinoids. Systemic treatment is frequently used and includes the use of systemic antibiotics, oral contraceptives, antiandrogens, and retinoids. Other treatment modalities exist such as the use of superficial chemical peels as well as using laser and light devices for the treatment of acne. With the multitude of treatment options and the rapidly expanding newer technologies available to clinicians, it is important to review and be aware of the current literature and studies regarding the treatment of acne vulgaris.Keywords: acne vulgaris, treatment, benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, lasers

  2. Pemphigus Vulgaris Activity Score and Assessment of Convergent Validity

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    Cheyda Chams-Davatchi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune blistering disease with different phenotypes. The evaluation of therapeutic interventions requires a reliable, valid and feasible to use measurement. However, there is no gold standard to measure the disease activity in clinical trials. In this study we aimed to introduce the pemphigus vulgaris activity score (PVAS measurement and to assess the convergent validity with the experts’ opinion of disease activity. In PVAS scoring, the distribution of pemphigus vulgaris antigen expression in different anatomical regions is taking in to account with special consideration of the healing process. PVAS is a 0-18 scale, based on the extent of mucocutaneous involvement, type of lesion and the presence of Nikolsky’s sign. The sum of the scores of total number of lesions, number of different anatomic regions involvement and Nikolsky’s sign is weighted by the type of lesion. In the present study, PVAS was assessed in 50 patients diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris by one dermatologist. Independently, five blinded experts scored all the patients through physician’s global assessment (PGA. The convergent validity with experts’ opinion was assessed. The Spearman coefficient of correlation showed the acceptable value of 0.751 (95%CI: 0.534- 0.876. PVAS is a valid, objective and simple-to-use scoring measurement. It showed a good correlation with PGA of pemphigus disease activity in Iranian patients with pemphigus vulgaris

  3. Differential expression of the angiogenesis growth factors in psoriasis vulgaris

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    Liew Siaw-Cheok

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis has been reported to be one of the contributory factors to the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. This study aims to compare the expression of different angiogenesis growth factors namely (1 the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF subfamily: A, B, C, D and placenta growth factor (PlGF; (2 nerve growth factor (NGF and (3 von Willebrand factor (vWFr in the skins of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and non-psoriatic volunteers. Results Comparative immunohistochemistry study was performed on the paraffin-sectioned psoriatic and healthy skins with the abovementioned markers. VEGF-C (p = 0.016 and NGF (p = 0.027 were expressed intensely in the cases when compared with the controls. The NGF was the only marker that was solely expressed in the cases and absent in all the controls. Conclusion The NGF (angiogenesis and VEGF-C (lymphangiogenesis might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris and could be researched further as potential new targeted therapies for psoriasis vulgaris.

  4. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

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    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  5. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

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    Lynn DD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  6. Identity and physiology of a new psychrophilic eukaryotic green alga, Chlorella sp., strain BI, isolated from a transitory pond near Bratina Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Kiss, R. M.; Ivanov, A.G.; Modla, S.; Czymmek, K.; Huner, N.P.A.; Priscu, J.C.; Lisle, J.T.; Hanson, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Permanently low temperature environments are one of the most abundant microbial habitats on earth. As in most ecosystems, photosynthetic organisms drive primary production in low temperature food webs. Many of these phototrophic microorganisms are psychrophilic; however, functioning of the photosynthetic processes of these enigmatic psychrophiles (the 'photopsychrophiles') in cold environments is not well understood. Here we describe a new chlorophyte isolated from a low temperature pond, on the Ross Ice Shelf near Bratina Island, Antarctica. Phylogenetic and morphological analyses place this strain in the Chlorella clade, and we have named this new chlorophyte Chlorella BI. Chlorella BI is a psychrophilic species, exhibiting optimum temperature for growth at around 10??C. However, psychrophily in the Antarctic Chlorella was not linked to high levels of membrane-associated poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Unlike the model Antarctic lake alga, Chlamydomonas raudensis UWO241, Chlorella BI has retained the ability for dynamic short term adjustment of light energy distribution between photosystem II (PS II) and photosystem I (PS I). In addition, Chlorella BI can grow under a variety of trophic modes, including heterotrophic growth in the dark. Thus, this newly isolated photopsychrophile has retained a higher versatility in response to environmental change than other well studied cold-adapted chlorophytes. ?? 2008 Springer.

  7. Identification of Small RNAs in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Andrew; Joachimiak, Marcin; Deutschbauer, Adam; Arkin, Adam; Bender, Kelly

    2010-05-17

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris is an anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacterium capable of facilitating the removal of toxic metals such as uranium from contaminated sites via reduction. As such, it is essential to understand the intricate regulatory cascades involved in how D. vulgaris and its relatives respond to stressors in such sites. One approach is the identification and analysis of small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs); molecules ranging in size from 20-200 nucleotides that predominantly affect gene regulation by binding to complementary mRNA in an anti-sense fashion and therefore provide an immediate regulatory response. To identify sRNAs in D. vulgaris, a bacterium that does not possess an annotated hfq gene, RNA was pooled from stationary and exponential phases, nitrate exposure, and biofilm conditions. The subsequent RNA was size fractionated, modified, and converted to cDNA for high throughput transcriptomic deep sequencing. A computational approach to identify sRNAs via the alignment of seven separate Desulfovibrio genomes was also performed. From the deep sequencing analysis, 2,296 reads between 20 and 250 nt were identified with expression above genome background. Analysis of those reads limited the number of candidates to ~;;87 intergenic, while ~;;140 appeared to be antisense to annotated open reading frames (ORFs). Further BLAST analysis of the intergenic candidates and other Desulfovibrio genomes indicated that eight candidates were likely portions of ORFs not previously annotated in the D. vulgaris genome. Comparison of the intergenic and antisense data sets to the bioinformatical predicted candidates, resulted in ~;;54 common candidates. Current approaches using Northern analysis and qRT-PCR are being used toverify expression of the candidates and to further develop the role these sRNAs play in D. vulgaris regulation.

  8. ICG laser therapy of acne vulgaris

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    Tuchin, Valery V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Odoevskaya, Olga D.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.

    2004-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser phototherapy in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for soft and thermal treatment of acne vulgaris. 28 volunteers with facile or back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). Untreated, only stained and only light irradiated skin areas served as controls. For soft acne treatment, the low-intensity (803 nm, 10 - 50 mW/cm2, 5-10 min) or the medium-intensity (809 nm, 150 - 190 mW/cm2, 15 min) protocols were used. The single and multiple (up to 8-9) treatments were provided. The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during 1-2 months after the completion of the treatment have shown that only in the case of the multiple-wise treatment a combined action of ICG and NIR irradiation reduces inflammation and improves skin state during a month without any side effects. At high power densities (up to 200 W/cm2) ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec. Based on the concept that hair follicle, especially sebaceous gland, can be intensively and selectively stained by ICG due to dye diffusion through pilosebaceous canal and its fast uptake by living microorganisms, by vital keratinocytes of epithelium of the canal and sebaceous duct, and by rapidly proliferating

  9. Pemphigus vulgaris autoantibody profiling by proteomic technique.

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    Mina Kalantari-Dehaghi

    Full Text Available Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is a mucocutaneous blistering disease characterized by IgG autoantibodies against the stratified squamous epithelium. Current understanding of PV pathophysiology does not explain the mechanism of acantholysis in patients lacking desmoglein antibodies, which justifies a search for novel targets of pemphigus autoimmunity. We tested 264 pemphigus and 138 normal control sera on the multiplexed protein array platform containing 701 human genes encompassing many known keratinocyte cell-surface molecules and members of protein families targeted by organ-non-specific PV antibodies. The top 10 antigens recognized by the majority of test patients' sera were proteins encoded by the DSC1, DSC3, ATP2C1, PKP3, CHRM3, COL21A1, ANXA8L1, CD88 and CHRNE genes. The most common combinations of target antigens included at least one of the adhesion molecules DSC1, DSC3 or PKP3 and/or the acetylcholine receptor CHRM3 or CHRNE with or without the MHC class II antigen DRA. To identify the PV antibodies most specific to the disease process, we sorted the data based on the ratio of patient to control frequencies of antigen recognition. The frequency of antigen recognition by patients that exceeded that of control by 10 and more times were the molecules encoded by the CD33, GP1BA, CHRND, SLC36A4, CD1B, CD32, CDH8, CDH9, PMP22 and HLA-E genes as well as mitochondrial proteins encoded by the NDUFS1, CYB5B, SOD2, PDHA1 and FH genes. The highest specificity to PV showed combinations of autoantibodies to the calcium pump encoded by ATP2C1 with C5a receptor plus DSC1 or DSC3 or HLA-DRA. The results identified new targets of pemphigus autoimmunity. Novel autoantibody signatures may help explain individual variations in disease severity and treatment response, and serve as sensitive and specific biomarkers for new diagnostic assays in PV patients.

  10. Afferent signals regulating food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, G A

    2000-08-01

    Food intake is a regulated system. Afferent signals provide information to the central nervous system, which is the centre for the control of satiety or food seeking. Such signals can begin even before food is ingested through visual, auditory and olfactory stimuli. One of the recent interesting findings is the demonstration that there are selective fatty acid taste receptors on the tongue of rodents. The suppression of food intake by essential fatty acids infused into the stomach and the suppression of electrical signals in taste buds reflect activation of a K rectifier channel (K 1.5). In animals that become fat eating a high-fat diet the suppression of this current by linoleic acid is less than that in animals that are resistant to obesity induced by dietary fat. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation with either mercaptoacetate (which blocks acetyl-CoA dehydrogenase) or methylpalmoxirate will increase food intake. When animals have a choice of food, mercaptoacetate stimulates the intake of protein and carbohydrate, but not fat. Afferent gut signals also signal satiety. The first of these gut signals to be identified was cholecystokinin (CCK). When CCK acts on CCK-A receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, food intake is suppressed. These signals are transmitted by the vagus nerve to the nucleus tractus solitarius and thence to higher centres including the lateral parabrachial nucleus, amygdala, and other sites. Rats that lack the CCK-A receptor become obese, but transgenic mice lacking CCK-A receptors do not become obese. CCK inhibits food intake in human subjects. Enterostatin, the pentapeptide produced when pancreatic colipase is cleaved in the gut, has been shown to reduce food intake. This peptide differs in its action from CCK by selectively reducing fat intake. Enterostatin reduces hunger ratings in human subjects. Bombesin and its human analogue, gastrin inhibitory peptide (also gastrin-insulin peptide), reduce food intake in obese and lean subjects. Animals

  11. Toxicity of arsenic species to three freshwater organisms and biotransformation of inorganic arsenic by freshwater phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. CE-35).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hogan, Ben; Duncan, Elliott; Doyle, Christopher; Krassoi, Rick; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Naidu, Ravi; Lim, Richard P; Maher, William; Hassler, Christel

    2014-08-01

    In the environment, arsenic (As) exists in a number of chemical species, and arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) dominate in freshwater systems. Toxicity of As species to aquatic organisms is complicated by their interaction with chemicals in water such as phosphate that can influence the bioavailability and uptake of As(V). In the present study, the toxicities of As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) to three freshwater organisms representing three phylogenetic groups: a phytoplankton (Chlorella sp. strain CE-35), a floating macrophyte (Lemna disperma) and a cladoceran grazer (Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia), were determined using acute and growth inhibition bioassays (EC₅₀) at a range of total phosphate (TP) concentrations in OECD medium. The EC₅₀ values of As(III), As(V) and DMA were 27 ± 10, 1.15 ± 0.04 and 19 ± 3 mg L(-1) for Chlorella sp. CE-35; 0.57 ± 0.16, 2.3 ± 0.2 and 56 ± 15 mg L(-1) for L. disperma, and 1.58 ± 0.05, 1.72 ± 0.01 and 5.9 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) for C. cf. dubia, respectively. The results showed that As(III) was more toxic than As(V) to L. disperma; however, As(V) was more toxic than As(III) to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicities of As(III) and As(V) to C. cf. dubia were statistically similar (p>0.05). DMA was less toxic than iAs species to L. disperma and C. cf. dubia, but more toxic than As(III) to Chlorella sp. CE-35. The toxicity of As(V) to Chlorella sp. CE-35 and L. disperma decreased with increasing TP concentrations in the growth medium. Phosphate concentrations did not influence the toxicity of As(III) to either organism. Chlorella sp. CE-35 showed the ability to reduce As(V) to As(III), indicating a substantial influence of phytoplankton on As biogeochemistry in freshwater aquatic systems.

  12. Infecção disseminada por Chlorella sp. em um ovino

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    Everton Ferreira Lima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de infecção disseminada por Chlorella sp. em um ovino, na região semiárida da Paraíba, Brasil. O animal apresentou emagrecimento e aumento de volume abdominal há um mês. Na necropsia, foram observados nódulos esverdeados em fígado, pulmões, intestino e linfonodos. Histologicamente, os nódulos correspondiam a piogranulomas com miríades de algas intralesionais. Provavelmente, a infecção tenha ocorrido em consequência do consumo de água estagnada ou capim que tinha sido cortado em uma área irrigada, que são condições frequentes no período da seca na região semiárida.

  13. Regulation of starch and lipid accumulation in a microalga Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Feng, Jie; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gao, Difeng; Miao, Chao; Dong, Tao; Gang, David R; Chen, Shulin

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae have attracted growing attention due to their potential in biofuel feedstock production. However, current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for lipid biosynthesis and storage in microalgae is still limited. This study revealed that the microalga Chlorella sorokiniana showed sequential accumulation of starch and lipids. When nitrogen was replete and/or depleted over a short period, starch was the predominant carbon storage form with basal levels of lipid accumulation. After prolonged nitrogen depletion, lipid accumulation increased considerably, which was partially due to starch degradation, as well as the turnover of primary metabolites. Lipid accumulation is also strongly dependent on the linear electron flow of photosynthesis, peaking at lower light intensities. Collectively, this study reveals a relatively clear regulation pattern of starch and lipid accumulation that is basically controlled by nitrogen levels. The mixotrophic growth of C. sorokiniana shows promise for biofuel production in terms of lipid accumulation in the final biomass.

  14. The Chlorella killed by pulsed electrical discharge in liquid with two different reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z. Y.; Sun, B.; Yan, Z. Y.; Zhu, X. M.; Liu, H.; Song, Y. J.; Sato, M.

    2013-03-01

    The application of pulsed high-voltage discharge in liquid has attracted wide attention as an effective water treatment. In this paper, two different liquid high-voltage discharge systems were constructed with plate-hole-plate and needle-plate electrode structures, and the inactivation behaviors of Chlorella were studied in the two reactors. The results show that the killing rates of algae in both reactors all increased significantly with increasing discharge voltage and the killing rates were intensely related to discharge power, instantaneous power and single pulse input energy. Furthermore, the inactivation effect in needle-plate reactor was superior to that in plate-hole-plate reactor under the same experimental conditions.

  15. Identification of Sporopollenin as the Outer Layer of Cell Wall in Microalga Chlorella protothecoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xi; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella protothecoides has been put forth as a promising candidate for commercial biodiesel production. However, the cost of biodiesel remains much higher than diesel from fossil fuel sources, partially due to the high costs of oil extraction from algae. Here, we identified the presence of a sporopollenin layer outside the polysaccharide cell wall; this was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, 2-aminoethanol treatment, acetolysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. We also performed bioinformatics analysis of the genes of the C. protothecoides genome that are likely involved in sporopollenin synthesis, secretion, and translocation, and evaluated the expression of these genes via real-time PCR. We also found that that removal of this sporopollenin layer greatly improved the efficiency of oil extraction. PMID:27446068

  16. Application of ozonated piggery wastewater for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ke; Mou, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yan; Wang, Haiying

    2014-11-01

    Ozonated and autoclaved piggery wastewaters were compared for cultivation of oil-rich Chlorella pyrenoidosa by measuring nutrient removal from the medium and growth rate and lipid production of the microalgae. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand, NH4(+)-N, total nitrogen and total phosphorus by C. pyrenoidosa were not influenced by both sterilisation methods. The specific growth rate and biomass of C. pyrenoidosa were determined by analysing the chlorophyll concentration for eliminating the disturbance of bacteria growth in culture system. Bacteria raised from the residue in the ozonated medium achieved 30% of the total microorganisms at the end of cultivation. They reduced the growth of C. pyrenoidosa by 10.4%, but contributed to a faster decline of the nutrient content on the first day. Lipid production and fatty acid profile did not change markedly in both sterilisation methods. The results suggest that ozonation is acceptable for piggery wastewater treatment for C. pyrenoidosa cultivation.

  17. Kinetic modeling of growth and lipid body induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Neha; Kumar, G Dinesh; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Manikandan, B; Basu, Biswajit; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a mathematical model to describe the biomass and (total) lipid productivity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 under heterotrophic conditions. Biomass growth rate was predicted by Droop's cell quota model, while changes observed in cell quota (utilization) under carbon excess conditions were used for the modeling and predicting the lipid accumulation rate. The model was simulated under non-limiting (excess) carbon and limiting nitrate concentration and validated with experimental data for the culture grown in batch (flask) mode under different nitrate concentrations. The present model incorporated two modes (growth and stressed) for the prediction of endogenous lipid synthesis/induction and aimed to predict the effect and response of the microalgae under nutrient starvation (stressed) conditions. MATLAB and Genetic Algorithm were employed for the prediction and validation of the model parameters. PMID:27450124

  18. Identification of Sporopollenin as the Outer Layer of Cell Wall in Microalga Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xi; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2016-01-01

    Chlorella protothecoides has been put forth as a promising candidate for commercial biodiesel production. However, the cost of biodiesel remains much higher than diesel from fossil fuel sources, partially due to the high costs of oil extraction from algae. Here, we identified the presence of a sporopollenin layer outside the polysaccharide cell wall; this was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy, 2-aminoethanol treatment, acetolysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. We also performed bioinformatics analysis of the genes of the C. protothecoides genome that are likely involved in sporopollenin synthesis, secretion, and translocation, and evaluated the expression of these genes via real-time PCR. We also found that that removal of this sporopollenin layer greatly improved the efficiency of oil extraction. PMID:27446068

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of five doses of gamma radiation: 10, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy on chlorophylls content, net photosynthesis and respiration of Chlorella pyrenoidosa has been studied. A decrease in chlorophylls levels is produced after irradiation at 500, 1000 and 5000 Gy, being, at first b chlorophyll affected to a greater extent than a chlorophyll. Net photosynthesis and respiration decline throughout the time of the observation after irradiation, this depressing effect being much more remarkable for the first one. Met photosynthesis inhibition levels of about 30% are got only five hours post irradiation at a dose of 5000 Gy. Radio estimation by low doses, although obtained in some cases for tho 10 Gy dose, has not been statistically confirmed. (Author) 23 refs

  20. Sustainable hydrogen photoproduction by phosphorus-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyrova, Khorcheska; Gavrisheva, Anastasia; Ivanova, Elena; Liu, Jianguo; Tsygankov, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    Previously it has been shown that green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of prolonged H2 photoproduction when deprived of sulfur. In addition to sulfur deprivation (-S), sustained H2 photoproduction in C. reinhardtii cultures can be achieved under phosphorus-deprived (-P) conditions. Similar to sulfur deprivation, phosphorus deprivation limits O2 evolving activity in algal cells and causes other metabolic changes that are favorable for H2 photoproduction. Although significant advances in H2 photoproduction have recently been realized in fresh water microalgae, relatively few studies have focused on H2 production in marine green microalgae. In the present study phosphorus deprivation was applied for hydrogen production in marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., where sulfur deprivation is impossible due to a high concentration of sulfates in the sea water. Since resources of fresh water on earth are limited, the possibility of hydrogen production in seawater is more attractive. In order to achieve H2 photoproduction in P-deprived marine green microalgae Chlorella sp., the dilution approach was applied. Cultures diluted to about 0.5-1.8 mg Chl·L-1 in the beginning of P-deprivation were able to establish anaerobiosis, after the initial growth period, where cells utilize intracellular phosphorus, with subsequent transition to H2 photoproduction stage. It appears that marine microalgae during P-deprivation passed the same stages of adaptation as fresh water microalgae. The presence of inorganic carbon was essential for starch accumulation and subsequent hydrogen production by microalgae. The H2 accumulation was up to 40 mL H2 gas per 1iter of the culture, which is comparable to that obtained in P-deprived C. reinhardtii culture. PMID:25629229