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  1. Cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate in rhesus monkeys.

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    Han, Pengfei; Song, Haibo; Yang, Pingliang; Xie, Huiqi; Kang, Y James

    2011-06-01

    Chloral hydrate has been long used as a safe sedative and hypnotic drug in humans. However, reports on its cardiovascular adverse effects have been published from time to time. The present study was undertaken to use Rhesus monkeys as a model to define the dose regiment of chloral hydrate at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced and the consequences of the cardiac events. Male Rhesus monkeys of 2-3 years old were intravenously infused with chloral hydrate starting at 50 mg/kg with an increasing increment of 25 mg/kg until the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias. In addition, a traditional up-and-down dosing procedure was applied to define a single dose level at which cardiac arrhythmias can be induced. The data obtained showed that when the sequentially escaladed dose reached 125 mg/kg, cardiac arrhythmias occurred in all monkeys tested. The single effective dose to cause cardiac arrhythmias calculated from the crossover analysis was 143 ± 4 mg/kg. This value would be equivalent to 68.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg for children and 46.4 ± 1.3 mg/kg for adults in humans. Under either multiple or single dose condition, cardiac arrhythmias did not occur before 40 min after the onset of anesthesia induced by chloral hydrate. Cardiac arrhythmias were recovered without help at the end of the anesthesia in most cases, but also continued after the regain of consciousness in some cases. The cardiac arrhythmias were accompanied with compromised cardiac function including suppressed fractional shortening and ejection fraction. This study thus suggests that cautions need to be taken when chloral hydrate is used above certain levels and beyond a certain period of anesthesia, and cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate need to be closely monitored because compromised cardiac function may occur simultaneously. In addition, patients with cardiac arrhythmias induced by chloral hydrate should be monitored even after they are recovered from the anesthesia.

  2. Efficacy of Chloral Hydrate-Hydroxyzine and Chloral Hydrate-Midazolam in Pediatric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sedation

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    Razieh FALLAH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fallah R, Fadavi N, Behdad Sh, Fallah Tafti M. Efficacy of Chloral Hydrate-Hydroxyzine and Chloral Hydrate-Midazolam in Pediatric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sedation. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:11-17.ObjectiveMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of congenital or acquired brain lesions. But, in all of less than 8-year-old children, pharmacological agents and procedural sedation should be used to inducemotionless conditions for imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of combination of chloral hydrate-hydroxyzine (CH+H and chloral hydrate-midazolam (CH+M in pediatric MRI sedation.Materials & MethodsIn a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty 1-7-year-old children who underwent brain MRI, were randomly assigned to receive chloral hydrate in a minimum dosage of 40 mg/kg in combination with either 2 mg/kg ofhydroxyzine or 0.5 mg/kg of midazolam. The primary outcomes were efficacy of adequate sedation (Ramsay sedation score of five and completion of MRI examination. The secondary outcome was clinical side-effects.ResultsTwenty-eight girls (46.7% and 32 boys (53.3% with the mean age of 2.72±1.58 years were studied. Adequate sedation and completion of MRI were achieved in 76.7% of CH+H group. Mild and transient clinical side-effects, such as vomiting of one child in each group and agitation in 2 (6.6 % children of CH+M group, were also seen. The adverse events were more frequent in CH+M group.ConclusionCombinations of chloral hydrate-hydroxyzine and chloral hydrate-midazolam were effective in pediatric MRI sedation; however, chloral hydrate-hydroxyzine was safer. References1. Lehman RK, Schor NF. Neurologic Evaluation. In:Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, St. Geme JW,Behrman RE, editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.19th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2011. p. 2013-7.2. Sahyoun C, Krauss B. Clinical

  3. A randomized, blinded comparison of chloral hydrate and midazolam sedation in children undergoing echocardiography.

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    Wheeler, D S; Jensen, R A; Poss, W B

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this prospective, randomized, and blinded study was to compare the use of chloral hydrate versus oral midazolam sedation in children undergoing echocardiography. No adverse effects (nausea, vomiting, paradoxical agitation, or significant deviations from baseline vital signs) were noted with either medication. No differences were noted in onset of sedation between the 2 groups, however, the time to complete recovery was significantly shorter with midazolam than with chloral hydrate. The children in the chloral hydrate group had a significantly deeper level of sedation and were more likely to receive a more nearly comprehensive echocardiographic evalation.

  4. An Improved Clearing and Mounting Solution to Replace Chloral Hydrate in Microscopic Applications

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    Thomas S. Villani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: This study presents Visikol™, a new proprietary formulation that can be used as an efficient replacement for chloral hydrate as a clearing agent for microscopic examination. In the United States, chloral hydrate is regulated and therefore difficult to acquire. Methods and Results: Fresh and dry samples of the following plants: ginger (Zingiber officinale, maté (Ilex paraguariensis, lime basil (Ocimum americanum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, and mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana, were cleared using Visikol or chloral hydrate solution and compared using a light microscope. Conclusions: This new method can be used successfully to clear specimens, allowing identification of diagnostic characteristics for the identification of plant materials. Visikol is as effective as chloral hydrate in providing clarity and resolution of all tissues examined. Tissues become transparent, allowing observation of deeper layers of cells and making it effective in research, botanical and quality control, and for educational applications.

  5. Chloral Hydrate Treatment Induced Apoptosis of Macrophages via Fas Signaling Pathway

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    Cai, Jun; Peng, Yanxia; Chen, Ting; Liao, Huanjin; Zhang, Lifang; Chen, Qiuhua; He, Yiming; Wu, Ping; Xie, Tong; Pan, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Background There are recent reports on several anesthetics that have anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects apart from their uses for pain relief and muscle relaxation. Chloral hydrate is a clinical anesthetic drug and sedative that has also been reported to attenuate inflammatory response, but the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Material/Methods This study investigated the effect of chloral hydrate treatment on the apoptosis of macrophages and explored the underlying mechanisms. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with various concentrations of chloral hydrate for various lengths of time. Morphological changes were observed under a light microscope and apoptosis was detected with annexin-V-FITC/PI double-staining assay, Hochest 33258 and DNA ladder assay, the expression of Fas/FasL was detected with a flow cytometer, and the Fas signaling pathway was assessed by Western blotting. Results The results showed that chloral hydrate treatment induced the morphology of RAW264.7 macrophages to change shape from typical fusiform to round in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and was finally suspended in the supernatant. For the induction of apoptosis, chloral hydrate treatment induced the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages from early-to-late stage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. For the mechanism, chloral hydrate treatment induced higher expression of Fas on RAW264.7 macrophages, and was also associated with changes in the expression of proteins involved in Fas signaling pathways. Conclusions Chloral hydrate treatment can induce the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages through the Fas signaling pathway, which may provide new options for adjunctive treatment of acute inflammation. PMID:27941708

  6. Chloral hydrate sedation in radiology: retrospective audit of reduced dose

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    Bracken, Jennifer [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland); Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heaslip, Ingrid; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-03-15

    Chloral hydrate (CH) is safe and effective for sedation of suitable children. The purpose of this study was to assess whether adequate sedation is achieved with reduced CH doses. We retrospectively recorded outpatient CH sedations over 1 year. We defined standard doses of CH as 50 mg/kg (infants) and 75 mg/kg (children >1 year). A reduced dose was defined as at least 20% lower than the standard dose. In total, 653 children received CH sedation (age, 1 month-3 years 10 months), 42% were given a reduced initial dose. Augmentation dose was required in 10.9% of all children, and in a higher proportion of children >1 year (15.7%) compared to infants (5.7%; P < 0.001). Sedation was successful in 96.7%, and more frequently successful in infants (98.3%) than children >1 year (95.3%; P = 0.03). A reduced initial dose had no negative effect on outcome (P = 0.19) or time to sedation. No significant complications were seen. We advocate sedation with reduced CH doses (40 mg/kg for infants; 60 mg/kg for children >1 year of age) for outpatient imaging procedures when the child is judged to be quiet or sleepy on arrival. (orig.)

  7. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate

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    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: AshrafiMR, Azizi Malamiri R, Zamani GR, Mohammadi M, Hosseini F. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter;7(1:15-19.ObjectiveElectroencephalography (EEG recording is a long duration procedure that needs patient’s cooperation for device setup and performing the procedure. Many children lose their cooperation during this procedure. Therefore, sedation and sleep are frequently induced using a few agents as pre procedure medication in children before EEG recording. We aimed to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam versus chloral hydrate before the procedure along with their impacts on EEG recording in children.Materials & MethodsA randomized trial was carried out to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam versus chloral hydrate and their impacts on EEG recording in children. A total of 198 children (100 in the midazolam group and 98 in the chloral hydrate group were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either oral moidazolam or chloral hydrate.ResultsOral midazolam had superiority neither in sleep onset latency nor in sleep duration when compared to chloral hydrate. Moreover, the yield of epileptiform discharges in the chloral hydrate group was more than the midazolam group.ConclusionThe results of this study showed that both chloral hydrate 5% (one ml/kg and oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg could be administered as a pre medication agent for EEG recording in children. However, oral midazolam at this dose had no advantage compared with chloral hydrate.ReferencesAshrafi MR, Mohammadi M, Tafarroji J, Shabanian R, Salamati P, Zamani GR. Melatonin versus chloral hydrate for recording sleep EEG. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2010;14(3:235-8.Slifer KJ, Avis KT, Frutchey RA. Behavioral intervention to increase compliance with electroencephalographic procedures in children with developmental disabilities. Epilepsy

  8. Sedative Effect Of Oral Diazepam And Chloral Hydrate In The Dental Treatment Of Children

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose was to evaluate two sedation protocols during dental sessions in anxious children. Materials and Methods : It was a randomized and double-blind study, with each individual being his/her own control within each protocol. Furthermore, the two protocols were compared. Twenty children (36 to 84 months old) who exhibited "definitely negative" behavior according to the Frankl scale were assigned to receive oral chloral hydrate (40 mg/kg) (Group I) or Diazepamβ (5 mg) (Gr...

  9. Efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate sedation in infants for pulmonary function tests

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    Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo; Lanza, Fernanda de Cordoba; Nogueira, Márcia Cristina Pires; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate sedation in infants for pulmonary function tests. Methods: All sedation attempts for pulmonary function tests in infants carried out between June 2007 and August 2014 were evaluated. Obstructive sleep apnea and heart disease were contraindications to the exams. Anthropometric data, exam indication, used dose, outcomes of sedation and clinical events were recorded and described. Results: The sedation attempts in 277 infants (165 boys) with a median age of 51.5 weeks of life (14-182 weeks) were evaluated. The main indication for the tests was recurrent wheezing (56%) and the chloral hydrate dose ranged from 50 to 80mg/kg (orally). Eighteen (6.5%) infants had some type of clinical complication, with the most frequent being cough and/or airway secretion (1.8%); respiratory distress (1.4%) and vomiting (1.1%). A preterm infant had bradycardia for approximately 15 minutes, which was responsive to tactile stimulation. All observed adverse effects were transient and there was no need for resuscitation or use of injectable medications. Conclusions: The data demonstrated that chloral hydrate at the employed doses is a safe and effective medicament for sedation during short procedures in infants, such as pulmonary function tests. Because of the possibility of severe adverse events, recommendations on doses and contraindications should be strictly followed and infants should be monitored by trained staff. PMID:27449074

  10. Efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate sedation in infants for pulmonary function tests

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    Gustavo Falbo Wandalsen

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the efficacy and safety of chloral hydrate sedation in infants for pulmonary function tests. Methods: All sedation attempts for pulmonary function tests in infants carried out between June 2007 and August 2014 were evaluated. Obstructive sleep apnea and heart disease were contraindications to the exams. Anthropometric data, exam indication, used dose, outcomes of sedation and clinical events were recorded and described. Results: The sedation attempts in 277 infants (165 boys with a median age of 51.5 weeks of life (14-182 weeks were evaluated. The main indication for the tests was recurrent wheezing (56% and the chloral hydrate dose ranged from 50 to 80mg/kg (orally. Eighteen (6.5% infants had some type of clinical complication, with the most frequent being cough and/or airway secretion (1.8%; respiratory distress (1.4% and vomiting (1.1%. A preterm infant had bradycardia for approximately 15 minutes, which was responsive to tactile stimulation. All observed adverse effects were transient and there was no need for resuscitation or use of injectable medications. Conclusions: The data demonstrated that chloral hydrate at the employed doses is a safe and effective medicament for sedation during short procedures in infants, such as pulmonary function tests. Because of the possibility of severe adverse events, recommendations on doses and contraindications should be strictly followed and infants should be monitored by trained staff.

  11. Evidence for the Use of Isoflurane as a Replacement for Chloral Hydrate Anesthesia in Experimental Stroke: An Ethical Issue

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    Pétrault Maud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since an ethical issue has been raised regarding the use of the well-known anesthetic agent chloral hydrate, owing to its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in animals, attention of neuroscientists has turned to finding out an alternative agent able to meet not only potency, safety, and analgesic efficacy, but also reduced neuroprotective effect for stroke research. The aim of this study was to compare the potential of chloral hydrate and isoflurane for both modulating the action of the experimental neuroprotectant MK801 and exerting analgesia. After middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, no difference was observed in 24 h survival rate, success of ischemia, or infarct volume reduction between both anesthetics. However, isoflurane exerted a more pronounced analgesic effect than chloral hydrate as evidenced by formalin test 3 hours after anesthesia onset, thus encouraging the use of isoflurane in experimental stroke models.

  12. A survey of post-discharge side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate in pediatric CT and MR imaging

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    Kao, S.C.; Adamson, S.D.; Tatman, L.H.; Berbaum, K.S. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Limited information is available on post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric imaging. Objective. To prospectively study the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric CT and MR imaging. Materials and methods. A total of 119 children undergoing CT and MRI were sedated using chloral hydrate with 89 % success (mean initial dose, 72 mg/kg body weight) and 98 % success after augmentation (mean total, 78 mg/kg body weight). The frequency of each post-discharge side effect was correlated with other side effects and 12 patient/technical parameters. Results. The survey was completed in 80 children. Sleepiness lasted for > 4 h in 28 %. Unsteadiness occurred in 68 % and hyperactivity in 29 %. Appetite became poor in 14 % and vomiting occurred in 15 %. Normal activity was resumed after > 4 h in 54 %. Sleep deprivation did not result in increased success or earlier onset of sedation and might be associated with hyperactivity. A higher dose did not result in an increased success rate or earlier onset of sedation within the dose range used in this study. Conclusion. Data on the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation will be useful to radiologists, technologists, and nurses explaining to parents about sedation using this agent. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  13. Radiation-sensitive indicator based on radiation-chemical formation of acids in polyvinyl butyral films containing chloral hydrate

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    Abdel-Fattah, Atef A.; El-Kelany, M.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation-sensitive indicators based on dyed polyvinyl butyral (PVB) containing acid-sensitive dye (bromophenol blue, BPB) and chloral hydrate (CCl 3CH(OH) 2, 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1, 1-diol) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo colour change from blue (the alkaline form of BPB) to yellow (the acidic form of BPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation-formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. The kinetics of the acid-formation reaction is discussed, indicating a half-order reaction with respect to chloral hydrate concentration. These films can be used as dosimeters for food irradiation applications where the maxima of the useful dose ranges are between 1 and 4 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The response of these films depends on temperature during irradiation; therefore a correction should be applied. These films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 10 to 70% as well as good post-irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature.

  14. Chloral hydrate in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of a 10-year sedation experience administered by radiologists

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    Delgado, Jorge; Toro, Rodrigo; Rascovsky, Simon; Arango, Andres; Angel, Gabriel J.; Calvo, Victor; Delgado, Jorge A. [Fundacion Instituto de Alta Tecnologia Medica, Department of Radiology, Medellin (Colombia)

    2014-08-21

    Chloral hydrate is a sedative that has been used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To evaluate the use, effectiveness and safety of chloral hydrate administered by radiologists for the sedation of children who require MRI procedures. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts for all patients ages 0 - 10 years old who underwent sedation with chloral hydrate for MRI from January 2000 to December 2010. Demographic factors, dose information, indication for MRI, therapeutic failures and adverse reactions to the drug were reviewed. One thousand, seven hundred and three children (946 males, 757 females) with a median age of 2.5 years (range: 4 days - 9.91 years) received chloral hydrate. Moderate to deep sedation was achieved in 1,618/1,703 (95%) of the patients, 35/1,703 (2.1%) of the patients failed to achieve moderate to deep sedation, and 47/1,703 (2.8%) of the patients woke up during MRI examination. Adverse reactions were present in 31/1,703 (1.8%) of the patients. Three severe adverse reactions occurred (0.18%). A single dose of chloral hydrate (40-60 mg/kg) was administered to 1,477/1,703 patients (86.7%). An additional dose of chloral hydrate (10-20 mg/kg), given 15 min after the first dose or when the patient woke up during the MRI examination, was required in 226/1,703 patients (13.3%). The likelihood of requiring an additional dose in children older than 2 years was 2.2 times the likelihood compared to children younger than 2 years (OR = 2.2 [95%CI: 1.6-3.0]). The use of a reduced dose (<50 mg/kg) was not associated with a higher therapeutic failure rate (OR = 1.04 [95%CI 0.57-1.89]). Chloral hydrate is an appropriate sedation option for pediatric patients in MRI services when strict patient selection criteria are met. The use of a reduced dose does not affect the effectiveness of sedation. The lack of data regarding the presence of transient oxygen desaturation, the time to induce sedation and the exact duration of sedation are limitations of this

  15. Chloral Hydrate

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    ... a half glass of water, fruit juice, or ginger ale and you should drink it immediately.Swallow ... all appointments with your doctor.If you have diabetes, use TesTape or Clinistix to test your urine ...

  16. Sedative effect of oral diazepam and chloral hydrate in the dental treatment of children

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    Kantovitz Kamila

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose was to evaluate two sedation protocols during dental sessions in anxious children. Materials and Methods : It was a randomized and double-blind study, with each individual being his/her own control within each protocol. Furthermore, the two protocols were compared. Twenty children (36 to 84 months old who exhibited "definitely negative" behavior according to the Frankl scale were assigned to receive oral chloral hydrate (40 mg/kg (Group I or Diazepamβ (5 mg (Group II. Behavior during local anesthesia, application of rubber dam, cavity preparation, restorative procedures was evaluated, considering the degree of sleep, body movement, crying and overall behavior. Vital signs were assessed at three different times. The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Exact Fisher′s and Spearman correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Results : Group I presented higher scores for sleep during the CH session than placebo session during rubber dam application ( P = 0.0431 and restoration ( P = 0.0431. In Group II there was no statistically significant difference ( p > 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between sessions and groups in the evaluation of body movement, crying and vital signs. Overall behavior in the placebo session was better than in the CH session during local anesthesia, but there was no difference between the two drug regimens. There was influence of age during anesthesia and cavity preparation in Group I and during rubber dam application in Group II. It was concluded that oral diazepam and chloral hydrate had no influence on the behavior management for dental treatment with the studied sample.

  17. Trichloroethylene Hypersensitivity Syndrome Is Potentially Mediated through Its Metabolite Chloral Hydrate.

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    Yongshun Huang

    Full Text Available We documented previously the entity of trichloroethylene (TCE hypersensitivity syndrome (THS in occupational workers.To identify the culprit causative compound, determine the type of hypersensitivity of THS, and establish a screening test for subjects at risk of THS.TCE and its main metabolites chloral hydrate (CH, trichloroethanol (TCOH and trichloroacetic acid (TCA were used as allergens at different concentrations in skin patch tests. The study included 19 case subjects diagnosed with occupational THS, 22 control healthy workers exposed to TCE (exposure >12 weeks, and 20 validation new workers exposed to TCE for <12 weeks free of THS. All subjects were followed-up for 12 weeks after the patch test.The highest patch test positive rate in subjects with THS was for CH, followed by TCOH, TCA and TCE. The CH patch test positive rate was 100% irrespective of CH concentrations (15%, 10% and 5%. The TCOH patch test positive rate was concentration-dependent (89.5%, 73.7% and 52.6% for 5%, 0.5% and 0.05%, respectively. Lower patch test positive rates were noted for TCA and TCE. All patch tests (including four allergens were all negative in each of the 22 control subjects. None of the subjects of the validation group had a positive 15% CH patch test.Chloral hydrate seems to be the culprit causative compound of THS and type IV seems to be the major type of hypersensitivity of THS. The CH patch test could be potentially useful for screening workers at risk of THS.

  18. Uncertainty Evaluation of Determination of Chloral in Water with GC/MS%GC/MS测定水中三氯乙醛的不确定度评定

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    杭培红; 徐巍

    2012-01-01

    系统介绍了吹扫捕集气相色谱/质谱法测定水中三氯乙醛不确定度评定过程,对吹扫捕集气相色谱/质谱法测定水中三氯乙醛的测定过程进行分析,通过数学模型分析并计算测试过程中的不确定度分量,最后计算出相对合成标准不确定度和相对扩展不确定度。结果表明,吹扫捕集气相色谱/质谱法测定水中三氯乙醛的不确定度主要有四个来源:标准样品浓度及稀释过程,标准曲线及回归偏差,样品取样量,仪器稳定性。%The uncertainty of determining chloral in water was evaluated by purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(purge trap-GC-MS).The determination process of chloral in water was analyzed by purge trap-GC-MS.The uncertainty factors in analyzing process were determined and calculated by mathematic model,and the relative synthesis standard uncertainty and the relative expansion standard uncertainty were calculated out.The four main sources were the uncertainty of standard samples and by dilution process,the uncertainty of linear and regression variance,the uncertainty brought in the sampling process,and the uncertainty resulted from the instrument stability of purge trap-GC-MS.Four main sources of the uncertainty of determining chloral in water by purge trap-GC-MS was determined.The uncertainty evaluation process of determining chloral in water by purge trap-GC-MS was introduced systematically.

  19. Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs

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    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their

  20. Oral Chloral Hydrate Compare with Rectal Thiopental in Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia; a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Reza Azizkhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing use of diagnostic imaging in pediatric medicine has resulted in growing need for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA to minimize motion artifacts during procedures. The drug of choice in pediatric PSA was not introduced till now. The aim of the present study was comparison of oral chloral hydrate (OCH and rectal sodium thiopental (RST in pediatric PSA.Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 2-6 years old pediatrics who referred for performing brain computed tomography scan was enrolled and were randomly divided in to two groups. OCH (50mg/kg and RST (25mg/kg were prescribed and a trained nurse recorded the time from drug prescription to receiving the conscious sedation (onset of action, the total time period which the patient has the Ramsay score≥4 (duration of action, and adverse effect of agents. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared test, and Non-parametric analysis of covariance (ANCOVA were used for comparisons. Results: One hundred and forty children were entered to two groups of OCH and RST, randomly. The patients of two groups had similar age, sex, weight, and baseline vital signs except for diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001. The onset of action in OCH and RST groups were 24.5±6.1and 28.7±5.2 minutes, respectively (p<0.001. Duration of action in OCH and RST groups were 12.9±2.8 minutes and 13.7±2.6 minutes, respectively (p=0.085. Non parametric ANCOVA revealed that only diastolic blood pressure was affected by drug prescription (p=0.001. In 11(15.7% patients in RST group, diarrhea was observed during 24 hours (p=0.001. Oxygen desaturation was observed only in two patients, both in OCH group. Conclusion: Each of the sedative has advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting one for inducing short-term sedation. It seems that rectal sodium thiopental and oral chloral hydrate are equally effective in pediatric PSA and based on patient’s condition we can administrate

  1. Efficacy of the Sequential Administration of Melatonin, Hydroxyzine, and Chloral Hydrate for Recording Sleep EEGs in Children.

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    Dirani, Maya; Nasreddine, Wassim; Melhem, Jawad; Arabi, Maher; Beydoun, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Sedation of children for electroencephalography (EEG) recordings is often required. Chloral hydrate (CH) requires medical clearance and continuous monitoring. To try to reduce personnel and time resources associated with CH administration, a new sedation policy was formulated. This study included all children who underwent an EEG during a consecutive 3-month period following the implementation of the new sedation policy, which consists of the sequential administration of melatonin, hydroxyzine (if needed), and CH (if needed). The comparator group included all children with a recorded EEG during a consecutive 3-month period when the sedation policy consisted of the sole administration of CH. A total of 803 children with a mean age of 7.9 years (SD = 5.1, range = 0.5-17.7 years) were included. Sleep EEG recordings were obtained in 364 of 385 children (94.6%) using the old sedation policy and in 409 of 418 children (97.9%) using the new one. With the new sedation policy, the percentage of children requiring CH dropped from 37.1% to 6.7% (P sleep onset and duration of sleep were not significantly different between the 2 policies. The new sedation policy was very well tolerated. The new sedation policy is very safe, is highly efficacious in obtaining sleep EEG recordings, and will result in substantial saving of time and personnel resources.

  2. 咪达唑仑联合水合氯醛用于儿童纤维支气管镜检查50例%Application of Midazolam Combined with Chloral Hydrate in 50 Cases of Children Fiberbronchoscopic Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of midazolam combined with chloral hydrate used in children fiberbronchoscopic examina-tion. Methods 150 children patients undergoing bronchoscopic examination in our hospital from June 2013 to December 2014 were randomly divided into 3 groups, 50 cases in each group. The midazolam group was given midazolam, the propofol group was given propo-fol and the observation group was given midazolam combined with chloral hydrate. The anesthetic effects were observed in 3 groups. Results The systolic blood pressure ( SBP ) and diastolic blood pressure ( DBP ) during examination in the observation group were in the normal range and showed no statistically significant difference compared before examination ( P > 0. 05 ); SBP and DBP during examination in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the midazolam group and the propofol group ( P 0. 05 );the excellent rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the mi-dazolam group and the propofol group ( P 0.05);检查中SBP和DBP水平C组显著低于A、B组( P0.05)。C组麻醉优良率显著高于A组和B组( P<0.05)。结论咪达唑仑联合水合氯醛用于儿童纤维支气管镜检查,麻醉镇痛效果明显,值得推广。

  3. Hidrato de cloral para captação dos Potenciais Elétricos Auditivos Chloral Hydrate to Study Auditory Brainstem Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lopes Fávero

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O Hidrato de cloral é um sedativo usado em procedimentos pediátricos devido à pouca depressão respiratória e cardíaca. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia da droga para a captação do PEATE e sistematizar o seu emprego. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo transversal com 41 crianças. A dose inicial de HC 10% foi de 50mg/kg com reforço de 6 mg/kg administrado após 30 minutos nos casos onde não houve sedação. A efetividade da droga foi determinada pela indução do sono até 1 hora após a administração da dose inicial. A ocorrência de sono foi correlacionada com as doses (50mg ou 56mg/kg, a idade, o peso e o sexo. RESULTADOS: As 41 crianças que participaram do estudo tomaram 50mg/kg e 23 dormiram em 30 minutos, 2 apresentaram depressão respiratória; 16 crianças tomaram reforço de 6mg/kg e 13 dormiram em mais 30 minutos. A dose total de 56mg/kg apresentou um efeito estatisticamente significante na indução do sono (pChloral Hydrate (CH is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in pediatric procedures owing to the low depressive effect it has on the respiratory and cardiac systems. AIM: To assess the efficacy of the drug in performing ABR and to systematize its use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study with 41 children without history of heart or lung disease. The initial dose of CH at 10% was 50mg/Kg, with a boost dose of 6mg/Kg administered 30 minutes later in cases in which there was no sedation. Drug effectiveness was established by sleep induction by 1 hour after the administration of the initial dose. Sleep occurrence was correlated with doses (50mg or 56mg/Kg, age, weight and gender. RESULTS: All the 41 children who participated in the study took 50mg/kgof the agent and 23 of them slept within 30 minutes, 2 had respiratory complications, 16 had the 6mg/Kg boost dose and 13 fell asleep after 30 minutes. The 56 mg/kg dose presented a statistically significant effect on sleep induction (p<0.05 when compared

  4. Pharmacodynamics of oral chloral hydrate sedation for echocardiography in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease%口服水合氯醛用于先天性心脏病患儿心脏彩超检查镇静的药效学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怡绮; 张马忠; 王璐; 许文音; 卞勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pharmacodynamics of oral chloral hydrate sedation for echocardiography in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease (CHD).Methods Two hundred ASA physical status Ⅱ-Ⅳ pediatric patients with CHD, aged 5-620 days,scheduled for elective echocardiography,were enrolled in the study.The dose of oral chloral hydrate was set at 50 mg/kg in the first pediatric patient.The oral dosage was determined by up-and-down sequential experiment.Each time the oral dose increased/decreased by 10% in the next pediatric patient.The pharmacodynamics was analyzed based on the dose-response model to determine the 50% effective dose (ED50),95% effective dose (ED95) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of chloral hydrate for sedation.The covariates (age,gender,time period of administration,fasting time,sleeping at 2 h before sedation,premature and cyanotic CHD) were introduced into the dose-response model,and the effect of each covariate on the pharmacodynamics of chloral hydrate sedation was evaluated.Results The ED50 of chloral hydrate for sedation during echocardiography was 42.2 mg/kg (95 % CI 40.2-44.2 mg/kg), ED95 was 67.4 mg/kg (95% CI 53.7-81.1 mg/kg) in the pediatric patients with CHD.Each covariate provided no effect on the pharmacodynamics of chloral hydrate sedation (P > 0.05).When fasting time and premature were introduced into the dose-response model,95% CI of the slope of dose-response curve included 0.When age which was stratified was introduced into the dose-response model,it was difficult to fit or the data seriously deviated from the clinical data.Conclusion The ED50 and ED95 of chloral hydrate for sedation during echocardiography were 42.2 mg/kg (95% CI 40.2-44.2 mg/kg) and 67.4 mg/kg (95%CI 53.7-81.1 mg/kg),respectively,in the pediatric patients with CHD.Gender,time period of administration,sleeping before sedation and cyanotic CHD do not affect the pharmacodynamics of oral chloral hydrate sedation,while the

  5. Discuss on Headspace Gas Chromatographic Method for Chloral Hydrate Determination in Water%顶空气相色谱法测定水中三氯乙醛的条件控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美飞; 杨丽莉; 胡恩宇

    2013-01-01

    探讨了顶空气相色谱法测定水中三氯乙醛的条件控制,阐述了加碱量对测定结果的影响,以及加热温度过高或加热时间过长导致三氯甲烷响应值变低的原因。结果表明,在5.0 mL水样中加入0.4 mL 5 mol/L NaOH水溶液,于45℃条件下加热30 min,可使目标产物三氯甲烷的响应值及稳定状态达到最佳。方法在2.00μg/L~30.0μg/L范围内线性良好,检出限为0.5μg/L。对三氯甲烷背景浓度较高的自来水样品的加标回收率为88.3%~105%,RSD为6.3%。%The keys were discussed on controlling the conditions of automatic headspace gas chromatograph -ic method for chloral hydrate determination in water .The effect of NaOH concentration on quantitative result was studied.The reasons were stated why the response of trichloromethane (CHCl3) decreased when extremely high temperature or the excessive long time of heating was performed .The results showed when a 0.4 mL 5 mol/L NaOH solution was added to the sample , and equilibrating at 45 ℃ for 30 minutes , the response of CHCl 3 reached its high point.The method detection limit come to be 0.5μg/L.The RSD of replicate standard solution was 8.5%.Spiked recoveries of tap water with high background of CHCl 3 ranged from 88.3%to 105%, with an RSD of 6.3%.

  6. Influence of different time of chloral hydrate delivery on the hypnosis of children with pulmonary function test%水合氯醛不同时间给药对行肺功能检查患儿催眠作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏艳; 王芳; 袁远

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of the 10% of chloral hydrate delivery in different time on the children before they receive the pulmonary function test so as to discuss clinical effects.Methods Totals of two hundred children with asthma or asthmatic bronchitis needed the pulmonary function test were recruited,and randomly divided into experience group and control group with each group one hundred cases.Experience group received the chloral hydrate to hypnosis in ten to thirty minutes before they fall asleep,while control group received in doctor' s advice or appointment time.Then,the time of falling asleep,sleep level,the situation of test finishing in two group were observed and compared.Results The effective rate of chloral hydrate in experience group was 98% which was significantly higher than 70% in control group( P < 0.01 )and there was significant differenee between two groups in the time of falling asleep and the sedation effect among the different ages (P<0.01).Conclusions Personal medicine delivery can get the better effect,which is chloral hydrate delivery according to the sleep cycles of children before they receive the pulmonary function test.%目的 观察肺功能检查前10%的水合氯醛不同时间点给药方法对不同年龄患儿的催眠效果,讨论其临床疗效.方法 选取200例哮喘、喘息性支气管炎需做肺功能检查的患儿随机分为实验组和对照组各100例,实验组选择患儿入睡前10 ~30 min应用水合氯醛进行催眠,对照组选择按常规执行医嘱时间或按预约的时间应用水合氯醛,比较两组患儿用药后入睡的时间、程度,是否完成肺功能榆查.结果 实验组应用水合氯醛后有效率为98%高于对照组的70%,差异有统计学意义(Z=6.1389,P<0.01);不同年龄阶段的患儿应用水合氯醛灌肠后入睡时间及镇静效果实验组均优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(Z分别为3.175 2,3.963 5,2.850 1,4.888 8;P<0.01).结论

  7. 水合三氯乙醛前体物的分子量分布和荧光特性%Molecular Weight Distribution and Fluorescence Characteristics of Precursor of Chloral Hydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡广强; 刘丽君; 张金松; 卢小艳; 徐荣

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM ) from the representative summer sample with the highest chloral hydrate formation potential (CHFP)was fractionated by a series of ultrafiltration membranes into four groups based on molecular weight (MW). Three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3D-EEM)fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to characterize different MW fractions. Ultimately,CH yields of model compounds including 20 amino acids (AAs),bovine serum albumin (BSA),etc. during chlorination were investigated,aiming to screen main CH precursors. The results indicate that the highest CHFP occurs in MW<1 kDa fraction, with the value of 24. 81 μg/L,and the next are 10 kDa

  8. 戊巴比妥钠和水合氯醛对窒息性心跳骤停大鼠心肺复苏后脑损伤的影响%Influence of pentobarbital and chloral hydrate on cerebral injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rat model of cardiac arrest induced by asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章平; 陈寿权; 程俊彦; 章杰; 李惠萍; 黄唯佳; 王万铁

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of choral hydrate and pentobarbital on cerebral injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a rat model of cardiac arrest induced by asphyxia.Methods One hundred and sixty male 70-95 day old SD rats weighing 300-400 g were randomly divided into 2 anesthetic groups ( n = 80 each) : chloral hydrate group (CH) and pentobarbital group (PB).Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups ( n = 40 each) : control subgroup underwent no cardiac arrest and CPR subgroup.Anesthesia was induced with intraperitoneal (IP) 5% chloral hydrate 0.35 g/kg followed by intermittent IP 5% chloral hydrate 0.1 g/kg every hour in group CH and with IP 0.35% pentobarbital 35 mg/kg followed by intermittent IP 0.35% pentobarbital 10 mg/kg every hour in group PB.Left femoral vein and right carotid artery were cunnulated for drug and fluid administration and BP monitoring.The animals were tracheostomized and mechanically ventilated.Cardiac arrest was induced by occlusion of tracheal tube and verified by disappearance of pulse wave on BP tracing and asystole/ventricular fibrillation/systolic BP 60 mm Hg lasting for more than 10 min were used as criteria for recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).Eight animals were decapitated and their brains were immediately removed at 0.5,3,6,9 and 24 h (T1-5) after BOSC respectively.2% Evans blue 2 ml/kg was injected Ⅳ 15 min before each time point.Brain water content (wet weight dry weight/wet weight × 100% ) and Evan's brain content in the brain tissue were determined.Results The two groups were comparable with respect to body weight,amount of adrenaline given,duration of precordial cardiac massage and BOSC time.The brain water content and Evan's blue content in the brain tissue were significantly increased after ROSC in beth groups.The cerebral water content was significantly higher after BOSC in group CH than in group PB.There was no significant difference in Evan's blue content in the brain tissue

  9. Avaliação da eficácia do hidrato de cloral na sedação de crianças para exame nasofibroscópico Efficacy of chloral hydrate sedation in children undergoing transnasal flexible endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Patrocínio

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Material e método: Foram examinadas por videonasofibroscopia 100 crianças atendidas consecutivamente, de um a quatro anos de idade, sem alteração neurológica, com queixa de obstrução nasal. Desenho do estudo: Prospectivo clínico randomizado. Objetivo: A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do hidrato de cloral como sedativo para a execução destes exames, na dose de 100 mg/kg, via oral. Todos os casos foram avaliados quanto à facilitação do procedimento advinda da sedação, além das possíveis complicações. Conclusão: Houve maior tranqüilidade durante o exame, por parte do otorrinolaringologista e dos pacientes, não havendo necessidade de anestesia geral ou contenção mais forte em nenhum dos 100 casos. Não houve complicações.Material and method: A hundred consecutive subjects, aged one to four years, without neurological deficits and with complaints of nasal obstruction were examined by transnasal flexible endoscopy (TFE. Study design: Prospective clinical randomized. Aim: The proposal of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of choral hydrate as a sedative for the conduction of the exams, in the dose of 100 mg/kg PO. We assessed facility of the procedure as a result of the sedation and possible complications. All the 100 patients were sufficiently sedated with the administration of chloral hydrate in the described dose. Conclusion: It allowed conduction of TFE with no need for movement restriction by parents, association of another more powerful drug nor general anesthesia. There were no complications.

  10. [Disruption of organization of mitotic microtubules in root meristem cells of Allium cepa induced by chloral hydrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, E A; Svetlitskaia, O M; Chentsov, Iu S

    2002-01-01

    Data are presented on the effect of chlorahydrate on microtubule organization in the root meristem of Allium cepa. Our studies show that an incomplete preprophase band commonly appears during G2-prophase transition, yet the major effect is the lack of perinuclear microtubules, leading to inhibition of the prophase spindle formation and transition to C-mitosis. Upon chloralhydrate treatment of metaphase cells, we found cells with chromosomes regularly aligned within the metaphase plate and differently disorganized mitotic spindles. Concurrently, C-metaphase cells with remnants of kinetochore fibers were present. In addition, normal bipolar and abnormal irregular types of chromosome segregation were detected, this representing multipolar and diffuse anaphases. The major difference between them is the presence of polar microtubules during multipolar anaphase, and their lacking during diffuse anaphase. Alternatively, microtubule clusters between segregated groups of chromosomes are typical for cells with diffuse anaphase. During bipolar anaphase, excessive aster-like microtubules emanate from the spindle poles, and in telophase accessory phragmoplasts are observed at the cell periphery. The formation of incomplete phragmoplasts was observed after normal bipolar and abnormal chromosome segregation. We conclude that chloralhydrate may affect the nuclear surface capability to initiate the growth of perinuclear microtubules, thus blocking the prophase spindle formation. It also disturbs the spatial interaction between microtubules, which is crucial for the formation and functioning of various microtubular systems (preprophase band, spindle and phragmoplast).

  11. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (4)Camazepam 2749 (5)Chloral betaine 2460 (6)Chloral hydrate 2465 (7)Chlordiazepoxide 2744 (8...) Delorazepam 2754 (14) Diazepam 2765 (15) Dichloralphenazone 2467 (16) Estazolam 2756 (17) Ethchlorvynol...

  12. 25 CFR 140.19 - Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not keep for sale, or sell, give away, or use any opium, chloral, cocaine, peyote or mescal bean, hashish or Indian hemp or marihuana, or any compound containing either ingredient, and for...

  13. Developing a Mouse Model of Sensory and Cognitive Deficits for Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    intestinal vasodilation . • Avertin–chloral hydrate has low impact on mouse health in the post-anesthetic period. a r t i c l e i n...general appearance, organ color and size relative to one another, signs of inflammation, vasodilation and the presence or absence of ascites. Eight mice...Neuroscience Methods 219 (2013) 61– 69 67 Fig. 6. Mild acute vasodilation in 2,2,2-tribromoethanol–chloral hydrate injected abdomens. Saline injected (A and B

  14. 77 FR 67777 - National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ..., or the environment. Sites on the NPL may be the subject of remedial actions financed by the Hazardous... the environment and, therefore, the taking of remedial measures is not appropriate. III. Deletion... the Site was used for the temporary burial of drums of chloral hydrate, which were removed in...

  15. Guinea Pig Maximization Test for Trichloroethylene and Its Metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the contact allergenic activities of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its three metabolites trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate. Methods A modified guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) was adopted. The skin sensitization (edema and erythema) was observed in trichloroethylene, trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol, chloral hydrate and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Results The allergenic rate of TCE, trichloroacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 71.4%, 58.3% and 100.0% respectively, and that of trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate was 0%. The mean response score of TCE, trichloroacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 2.3, 1.1, 6.0 respectively. The histopathological analysis also showed an induction of allergenic transfomation in guinea pig skin by both TCE and trichloroacetic acid. Conclusion TCE appears to be a strong allergen while trichloroacetic acid a moderate one. On the other hand, both trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate are weak sensitization potentials. Immunologic reaction induced by TCE might be postulated as the pathological process of this illness. Consequently, it is suggested that in the mechanism of Occupational Dermatitis Medicamentose-Like (ODML) induced by TCE, the chemical itself might be the main cause of allergy. As one of its metabolic products, trichloroacetic acid might be a subordinate factor.

  16. Effect of different anesthesia methods on erythrocyte immune function in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Long Zhang; Meng-Ying Liu; Zhen-Chen Zhang; Chen-Yang Duan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore effect of different anesthesia methods and different anesthetics on erythrocyte immune function in mice.Methods:The mice were anesthetized by isoflurane and ether inhalation, and also under intraperitoneal anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital and chloral hydrate.Blood was collected from the ventro-cardinal vein.Automatic blood cell analyzer was used for routine blood examination, and thecanthine oxidase method was used to measure the superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity.Lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde(MDA) was measured withTBA, and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) was measured withDTNB, and then the effect of different anesthesia methods and different anesthetics on erythrocyte immune function in mice was observed.Results:Hct level of chloral hydrate intraperitoneal injection group was significantly higher than the other three groups(P<0.05).And theMDA levels in the pentobarbital sodium group were significantly higher than the other three groups(P<0.05).SOD andGSH-Px of the chloral hydrate and sodium pentobarbital intraperitoneal injection group were significantly lower than the other two groups;RBC-C3bRR andRBC-ICR of the chloral hydrate and sodium pentobarbital intraperitoneal injection group were significantly lower than the other two groups.Conclusions:Different drugs can induce changes in immune function of mice at different levels.Isoflurane and ether have less damage to animal body, while chloral hydrate and sodium pentobarbital intraperitoneal injection have a certain inhibitory effect on the animal body respiratory system and can cause greater damage to the body.Therefore, the reasonable selection and control of anesthetics are very important in order to avoid the experimental errors caused by anesthesia.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 266 - Reference Air Concentrations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... No. RAC (ug/m3) Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 10 Acetonitrile 75-05-8 10 Acetophenone 98-86-2 100 Acrolein 107...-01-8 30 Carbon Disulfide 75-15-0 200 Chloral 75-87-6 2 Chlorine (free) 0.4 2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene 126... Cyanide (free) 57-12-15 20 Cyanogen 460-19-5 30 Cyanogen Bromide 506-68-3 80 Di-n-butyl Phthalate...

  18. A pilot study of the efficacy of oral midazolam for sedation in pediatric dental patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, D. A.; Nenniger, S. A.; Yacobi, R.; Magathan, J. G.; Grad, H. A.; Copp, P. E.; Charendoff, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    Oral midazolam is being used for conscious sedation in dentistry with little documentation assessing its efficacy. In order to accumulate preliminary data, a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover, multi-site pilot study was conducted. The objective was to determine if 0.6 mg/kg of oral midazolam was an equally effective or superior means of achieving conscious sedation in the uncooperative pediatric dental patient, compared with a commonly used agent, 50 mg/kg of oral chloral hydrat...

  19. Polyvinyl butyral films containing leuco-malachite green as low-dose dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hoang Hoa; Solomon, H. M.; Taguchi, M.; Kojima, T.

    2008-04-01

    Thin films containing leuco-malachite green (LMG) dye in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) have been developed for dose measurements of a few hundreds Gy level. The film shows significant color change in the visible range, and the sensitivity of the film to absorbed dose was enhanced by addition of chloride-containing compounds, such as chloral hydrate or 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. The film is suitable as dosimeters for dose measurements, e.g. in food irradiation and environmental protection.

  20. Polyvinyl butyral films containing leuco-malachite green as low-dose dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang Hoa Mai [Institute for Nuclear Science Technique, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission (VAEC), 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Solomon, H.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman Quezon City (Philippines); Taguchi, M. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi. Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kojima, T. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi. Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: kojima.takuji@jaea.go.jp

    2008-04-15

    Thin films containing leuco-malachite green (LMG) dye in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) have been developed for dose measurements of a few hundreds Gy level. The film shows significant color change in the visible range, and the sensitivity of the film to absorbed dose was enhanced by addition of chloride-containing compounds, such as chloral hydrate or 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. The film is suitable as dosimeters for dose measurements, e.g. in food irradiation and environmental protection.

  1. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kamilla M S; Zortea, Raissa; Piketty, Aurelia; Vega, Sergio Rodriguez; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-15

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min(-1) for chloroform to 0.523 min(-1) for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m(-3) d(-1) and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m(-3) d(-1), while 2.6 kWh m(-3) d(-1) was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m(-3) d(-1). It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes.

  2. Summary on running of chlor-alkali wastewater treatment system%氯碱污水处理系统运行总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国壁

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The process flow of wastewater treatment system adopted in Shaanxi Jintai Chlor-Al- kali Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. is introduced as well as key control points in operation. The problems occurring in running are discussed.%介绍了陕西金泰氯碱化工有限公司污水处理系统的工艺流程及操作中应注意控制的要点,并对运行中出现的问题进行了探讨。

  3. AFRRI report third - fourth quarters 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Table contents: Effect of chloral hydrate on in vivo KCl-induced striatal dopamine release in the rat. Effect of ionizing radiation on in vivo striatal release of dopamine in the rat. Transient and persistent experimental infection of nonhuman primates with Helicobacter pylori: Implications for human disease. Indomethacin attenuation of radiation-induced hyperthermia does not modify radiation-induced motor hypoactivity. Behavioral toxicity and radioprotective efficacy of WR-15l327 in combination with adenosine receptor antagonists. Chromatographic and mass spectral analysis of the radioprotector and chemoprotector S-3-(3 -methylaminopropylamino) propanethiol (WR-15t326) and its symmetrical disulfide (WR-25595501). Mechloretharnine-induced enhancement of radiation sensitivity of guanine.

  4. Pionerer bag barbituraterne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith

    2015-01-01

    was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various...... as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists...

  5. The relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia and heart rate during anesthesia in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, M; Spulber, S; Saravan, V

    2004-01-01

    rats, slowing of HR is associated with an increase in HF. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this relationship between HF and HR is preserved during anesthesia in rat. A 15 minutes long ECG signal was recorded from rats (N=15) under moderate chloral hydrate (CHL) anesthesia. Recordings......) the decrease in HR that occurs during CHL anesthesia in rat correlates with an increase in RSA; (2) atropine reduces RSA and the time-dependent decrease in HR; (3) the time-dependent increase in RSA is preserved after atropine. We conclude that the correlation between RSA and HR reflects the cardio...

  6. Effect of anesthetics on the radiosensitivity of a murine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, P.W.; Chu, A.M.

    1979-09-01

    The effect of four anesthetics on the single dose of x rays required to locally control 50% of implanted MT tumors was investigated. Compared with unanesthetized animals, no change in radiosensitivity was observed if mice were irradiated under either tribromoethanol or fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam anesthesia. However, a small but significant degree of radioprotection was observed under chloral hydrate or pentobarbital anesthesia. Hypothermia or increased hypoxia are considered unlikely mechanisms for the protection, a direct chemical action being most probable. The preferred method for immobilizing the mice in order to locally irradiate the tumors was by simple physical restraint (with care taken to minimize physiological stress). However, if anesthesia was a necessity, the present work suggests that for the MT tumor at least the nonprotecting tribromoethanol and fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam are preferable to the protecting chloral hydrate and pentobarbital. Tribromoethanol is preferable to fetanyl-fluanisone-diazepam in that it produces a smaller drop in temperature. However, it is only a short-acting anesthetic, and prolongation of the state of anesthesia by repeated doses simply prolongs the temperature decline so that there may be no real benefit over fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of the frequencies of intrachromosomal recombination and chromosome gain using the yeast DEL assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, N G; Schiestl, R H

    2000-11-06

    The yeast DEL assay measures the frequency of intrachromosomal recombination between two partially-deleted his3 alleles on chromosome XV. The his3Delta alleles share approximately 400bp of overlapping homology, and are separated by an intervening LEU2 sequence. Homologous recombination between the his3Delta alleles results in deletion of the intervening LEU2 sequence (DEL), and reversion to histidine prototrophy. In this study we have attempted to further extend the use of the yeast DEL assay to measure the frequency of chromosome XV gain events. Reversion to His(+)Leu(+) in the haploid yeast DEL tester strain RSY6 occurs upon non-disjunction of chromosome XV sister chromatids, coupled with a subsequent DEL event. Here we have tested the ability of the yeast DEL assay to accurately predict the aneugenic potential of the diversely-acting, known or suspected aneugens actinomycin D, benomyl, chloral hydrate, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and methotrexate. Actinomycin D and benomyl strongly induced aneuploidy. EMS and methotrexate modestly induced aneuploidy, while chloral hydrate and MMS failed to illicit any significant induction. In addition, by FACS-analysis of DNA content it was shown that the majority of both spontaneous- and chemically-induced His(+)Leu(+) revertants were heterodiploid. Thus, our results indicate endoreduplication of almost entire chromosome sets as a major mechanism of aneuploidy induction in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  8. Impact of anesthesia on pathophysiology and mortality following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hockel Konstantin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anesthesia is indispensable for in vivo research but has the intrinsic potential to alter study results. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of three common anesthesia protocols on physiological parameters and outcome following the most common experimental model for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, endovascular perforation. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 38 were randomly assigned to (1 chloral hydrate, (2 isoflurane or (3 midazolam/medetomidine/fentanyl (MMF anesthesia. Arterial blood gases, intracranial pressure (ICP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were monitored before and for 3 hours after SAH. Brain water content, mortality and rate of secondary bleeding were also evaluated. Results Under baseline conditions isoflurane anesthesia resulted in deterioration of respiratory parameters (arterial pCO2 and pO2 and increased brain water content. After SAH, isoflurane and chloral hydrate were associated with reduced MAP, incomplete recovery of post-hemorrhagic rCBF (23 ± 13% and 87 ± 18% of baseline, respectively and a high anesthesia-related mortality (17 and 50%, respectively. Anesthesia with MMF provided stable hemodynamics (MAP between 100-110 mmHg, high post-hemorrhagic rCBF values, and a high rate of re-bleedings (> 50%, a phenomenon often observed after SAH in humans. Conclusion Based on these findings we recommend anesthesia with MMF for the endovascular perforation model of SAH.

  9. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Kamilla M.S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Zortea, Raissa [Department of Land, Environment and Geotechnology Engineering, Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy); Piketty, Aurelia [Institute of Chemistry, Industrial and Chemical Engineering and Technology (INP-ENCIACET), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (France); Vega, Sergio Rodriguez [Chemical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain); Andersen, Henrik Rasmus, E-mail: Henrik@ndersen.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min{sup −1} for chloroform to 0.523 min{sup −1} for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, while 2.6 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1} was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1}. It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes. - Highlights: ► UV irradiation is able to degrade all 12 investigated disinfection by-products. ► Bromine species are easier to remove than their chlorinated analogues. ► UV dose used for combined chlorine was comparable with doses required for DBP removal. ► Significant removal of some disinfection by-products in swimming pools is indicated.

  10. 电石渣浆绿色治理与综合利用%Experience on green treatment and comprehensive utilization of carbide slag slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅雪正

    2012-01-01

    介绍了太原化工股份有限公司氯碱分公司治理电石渣浆和巧妙实现工业污水零排放的经验,阐述了如何将电石渣浆变废品为资源的详细思路和实施过程。%The paper introduces the experience of management calcium carbide slag and zero discharge of industrial sewage for chlor-al- kali branch Co. , taiyuan chemical industry group Co. Ltd. , and expounds the detailed ideas and the implementation process how to make use of waste calcium carbide slag.

  11. Nitrous oxide-induced hypothermia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quock, R.M.; Panek, R.W.; Kouchich, F.J.; Rosenthal, M.A.

    1987-08-10

    Exposure of rats to high levels of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen reduced body temperature in a concentration-related manner. The hypothermia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. But in rats rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation, exposure to 75% N2O/25% O2 evoked a marked hypothermia similar to that observed in morphine-naive animals. In another experiment, the hypothermic effect of chloral hydrate was also sensitive to antagonism by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. These observations lead the authors to suspect that N2O-induced hypothermia in rats is possibly not mediated by opiate receptors. The thermotropic activity of N2O may result from some non-opioid action of N2O. Its selective antagonism by naloxone (but not naltrexone) may be due to a unique non-opioid analeptic action of naloxone. 32 references, 4 figures.

  12. 四种常用实验麻醉药物对大鼠心血管系统的影响%Impact of four anesthetic drugs commonly used in animal experiments on the cardiovascular system in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙安会; 谷捷; 吴涛; 袁肇凯; 蔡雄; 胡志希; 简伟雄; 李鑫

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of four different anesthetic drugs commonly used in animal experi-ments on cardiovascular system in rats.Methods Electrocardiogram ( ECG) and blood pressure were dynamically recor-ded by a BioPac MP150 system after anesthesia.In addition, the blood glucose at different time points and hepatic func-tion, kidney function, cardiac enzymes and electrolytes at the end of the test were collected.Rusults Chloral hydrate caused severe ventricular arrhythmia.Isoflurane had inhibitory effect on the heart rate.Pentobarbital sodium induced a in-crease of ECG P wave.Urethane caused J point elevation of ECG.Blood pressure in the urethane-and pentobarbital sodi-um-treated groups were increased.Chloral hydrate caused CK to be raised, while isoflurane showed the opposite effect on CK and CKMB.Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the pentobarbitol sodium and isoflurane groups were decreased.Creatinine in the chloral hydrate, pentobarbital sodium and isoflurane groups were lower, and the serum sodium and potassium were decreased in the four groups.Conclusions Chloral hydrate has obvious effect on the cardio-vascular system, and is not suitable for animal studies on cardiovascular diseases.Pentobarbital sodium, urethane, isoflu-rane can be chosen for animal studies on cardiovascular diseases.%目的:探讨不同动物实验麻醉药物对大鼠心血管系统的影响。方法采用BioPac MP150动态记录四种麻醉药物麻醉后大鼠的心电图、血压,采集麻醉后不同时间点大鼠的血糖以及实验终点肝肾功能、心肌酶、电解质。结果水合氯醛可引起严重的室性心律失常,异氟烷对心率有抑制作用,戊巴比妥钠可引起大鼠心电图P波增高,乌拉坦可引起大鼠心电图J点抬高。乌拉坦、戊巴比妥钠均可引起SBP升高,水合氯醛可引CK升高,异氟烷可降低CK、CKMB,戊巴比妥钠、异氟烷有降低ALT、AST的作用,水合氯醛、

  13. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the new model of global cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisel, A. A.; Chernysheva, G. A.; Smol'yakova, V. I.; Savchenko, R. R.; Plotnikov, M. B.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis in a new model of global transient cerebral ischemia which was performed by the occlusion of the three main vessels (tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sinistra, and a. carotis communis sinistra) branching from the aortic arch and supplying the brain. Global transitory cerebral ischemia was modeled on male rats (weight = 250-300 g) under chloral hydrate with artificial lung ventilation. Animals after the same surgical operation without vessel occlusion served as sham-operated controls. The number of DCX-positive (doublecortin, the marker of immature neurons) cells in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1-CA3 fields of hippocampus was counted at the 31st day after ischemia modeling. It was revealed that global cerebral ischemia decreased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus in comparison with the sham-operated group (Pneurogenesis in CA1-CA3 fields was increased as compared to the control (P<0.05).

  14. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal visual system in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, A.P.; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo; Rostrup, Egill

    2000-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young children may provide information about the development of the visual cortex, and may have predictive value for later visual performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fMRI for examining cerebral processing of vision...... in very young infants and in infants with brain damage. We examined 15 preterm infants, 12 children suspected of having a cerebral visual impairment and 10 children with a normal visual system, all of whom were either spontaneously asleep or sedated with chloral hydrate. Cortical response to stroboscopic...... showed a signal decrease. The activated cortical volumes showed a linear relation to age for healthy children younger than 90 weeks PMA, but were small in children with visual impairment. In two children with unilateral damage to the optic radiations, activation was strongly asymmetrical with greatest...

  15. Kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) poisoning in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C H; Camp, B J; Livingston, C W; Bailey, E M

    1987-11-01

    Twenty-four lambs grazing pastures of Panicum coloratum developed photosensitization secondary to hepatic dysfunction. Lesions were necrosis of scattered hepatocytes, obstruction of small bile ducts and bile canaliculi by small aggregates of birefringent crystals, and accumulation of birefringent crystals in phagocytes within sinusoids. The number of crystals in livers of affected sheep varied, depending on the amount of time of exposure to toxic plants and severity of hepatic abnormalities. Crystals in the liver were soluble in acidified ethyl alcohol, acetic acid, pyridine, chloral hydrate, and methanol, but not in xylene, petroleum ether, diethyl ether, acetone, water, or cold ethyl alcohol. Crystals were not stained by oil red O. There was necrosis of epithelial cells in renal distal convoluted tubules, papillary muscles of the heart, and the adrenal cortex. Lesions of Panicum coloratum-associated disease are similar to those associated with photosensitization induced by Tribulus terrestris, Agave lecheguilla, and Nolina texana.

  16. Micronucleus test and metaphase analyses in mice exposed to known and suspected spindle poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzini, A; Betti, C; Bernacchi, F; Barrai, I; Barale, R

    1994-11-01

    Micronucleus (Mn) and metaphase chromosome analyses were performed in mouse bone marrow cells with two known and eight suspected mitotic spindle poisons. Polychromatic (PCEs) and normochromatic (NCEs) erythrocytes were scored for presence of Mn, while structural (CAs) and numerical chromosome aberrations (NCAs), i.e. hyperploid cells, were evaluated by metaphase analysis. CAs were scored in first, and NCAs in the second metaphases, identified by BrdUrd differential staining. Hydroquinone induced Mn, NCAs and CAs; colchicine, vinblastine and, to a lesser extent, chloral hydrate, diazepam and econazole induced both Mn and NCAs; cadmium chloride and thimerosal induced Mn and CAs, while pyrimethamine and thiabendazole induced Mn only. The proposed stepwise protocol allowed satisfactory statistical evaluation of the effects induced with a reduction in the number of animals killed. An acceptable agreement was found between induction of Mn and NCAs, suggesting a possible use of the Mn test for revealing compounds with aneugenic properties.

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal visual system in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, A.P.; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo; Rostrup, Egill;

    2000-01-01

    in very young infants and in infants with brain damage. We examined 15 preterm infants, 12 children suspected of having a cerebral visual impairment and 10 children with a normal visual system, all of whom were either spontaneously asleep or sedated with chloral hydrate. Cortical response to stroboscopic......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young children may provide information about the development of the visual cortex, and may have predictive value for later visual performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fMRI for examining cerebral processing of vision...... showed a signal decrease. The activated cortical volumes showed a linear relation to age for healthy children younger than 90 weeks PMA, but were small in children with visual impairment. In two children with unilateral damage to the optic radiations, activation was strongly asymmetrical with greatest...

  18. Effects on Conduction of the Action Potential of Sciatic Nerve in Rana catesbeiana under Different Anesthetic Agents%不同麻醉药物对牛蛙坐骨神经干动作电位传导速度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝凯凯; 李馨; 李刚; 王延峰

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different kinds of lidocaine hydrochloride,chloral hydrate and sodium barbital on the con-duction velocity of sciatic nerve of Rana catesbeiana in vitro were investigated by means of the extra cellular record-ing action potential. The isolated sciatic nerves were stimulated by single square pulses from RM6220C Physiological Signals Recording System. The results were as follows:three anesthetics decreased conduction velocity of sciatic nerve of Rana catesbeiana,with the increasing of time,conduction velocity decreased continuously,with time de-pendent. But lidocaine hydrochloride and chloral hydrateacted fast,sodium barbital reacted slowly.%使用RM6220 C型多道生理信号采集处理系统,采用细胞外引导动作电位的方法,观察和比较三种麻醉药物水合氯醛、盐酸利多卡因和巴比妥钠对牛蛙坐骨神经干动作电位传导速度的影响。结果:三种麻醉药物对牛蛙坐骨神经干动作电位传导均有抑制作用,并随着作用时间的增长而增强,呈时间依赖性。水合氯醛和盐酸利多卡因起效较快,而巴比妥钠起效慢。

  19. Changes in dissolved organic matter fluorescence and disinfection byproduct formation from UV and subsequent chlorination/chloramination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Bonnie A.; Cory, Rose M.; Weinberg, Howard S., E-mail: howard_weinberg@unc.edu

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • DBP formation from UV-chlorine/chloramine drinking water treatment was measured. • The effect of UV on DBP precursors was evaluated by fluorescence and PARAFAC. • UV alone decreased protein/tryptophan- and humic-like fluorescence. • Loss of two components correlated with cyanogen chloride formation (R{sup 2} = 0.79–0.91). • Loss of the components also correlated with chloral hydrate formation (R{sup 2} = 0.95–1.000). -- Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is being increasingly used to help drinking water utilities meet finished water quality regulations, but its influence on disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors and DBP formation is not completely understood. This study investigated the effect of medium pressure (MP) UV combined with chlorination/chloramination on the fluorescent fraction of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from a United States surface water with median total organic carbon content. Parallel factor analysis was used to understand how UV may alter the capacity of DOM to form DBPs of potential human health concern. The production of chloral hydrate and cyanogen chloride from MP UV followed by chlorine or chloramine, respectively, correlated with a decrease in fluorescence intensity of a protein/tryptophan-like component (R{sup 2} = 0.79–0.99) and a humic-like component (R{sup 2} = 0.91–1.00). This suggests that the UV-induced precursors to these compounds originated from DOM with similar characteristics to these components. The fluorescent DOM components identified in this study are similar to reoccurring components that have been previously identified in a range of raw and treated waters, and this work demonstrates the value of using fluorescence analysis of DOM to understand the relationships between DOM source and DBP formation under a range of treatment conditions.

  20. Reductive electrochemical remediation of emerging and regulated disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjenović, Jelena; Farré, Maria José; Mu, Yang; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Keller, Jurg

    2012-04-15

    Long-term exposure to low concentrations of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water has been associated with increased human-health risks of bladder cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes. In this study, we investigated electrochemical reduction utilizing a resin-impregnated graphite cathode for the degradation of 17 DBPs (i.e. halomethanes, haloacetonitriles, halopropanones, chloral hydrate and trichloronitromethane) at low μg L(-1) concentration levels. The reduction experiments were potentiostatically controlled at cathode potentials -700, -800 and -900 mV vs Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) during 24 h. At the lowest potential applied (i.e. -900 mV vs SHE), the disappearance of DBPs from the solution after 24 h of reduction was >70%, except for chloroform (32%), 1,1-dichloropropanone (48%), and chloral hydrate (31%). Due to the participation of several removal mechanisms (e.g. electrochemical reduction, adsorption, volatilization and/or hydrolysis) it was not possible to distinguish the removal efficiencies of electrochemical reduction of individual compounds. Adsorption of the more hydrophilic DBPs (i.e. haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, and 1,1-dichloropropanone) onto the electrode seems to be affected by the cathode polarization, as the removals observed in the open circuit experiments were significantly higher than the ones obtained in electrochemical reduction under the same conditions. The overall efficiency of reduction was estimated based on the analyses of the released Cl(-), Br(-) and I(-) ions. Nearly complete C-I bond cleavage was achieved at all three potentials applied, and from the theoretically predicted release of I(-) ions, calculated based on the removed DBPs, 86 ± 9 to 92 ± 1% was measured in the catholyte solution at -700 to -900 mV vs SHE. Debromination efficiencies obtained were 74 ± 3, 79 ± 6 and 68 ± 4% at -700, -800 and -900 mV vs SHE, while for C-Cl bond cleavage the obtained values were 69 ± 1, 72 ± 1 and 76

  1. 先天性泪囊炎的探通治疗体会%Treatment of congenital dacryocystitis with probing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雪云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of probing of lacrimal passage on congenital dacryocystitis.Methods 246 eyes of 186 infants of 3 - 15 months old with congenital dacryocystitis were treated with probing unden chloral hydrate hypnosis. The results were observed. Results In 246 eyes of 186 infants with congenital dacryocystitis there were 242 eyes were cured. In this treatment group, the rate of success is 98. 37% , and One probing eyes(88. 02% )were performed in 242 eyes, two probings in 25 eyes( 10. 33% ) , three probings in 4 eyes ( 1. 65% ) ,2 eyes were respectively suffered from subcutaneous edema and laceration of canaliculus, but there was no baby suffered from infection or asphyxia in complication during the operations. Conclusion Probing of lacrimal passage is safe and the success rate of surgery is very high for congenital dacryocystitis with less complication after chloral hydrate hypnosis.%目的 研究泪道探通术治疗先天性泪囊炎的疗效.方法 对年龄3~15个月婴幼儿先天性泪囊炎186例(246眼),以10%水合氯醛催眠后行探通治疗,并进行疗效观察.结果 先天性泪囊炎中246眼有242眼治愈(98.37%),其中1次探通治愈213眼,占治愈眼的86.58%,2次探通治愈25眼占10.16%,3次探通治愈4眼占1.63%,4眼未愈,占1.63%.术巾2眼汨小管轻微撕裂,次日泪道冲洗出现眼睑水肿外,无感染或窒息等其他并发症.结论 水合氯醛催眠后,泪道探通术是治疗先天性泪囊炎的一种安全、有效、并发症少的治疗方法.

  2. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ACONITINE-INDUCED VENTRICULAR TACHYARRHYTHIMIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing; OUYANG Xing-biao; LI Man; LIU Xiao-chun; GUAN Xin-min

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on aconitine-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Methods: Twenty SD rats ate (300 mg/kg, I.p.) were evenly and anesthetized with chloral hydrrandomly divided into control and EA groups. Ventricular arrhythmia was induced by intravenous infusion of 0.001% aconitine (I.v., 3.5 mg/kg, 0.4 mL/min). EA (4~16 Hz, 1~3 V) was applied to "Neiguan"(内关 PC 6) and "Jianshi"(间使 PC 5) for 30 min. ECG was recorded andanalyzed to determine ventricular premature beat (VPB), ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Results: EA elevated the dose threshold of aconitine-induced VF (P<0.05), delayed the occurrence of VT and VF (P<0.01), prolonged the survival time and reduced the mortality of rats treated with aconitine (P<0.01). Conclusion: EA can suppress aconitine-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmia.

  3. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Strand

    2004-09-27

    The research objectives for this report are: (1) Transform poplar and other tree species to extend and optimize chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) oxidative activities. (2) Determine the mechanisms of CHC oxidation in plants. (3) Isolate the genes responsible for CHC oxidation in plants. We have made significant progress toward an understanding of the biochemical mechanism of CHC transformation native to wild-type poplar. We have identified chloral, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid as products of TCE metabolism in poplar plants and in tissue cultures of poplar cells.(Newman et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1999) Use of radioactively labeled TCE showed that once taken up and transformed, most of the TCE was incorporated into plant tissue as a non-volatile, unextractable residue.(Shang et al. 2001; Shang and Gordon 2002) An assay for this transformation was developed and validated using TCE transformation by poplar suspension cells. Using this assay, it was shown that two different activities contribute to the fixation of TCE by poplar cells: one associated with cell walls and insoluble residues, the other associated with a high molecular weight, heat labile fraction of the cell extract, a fixation that was apparently catalyzed by plant enzymes.

  4. Characterization of haloacetaldehyde and trihalomethane formation potentials during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Qin; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Guo, Xian-Fen; Yang, Hong-Wei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-09-01

    Haloacetaldehydes (HAs) are the third prevalent group of disinfection by-products (DBPs) of great health concern. In this study, their formation and speciation during chlorination were investigated for raw and process waters collected at three O3-biological activated carbon (BAC) advanced drinking water treatment plants. The results showed that all HA formation potentials (HAFPs) were highly enhanced whenever ozone was applied before or after conventional treatment. Sand filtration and BAC filtration could substantially reduce HAFPs. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were also measured to better understand the role of HAs in DBPs. Very different from HAFPs, THMFPs kept decreasing with the progress of treatment steps, which was mainly attributed to the different precursors for HAs and THMs. Brominated HAs were detected in bromide-containing waters. Chloral hydrate (CH) contributed from 25% to 48% to the total HAs formed in waters containing 100-150 μg L(-1) bromide, indicating the wide existence of other HAs after chlorination besides CH production. In addition, bromide incorporation factor (BIF) in HAs and THMs increased with the progress of treatment steps and the BIF values of THMs were generally higher than those of HAs. The BAC filtration following ozonation could significantly reduce HA precursors produced from ozonation but without complete removal. The brominated HAFPs in the outflow of BAC were still higher than their levels in the raw water. As a result, O3-BAC combined treatment was effective at controlling the total HAs, whereas it should be cautious for waters with high bromide levels.

  5. Identification of drugs that restore primary cilium expression in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Niamat Ali; Willemarck, Nicolas; Talebi, Ali; Marchand, Arnaud; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Dehairs, Jonas; Rueda-Rincon, Natalia; Daniels, Veerle W; Bagadi, Muralidhararao; Thimiri Govinda Raj, Deepak Balaji; Vanderhoydonc, Frank; Munck, Sebastian; Chaltin, Patrick; Swinnen, Johannes V

    2016-03-01

    The development of cancer is often accompanied by a loss of the primary cilium, a microtubule-based cellular protrusion that functions as a cellular antenna and that puts a break on cell proliferation. Hence, restoration of the primary cilium in cancer cells may represent a novel promising approach to attenuate tumor growth. Using a high content analysis-based approach we screened a library of clinically evaluated compounds and marketed drugs for their ability to restore primary cilium expression in pancreatic ductal cancer cells. A diverse set of 118 compounds stimulating cilium expression was identified. These included glucocorticoids, fibrates and other nuclear receptor modulators, neurotransmitter regulators, ion channel modulators, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, DNA gyrase/topoisomerase inhibitors, antibacterial compounds, protein inhibitors, microtubule modulators, and COX inhibitors. Certain compounds also dramatically affected the length of the cilium. For a selection of compounds (Clofibrate, Gefitinib, Sirolimus, Imexon and Dexamethasone) their ability to restore ciliogenesis was confirmed in a panel of human cancer cell line models representing different cancer types (pancreas, lung, kidney, breast). Most compounds attenuated cell proliferation, at least in part through induction of the primary cilium, as demonstrated by cilium removal using chloral hydrate. These findings reveal that several commonly used drugs restore ciliogenesis in cancer cells, and warrant further investigation of their antineoplastic properties.

  6. Effects of ozone and ozone/peroxide pretreatments on disinfection byproduct formation during subsequent chlorination and chloramination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Peng, Jinfeng; Chen, Baiyang; Guo, Wanhong; Liang, Yongmei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Lu

    2012-11-15

    Ozone (O3) and ozone/hydrogen peroxide (O3/H2O2) can be used in water treatment facilities to remove many organic micropollutants with taste, odor, and color implications. The effects of O3 and O3/H2O2 on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in subsequent chlorination and chloramination processes, however, are not well determined. In this study, we compared the yields of a series of regulated and emerging DBPs during sequenced O3-Cl2, O3/H2O2-Cl2, O3-NH2Cl, and O3/H2O2-NH2Cl oxidation of 11 samples, each with different hydrophobicity, bromide concentration, soluble microbial products, and humic substances. For most water, pretreatment with O3 and O3/H2O2 increased the formation of chloral hydrate (CH), trichloronitromethane (TCNM) and haloketones (HKs) but lowered the yields of haloacetonitriles (HANs) during chlorination processes. Compared with O3 alone, O3/H2O2 in combination generated more CH and HKs during chlorination, and their extents of formation appeared to depend on the O3 doses. In terms of chloramination, both O3 and O3/H2O2 reduced THM, HAA, and HAN formation significantly without increasing CH, TCNM, or HKs. These results suggest that O3 or O3/H2O2 pretreatments may provide some benefits for the chloramination process in controlling regulated and emerging DBPs in waters without high bromide content.

  7. On the identity of types of Roncus diocletiani Ćurčić, Dimitrijević & Rađa and Archaeoroncus tenuis (Hadži (Pseudoscorpiones, Neobisiidae from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćurčić B.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five years ago, Ćurčić et al. (2008 described two new pseudoscorpions: Roncus diocletiani Ćurčić, Dimitrijević and Rađa (from Croatia and R. orjensis Ćurčić, Dimitrijević and Rađa (from Montenegro. The pseudoscorpions studied were mounted on slides with gum-chloral medium. They are deposited in the collection of the Institute of Zoology, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and in the collection of the Natural History Museum, 21000 Split, Croatia. It has been shown that only the male of R. diocletiani belongs to the nominal species, while the female of the same taxon belongs to Archaeoroncus tenuis (Hadži. Therefore, the “allotype male” of R. diocletiani is actually a holotype of this species, while the “holotype” of R. diocletiani becomes a paratype of A. tenuis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173038

  8. Management of pain in the postoperative neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truog, R; Anand, K J

    1989-03-01

    Only recently has the use of anesthesia and analgesia become widely accepted in the newborn infant. This is largely a result of the overwhelming evidence that neonates have the neurologic substrate for the perception of pain and display characteristic behavioral, physiologic, metabolic, and hormonal responses to noxious stimuli. The management of postoperative pain in the surgical neonate begins in the operating room, where techniques can be chosen that will ease the transition into the postoperative period. For postoperative analgesia, the most widely used and effective agents are the narcotics morphine and fentanyl. They may be administered either intermittently or continuously, and with proper precautions may be given to both intubated and nonintubated newborns. Other medications for analgesia and sedation are not as well studied in the newborn, but chloral hydrate and the benzodiazepines are useful for sedation, and acetaminophen may be used for analgesia alone or for potentiating the effect of narcotics. In addition, a number of creative nonpharmacologic techniques are being developed and promise to further decrease the discomfort experienced by postoperative neonates.

  9. Review of pharmacokinetic models for target controlled infusions in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Kennedy Sivasubramaniam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous injection of anesthetic drugs dates back to the 17th Century when opium and chloral hydrate have been injected intravenously. It was not until the 1930s intravenous anesthesia became popular with the invention of barbiturates.Early intravenous anesthetic agents such as barbiturates were ideal for induction of anesthesia, but not suitable for maintenance of anesthesia. Most of these drugs accumulated significantly with increasing durations of infusion and also resulted in cardiorespiratory depression. The invention of propofol and shorter acting opioid analgesics such as remifentanil and alfentanil have revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The rapid onset and offset of these drugs lends itself to being suitable agents for maintenance of anesthesia over prolonged periods of time. Detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics of propofol and remifentanil, combined with technological advances in intravenous pumps capable of accurate delivery of drugs have resulted in great development of the field of total intravenous anesthesia and target controlled infusions. I would like to discuss, in this article, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic models behind these intravenous infusion pumps. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 417-423

  10. Rapid and facile detection of four date rape drugs in different beverages utilizing proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürschik, Simone; Agarwal, Bishu; Kassebacher, Thomas; Sulzer, Philipp; Mayhew, Christopher A; Märk, Tilmann D

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we illustrate the application of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) in the field of food and drink safety. We present proof-of-principle measurements of four different drinks (water, tea, red wine and white wine) each spiked separately with four different date rape drugs (chloral hydrate, tricholorethanol, γ-butyrolactone and butanediol). At first, the ideal PTR-MS operating conditions (reduced electric field strength and monitoring the most abundant [fragment] ion) for detection of the drugs were determined utilizing a time-of-flight-based PTR-MS instrument. We then dissolved small quantities of the drugs (below the activation threshold for effects on humans) into the various types of drinks and detected them using a quadrupole-based PTR-MS instrument via two different sampling methods: (1) dynamic headspace sampling and (2) direct liquid injection. Both methods have their advantages and drawbacks. Only with dynamic headspace sampling can rape drug contaminations be detected within a timeframe of seconds, and therefore, this method is the most promising use of PTR-MS as a fast, sensitive and selective monitor for the detection of food and drink contamination.

  11. Development of a radiation-sensitive indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; El-Kelany, M.; Abdel-Rehim, F.

    1996-10-01

    A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film containing acid-sensitive dye (bromophenol red, BPR) and water soluble chlorine-containing substance [CCl 3COONa or chloral hydrate (CCl 3CH(OH) 2, 2,2,2-trichloroethan-1,1-diol)] may be useful as a radiation-sensitive indicator. The acid-sensitive dye in the film changes its color from violet to pale yellow by irradiation due to the consequent lowering of the pH of the film caused by the HCl generated from the radiolysis of the Cl-containing substance. This film can be used as a dosimeter in a relatively low dose range up to 5 kGy. This response range makes this film useful in some food irradiation, pasteurization and water purification applications. The effects of temperature and relative humidity during irradiation and post-irradiation storage on the response of the film are discussed. It is inexpensive, does not require toxic solvents in preparation and easy to prepare in a laboratory.

  12. [Historical study of delirium tremens in Spain in the second half of the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Lopez, V J; Plaza Nieto, J F; Macias Fernandez, J A

    1996-01-01

    The authors, after a brief historical introduction, review the clinical contributions about Delirium Tremens during the second half of the XIXth century in 9 Saniard authors: J. Santamaría del Alba (1952), Inocente Escudero (1857), R. Sanfrutos (1858), Tomás Santero y Moreno (1867), Candela (1871), Robert (1871), José Armesto (1877), J. M. Castañeda (1879-1880), R. B. de la Roche (1881). It is appropriate to underline their tidying up and clinical interest, medical-pathological and general, their interest in the evolutionary course, their therapeutical empiricism and a certain indifference in framing this nosological entity in a doctrinal corpus more specific, except for Robert, who use the chloral hydrate only two after its introduction in medicine by Liebreich and De la Roche, who complains about absence of a monographic study and explains it according to the anatomic-clinical model of the General Pathology of his epoch, in a appropriate bibliographical context. Included are 12 tables and 27 bibliographical references.

  13. Oxidative metabolism of cocaine: comparison of brain and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benuck, M; Reith, M E; Sershen, H; Wiener, H L; Lajtha, A

    1989-01-01

    Norcocaine (NC) and N-hydroxynorcocaine (NHNC), products of the oxidative metabolism of cocaine, were examined in plasma, brain, and liver of mice injected intraperitoneally with cocaine. Plasma levels of NHNC were altered in vivo by inhibiting esterase activity with diazinon and chloral hydrate or activating esterase activity with phenobarbital, and activating the microsomal P-450 system with phenobarbital. Changes in plasma concentrations of NHNC resulted in similar changes in brain, which were often different from those in liver. After intracisternal administration of cocaine to mice, no appreciable amount of NC or NHNC could be detected in brain; the same results were obtained upon intracisternal and intraventricular administration to rats. Microsomal preparations from mouse brain were found to be considerably less active than those from liver in converting NC to NHNC. We conclude that the cerebral oxidative metabolism of cocaine is not appreciable and that most of the NC and NHNC found in the brain after systemic cocaine administration is derived from plasma rather than formed centrally by brain microsomal enzymes.

  14. Elimination of disinfection byproduct formation potential in reclaimed water during solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian-Yuan, Wu; Chao, Li; Ye, Du; Wen-Long, Wang; Huang, Huang; Hong-Ying, Hu

    2016-05-15

    Ecological storage of reclaimed water in ponds and lakes is widely applied in water reuse. During reclaimed water storage, solar light can degrade pollutants and improve water quality. This study investigated the effects of solar light irradiation on the disinfection byproduct formation potential in reclaimed water, including haloacetonitriles (HANs), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), trihalomethanes (THMs), haloketones (HKs) and chloral hydrate (CH). Natural solar light significantly decreased the formation potential of HANs, TCNM, and HKs in reclaimed water, but had a limited effect on the formation potential of THMs and CH. Ultraviolet (UV) light in solar radiation played a dominant role in the decrease of the formation potential of HANs, TCNM and HKs. Among the disinfection byproducts, the removal kinetic constant of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) with irradiation dose was much larger than those for dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP), trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) and TCNM. During solar irradiation, fluorescence spectra intensities of reclaimed water also decreased significantly. The removal of tyrosine (Tyr)-like and tryptophan (Trp)-like protein fluorescence spectra intensity volumes was correlated to the decrease in DCAN formation potential. Solar irradiation was demonstrated to degrade Trp, Tyr and their DCAN formation potential. The photolysis products of Trp after solar irradiation were detected as kynurenine and tryptamine, which had chloroform, CH and DCAN formation potential lower than those of Trp.

  15. Was it epilepsy?: misdiagnosing Emily Dickinson (1830-1886).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhorn, Norbert; Longsworth, Polly

    2013-01-01

    Lyndall Gordon's recent biography, Lives Like Loaded Guns: Emily Dickinson and Her Family's Feuds (2010), tells with high verve the story of generational infighting over poet Emily Dickinson's posthumous presentation to the world. Equally dramatic is Gordon's hypothesis that Dickinson suffered from epilepsy, which led Gordon to seemingly solve the ineffable mystery of Dickinson's reclusion, a conundrum in her own time and still so in ours. Gordon's startling diagnosis has been commended by book reviewers and on talk shows. Her hypothesis is based on two lines of inquiry. First, she avers that a compound called glycerine, which Dickinson took regularly in the early 1850s, was an anti-epileptic, basing this notion on its presence in a mixture containing the soporific chloral hydrate, a prescription first advised for epilepsy some two decades later. Second, Gordon proposes a genetic strain of epilepsy in the Dickinson family. In the process, Gordon recruits Dickinson's various illnesses to her hypothesis. This article refutes Gordon's claims on scientific, clinical, and biographical grounds. It reviews Dickinson's medical history to establish a differential diagnosis, in which epilepsy is considered and rejected.

  16. Formation of disinfection by-products after pre-oxidation with chlorine dioxide or ferrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Guo, Wanhong; Zhang, Xing; Chen, Feng; Ye, Tingjin; Liu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    The effect of pre-oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) or ferrate (Fe(VI)) on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during chlorination or chloramination was tested with natural waters from 12 sources (9 surface waters, 1 groundwater, and 2 wastewater effluents). DBPs investigated included trihalomethanes (THM), chloral hydrate (CH), haloketones (HK), haloacetonitriles (HAN) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), chlorite and chlorate. Chlorite and chlorate were found in the ClO2-treated waters. Application of 1 mg/L ClO2 ahead of chlorination reduced the formation potential for THM by up to 45% and the formation of HK, HAN and TCNM in most of the samples. The CH formation results were mixed. The formation of CH and HK was enhanced with low doses of Fe(VI) (1 mg/L as Fe), but was greatly reduced at higher doses (20 mg/L Fe). Fe(VI) reduced the formation of THM, HAN and TCNM in most of the samples. Reduced potential for the formation of NDMA was observed in most of the samples after both ClO2 and Fe(VI) pre-oxidation.

  17. An Improved Method for Karyotype Analyses of Marine Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; DAI Jixun

    2008-01-01

    Modified carbol fuchsin staining method was successfully introduced into the karyotype analyses of marine algae, in-cluding Porphyra, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica. Haploid chromosomes were numbered clearly in the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Diploid chromosomes were observed and numbered in immature conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Pit-connections of Porphyra were also clearly demonstrated. Prophase chromosomes of conchocelis cells were also clearly stained with modified carbol fuchsin. One molar per liter hydrochloric hydrolysis at 60℃ for 7-8min is necessary for getting transparent cytoplasm for conchosporangial karyotype analysis of Porphyra. Staining effects of the three methods using iron alum acetocarmine, aceto-iron-haematoxylin-chloral hydrate and modified carbol fuchsin were compared on the vegetative, sperrnatangial and conchosporangial cells of Porphyra and the gametophytes of U. pinnati-fida and L. japonica. Among the three methods, the modified carbol fuchsin method gave the best result of deep staining and good contrast between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  18. [Psychopharmalogical treatment of delirium in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach, Lutz M

    2014-04-01

    Delirium is frequent in hospitalized elderly. Treatment of the medical problems causing delirium is paramount. Mostly antipsychotics are used for treatment of psychological and behavioral symptoms in delirium. Increased mortality of elderly and demented patients receiving antipsychotics suggests caution in prescribing antipsychotics for delirium. Standard treatment is low-dose haloperidol. If more sedation is needed, melperone or pipamperone can be used. In delirious Parkinsonian patients or if dementia with Lewy-bodies is suspected quetiapine is better tolerated. Other sedating antipsychotics like prothipendyl, promethazine or levomepromazin are considered inappropriate medication in the elderly due to their anticholinergic and orthostatic side effects. Cholinesterase inhibitors are not effective in delirium, except physostigmine for treatment of anticholinergic intoxication confined to intensive care. Benzodiazepines are effective in alcohol- und benzodiazepine-withdrawal, but may induce delirium (paradox reaction). Clomethiazole is contraindicated in frequent pulmonal conditions in the elderly like COPD. Chloral hydrate is considered inappropriate medication in the elderly due to QTc-prolongation. On intensive care units clonidine and recently dexmedetomidine are useful. At the moment there are no data indicating melatonin being effective for treatment of delirium.

  19. Magnetic tomography within paediatric radiological diagnostics; Magnettomografi innenfor pediatrisk radiologisk diagnostikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smevik, Bjarne; Borthne, Arne

    2000-07-01

    Background: MRI is a promising imaging technique for diseases in most organ systems in children. Material and methods: this review discusses MRI on the basis of the literature and our own experience. Results: the value of MRI in paediatric neuroradiology is firmly established. In congenital heart defects and other reasons for cardiovascular imaging in children, the non-invasiveness of the method is appealing. MRI is already included in most international paediatric oncology protocols. Paediatric applications for MRI differ from those in adults as they focus on developmental and congenital abnormalities. Furthermore, some pathological conditions are unique to children. MRI is also a promising alternative to established methods for evaluation of the urinary tract. There are some specific problems with MRI in children. Immobilisation and sedation techniques include tight wrapping of the new-born with soft elastic bands, feeding immediately prior to the study and allowing one parent into the magnet with the child. Midazolam and oral chloral hydrate are usually used for sedation. Interpretation: MRI is of particular value in the paediatric age group as the method is capable of highly accurate imaging in a variety of congenital and paediatric diseases without the use of ionising radiation. Faster sequences and better resolution will further increase the use of MRI in children.

  20. Disinfection byproduct formation from chlorination of pure bacterial cells and pipeline biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Liu, Xin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Xiao, Jie-Wen; Chow, Alex T; Wong, Po Keung

    2013-05-15

    Disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation is commonly attributed to the reaction between natural organic matters and disinfectants, yet few have considered the contribution from disinfecting bacterial materials - the essential process of water disinfection. Here, we explored the DBP formation from chlorination and chloramination of Escherichia coli and found that most selected DBPs were detectable, including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, chloropicrin, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone. A positive correlation (P = 0.08-0.09) between DBP formation and the log reduction of E. coli implied that breaking down of bacterial cells released precursors for DBP formation. As Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a dominant bacterial species in pipeline biofilms, the DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) from its planktonic cells and biofilms were characterized. Planktonic cells formed 7-11 times greater trihalomethanes per carbon of those from biofilms but significantly lower (P disinfection of bacterial planktonic cells in source water and ex situ reaction between biofilms and residual chlorine in pipeline networks as hitherto unknown DBP sources in drinking water.

  1. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  2. Serotonin(2) receptors mediate respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord hemisection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S Y; Basura, G J; Goshgarian, H G

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to specifically investigate the involvement of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(2))] receptors in 5-HT-mediated respiratory recovery after cervical hemisection. Experiments were conducted on C(2) spinal cord-hemisected, anesthetized (chloral hydrate, 400 mg/kg ip), vagotomized, pancuronium- paralyzed, and artificially ventilated female Sprague-Dawley rats in which CO(2) levels were monitored and maintained. Twenty-four hours after spinal hemisection, the ipsilateral phrenic nerve displayed no respiratory-related activity indicative of a functionally complete hemisection. Intravenous administration of the 5-HT(2A/2C)-receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) induced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to hemisection under conditions in which CO(2) was maintained at constant levels and augmented the activity induced under conditions of hypercapnia. The effects of DOI were found to be dose dependent, and the recovery of activity could be maintained for up to 2 h after a single injection. DOI-induced recovery was attenuated by the 5-HT(2)-receptor antagonist ketanserin but not with the 5-HT(2C)-receptor antagonist RS-102221, suggesting that 5-HT(2A) and not necessarily 5-HT(2C) receptors may be involved in the induction of respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord injury.

  3. Chlorination of oxybenzone: Kinetics, transformation, disinfection byproducts formation, and genotoxicity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-07-01

    UV filters are a kind of emerging contaminant, and their transformation behavior in water treatment processes has aroused great concern. In particular, toxic products might be produced during reaction with disinfectants during the disinfection process. As one of the most widely used UV filters, oxybenzone has received significant attention, because its transformation and toxicity changes during chlorine oxidation are a concern. In our study, the reaction between oxybenzone and chlorine followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics. Three transformation products were detected by LC-MS/MS, and the stability of products followed the order of tri-chloro-methoxyphenoyl > di-chlorinated oxybenzone > mono-chlorinated oxybenzone. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) including chloroform, trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid and chloral hydrate were quickly formed, and increased at a slower rate until their concentrations remained constant. The maximum DBP/oxybenzone molar yields for the four compounds were 12.02%, 6.28%, 0.90% and 0.23%, respectively. SOS/umu genotoxicity test indicated that genotoxicity was highly elevated after chlorination, and genotoxicity showed a significantly positive correlation with the response of tri-chloro-methoxyphenoyl. Our results indicated that more genotoxic transformation products were produced in spite of the elimination of oxybenzone, posing potential threats to drinking water safety. This study shed light on the formation of DBPs and toxicity changes during the chlorination process of oxybenzone.

  4. Changes in dissolved organic matter fluorescence and disinfection byproduct formation from UV and subsequent chlorination/chloramination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bonnie A; Cory, Rose M; Weinberg, Howard S

    2014-01-15

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is being increasingly used to help drinking water utilities meet finished water quality regulations, but its influence on disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors and DBP formation is not completely understood. This study investigated the effect of medium pressure (MP) UV combined with chlorination/chloramination on the fluorescent fraction of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from a United States surface water with median total organic carbon content. Parallel factor analysis was used to understand how UV may alter the capacity of DOM to form DBPs of potential human health concern. The production of chloral hydrate and cyanogen chloride from MP UV followed by chlorine or chloramine, respectively, correlated with a decrease in fluorescence intensity of a protein/tryptophan-like component (R(2)=0.79-0.99) and a humic-like component (R(2)=0.91-1.00). This suggests that the UV-induced precursors to these compounds originated from DOM with similar characteristics to these components. The fluorescent DOM components identified in this study are similar to reoccurring components that have been previously identified in a range of raw and treated waters, and this work demonstrates the value of using fluorescence analysis of DOM to understand the relationships between DOM source and DBP formation under a range of treatment conditions.

  5. Effects of ozonation on disinfection byproduct formation and speciation during subsequent chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqin; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Wang, Haoyu; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2014-12-01

    Ozone has been widely used for drinking water treatment recently. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dosing ozone on the formation potentials and speciation of disinfection by-products (DBPs, brominated DBPs in particular) during subsequent chlorination. Trihalomethanes (THMs), trihaloacetic acids (THAAs), dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs), dihaloacetonitriles (DHANs), chloral hydrate (CH)and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) were included. The results showed that the yields of THMs, THAAs and DHAAs reached the maxima at 1.83, 0.65 and 0.56 μM, respectively, corresponding to an ozone dose approximately at 2 mg L(-1). The formation potentials of CH and TCNM increased, while that of DHAN decreased, with the increase of ozone dose up to 6 mg L(-1). The bromide incorporation factor values of THMs, THAAs, DHAAs and DHANs increased from 0.62, 0.37, 0.45 and 0.39 at O3=0 mg L(-1) to 0.89, 0.65, 0.62 and 0.89 at O3=6 mg L(-1), respectively. It indicated that the use of ozone as a primary disinfectant may cause a shift to more brominated DBPs during subsequent chlorination, and the shift may be more evident with increased ozone dose. The total percentage of brominated DBPs (as bromide) reached the maximum value of 55% at 2 mg L(-1) ozone dose.

  6. Muscle Relaxant and Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation in Severe Tetanus%小儿重度破伤风的治疗探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义; 张金哲; 董玉珍; 姚慧筠

    1989-01-01

    1983~1986年采用大剂量镇静剂或肌松剂控制肌肉抽搐、SC型定容呼吸机维持有效通气的治疗方案,成功地抢救了4例小儿重度破伤风,使我院重度破伤风病死率由70年代的21.8%降至6.25%.文中对镇静剂、肌松剂及呼吸机的使用做了重点讨论.%Four children with severe tetanus accepted muscle relaxant and intermittent positive pressure ventilation treatment.Muscle relaxant was achieved by chloropromazine co.and sodium pentothal or by tubocurarine chloride.In 7 to 10 days of therapeutic course,chloropromazine co.sodium pentothal or tubocurarine chloride were withdrawn gradually and replaced by chloral hydrate and luminal.The ventilator will be weaned depending on the recovery of muscle hypertonicity and pneumonia,usually in 2 to 3 weeks.All the cases survived.

  7. APPLICATION OF THE ANK ANOLYTE SUPER NEW GENERATION DRUG FOR DISINFECTION OF HATCHING EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanner N. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spraying the hatching eggs with disinfecting solution was found to be the effective mean to decrease a risk of bacterial contamination. The most used disinfection means contain quaternary ammonium compounds, phenols, iodine of glutaric aldehyde. However, some disinfectants have ability to close pores on to the egg in case of applicating on the surface of egg that results in decreasing evaporation of water during incubation and decreasing hatching. The most popular methods is gazation with using the preparation on a base of formaldehyde, formalin, potassium permanganate. The above-mentioned methods have the risks of potential danger for hatching eggs and developing embryos. For biocidic treatment of eggs YF-irradiation is used, as well as ozone, but it penetrates into eggs owing to eggs pores and destabilizes embryo. Moreover, ozone possesses the toxic, corrosive and inflammable properties and its using must be controlled. Some disinfectants, especially chloral-containing preparation have a property to react with cuticle of eggshell and falls their activity. Other disinfectants, as a rule, block the pores and make difficult gazoexchanging. Using the preparation on a base of electroactivatel solutions of sodium chloride. Was detected to be one of the perspective approaches to disinfection of hatching eggs. The results of study on a development of disinfection technology for hatching eggs contaminated by bacteria and fungi with using the Super ANK Anolyte

  8. Whole body hyperthermia and the expression of neuron apoptotic proteins%全身热疗对大鼠海马神经元凋亡蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王端玉; 赵鑫; 卜祥梅; 王志刚

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察用丙泊酚和水合氯醛全身麻醉建立全身高温模型的大鼠海马神经元凋亡蛋白的表达,探讨全身热疗诱导大鼠海马神经元凋亡的信号途径.方法 63只健康雄性Wister大鼠随机分为空白对照组(A组)、丙泊酚麻醉热疗组(B组)、水合氯醛麻醉热疗组(C组),每组21只.B、C两组热疗后24 h,A、B、C 3组大鼠同时断头取脑,采用TUNEL法检测海马神经元凋亡百分比,免疫组化法检测Bax、Bcl-2、caspase-3蛋白的表达,透射电镜观察神经元超微结构的变化.结果 B、C两组与A组比较,大鼠海马神经元超微结构发生改变,B组神经元超微结构损害较C组轻;B组和C组的海马神经元凋亡百分比和Bax、Bcl-2、caspase-3蛋白表达均高于A组(P<0.05),C组Bax、caspase-3阳性评分高于B组(P<0.05)、Bcl-2阳性评分低于B组(P<0.05).结论 全身热疗通过上调Bax、caspase-3表达和下调Bcl-2表达诱导大鼠海马神经元凋亡.%Objective To observe the expression of neuron apoptotic protein caused by whole body gyperthermis (WBH) in rats anesthetized using propofol and chloral hydrate,and to explore the pathway of any hippocampal neuron apoptosis induced by WBH. Methods Sixty-three male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3groups,21 in each group.One guoup received neither anesthesia nor WBH treatment sa a control (group A);group B were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of propofol;group C receivde a similar injection of chloral hydrate. This was followed by WBH (keeping the rats' core temperature at 42°for 30 min) for all three groups. The rats'brains were then removed 24 h after WBH to separate the ghpplcampal CA1,CA2 zones and the dentate gyrus regions.Any neuron apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL methol;Bax/Bcl-2/caspase-3 protein expression was measured with a SABC immmunogistochemical technique;and the changes in ultrastructure were observed tith an electron microscope. Results

  9. 小儿上呼吸道感染致高热惊厥的急救与治疗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析小儿上呼吸道感染致高热惊厥的急救治疗效果。方法研究对象选取本院儿科2012年6月至2014年9月收治的80例小儿上呼吸道感染致高热惊厥患儿,随机方法分组。对照组患儿接受常规急救治疗,实验组患儿在此基础上采用水合氯醛灌肠治疗。对比分析两组患儿退热时间、咳嗽消失时间、食欲恢复时间和用药后24h内惊厥次数的差异性。结果经过治疗后实验组患儿退热时间、咳嗽消失时间、食欲恢复时间均明显短于对照组,用药后24h内再次惊厥次数明显低于对照组,经t检验分析发现组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在小儿上呼吸道感染致高热惊厥的西医急救治疗基础上辅以水合氯醛灌肠治疗,有助于促进发热症状消退,减少惊厥再次发作,对患儿的预后有益。%Objective Analysis of children with respiratory tract infection caused by the emergency treatment of febrile seizures.Methods Febrile seizures in children with respiratory tract infections caused by the object of study selected pediatric hospital from June 2012 to September 2014 were treated 80 cases of children,randomly grouped.Children in the control group received routine first aid treatment,patients in the experimental group on the basis of the use of chloral hydrate enema.Comparison of the two groups of children with fever clearance time,disappearing time cough,loss of appetite within 24h recovery time after the number of seizures and medication dif erences.Results After the treatment of children in the experimental group cooling time,cough disappeared time,loss recovery time was significantly shorter than the control group,the number of drug seizures within 24h again significantly lower than the control group,the inter-group t test analysis revealed statistical y significant diferences (P <0.05).Conclusion Upper respiratory tract infections in children with febrile seizures

  10. Comparative cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of 13 drinking water disinfection by-products using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Miao, Dong-Yue; Tan, Li; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The implications of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in drinking water are of public health concern because of their potential mutagenic, carcinogenic and other toxic effects on humans. In this study, we selected 13 main DBPs found in drinking water to quantitatively analyse their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity using a microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and a developed SOS/umu assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. With the developed SOS/umu test, eight DBPs: 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2[5H]-fura3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2-[5H]-furanone (MX), dibromoacetonitrile (DBN), iodoacetic acid (IA), bromochloroacetonitrile (BCN), bromoacetic acid (BA), trichloroacetonitrile (TCN), dibromoacetic acid (DBA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA) were significantly genotoxic to S. typhimurium. Three DBPs: chloroacetic acid (CA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCN) were weakly genotoxic, whereas the remaining DBPs: chloroacetonitrile (CN) and chloral hydrate (CH) were negative. The rank order in decreasing genotoxicity was as follows: MX > DBN > IA > BCN > BA > TCN > DBA > DCA > CA, TCA, DCN > CN, CH. MX was approximately 370 000 times more genotoxic than DCA. In the microplate-based cytotoxicity assay, cytotoxic potencies of the 13 DBPs were compared and ranked in decreasing order as follows: MX > IA > DBN > BCN > BA > TCN > DCN > CA > DCA > DBA > CN > TCA > CH. MX was approximately 19 200 times more cytotoxic than CH. A statistically significant correlation was found between cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the 13 DBPs in S. typhimurium. Results suggest that microplate-based cytotoxicity assay and the developed SOS/umu assay are feasible tools for analysing the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of DBPs, particularly for comparing their toxic intensities quantitatively.

  11. Production of various disinfection byproducts in indoor swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jun, Myung-Jin; Lee, Man-Ho; Lee, Min-Hwan; Eom, Seog-Won; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the concentrations of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), including trihalomethanes (THMs; chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform), haloacetic acids (HAAs; dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid), haloacetonitriles (HANs; dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, and dibromoacetonitrile), and chloral hydrate (CH) were measured in 86 indoor swimming pools in Seoul, Korea, treated using different disinfection methods, such as chlorine, ozone and chlorine, and a technique that uses electrochemically generated mixed oxidants (EGMOs). The correlations between DBPs and other environmental factors such as with total organic carbon (TOC), KMnO(4) consumption, free residual chlorine, pH, and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the pools were examined. The geometric mean concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pool waters were 183.1±2.5μg/L, 32.6±2.1μg/L, and 139.9±2.4μg/L in pools disinfected with chlorine, ozone/chlorine, and EGMO, respectively. The mean concentrations of total THMs (TTHMs), total HAAs (THAAs), total HANs (THANs), and CH differed significantly depending on the disinfection method used (P<0.01). Interestingly, THAAs concentrations were the highest, followed by TTHMs, CH, and THANs in all swimming pools regardless of disinfection method. TOC showed a good correlation with the concentrations of DBPs in all swimming pools (chlorine; r=0.82, P<0.01; ozone/chlorine; r=0.52, P<0.01, EGMO; r=0.39, P<0.05). In addition, nitrate was positively correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs in swimming pools disinfected with chlorine and ozone/chlorine (chlorine; r=0.58; ozone/chlorine; r=0.60, P<0.01), whereas was negative correlated with the concentrations of total DBPs (r=-0.53, P<0.01) in the EGMO-treated pools.

  12. Dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules under giga hertz electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Dutta; S K Sit; S Acharyya

    2001-10-01

    The dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules chloral and ethyltrichloroacetate () in benzene, -hexane and -heptane () under 4.2, 9.8 and 24.6 GHz electric fields at 30°C are studied to show the possible existence of double relaxation times 2 and 1 for rotations of the whole and the flexible parts of molecules. The probability of showing double relaxation is more in aliphatic solvents indicating their nonrigidity. The symmetric and asymmetric distribution parameters and are obtained from $'_{ij}/_{0ij}$ and $''_{ij}/_{0ij}$ at $w_{j}→ 0$ where $'_{ij}$ and $''_{ij}$ are real and imaginary parts of the complex orientational susceptibility $^{*}_{ij}$ and $_{0ij}$ is the low frequency susceptibility which is real. $_{ij}$’s are involved with the measured dielectric relative permittivities $'_{ij}$, $''_{ij}$, $_{0ij}$ and $_{∞ ij}$ of solutions. The theoretical weighted contributions $c_{1}$ and $c_{2}$ towards dielectric dispersions by Fröhlich’s method are compared with the experimental ones obtained from the graphical variation of $'_{ij}/_{0ij}$ and $''_{ij}/_{0ij}$ with weight fractions $w_{j}$’s at $w_{j}→ 0$. The measured dipole moments $_{2}$ and $_{1}$ of the whole and the flexible part of a polar molecule in terms of the linear coefficients 's of $'_{ij}$’s with $w_{j}$’s and the estimated $_{2}$ and $_{1}$ reveal their associations with aliphatic solvents. The theoretical dipole moments $_{\\text{theo}}$’s from the available bond angles and bond moments of the substituent polar groups of the molecules with the estimated ’s suggest the mesomeric, inductive and electromeric effects in them under GHz electric field.

  13. Roles of autophagy in MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in vivo: the involvement of mitochondria and α-synuclein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chih Hung

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy (also known as autophagy is an intracellular self-eating mechanism and has been proposed as both neuroprotective and neurodestructive in the central nervous system (CNS neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the role of autophagy involving mitochondria and α-synuclein was investigated in MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced oxidative injury in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats in vivo. The oxidative mechanism underlying MPP+-induced neurotoxicity was identified by elevated lipid peroxidation and heme oxygenase-1 levels, a redox-regulated protein in MPP+-infused substantia nigra (SN. At the same time, MPP+ significantly increased LC3-II levels, a hallmark protein of autophagy. To block MPP+-induced autophagy in rat brain, Atg7siRNA was intranigrally infused 4 d prior to MPP+ infusion. Western blot assay showed that in vivo Atg7siRNA transfection not only reduced Atg7 levels in the MPP+-infused SN but attenuated MPP+-induced elevation in LC3-II levels, activation of caspase 9 and reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels, indicating that autophagy is pro-death. The immunostaining study demonstrated co-localization of LC3 and succinate dehydrogenase (a mitochondrial complex II as well as LC3 and α-synuclein, suggesting that autophagy may engulf mitochondria and α-synuclein. Indeed, in vivo Atg7siRNA transfection mitigated MPP+-induced reduction in cytochrome c oxidase. In addition, MPP+-induced autophagy differentially altered the α-synuclein aggregates in the infused SN. In conclusion, autophagy plays a prodeath role in the MPP+-induced oxidative injury by sequestering mitochondria in the rat brain. Moreover, our data suggest that the benefits of autophagy depend on the levels of α-synuclein aggregates in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of the rat brain.

  14. Effects of different general anesthetics on serum hemolysis and hepatic and muscular glycogenolysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.A. Machado

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetics can affect the structure and biological function of tissues and systems differentially. The aim of the present study was to compare three injectable anesthetics generally used in experiments with animals in terms of the degree of hemolysis and glycogenolysis occurring after profound anesthesia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (330-440 g were divided into three groups (N = 8: chloral hydrate (CH, ketamine + xylazine (KX, Zoletil 50® (zolazepam and tiletamine + xylazine (ZTX. After deep anesthesia, total blood was collected. The liver and white (WG and red gastrocnemius (RG muscles were also immediately removed. The degree of serum hemolysis was quantified on the basis of hemoglobin concentration (g/L. Hepatic and muscular glycogen concentrations (mmol/kg wet tissue were quantified by the phenol-sulfuric method. The CH and KX groups exhibited serum hemolysis (4.0 ± 2.2 and 1.9 ± 0.9 g/L, respectively; P < 0.05 compared to the ZTX group, which presented none. Only KX induced elevated glycogenolysis (mmol/kg wet tissue in the liver (86.9 ± 63.2 and in WG (18.7 ± 9.0 and RG (15.2 ± 7.2; P < 0.05. The CH and ZTX groups exhibited no glycogenolysis in the liver (164.4 ± 41.1 and 176.8 ± 54.4, respectively, WG (28.8 ± 4.4, 32.0 ± 6.5, respectively or RG (29.0 ± 4.9; 25.3 ± 8.6, respectively. Our data indicate that ZTX seems to be an appropriate general anesthetic for studies that seek to simultaneously quantify the concentration of glycogen and serum biochemical markers without interferences. ZTX is reasonably priced, found easily at veterinary markets, quickly induces deep anesthesia, and presents a low mortality rate.

  15. Effects of different general anesthetics on serum hemolysis and hepatic and muscular glycogenolysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, E F A; Normand, A C R; Nunes, L A S; Brenzikofer, R; Macedo, D V

    2009-11-01

    Anesthetics can affect the structure and biological function of tissues and systems differentially. The aim of the present study was to compare three injectable anesthetics generally used in experiments with animals in terms of the degree of hemolysis and glycogenolysis occurring after profound anesthesia. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (330-440 g) were divided into three groups (N = 8): chloral hydrate (CH), ketamine + xylazine (KX), Zoletil 50(R) (zolazepam and tiletamine) + xylazine (ZTX). After deep anesthesia, total blood was collected. The liver and white (WG) and red gastrocnemius (RG) muscles were also immediately removed. The degree of serum hemolysis was quantified on the basis of hemoglobin concentration (g/L). Hepatic and muscular glycogen concentrations (mmol/kg wet tissue) were quantified by the phenol-sulfuric method. The CH and KX groups exhibited serum hemolysis (4.0 +/- 2.2 and 1.9 +/- 0.9 g/L, respectively; P glycogenolysis (mmol/kg wet tissue) in the liver (86.9 +/- 63.2) and in WG (18.7 +/- 9.0) and RG (15.2 +/- 7.2; P glycogenolysis in the liver (164.4 +/- 41.1 and 176.8 +/- 54.4, respectively), WG (28.8 +/- 4.4, 32.0 +/- 6.5, respectively) or RG (29.0 +/- 4.9; 25.3 +/- 8.6, respectively). Our data indicate that ZTX seems to be an appropriate general anesthetic for studies that seek to simultaneously quantify the concentration of glycogen and serum biochemical markers without interferences. ZTX is reasonably priced, found easily at veterinary markets, quickly induces deep anesthesia, and presents a low mortality rate.

  16. Formation of silica iron oxide glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bawab, Abeer F.

    The microemulsion-gel method was developed as an alternative process in the production of room temperature glasses. This method is based on the formation of a microemulsion, to which is added a metal alkoxide that undergoes hydrolysis and condensation to form an oxide network, which is dried into glass. The goal of this work is to understand the sol-gel process upon addition of hydrate metal salts. The thermal transitions of the silica containing ferric nitrate hydrate were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Using infrared (IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The glasses with a less than 30 mol % iron nitrate were amorphous, while those higher concentration were crystalline. Based on XRD the thermal transitions did not alter the crystallinity. The IR spectra indicated the existence of Si-O-Fe bonds. Thermal analysis indicated similar transitions as exhibited by pure iron nitrate with minor modifications due to interactions with the silica. The reaction between tetraethoxysilane and chloral hydrate in ethanol was followed by NMR of the sp{29}Si nucleus at two different pHs. The sp{29}Si NMR spectra were similar to those reported for the reactions in alcohol between tetraethoxysilane and water of low pH, and for the reactions in the presence of inorganic hydrate. At pH 4, monomene silicon species were detected where at pH 2 the reaction was sufficiently rapid that multi hydroxy monomers were not detected as expected from the catalysts. The reaction proceeded without adding water. The reaction between aluminum chloride and methoxydimethyloctylsilane was investigated at room temperature using NMR and IR spectroscopy in addition to a molecular weight determination from the freezing point reduction in benzene. The structure as deduced from the experimental results was found to be a dimer containing two silicon atoms and two aluminum atoms of which the latter were tetrahedrally coordinated.

  17. Towards reducing DBP formation potential of drinking water by favouring direct ozone over hydroxyl radical reactions during ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Glen Andrew; Stalter, Daniel; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Weinberg, Howard S; Keller, Jurg; Farré, Maria José

    2015-12-15

    When ozonation is employed in advanced water treatment plants to produce drinking water, dissolved organic matter reacts with ozone (O3) and/or hydroxyl radicals (OH) affecting disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation with subsequently used chlorine-based disinfectants. This study presents the effects of varying exposures of O3 and •OH on DBP concentrations and their associated toxicity generated after subsequent chlorination. DBP formation potential tests and in vitro bioassays were conducted after batch ozonation experiments of coagulated surface water with and without addition of tertiary butanol (t-BuOH, 10 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mg/mg O3), and at different pH (6-8) and transferred ozone doses (0-1 mg/mg TOC). Although ozonation led to a 24-37% decrease in formation of total trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, and trihaloacetamides, an increase in formation of total trihalonitromethanes, chloral hydrate, and haloketones was observed. This effect however was less pronounced for samples ozonated at conditions favoring molecular ozone (e.g., pH 6 and in the presence of t-BuOH) over •OH reactions (e.g., pH 8 and in the presence of H2O2). Compared to ozonation only, addition of H2O2 consistently enhanced formation of all DBP groups (20-61%) except trihalonitromethanes. This proves that •OH-transformed organic matter is more susceptible to halogen incorporation. Analogously, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) concentrations increased under conditions that favor •OH reactions. The ratio of unknown to known AOX, however, was greater at conditions that promote direct O3 reactions. Although significant correlation was found between AOX and genotoxicity with the p53 bioassay, toxicity tests using 4 in vitro bioassays showed relatively low absolute differences between various ozonation conditions.

  18. Changes of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 in brain and plasma after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛; 姚智; 袁汉娜; 陆伯刚; 杨树源

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in brain and plasma after brain injury and to assess the relationship between the cytokine levels and injury severity in rats. Methods: A total of 51 male Wistar rats, weighing 280-340 g, were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg body weight) through intraperitoneal injection and fixed on a stereotaxic instrument. Severe brain injury was created in 16 rats (severe injury group) and moderate brain injury in 18 rats (moderate injury group) by a fluid percussion model, and cytokine levels of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were measured with biological assay. And sham operation was made on the other 17 rats (control group). Results: In the control group, the levels of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were hardly detected in the cortex of the rats, but in the ipsilateral cortex of the rats in both injury groups, they increased obviously at 8 hours after injury. The increasing degree of these cytokines had no significant difference between the two injury groups. The levels of IL-6 in the plasma of all the rats increased slightly, whereas the levels of IL-1β and TNFα were undetectable. Conclusions: The increase of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 levels is closely related to brain injury. The increased cytokine levels in the central nervous system are not parallel to those in the peripheral blood. It suggests that inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the secondary neural damage after brain injury.

  19. Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems.

  20. PPCP degradation by UV/chlorine treatment and its impact on DBP formation potential in real waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Jianliang; Fu, Wenjie; Shang, Chii; Li, Yin; Chen, Yiwei; Gan, Wenhui; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-07-01

    The ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/chlorine) water purification process was evaluated for its ability to degrade the residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) commonly found in drinking water sources. The disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed after post-chlorination were documented. The performance of the UV/chlorine process was compared with that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process in treating three types of sand-filtered natural water. Except caffeine and carbamazepine residues, the UV/chlorine process was found to be 59-99% effective for feed water with a high level of dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity, and 27-92% effective for water with a high ammonia content. Both chlorine radicals and hydroxyl radicals were found to contribute to the observed PPCP degradation. The removal efficiencies of chlorine- and UV-resistant PPCPs such as carbamazepine and caffeine were 2-3 times greater than in the UV/H2O2 process in waters not enriched with ammonia. UV/chlorine treatment slightly enhanced the formation chloral hydrate (CH), haloketone (HK) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM). It reduced haloacetonitrile (HAN) formation during the post-chlorination in comparison with the UV/H2O2 process. In waters with high concentrations of ammonia, the UV/chlorine process was only 5-7% more effective than the UV/H2O2 process, and it formed slightly more THMs, HKs and TCNM along with reduced formation of CH and HAN. The UV/chlorine process is thus recommended as a good alternative to UV/H2O2 treatment for its superior PPCP removal without significantly enhancing DBP formation.

  1. Formation of Nitric Oxide by Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Is Necessary and Sufficient for Vascular Bioactivation of Nitroglycerin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opelt, Marissa; Eroglu, Emrah; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Fassett, John T.; Schrammel, Astrid; Mayer, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) catalyzes vascular bioactivation of the antianginal drug nitroglycerin (GTN), resulting in activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and cGMP-mediated vasodilation. We have previously shown that a minor reaction of ALDH2-catalyzed GTN bioconversion, accounting for about 5% of the main clearance-based turnover yielding inorganic nitrite, results in direct NO formation and concluded that this minor pathway could provide the link between vascular GTN metabolism and activation of sGC. However, lack of detectable NO at therapeutically relevant GTN concentrations (≤1 μm) in vascular tissue called into question the biological significance of NO formation by purified ALDH2. We addressed this issue and used a novel, highly sensitive genetically encoded fluorescent NO probe (geNOp) to visualize intracellular NO formation at low GTN concentrations (≤1 μm) in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) expressing an ALDH2 mutant that reduces GTN to NO but lacks clearance-based GTN denitration activity. NO formation was compared with GTN-induced activation of sGC. The addition of 1 μm GTN to VSMC expressing either wild-type or C301S/C303S ALDH2 resulted in pronounced intracellular NO elevation, with maximal concentrations of 7 and 17 nm, respectively. Formation of GTN-derived NO correlated well with activation of purified sGC in VSMC lysates and cGMP accumulation in intact porcine aortic endothelial cells infected with wild-type or mutant ALDH2. Formation of NO and cGMP accumulation were inhibited by ALDH inhibitors chloral hydrate and daidzin. The present study demonstrates that ALDH2-catalyzed NO formation is necessary and sufficient for GTN bioactivation in VSMC. PMID:27679490

  2. Disinfection by-products and microbial contamination in the treatment of pool water with granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, W; Hartmann, C

    2005-01-01

    For swimming pools, it is generally agreed that free chlorine levels have to be maintained to guarantee adequate disinfection. Recommended free chlorine levels can vary between 0.3 and 0.6 mg/L in Germany and up to 3 mg/L in other countries. Bathers introduce considerable amounts of organic matter, mainly in the form of such as urine and sweat, into the pool water. As a consequence, disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are formed. Regulations in Germany recommend levels of combined chlorine of less than 0.2 mg/L and levels of trihalomethanes (THMs) of less than 20 microg/L. Haloacetic acids (HAAs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), chloropicrin and chloral hydrate are also detected in considerable amounts. However, these compounds are not regulated yet. Swimming pool staff and swimmers, especially athletes, are primarily exposed to these byproducts by inhalation and/or dermal uptake. In Germany, new regulations for swimming pool water treatment generally require the use of activated carbon. In this project, three different types of granular activated carbon (GAC) (one standard GAC, two catalytic GACs) are compared for their long time behaviour in pool water treatment. In a pilot plant operated with real swimming pool water, production and removal of disinfection byproducts (THMs, HAAs, AOXs), of biodegradable substances (AOC), of bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella, coliforms, HPC) as well as the removal of chlorine and chloramines are monitored as function of GAC bed depth. Combined chlorine penetrates deeper in the filter bed than free chlorine does. However, both, free and combined chlorine removal efficiencies decrease over the time of filter operation. The decreases of removal efficiencies are also observed for parameters such as dissolved organic carbon, spectral absorption coefficient, adsorbable organic carbon and most of the disinfection byproducts. However, THMs, especially chloroform are produced in the filter bed. The GAC beds were contaminated microbially

  3. Formation of disinfection byproducts upon chlorine dioxide preoxidation followed by chlorination or chloramination of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Guo, Wanhong; Lee, Wontae

    2013-06-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is often used as an oxidant to remove taste, odor and color during water treatment. Due to the concerns of the chlorite formation, chlorination or chloramination is often applied after ClO2 preoxidation. We investigated the formation of regulated and emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in sequential ClO2-chlorination and ClO2-chloramination processes. To clarify the relationship between the formation of DBPs and the characteristics of natural organic matter (NOM), changes in the properties of NOM before and after ClO2 oxidation were characterized by fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and size and resin fractionation techniques. ClO2 preoxidation destroyed the aromatic and conjugated structures of NOM and transformed large aromatic and long aliphatic chain organics to small and hydrophilic organics. Treatment with ClO2 alone did not produce significant amount of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), but produced chlorite. ClO2 preoxidation reduced THMs, HAAs, haloacetonitriles (HANs) and chloral hydrate (CH) during subsequent chlorination, but no reduction of THMs was observed during chloramination. Increasing ClO2 doses enhanced the reduction of most DBPs except halonitromethanes (HNMs) and haloketones (HKs). The presence of bromide increased the formation of total amount of DBPs and also shifted DBPs to more brominated ones. Bromine incorporation was higher in ClO2 treated samples. The results indicated that ClO2 preoxidation prior to chlorination is applicable for control of THM, HAA and HAN in both pristine and polluted waters, but chlorite formation is a concern and HNMs and HKs are not effectively controlled by ClO2 preoxidation.

  4. [On the history of barbiturates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  5. MRCP in the evaluation of pancreaticobiliary disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcement, C.M.; Meza, M.P.; Arumanla, S.; Towbin, R.B. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Dept. of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Background. Radiologic assessment of pancreaticobiliary ductal disease (PBDD) in children currently consists of physiologic tests (radionuclide examinations) or invasive anatomic studies (ERCP and PTC). An accurate noninvasive and reproducible examination that can direct the subsequent need for more invasive studies would be helpful in this patient group. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of MRCP as a screening tool for PBBD in the pediatric population. Materials and methods. Over the last year, 33 patients ranging from 7 months to 20 years of age were prospectively evaluated with MRCP on a 1.5 T magnet. One patient was examined twice, several months apart. Thirteen patients had liver transplants. Coronal SPGR and heavily T-2W FSE cross-sectional images were obtained. Standard and oblique 2- to 6-cm-thick slab SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) acquisition and 3D MIP reconstruction of 2D FSE images were obtained in the planes of the CBD and pancreatic duct. Nine studies were performed with the patient under sedation with chloral hydrate or nembutal and fentanyl with quiet respiration, and the non-sedated patients were assessed with single breath hold or quiet respiration. Three patients received secretin. MRCP results were correlated with ERCP (9), PTC (7), liver biopsy (13), clinical information (6), surgery (3), and autopsy (2). Results. All 34 studies performed were considered diagnostic. Periportal fluid, proximal bowel fluid, and gallbladder distention did not significantly diminish the diagnostic information in any cases. Motion artifact did not cause serious degradation in image quality. MRCP depicted abnormalities including stones, stricture, intraductal tumor, and extrinsic compression, all of which were confirmed at ERCP, PTC (two unsuccessful in patients with non-dilated ducts by MRCP), surgery, liver biopsy, and autopsy. There were no false-negative examinations. Normal pancreatic studies performed to exclude pancreas divisum were followed

  6. UV/chlorine as an advanced oxidation process for the degradation of benzalkonium chloride: Synergistic effect, transformation products and toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Ting; Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Li, Ang; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2017-05-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), as typical cationic surfactants and biocides widely applied in household and industrial products, have been frequently detected as micropollutants in many aquatic environments. In this study, the combination of UV irradiation and chlorine (UV/chlorine), a newly interested advanced oxidation process, was used to degrade dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (DDBAC). UV/chlorine showed synergistic effects on DDBAC degradation comparing to UV irradiation or chlorination alone. Radical quenching experiments indicated that degradation of DDBAC by UV/chlorine involved both UV photolysis and radical species oxidation, which accounted for 48.4% and 51.6%, respectively. Chlorine dosage and pH are essential parameters affecting the treatment efficiency of UV/chlorine. The pseudo first order rate constant (kobs, DDBAC) increased from 0.046 min(-1) to 0.123 min(-1) in response to chlorine dosage at 0-150 mg/L, and the degradation percentage of DDBAC within 12 min decreased from 81.4% to 56.6% at pH 3.6-9.5. Five main intermediates were identified and semi-quantified using HPLC-MS/MS and a possible degradation pathway was proposed. The degradation mechanisms of DDBAC by UV/chlorine included cleavage of the benzyl-nitrogen bond and hydrogen abstraction of the alkyl chain. Trichloromethane (TCM), chloral hydrate (CH), trichloropropanone (TCP), dichloropropanone (DCP) and dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) were detected using GC-ECD. The formation of chlorinated products increased rapidly initially, then decreased (TCM, TCP, DCP and DCAN) or remained stable (CH) with extended treatment. The actual formation of TCM peaked at 30 min (50.3 μg/L), while other chlorinated products did not exceed 10 μg/L throughout the process. Based on the luminescent bacterial assay, DDBAC solution underwent almost complete detoxification subjected to UV/chlorine treatment for 120 min, which is more effective than UV irradiation or chlorination alone.

  7. Roles of reactive chlorine species in trimethoprim degradation in the UV/chlorine process: Kinetics and transformation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zihao; Fang, Jingyun; Xiang, Yingying; Shang, Chii; Li, Xuchun; Meng, Fangang; Yang, Xin

    2016-11-01

    The UV/chlorine process, which forms several reactive species including hydroxyl radicals (HO) and reactive chlorine species (RCS) to degrade contaminants, is being considered to be an advanced oxidation process. This study investigated the kinetics and mechanism of the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP) by the UV/chlorine process. The degradation of TMP was much faster by UV/chlorine compared to UV/H2O2. The degradation followed pseudo first-order kinetics, and the rate constant (k') increased linearly as the chlorine dosage increased from 20 μM to 200 μM and decreased as pH rose from 6.1 to 8.8. k' was not affected by chloride and bicarbonate but decreased by 50% in the presence of 1-mg/L NOM. The contribution of RCS, including Cl, Cl2(-) and ClO, to the degradation removal rate was much higher than that of HO and increased from 67% to 87% with increasing pH from 6.1 to 8.8 under the experimental condition. The increasing contribution of RCS to the degradation with increasing pH was attributable to the increase in the ClO concentration. Kinetic modeling and radical scavenging tests verified that ClO mainly attacked the trimethoxybenzyl moiety of TMP. RCS reacted with TMP much faster than HOCl/OCl(-) to form chlorinated products (i.e., m/z 325) and chlorinated disinfection byproducts such as chloroform, chloral hydrate, dichloroacetonitrile and trichloronitromethane. The hydroxylation and demethylation of m/z 325 driven by HO generated m/z 327 and m/z 341. Meanwhile, reactions of m/z 325 with HO and RCS/HOCl/OCl(-) generated dichlorinated and hydroxylated products (i.e., m/z 377). All the chlorinated products could be further depleted to produce products with less degree of halogenation in the UV/chlorine process, compared to dark chlorination. The acute toxicity to Vibrio fischeri by UV/chlorine was lower than chlorination at the same removal rate of TMP. This study demonstrated the importance of RCS, in particular, ClO, in the degradation of micropollutants

  8. Anesthesia for euthanasia influences mRNA expression in healthy mice and after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Kriege, Oliver; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2014-10-01

    Tissue sampling for gene expression analysis is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetics are known to modulate hemodynamics, receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and outcome parameters. The present study determined the influence of anesthetic paradigms typically used for euthanization and tissue sampling on cerebral mRNA expression in mice. Naïve mice and animals with acute traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) were randomized to the following euthanasia protocols (n=10-11/group): no anesthesia (NA), 1 min of 4 vol% isoflurane in room air (ISO), 3 min of a combination of 5 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg fentanyl, and 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine intraperitoneally (COMB), or 3 min of 360 mg/kg chloral hydrate intraperitoneally (CH). mRNA expression of actin-1-related gene (Act1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FosB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), interleukin (IL)-6, tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), IL-1ß, cyclophilin A, micro RNA 497 (miR497), and small cajal body-specific RNA 17 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hippocampus samples. In naïve animals, Act1 expression was downregulated in the CH group compared with NA. FosB expression was downregulated in COMB and CH groups compared with NA. CCI reduced Act1 and FosB expression, whereas HspB1 and TNFα expression increased. After CCI, HspB1 expression was significantly higher in ISO, COMB, and CH groups, and TNFα expression was elevated in ISO and COMB groups. MiR497, IL-6, and IL-1ß were upregulated after CCI but not affected by anesthetics. Effects were independent of absolute mRNA copy numbers. The data demonstrate that a few minutes of anesthesia before tissue sampling are sufficient to induce immediate mRNA changes, which seem to predominate in the early-regulated gene cluster. Anesthesia-related effects on gene expression might explain limited reproduciblity of real

  9. Protective effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia: a microPET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Shuang; Guo, Yi; Lou, Min; Wu, Jimin; Ding, Meiping [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Tian, Mei [The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method to excite neurons in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of its therapeutic effects in stroke remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of high-frequency rTMS in a rat model of transient cerebral ischaemia using positron emission tomography (PET). Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate and subjected to 90 min of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion in three groups: control (n=10), rTMS (n=10), or sham-rTMS groups (n=10). In the rTMS group, rTMS was given 1 h after ischaemia and every 24 h for 7 days after MCAO. In all three groups, small-animal PET (microPET) imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG was used to evaluate brain glucose metabolism. Apoptotic molecules were measured in the infarct margin using immunohistochemical staining. The neurological scores of the rats in the rTMS group were higher than in those of the control group over the whole 7-day observation period. The total, cortical and striatal infarct volumes were significantly less in the rTMS group than in the control group, as measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. {sup 18}F-FDG microPET images showed significantly higher standardized uptake values in the cortex and striatum in the rTMS group than in the control group in the affected hemisphere. The number of cells positive for caspase-3 was significantly lower in the rTMS group than in the control group, while the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly higher in the rTMS group than in the control group. rTMS therapy increased glucose metabolism and inhibited apoptosis in the ischaemic hemisphere. {sup 18}F-FDG PET could be used to monitor rTMS therapy in transient cerebral ischaemia in animal studies and in future clinical trials. (orig.)

  10. Protective effects and mechanism of TPX2 on neurocyte apoptosis of rats in Alzheimer's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Keshan; Zhang, Jingling; Yin, Chengbin; Zhou, Xueying; Zhou, Shengnian

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the protective effects and mechanism of TPX2 on apoptosis of rat neurocytes. A total of 90 SD rats were randomly divided into the drug group, the control group and the blank group, with 30 rats in each group. The rats in the drug group and in the blank group were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate (at the dose of 0.5 ml/100 g) and Aβ1-42, with the concentration of 5 µl (1 µg/µl), was injected in the exact position of bilateral hippocampal areas of rats to establish the model. The configured TPX2 inhibitors and edible benne oil were mixed and made into a suspension. After model establishment, the rats were given different treatment methods; the rats in the drug group were given gavage administration in the proportion of 75 mg/kg once a day. The rats in the control group were given intragastric administration with the same proportion of physiological saline once a day. The blank group was the normal healthy group and the rats in this group did not undergo any surgery or drug treatment. Brain tissue in rats were divided into two parts, one part was fixed, dehydrated, paraffin-embedded and made into slices of approximately 5 µm. TUNEL staining was used to examine the apoptosis of brain tissue, H&E staining was used to observe the brain tissue cells of each group, and western blotting for detecting the MAPK, Erk and expression levels of p38 and RT-polymerase chain reaction method was employed to examine mRNA expression levels of MAPK, Erk and p21. After one week, TUNEL staining showed that apoptosis of brain tissue in the drug group was significantly greater than those of the control and blank groups. The protein expression levels of MAPK, Erk and p38 were significantly higher than those of the control group and the normal healthy group; the differences were statistically significant (Ptissue processed by Aβ1-42, which plays its role through the inhibition of the protein expression levels of MAPK, Erk and p38.

  11. Co-release of noradrenaline and dopamine in the cerebral cortex elicited by single train and repeated train stimulation of the locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Pierluigi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies by our group suggest that extracellular dopamine (DA and noradrenaline (NA may be co-released from noradrenergic nerve terminals in the cerebral cortex. We recently demonstrated that the concomitant release of DA and NA could be elicited in the cerebral cortex by electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC. This study analyses the effect of both single train and repeated electrical stimulation of LC on NA and DA release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, occipital cortex (Occ, and caudate nucleus. To rule out possible stressful effects of electrical stimulation, experiments were performed on chloral hydrate anaesthetised rats. Results Twenty min electrical stimulation of the LC, with burst type pattern of pulses, increased NA and DA both in the mPFC and in the Occ. NA in both cortices and DA in the mPFC returned to baseline within 20 min after the end of the stimulation period, while DA in the Occ reached a maximum increase during 20 min post-stimulation and remained higher than baseline values at 220 min post-stimulation. Local perfusion with tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 μM markedly reduced baseline NA and DA in the mPFC and Occ and totally suppressed the effect of electrical stimulation in both areas. A sequence of five 20 min stimulations at 20 min intervals were delivered to the LC. Each stimulus increased NA to the same extent and duration as the first stimulus, whereas DA remained elevated at the time next stimulus was delivered, so that baseline DA progressively increased in the mPFC and Occ to reach about 130 and 200% the initial level, respectively. In the presence of the NA transport (NAT blocker desipramine (DMI, 100 μM, multiple LC stimulation still increased extracellular NA and DA levels. Electrical stimulation of the LC increased NA levels in the homolateral caudate nucleus, but failed to modify DA level. Conclusion The results confirm and extend that LC stimulation induces a concomitant

  12. In vivo studies on chemically induced aneuploidy in mouse somatic and germinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopardi, P; Zijno, A; Bassani, B; Pacchierotti, F

    1993-05-01

    Within the context of a coordinated program to study aneuploidy induction sponsored by the European Community, nine chemicals were tested in mouse bone marrow and spermatocytes after intraperitoneal injection. In somatic cells, cell progression delay, hyperploidy, polyploidy induction and induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MnPCE) were studied. In germ cells hyperploidy induction was evaluated. The chemicals selected were: colchicine (COL), econazole (EZ), hydroquinone (HQ), thiabendazole (TB), diazepam (DZ), chloral hydrate (CH), cadmium chloride (CD), pyrimethamine (PY) and thimerosal (TM). Using literature data on c-mitotic effects in bone marrow as a reference, the same doses were tested in somatic and germ cells in order to compare the effects induced. Bone marrow cells were sampled 18 or 24 h after treatment. Germ cells were sampled 6, 8 or 18 h after treatment. Effects of COL and HQ in bone marrow have been reported elsewhere. Somatic effects were induced by CH (hyperploidy and cell cycle lengthening), TB (MnPCEs and cell cycle lengthening) and by PY (MnPCEs). EZ, DZ, CD and TM did not induce any kind of somatic effects. An increase in the incidence of hyperploid spermatocytes was induced by COL, at three dose levels, and by one dose of HQ and TB. All the other chemicals did not induce germinal aneuploidy at any dose or time tested. The hyperploidy control frequency ranged between 0.4 and 1.0% in somatic cells and from 0.3 to 0.9% in germ cells. In both somatic and germ cells, the maximum yield of induced hyperploidy did not exceed 3.5%. The time period of target cell sensitivity is probably restricted and this, associated with the heterogeneity and the asynchrony of cellular maturation processes, may account for our data. Under these circumstances, the negative data should be interpreted with some caution, particularly in germ cells, where additional indicators of chemical-cell interaction and cell cycle effects were not provided by

  13. Effect of Preconditioning with Desflurane on Phosphorylated Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Contents in an Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Likhvantsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine and evaluate if the preconditioning with desflurane depends on level of phosphoGSK3β.Material and methods. White outbred male rats (56 were randomly allocated to 6 groups. Ischemia/reperfusion modeling was performed using V. G.Korpachev's technique. The reference group consisted of sham (falselyoperated animals. The second group underwent global ischemia/reperfusion after anesthesia with chloral hydrate. The next two groups were treated with either sevoflurane or desflurane at 1 MAC. In the final two groups, the use of same anes thetics was followed by global ischemia/reperfusion. The concentration of phosphoGSK3β in brain homogenate was determined using western blotting. A statistical analysis was performed using the MannWhitney Utest, and the difference was considered significant at P<0.05. A threeminute ischemia with subsequent reperfusion resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of phosphoGSK3β vs. the reference group (620437 relative units vs. 304574 relative units, respectively, P<0.05. Similar results were observed in groups where animals received inhaled sevoflurane (743166 relative units and desflurane (667119 relative units alone (P<0.05. In the ischemia/reperfusion group, the concentration of phosphoGSK3β was equal to 922231 relative units after inhalation of sevoflurane (P<0.05 vs. the reference group. In the group with a combination of desflurane and ischemia/reperfusion, the enzyme concentration increased up to 677084 relative units (P<0.05 vs. reference group. No difference in concentrations of the enzyme between groups receiving inhaled anesthetics with and without ischemia/perfusion was found. In addition, the concentration of this enzyme was comparable with that in the ischemia/reperfusion group. Conclusion. Two anesthetics under testing possess similarly increased concentration of phosphoGSK3β in rat brain homogenates.

  14. The effect of inorganic precursors on disinfection byproduct formation during UV-chlorine/chloramine drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bonnie A; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G; Weinberg, Howard S

    2012-10-01

    remained below the World Health Organization guideline value of 70 μg/L in all cases. MP UV and high LP UV doses (1000 mJ/cm²) increased chloral hydrate formation after subsequent chlorination (20-40% increase for 40 mJ/cm² MP UV). These results indicate the importance of bench-testing DBP implications of UV applications in combination with post-disinfectants as part of the engineering assessment of a UV-chlorine/chloramine multi-barrier disinfection design for drinking water treatment.

  15. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  16. 新生儿心脏手术镇静/镇痛药物的使用对学龄前期神经发育状况的影响%Effect of neonatal perioperative anesthetic exposure in cardiac surgery on neuro-developmental outcomes in preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学均; 万永灵; 温开兰; 梁涛; 林涛; 李鹏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of neonatal perioperative anesthetic exposure in complex cardiac surgery on neurodevelopmental outcomes in preschool children. Methods General clinical data and data concerning anesthetic exposure were collected from 89 infants undergoing complex cardiac surgery at Sichuan People’s Hospital. The cohort was followed for neurodevelopment till preschool age (48-72 months) and assessed with Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III, Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI-V), and General Adaptive Composite (GAC) of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II. Results Seventy-one children were enrolled into the final analysis. Multiple linear regression found days on benzodiazepines (β=-0.49, P=0.005) and cumulative dose of benzodiazepines (β=-0.10, P=0.023) were associated with the full-scale IQ in these preschool children. Days on benzodiazepines (β=-0.39, P=0.009) and on chloral hydrate (β =-1.19, P=0.020) were associated with lower performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) at the preschool age. Cumulative dose of benzodiazepine exposure (β=-0.008, P=0.012) was associated with lower VMI scores. No correlations of other sedation/analgesia variables were found with the full-scale IQ, PIQ, Verbal IQ, VMI, or GAC scores. Conclusion We found a significant association of days on benzodiazepines, cumulative dose of benzodiazepines, and days on chloral hydrate in neonatal cardiac surgery with neurodevelopmental outcomes at the preschool age, suggesting the need of minimizing anesthetic exposure during a neonatal cardiac surgery to improve the children's neurodevelopmental outcomes.%目的:探讨新生儿心脏手术的麻醉暴露对学龄前期(48~72个月)的神经发育结果的影响。方法选取四川省人民医院行心脏手术的新生儿89例,纳入队列研究,收集一般资料、围手术期镇静/镇痛药物使用情况等相关变量,在研究对象进入学龄前

  17. Effect of propofol on beta-Eodorphin in the brain after thermal stress in rats%异丙酚对热应激大鼠脑组织β-内啡肽表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴维; 王端玉; 王志刚; 赵鑫; 金延武

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect and significances of propofol on beta-Endorphin in brain tissues after thermal stress in rats. Methods 72 male Wister rats were randomly divided into 3 groups. Rats that received neither anesthesia nor WBH treatment served as the control group (group C, n = 8), rats which were anesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate followed with thermal stress served as the model group (group M, n = 32), and other rats which were anesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of propofol followed with whole body hyperthermia keeping at 42 ℃ for 30 min served as the hyper-thermia group (group HP, n = 32). The mechanical withdrawal threshold to von Frey hair stimulation was checked at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after hyperthermia intervention. The rat hypothalamus was then rapidly removed to detect beta-Endorphin with the radio-immunoassay method and neuron apoptosis with TUNEL. Result Beta-Endorphin in the hypothalamus of groups M and HP were greatly increased compared with that of the control group, and the mechanical withdrawal threshold to von Frey hair stimulation changed as well (P < 0.05). Beta-Endorphin of group HP was increased compared with that of group M at 6 and 12 h. The amount of apoptotic neurons increased as follows: group C < group HP < group M( P < 0.05). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that hyperthermia was able to increase beta-Endorphin in brain tissues and improve the mechanical withdrawal threshold to von Frey hair stimulation in rats, and propofol could protect the brain from thermal stress via increasing expression of beta-Endorphin.%目的 观察异丙酚对热应激模型大鼠脑组织β-内啡肽含量的影响.方法 随机将72只雄性Wister大鼠分为对照组(C组,n=8)、热应激模型组(M组,n=32)和异丙酚麻醉高温组(HP组,n=32);高温组分别于红外线辐射加热后2、6、12、24 h测定大鼠机械痛阈,然后快速取脑,采用放射免疫法测定丘脑β-内啡肽含

  18. Effect of tea polyphenols on organ index and abdominal tat in rats%茶多酚对肥胖大鼠器官指数及腹脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾有方; 吴珍龙; 李升和

    2011-01-01

    Eighty SD rats were adaptive fed one week. 60 SD rats were randomly selected and divided into Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ, Ⅵ groups of 10 each according to the principle of similar weight. Ⅰ , Ⅱ group were the model control group and general control group, Ⅲ , Ⅳ, Ⅴ , Ⅵ group were TP experimental group, total trial period lasted for 80 d. SD rats in Ⅱ group were fed the basic ration,other groups were fed the high-energy feedstuff. After /10 d,SD rats in Ⅲ , Ⅳ, Ⅴ , Ⅵ group were orally dosed 10,20,40,80 mg/kg · d TP, Ⅰ and Ⅱ group were administrated the saline until 1be 80 d. At the experiment end,SD rats were fasting and not prohibited drinks for 12h, weighted, anaesthetized with 10%; chloral hydrate aldehyde(2.0 mL/kg body weight). Abdominal fat(around the testicle and post abdominal fat)and organ (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney) were taken and weighted. After established fatted model of SI) rats, compared with the common control group and model control group,there was significant difference in abdominal fat weight of Ⅲ , Ⅳ, Ⅴ , Ⅵ group(P〈0.01) ,but organs index had no difference(P〉0.05). There was no effeet of tea polyphenol on organs index,it could inhibit the abdominal fat weight of rat.%将80只21日龄SD大鼠,按体质量相近原则分为普通对照组(Ⅰ组)、模型对照组(11组)、试验Ⅲ组、试验Ⅳ组、试验Ⅴ组和试验Ⅵ组,每组10只大鼠,试验期80d;普通对照组饲喂基础日粮,其他各组饲喂高能高脂目粮,40d后,试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ组分别灌服10、20、40、80mg/kg·d茶多酚,普通对照组与模型组灌服等体积生理盐水,至80d试验结束后禁食不禁水12h,逐只称重,剖检取腹脂(睾丸周围和后腹部脂肪)、心、肝、脾、肺、肾并称重。结果显示,在制模后,与普通对照组与模型对照组相比,试验Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ组腹脂

  19. Protection of electrical stimulation on cerebral ischemic injury in rats%电刺激对大鼠缺血性脑卒中的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竞辉; 李江; 马炜; 邱新毓; 崔颖; 邓剑平; 于嘉; 赵振伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neuroprotection of electrical stimulation on permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model (pMCAO).Methods Adult male rats were randomly divided into two groups; control group and experimental group. Then the experimental group was further divided into four sub-groups: 2 Hz group, 20 Hz group, 100 Hz group and 100/2 Hz group. Three hours after occlusion, electrodes were implanted into the ischemic area in right cortex of the rats. Stroke animals were conducted the behavioral test at 5 h and 24 h after pMCAO. The hemispheric infarct ratio was evaluated by staining with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride at 24 h after pMCAO. One hour after electrical stimulation, the rats were euthanized under deep anesthesia using chloralic hydras and then Western-blot analysis was used to analyze the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).Results Compared with other experimental groups, the hemispheric infarct ratio was significantly decreased and the function recovery was improved significantly in 2 Hz stimulation group. Furthermore, the levels of VEGF were down-regulated and there was no significant change of BDNF levels among the experimental groups. Conclusion Cortical stimulation after pMCAO can decrease the hemispheric ratio and promote the functional recovery. Cortical electric stimulation may be a potent therapeutic tool for cerebral ischemia.%目的 探讨皮层电刺激对大鼠永久性缺血性脑卒中的保护作用.方法 雄性SD大鼠随机分成对照组和实验组.实验组根据刺激频率不同分成2Hz组,20Hz组,100Hz组,100/2Hz组.建立永久性梗塞模型.梗塞3h后,电极植入右侧大脑缺血区皮层进行刺激.分别在梗塞5h和24h进行行为学评分.在梗塞24h行2%氯化三苯基四氮唑溶液染色测量脑梗死比.于刺激结束1h后取脑组织Western blot分析脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)和血管内皮生长因

  20. Effect of intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and triamcinolone to the masseter muscle on the development of mandible: an experimental study%咬肌内注射A型肉毒毒素和曲安奈德对大鼠下颌骨发育影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄进军; 王晋煌; 柳大烈; 陈伯华; 陈兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A and triamcinolone to the masseter muscle on the development of mandible. Methods Thirty 28-days-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: botulinum toxin type A group ( B group, 8 rats) , triamcinolone group (T group,8 rats) , botulinum toxin type A and triamcinolone group ( BT group, 8 rats) . control group ( C group, 6 rats) .The right side of masseter muscle was injected with the drugs corresponding to its group and the left side of masseter muscle was injected with saline. The control group was only anaesthetised. CT scan and 3D reconstruction were taken when the rats were 75 days old. Seven cephalometric points were digitized and selected 7 linear distances were measured. The rats were killed with an overdose of 10% chloral hydrate after CT scan. Masseter muscles of each side were obtained and weighted immediately. Results Significant atrophy of masseter muscles were observed in the B group and BT group. Mandibular length Ⅲ ( Go-Iia) . mandibular height Ⅱ ( Cor-GoT)on the right side was less than that on the left side in B group. Mandibular height Ⅱ on the right side was less than that on the left side in BT group. The variances of mandibular height Ⅱ and mandibular height Ⅲ ( ConGoT) on the right side between 4 groups were significant. Conclusion Changes on mandibular height after intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A to the masseter muscle were seen. But alterations of mandibular length and bigonial width were not found. Cephalometric changes were not obvious on the triamcinolone group.%目的 探讨咬肌内注射A型肉毒毒素和曲安奈德对大鼠下颌骨发育的影响.方法 取28日龄雄性Wistar大鼠为实验对象,随机分为4组:A型肉毒毒素组(B组,n=8)、曲安奈德组(T组,n=8)、A型肉毒毒素+曲安奈德组(BT组,n=8)、对照组(C组,n=6),每组大鼠取右侧咬肌并向肌内注射相应的药物,左侧注射等

  1. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide and nerve growth factor on spatial learning and memory abilities of rats following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangshun Zheng; Yongjie Yang; Xiubin Fang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nerve growth actor (NGF) cam improve spatial learning and memory abilities of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion; however, the effect of combination of them on relieving learning and memory injury following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion should be further studied.OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of exogenous CGRP and NGF on learning and memory abilities of rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING:Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Hospital of Xiamen; Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University; Department of Neurobiology, Basic Medical College of China Medical University.MATERIALS:A total of 30 healthy male SD rats, aged 8 weeks, of clean grade, weighing 250-300 g, were provided by Experimental Animal Department of China Medical University. All rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group, ischemia/reperfusion group and treatment group with 10 in each group. The main reagents were detailed as the follows: 100 g/L chloral hydrate, 0.5 mL CGRP (2 mg/L, Sigma Company, USA),and NGF (1 × 106 U/L, 0.5 mL, Siweite Company, Dalian).METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Neurobiology, Basic Medical College of China Medical University from February to duly 20055. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were established by method of occlusion, 2 hours after that rats were anesthetized and the thread was slightly drawn out for 10 mm under direct staring to perform reperfusion. Rats in the ischemia/reperfusion group received intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL saline via the abdomen at two hours later, while rats in the treatment group at 2 hours later received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/L CGRP (0.5 mL) and 1 ×106 U/L NGF (0.5 mL) once a day for 10 successive days. First administration was accomplished within 15 minutes after ischemia/reperfusion. Rats in the sham

  2. Análise morfoanatômica das partes aéreas de Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Asteraceae Morphoanatomic analysis of aerial parts of Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Baccarin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estabelecimento de parâmetros para análise morfo-anatômica das partes aéreas (caule e folhas da planta Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. A droga vegetal e o respectivo pó foram submetidos às análises macro e microscópica após preparação de lâminas semi-permanentes de cortes transversais e paradérmicos. O pó foi analisado após diafanização com cloral hidratado. É uma planta herbácea com caule castanho-avermelhado, folhas opostas, curto-pecioladas e membranáceas, apresentando pêlos nas duas faces, estreitada em direção à base acima do meio provida de dois pequenos lobos laterais e um terminal, maior e denteado. A planta apresenta secção circular de caule, que em crescimento primário, possui epiderme, colênquima angular, parênquima cortical e cilindro vascular, assim como oxalato de cálcio (várias drusas e alguns cristais prismáticos. A folha é simples, contendo tricomas tectores e estômato anomocítico. O mesofilo possui organização dorso-ventral e a nervura central, em corte transversal, apresenta-se côncavo-convexo com três feixes colaterais e presença de drusas de oxalato de cálcio nas células parenquimáticas. No pó obtido da droga vegetal foram verificadas as mesmas estruturas microscópicas observadas na droga vegetal rasurada. Os parâmetros morfo-anatômicos estabelecidos neste trabalho permitem o controle de qualidade macro e microscópico da planta tanto rasurada como na forma de pó.This study aimed to establish parameters for morphoanatomical analysis of the aerial parts (stem and leaves of the plant Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. The drug and its respective powder were characterized by macro and microscopic analysis after obtaining semi-permanent lamina of transverse and paradermal sections. The powder was analyzed after being cleared with chloral hydrate. It is an herbaceous plant with reddish-brown stems, opposite leaves, short-petiolated and

  3. Construction of in utero electroporation in the mouse%小鼠子宫内电转基因方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慈清; 李小英; 卢习; 付苏雷; 赵善廷; 林俊堂

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立小鼠子宫内电转基因技术,比较分析转染绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)后对胚胎发育及相关蛋白表达的影响.方法:将怀孕15d的小鼠,水合氯醛麻醉后,取出两侧子宫,用毛细管注射针将2μg/μl的pCAGGS-GFP质粒0.5~1 μl准确注射到胎鼠侧脑室,在电压40 V、每次脉冲60 ms,间隔940 ms,电脉冲6次的条件下进行定时定位活体电转基因,电转后24 h取材,甲醛固定冷冻冠状切片,DAPI染细胞核观察组织形态结构变化,荧光免疫组织化学检测α-SMA的表达差异.结果:妊娠15d孕鼠转染24 h后小鼠成活率80%(8/10),胚胎成活率为54.2%(13/24),存活胚胎GFP阳性表达率为61.5%(8/13),GFP阳性表达胚胎脑组织切片,基因转染区域和正常组织区组织形态结构和α-SMA表达不存在差别.结论:成功建立了小鼠子宫内电转基因的方法.%Objective:To construct the method of mouse in utero electroporation, and compare the impact of gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) on embryonic development and protein expression after transfection. Methods:Pregnancy 15 d mice were selected, and the abdominal cavity was opened after chloral hydrate anesthesia. After 0. 5-1 μl plasmid of pCAGGS-GFP was injected into the lateral ventricle of the embryonic brain, 2 uteri were electroporated under the condition of volt 40 V, pulse 60 ms, pause 940 ms for six times. In 24 h after electroporation, mouse embryos were collected and fixed with formaldehyde, finally cut into frozen coronal slice, DAPI was used to stain nuclei showing morphology changes, and fluorescence im-munoassay was carried out with the detection of crSMA expression differences. Results:10 mice samples were checked after transfection for 24 h with in utero electroporation, after the mice survival rate was 80% (8/10), embryo survival rate was 54. 2%(13/24), survival embryonic GFP-positive expression rate was 61. 5%(8/13), and the embryonic brains with GFP-positive expression were sliced

  4. 动脉留置针在大鼠体脑组织灌注中的应用%In Vivo Perfusion Method of Artery Remaining Needle Applied to Rat Brain Tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦晓勇; 陆波; 闵红星; 王毅; 李军

    2015-01-01

    目的:拟寻求一种更好的大鼠体脑组织灌注方法以提高灌注固定效果。方法:健康雄性SD大鼠经10%水合氯醛进行麻醉,暴露心脏和主动脉弓,以小动脉夹夹闭胸主动脉,用动脉留置针在大鼠心尖波动最明显处进针,进入约0.5 cm时,边退出针芯,边将套管自左侧心室推送至升主动脉直至套管针尾部,并关闭套管针尾端的开关,防止血液外溢,连接输液管,剪破右心耳,依次从心脏灌注0.9%复方氯化钠注射液和4%多聚甲醛固定脑组织。结果:脑组织灌注所需的灌注液减少,灌注插管时间及总灌注时间均缩短,且灌注后脑组织更硬、色泽更白。结论:采用此种灌注方法后,其灌注固定效果明显提高,且操作过程简单易行,值得推广。%Objective:To seek a better method for in vivo perfusion of rat brain tissues and improve the efficiency of perfusion fixation.Method:The healthy male SD rat was anesthetized by 10% chloral hydrate,exposed the heart and aortic arch,clipping the thoracic aorta with small arteries clip,with artery remaining needle in the tip of the heart of the rat fluctuation most obviously needled into about 0.5 cm,exited the needle core,at the same time pushed the cannula from the left ventricle to the aorta until the trocar tail,and closed the cannula needle end of the switch to prevent blood spills,then connected with the infusion pipe and cuted the right auricle,fixation brain tissue from the heart perfused sequentially with 0.9%compound sodium chloride injection and 4% paraformaldehyde.Result:The required perfusion fluid of Cerebral tissue perfusion was reduced, perfusion intubation time and total perfusion time was shortened,and the brain tissue after the infusion was harder,the color was more white.Conclusion:By this method of perfusion,the perfusion fixation effect is obviously improved and the operation process is simple and easy to operate,which is worthy

  5. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN TRICHLOROETHYLENE INDUCED LIVER CANCER: IMPORTANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Richard J.; Thrall, Brain D.

    2001-12-31

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common contaminant of groundwater as a result of poor disposal practices of the past. As a consequence, this solvent is the focus of many clean-up operations of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. TCE is carcinogenic in both mice and rats, but at different sites, the liver and kidney, respectively (NCI 1976; NTP 1988; NTP 1990). Liver tumor induction in mice has been the tumor most critical from the standpoint of environmental regulation (Bull 2000). Under the proposed cancer risk guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1996), identifying the dose-response behavior of key events involved in carcinogenic responses can be used for developing alternative risk assessments. A major difficulty in developing alternative approaches for TCE is the fact that three of its metabolites are capable of inducing liver cancer in mice (Bull et al. 1990; Daniel et al. 1992; DeAngelo et al. 1999; Pereria 1996). Two of these metabolites have distinct modes of action, dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA). The third metabolite, chloral hydrate, is probably active as a result of its conversion to one or both of these two metabolites. Ordinarily, the first approach to assigning causality to a metabolite in tumorigenesis would be an attempt to measure its concentration in the body and associate that with tumorigenic concentrations observed when the compound is itself administered. This can be done with relative ease with TCA. However, it has been more difficult with DCA since blood levels of this metabolite after exposure to carcinogenic doses of DCA fall rapidly below detection limits (Kato-Weinstein et al. 1998; Merdink et al. 1998). Mutations in the ras protooncogene have been used to determine if distinct patterns of DNAsequence alterations can provide indications of the type of DNA damage that might be produced by carcinogens. The presence of ras mutations in chemically-induced tumors was suggested as a means o f determining

  6. Peripheral Nerve Discharge Elicited by Manual Acupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36) Regulates Blood Pressure in Anesthetized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李为民; 陈颖渡; 王智君

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate target organ response by recording mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) fluctuation corresponding to nerve-tract discharges from the nerve innervating acupoint of Zusanli (ST 36) in the hind limb evoked by MA in anesthetized rats. Methods: Male SD rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate were randomly divided into 3 groups which were treated with manual acupuncture (MA), injection of lidocaine followed by MA and injection of normal saline (NS) followed by MA, respectively. The right carotid artery was canulated for persistent measurement of the blood pressure and meanwhile nerve discharges from the nerve-tract were recorded for analysis with amplitude spike counts for every 5 s. Results: The results showed that there were significant nerve discharges recorded from the nerve-tract when applying MA at Zusanli (ST 36) and simultaneous decrease in the MAP, while there was no response when inserting a needle into the Zusanli (ST 36) without manipulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, the reduction of MAP during MA could be completely abolished after blockade of peripheral nerve discharges with an injection of lidocaine into the tissue around Zusanli (ST 36) but not with that of normal saline (NS). Conclusion: These results indicate that MA at Zusanli (ST 36) can elicit the peripheral nerve discharges from the nerve innervating the acupoint; such kind of nerve discharges may contain acupuncture signal regulating blood pressure via somato-cardiovascular reflex.%目的:麻醉状态下观察手针大鼠后肢足三里穴位引起的支配该穴区的特异性神经束放电以及由此诱发的相应靶器官血压波动效应.方法:将水合氯醛麻醉处理的雄性大鼠随机分为针刺组、利多卡因注射后针刺组(穴位邻近区域肌肉注射2%利多卡因后进行足三里手针刺激)并设生理盐水注射后针刺组(穴位邻近区域肌肉注射生理盐水后进行足三里手针刺激)作为对照.持续记录足三里针刺过程中

  7. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on diaphragmatic damage induced by sepsis in rats%高压氧对脓毒症大鼠膈肌损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培; 周青山; 李彬彬; 张红梅; 李灵丰; 李厚成

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on diaphragmatic damage induced by sepsis in rats. Methods Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: group A (the sham group, n = 10), group B (the sepsis group, n = 10) and group C (the HBO-treatment group, n = 10). Rats of group A were administered abdominal operation, and were then sutured following chloral hydrate anesthesia. For animals in group B and C, the sepsis rat model was developed with cecal ligation and puncture, and rats of group C were immediately treated with HBO. All the animals were sacrificed 16 hours after operation. Then, the left diaphragnmtic muscle was taken to treasure muscular contractility and the fight one to detect concentrations of MDA and SOD. Apoptosis of diaphragnmtic muscle cells and the pathological section examination were also made. Results Concentrations of MDA and rate of diaphragmatic muscle cell apoptosis of group B increased markedly, when compared with those of group A, while SOD concentration and muscular contractility of group B decreased significantly than those of group A, with a marked statistical difference (P < 0.01). Following HBO therapy, concentrations of MDA, SOD, diaphragmatic muscle cell apoptosis rate and muscular contractifity recovered obviously, with obvious statistical differences, when compsrisons were made between the two (P<0.01). Conclusions HBO could effectively inhibit formation of oxygen free radicals, reduce oxidative stress and the level of diaphragmatic injury in sepsis.%目的 观察高压氧(hyperbaric oxygen,HBO)对大鼠脓毒症时膈肌损伤的保护作用.方法 SPF级成年雄性SD大鼠30只,随机分为假手术组、脓毒症组及HBO治疗组,每组10只.其中假手术组在给予水合氯醛麻醉成功后,从正中线剪开大鼠腹部,然后缝合伤口.脓毒症组和HBO组在麻醉成功后.使用盲肠结扎穿刺(CLP)模型,将大鼠制成脓毒症动物模型,并且HBO组在术后立即

  8. 3种典型消毒副产物对细菌抗生素抗性的影响%Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕露; 张梦露; 王春明; 林惠荣; 于鑫

    2015-01-01

    本文研究了消毒副产物对细菌抗生素抗性的作用.分别选取三卤甲烷类(THMs)﹑卤乙酸类(HAAs)以及醛类消毒副产物中典型物质一氯二溴甲烷(CDBM)﹑碘乙酸(IAA)和水合三氯乙醛(CH),研究了细菌经消毒副产物染毒之后,对多种抗生素的抗性变化情况.结果发现,3种消毒副产物均可以诱导野生型铜绿假单胞菌提高对5种受试抗生素的抗性,提高作用IAA 〉 CH 〉 CDBM. IAA 对多重抗性也具有一定的提高作用.野生型大肠杆菌的抗生素抗性同样能够被 DBPs 诱导提高,说明DBPs 对抗性的影响具有普遍性.其作用机制可能是 DBPs 通过氧化胁迫机制诱导细菌发生突变,进而提高细菌抗生素抗性.本研究表明饮用水系统中部分细菌抗生素抗性的获得可能与消毒副产物有关;除毒理学风险外,消毒副产物的流行病学风险同样不容忽视.%The effect of typical disinfection byproducts ( DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA 〉 CH 〉 CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial

  9. DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS FORMATIONS FROM TWO GROWTH FORMS OF PSEDUMONAS AERUGINOSA IN THE PROCESS OF CHLORINE DISINFECTION%2种形态铜绿假单胞菌在氯消毒过程中消毒副产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕; 周达诚; 王保强

    2012-01-01

    To study the disinfection byproducts formations (DBPs) from suspended and adherent growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under chlorination, the sterilized saline water and the galavanized-zinc material were used to simulate suspended growth environment and establish adherent growth model, respectively. Uniform formation conditions (UFC) were applied in the process of chlorine disinfection. Gas chromatography analysis results showed that the two kinds of form by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were DBP precursors. The main DBPs included four trihaloraethanes (THMs), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) and chloral hydrate (CH). THM yields followed the total organic carbon and specific chlorine demand relationships, however such were not found with TCAN and CH. It can be inferred that some protein structure existed in the extracellular polymers of the galvanized-zinc biofilm may play an important role. The presence of bromine ion produced inhibition to CHCl3 and TCAN, but promoted the production of CHBr3 and dibromoacetonitrile (HANs). When p(Br)=2 mg/L, CHBr3 and dibromoacetonitrile reached maximum, and mainly affected the total THMs and HANs concentrations. The concentrations of BrCl-THMs and BrCl-HANs increased first, and then decreased with the Br increasing.%为研究悬浮和附着生长下的铜绿假单胞菌经氯消毒后消毒副产物的生成情况,以无菌生理盐水模拟悬浮生长环境,选取镀锌材料建立附着生长模型,采用UFC法进行加氯试验,气相色谱分析.结果表明,2种形态下的铜绿假单胞菌均为消毒副产物前驱物质,主要副产物包括三卤甲烷(THMs)、三氯乙腈(TCAN)和水合三氯乙醛(CH),且THMs符合TOC含量、单位耗氯量大小关系,而TCAN和CH则相反,可能是由生物膜胞外聚合物中的某种蛋白质结构引起.Br的存在对CHCl3和TCAN产生抑制作用,转而形成更多的CHBr3和二溴乙腈,当Br的质量浓度为2 mg/L时,CHBr3和二溴乙腈含量达到最大值,且主要影响总THMs

  10. 重组腺病毒气管途径反复转染大鼠肺组织人类eNOS基因的转导效果%Efficiency of transduction of recombinant adenovirus-mediated human endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene into lung tissue by repeated intratracheal transfection in rats

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    周锦; 曹惠鹃; 张铁铮; 金强; 王俊科

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficiency of transduction of recombinant adenovirus-mediated human endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) into lung tissue by repeated intratracheal transfection in rats.Methods Sixty 3-4 month old male Wistar rats weighing 220-280 g were randomly divided into 2 groups:control group (group C,n =10) and eNOS gene transduction group (group T,n =50).The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% chloral hydrate 35 mg/kg,tracheally intubated and mechanically ventilated (VT 2.5 ml,RR 60 bpm,FiO2 1.0).Recombinant adenovirus carrying human eNOS gene was given as gift by Professor Gerard from Texas University,Southwest Medical Center.In group T 50 μl of the recombinant adenovirus in concentration of 5 × 109 PFU/ml was instilled into trachea every 5 minutes for 12 times,while in group C equal volume of vector conservation solution was instilled instead.Pulmonary arterial blood samples were obtained at 2,5,7,14 and 21 d after intratracheal transfection (n =10 at each time point) for determination of serum NO concentration.The animals were immediately sacrificed after blood sample collection for determination of expression of eNOS protein in the lung tissue and RNA.The eNOS expression in the trachea,bronchus,lung,liver,spleen and kidney was detected by immuno-histochemistry.Results The serum NO concentrations were significantly higher at all time points in group T than in group C.The eNOS expression was detected in the epithelial cells of trachea and bronchi,and endothelial cells of alveoli and pulmonary blood vessels in group T but not in group C.eNOS expression was not detected in liver,spleen and kidney at 7 d after intratracheal transfection in group T.Conclusion Human eNOS gene mediated by recombinant adenovirus was transducted into rat lung tissue with normal enzyme activity by repeated intratracheal administration without being detected in distant organs.%目的 重组腺病毒气管途径反复转染大鼠肺组织人类内

  11. 右美托咪啶对神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角pERK、c-fos表达的影响%Effection of dexmedetomidine on expression of pERK, C-FOS in spineal cord dorsal horn in a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain

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    高毅; 孙丽

    2015-01-01

    into 3 groups (n=18 ): sham operation group (group S), chronic constriction injury group (group C) and dexmedetomidine group (group D).The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10%chloral hydrate 350 mg/kg.Four ligatures were placed on right sciat-ic nerve at 1 mm intervals with 4-0 silk thread in group C and group D.In group D, Dex 50 μg/kg was injected intraperitoneally ( IP) once a day starting from the end of operation until the animals were sacrificed.50%paw withdrawal threshold ( PWT) to mechanical stim-ulation with von Frey filament and paw withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation ( TWL) were measured on the preoperative day and the 3rd, 7th and 14th day after operation.Animals of three groups were killed at each time points after the measurement of PWT and TWL. Their lumbar segments (L4-6) were removed for measure the expression of pERK,c-fos by immunohistochemistry.Resutl s:CCI signifi-cantly decreased PWT and PWL, increased the expression of pERK,c-fos on the 3rd, 7th and 14th day in spinal dorsal horn in group C and group D compared with group S.Intraperitoneal injection Dex significantly attenuated CCI-induced mechanical and thermal hyperal-gesia in group D as compared with group C.Intraperitoneal injection of Dex further decreased pERK,c-fos expression in group D com-pared with group C.Conc lusion:Intraperitoneal injection DEX could reduce the chronic neuropathic pain in rat, the mechanism may probably related to inhibition the expression of pERK,c-fos in spinal dorsal horn.

  12. Utilização da terapia ultra-sônica de baixa intensidade na redução da lipodistrofia ginecóide: uma terapia segura ou risco cardiovascular transitório? Um estudo pré-clínico Use of low intensity ultrasonic therapy in the reduction of gynecoid lipodystrofy: a safe therapy or transitory cardiovascular risk? A pre-clinical study

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    Washington Luiz S. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    . After induced anesthesia with halotano, the rats had been submitted to UST pulse way, with power 1,0W/cm2 and 3 MHz frequency in the inguinal region (3cm2, during 03 min. per 10 days. At the treatment end, after anesthesia with Chloral 10% (0,4mL / 100g a catheter made of PE-50 tubing connected to PE-10 tubing was implanted in the femoral artery, the blood pressure (BP and hart rate (HR was measured; the blood was collected for determination of lipids and glucose levels. To follow, hearts were isolated and perfused by Langendorff apparatus; was determined the baseline coronary perfused pressure (CPP after 40 minutes and determined dose-response curve by adenosine. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA for independent sample, followed by the Tukey test for comparison of the means. Differences were considered significant when P<0.05 and values were reported as mean+SEM. RESULTS: We observed increase (P<0,01 in blood pressure in the UST (114+1 vs. in the control-sham (103+1mmHg group. The serum glucose (97+2 vs. 133+6 mg/dL and lipids profile showed significant differences in the LDL-C (10+1 vs. 14+1 mg/dL HDL-C (59+1 vs. 54+1 mg/dL; triglyceride (33+2 vs. 82+6 mg/dL in the control and UST groups, respectively. The baseline CPP was reduced (P<0,01 from 94+2 mmHg in the control-sham to 79+1 mmHg in the UST group. CONCLUSIONS: Immediately after use of ultrasound therapy, the hemodynamics parameters and serum lipids and glucose levels were modified and producing attenuation induced-vasodilatation by adenosine. Therefore, we can consider that the UST increases the cardiovascular risk in female rats.

  13. Role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels in attenuation of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by dexmedetomidine in rats%线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道在右美托咪定减轻大鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤中的作用

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    袁峰; 付红光; 孙凯; 董铁立

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mito-KATe) channels in attenuation of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by dexmedetomidine in rats.Methods One hundred and twenty healthy male Wistar rats,weighing 290-340 g,were randomly assigned into 5 groups (n =24 each) using a random number table:sham operation group (group S) ; group I/R; dexmedetomidine group (group D) ; 5-HD (a specific blocker of mito-KATPchannel) group and 5-HD + dexmedetomidine group (group 5-HD + D).The rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal chloral hydrate.Focal cerebral I/R was produced by 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion.In group D,dexmedetomidine 50 μg/kg was injected intraperitoneally before ischemia and after onset of reperfusion.In group 5-HD,5-HD 30 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally at 1 h before ischemia.In 5-HD + D group,5-HD 30 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally at 1 h before ischemia and the other procedures were similar to those previously described in group D.Twelve rats were chosen at 24 and 48 h of reperfusion to assess the neurological deficit score (NDS).The animals were then sacrificed and brains were removed for determination of cerebral infarct size by TTC staining.Results Compared with S group,NDS and cerebral infarct size were significantly increased at each time point in the other four groups (P < 0.05).Compared with group I/R,NDS and cerebral infarct size were significantly decreased in D and 5-HD + D groups (P < 0.05),and no significant change was found in the parameters mentioned above in 5-HD group (P > 0.05).Compared with group D,NDS and infarct size were significantly increased in group 5-HD + D (P < 0.05).Conclusion Mito-KATP channels are involved in reduction of I/R-induced cerebral injury by dexmedetomidine in rats.%目的 评价线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道(mito-KATP通道)在右美托咪定减轻大鼠脑缺血再灌注损伤中的作用.方法

  14. Role of mitochondrial KATP channel in reduction of renal ischemia- reperfusion injury by ischemic postconditioning in rats%mito-KATP通道在缺血后处理减轻大鼠肾缺血再灌注损伤中的作用

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    张维亮; 赵砚丽; 刘晓明; 张东; 岳立辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of mitochondrial KATP (mito-KATP) channel in reduction of renal ischemia-repeerfusion (I/R) injury by ischemic postconditioning (IPo) in rats. Methods Thirty-five adult male SD rats weighing 250-280 g were randomly divided into 5 groups ( n = 7 each): group Ⅰ sham operation (group S); group Ⅱ I/R; group Ⅲ IPo; group Ⅳ 5-HD + I/R and group V 5-HD + IPo. The rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal (IP) chloral hydrate 300 mg/kg. Bilateral kidneys were exposed and their pedicles were occluded for 45 min with atraumatic mini-clamp followed by 6 h reperfusion in group Ⅱ - Ⅴ . In group Ⅲ and Ⅴ 3 cycles of 10 s reperfusion followed by 10 s ischemia were applied immediately after 45 min kidney ischemia. In group Ⅳ and Ⅴ 5-HD (a specific blocker of the mito-KATP channel) 10 mg/kg was given IP at 30 min before ischemia. Blood samples were obtained at 6 h of reperfusion for determination of serum creatinine (Cr) and urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations. The animals were then killed. Bilateral kidneys were removed for determination of mitochondrial membrane potential in the renal tubular epidural cell and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)content and free Ca2+ concentrations. Results Renal I/R significantly increased serum Cr and BUN concentrations and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and ROC content and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with sham operation group. IPo significantly attenuated the I/R-induced changes mentioned above. The protective effects of IPo against renal I/R injury was reversed by 5-HD. Conclusion Mito-KATP channel is involved in reduction of I/R-induced renal injury by ischemic postconditioning.%目的 评价线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道(mito-KATP通道)在缺血后处理减轻大鼠肾缺血再灌注损伤中的作用.方法 健康成年雄性SD大鼠35只,体重250~280 g,随机分为5组(n=7):假手术组(S组)仅分离双侧肾蒂,暴露45 min不夹闭;肾

  15. 大鼠脑皮质NF-κB和miR-146a在轻型脑创伤后炎症反应过程中的协同作用%Synergistic effect of NF-κB and miR-146a in inflammatory reaction process after mild traumatic brain injury in rats

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    贺学农; 张毅; 周昌龙; 夏小辉

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the action mechanism of cortex NF-kB activation and the miR-146a transcription regulation mode in the inflammatory reaction process after mild traumatic brain injury(TBI) in rats. Methods The 60 healthy male SD rats were selected and randomly divided into the control group(n=10) and the mild traumatic brain injury(TBI) group(n = 50). The mild TBI group was sub divided into five subgroups according to different time points: 1,3 ,6 ,12 ,24 h after brain injury. 10% chlo-ralic hydrasCO. 3 mL/100 g) was intraperitoneally injected. The Marmarou s method was adopted to induce rat mild TBI by dropping the copper rod, weighed 4 50 g and 18 mm in diameter,from 1 M height. The control group was only given corresponding anesthesia, scalp incision and suture. The changes of cortex NF-kB and miR-14 6a were compared between the two groups using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot methods. Results At 1,3,6,12,24 h after TBI,miR-146a expression was significantly up-regulated by 1. 21 + 0. 15,1. 73 + 0. 29,2. 36 + 0. 24,3. 60 + 0. 37,1. 97 + 0. 26 fold compared with the control group, which reached to the expression peak at 6 - 12 h after TBI, its transcription level was down-regulated at 24 h. The activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kB was basically similar to the expression pattern of miR-146a. Conclusion The expression of miR-146a in mild TBI is significantly up-regulated, NF-kB enhances the transcription level of miR-146a by upstream control components. NF-kB-miR-14 6a pathway may play an important role in promoting the inflammatory reaction process after TBI.%目的 探讨轻型脑创伤后大鼠皮质区核因子κB(NF-κB)活化及其microRNA(miRNA)-146a转录调控模式在炎症反应过程中的作用机制.方法 选择健康雄性SD大鼠60只,随机分为对照组(n=10)、轻型脑创伤组(n=50).轻型脑创伤组分为创伤后1、3、6、12和24 h 5个时间点,10%水合氯醛(0.3 mL/100 g)腹腔内

  16. Glial reaction in the hippocampus after global cardiogenic ischemia Reação glial no hipocampo após isquemia global cardiogênica

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    Emerson Fachin Martins

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental surgerical procedures have been perfomed in the analyse of the phenomenon of brain trophism and plasticity, however undesirable intercorrence can occour leading to specific changes in the results that should be taken into attention. To study this issue we have promoted a transient cardiogenic interruption of the blood flow together with a transient occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO in rats and analysed the state of activation of astrocyte and microglia by means of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and OX42 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Rats were submitted to incomplete global cerebral ischemia (IGCI by occlusion of the bilateral carotid arteries for 30 minutes. During the IGCI surgical, some rats received a higher dose of the chloral hydrate anaesthesia which promoted a cardiogenic interruption of the blood flow (CIBF for a period of 10 minutes followed by and prompt reperfusion. During that period, animals were submited to a cardiac massage and ventilated. Sham operation were made in control animals. Rats were killed and their brains processed 14 days after the surgery. The animals that have received a IGCI showed a slight astroglial and microglial reaction in all subfields of the hippocampal formation, however the animal submitted to CIBF showed a massive infiltration of the reactive astrocyte and microglia in CA1 subfield. This results demonstrated that a transient occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries leads to activation of glial cells in the hippocampus, however this response can be remarkable changed in animal developing a transient systemic hypoperfusion during surgery. Thus, an accurated monitoration of the hemodinamic condition of the animal has to be done in experimental models of brain ischemia and the results have to be analysed in view of this aspect.Muitos procedimentos experimentais são desenvolvidos para analisar o fenômeno do trofismo e plasticidade cerebral

  17. Effects of intrathecal tramadol on cellular immune functions in rats%鞘内注射曲马多对大鼠细胞免疫功能的影响

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    邹望远; 郭曲练; 王锷; 蔡进; 刘瑶

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价鞘内注射曲马多对大鼠细胞免疫功能的影响.方法 32只成年雄性SD大鼠,体重250~300 g,采用改良Yaksh法进行鞘内置管成功后,随机分为4组(n=8):生理盐水组(NS组);不同剂量曲马多组(T1~3组)分别鞘内输注曲马多50、25、12.5μg/h.置管后5 d鞘内输注生理盐水或不同剂量曲马多,泵容量200 μl,泵速1μl/h,鞘内输注7 d后行福尔马林实验,采用痛级评分评价镇痛效果后处死大鼠,称取体重及脾脏重量,计算脾脏指数,并分离、培养脾脏淋巴细胞,甲基-3H胸腺嘧啶核苷掺入法检测脾脏T淋巴细胞增殖转化水平,乳酸脱氢酶释放法检测脾脏自然杀伤(NK)细胞活力.结果 与NS组比较,不同剂量曲马多组在福尔马林给药后5 min和20~60 min时痛级评分降低,T1组脾脏指数、T淋巴细胞增殖转化水平降低(P0.05).不同剂量曲马多组NK细胞活力与NS组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 大鼠鞘内注射曲马多在产生良好的抗伤害作用时,曲马多12.5、25μg/h不抑制细胞免疫功能,较大剂量(50 μg/h)抑制细胞免疫功能.%Objective To evaluate the effects of intrathecal (IT) tramadol on cell-mediated immunity in rats. Methods Thirty-two SD rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8 each) : control group (C) and 3 tramadol groups (T1 , T2, T3). The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal chloral hydrate 300-350 mg/kg. Micro-catheter was inserted into the subarachnoid space at the lumbar region according to modified Yaksh technique. Correct implantation of the spinal catheter was confirmed by aspiration of cerebral-spinal fluid (CSF). In the 3 tramadol groups (T1, T2, T3), tramadol was continuously infused through spinal catheter at 50, 25 and 12.5μg/h respectively for 7 days starting from the 5 th day after IT catheter implantation. In control group normal saline was continuously infused instead of tramadol. On the 7 th day of IT

  18. Effects of dexmedetomidine on sufentanil pretreatment rats with acute gastric mucosal lessions induced by water-immersion-restraint stress%右美托咪定或(和)舒芬太尼预处理对浸水束缚应激大鼠急性胃黏膜损害的影响

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    曹明; 屠伟峰; 刘晓燕; 郄文斌

    2012-01-01

    = 6, intraperitoneal infusion of sufentanil at 10 μg/kg 2 min before WIRS); DEX and SF pretreatment group (Group DSP, n = 6, intraperitoneal infusion of dexmedetomidine at 7.5 μg/kg 10 min and intraperitoneal infusion of sufentanil at 10 μg/ kg 2 min before WIRS). All rats were anesthetized by intraperitioneal injection of 10% chloral hydrate 6h after WIRS.Then the whole stomach was removed and the gastric pH, SOD, MDA, MPO and NOS levels were measured. The gastric mucosal lesion index (GI) was assessed and gastric mucosal tissues underwent pathological examination. Results The increased range of MDA and MPO, the decreased range of pH and SOD, GI and pathological changes of gastric mucosal damage in the DP group were significantly lower than those in the WC group (P 〈 0.05), but the change of NOS was not statistically significance (P〉0.05). Compared with the SP group, the various of SOD, MDA, UI, pH, MPO, NOS in DSP group have no significant change (P 〉 0.05). Conclusions Dexmedetomidine pretreatment can effectively reduce the stress-induced acute gastric mucosal injury, and the mechanism may be related to control harmful stress response,reduce oxidative stress, reduce gastric acid and inhibit the inflammatory response, but it did not enhance the protective effect of sufentanil on acute gastric mucosal injury.

  19. Effect of dexmedetomidine on acute liver injury in rats with endotoxemia%右美托咪定对内毒素血症大鼠急性肝损伤的影响

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    于冬梅; 周锦; 张铁铮; 曹惠鹃

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine on acute liver injury in rats with endotoxemia.Methods Eighteen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 3-4 months, weighing 250-300 g, were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6 each) using a random number table: control group (group C), endotoxin group (group E), and dexmedetomidine group (group D).In E and D groups, lipopo-lysaccharide 5 mg/kg was injected via the femoral vein of rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate.In group D, dexmedetomidine was infused with a 7 μg/kg loading bolus over 15 min after injection of lipopolysaccharide, followed by a 6 h continuous infusion of 5 μg · kg-1 · h-1.The equal volume of normal saline was given instead in E and C groups.After the end of administration, blood samples from the femoral vein were drawn for determination of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations in serum (by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in serum (using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference procedures).Liver specimens were obtained for examination of pathologic changes with electron microscope.Results Compared with group C, the serum ALT and AST activities and TNF-α and IL-lβ concentrations were significantly increased in E and D groups.Compared with group E, the serum ALT and AST activities and TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations were significantly decreased in group D.The pathologic changes of livers were obvious in group E, and were significantly reduced in group D compared with group E.Conclusion Dexmedetomidine can alleviate acute liver injury in rats with endotoxemia, and the underlying mechanism is associated with inhibition of systemic inflammatory responses.%目的 评价右美托咪定对内毒素血症大鼠急性肝损伤的影响.方法 成年雄性SD大鼠1 8只,3~4月龄,体重250~ 300 g,采用随

  20. Neuropsychiatric complications after liver transplantation: Retrospective analysis of three cases and literature review%肝移植术后神经精神系统并发症:3例回顾性分析及文献复习

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    李春友; 李森; 付云强

    2007-01-01

    , and one patient had epilepsy and limb movement disorder. All subjects were mainly given immunosuppressant drug therapy, a timely correction of fluid and electrolyte imbalance and symptomatic treatment. Postoperative prognosis of patients as well as the diagnosis and treatment of patients were retrospectively observed. Case one, male aged 54 years of hepatitis B liver cirrhosis and large, with a history of hypertension for 15 years and diabetes for 10 years. On September 25th, 2001 the patient received piggyback liver transplantation. During and after transplantation the patient received a strong impact on the treatment with the Dragon 1 000 mg. After 28 days,the patient died of hyperbilirubinemia, hyperkalemia, liver and kidney failure clinically. Case two, male aged 47 years of hepatitis B, cirrhosis and huge hepatocellular carcinoma, chronic calculous cholecystitis, with a history of hypertension for 5 years and diabetes for 2 years. On December 26th, 2001 the patient was treated with piggyback liver transplantation. At day 44 the patient had obvious cough with yellow-green phlegm, sputum culture was Aspergillus spp (50%) and diflucan for the treatment. Till day 53, drowsiness and depressed spirit appeared; at day 54, the patient was disoriented, and at day 55 hemiparesis occurred at right side, gradually coma, by brain CT scan it confirmed to be intracerebral hemorrhage, and died. Case three, male aged 59 years of hepatitis B, cirrhosis of liver atrophy with right hepatic small hepatocellular carcinoma. On August 20th, 2004 the patient was given classic modified line-situ liver transplant surgery without venovenous bypass. Four days after sudden aphasia, gradually motor dysfunction, swallowing dysfunction,restlessness and epilepsy appeared. After Phenytoin Sodium, chloral hydrate enema and luminal sodium treatment, focal epilepsy and irritable symptoms were effectively controlled, but aphasia and left hemiparesis still occurred. After five months, the patient died

  1. Sedação e analgesia em neonatologia Sedación y analgesia en neonatología Sedation and analgesia in neonatology

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    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    2007-10-01

    dolor en Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal y también para hacer el ambiente más humanizado y menos estresante para los pacientes y sus familiares. El tratamiento del dolor en el recién nacido consiste en medidas no farmacológicas (succión no nutritiva, glicosis y farmacológicas (analgésicos no-opioides, opioides y anestésicos locales. La sedación en recién nacidos es producida por fármacos que actúan disminuyendo la actividad, la ansiedad y la agitación del paciente, pudiendo conllevar a la amnesia de eventos dolorosos o no dolorosos. La sedación puede ser hecha a través del uso de hidrato de cloral, barbitúricos, propofol y benzodiazepínicos. CONCLUSIONES: La prevención del dolor y la indicación de analgesia deben ser individualizadas y siempre consideradas en todos los recién nacidos portadores de enfermedades potencialmente dolorosas y/o sometidos a procedimientos invasivos, quirúrgicos o no.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The study of pain in neonatology is important because pain and stress mean suffering and discomfort for newborns and, despite it, very little has been done to minimize them. In this revision we discuss: prevention of pain, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment, and sedation in newborns. CONTENTS: Several non-pharmacological measures can be taken to prevent pain in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, and to humanize and reduce the stress on the environment for patients and their families. Pain treatment in the newborn consists of non-pharmacological (non-nutritive suckling, glucose and pharmacological (non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and local anesthetics measures. Sedation in the newborn is achieved with drugs that decrease activity, anxiety, and agitation of the patient, and that could lead to amnesia of painful and non-painful events. Sedation can be accomplished with chloral hydrate, barbiturates, propofol, and benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of pain and the indication of analgesia should be individualized

  2. 异氟烷麻醉对大鼠认知功能的影响%The effect on cognitive function of rats during Isoflurane anesthesia

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    许世福; 吕黄伟

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察异氟烷麻醉对大鼠学习记忆的影响.方法:选择学习记忆功能正常的雄性SD大鼠32只,将其随机分为对照组(A组)和异氟烷组(B组),每组16只.两组分别于水合氯醛腹腔注射麻醉后,A组不做处理;B组1%~1.5%异氟烷吸入麻醉4 h,血压维持在正常生理范围.术前、术后即刻,麻醉后第1、3、7天利用Y迷宫进行认知功能的测定和海马组织HE染色观察形态学变化和用高倍镜计数S-100β免疫反应阳性细胞.结果:麻醉前大鼠生理指标和学习记忆功能组间比较差异无统计学意义.①麻醉后第1天正确反应次数B组A组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);麻醉后第3、7天两组间正确反应次数和全天总反应时间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).②麻醉后即刻、麻醉后1 d,B组大鼠海马CAI区S-100β阳性细胞增多,密度略高于A组,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);B组麻醉后第3、7天海马各区S-100β阳性细胞密度降低,两组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:异氟烷麻醉可能轻度影响大鼠脑海马S-100β阳性细胞,但对认知功能没有明显影响.%Objective: To observe the effect of Isoflurane anesthesia on cognitive function in rat.Methods: The author selected 32 male SD rats with normal learning and memory function, which were randomly divided into two groups: control group (group A, n=16) and Isoflurane group (group B, n=16).Anesthesia induction with Chloral Hydrate injected peri-toneally in two groups.In group A, rats were without CH treatment; In group B, rats were under 1%-1.5% Isoflurane inhalation to maintain blood pressure at normal physiological range.The anesthesia time in group A was 4 hours, before and after anesthesia, the cognitive function was determined by Y maze at 1st, 3rd, 7th day postanesthesia, and positive S-100(3 immunoreactive cells in hippocampus were stained and counted the number by HE.Results: There was no significant difference between groups

  3. 手术创伤对不同月龄大鼠认知功能及海马小胶质细胞活化的影响%Effect of surgical trauma on cognitive function and activation of microglias in hippocampus in rats of different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文瑶; 杨智勇; 李玉萍; 陶国才

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of surgical trauma on the cognitive function and activation of microglias in hippocampus in rats of different ages.Methods Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 3-4months,were randomly allocated into 2 groups:adult control group (n =30) and adult surgery group (n =42).Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 18-20 months,were randomly allocated into 2 groups:aged control group (n =30) and aged surgery group (n =42).The rats were anesthetized with 5% chloral hydrate 4-6 ml/kg and underwent exploratory laparotomy in surgery groups,while normal saline 1 ml/kg was injected intraperitoneally in control groups.Morris water maze test was performed at 1-7 days after surgery.Fear conditioning test was performed 1 day after surgery to evaluate the space and fear memory abilities.The animals were sacrificed on 1st,3rd and 7th days after surgery and hippocampi were removed for measurement of OX42 expression in microglias by immunohistochemistry.Results Compared with adult control group,the percentage of freezing time in total time was significantly decreased,and OX42 expression in microglias was up-regulated on 1st day after surgery (P < 0.05),and no significant change was found in the escape latency and the number of crossing the original platform in adult surgery group (P > 0.05).Compared with aged control group,the escape latency was significantly prolonged,the number of crossing the original platform was decreased,the percentage of freezing time in total time was decreased,and OX42 expression in microglias was up-regulated on 1st and 3rd days after surgery in aged surgery group (P <0.05).Conclusion Surgical trauma decreases fear memory ability,but exerts no effect on the space memory ability in adult rats.Surgical trauma decreases the space and fear memory abilities in aged rats,which maybe related to activation of microglias in hippocampus.%目的 评价手术创伤对不同月龄大鼠认知功能和海马小胶

  4. 饮水添加不同水平硼对大鼠胰腺组织结构的影响%Effect of Different Levels Boron Supplemented in Drinking on Microstructure of Pancreas in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升和; 阮丽; 顾有方; 金光明; 王珏; 周金星

    2011-01-01

    选用192只28±2d实验用清洁级SD大鼠,分为6组,每组32只,雌雄各半,分别饮用添加硼0、40、80、160、320和640mg/L的蒸馏水,试验期60d,分别于试验第30天(65日龄)和60天(95日龄)每组随机取鼠16只,雌雄各8只,10%水合氯醛腹腔麻醉,立即解剖取胰腺,称重,制作石蜡切片,HE染色,光镜观察并显微摄影。结果表明,与对照组比较,65d试验Ⅰ~Ⅳ雄鼠胰腺重量与器官指数降低,雌鼠胰腺重量与器官指数升高,95d试验Ⅰ~Ⅳ雄鼠和试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组雌鼠胰腺重量升高,但均无统计学意义(P〉0.05)。试验Ⅴ组大鼠的胰腺重量多显著或极显著低于对照组(P〈0.05或P〈0.01)。95d试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ组大鼠的胰腺的腺泡和胰岛结构较对照组有较明显地改善;试验Ⅲ~Ⅳ组胰腺的组织结构则呈现不同程度病理组织学变化;试验Ⅴ组胰腺腺泡细胞肿胀、顶部胞质酶原颗粒明显减少,胰岛体积变小,胰岛周边细胞萎缩,中央细胞肿胀。试验结果表明,饮水添加40、80mg/L硼对大鼠胰腺发育及组织结构有较明显地促进和改善作用;添加160~640mg/L硼对大鼠胰腺的发育及组织结构与功能则有较明显的不良影响甚至毒性作用;结果提示,微量元素硼对大鼠的胰腺发育及组织结构与功能的影响可能存在性别和日龄差异。%192 SD rats(28±2-day-old) with no bacteria infecting were randomly divided into six groups(n=32,16 male rats and 16female rats).Treated rats drank the water which supplemented with 40,80,160,320 and 640 mg/L boron,and the control rats received distilled water for 60 days,respectively.At the 30th and the 60th day of experiment period,16 rats(n=8,male=female) from each group were selected and made into narcosis with 10% Chloral Hydrate.Then the pancreas were obtained and weighed after dissection;then the samples were made into paraffin sections,observed and photographed under Olympus CH-30

  5. 紫外线照射对SD大鼠晶状体抗氧化酶活性的影响%The effect of ultraviolet radiation on antioxidant enzymes activities in rat lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学发; 杨名慧; 葛正龙

    2015-01-01

    目的:以紫外线照射SD大鼠为研究模型,观察紫外线对晶状体中抗氧化酶[(超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)]活性的影响。方法将30只6周龄SD大鼠随机分为五组,每组6只,对照组不做处理,其余四组实验组腹腔注射水合氯醛(10%,0.35 mL/100 g)麻醉大鼠,紫外灯正对大鼠眼球照射15 min,照射强度1.0×103μW/cm2。分别于紫外线照射后1、3、5、7 d颈椎脱臼处死SD大鼠,立即取出晶状体,观察晶状体是否浑浊,并拍照记录;比色法检测晶状体中SOD、GSH-Px、CAT 活性及超氧阴离子(O2-)、过氧化氢(H2O2)、丙二醛(MDA)含量。结果紫外线照射后晶状体的浑浊程度随时间延长而逐渐加重;晶状体中SOD活性较对照组显著降低,而O2-含量显著升高,GSH-Px活性显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);紫外线照射后3、5、7 d晶状体中CAT活性较对照组显著降低,而H2O2含量较对照组显著升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);紫外线照射后晶状体中MDA含量较对照组升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论紫外线诱导白内障的发生与晶状体中抗氧化酶(SOD、GSH-Px、CAT)活性降低有关。%Objective To observe the effect of ultraviolet radiation on antioxidant enzymes activities (SOD,GSH-Px,CAT) with the research model of SD rats under the ultraviolet irradiation. Methods A total of 30 SD rats aged 6 months were randomly divided into 5 groups,6 rats in each group,including one as the control group without any disposal and four as the experimental groups,who were injected 10%chloral hydrate(0.35 mL/100 g) abdominally for anesthesia. Using UV lamps radiated SD rats′eyes for 15 minutes after pupillary dilation with the exposure intensity being 1.0 ×103μW/cm2,the exposed animals were put to death by cervical dislocation on the first

  6. 青藤碱对神经病理性痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元凋亡的影响%Effects of sinomenine on neuronal apoptosis in spinal dorsal horns in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝珍; 冷玉芳; 金建萍; 胡晓慧; 赵文宇; 周菲; 于洁; 吴小精

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of sinomenine on neuronal apoptosis in the spinal dorsal horns in a rat model of neuropathic pain (NP).Methods One hundred and eight male Wistar rats,weighing 180-220 g,were randomly divided into 3 groups with 36 animals in each group:sham operation group (group S),NP group and sinomenine group (group SIN).The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal chloral hydrate.In groups NP and SIN,NP was induced by chronic constrictive injury.The sciatic nerve was exposed and four ligatures were placed on the right sciatic nerve at 1 mm intervals with 4-0 chromic catgut.In group S,the right sciatic nerves were exposed,but not ligated.In group SIN,sinomenine 40 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally once a day starting from the end of operation until one day before the rats were sacrificed.In groups NP and S,the rats received the equal volume of normal saline instead of sinomenine.Twelve animals in each group were randomly chosen at 1 day before operation (T0) and 3,7 and 14 days after operation (T1-33) to measure mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal paw withdrawal latency (TWL).The rats in each group were sacrificed at T1-3 after measurement of pain threshold and the lumbar segments (L4-6) of the spinal cord were removed for determination of caspase-3 mRNA and p38MAPK mRNA expression (by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR) and cell apoptosis (by TUNEL) in the spinal dorsal horn.Apoptosis rate (AR =the number of apoptotic cells/the total number of cells examined) was calculated.Results Compared with group S,MWT and TWL were significantly decreased,the expression of caspase-3 mRNA and p38MAPK mRNA was up-regulated,and AR was increased at T1-3 in NP and SIN groups (P < 0.05).Compared with group NP,MWT and TWL were significantly increased,the expression of caspase-3 mRNA and p38MAPK mRNA was down-regulated,and AR was decreased at T1-3 in group SIN (P < 0.05).MWT and TWL were significantly lower,and the expression of

  7. Effect of diabetes on baclofen-induced inhibition of mEPSCs in spinal glutamatergic neurons in rats with neuropathic pain%糖尿病因素对巴氯芬抑制神经痛大鼠脊髓谷氨酸能神经元突触后电流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白惠萍; 彭云水; 王倩; 吴川; 刘飞飞; 刘朋; 郭跃先; 王秀丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of diabetes on baclofen-induced inhibition of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in spinal glutamatergic neurons in rats with neuropathic pain.Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 4 weeks,weighing 150-170 g,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=15 each group):control group (C group) and diabetic neuropathic pain group (D group).Diabetic neuropathic pain was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 50 mg/kg and confirmed 28 days later by blood glucose > 16.7 mmol/L and pain threshold < 4 g in group D,while the rats received the equal volume of normal saline in C group.The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg.The rats were then sacrificed and lumbar segments (L1.5) of the spinal cord were removed for slice preparations.Glutamatergic mEPSCs in lamina Ⅱ neurons were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique and 20 neurons located in lamina Ⅱ of the spinal cord were recorded in each group.The cells stabilized for 30 min after sealing,and then baclofen with the final concentrations of 1,10,20,50 μmol/L was added to the perfusion solution at 5 min intervals followed by washout.The frequency and intensity of glutamatergic mEPSCs were recorded immediately before and after administration and at 5 min after washout.The inhibitory effect of baclofen on glutamatergic mEPSCs was measured and the inhibitory rate was calculated.Results Compared with group C,the frequency of glutamatergic mEPSCs was significantly increased and the inhibitory rate was decreased under each concentration (P < 0.05),and no significant change was found in the intensity of mEPSCs under each concentration in D group (P > 0.05).Conclusion Diabetes decreases baclofen-induced analgesic effect in rats with neuropathic pain,which is related to inhibition of mEPSCs in spinal glutamatergic neurons.%目的 评价糖尿病因素对巴氯芬抑制神经痛大鼠脊髓谷氨酸

  8. 外源性硫化氢对大鼠急性心肌缺血损伤时炎性反应的影响%Effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory responses during acute myocardial ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 刘广杰; 张建新; 李兰芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of exogenous hydrogen sulfide on inflammatory responses during acute myocardial ischemia in rats.Methods Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats,weighing 250-290 g,were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =8 each):sham operation group,acute myocardial ischemia group,and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) group.The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal chloral hydrate.The model of acute myocardial ischemia was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of coronary artery.Normal saline 2 ml/kg and NaHS 3.12 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected at 3 h of ischemia in AMI and NaHS groups,respectively.The rats were sacrificed at 6 h after ligation and hearts were removed for determination of interleukin-1β (IL-1β),IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents (by ELISA) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA expression (by semi-quantitative PCR) in myocardial tissues and for examination of myocardial ultrastructure with transmission electron microscope.Results Compared with S group,IL-1β,IL-6 and TNF-α conte.nts and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in myocardial tissues were significantly increased in AMI group (P < 0.05).Compared with AMI group,IL-1β,IL-6 and TNF-α contents and ICAM-1 mRNA expression in myocardial tissues were significantly decreased in NaHS group (P < 0.05).The damage to myocardial ultrastructure was significantly alleviated in NaHS group when compared with AMI group.Conclusion The mechanism by which exogenous H2S alleviates the acute myocardial ischemia injury is related to inhibition of the inflammatory responses in rats.%目的 评价外源性硫化氢对大鼠急性心肌缺血损伤时炎性反应的影响.方法 清洁级健康成年雄性SD大鼠24只,体重250 ~ 290 g,采用随机数字表法分为3组(n=6):假手术组(S组)、急性心肌缺血组(AMI组)和硫氢化钠组(NaHS组).采用结扎大鼠左冠状动脉前降支的方法制备急性心肌缺血模型.AMI

  9. The relationship between serum CC10 protein and ventilator-associated lung injury in rats%不同程度呼吸机相关性肺损伤大鼠血清CC10蛋白水平的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀梅; 王月兰; 李成

    2008-01-01

    目的 比较不同程度呼吸机相关性肺损伤(VILI)大鼠血清CCIO蛋白的水平.方法 清洁级Wistar大鼠40只,雌雄不拘,体重200~250 g,随机分为5组(n=8),对照组(Ⅰ组)仅切开气管,不行机械通气;轻度肺损伤组(Ⅱ组)潮气量(VT)7 ml/kg,机械通气2 h;中度肺损伤组(Ⅲ组)VT 7 ml/kg,机械通气4 h;重度肺损伤组(Ⅳ组)VT 40 ml/kg,机械通气2 h;极重度肺损伤组(Ⅴ组)VT 40 ml/kg,机械通气4 h.Ⅰ组在气管切开后即刻,其余各组在机械通气结束时采集腹主动脉血3 ml,并收集支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF),测定血清和BALF中CC10蛋白水平;观察肺Clara细胞;计算肺湿/干重比(W/D).结果 Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组终末细支气管、呼吸细支气管管腔有大量脱落Clara细胞,血管壁有大量漏出的CC10蛋白,其余组上述表现不明显;Ⅱ组~Ⅴ组血清CC10蛋白水平逐渐升高,肺组织损伤程度逐渐加重(P<0.05);与Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组和Ⅲ组比较,Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组BALF中CC10蛋白水平降低(P<0.05);血清CC10蛋白水平与肺组织损伤程度和肺W/D呈正相关,相关系数分别为0.915和0.846(P<0.01);BALF中CC10蛋白水平与肺组织损伤程度和肺W/D呈负相关,相关系数分别为-0.799和-0.816(P<0.01).结论 血清CC10蛋白水平与大鼠呼吸机相关性肺损伤程度有关.%Objective To investigate the relationship between serum CC10 protein and lung injury induced by mechanical ventilation.Methods Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 5 groups(n=8 each):group Ⅰ control;group Ⅱ mild lung injury[VT=7 ml/kg,duration of mechanical ventilation(t):2 h];group Ⅲ moderate lung injury(VT=7 ml/kg,t=4 h);group Ⅳ severe lung injury(VT=40 ml/kg,t=2 h);group Ⅴ extremely severe lung injury(VT=40 ml/kg,t=4 h).The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% chloral hyrdrate 3.5 ml/kg and tracheostomized.Group Ⅰ received no mechanical ventilation.The animals in group Ⅱ-Ⅴ were

  10. Relationship between toll-like receptor 3 of spinal astrocytes and development of hyperalgesia in rats%脊髓星形胶质细胞TLR3与大鼠痛觉过敏形成的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章沿锋; 姚尚龙; 张小洺; 张德仁

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价脊髓星形胶质细胞Toll样受体3(TLR3)与大鼠痛觉过敏形成的关系.方法 雄性SD大鼠,体重180-250 g,取鞘内置管成功的大鼠126只,随机分为3组(n=42),正常对照组(C组);生理盐水组(NS组)鞘内注射生理盐水0.5 ml/kg,1次,d.连续7 d;痛觉过敏组(H组)腹腔注射米诺环素40me/kg+鞘内注射Poly(I:C)0.5 mg/kg,1次,d,连续7 d.各组于鞘内给药前1d和鞘内给药后1、3、5、7、10、14、21、28 d时测定机械痛阈和热痛阈;各组于鞘内给药后7 d时处死6只大鼠,取L4,5脊髓节段,采用免疫组化法测定脊髓背角胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)表达;各组于鞘内给药前1d和鞘内给药后1、7,14、21、28 d时各处死6只大鼠,取L4,5脊髓节段,采用RT-PCR法测定TLR3 mRNA表达.结果 与C组和Ns组比较,H组机械痛阈降低,脊髓背角GFAP和TLR3 mRNA表达上调(P<0.05).结论 TLR3与其特异性配体结合后,激活脊髓背角星形胶质细胞,诱发大鼠痛觉过敏.%Objective To evaluate the relationship between toll-like receptor 3(TLR3)of spinal astrocytes and development of hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal Poly(I:C)in rats.Methods Male SD-rats weighing 180-250 g were anesthetized with intraperitoneal(IT)10%chloral hydrate 3-3.5 ml/mg.Intrathecnl catheter was placed at L6-S1 interspace with the tip positioned at lumbar enlargement.One hundred and twenty.six SD rats in which IT catheters were successfully placed were randomly divided into 3 groups(n=42 each):group Ⅰ normal control(C);group Ⅱ received normal saline 0.5ml/kg IT, once a day for 7 consecutive days(NS); group Ⅲ received minocycline 40 mg/kg IP+Poly(1:C)0.5 mg/kg IT once a day for 7 consecutive days(H).Paw withdrawal threshold to von Frey filament stimulation(PWT)and paw withdrawal latency to neciceptive thermal stimulation(PWL)were measured at 1 d before operation and 1,3,5,7.10,14.21,28 day after IT injection.Six animals were kiUed at 1d before operation and 1,7,14,21,28 d after

  11. The effect of remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia by different dose of μ-receptor antagonist CTOP%不同剂量μ受体拮抗剂CTOP对瑞芬太尼诱发痛觉过敏的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师瑾; 薛朝霞; 胡古月; 吕晓敏; 张鹏

    2013-01-01

    + remifentanil +CTOP lower dose group (D),incisional pain + remifentanil+CTOP higher dose (E).All rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 5% chloral hydrate (350 mg/kg).Ten min after administered intravenously with 0.4 ml saline in group A,group B and group C,with 0.5 μg/kg CTOP in group D and 0.5 mg/kg CTOP,rats in all groups except group A were underwent right hind paw surgery.Meanwhile,rats in group A and group B were infused intravenously with saline,and rats in group C,group D and group E were infused intravenously with remifentanil of 40 μg/kg by lasting 30 min.24 h (T2) later,24 h later,all rats were sacrificed and spinal cord tissues were separated for detecting the expression of dynorphin by ELISA.PWTL was tested at time before anaesthesia (T0),2 h (T2) and 24 h (T2) after paw surgery.Results PWTL were significantly lower in group C [(10.2±3.0) s at T1 and (6.2±2.6) s at T2] than that in group A [(13.3±2.4) s at T1 and (13.4±2.2) s at T2] and group B [(13.5±2.7) s at T1 and (11.5±4.1) s at T2] compared with group A.Dynorphin expression in group C(172±17) ng/Lwere higher than that in group A (78±9) ng/L and group B(120±10) ng/L(P<0.05).Compared with group C,PWTL were higher and dynorphin were lower significantly in group D and E (P<0.05).There were different in the dynorphin expression between group D and group E.Conclusions In rat model of incisional pain,remifentanil could enhance postoperative pain,μ-receptor antagonist(CTOP)could reduce the hyperalgesia induced by remifentaniland the lower dose is more effective.

  12. Sedoanalgesia pediátrica en lugares fuera de quirófano Pediatric sedoanalgesia outside the operating theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castilla-Moreno

    2004-12-01

    .Objective: To review the sedations that are performed in pediatric care outside the surgical area. This is always a challenge for the anesthesiologist, but particularly when the patients are children. We believe that the keys are: a protocol that establishes the drugs to be used and their routes of administration, monitoring, appointment of a nurse for the support of the anesthesiologist and, of course, a very good selection of the procedures. In fact, despite the many studies that have been published about sedation, many of these fail because the indications are not appropriate or because the person that performs them is not an anesthesiologist. Our working method has been the following: -We carried out a literature search of a basic drug: propofol. -In order to establish the procedures that have to be conducted under sedation in children, we contacted several hospitals with a recognized prestige in Pediatric Anesthesia with a list of procedures. The hospitals consulted were: Children's Hospital de Pittsburgh, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Pediatric Anesthesia of the Varsaw University, Children's Hospital of Colonia (Alemania and Sick Great Ormond Street of London. All of them agreed on the need of sedation for the following procedures: bath of burned children, radiotherapy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, computerized axial tomography (CAT, positron emission tomography (PET. The echocardiography in small children is mostly performed with chloral hidrate, either orally (85% or rectally administered. Material and method: We reviewed recently published literature with Internet search tools, in most cases using the propofol word and crossing-over the key words: propofol and children, propofol and infants y propofol and neonates. Conclusions: Sedation procedures in children require, such as any other type of anesthesia, the following: 1. Informed consent. 2. Fasting, depending on age. 3. Availability of a venous access. 4. Appropriate monitoring depending on the

  13. 先天显性脊柱裂胎鼠羊水蛋白谱差异性分析%Comparative proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid in rats with spina bifida aperta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单立平; 李慧; 范洋; 周凤华; 顾卉; 袁正伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential biomarker for early diagnosis of spina bifida aperta by analyzing of proteomic profile of amniotic fluid in rats with spina bifida aperta (SBA) induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).Methods The pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:SBA group (24 rats) and normal group (9 rats).SBA was induced by a single intragastric administration of ATRA to the pregnant rats on gestational day 10 (E10).All pregnant rats were sacrificed by an overdose chloral hydrate on E17 day,and fetuses and amniotic fluid were collected.Albumin and IgG were removed using Protein A/G kit to increase the concentration of target proteins.The proteomic profiles of amniotic fluid were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS).Results Six proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the amnioticfluid of SBA rats.Of the 6 proteins,transferrin,alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor were unregulated,and apolipoprotein A Ⅳ and Srprb 77 kDa were down-regulated.Additionally,46 protein fragments in SBA amniotic fluid were found,including 11 were upregulated and 35 were downregulated.A Western blot analysis confirmed the 2-DE/MS data,indicating the 6 isoforms of AFP (69-,52-,36-,24-and 14-kDa) were associated with SBA.Moreover,the 69-kDa AFP was the most abundant protein in the amniotic fluid of SBA,which was increased by 1.42-fold (P<0.05).Conclusions Six proteins in amniotic fluid are correlated with spinal bifida aperta,and may be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of spina bifida aperta.%目的 采用2-D/质谱电泳方法,比较孕17d正常组胎鼠和全反式维甲酸诱导的显性脊柱裂胎鼠羊水蛋白表达谱的变化,筛查先天性显性脊柱裂相关羊水标记物.方法 孕10d大鼠,采用全反式维甲酸胃管灌饲的方法建立先天显性脊柱裂动物模型24只(脊柱裂组),正常对照组9只(正常组).孕17d晨,麻醉孕鼠,显微镜下获取每

  14. 海马神经干细胞与胶原蛋白海绵及明胶海绵的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of hippocampal neural stem cells with collagen and gelatin sponge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝凤; 董明敏; 席恺

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The selection of carrier plays an essential role in the research of applying tissue-engineering to fix the peripheral nerves. An ideal carrier would be one that is similar to extracellular matrix and that it has biocompatibility with in vivo cells.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biocompatibility of hippocampal neural stem cells with collagen and gelatin sponge in vitro and to probe into the feasibility of using the materials as biomaterial scaffold in peripheral nerve tissue engineering.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled trial.SETTING: Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University; Department of Anatomy of the School of Basic Medical Sciences of Zhengzhou University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out from July to December 2005 at the Laboratory of Neurobiology of the Department of Anatomy of the School College of Basic Medical Sciences of Zhengzhou University.Twelve New born (< 24 hours) clean grade guinea pigs of either gender with a body mass of 50-70 g, were provided by the Experimental Animals Center of Zhengzhou University School of Medicine.METHODS: The new born (< 24 hours) guinea pigs were anesthetized intraperitoneally with 10 g/L chloral hydrate and sterilized in 0.75 volume fraction of alcohol. Hippocampal tissue was resected from the brain under a surgical microscope. Hippocampus neural stem cells were cultured in vitro. The cultured cells of two generations were suspended at a density of 1 ×1010L-1 and respectively combined with collagen and gelatin sponge.The number of cells was counted and histological changes were observed under an inverted phase microscope and scanning electron microscope after 7 days, and the adhesion rate of the two materials to the cells were measured.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Growth of the neural stem cells and their adhesion to the collagen and gelatin sponge were observed and the total number of the cells and adhesion rate with carrier were measured.

  15. 异丙酚联合白藜芦醇预先给药对大鼠肝脏缺血再灌注损伤的影响%Effects of propofol combined with resveratrol pretreatment on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申新; 赵鸽; 刘婷婷; 王瑞; 刘琳

    2013-01-01

    group (group S) ; I/R group; solvent group (group TW-80) ; propofol group (group P) ; resveratrol group (group R) ; propofol combined with resveratrol group (group P + R).The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10 % chloral hydrate 3.5-4.0 ml/kg.Liver ischemia was produced by clamping the first hepatic portal for 30 min,followed by 12 h reperfusion.In group P,propofol was infused intravenously at 10 mg· kg-1 ·h-1 starting from 10 min before ischemia until the end of operation.In group R,resveratrol 10 mg/kg was injected intravenously at 10 min before ischemia.In group P + R,resveratrol 10 mg/kg was injected intravenously and then propofol was infused intravenously at 10 mg· kg-1· h-1 starting from 10 min before ischemia until the end of operation.The equal volume of normal saline was given instead in groups S and I/R,and the equal volume of TW-80 was given instead in group TW-80.Six rats in each group were chosen at 3,6 and 12 h of reperfusion and blood samples were taken from the superior and inferior vena cava for measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities.The rats were then sacrificed and livers were removed for microscopic examination and for determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities,inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression,and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents in liver tissues.Results Compared with group S,the serum ALT and AST activities,and MDA and NO contents,MPO activity and iNOS expression in liver tissues were significantly increased,and the activities of SOD were decreased in the other four groups (P <0.05).Compared with group I/R,the serum ALT and AST activities,and MDA and NO contents,MPO activity and iNOS expression in liver tissues were significantly decreased,and the activities of SOD were increased in groups P,R and P + R (P < 0.05).Compared with groups P and R,SOD activity was significantly increased,and the

  16. Effect of cyclooxygenase-2 on bone loss in ovariectomized rats%环氧合酶2在去卵巢大鼠骨丢失中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭影; 张陈彦; 田瑛; 底建敏; 秦姗

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate mechanism of cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX-2) in bone loss in a postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) rat mode with ovarietomy (OVX).Methods Forty female Sprague Dawley adult rats at age of 3 months were randomly divided into 4 groups,10 in each group,including shamoperated (sham) group,OVX group,OVX treated with nilesteriol (OVX + E) group and OVX treated with aspirin ( OVX + P) group.All rats in OVX,OVX + E and OVX + P groups underwent ovarietomy under abdominal anesthesia with 10% chloral hydrate.Rats in sham group were only taken with fat tissue with same weight under bilateral ovary.After surgery,penicillin was administered to prevent infection.At day 7 after surgery,agents were given by intragastric administration for 12 weeks.Nilestriol at 1.0 mg/kg was used in OVX + E group once a week,aspirin at 45 mg · kg - 1 · d- 1 was used in OVX + P group once a day.Saline with same volume was used in rats in sham and OVX groups.All agents were administered one time per day.Dose of agents were adjusted by weight per week.At end of study,bone mineral density (BMD) of right femurs and lumbar vertebrae 3 -5 (L3-5) were measured.Morphology of bone was detected by hematoxylineosin,and expression of COX-2 was determined by immunohistochemistry staining.Results ( 1 ) BMD:BMD of right femur and L3-5 was (0.209 ±0.010) g/cm2 and (0.230 ±0.012) g/cm2 in sham group and (0.181 ±0.008) g/cm2 and (0.201 ± 0.016) g/cm2 in OVX group,which reached statistical difference (P<0.01).BMD of right femur and L3-5 was (0.203 ±0.009) g/cm2 and (0.224 ±0.028) g/cm2 in OVX + E group and (0.200 ± 0.011 ) g/cm2 and (0.204 ± 0.003 ) g/cm2 in OVX + P group,which were all higher than those in OVX group (P <0.01,P <0.05).However,there was no statistical difference in BMD between OVX + E and OVX + P group ( P > 0.05).(2) Morphology of bone:bone trabeculae became fewer and degenerated in OVX group.However,bone trabeculae were regular and dense in OVX + P group and OVX

  17. 异氟烷用于控制性降压对大鼠海马S-100β表达及认知功能的影响%The Effect of Controlled Hypotension on Cognitive Function and Expression of S-100β on Hippocampus in Rats During Iso.urane Anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许世福; 吕黄伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of controlled hypotension on cognitive function and expression of S-100 β on hippocampus in rats during isoflurane anesthesia,and study the effects and mechanisms of perioperative controlled hypotension on postoperative cognitive dysfunction.Methods We selected 128 male SD rats with normal learning and memory function,which were randomly divided into four groupsxontrol group(group A);isoflurane group I (group B);isoflurane group Ⅱ (group C);SNP and isoflurane group(group D);each group contained 16 rats.We took four points in each groupxight after anesthesia(before anesthesia in group A),1,3,7 days after anesthesia,and 4 rats for each point.After anesthesia induction with chloral hydrate injected peritoneally all groups.In group A rats were without CH treatment;In group B,rats were under 1% ~ 1.5% isoflurane inhalation to maintain blood pressure at normal physiological range;In group C,rats were under 3% ~ 4% isoflurane inhalation,10 ~ 15min later reached target blood pressure of MAP 50mmHg;In group D,rats were continuously pumped with 400 μLg/mL sodium nitroprusside(SNP) prepared from 0.9% NaCl and under 1% ~ 1.5% isoflurane inhalation,10 ~ 15min later reached to target blood pressure of MAP 50mmHg.All four groups got anesthesia and hypotension in each group continued to 4h,before anesthesia in group A,B,C,D right after anesthesia,test others cognitive function with Y maze 1,3,7 days postoperatively.Four time points after 150 ~ 200mL 4% paraformaldehyde fixed,hippocampus from the other 4 rats were used for observation positive S-100 β immunoreactive cell of by immuno histochemical test and counting the number.Results There was no significant difference between groups about physiological index and learning and memory function before anesthesia. 1.The number of correct responses 1 day after anesthesia was:group C smaller than group A,group B,group D,the difference was significant(P 0.05).2.Hippocampus S-100 (3 positive

  18. Effect of astaxanthin intervention on contrast-induced acute kidney injury in experimental rats%虾青素对低渗性对比剂诱导的大鼠急性肾损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 李文华; 刘娜娜; 余亚仁; 郑迪

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the protective effect and mechanism of astaxanthin (AST) on the acute kidney injury induced by iohexol in rats.Method Thirty rats were randomly divided into five groups:control group (Ctrl);iohexol group (CM);astaxanthin group (AST,100 mg/kg),low astaxanthin dose group (LAST+CM,50 mg/kg) and high astaxanthin dose group (HAST+CM,100 mg/kg),6 in each group.The rats in AST,LAST+CM,HAST+CM groups were administrated with AST by oral gavages using an intubation needle for 10 consecutive days.The rats in Ctrl and CM groups rats in Ctrl,CM groups were given with dissolvant instead in equal volume.Except for the Ctrl and AST groups,on day 8,rats were given indomethacin,L-NAME and iohexol in their femoral vein under chloral hydrate anesthesia to build a contrast induced-nephropathy (CIN) model.At the end of the experiment (72 h after CIN induction),all rats were sacrificed.The Scr level,BUN level,renal histology,renal tissue activities in superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT),glutathione peroxidase (GPx),Glutathione (GSH) and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) were performed.Apoptosis of renal cells was detected by Bcl-2,Bax and Caspase-3 p17 with Western blot.Results Compared with Ctrl group,the levels of Scr,BUN were significantly increased in CM group (all P < 0.01);while compared with CM group,the indicators were decreased in treatment groups (P < 0.01).Renal tubular structure damage,medulla congestion,loss of brush border,vacuolar degeneration,apoptosis and proteinaceous casts were observed in the CM group,and the renal injury scores were higher compared with Ctrl group (P < 0.05),however,administrated with AST could significantly improve the changes (P < 0.05).Oxidative stress indicators showed that MDA level were increased while SOD,GPx,GSH activities were significantly decreased at CM group (all P < 0.05),and the indicators above were ameliorated in treatment groups (all P < 0.05).Western blot showed that the expression of Bcl-2 was

  19. Changes in electroencephalogram in rat epilepsy model via nonlinear dynamical approach%应用非线性动力学指标分析大鼠癫痫模型脑电信息变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许敏光; 夏鹏; 蒋勇; 龙开平; 杨继庆

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dynamic characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) include a decrease in the chaotic dimension, the correlation dimen sion, the Lyapunov exponent, the chaotic complexity, the freedom of EEG and an enhanced synchronization and periodicity of the EEG from several minutes to tens of minutes before epileptic seizures. All these characteristics prefigure the forthcoming seizures. Some studies have proven that the non linear dynamical system can be used as a feasible approach to explore the potential variables for describing the chaos portrait of EEG. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the electric characteristics of EEG signal in the epileptic seizures in rat model by investigating the nonlinear dynamical variables, such as the approximate entropy (ApEn) and correlation dimen sion. DESIGN: Observational and experimental study based on animals. SETTING: Department of Medical Engineering, Department of Gastroen terology, Second Artilleryman General Hospital of Chinese PLA; Department of Physics, Faulty of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical Uni versity of Chinese PLA. MATERIALS: From September 2001 to January 2002, this study was conducted at the Complexity Laboratory of the Biomedical Department of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA. Six male SD rats,weighing 150- 200 g, were selected.INTERVENTIONS: After intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate (0. 5 mL), the male SD rats were deeply anesthetized. When their EEG signal became stable, bemegride injection was diluted at 1:1 with saline and was given on a volume of 0.5 mL to the rats intraperitoneally. After a while,the epileptic seizures started marked by a spasm with a deep roar. The entire epileptic seizures were recorded. According to the shape of EEG waves and the corresponding symptoms of the rats during their seizures, data of the four phases, referring to normal condition, preictal phase, ictal phase and postictal phases of epileptic seizures, were selected for nonlinear

  20. Effect and mechanism of Cistanche phenylethanoid glycosides on rats with immunological liver fibrosis%肉苁蓉乙醇提取物抗大鼠免疫性肝纤维化的作用及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由淑萍; 赵军; 马龙; 木克热木·吐地买提; 张石蕾; 刘涛

    2016-01-01

    groups:normal control(distilled water-treated),model(BSA-treated),positive drug〔BSA-treated+compound Biejiarangan tablets(BJRG) 0.6 g·kg-1〕,and BSA-treated+CPhG(0.125,0.25 and 0.5 g·kg-1)groups. There were thirteen rats in each BSA-treated+CPhG(0.125,0.25 and 0.5 g·kg-1)group and twelve rats in other groups. Subcutaneous injection and tail vein injection of BSA immunity were used to induce the rat liver fibrosis model. Meanwhile, different therapeutic drugs were ig adminstered to rats. After the experimental period,rats were fasted for 12 h prior to 10%chloral hydrate administration and immediately euthanized. The liver was weighed to calculate the liver index. Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT),glutamic-oxalactic transaminase (GOT),alkaline phosphatase(ALP),total protein(TP)and albumin(ALB)were evaluated by the Mind-Ray automatic biochemical analyzer. The density of hydroxyproline (HyP) in liver tissues was determined using a spectrophotometric method according to the kit′s instructions. Histopathological changes and expressions of typeⅠ and typeⅢcollagens in liver tissues were also determined by immunohisto⁃chemical staining. RESULTS Compared with the normal control group,collagen fibers of liver tissues in the model group extended their links and enveloped the entire lobule,causing lobular structural damage and the formation of pseudolobules. The liver index(P<0.05),GPT,GOT,ALP,TP and ALB serum levels(P<0.05),HyP content(P<0.01)were significantly increased,so was the expression of typeⅠcollagens and typeⅢcollagens(P<0.01)in the model group. Compared with model group,various doses (0.125,0.25 and 0.5 g · kg-1) of CPhG significantly reduced the BSA-induced elevation of the liver index;GPT,GOT,ALP,TP and ALB serum levels(P<0.05),and HyP content decreased(P<0.01);the morphology of the pathological tissue sections was close to that of the normal control group,and CPhG significantly reduced the expression of two types of collagens(P<0.01). CONCLUSION

  1. 右美托咪定复合小剂量氯胺酮对神经病理性痛大鼠背根神经节P2X4受体mRNA和P2X7受体mRNA表达的影响%Effect of dexmedetomidine and small dose of ketamine on expression of P2X4 receptor mRNA and P2X7 receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglion of rats with neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞; 冷玉芳; 严琳; 葛亮; 高毅

    2013-01-01

    ,were randomly divided into 5 groups (n =18 each):sham group (group S),chronic constrictive injury group (group CCI),dexmedetomidine group (group D),ketamine group (group K) and dexmedetomidine + ketamine group (group DK).The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% chloral hydrate 400 mg/kg.Neuropathic pain was induced by CCI in CCI,D,K and DK groups.The sciatic nerve was exposed and 4 loose ligatures were placed on the sciatic nerve at 1mmintervals with 4-0 silk thread.In group S,the sciatic nerves were only exposed but not ligated.In D,K and DK groups,dexmedetomidine 50μg/kg,ketamine 10 mg/kg and dexmedetomidine 25μg/kg + ketamine 5 mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally,respectively,while the equal volume of normal saline was injected in S and CCI groups,once a day for 14 consecutive days after CCI.Mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (MWT) and thermal paw withdrawal latency (TWL) were measured at 1 day before CCI,and 3,7 and 14 days after CCI.Six animals were sacrificed after measurement of pain threshold at 3,7 and 14 days after CCI and the lumbar segments (L4-6) of the dorsal root ganglion were removed for determination of P2X4 R mRNA and P2X7 R mRNA expression by RT-PCR.Results Compared with group S,MWT and TWL were significantly decreased at 3,7 and 14 days after CCI in groups CCI,D,K and DK,the expression of P2X4R mRNA and P2X7R mRNA was up-regulated at 3,7 and 14 days after CCI in groups CCI,D and K,and the expression of P2X4 R mRNA and P2X7 R mRNA was up-regulated at 3 and 7 days after CCI in group DK (P < 0.05).Compared with group CCI,TWL and MWT were significantly increased and the expression of P2X4 R mRNA and P2X7 R mRNA was down-regulated at 3,7 and 14 days after CCI in groups D,K and DK (P < 0.05).Compared with D and K groups,TWL and MWT were significantly increased and the expression of P2X4 R mRNA and P2X7 R mRNA was down-regulated at 3,7 and 14 days after CCI in group DK (P < 0.05).Conclusion The mechanism by which the combination of

  2. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    treatment at the other two sites in terms of removal of organic carbon and DBP precursor material. Removals of TOC and DOC upon RBF at the three sites generally ranged from 30 to 70% compared to 20 to 50% removals upon bench-scale treatment of the river waters. Reductions in precursor material for a variety of DBP precursors for trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin upon RBF ranged from 50 to 100% using both the formation potential (FP) and the uniform formation conditions (UFC) tests (Standard Methods, 1998; Summers et al., 1996), while reductions upon bench-scale treatment were generally in the range of 40 to 80%. The significantly higher reductions of the DBP precursors relative to those of TOC and DOC indicate a preferential reduction upon ground passage in the NOM that reacts with chlorine to form DBPs. Upon both bench-scale conventional treatment and RBF, a shift was observed in DBP formation from the chlorinated to the more brominated species due to the removal of DOC relative to bromide upon treatment or RBF. As DOC is removed, the bromide:DOC ratio increases, leading to the formation of more brominated DBPs. The shift was more pronounced upon RBF due to the generally higher reductions in DOC. UFC testing with a constant chlorine:DOC:bromide ratio ruled out the possibility of any significant preferential removal of the NOM precursor material for the more chlorinated DBPs. These results highlight the importance of the bromide ion in the formation of DBPs in drinking water, especially in light of the higher theoretical cancer risk associated with the brominated DBPs. Risk calculations demonstrated the ability of RBF to reduce the theoretical excess cancer risk due to THMs formed upon chlorination, in all cases, and with substantially better performance than the bench-scale treatment train. The characterization studies were carried out to evaluate whether the observed removals of DBP precursor material upon

  3. 白细胞介素-17和6及内皮素-1在他汀类药物减轻大鼠急性心肌缺血再灌后无复流现象中的作用%Role of interelenkin-17, -6 and endothelin-1 in statins attenuated no-reflow phenomenon of rat acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧丽; 王广友; 李呼伦; 张克成; 袁杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relevant effect of proinflammatory cytokines interelenkin-17(IL-17), -6 and endothelin-1 (ET-1) on statins attenuating no-reflow phenomenon after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in rats.Methods Eighteen healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups according to body weight: sham operation, injury, preconditioning groups. The preconditioning group was given atorvastatin 2 mg·kg-1 ·d-1 and the other two groups were given the same volume of saline once. After 7 days, the rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate, and then the thoracic cavity was opened. The coronary artery of injury group and preconditioning group were ligated for 60 minutes, and then opened for 15 minutes, to establish the rat acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model. The sham operation group was was treated with a seam through the coronary artery without ligation. Eleetrocardiogram was checked before ligation, and ligation was carried out for 15, 30, 45 minutes and then reperfusion for 15 minutes. After reperfusion for 15 minutes, the thioflavine S and Even's were injected from femoral venous, then the heart and blood were obtained(keeping left ventricular only). Hearts were flushed with saline and sliced transversely into five to seven sections. Finally, observed at 365 nm wave length the existence of non-fluorescent areas, which was no-reflow zone. The level of serum IL-17, IL-6 and ET-1 was detected by ELISA. Results The electrocardiogram confirmed that the sham operation group had no ischemic damage and the model of myocardial ischemia- reperfusion was established in preconditioning group and injury group. The noreflow phenomenon could be observed under 365 nm wave length in preconditioning group and injury group. The ligated area[LA%, (57.34 ± 11.49)%, (53.08 ± 8.66)%] of injury group and preconditioning group was higher than that of sham operation group(0, all P < 0.05); the area of no-reflow[ANF%, (48

  4. 血管内皮生长因子受体在大鼠脊髓组织中的表达与分布%Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors in rat spinal cord tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅重洋; 洪光祥; 王发斌

    2007-01-01

    to June in 2004. ① Detection of VEGFR expression in spinal cord anterior horn: The rats were anesthetized by 100 g/L chloral hydrate, spinal cord of lumbar 4-6 (L4-6) was fixed in fixation solution at 4 ℃ for overnight, then routine dehydration, hyalinization and paraffin embedding were performed, and serial sections of about 5 μm were prepared for observing the VEGFR expressions using immuniohistochemical staining. ② Detection of VEGFR mRNA expression in spinal cord: Five rats were selected, L4-6 spinal cord (50 mg) was removed and centrifugated, then the content of total RNA was determined with ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The synthetized cDNA was amplified with PCR, and the PCR products (10 μL) were treated with 20 g/L agarose gel electrophoresis, and stained with 0.1 mg/L ethidium bromide, the results were observed and recorded under ultraviolet lamp and photographed. The products were scanned and quantified with gel imaging analytical system to record the gray value of each band, the gray value of β-actin band was taken as 1,and those of the other objective fragments were compared with it to record the gray value ratio and analyze the expressions of the objective fragments.MAIN OUTCOMEMEASURES: ① Expression and distribution of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in rat spinal cord anterior horn;② Results of VEGFR mRNA expression in spinal cord.RESULTS: ① Both VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 were expressed in the microvessels of normal rat spinal cord tissue.Besides, VEGFR-2 mainly expressed in motor neurons, glial cells and the nerve fibers in surrounding white matter. ②The results of gel imaging analytical system showed that the VEGFR-2 content in normal spinal cord was obviously higher than VEGFR-1 (0.874±0.222, 0.486±0.181, P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: VEGF promote the formation of microvessels through the combined effects of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2,and it plays the neurotrophic and neuroprotective role through VEGFR-2.