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Sample records for chloral

  1. Chloral Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloral hydrate, a sedative, is used in the short-term treatment of insomnia (to help you fall asleep and ... Chloral hydrate comes as a capsule and liquid to take by mouth and as a suppository to insert rectally. ...

  2. Fate of 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde (chloral hydrate) produced during trichloroethylene oxidation by methanotrophs.

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, L M; Wackett, L P

    1991-01-01

    Four different methanotrophs expressing soluble methane monooxygenase produced 2,2,2-trichloroacetaldehyde, or chloral hydrate, a controlled substance, during the oxidation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate concentrations decreased in these cultures between 1 h and 24 h of incubation. Chloral hydrate was shown to be biologically transformed to trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. At elevated pH and temperature, chloral hydrate readily decomposed an...

  3. 21 CFR 522.380 - Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.380 Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium sulfate sterile aqueous solution. (a) (b)(1) Specifications. Chloral hydrate, pentobarbital, and magnesium...

  4. Efficacy of Chloral Hydrate-Hydroxyzine and Chloral Hydrate-Midazolam in Pediatric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sedation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh FALLAH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fallah R, Fadavi N, Behdad Sh, Fallah Tafti M. Efficacy of Chloral Hydrate-Hydroxyzine and Chloral Hydrate-Midazolam in Pediatric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sedation. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:11-17.ObjectiveMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of congenital or acquired brain lesions. But, in all of less than 8-year-old children, pharmacological agents and procedural sedation should be used to inducemotionless conditions for imaging studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of combination of chloral hydrate-hydroxyzine (CH+H and chloral hydrate-midazolam (CH+M in pediatric MRI sedation.Materials & MethodsIn a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty 1-7-year-old children who underwent brain MRI, were randomly assigned to receive chloral hydrate in a minimum dosage of 40 mg/kg in combination with either 2 mg/kg ofhydroxyzine or 0.5 mg/kg of midazolam. The primary outcomes were efficacy of adequate sedation (Ramsay sedation score of five and completion of MRI examination. The secondary outcome was clinical side-effects.ResultsTwenty-eight girls (46.7% and 32 boys (53.3% with the mean age of 2.72±1.58 years were studied. Adequate sedation and completion of MRI were achieved in 76.7% of CH+H group. Mild and transient clinical side-effects, such as vomiting of one child in each group and agitation in 2 (6.6 % children of CH+M group, were also seen. The adverse events were more frequent in CH+M group.ConclusionCombinations of chloral hydrate-hydroxyzine and chloral hydrate-midazolam were effective in pediatric MRI sedation; however, chloral hydrate-hydroxyzine was safer. References1. Lehman RK, Schor NF. Neurologic Evaluation. In:Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, St. Geme JW,Behrman RE, editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics.19th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2011. p. 2013-7.2. Sahyoun C, Krauss B. Clinical

  5. CHLORAL HYDRATE DECREASES GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communication in rat liver epithelial cells Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Connexins (Cx) that make up these junctions are composed of a closely related group of m...

  6. Chloral hydrate sedation in radiology: retrospective audit of reduced dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloral hydrate (CH) is safe and effective for sedation of suitable children. The purpose of this study was to assess whether adequate sedation is achieved with reduced CH doses. We retrospectively recorded outpatient CH sedations over 1 year. We defined standard doses of CH as 50 mg/kg (infants) and 75 mg/kg (children >1 year). A reduced dose was defined as at least 20% lower than the standard dose. In total, 653 children received CH sedation (age, 1 month-3 years 10 months), 42% were given a reduced initial dose. Augmentation dose was required in 10.9% of all children, and in a higher proportion of children >1 year (15.7%) compared to infants (5.7%; P 1 year (95.3%; P = 0.03). A reduced initial dose had no negative effect on outcome (P = 0.19) or time to sedation. No significant complications were seen. We advocate sedation with reduced CH doses (40 mg/kg for infants; 60 mg/kg for children >1 year of age) for outpatient imaging procedures when the child is judged to be quiet or sleepy on arrival. (orig.)

  7. Chloral hydrate sedation in radiology: retrospective audit of reduced dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Jennifer [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland); Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Heaslip, Ingrid; Ryan, Stephanie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-03-15

    Chloral hydrate (CH) is safe and effective for sedation of suitable children. The purpose of this study was to assess whether adequate sedation is achieved with reduced CH doses. We retrospectively recorded outpatient CH sedations over 1 year. We defined standard doses of CH as 50 mg/kg (infants) and 75 mg/kg (children >1 year). A reduced dose was defined as at least 20% lower than the standard dose. In total, 653 children received CH sedation (age, 1 month-3 years 10 months), 42% were given a reduced initial dose. Augmentation dose was required in 10.9% of all children, and in a higher proportion of children >1 year (15.7%) compared to infants (5.7%; P < 0.001). Sedation was successful in 96.7%, and more frequently successful in infants (98.3%) than children >1 year (95.3%; P = 0.03). A reduced initial dose had no negative effect on outcome (P = 0.19) or time to sedation. No significant complications were seen. We advocate sedation with reduced CH doses (40 mg/kg for infants; 60 mg/kg for children >1 year of age) for outpatient imaging procedures when the child is judged to be quiet or sleepy on arrival. (orig.)

  8. SPERMATID MICRONUCLEUS ANALYSES OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND CHLORAL HYDRATE EFFECTS IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mice were exposed by inhalation to trichloroethylene (TCE), or by i.p. injection to the TCE metabolite, chloral hydrate (CH). arly spermatids were analyzed for micronucleus (MN) frequency and kinetochore status (presence or absence) using fluorochrome-labeled anti-kinetochore ant...

  9. NINETY-DAY TOXICITY STUDY OF CHLORAL HYDRATE IN THE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered drinking water containing 300, 600, 1200, or 2400 mg/l chloral hydrate for 90 days. ontrol group recieved distilled water only. o animals died during the study and differences were observed in body weight gain or food and wate...

  10. Efficacy of chloral hydrate in the sedation of pediatric patients undergoing magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedation is necessary in small or uncooperative children who are to undergo magnetic resonance (MR) studies because of the prolonged duration of the exploration. The safety and efficacy of one of the most widely used drugs, chloral hydrate, has not been evaluated in a large series of patients. A population of 713 pediatric patients (317 girls and 396 boys) who received oral chloral hydrate 20 to 40 minutes prior to MR was studied prospectively. The initial dose was 65+- 1 mg/kg body wt (mean+- standard error), with an efficacy of 78%. After a second dose administered to patients who did not respond adequately to the initial dose (n=157), the total dose was 70+- 1 mg/kg body wt, with an efficacy of 94.4%. The induction time was 26+- 1 min and the interval between completion of the exploration and spontaneous recovery of consciousness was 35 +- 2 minutes. This mode of sedation was more effective in children of younger age and lesser weight, and with higher doses of chloral hydrate, neither sex nor concomitant medication were found to influence the efficacy. Adverse reactions were detected in 73 children (10.2%), predominantly nausea and vomiting . Chloral hydrate at doses of less tan 70 mg/kg body wt is a very safe and highly effective drug for sedation in pediatric patients under the age of 7 years who to undergo MR studies. 18 refs

  11. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: AshrafiMR, Azizi Malamiri R, Zamani GR, Mohammadi M, Hosseini F. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter;7(1:15-19.ObjectiveElectroencephalography (EEG recording is a long duration procedure that needs patient’s cooperation for device setup and performing the procedure. Many children lose their cooperation during this procedure. Therefore, sedation and sleep are frequently induced using a few agents as pre procedure medication in children before EEG recording. We aimed to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam versus chloral hydrate before the procedure along with their impacts on EEG recording in children.Materials & MethodsA randomized trial was carried out to compare the sedative effects of oral midazolam versus chloral hydrate and their impacts on EEG recording in children. A total of 198 children (100 in the midazolam group and 98 in the chloral hydrate group were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated to receive either oral moidazolam or chloral hydrate.ResultsOral midazolam had superiority neither in sleep onset latency nor in sleep duration when compared to chloral hydrate. Moreover, the yield of epileptiform discharges in the chloral hydrate group was more than the midazolam group.ConclusionThe results of this study showed that both chloral hydrate 5% (one ml/kg and oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg could be administered as a pre medication agent for EEG recording in children. However, oral midazolam at this dose had no advantage compared with chloral hydrate.ReferencesAshrafi MR, Mohammadi M, Tafarroji J, Shabanian R, Salamati P, Zamani GR. Melatonin versus chloral hydrate for recording sleep EEG. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2010;14(3:235-8.Slifer KJ, Avis KT, Frutchey RA. Behavioral intervention to increase compliance with electroencephalographic procedures in children with developmental disabilities. Epilepsy

  12. Sleep/sedation in children undergoing EEG testing: a comparison of chloral hydrate and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewy, Joanne; Hallan, Cathrine; Friedman, Eliezer; Martinez, Christine

    2006-12-01

    This study included a total of 60 pediatric patients ranging from 1 month through 5 years of age. The effects of chloral hydrate and music therapy were evaluated and compared as means of safe and effective ways to achieve sleep/sedation in infants and toddlers undergoing EEG testing. The results of the study indicate that music therapy may be a cost-effective, risk-free alternative to pharmacological sedation. PMID:17285817

  13. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI; Reza AZIZI MALAMIRI; Gholam Reza ZAMANI; Mahmoud MOHAMMADI; HOSSEINI, Firozeh

    2013-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: AshrafiMR, Azizi Malamiri R, Zamani GR, Mohammadi M, Hosseini F. Sleep Inducing for EEG Recording in Children: A Comparison between Oral Midazolam and Chloral Hydrate. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Winter;7(1):15-19.ObjectiveElectroencephalography (EEG) recording is a long duration procedure that needs patient’s cooperation for device setup and performing the procedure. Many children lose their cooperation during this procedure. Therefore, sedation and sleep are frequent...

  14. Percutaneous Absorption of Haloacetonitriles and Chloral Hydrate and Simulated Human Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Trabaris, Maria; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2011-01-01

    Disinfection-by-products (DBPs) have long been a human health concern and many are known carcinogens and teratogens. Skin is exposed to DBPs in water through bathing and swimming; however, dermal uptake of many DBPs has not been characterized. The present studies were initiated to measure the permeation coefficients (Kp) for haloacetonitriles (HANs) and chloral hydrate (CH), important cytotoxic DBPs. The Kp values measured using fully hydrated dermatomed torso skin at 37 °C for the HANs range...

  15. On cannabis, chloral hydrate, and career cycles of psychotropic drugs in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelders, Stephen; Kaplan, Charles; Pieters, Toine

    2006-01-01

    This article compares the careers of two psychotropic drugs in Western psychiatry, with a focus on the nineteenth century: Cannabis indica and chloral hydrate. They were used by doctors for similar indications, such as mania, delirium tremens, and what we would now call drug dependence. The two show similar career paths consisting of three phases: initial enthusiasm and therapeutic optimism; subsequent negative appraisal; and finally, limited use. These cycles, which we term "Seige cycles," are generally typical of the careers of psychotropic drugs in modern medicine. However, differences in the careers of both drugs are also established. The phases of chloral show relatively higher peaks and lower valleys than those of cannabis. Chloral is the first typically "modern" psychotropic drug; a synthetic, it was introduced in 1869 at a time of growing asylum populations, pharmaceutical interests, and high cultural expectations of scientific medicine. Cannabis indica, introduced in the 1840s, is typically a "premodern" drug steeped in the climate of cultural Romanticism. We conclude that the analytical concept of the Seige cycle is a useful tool for future research into drug careers in medicine. PMID:16549883

  16. Effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grome, J.J.; McCulloch, J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in 43 anatomically discrete regions of the CNS were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose technique. In animals anesthetized with chloral hydrate, glucose utilization was reduced throughout all regions of the CNS from the levels observed in conscious animals. With chloral hydrate anesthesia, the proportionately most marked reductions in glucose use were noted in primary auditory nuclei, thalmaic relay nuclei, and neocortex, and the least pronounced reductions in glucose use (by 15-25% from conscious levels) were observed in limbic areas, some motor relay nuclei, and white matter. In conscious, lightly restrained rats, the administration of apomorphine effected significant increases in glucose utilization in 15 regions of the CNS, and significant reductions in glucose utilization in two regions of the CNS. In rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate, the effects of apomorphine upon local glucose utilization were less widespread and less marked than in conscious animals. The profound effects of chloral hydrate anesthesia upon local cerebral glucose use, and the modification by this anesthetic regime of the local metabolic responses to apomorphine, emphasize the difficulties which exists in the extrapolation of data from anesthetized animals to the conditions which prevail in the conscious animal.

  17. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  18. Evidence for the Use of Isoflurane as a Replacement for Chloral Hydrate Anesthesia in Experimental Stroke: An Ethical Issue

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    Pétrault Maud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since an ethical issue has been raised regarding the use of the well-known anesthetic agent chloral hydrate, owing to its mutagenic and carcinogenic effects in animals, attention of neuroscientists has turned to finding out an alternative agent able to meet not only potency, safety, and analgesic efficacy, but also reduced neuroprotective effect for stroke research. The aim of this study was to compare the potential of chloral hydrate and isoflurane for both modulating the action of the experimental neuroprotectant MK801 and exerting analgesia. After middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, no difference was observed in 24 h survival rate, success of ischemia, or infarct volume reduction between both anesthetics. However, isoflurane exerted a more pronounced analgesic effect than chloral hydrate as evidenced by formalin test 3 hours after anesthesia onset, thus encouraging the use of isoflurane in experimental stroke models.

  19. A survey of post-discharge side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate in pediatric CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, S.C.; Adamson, S.D.; Tatman, L.H.; Berbaum, K.S. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Limited information is available on post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric imaging. Objective. To prospectively study the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric CT and MR imaging. Materials and methods. A total of 119 children undergoing CT and MRI were sedated using chloral hydrate with 89 % success (mean initial dose, 72 mg/kg body weight) and 98 % success after augmentation (mean total, 78 mg/kg body weight). The frequency of each post-discharge side effect was correlated with other side effects and 12 patient/technical parameters. Results. The survey was completed in 80 children. Sleepiness lasted for > 4 h in 28 %. Unsteadiness occurred in 68 % and hyperactivity in 29 %. Appetite became poor in 14 % and vomiting occurred in 15 %. Normal activity was resumed after > 4 h in 54 %. Sleep deprivation did not result in increased success or earlier onset of sedation and might be associated with hyperactivity. A higher dose did not result in an increased success rate or earlier onset of sedation within the dose range used in this study. Conclusion. Data on the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation will be useful to radiologists, technologists, and nurses explaining to parents about sedation using this agent. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  20. A survey of post-discharge side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate in pediatric CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Limited information is available on post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric imaging. Objective. To prospectively study the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric CT and MR imaging. Materials and methods. A total of 119 children undergoing CT and MRI were sedated using chloral hydrate with 89 % success (mean initial dose, 72 mg/kg body weight) and 98 % success after augmentation (mean total, 78 mg/kg body weight). The frequency of each post-discharge side effect was correlated with other side effects and 12 patient/technical parameters. Results. The survey was completed in 80 children. Sleepiness lasted for > 4 h in 28 %. Unsteadiness occurred in 68 % and hyperactivity in 29 %. Appetite became poor in 14 % and vomiting occurred in 15 %. Normal activity was resumed after > 4 h in 54 %. Sleep deprivation did not result in increased success or earlier onset of sedation and might be associated with hyperactivity. A higher dose did not result in an increased success rate or earlier onset of sedation within the dose range used in this study. Conclusion. Data on the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation will be useful to radiologists, technologists, and nurses explaining to parents about sedation using this agent. (orig.)

  1. HEPATOCARCINOGENICITY OF CHLORAL HYDRATE, 2-CHLOROACETALDEHYDE, AND DICHLOROACETIC ACID IN THE MALE B6C3F1 MOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloral hydrate (CH) and 2-chloroacetaldehyde (CAA) have been identified as chlorination by-products in drinking water. oth chemicals are genotoxic, but their carcinogenic potential had not been adequately tested. hese bioassays were conducted using male B6C3F1 mice exposed to 1 ...

  2. Chloral hydrate in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of a 10-year sedation experience administered by radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloral hydrate is a sedative that has been used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To evaluate the use, effectiveness and safety of chloral hydrate administered by radiologists for the sedation of children who require MRI procedures. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts for all patients ages 0 - 10 years old who underwent sedation with chloral hydrate for MRI from January 2000 to December 2010. Demographic factors, dose information, indication for MRI, therapeutic failures and adverse reactions to the drug were reviewed. One thousand, seven hundred and three children (946 males, 757 females) with a median age of 2.5 years (range: 4 days - 9.91 years) received chloral hydrate. Moderate to deep sedation was achieved in 1,618/1,703 (95%) of the patients, 35/1,703 (2.1%) of the patients failed to achieve moderate to deep sedation, and 47/1,703 (2.8%) of the patients woke up during MRI examination. Adverse reactions were present in 31/1,703 (1.8%) of the patients. Three severe adverse reactions occurred (0.18%). A single dose of chloral hydrate (40-60 mg/kg) was administered to 1,477/1,703 patients (86.7%). An additional dose of chloral hydrate (10-20 mg/kg), given 15 min after the first dose or when the patient woke up during the MRI examination, was required in 226/1,703 patients (13.3%). The likelihood of requiring an additional dose in children older than 2 years was 2.2 times the likelihood compared to children younger than 2 years (OR = 2.2 [95%CI: 1.6-3.0]). The use of a reduced dose (<50 mg/kg) was not associated with a higher therapeutic failure rate (OR = 1.04 [95%CI 0.57-1.89]). Chloral hydrate is an appropriate sedation option for pediatric patients in MRI services when strict patient selection criteria are met. The use of a reduced dose does not affect the effectiveness of sedation. The lack of data regarding the presence of transient oxygen desaturation, the time to induce sedation and the exact duration of sedation are limitations of this

  3. Chloral hydrate in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging: evaluation of a 10-year sedation experience administered by radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jorge; Toro, Rodrigo; Rascovsky, Simon; Arango, Andres; Angel, Gabriel J.; Calvo, Victor; Delgado, Jorge A. [Fundacion Instituto de Alta Tecnologia Medica, Department of Radiology, Medellin (Colombia)

    2014-08-21

    Chloral hydrate is a sedative that has been used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To evaluate the use, effectiveness and safety of chloral hydrate administered by radiologists for the sedation of children who require MRI procedures. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts for all patients ages 0 - 10 years old who underwent sedation with chloral hydrate for MRI from January 2000 to December 2010. Demographic factors, dose information, indication for MRI, therapeutic failures and adverse reactions to the drug were reviewed. One thousand, seven hundred and three children (946 males, 757 females) with a median age of 2.5 years (range: 4 days - 9.91 years) received chloral hydrate. Moderate to deep sedation was achieved in 1,618/1,703 (95%) of the patients, 35/1,703 (2.1%) of the patients failed to achieve moderate to deep sedation, and 47/1,703 (2.8%) of the patients woke up during MRI examination. Adverse reactions were present in 31/1,703 (1.8%) of the patients. Three severe adverse reactions occurred (0.18%). A single dose of chloral hydrate (40-60 mg/kg) was administered to 1,477/1,703 patients (86.7%). An additional dose of chloral hydrate (10-20 mg/kg), given 15 min after the first dose or when the patient woke up during the MRI examination, was required in 226/1,703 patients (13.3%). The likelihood of requiring an additional dose in children older than 2 years was 2.2 times the likelihood compared to children younger than 2 years (OR = 2.2 [95%CI: 1.6-3.0]). The use of a reduced dose (<50 mg/kg) was not associated with a higher therapeutic failure rate (OR = 1.04 [95%CI 0.57-1.89]). Chloral hydrate is an appropriate sedation option for pediatric patients in MRI services when strict patient selection criteria are met. The use of a reduced dose does not affect the effectiveness of sedation. The lack of data regarding the presence of transient oxygen desaturation, the time to induce sedation and the exact duration of sedation are limitations of this

  4. Evaluation of maternal and embryotoxic effects following the treatment of chloral hydrate in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar, Arif; Çolak, Deniz Altun; Uysal, Handan

    2016-03-01

    Chloral hydrate (CH) is commonly used as a sedative and a hypnotic in pediatric medicine. In this study, the effects of CH on various developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. Different concentrations of CH (0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 1 mg/mL) were used during development of the flies. Maternal toxicity due to increasing the concentration of CH was observed as a large number of adult flies died. When the F1 progeny of the control and application groups were compared, CH was found to extend the process of metamorphosis and to decrease the total number of offspring. The embryotoxic effects on the offspring and an increase in the number of malformed offspring was identified as depending on feeding. It was found that the difference between the groups was significantly important (p < 0.05). PMID:25098686

  5. Sedative effect of oral diazepam and chloral hydrate in the dental treatment of children

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    Kantovitz Kamila

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The purpose was to evaluate two sedation protocols during dental sessions in anxious children. Materials and Methods : It was a randomized and double-blind study, with each individual being his/her own control within each protocol. Furthermore, the two protocols were compared. Twenty children (36 to 84 months old who exhibited "definitely negative" behavior according to the Frankl scale were assigned to receive oral chloral hydrate (40 mg/kg (Group I or Diazepamβ (5 mg (Group II. Behavior during local anesthesia, application of rubber dam, cavity preparation, restorative procedures was evaluated, considering the degree of sleep, body movement, crying and overall behavior. Vital signs were assessed at three different times. The Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney, Exact Fisher′s and Spearman correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Results : Group I presented higher scores for sleep during the CH session than placebo session during rubber dam application ( P = 0.0431 and restoration ( P = 0.0431. In Group II there was no statistically significant difference ( p > 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences between sessions and groups in the evaluation of body movement, crying and vital signs. Overall behavior in the placebo session was better than in the CH session during local anesthesia, but there was no difference between the two drug regimens. There was influence of age during anesthesia and cavity preparation in Group I and during rubber dam application in Group II. It was concluded that oral diazepam and chloral hydrate had no influence on the behavior management for dental treatment with the studied sample.

  6. The effects of apomorphine upon local cerebral glucose utilization in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate

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    Grome, J.J.; McCulloch, J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (1 mg . kg-1 i.v.) upon local cerebral glucose utilization in 43 anatomically discrete regions of the CNS were examined in conscious, lightly restrained rats and in rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate by means of the quantitative autoradiographic (/sup 14/C)2-deoxyglucose technique. In animals anesthetized with chloral hydrate, glucose utilization was reduced throughout all regions of the CNS from the levels observed in conscious animals, although the magnitude of the reductions in glucose use displayed considerable regional heterogeneity. With chloral hydrate anesthesia, the proportionately most marked reductions in glucose use (by 40-60% from conscious levels) were noted in primary auditory nuclei, thalmaic relay nuclei, and neocortex, and the least pronounced reductions in glucose use (by 15-25% from conscious levels) were observed in limbic areas, some motor relay nuclei, and white matter. In conscious, lightly restrained rats, the administration of apomorphine (1 mg . kg-1) effected significant increased in glucose utilization in 15 regions of the CNS (e.g., subthalamic nucleus, ventral thalamic nucleus, rostral neocortex, substantia nigra, pars reticulata), and significant reductions in glucose utilization in two regions of the CNS (lateral habenular nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex).

  7. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  8. The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

  9. Percutaneous absorption of haloacetonitriles and chloral hydrate and simulated human exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaris, Maria; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Weisel, Clifford P

    2012-06-01

    Disinfection-by-products (DBPs) have long been a human health concern and many are known carcinogens and teratogens. Skin is exposed to DBPs in water through bathing and swimming; however, dermal uptake of many DBPs has not been characterized. The present studies were initiated to measure the permeation coefficients (K(p) ) for haloacetonitriles (HANs) and chloral hydrate (CH), important cytotoxic DBPs. The K(p) values measured using fully hydrated dermatomed torso skin at 37 °C for the HANs ranged from 0.099 to 0.17 cm h⁻¹, and was 0.0039 cm h⁻¹ for CH. Of the HANs, dibromoacetonitrile had the highest permeability while chloroacetonitrile had the lowest permeability and a direct relationship was observed between their K(p) and their octanol/water partition coefficients (K(ow) ). The K(p) values of the HANs were also approximately 30 times that of CH. The monthly dermal and ingestion doses of HANs and CH of an average American population were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. The dermal doses of HANs from showering and bathing ranged from 0.39 to 0.78 times their ingestion doses but only approximately 0.02 times their ingestion doses for CH, assuming that the K(p) values determined are applicable to shorter water contact times. However, that ratio can vary markedly with chlorinated swimming pool exposures, with a range of 0.30-2.3 for HANs and 0.19-0.25 for CH. Dermal exposure to HANs and CH seems to be a significant route of exposure and should be considered when evaluating their total exposure during the routine usage of water for bathing and swimming. PMID:21365670

  10. Toward better understanding of chloral hydrate stability in water: Kinetics, pathways, and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengcun; Guo, Xiaoqi; Chen, Baiyang

    2016-08-01

    Chloral hydrate (CH) is a disinfection byproduct commonly found in disinfected water, and once formed, CH may undergo several transformation processes in water distribution system. In order to understand its fate and occurrence in water, this study examined several factors that may affect the stability of CH in water, including pH, temperature, initial CH concentration, typical anions, and the presence of free chlorine and monochloramine. The results indicated that CH was a relatively stable compound (half-life ∼7 d for 20 μg/L) in ambient pH (7) and temperature (20 °C) conditions. However, the hydrolysis rate can be greatly facilitated by increasing pH (from 7 to 12) and temperature (from 20 to 60 °C) or decreasing initial CH concentration (from 10 mg/L to 20 μg/L). To quantify the influences of these factors on the CH hydrolysis rate constant (k, 1/h), which spans five orders of magnitude, this study developed a multivariate model that predicts literature and this study's data well (R(2) = 0.90). In contrast, the presence of chloride, nitrate, monochloramine, and free chlorine exhibited no significant impacts on the degradation of CH, while the CH loss in non-buffered waters spiked with sodium hypochlorite was driven by alkaline hydrolysis. In terms of reaction products, CH hydrolysis yielded mostly chloroform and formic acid and a few chloride, which confirmed decarburization as a dominant pathway and dehalogenation as a noticeable coexisting reaction. PMID:27206269

  11. Identification of some volatile endogenous constituents in rat brain tissue and the effects of lithium carbonate and chloral hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, I R; McDonald, L K; Laseter, J L

    1976-11-01

    Nine endogenous volatile compounds were found in rat brain tissue, and were identified by mass spectrometry as chloroform, a 5-C-aldehyde, dimethyl disulphide, 2,5-dimethyl tetrahydrofuran, a 8-C-alkane, xylene, 2-heptanone, heptaldehyde and 2-n-pentylfuran. Using gas chromatographic and gas chromatographic mass spectrometric techniques, it was established that lithium carbonate did not induce the production of detectable amounts of any new volatile compounds in brain tissue. However, after administration of chloral hydrate, trichloroethanol, a compound not normally present in rat brain tissue, was found to be present. PMID:996360

  12. Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam/Hydroxyzine versus Chloral Hydrate/Hydroxyzine on 2-6 Year-Old Uncooperative Dental Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Fallahinejad Ghajari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Different drugs are used for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry either single or in combination. This study assessed the comparative effect of midazolam/hydroxyzine and chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine on 2-6 year-old uncooperative children needing dental treatment.A double blind cross-over randomized clinical trial was designed and 16 children aged 2-6 years with ASA1 status who were judged with negative to definitely negative behavior (according to Frankl were chosen. Cases were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received midazolam/hydroxyzine (MH at the first visit while the second group received chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine (CHH as the first medication. Both groups received the other regimen at the second visit. Midazolam 0.5mg/kg and chloral hydrate 50mg/kg with 1mg/kg hydroxyzine were administered. Cases were subsequently assessed for sedation and then dental treatment was performed. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and pulse rate (PR were measured before and after drug administration, as well as during and after dental treatment. The Houpt scale was also used for the level of sedation before, during and after treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcox-on signed rank test and the paired t-test.Sedative success rate was 64.3% in cases of MH and 33.3% in CHH. The difference between groups was significant (P=0.046. The success rate was significantly different between groups at different measurement stages as well (P<0.05. No difference was found on the child's behavior scale based on the type of drugs used first; this indicates no carry-over effect. Comparing the PR and SpO2 values at different readings showed no significant differences.Midazolam/hydroxyzine showed a significantly higher sedative effect than chloral hydrate/hydroxyzine in this study.

  13. Uncertainty Evaluation of Determination of Chloral in Water with GC/MS%GC/MS测定水中三氯乙醛的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭培红; 徐巍

    2012-01-01

    系统介绍了吹扫捕集气相色谱/质谱法测定水中三氯乙醛不确定度评定过程,对吹扫捕集气相色谱/质谱法测定水中三氯乙醛的测定过程进行分析,通过数学模型分析并计算测试过程中的不确定度分量,最后计算出相对合成标准不确定度和相对扩展不确定度。结果表明,吹扫捕集气相色谱/质谱法测定水中三氯乙醛的不确定度主要有四个来源:标准样品浓度及稀释过程,标准曲线及回归偏差,样品取样量,仪器稳定性。%The uncertainty of determining chloral in water was evaluated by purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(purge trap-GC-MS).The determination process of chloral in water was analyzed by purge trap-GC-MS.The uncertainty factors in analyzing process were determined and calculated by mathematic model,and the relative synthesis standard uncertainty and the relative expansion standard uncertainty were calculated out.The four main sources were the uncertainty of standard samples and by dilution process,the uncertainty of linear and regression variance,the uncertainty brought in the sampling process,and the uncertainty resulted from the instrument stability of purge trap-GC-MS.Four main sources of the uncertainty of determining chloral in water by purge trap-GC-MS was determined.The uncertainty evaluation process of determining chloral in water by purge trap-GC-MS was introduced systematically.

  14. Oral Chloral Hydrate Compare with Rectal Thiopental in Pediatric Procedural Sedation and Analgesia; a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azizkhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing use of diagnostic imaging in pediatric medicine has resulted in growing need for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA to minimize motion artifacts during procedures. The drug of choice in pediatric PSA was not introduced till now. The aim of the present study was comparison of oral chloral hydrate (OCH and rectal sodium thiopental (RST in pediatric PSA.Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial, 2-6 years old pediatrics who referred for performing brain computed tomography scan was enrolled and were randomly divided in to two groups. OCH (50mg/kg and RST (25mg/kg were prescribed and a trained nurse recorded the time from drug prescription to receiving the conscious sedation (onset of action, the total time period which the patient has the Ramsay score≥4 (duration of action, and adverse effect of agents. Mann-Whitney U test and chi-squared test, and Non-parametric analysis of covariance (ANCOVA were used for comparisons. Results: One hundred and forty children were entered to two groups of OCH and RST, randomly. The patients of two groups had similar age, sex, weight, and baseline vital signs except for diastolic blood pressure (p<0.001. The onset of action in OCH and RST groups were 24.5±6.1and 28.7±5.2 minutes, respectively (p<0.001. Duration of action in OCH and RST groups were 12.9±2.8 minutes and 13.7±2.6 minutes, respectively (p=0.085. Non parametric ANCOVA revealed that only diastolic blood pressure was affected by drug prescription (p=0.001. In 11(15.7% patients in RST group, diarrhea was observed during 24 hours (p=0.001. Oxygen desaturation was observed only in two patients, both in OCH group. Conclusion: Each of the sedative has advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting one for inducing short-term sedation. It seems that rectal sodium thiopental and oral chloral hydrate are equally effective in pediatric PSA and based on patient’s condition we can administrate

  15. Towards optimized anesthesia protocols for stereotactic surgery in rats: Analgesic, stress and general health effects of injectable anesthetics. A comparison of a recommended complete reversal anesthesia with traditional chloral hydrate monoanesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüske, Christin; Sander, Svenja Esther; Hamann, Melanie; Kershaw, Olivia; Richter, Franziska; Richter, Angelika

    2016-07-01

    Although injectable anesthetics are still widely used in laboratory rodents, scientific data concerning pain and distress during and after stereotactic surgery are rare. However, optimal anesthesia protocols have a high impact on the quality of the derived data. We therefore investigated the suitability of recommended injectable anesthesia with a traditionally used monoanesthesia for stereotactic surgery in view of optimization and refinement in rats. The influence of the recommended complete reversal anesthesia (MMF; 0.15mg/kg medetomidine, 2mg/kg midazolam, 0.005mg/kg fentanyl; i.m.) with or without reversal and of chloral hydrate (430mg/kg, 3.6%, i.p.) on various physiological, biochemical and behavioral parameters (before, during, after surgery) was analyzed. Isoflurane was also included in stress parameter analysis. In all groups, depth of anesthesia was sufficient for stereotactic surgery with no animal losses. MMF caused transient exophthalmos, myositis at the injection site and increased early postoperative pain scores. Reversal induced agitation, restlessness and hypothermia. Even the low concentrated chloral hydrate led to peritonitis and multifocal liver necrosis, corresponding to increased stress hormone levels and loss in body weight. Increased stress response was also exerted by isoflurane anesthesia. Pronounced systemic toxicity of chloral hydrate strongly questions its further use in rodent anesthesia. In view of undesired effects of MMF and isoflurane, thorough consideration of anesthesia protocols for particular research projects is indispensable. Reversal should be restricted to emergency situations. Our data support further refinement of the current protocols and the importance of sham operated controls. PMID:27067188

  16. 误服大剂量水合氯醛致新生儿呼吸暂停%Apnea in a neonate due to mistaken high-dose chloral hydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英; 刘莹; 史强; 王晓玲

    2015-01-01

    1例25日龄男性新生儿因疑诊先天性心脏病欲行心脏超声检查,医师开具水合氯醛合剂10 ml,注明检查前口服2 ml.患儿家长取药时药师仅口头交代给患儿口服2 ml,而未书面标明用法用量.检查前,患儿家长将10ml水合氯醛全部给患儿服下,导致患儿在超声检查期间出现呼吸暂停.给予气管插管及静脉滴注氨茶碱.次日改为鼻导管吸氧.6d后,患儿病情好转.%A 25-day-old male neonate suspected of having congenital heart disease underwent echocardiographic examination.The physician prescribed chloral hydrate mixture 10 ml, oral 2 ml before the examination.The pharmacist just told to take 2 ml, without written dosage indication.Before the ultrasound examination, the parent administered the newborn 10 ml chloral hydrate mixture, and then, he developed apnea during the examination.He received tracheal intubation and intravenous infusion of aminophylline.The next day, he was given oxygen inhalation through nasal tube.Six days later, the infant's condition was improved.

  17. Effects of Chloral Hydrate and Atracurium Besilate on Compound Muscle Action Potential of Sciatic Nerves in Rats%水合氯醛和苯磺酸阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥虎; 臧光辉; 樊龙昌; 肖海涛; 权伟合; 刘继红; 张传汉; 罗爱林; 田玉科

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究水合氯醛和苯磺酸阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位(compound muscle action potential,CMAP)的影响.方法:成年SD大鼠20只,随机分为2组(n=10):水合氯醛组(C组)和水合氯醛复合苯磺酸阿曲库铵组(CA组).2组腹腔注射7%水合氯醛350 mg·kg-1麻醉,给予水合氯醛后8 min时CA组腹腔注射苯磺酸阿曲库铵2.5 μg·kg-1.于给予水合氯醛8 min时刺激坐骨神经,记录其所支配的腓肠肌的CMAP.刺激强度为0.50 v、0.55 v、0.60 v,波宽0.05 ms,频率10 Hz,每隔5 min重复上述刺激.结果:与8 min时比较,0.50 v,0.55 v,0.60 v强度下C组CMAP的峰峰值及潜伏期均无明显变化(P均>0.05);CA组与8 min时比较,0.50,0.55 及0.60 v强度下23~43 min时的CMAP峰峰值降低(P<0.05或0.01),0.50 v强度下38 min的CMAP潜伏期延长(P<0.05),0.55 v,0.60 v强度下,23~43 min的CMAP潜伏期延长(P<0.05或0.01).结论:水合氯醛对大鼠坐骨神经CMAP无明显影响;而复合肌松药苯磺酸阿曲库铵后对CMAP有一过性的抑制作用.%Objective: To study the effects of chloral hydrate with or without atracurium besilate on compound muscle action potential ( CMAP ) of sciatic nerves in rats. Method: Twenty adult SD rats were randomly divided into chloral hydrate group ( group C ) and chloral hydrate with atracurium besilate group ( group CA ). Group C was treated by chloral hydrate, and group CA was treated with chloral hydrate and atracurium besilate. Both the groups were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of 7% chloral hydrate with the dosage of 350 mg·kg-1. After 8min of successful anesthesia, group CA was intraperitoneally infused with atracurium besilate (2.5 μg ·kg-1). Meanwhile, the two groups were stimulated sciatic nerves with stimulus intensity of 0.50 v, 0.55 v and 0.60 v, width of 0. 05 ms and frequency of 10 Hz, respectively. Each stimulus repeated three times every 5 min. Result: In group C, the peak to peak values and incubation

  18. Influence of different time of chloral hydrate delivery on the hypnosis of children with pulmonary function test%水合氯醛不同时间给药对行肺功能检查患儿催眠作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏艳; 王芳; 袁远

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of the 10% of chloral hydrate delivery in different time on the children before they receive the pulmonary function test so as to discuss clinical effects.Methods Totals of two hundred children with asthma or asthmatic bronchitis needed the pulmonary function test were recruited,and randomly divided into experience group and control group with each group one hundred cases.Experience group received the chloral hydrate to hypnosis in ten to thirty minutes before they fall asleep,while control group received in doctor' s advice or appointment time.Then,the time of falling asleep,sleep level,the situation of test finishing in two group were observed and compared.Results The effective rate of chloral hydrate in experience group was 98% which was significantly higher than 70% in control group( P < 0.01 )and there was significant differenee between two groups in the time of falling asleep and the sedation effect among the different ages (P<0.01).Conclusions Personal medicine delivery can get the better effect,which is chloral hydrate delivery according to the sleep cycles of children before they receive the pulmonary function test.%目的 观察肺功能检查前10%的水合氯醛不同时间点给药方法对不同年龄患儿的催眠效果,讨论其临床疗效.方法 选取200例哮喘、喘息性支气管炎需做肺功能检查的患儿随机分为实验组和对照组各100例,实验组选择患儿入睡前10 ~30 min应用水合氯醛进行催眠,对照组选择按常规执行医嘱时间或按预约的时间应用水合氯醛,比较两组患儿用药后入睡的时间、程度,是否完成肺功能榆查.结果 实验组应用水合氯醛后有效率为98%高于对照组的70%,差异有统计学意义(Z=6.1389,P<0.01);不同年龄阶段的患儿应用水合氯醛灌肠后入睡时间及镇静效果实验组均优于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(Z分别为3.175 2,3.963 5,2.850 1,4.888 8;P<0.01).结论

  19. Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communications in rat liver epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Alterations in GJC are associated with carcinogenesis, but the mechanisms involvedareunknown.Chloralhydrate(CH), a by-productofchlorinedisinfection ofwater,is carcinogenic in mice,...

  20. Trihalomethane, haloacetonitrile, and chloral hydrate formation potentials of organic carbon fractions from sub-tropical forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Kuang, Wan-fang; Liu, Lu-ying; Li, Kexin; Wong, Kin-hang; Chow, Alex T; Wong, Po-keung

    2009-12-30

    Forest landscapes represent the major land-cover type for the watersheds of the East River, which is the source of water for 40 million people in South China. Forest soils with high levels of organic carbon are a potential terrestrial source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the East River. DOC is of great concern, since it can form carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. In this study, soils from three altitudes (200, 450 and 900 m) in the Xiangtou Mountain Nature Reserve in South China, representing soils from evergreen moon forest, transitional evergreen broadleaf forest, and evergreen broadleaf forest, respectively, were evaluated for their potential contributions of DBP precursors into the East River. The water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) in three forest soils was physically and chemically fractionated into particulate organic carbon (1.2-0.45 microm), colloidal organic carbon (0.45-0.22 microm), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (soils were incubated at 15, 25 and 35 degrees C for 14d in darkness to examine the impact of temperature effects on the availability and characteristics of WEOC. The extraction study showed that the amount of WEOC was proportional to soil organic carbon content, of which about 1% was water extractable. Regardless of soil type, DOC and HPOA were the most reactive fractions in forming THMs, CHD, and HANs. Production of DOC and HPOA in WEOC increased over 14 d incubation as incubation temperature increased, but the temperature did not alter the distribution of physical and chemical fractions and their reactivity in DBP formation. Results suggest higher inputs of DOC and DBP precursors from forest watersheds into source water may result in a warmer environment. PMID:19695772

  1. Enhancement of gamma-ray-induced mutation frequency in rice by post-treatment with chloral hydrate, methanol and their mixtures with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation has been made of the mutagenic activity of ethanol, chlorate hydrate (CH) and methanol on rice seed. In independent treatments with ethanol, methanol, CH and four aqueous mixtures of these chemicals, chlorophyll-deficient mutants were not recovered in the M2 generation. However, in sequential treatments with gamma rays + CH, gamma rays + methanol and gamma rays + aqueous mixtures of these chemicals, significant increases in the yields of chlorophyll mutations were observed as compared to that of a 30 kR gamma ray treatment. In contrast, post-irradiation treatment with ethanol failed to provoke any increase in the frequency of chlorophyll mutants in the M2 generation. The results indicate that CH and methanol alone and mixed with ethanol can potentiate gamma ray-induced genetic lesions in rice seed. (author)

  2. Use of Chloro phenol Red Dyed Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl butyral) Copolymer Films for Dosimetric Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly (vinylalcohol) PVA, and poly(vinyl butyral co-polyvinyl alcohol co-vinyl acetate) (PVB-co-PVA/PVAC), containing acid base indicator dye (chloro phenol red) CPR, and a Cl-containing substance (chloral hydrate) may be useful for radiation dosimetry. Chloro phenol red in PVA films changes its color from purple to yellow by irradiation due to the lowering of the ph caused by the generated HCl from the radiolysis of chloral hydrate. The useful dose range extends up to 3.5 kGy. On the other hand, dyed copolymer films are bleached when exposed to gamma radiation with the useful dose range up to 8 kGy. Different concentrations of chloral hydrate were added to control the response dose range of application. The radiation chemical yield G(value) was calculated in presence and absence of chloral hydrate, where it increases with increase chloral hydrate concentration for both CPR/PVA and CPR/PVB copolymer films. Humidity during irradiation was also studied. The pre- and post-irradiation stability of the films was found to be satisfactory

  3. Evaluation of possible interaction among drugs contemplated for use during manned space flights. Part 1: Summary from progress report dated 31 October 1973. Part 2: Progress report for the period November 1973 to June 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Possible interactions among drugs contemplated for use during manned spaceflights have been studied in several animal species. The following seven drugs were investigated: nitrofurantoin, chloral hydrate, hexobarbital, phenobarbital, flurazepam, diphenoxylate, and phenazopyridine. Particular combinations included: chloral hydrate, hexobarbital or flurazepam with nitrofurantoin; phenobarbital or flurazepam with phenazopyridine; and diphenoxylate with two dose formulations of nitrofurantoin. The mechanism of action and an explanation of the interaction between diphenoxylate and nitrofurantoin still remains unclear. In man, the interaction does not appear to be significant, affecting only two subjects out of six and with only one dose formulation (Furadantin).

  4. Guinea Pig Maximization Test for Trichloroethylene and Its Metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To study the contact allergenic activities of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its three metabolites trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate. Methods A modified guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) was adopted. The skin sensitization (edema and erythema) was observed in trichloroethylene, trichloroacetic acid, trichloroethanol, chloral hydrate and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Results The allergenic rate of TCE, trichloroacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 71.4%, 58.3% and 100.0% respectively, and that of trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate was 0%. The mean response score of TCE, trichloroacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene was 2.3, 1.1, 6.0 respectively. The histopathological analysis also showed an induction of allergenic transfomation in guinea pig skin by both TCE and trichloroacetic acid. Conclusion TCE appears to be a strong allergen while trichloroacetic acid a moderate one. On the other hand, both trichloroethanol and chloral hydrate are weak sensitization potentials. Immunologic reaction induced by TCE might be postulated as the pathological process of this illness. Consequently, it is suggested that in the mechanism of Occupational Dermatitis Medicamentose-Like (ODML) induced by TCE, the chemical itself might be the main cause of allergy. As one of its metabolic products, trichloroacetic acid might be a subordinate factor.

  5. 25 CFR 140.19 - Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drugs. 140.19 Section 140.19 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.19 Drugs. Traders shall not keep for sale, or sell, give away, or use any opium, chloral, cocaine, peyote or mescal...

  6. Heavy ion measurement by chemical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In testing the applicability of the threshold system polyvinyl alcohol/methyl orange/chloral hydrate/sodium tetraborate to the quantitative detection of single particles, the chemical detector was irradiated with 4He, 12C, 18O, 22He ions of different LET. Detectors with 4 different borax concentrations (chloral hydrate concentration kept constant) have been irradiated. The dose causing the colour change increased linearly with the borax concentration. For equal borax concentrations this dose increases with increasing LET due to the decreasing G value of the HCl. The fluence ranges measurable with the various detector compositions are given. 4He and 18O ion ranges have been determined. The measured depth dose curves have been corrected because the dose is LET-dependent. The experimentally determined ranges are in good agreement with values calculated for the detector material

  7. Evaluation of possible interaction among drugs contemplated for use during manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Possible interactions among drugs contemplated for use during manned spaceflights have been studied in several animal species. The following seven drugs were investigated: nitrofurantoin, chloral hydrate, hexobarbital, phenobarbital, flurazepam, diphenoxylate, and phenazopyridine. Particular combinations included: chloral hydrate, hexabarbital or flurazepam with nitrofurantoin; phenobarbital or flurazepam with phenazopyridine; and diphenoxylate with two does formulations of nitrofurantoin. Studies were carried out in several species to determine whether induction of liver microsomal enzymes would increase the tendency of phenazopyridine to produce methemoglobin in vivo. Animals were premedicated with phenobarbital, a known inducer of azoreductase, and in a separate experiment with flurazepam, before administration of phenazopyridine. Methemoglobin production was determined in each animal after receiving phenazopyridine. No evidence was found for increased production of methemoglobin in the rat, dog, or rabbit that could be attributed to increased amounts of microsomal enzymes.

  8. Radiation sensitive indicator based on tetrabromophenol blue dyed poly(vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitive indicators based on dyed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing acid- sensitive dye (tetrabromophenol blue, TBPB) and chloral hydrate (CCl3·CH·(OH)2, 2,2,2-trichloroethane-1,1-diol) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo color change from blue (the alkaline form of TBPB) to yellow (the acidic form of TBPB), indicating acid formation. The concentration of radiation formed acids in the films containing different concentrations of chloral hydrate was calculated at different doses. These films can be used as dosimeters for food irradiation applications where the maximum of the useful dose ranges are between 1 and 8 kGy depending on chloral hydrate concentration in the film. The films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 0 to 70% as good post irradiation stability when stored in the dark at room temperature. The overall combined uncertainty (at 2σ) associated with measurement of response (ΔA mm−1) at 623 nm for dose range 1–8 kGy is 4.53%. - Highlights: ► On irradiating TBPB/PVA films the color change from blue to green and yellow. ► The amount of acid formed depends on dose and concentration of chloral hydrate. ► The dose range 1–8 kGy the film can be used for food irradiation applications. ► The response of these films has negligible humidity effects from 0 to 70%. ► The combined uncertainty at 2σ using TBPB/PVA films was found to be 4.53%

  9. Effects of household handling on disinfection by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham Z. Ibrahim; Mahmoud A. Abu-Shanab

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated water samples were used to determine the effect of handling modes on disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The DBPs studied were trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), chloral hydrate (CH), chloropicrin (CP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (TCP). Tap water samples were collected from the distribution system in Damanhour City (Egypt). The investigated strategies included storing water in covered and uncovered bottles in a refrigerator up to 9 hours, with and without previous shor...

  10. Alterations in blood glucose levels under hyperinsulinemia affect accumbens dopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2006-01-01

    Dopaminergic systems have been implicated in diabetes and obesity. Notwithstanding, the most basic relationship between dopamine and plasma insulin as well as glucose levels yet remains unknown. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on basal dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of the rat under chloral hydrate anesthesia using acute microdialysis in combination with the hyperinsulinemic-glycemic clamping procedure. In Experiment 1, each...

  11. Mechanisms involved in the induction of aneuploidy: the significance of chromosome loss

    OpenAIRE

    A.I. Seoane; Güerci, A.M; F.N. Dulout

    2000-01-01

    The induction of aneuploidy by physical and chemical agents using different test systems was evaluated. The effect of X-rays, caffeine, acetaldehyde, ethanol, diethylstilbestrol, propionaldehyde, and chloral hydrate was studied by chromosome counting in Chinese hamster embryonic diploid cells. Aneugenic ability of cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, potassium dichromate, chromium chloride, nickel chloride, and nickel sulfate was assessed by means of anaphase-telophase analysis in Chinese hamst...

  12. The actions of ether, alcohol and alkane general anaesthetics on GABAA and glycine receptors and the effects of TM2 and TM3 mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew D Krasowski; Harrison, Neil L.

    2000-01-01

    The actions of 13 general anaesthetics (diethyl ether, enflurane, isoflurane, methoxyflurane, sevoflurane, chloral hydrate, trifluoroethanol, tribromoethanol, tert-butanol, chloretone, brometone, trichloroethylene, and α-chloralose) were studied on agonist-activated Cl− currents at human GABAA α2β1, glycine α1, and GABAC ρ1 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.All 13 anaesthetics enhanced responses to submaximal (EC20) concentrations of agonist at GABAA and glycine receptor...

  13. Raman vibrational spectra of thymol blue dyed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-sensitive dyed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film indicators containing chloral hydrate and acid-sensitive thymol blue dye have been studied for routine food irradiation dosimeters. The free standing dyed film dosimeters of different chloral hydrate concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 2.5 g) were irradiated with the absorbed dose ranges from 1 kGy to 12 kGy using gamma rays from Co-60 teletherapy. Upon exposure the dosimeters undergo chemical change and become more acidic, resulting in colour change from yellow to red at the critical doses depending on the chloral hydrate concentrations. The radiation-induced change in colour was analysed using UV-Vis spectrometer that the absorption spectra produced two maximal of the visible bands peaking at 445 nm for low doses and 554 nm for high doses. Spectra of inelastic Raman scattering photons corresponding to Raman shift frequency of unirradiated and irradiated films were measured using a dispersive Raman spectrometer. The spectral intensity of C=C, C-0 and S-H molecular vibration peaks for their respective Raman shifts were studied which provide the dose response to the change of dye molecular structure of the dosimeters. (Author)

  14. Lead induced behavioral dysfunction: an animal model of hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbergeld, E.K.; Goldberg, A.M.

    1974-01-01

    Although clinically lead poisoning is thought to cause several serious behavioral problems, a causal relationship between lead ingestion and behavioral dysfunction has not been shown. An animal model of lead poisoning was developed in which suckling mice were exposed to lead acetate from birth indirectly through their mothers and then directly after weaning. For the first 60 days, no deaths of offspring occurred due to lead but their growth and development were significantly retarded. Epidemiological evidence exists for the coincidence of lead exposure and hyperactivity syndromes in children. Activity of offspring was measured between 40 and 60 days of age. Treated mice were more than three times as active as agematched controls. Treated and control animals were given drugs used in the treatment and diagnosis of minimal brain dysfunction hyperactivity in children: d- and l-amphetamine, methylphenidate, phenobarbital, and chloral hydrate. Lead-treated hyperactive mice responded paradoxically to all drugs except chloral hydrate: that is, d- and l-amphetamine and methylphenidate suppressed hyperactivity, while phenobarbital increased their levels of motor activity. Chloral hydrate was an effective sedative. Implications of these findings are discussed for the study of the central effects of lead poisoning and for the relationship between lead poisoning and minimal brain dysfunction hyperactivity.

  15. The microdistribution of urea formaldehyde resin in particleboard, and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique has been developed to enable urea formaldehyde resins to be located in particle boards using Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX). This method of detection requires the resin to be chemically labelled, and several possible chemicals are proposed. The merits of each of these chemicals are discussed and thiourea and chloral are selected as the best potential labels. It is necessary to ensure that adding these chemicals to a resin will not alter the resin's properties. For this reason the thiourea and chloral labelled resins' physical properties are compared with those of an unlabelled resin. The effect of cyclic soaking (in water) and drying on the physical behaviour and tensile strengths of labelled and unlabelled resin films is also assessed. As a result of these, and later experiments, chloral is rejected as a suitable label. All subsequent investigations of resin microdistribution are carried out using a thiourea/urea formaldehyde resin. These studies reveal several important characteristics of particleboard ''glue lines''. The majority of resin is concentrated close to the ''glue line'' and is rarely found more than two cells away from the chip junction. Little or no resin is observed in the cell lumen, but there is evidence of cell wall penetration and possible within cell wall distributions are identified. Finally the implications of the cycling, tensile strength and resin distribution data are discussed with reference to the problems of particleboard failure in moist environments. (author)

  16. A new dyed poly (vinyl butyral) film for high-dose applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymer films under investigation are comprising a mixture of 2 dyes, namely, 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol sodium salt (DCP), and bromo cresol green (BCG) indicator in presence of different concentrations of chloral hydrate. The color of this film changes from the blue to purple and finally to yellow, the bleaching reaction for DCP takes place in the beginning, giving the tinge of purple color, followed by the transformation of BCG to its acidic form due to the presence of chloral hydrate. The response of these films is affected by the change in chloral hydrate concentration and also the ratio of the 2 combined dyes. Accordingly, these films could be used as dosimeter in two steps color change indicators, in the dose range from 0.2 to 6 kGy. To examine their suitability for eventual application in different food radiation processing, the dosimetric parameters, e.g. dose response, effect of relative humidity during irradiation on response as well as pre-and post-irradiation stability of these film are investigated. Using the phenomenon of HCl generation from PVC under irradiation, ph-indicating dyes have been added to PVC. A chlorine-containing polymer is not necessary for this reaction to occur. A similar color change can be produced if chloro alkanes are present in the dye-containing matrix (Whittaker, 1990). Ueno (1988) developed a radiation dosimeter from acidity indicators by coating a high molecular weight polymer support (e.g. polyester film) with a composition containing a halogen-containing polymer (e.g. PVC), a pigment which changes color with the change of ph and a basic material (e.g. KOH in EtOH). For routine dose monitoring in radiation processing, the polymeric dyed flexible films are most commonly used as dosimeters and indicators for both electron beams and gamma rays (Ebraheem et al., 1999 and McLaughlin et al

  17. Follow-up assessment of two cases of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Shun; Huang, Han-Lin; Wu, Qi-Feng; Xia, Li-Hua; Huang, Ming; Qiu, Xin-Xiang; Zhou, Shan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the stability, curability and sequelae of cases of Trichloroethylene (TCE) Hypersensitivity Syndrome (THS), and to investigate the causal allergens of THS. Two cases of THS were followed-up in the current study; both cases were healing following glucocorticoid therapy and were discharged >10 weeks prior to follow-up. A questionnaire investigation, health examination and patch test were performed. Allergens of TCE and its metabolites, including chloral hydrate, trichloroethanol (TCOH) and trichloroacetic acid, were applied in the patch test; 4 controls were included. The two subjects were experiencing itching, pigmentation and xerosis of the skin, and had abnormal results in the ophthalmology Schirmer I test and tear break-up time. The body temperature, liver function, superficial lymph nodes, blood, urine routine and autoimmune antibodies of two subjects were shown to be normal, and no new rashes had appeared. All mass concentration of chloral hydrate and TCOH were positive; 5.0% trichloroacetic acid was weakly positive, 0.5% trichloroacetic acid and all mass concentration of TCE were negative. All patch tests were negative in the 4 control subjects. The results suggest that THS was stable following treatment with glucocorticoid therapy. Dry eye syndrome may continue as a sequelae of THS. The patch test demonstrated that the mechanism underlying THS is delayed-type hypersensitivity induced by TCE. In addition, as the hypersensitivity state in a THS rehabilitee could be sustained over a long period of time, it suggests that the metabolites of TCE, not TCE itself, are responsible for THS. Therefore, patients with THS should avoid contact with TCE and its metabolites, and avoid using hypnotic and anticonvulsive drugs containing chloral hydra as the primary ingredient.

  18. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min−1 for chloroform to 0.523 min−1 for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m−3 d−1 and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m−3 d−1, while 2.6 kWh m−3 d−1 was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m−3 d−1. It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes. - Highlights: ► UV irradiation is able to degrade all 12 investigated disinfection by-products. ► Bromine species are easier to remove than their chlorinated analogues. ► UV dose used for combined chlorine was comparable with doses required for DBP removal. ► Significant removal of some disinfection by-products in swimming pools is indicated

  19. Body weight considerations in the B6C3F1 mouse and the use of dietary control to standardize background tumor incidence in chronic bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In B6C3F1 mice, the rate of body growth influences susceptibility to liver neoplasia and large variations in body weight can complicate the interpretation of bioassay data. The relationship between body weight and liver tumor incidence was calculated for historical control populations of male and female ad libitum-fed mice (approx. 2750 and 2300 animals, respectively) and in populations of male and female mice which had been subjected to forced body weight reduction due to either dietary restriction or exposure to noncarcinogenic chemicals (approx. 1600 and 1700, respectively). Resulting tumor risk data were then used to construct idealized weight curves for male and female B6C3F1 mice; these curves predict a terminal background liver tumor incidence of 15-20%. Use of dietary control to manipulate body growth of male B6C3F1 mice to fit the idealized weight curve was evaluated in a 2-year bioassay of chloral hydrate. Cohorts of mice were successfully maintained at weights approximating their idealized target weights throughout the study. These mice exhibited less body weight variation than their ad libitum-fed counterparts (e.g., standard deviations of body weight were 1.4 and 3.4 g for respective control groups at 36 weeks). Historical control body weight and tumor risk data from the two male mouse populations were utilized to predict background liver tumor rates for each experimental group of the chloral hydrate study. The predicted background tumor rates closely matched the observed rates for both the dietary controlled and ad libitum-fed chloral hydrate control groups when each mouse was evaluated according to either its weekly food consumption or its weekly change in body weight

  20. Dyed film dosimeters based on methyl orange dyed poly(vinyl alcohol) or poly(vinyl butyral) for high dose applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Dyed polymer films, prepared by simple technique if casting aqueous solution of PVA or PVB, containing methyl orange on horizontal glass are useful for high dose dosimetry. These films are bleached when exposed to gamma radiation. Different concentrations of chloral hydrate were added to a dyed polymer film to control the useful dose range of application. The radiation chemical yield G(value) was calculated for both PVA and PVB films. Temperature during irradiation was studied as well as the effect of humidity. These films are highly stable before and after irradiation under different storage conditions

  1. Radiation-Sensitive Indicator Based on m-Cresol Purple Dyed Poly (vinyl Butyral) for Possible Use in Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work a PVB films containing different concentrations of m-cresol purple (ph indicator) and chloral hydrate were prepared. The chlorine containing (chIoral hydrate) polymer was dehydrochlorinated when the material irradiated thereby reducing ph and causing the acid-sensitive dye to change color. Such materials are not, however, reported to be sensitive. and quantitative at relatively low radiation doses. The useful dose ranges of this film ranges between 2 and 6 kGy. Radiation chemical yield was calculated. The effects of temperature and relative humidity during irradiation as well as pre and post irradiation stability on the response of films were described

  2. Effect of narcotics on the thermoregulatory mechanisms in normo- and hypothermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazhanov, N.O.

    Acute experiments on rats were made to study the effect of ether, chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg), sodium thiopental (60 mg/kg), sodium hydroxybutyrate (1500 mg/kg) and ethanol (3000 mg/kg) on rectal temperature under normothermia and the time of the onset of mild, moderate and deep hypothermia, which corresponds to the rectal temperature 33, 26 and 19 degrees C. The ratios of hypothermia development for the cooling stages under consideration and pair correlation coefficients were calculated and linear regression equations were derived.

  3. High Dose Film Dosimeter Based on a Mixture of m-cresol Purple and Tetrabromo phenolphthalein Ethyl Ester Dyed Poly (vinyl alcohol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gathering two ph indicator dyes m-cresol purple (MCP), tetrabromo phenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPE), previously studied as individual dosimeter each at low dose application in the same polymer matrix (PVA) extends the application dose response to 60 kGy. This flexible plastic film changes its colour from green to red passing through yellow colour on exposure to γ-rays photons due to the consequent lowering of ph caused by HCl generated from the radiolysis of chloral hydrate. Effect of different concentrations of chloral hydrate on response of the film was investigated. The film shows excellent stability before and after irradiation. The film has excellent stability in 10% to 50% relative humidity range (RH). The overall combined uncertainty (at 2ϭ) associated with measurement of response (Ai/ A0) at 438 nm for dose range 5-60 kGy is 6.33 %. So this film has the ability to monitor the absorbed dose in low and moderate irradiation dose due to its excellent stability before and after irradiation with a significance confidence level.

  4. Effect of anesthetics on the radiosensitivity of a murine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, P.W.; Chu, A.M.

    1979-09-01

    The effect of four anesthetics on the single dose of x rays required to locally control 50% of implanted MT tumors was investigated. Compared with unanesthetized animals, no change in radiosensitivity was observed if mice were irradiated under either tribromoethanol or fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam anesthesia. However, a small but significant degree of radioprotection was observed under chloral hydrate or pentobarbital anesthesia. Hypothermia or increased hypoxia are considered unlikely mechanisms for the protection, a direct chemical action being most probable. The preferred method for immobilizing the mice in order to locally irradiate the tumors was by simple physical restraint (with care taken to minimize physiological stress). However, if anesthesia was a necessity, the present work suggests that for the MT tumor at least the nonprotecting tribromoethanol and fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam are preferable to the protecting chloral hydrate and pentobarbital. Tribromoethanol is preferable to fetanyl-fluanisone-diazepam in that it produces a smaller drop in temperature. However, it is only a short-acting anesthetic, and prolongation of the state of anesthesia by repeated doses simply prolongs the temperature decline so that there may be no real benefit over fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam.

  5. Effect of anesthetics on the radiosensitivity of a murine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of four anesthetics on the single dose of x rays required to locally control 50% of implanted MT tumors was investigated. Compared with unanesthetized animals, no change in radiosensitivity was observed if mice were irradiated under either tribromoethanol or fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam anesthesia. However, a small but significant degree of radioprotection was observed under chloral hydrate or pentobarbital anesthesia. Hypothermia or increased hypoxia are considered unlikely mechanisms for the protection, a direct chemical action being most probable. The preferred method for immobilizing the mice in order to locally irradiate the tumors was by simple physical restraint (with care taken to minimize physiological stress). However, if anesthesia was a necessity, the present work suggests that for the MT tumor at least the nonprotecting tribromoethanol and fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam are preferable to the protecting chloral hydrate and pentobarbital. Tribromoethanol is preferable to fetanyl-fluanisone-diazepam in that it produces a smaller drop in temperature. However, it is only a short-acting anesthetic, and prolongation of the state of anesthesia by repeated doses simply prolongs the temperature decline so that there may be no real benefit over fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam

  6. A Clearing Protocol for Whole Tissues: An Example Using Haustoria of Orobanchaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery J. Morawetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Due to lack of success in clearing whole tissues using only classical clearing techniques (e.g., Heir's 4 ½ solution, KOH, NaOH, lactic acid saturated with chloral hydrate, and because tissue degradation is often a result of harsh clearing agents (e.g., KOH, NaOH, a novel combined treatment was sought to improve the removal of obscuring tannins from intact haustoria. Methods and Results: Stockwell's bleach proved to be useful in removing tannins from haustoria, usually within 3 d (up to 10 d, rendering them opaque to (rarely translucent. After bleaching, haustoria were successfully cleared in 1–3 d in a solution of lactic acid saturated with chloral hydrate at 42°C Conclusions: The two-step clearing protocol reported here will now facilitate structural studies on haustoria, such as those examining the presence and distribution of callose, and three-dimensional reconstmction using confocal microscopy. Tissues in this study did not suffer from the degradation in quality observed using harsher treatments. This protocol should be useful for other difficult-to-clear tissues that are unable to be cleared using classical protocols alone.

  7. Dehydrochlorinated poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) films for food irradiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitive dosimeters based on dyed poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing chloral hydrate CCl3CH(OH)2 and acid-sensitive cresol-red dye have been developed for use in food irradiation dosimetry. These polymer dosimeters undergo colour change from yellow (colour of basic form) to red (colour of acid form) upon exposure to gamma radiation. The radiation-induced change in colour was analysed using UV-Vis spectrometer. The absorption spectra produced two absorption modes, peaking at 438 nm for low doses and 529 nm for high doses. The dose-response was obtained by the changes in absorbance as a function of the absorbed dose. Results of the dose-response curves show the absorption decreases and increases experientially at modes 438 nm and 529 nm respectively with absorbed dose. The change in colour of the irradiated films was analysed using Raman spectrometer, which provides the spectra of molecular stretching modes of vibration of some chemical bonds in the films. The relative intensity at C-Cl stretching peaks of chloral hydrate decreases with absorbed dose and makes the films more acidic. Consequently the relative intensity at S-H and C=C stretching peaks of the dye increases with absorbed dose as the acid reacts with the dye and changes the structure and colour of the dye. (Author)

  8. Photolytic removal of DBPs by medium pressure UV in swimming pool water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Kamilla M.S. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Zortea, Raissa [Department of Land, Environment and Geotechnology Engineering, Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy); Piketty, Aurelia [Institute of Chemistry, Industrial and Chemical Engineering and Technology (INP-ENCIACET), National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse (France); Vega, Sergio Rodriguez [Chemical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain); Andersen, Henrik Rasmus, E-mail: Henrik@ndersen.net [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min{sup −1} for chloroform to 0.523 min{sup −1} for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, while 2.6 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1} was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m{sup −3} d{sup −1}. It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes. - Highlights: ► UV irradiation is able to degrade all 12 investigated disinfection by-products. ► Bromine species are easier to remove than their chlorinated analogues. ► UV dose used for combined chlorine was comparable with doses required for DBP removal. ► Significant removal of some disinfection by-products in swimming pools is indicated.

  9. Effect of γ-radiation on the physical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) dyed with chromeazurol S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitive indicators based on dyed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing acid sensitive dye chromeazurol S (CAS) and chloral hydrate (CH) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo colour change from orange to yellow colour, useful dose ranges are between 2 to 40 kGy. In presence of different concentrations of CH the colour change from orange to red indicating acid formation and the useful dose range from 100 Gy to 5 kGy. The radiation chemical yield G(value) was calculated. The films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 10 to 50% and good stability before and after irradiation under different storage conditions.

  10. Hippocampal neurogenesis in the new model of global cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisel, A. A.; Chernysheva, G. A.; Smol'yakova, V. I.; Savchenko, R. R.; Plotnikov, M. B.; Khodanovich, M. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the changes of hippocampal neurogenesis in a new model of global transient cerebral ischemia which was performed by the occlusion of the three main vessels (tr. brachiocephalicus, a. subclavia sinistra, and a. carotis communis sinistra) branching from the aortic arch and supplying the brain. Global transitory cerebral ischemia was modeled on male rats (weight = 250-300 g) under chloral hydrate with artificial lung ventilation. Animals after the same surgical operation without vessel occlusion served as sham-operated controls. The number of DCX-positive (doublecortin, the marker of immature neurons) cells in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1-CA3 fields of hippocampus was counted at the 31st day after ischemia modeling. It was revealed that global cerebral ischemia decreased neurogenesis in dentate gyrus in comparison with the sham-operated group (P<0.05) while neurogenesis in CA1-CA3 fields was increased as compared to the control (P<0.05).

  11. Manipulation of Ovaries/Ovules and Clearance and Isolation of Embryo Sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreldaim Hussein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to develop techniques to clear and/or isolate embryo sacs of Impatiens glandulifera and Nicotiana tabacum, to facilitate microscopic examination for subsequent experimentation on in vitro fertilization of flowering plants. Two techniques were applied: The clearing and enzymic maceration. Both of the 2 adopted techniques were effective in revealing embryo sacs of the studied plant species. A fixative prepared from propionic acid, formaldehyde, ethanol (50% in the ratio 5:5:90 was used. The clearing solution was prepared from lactic acid (85%, chloral hydrate, phenol, clove oil and xylene in the ratio 2:2:2:2:1 by weight. Both the clearing and the enzymic maceration techniques proved effective in revealing embryo sacs of I. glandulifera and N. tabacum

  12. Effects of household handling on disinfection by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Z. Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated water samples were used to determine the effect of handling modes on disinfection byproducts (DBPs. The DBPs studied were trihalomethanes (THMs, haloacetonitriles (HANs, chloral hydrate (CH, chloropicrin (CP and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (TCP. Tap water samples were collected from the distribution system in Damanhour City (Egypt. The investigated strategies included storing water in covered and uncovered bottles in a refrigerator up to 9 hours, with and without previous short boiling. Water quality parameters were not affected by storage or boiling except for electrical conductivity (EC, which decreased after boiling. 90% of THMs were removed by boiling and storage for 9hrs.HANs, including dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN, dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN and trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN, were not affected by storage, but they were not detected after boiling for 30 seconds. CH and TCP, like the HANs, were affected by boiling rather than storage.

  13. Dynamic change in learning and memorising ability after hemispheric irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the sequence of learning and memory loss in the rat after hemispheric irradiation. Methods: After Sprague-Dawly (SD) female rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate, their cerebral hemispheres were irradiated with a single dose of 5, 15 or 30 Gy by 4 MeV electron. On D3, D7, D30 and D60, the learning and memorizing ability was measured with the Y maze test. Results: On D3 and D7, the learning ability of SD rats was impaired most but partly restored in 1 to 2 months. In observation of memory loss, the intensity of cerebral function damage was in direct proportion to the increase of radiation dose. Conclusion: The learning and memorizing ability of rats can be damage by hemispheric irradiation with the severity of impairment and possibility of recruitment depending on the dose

  14. Micronucleus test and metaphase analyses in mice exposed to known and suspected spindle poisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzini, A; Betti, C; Bernacchi, F; Barrai, I; Barale, R

    1994-11-01

    Micronucleus (Mn) and metaphase chromosome analyses were performed in mouse bone marrow cells with two known and eight suspected mitotic spindle poisons. Polychromatic (PCEs) and normochromatic (NCEs) erythrocytes were scored for presence of Mn, while structural (CAs) and numerical chromosome aberrations (NCAs), i.e. hyperploid cells, were evaluated by metaphase analysis. CAs were scored in first, and NCAs in the second metaphases, identified by BrdUrd differential staining. Hydroquinone induced Mn, NCAs and CAs; colchicine, vinblastine and, to a lesser extent, chloral hydrate, diazepam and econazole induced both Mn and NCAs; cadmium chloride and thimerosal induced Mn and CAs, while pyrimethamine and thiabendazole induced Mn only. The proposed stepwise protocol allowed satisfactory statistical evaluation of the effects induced with a reduction in the number of animals killed. An acceptable agreement was found between induction of Mn and NCAs, suggesting a possible use of the Mn test for revealing compounds with aneugenic properties. PMID:7854141

  15. Hippocampal auditory gating in the hyperactive mocha mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C L; Burmeister, M; Stevens, K E

    1999-11-26

    The mouse mutants mocha (mh) and mocha2J (mh2J) result from separate mutations in the same gene (AP-3 delta) that arose independently on different backgrounds of inbred strains. They exhibit a neurological phenotype that includes hyperactivity, an epileptiform EEG and changes in the basic function of the hippocampus. Depth electrode recordings of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials revealed that the response to the first of two paired tones was significantly enhanced in mocha and mocha2J, as compared with littermate controls. The pronounced theta rhythm characteristic of unanesthetized mocha mice was not observed in these chloral-hydrate anesthetized mice, whereas spike discharge activity was frequently present in the recordings. PMID:10586974

  16. Delayed ischemic electrocortical suppression during rapid repeated cerebral ischemia and kainate-induced seizures in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Spulber, Stefan; Avramescu, Sinziana; Nita, Dragos Alexandru; Zagrean, Ana-Maria; Zagrean, Leon; Moldovan, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    Global cerebral ischemia induces, within seconds, suppression of spontaneous electrocortical activity, partly due to alterations in synaptic transmission. In vitro studies have found that repeated brief hypoxic episodes prolong the persistence of synaptic transmission due to weakened adenosine...... release. The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo whether the time to ischemic electrocortical suppression (T(ES)) could be altered during energy stress conditions such as rapid repeated global cerebral ischemia and kainate-induced seizures. Experiments were carried out in adult rats under chloral...... distinguish the alterations in spontaneous electrocortical activity we compared T(ES) with the ischemic suppression of visual evoked potentials (VEP). During the first ischemic episode, T(ES) was approximately 15 s and remained unchanged when five ischemic episodes were separated by 10-min reperfusion...

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and abnormal visual system in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, A.P.; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo; Rostrup, Egill; Toft, P.B.; Peitersen, Birgit; Larsson, H.B.; Lou, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    in very young infants and in infants with brain damage. We examined 15 preterm infants, 12 children suspected of having a cerebral visual impairment and 10 children with a normal visual system, all of whom were either spontaneously asleep or sedated with chloral hydrate. Cortical response to...... children showed a signal decrease. The activated cortical volumes showed a linear relation to age for healthy children younger than 90 weeks PMA, but were small in children with visual impairment. In two children with unilateral damage to the optic radiations, activation was strongly asymmetrical with......Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young children may provide information about the development of the visual cortex, and may have predictive value for later visual performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of fMRI for examining cerebral processing of vision...

  18. The Newest Member of the Family of Chloralose: Synthesis of β-Ribochloralose and Some Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Ay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of D-ribose with chloral in the presence of acid catalyst gives 1,2-O-(S-trichloroethylidene-α-D-ribofuranose (1 (β-ribochloralose. Some derivatives of this product (1 were synthesized to be used as an intermediate in carbohydrate chemistry. Tricyclic orthoester structure (3, 77% was obtained from the reaction of 1 with potassium t-butoxide. This novel orthoester is expected to be useful as a glycosyl donor in the formations of new ribofuranoside units. 3-O-Methyl-ribochloralose (5 was synthesized in 75% yield via the methylation of 1. 5-O-Tosyl-ribochloralose (6, 61% was prepared with monotosylation reaction of 1. Treatment of 6 with NaN3 in DMF gives a 5-azido-5-deoxy-ribochloralose (7 in 77% yield. The azidosugar (7 was reduced to 5-amino-5-deoxy-ribochloralose (8, 72% with triphenylphosphine according to Staudinger’s reduction procedure.

  19. Endogenous activation of adenosine A1 receptors promotes post-ischemic electrocortical burst suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, A; Ciocan, D; Constantinescu, A O; Zagrean, A-M; Nita, D A; Zagrean, L; Moldovan, M

    2009-01-01

    -vessel occlusion" model under chloral hydrate anesthesia. Quantification of BS recovery was carried out using BS ratio. During GCI full electrocortical suppression was attained (BS ratio reached 100%). During the following reperfusion the BS ratio returned to 0. The time course of the decay was exponential after 1...... and 5-min GCI and bi-exponential after 10-min GCI. The BS recovery was progressively delayed with the duration of ischemia. Administration of the A1R antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 1.25 mg/kg i.p.) accelerated the post-ischemic BS recovery for all GCI durations. Following the 10......-min GCI the effect of DPCPX was only apparent on the initial fast decay of the BS ratio. These data suggest that endogenous adenosine release promotes BS patterns during reperfusion following transient cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the endogenous A1R activation may be the primary underlying cause of...

  20. Nitrous oxide-induced hypothermia in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quock, R.M.; Panek, R.W.; Kouchich, F.J.; Rosenthal, M.A.

    1987-08-10

    Exposure of rats to high levels of nitrous oxide (N2O) in oxygen reduced body temperature in a concentration-related manner. The hypothermia was partly reversed by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. But in rats rendered tolerant to morphine by pellet implantation, exposure to 75% N2O/25% O2 evoked a marked hypothermia similar to that observed in morphine-naive animals. In another experiment, the hypothermic effect of chloral hydrate was also sensitive to antagonism by pretreatment with naloxone but not naltrexone. These observations lead the authors to suspect that N2O-induced hypothermia in rats is possibly not mediated by opiate receptors. The thermotropic activity of N2O may result from some non-opioid action of N2O. Its selective antagonism by naloxone (but not naltrexone) may be due to a unique non-opioid analeptic action of naloxone. 32 references, 4 figures.

  1. Blood gases and energy metabolites in mouse blood before and after cerebral ischemia: the effects of anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Tina M; Horn, Tobias; Lang, Dorothee; Klein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The levels of blood gases and energy metabolites strongly influence the outcome of animal experiments, for example in experimental stroke research. While mice have become prominent animal models for cerebral ischemia, little information is available on the effects of anesthetic drugs on blood parameters such as blood gases, glucose and lactate in this species. In this work, we collected arterial and venous blood samples from female CD-1 mice before and after cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and we tested the influence of different anesthetic drugs. We found that all of the injectable anesthetics tested (ketamine/xylazine, chloral hydrate, propofol and pentobarbital) caused a decrease in blood pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and an increase of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), indicating respiratory depression. This was not observed with inhalable anesthetics such as isoflurane, sevoflurane and halothane. Significant and up to two-fold increases of blood glucose concentration were observed under isoflurane, halothane, ketamine/xylazine, chloral hydrate, and propofol anesthesia. Lactate concentration rose significantly by 2-3-fold during inhalation of isoflurane and halothane treatment, but decreased by more than 50% after administration of pentobarbital. Permanent cerebral ischemia induced respiratory acidosis (low pH and pO2, high pCO2) which was most prominent after 24 h. Postsurgical treatment with Ringer-lactate solution (1 mL, intraperitoneal) caused a recovery of blood gases to basal levels after 24 h. Use of isoflurane for surgery caused a minor increase of blood glucose concentrations after one hour, but a strong increase of blood lactate. In contrast, anesthesia with pentobarbital did not affect glucose concentration but strongly reduced blood lactate concentrations one hour after surgery. All values recovered at three hours after MCAO. In conclusion, anesthetic drugs have a strong influence on murine

  2. Changes in dissolved organic matter fluorescence and disinfection byproduct formation from UV and subsequent chlorination/chloramination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Bonnie A.; Cory, Rose M.; Weinberg, Howard S., E-mail: howard_weinberg@unc.edu

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • DBP formation from UV-chlorine/chloramine drinking water treatment was measured. • The effect of UV on DBP precursors was evaluated by fluorescence and PARAFAC. • UV alone decreased protein/tryptophan- and humic-like fluorescence. • Loss of two components correlated with cyanogen chloride formation (R{sup 2} = 0.79–0.91). • Loss of the components also correlated with chloral hydrate formation (R{sup 2} = 0.95–1.000). -- Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is being increasingly used to help drinking water utilities meet finished water quality regulations, but its influence on disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors and DBP formation is not completely understood. This study investigated the effect of medium pressure (MP) UV combined with chlorination/chloramination on the fluorescent fraction of dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated from a United States surface water with median total organic carbon content. Parallel factor analysis was used to understand how UV may alter the capacity of DOM to form DBPs of potential human health concern. The production of chloral hydrate and cyanogen chloride from MP UV followed by chlorine or chloramine, respectively, correlated with a decrease in fluorescence intensity of a protein/tryptophan-like component (R{sup 2} = 0.79–0.99) and a humic-like component (R{sup 2} = 0.91–1.00). This suggests that the UV-induced precursors to these compounds originated from DOM with similar characteristics to these components. The fluorescent DOM components identified in this study are similar to reoccurring components that have been previously identified in a range of raw and treated waters, and this work demonstrates the value of using fluorescence analysis of DOM to understand the relationships between DOM source and DBP formation under a range of treatment conditions.

  3. 氯硝安定肌注与灌肠治疗小儿惊厥的价值%Clinical value of Clonazepam intramuscular injection and enema for infantile convulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华苏米; 丁振尧; 余宇龙; 卢立党; 郭爱红; 潘知焕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨氯硝安定肌注与灌肠在治疗小儿惊厥中的实用价值。方法收集2012年9月至2013年8月在苍南县人民医院就诊的惊厥患儿120例,随机分为氯硝安定肌注组、苯巴比妥钠肌注组、氯硝安定灌肠组和水合氯醛灌肠组,观察比较各组的疗效及不良反应发生情况。结果氯硝安定肌注组总有效率(90.00%)高于苯巴比妥钠肌注组(63.33%),差异具有统计学意义(χ2=4.565,P<0.05);氯硝安定灌肠组总有效率(90.00%)高于水合氯醛灌肠组(60.00%)(χ2=5.689,P<0.05);氯硝安定肌注组与灌肠组24 h内均未见惊厥复发,苯巴比妥钠组8例复发,水合氯醛组10例复发;4组用药后均无呼吸抑制、循环障碍等不良反应发生。结论氯硝安定肌注、灌肠能有效及时控制惊厥,临床推广应用价值显著。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of Clonazepam intramuscular injection and enema for infantile convulsion .Methods From September 2012 to August 2013, 120 cases of convulsion visiting the People ’ s Hospital of Cangnan County were collected and randomly divided into 4 groups, Clonazepam intramuscular injection group , Phenobarbital intramuscular injection group , Clonazepam enema group, and 10%chloral hydrate enema group .The curative effect and adverse reactions of each group were observed .Results The total effective rate of Clonazepam intramuscular injection group (90.00%) was significantly higher than that of Phenobarbital intramuscular injection group (63.33%) (χ2 =4.565,P<0.05).The total effective rate of Clonazepam enema group (90.00%) was significantly higher than that of chloral hydrate enema group (60.00%) (χ2 =5.689,P<0.05).No seizure relapsed in Clonazepam intramuscular injection group and Clonazepam enema group within 24h, but there were 8 cases and 10 cases in Phenobarbital intramuscular injection group and chloral hydrate

  4. 先天性泪囊炎的探通治疗体会%Treatment of congenital dacryocystitis with probing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯雪云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of probing of lacrimal passage on congenital dacryocystitis.Methods 246 eyes of 186 infants of 3 - 15 months old with congenital dacryocystitis were treated with probing unden chloral hydrate hypnosis. The results were observed. Results In 246 eyes of 186 infants with congenital dacryocystitis there were 242 eyes were cured. In this treatment group, the rate of success is 98. 37% , and One probing eyes(88. 02% )were performed in 242 eyes, two probings in 25 eyes( 10. 33% ) , three probings in 4 eyes ( 1. 65% ) ,2 eyes were respectively suffered from subcutaneous edema and laceration of canaliculus, but there was no baby suffered from infection or asphyxia in complication during the operations. Conclusion Probing of lacrimal passage is safe and the success rate of surgery is very high for congenital dacryocystitis with less complication after chloral hydrate hypnosis.%目的 研究泪道探通术治疗先天性泪囊炎的疗效.方法 对年龄3~15个月婴幼儿先天性泪囊炎186例(246眼),以10%水合氯醛催眠后行探通治疗,并进行疗效观察.结果 先天性泪囊炎中246眼有242眼治愈(98.37%),其中1次探通治愈213眼,占治愈眼的86.58%,2次探通治愈25眼占10.16%,3次探通治愈4眼占1.63%,4眼未愈,占1.63%.术巾2眼汨小管轻微撕裂,次日泪道冲洗出现眼睑水肿外,无感染或窒息等其他并发症.结论 水合氯醛催眠后,泪道探通术是治疗先天性泪囊炎的一种安全、有效、并发症少的治疗方法.

  5. Significant effects of sex, strain, and anesthesia in the intrahippocampal kainate mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twele, Friederike; Töllner, Kathrin; Brandt, Claudia; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    The intrahippocampal kainate mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is increasingly being used for studies on epileptogenesis and antiepileptogenesis. Almost all previous studies used male mice for this purpose, and no study is available in this or other models of acquired epilepsy that directly compared epileptogenesis in female and male rodents. Epidemiological studies suggest that gender may affect susceptibility to epilepsy and its prognosis; therefore, one goal of this study was to investigate whether sex has an influence on latent period and epileptogenesis in the intrahippocampal kainate model in mice. Another aspect that was examined in the present study was whether mouse strain differences in epileptogenesis exist. Finally, we examined the effects of different types of anesthesia (chloral hydrate, isoflurane) on kainate-induced status epilepticus (SE) and epileptogenesis. Continuous (24/7) video-EEG monitoring was used during SE and the 2weeks following SE as well as 4-6weeks after SE. In male NMRI mice with chloral hydrate anesthesia during kainate injection, SE was followed by a seizure-free latent period of 10-14days if hippocampal paroxysmal discharges (HPDs) recorded from the kainate focus were considered the onset of epilepsy. Anesthesia with isoflurane led to a more rapid onset and higher severity of SE, and not all male NMRI mice exhibited a seizure-free latent period. Female NMRI mice differed from male animals in the lack of any clear latent period, independently of anesthesia type. Furthermore, HPDs were only rarely observed. These problems were not resolved by decreasing the dose of kainate or using other strains (C57BL/6, FVB/N) of female mice. The present data are the first to demonstrate marked sex-related differences in the latent period following brain injury in a rodent model of acquired epilepsy. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that the choice of anesthestic agent during kainate administration affects SE severity and as a

  6. Development of a radiation-sensitive indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film containing acid-sensitive dye (bromophenol red, BPR) and water soluble chlorine-containing substance [CCl3COONa or chloral hydrate (CCl3CH(OH)2, 2,2,2-trichloroethan-1,1-diol)] may be useful as a radiation-sensitive indicator. The acid-sensitive dye in the film changes its color from violet to pale yellow by irradiation due to the consequent lowering of the pH of the film caused by the HCl generated from the radiolysis of the Cl-containing substance. This film can be used as a dosimeter in a relatively low dose range up to 5 kGy. This response range makes this film useful in some food irradiation, pasteurization and water purification applications. The effects of temperature and relative humidity during irradiation and post-irradiation storage on the response of the film are discussed. It is inexpensive, does not require toxic solvents in preparation and easy to prepare in a laboratory. (author)

  7. Anticompulsive Activity of a New Pyrazolo[C]Pyridine Derivative GIZh-72 under Conditions of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, N V; Kalinina, T S; Zhmurenko, L A; Voronina, T A

    2016-07-01

    Anticompulsive activity of a novel compound GIZh-72 (4,6-dimethyl-2-(4-chlorphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-C]Pyridine-3-on, chloral hydrate) in a dose of 20 mg/kg (single, subchronic, and chronic administration) in comparison with fluvoxamine (25 mg/kg) was studied in the marble burying test in the model of unpredictable chronic mild stress on BALB/c mice. GIZh-72 produced an anticompulsive effect that increased with increasing treatment duration under stress conditions in contrast to fluvoxamine that induced inversion of this effect after long-term administration. Neuroleptic activity of GIZh-72 in doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg was studied on the model of apomorphine-induced climbing in C57Bl/6 mice. In contrast to haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg), GIZh-72 exhibited no neuroleptic properties. Our results indicate that GIZh-72 holds much promise for pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:27502699

  8. Swimbladder membrane protein of an abyssal fish, Coryphaenoides acrolepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosholder, R S; Josephson, R V; Phleger, C F

    1979-01-01

    Protein components of the membranous foamy tissue collected from the swimbladder of Coryphaenoides acrolepis, a continental slope/deep sea grenadier fish, were partially fractionated and characterized by procedures used successfully for erythrocyte membrane proteins. Methods involving pH and ionic strength adjustment in the presence of EDTA and beta-mercaptoethanol resulted in some protein fractionation but no distinct separation or isolation of membrane proteins. Gel filtration by Sephadex G-100 and Sepharose 2B in the presence of dodecyl sulfate partially fractionated protein species between 18,000 and 150,000 molecular weight (as confirmed by dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis). Low molecular weight proteins were resolvable into a few diffuse and streaky bands by dodecyl sulfate and chloral hydrate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the former giving superior reso-ution. A major fraction of large molecular weight protein (greater than or equal to 40 X 10(6)) was not resolved by any method. A possible explanation for these unusual findings is that decompression due to rapid ascent of the fish from deep ocean caused irreversible alteration of swimbladder membrane proteins. PMID:504363

  9. Review of pharmacokinetic models for target controlled infusions in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Kennedy Sivasubramaniam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous injection of anesthetic drugs dates back to the 17th Century when opium and chloral hydrate have been injected intravenously. It was not until the 1930s intravenous anesthesia became popular with the invention of barbiturates.Early intravenous anesthetic agents such as barbiturates were ideal for induction of anesthesia, but not suitable for maintenance of anesthesia. Most of these drugs accumulated significantly with increasing durations of infusion and also resulted in cardiorespiratory depression. The invention of propofol and shorter acting opioid analgesics such as remifentanil and alfentanil have revolutionized intravenous anesthesia. The rapid onset and offset of these drugs lends itself to being suitable agents for maintenance of anesthesia over prolonged periods of time. Detailed understanding of the pharmacokinetics of propofol and remifentanil, combined with technological advances in intravenous pumps capable of accurate delivery of drugs have resulted in great development of the field of total intravenous anesthesia and target controlled infusions. I would like to discuss, in this article, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacokinetic models behind these intravenous infusion pumps. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 417-423

  10. Biodegradation of the Organophosphate Trichlorfon and Its Major Degradation Products by a Novel Aspergillus sydowii PA F-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiang; Dong, Qiaofeng; Yu, Chenlei; Zhao, Ruixue; Wang, Jing; Chen, Lanzhou

    2016-06-01

    Trichlorfon (TCF) is an important organophosphate pesticide in agriculture. However, limited information is known about the biodegradation behaviors and kinetics of this pesticide. In this study, a newly isolated fungus (PA F-2) from pesticide-polluted soils was identified as Aspergillus sydowii on the basis of the sequencing of internal transcribed spacer rDNA. This fungus degraded TCF as sole carbon, sole phosphorus, and sole carbon-phosphorus sources in a mineral salt medium (MSM). Optimal TCF degradation conditions were determined through response surface methodology, and results also revealed that 75.31% of 100 mg/L TCF was metabolized within 7 days. The degradation of TCF was accelerated, and the mycelial dry weight of PA F-2 was remarkably increased in MSM supplemented with exogenous sucrose and yeast extract. Five TCF metabolic products were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. TCF could be initially hydrolyzed to dichlorvos and then be degraded through the cleavage of the P-C bond to produce dimethyl hydrogen phosphate and chloral hydrate. These two compounds were subsequently deoxidized to produce dimethyl phosphite and trichloroethanal. These results demonstrate the biodegradation pathways of TCF and promote the potential use of PA F-2 to bioremediate TCF-contaminated environments. PMID:27161040

  11. Chlorination of oxybenzone: Kinetics, transformation, disinfection byproducts formation, and genotoxicity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Xiaomao; Yang, Hongwei; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2016-07-01

    UV filters are a kind of emerging contaminant, and their transformation behavior in water treatment processes has aroused great concern. In particular, toxic products might be produced during reaction with disinfectants during the disinfection process. As one of the most widely used UV filters, oxybenzone has received significant attention, because its transformation and toxicity changes during chlorine oxidation are a concern. In our study, the reaction between oxybenzone and chlorine followed pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetics. Three transformation products were detected by LC-MS/MS, and the stability of products followed the order of tri-chloro-methoxyphenoyl > di-chlorinated oxybenzone > mono-chlorinated oxybenzone. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) including chloroform, trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid and chloral hydrate were quickly formed, and increased at a slower rate until their concentrations remained constant. The maximum DBP/oxybenzone molar yields for the four compounds were 12.02%, 6.28%, 0.90% and 0.23%, respectively. SOS/umu genotoxicity test indicated that genotoxicity was highly elevated after chlorination, and genotoxicity showed a significantly positive correlation with the response of tri-chloro-methoxyphenoyl. Our results indicated that more genotoxic transformation products were produced in spite of the elimination of oxybenzone, posing potential threats to drinking water safety. This study shed light on the formation of DBPs and toxicity changes during the chlorination process of oxybenzone. PMID:27085067

  12. Elimination of disinfection byproduct formation potential in reclaimed water during solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian-Yuan, Wu; Chao, Li; Ye, Du; Wen-Long, Wang; Huang, Huang; Hong-Ying, Hu

    2016-05-15

    Ecological storage of reclaimed water in ponds and lakes is widely applied in water reuse. During reclaimed water storage, solar light can degrade pollutants and improve water quality. This study investigated the effects of solar light irradiation on the disinfection byproduct formation potential in reclaimed water, including haloacetonitriles (HANs), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), trihalomethanes (THMs), haloketones (HKs) and chloral hydrate (CH). Natural solar light significantly decreased the formation potential of HANs, TCNM, and HKs in reclaimed water, but had a limited effect on the formation potential of THMs and CH. Ultraviolet (UV) light in solar radiation played a dominant role in the decrease of the formation potential of HANs, TCNM and HKs. Among the disinfection byproducts, the removal kinetic constant of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) with irradiation dose was much larger than those for dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP), trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) and TCNM. During solar irradiation, fluorescence spectra intensities of reclaimed water also decreased significantly. The removal of tyrosine (Tyr)-like and tryptophan (Trp)-like protein fluorescence spectra intensity volumes was correlated to the decrease in DCAN formation potential. Solar irradiation was demonstrated to degrade Trp, Tyr and their DCAN formation potential. The photolysis products of Trp after solar irradiation were detected as kynurenine and tryptamine, which had chloroform, CH and DCAN formation potential lower than those of Trp. PMID:27010786

  13. Reducing natural organic matter and disinfection by-product precursors by alternating oxic and anoxic conditions during engineered short residence time riverbank filtration: A laboratory-scale column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Farré, Maria José; Keller, Jurg; Gernjak, Wolfgang

    2016-09-15

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) with days to months of residence time has been successfully used as treatment or pre-treatment process to improve water quality for decades. However, its feasibility depends on the local hydrogeological conditions. Therefore, for sites unsuitable to traditional RBF, a smaller engineered RBF may be an option. This study evaluates the performance of engineered short residence time RBF on improving water quality, focusing on the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and the reduction of precursors of carbon and nitrogen disinfection by-products (DBP). Lab-scale experiments were conducted with surface feed water from a drinking water plant. The results showed that within 6days hydraulic retention time (HRT), 60-70% dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 70-80% ultraviolet absorbance at 254nm (UV254) could be removed. During the whole filtration process, biodegradation was responsible for the removal of organic matter, and it was found that alternating redox condition between oxic and anoxic was beneficial for the overall performance of the RBF. Dissolved oxygen (DO) had a substantial impact on the removal of DBP precursors. For carbon-containing DBP (C-DBP) precursors' removal, re-aeration after a sequence of oxic and anoxic conditions could further increase the removal efficiencies from 50%, 60%, and 60% to 80%, 90%, and 80% for trihalomethanes (THMs), chloral hydrate (CH), and haloketones (HKs). Prolonged anoxic conditions were however beneficial for the removal of nitrogen-containing DBP (N-DBP) precursors. PMID:27203522

  14. Crystal Violet and Methylene Green as Low-Dose Liquid Dosimetry Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate aim of the present work is studying of the possibility of using some organic solutions for gamma radiation monitors and to evaluate and characterize the dosimetric properties of these compounds. Crystal violet (CV) and methylene green (MG) aqueous solutions with different concentrations have been prepared and irradiated to different absorbed doses. The solutions were readout using absorption spectrophotometry technique at λmax 592 nm and 614 nm for CV and MG respectively. The maximum useful dose range was investigated and found to be concentration dependent. It was found that the useful dose range was from 10-160 Gy for CV and from 10-200 Gy for MG. The radiation chemical yield, G-value, was calculated for the studied solutions. The ph effect and the effect of different additives, chloral hydrate and ethanol have been also investigated. The pre- and post- irradiation stabilities of these solutions under different storage conditions were studied and the results showed different significant dependence on the storage condition

  15. Effects of γ-rays on electrical conductivity of polyvinyl alcohol-polypyrrole composite polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composite polymer films of polyvinyl alcohol/polypyrrole/chloral hydrate (PVA-PPy-CH) had been prepared. Effects of γ-rays on the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films had been investigated by using Inductance Resistance meter (LCR) meter at a frequency ranging from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. With the incorporation of choloral hydrate in the polymer sample, the conductivity increased indicates that it is capable to be used as dopant for polymerizing conjugated polymer. The electrical conductivity obtained increased as the dose increased, which is in the order of 10-5 Scm-1 indicates that γ-ray is capable to enhance the electrical conductivity of the composite polymer films. The parameter of s is in the range of 0.31 ≤ S ≤ 0.49 and obeyed simple power law dispersion ωS. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal the formation of polypyrrole globules in polyvinyl alcohol matrix which increased as the irradiation dose was increased. (Author)

  16. Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation in Plants: Mechanisms and Enhancement of Phytoremediation of Groundwater Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Strand

    2004-09-27

    The research objectives for this report are: (1) Transform poplar and other tree species to extend and optimize chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) oxidative activities. (2) Determine the mechanisms of CHC oxidation in plants. (3) Isolate the genes responsible for CHC oxidation in plants. We have made significant progress toward an understanding of the biochemical mechanism of CHC transformation native to wild-type poplar. We have identified chloral, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid as products of TCE metabolism in poplar plants and in tissue cultures of poplar cells.(Newman et al. 1997; Newman et al. 1999) Use of radioactively labeled TCE showed that once taken up and transformed, most of the TCE was incorporated into plant tissue as a non-volatile, unextractable residue.(Shang et al. 2001; Shang and Gordon 2002) An assay for this transformation was developed and validated using TCE transformation by poplar suspension cells. Using this assay, it was shown that two different activities contribute to the fixation of TCE by poplar cells: one associated with cell walls and insoluble residues, the other associated with a high molecular weight, heat labile fraction of the cell extract, a fixation that was apparently catalyzed by plant enzymes.

  17. Study on etiology and treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong LI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical data of 182 children with convulsive status epilepticus (CSE were analyzed. There were 21 cases with refractory status epilepticus (RSE and 161 cases with non-refractory status epilepticus (non-RSE. Etiological factors mainly included epilepsy in 54 cases, intracranial infection in 49 cases, and complex febrile seizure in 44 cases. In the ictal stage, 102 cases were treated with clonazepam by intravenous injection, 54 cases with diazepam by intravenous injection, 46 cases with midazolam by intravenous injection, 36 cases with phenobarbital by muscular injection, and 32 cases with 6.5% chloral hydrate by nosal feeding or clyster. The etiology of CSE in children is various. Epilepsy, intracranial infection and complex febrile seizure are the main causes. Poor prognosis and high mortality often occur in RSE caused by severe viral encephalitis. So the fundamental principle of treatment is to control CSE quickly and avoid the damage of brain and other important organs. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.11.009

  18. Technical Note: Enhanced reactivity of nitrogenous organohalogen formation from plant litter to bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available C1/C2 organohalogens (organohalogens with one or two carbon atoms can have significant environmental toxicity and ecological impact, such as carcinogenesis, ozone depletion and global warming. Natural halogenation processes have been identified for a wide range of natural organic matter, including soils, plant and animal debris, algae, and fungi. Yet, few have considered these organohalogens generated from the ubiquitous bacteria, one of the largest biomass pools on Earth. Here, we report and confirm the formation of chloroform (CHCl3 dichloro-acetonitrile (CHCl2CN, chloral hydrate (CCl3CH(OH2 and their brominated analogues by direct halogenation of seven strains of common bacteria and nine cellular monomers. Comparing different major C stocks during litter decomposition stages in terrestrial ecosystems, from plant litter, decomposed litter, to bacteria, increasing reactivity for nitrogenous organohalogen yield was observed with decreasing C/N ratio. Our results raise the possibility that natural halogenation of bacteria represents a significant and overlooked contribution to global organohalogen burdens. As bacteria are decomposers that alter the C quality by transforming organic matter pools from high to low C/N ratio and constitute a large organic N pool, the bacterial activity is expected to affect the C, N, and halogen cycling through natural halogenation reactions.

  19. Technical Note: Reactivity of C1 and C2 organohalogens formation – from plant litter to bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available C1/C2 organohalogens (organohalogens with one or two carbon atoms can have significant environmental toxicity and ecological impact, such as carcinogenesis, ozone depletion and global warming. Natural halogenation processes have been identified for a wide range of natural organic matter, including soils, plant and animal debris, algae, and fungi. Yet, few have considered these organohalogens generated from the ubiquitous bacteria, one of the largest biomass pools on earth. Here, we report and confirm the formation of chloroform (CHCl3 dichloro-acetonitrile (CHCl2CN, chloral hydrate (CCl3CH(OH2 and their brominated analogues by direct halogenation of seven strains of common bacteria and nine cellular monomers. Comparing different major C stocks during litter decomposition stages in terrestrial ecosystems, from plant litter, decomposed litter, to bacteria, we found increasing reactivity for nitrogenous organohalogen yield with decreasing C/N ratio. Our results raise the possibility that natural halogenation of bacteria represents a significant and overlooked contribution to global organohalogen burdens. As bacteria are decomposers that alter the C quality by transforming organic matter pools from high to low C/N ratio and constitute a large organic N pool, the bacterial activity is expected to affect the C, N, and halogen cycling through natural halogenation reactions.

  20. Effect of perchloroethylene and its metabolites on intercellular communication in clone 9 rat liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benane, S.G.; Blackman, C.F.; House, D.E. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-08-09

    Gap junction intercellular communication (IC) is thought to be important in chemical carcinogenesis as abnormalities in IC have been found in cancer cells. Perchloroethylene (PERC) is metabolized in rodent liver to dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which are rodent liver carcinogens. Chloral hydrate (CH) and trichloroethanol (TCEth) are kidney metabolites. We used Lucifer yellow scrape-load dye transfer as a measure of IC to look at the effect of PERC, DCA, TCA, CH, and TCEth on Clone 9 cell cultures (normal rat liver cells). Four independent experiments were performed for each chemical using exposure times of 1, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 168 h. Concentrations for each chemical varied and were based on preliminary data on effect and cytotoxicity. To compare the relative effectiveness of each chemical to cause biological change, we identified the lowest concentration needed to produce 50% reduction in IC, were PERC (0.3 mM) >> TCA (3.8 mM) > TCEth (6.6 mM) = CH (7.0 mM) >> DCA (41 mM). Time-course data indicated that PERC, DCA, and TCA produced reduction in IC in a similar fashion, but 5 mM CH or TCEth exhibited variances from these results and may indicate specific cell responses to these chemicals. The mechanism(s) responsible for inhibition of IC by these structurally related chemicals needs to be established. 44 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Identification of drugs that restore primary cilium expression in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Niamat Ali; Willemarck, Nicolas; Talebi, Ali; Marchand, Arnaud; Binda, Maria Mercedes; Dehairs, Jonas; Rueda-Rincon, Natalia; Daniels, Veerle W.; Bagadi, Muralidhararao; Raj, Deepak Balaji Thimiri Govinda; Vanderhoydonc, Frank; Munck, Sebastian; Chaltin, Patrick; Swinnen, Johannes V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of cancer is often accompanied by a loss of the primary cilium, a microtubule-based cellular protrusion that functions as a cellular antenna and that puts a break on cell proliferation. Hence, restoration of the primary cilium in cancer cells may represent a novel promising approach to attenuate tumor growth. Using a high content analysis-based approach we screened a library of clinically evaluated compounds and marketed drugs for their ability to restore primary cilium expression in pancreatic ductal cancer cells. A diverse set of 118 compounds stimulating cilium expression was identified. These included glucocorticoids, fibrates and other nuclear receptor modulators, neurotransmitter regulators, ion channel modulators, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, DNA gyrase/topoisomerase inhibitors, antibacterial compounds, protein inhibitors, microtubule modulators, and COX inhibitors. Certain compounds also dramatically affected the length of the cilium. For a selection of compounds (Clofibrate, Gefitinib, Sirolimus, Imexon and Dexamethasone) their ability to restore ciliogenesis was confirmed in a panel of human cancer cell line models representing different cancer types (pancreas, lung, kidney, breast). Most compounds attenuated cell proliferation, at least in part through induction of the primary cilium, as demonstrated by cilium removal using chloral hydrate. These findings reveal that several commonly used drugs restore ciliogenesis in cancer cells, and warrant further investigation of their antineoplastic properties. PMID:26862738

  2. Effects of intravenous administration of bone marrow stromal stem cells on cognitive impairment of the whole-brain irradiated rat models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effect of intravenous infusion of bone marrow stromal stem cells(MSCs) on cognitive function of rats after whole brain irradiation. Methods: MSCs were isolated and cultured from adult rats. After Sprague-Dawly female rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate, their whole cerebrum was irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy by 6 MV X-ray. Seven days after irradiation, 4 x 106 Hoechst33342-1abelled MSCs were intravenously injected into the tail vein of these rats. Four and 8 weeks after transplantation, the learning and memorizing ability was measured with the Y maze test. Immunohistochemical method was used to identify MSCs or ceils derived from MSCs in the brain. Results: The learning and memorizing ability of irradiation groups were significantly different from that of normal control group (P < 0.01). Significant improvement of cognitive impairment was observed in rats treated with MSCs at 4 and 8 weeks after transplantation as compared with the controll groups (P<0.05). This showed that the MSCs survived and were localized to the brain tissue. The number of Hoechst33342 immunohistofluorescence positive cells and double-immunostaining cells significantly decreased in 8 weeks group as compared with the 4 weeks group. Conclusion: Marrow stromal stem cells delivered to the irradiation brain tissue through intravenous route improve the cognitive impairment after whole brain irradiation. These cells may survive and differentiate in the brain tissue of irradiated rats. (authors)

  3. Effects of various agents on flagellar activity, flagellar autotomy and cell viability in four species of Chlamydomonas (chlorophyta: volvocales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, R A; Lee, T H; Fang, L S

    1982-01-01

    Over 200 strains of green algal flagellates, representing about 100 species, were examined for their suitability as experimental organisms for studies of flagellar activity. The cells of all species shed their flagella under unfavourable conditions of temperature or pH, or in the presence of alcohols, detergents or toxic agents of various kinds. For further studies of flagellar activity, motility and autotomy (biologically induced shedding) in particular, we selected four species of Chlamydomonas: C. dysosmos Moewus, C. moewusii Gerloff, C. monoica Strehlow and C. reinhardtii Dangeard. Agents found to inhibit motility without inducing death or flagellar autotomy included azide, arsenite, thiosulphate, cyanide, ferricyanide, hydroxylamine, chloral hydrate, malonate, p-chloro-mercury benzoate and cytochalasin-B, each in a limited range of concentrations which differed according to species and strain. Higher concentrations of these agents caused the flagella to be shed. Since flagellar autotomy is a means by which a cell can quickly reduce the area of its permeable surface, it may have a positive survival value for species liable to be subjected to unfavourable physicochemical conditions. PMID:6764045

  4. Controlled Burning of Forest Detritus Altering Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter: Effects of Temperature and Oxygen Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Chow, Alex T

    2015-12-15

    Forest fires occur with increasing frequency and severity in the western United States, potentially altering the chemistry and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors exported from forested watersheds. However, little is known concerning effects of the fire triangle (heat, oxygen, and fuel) on DOM alteration. Using detritus from Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor (dominant species in forests in the western United States), we prepared DOM from unburned and burned detritus under hypoxic (pyrolysis) and oxic conditions (thermal oxidation) at 250 and 400 °C. DOM characteristics and chlorine reactivity were evaluated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP formation potential tests. Spectroscopic results suggest that burned-detritus extracts had lower molecular weight (reflected by increased E2:E3 and fluorescence index) and divergent aromaticity (reflected by SUVA254) depending on oxygen availability. Temperature and oxygen availability interacted to alter the chlorine reactivity of fire-affected DOM. Increasing temperature from 50 to 400 °C resulted in decreased reactivities for trihalomethane and chloral hydrate formation and divergent reactivities for haloacetonitrile formation (unchanged for pyrolysis and increased for oxidation) and haloketone formation (increased for pyrolysis and decreased for oxidation). We demonstrate that DBP precursors in fire-affected forest detritus are highly dependent on temperature and oxygen availability. PMID:26496434

  5. Postoperative MR evaluation of the neorectum in patients with congenital anorectal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five patients with an original diagnosis of supralevator anal atresia had fecal incontinence following pull-through procedures. The imaging evaluation initially included barium enema and MR studies. Perineal electrostimulation data were also obtained. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5-T system. A tuberculin syringe filled with chloral hydrate was inserted into the neorectum to serve as a high-signal-intensity lumen marker. T1-weighted images were obtained in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes with a spin-echo pulse sequence 60/20 (repetition time msec). The neorectum was determined to be centrally positioned or eccentrically placed within the external anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles. Prospectively, MR imaging accurately indicated the position of the neorectum relative to the sphincteric muscular complex. Perineal electrostimulation data were concordant with MR findings in all patients. Barium enema was helpful in one patient with rectal stricture at the pull-through site. The authors discuss how MR imaging of the postoperative neorectum in patients with fecal incontinence provides useful information in planning the surgical revision

  6. APPLICATION OF THE ANK ANOLYTE SUPER NEW GENERATION DRUG FOR DISINFECTION OF HATCHING EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanner N. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spraying the hatching eggs with disinfecting solution was found to be the effective mean to decrease a risk of bacterial contamination. The most used disinfection means contain quaternary ammonium compounds, phenols, iodine of glutaric aldehyde. However, some disinfectants have ability to close pores on to the egg in case of applicating on the surface of egg that results in decreasing evaporation of water during incubation and decreasing hatching. The most popular methods is gazation with using the preparation on a base of formaldehyde, formalin, potassium permanganate. The above-mentioned methods have the risks of potential danger for hatching eggs and developing embryos. For biocidic treatment of eggs YF-irradiation is used, as well as ozone, but it penetrates into eggs owing to eggs pores and destabilizes embryo. Moreover, ozone possesses the toxic, corrosive and inflammable properties and its using must be controlled. Some disinfectants, especially chloral-containing preparation have a property to react with cuticle of eggshell and falls their activity. Other disinfectants, as a rule, block the pores and make difficult gazoexchanging. Using the preparation on a base of electroactivatel solutions of sodium chloride. Was detected to be one of the perspective approaches to disinfection of hatching eggs. The results of study on a development of disinfection technology for hatching eggs contaminated by bacteria and fungi with using the Super ANK Anolyte

  7. An improved method for karyotype analyses of marine algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Dai, Jixun

    2008-05-01

    Modified carbol fuchsin staining method was successfully introduced into the karyotype analyses of marine algae, including Porphyra, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica. Haploid chromosomes were numbered clearly in the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Diploid chromosomes were observed and numbered in immature conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Pit-connections of Porphyra were also clearly demonstrated. Prophase chromosomes of conchocelis cells were also clearly stained with modified carbol fuchsin. One molar per liter hydrochloric hydrolysis at 60°C for 7-8 min is necessary for getting transparent cytoplasm for conchosporangial karyotype analysis of Porphyra. Staining effects of the three methods using iron alum acetocarmine, aceto-iron-haematoxylin-chloral hydrate and modified carbol fuchsin were compared on the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of Porphyra and the gametophytes of U. pinnatifida and L. japonica. Among the three methods, the modified carbol fuchsin method gave the best result of deep staining and good contrast between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  8. An Improved Method for Karyotype Analyses of Marine Algae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; DAI Jixun

    2008-01-01

    Modified carbol fuchsin staining method was successfully introduced into the karyotype analyses of marine algae, in-cluding Porphyra, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica. Haploid chromosomes were numbered clearly in the vegetative, spermatangial and conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Diploid chromosomes were observed and numbered in immature conchosporangial cells of P. haitanensis and P. yezoensis. Pit-connections of Porphyra were also clearly demonstrated. Prophase chromosomes of conchocelis cells were also clearly stained with modified carbol fuchsin. One molar per liter hydrochloric hydrolysis at 60℃ for 7-8min is necessary for getting transparent cytoplasm for conchosporangial karyotype analysis of Porphyra. Staining effects of the three methods using iron alum acetocarmine, aceto-iron-haematoxylin-chloral hydrate and modified carbol fuchsin were compared on the vegetative, sperrnatangial and conchosporangial cells of Porphyra and the gametophytes of U. pinnati-fida and L. japonica. Among the three methods, the modified carbol fuchsin method gave the best result of deep staining and good contrast between nucleus and cytoplasm.

  9. Efficacy and safety of oral triclofos as sedative for children undergoing sleep electroencephalogram: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Sharma, Ankita; Goel, Shaiphali; Jose, Anjali; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Triclofos may be a better sedative in view of better palatability and less gastric irritation as compared to chloral hydrate. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of triclofos (a commonly used sedative in India) as a sedative for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) study in children. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care pediatric center. Consecutive children aged 6 months to 5 years referred for sleep EEG evaluation were recruited. Their clinical details were noted in a proforma after an informed consent. After a trial for natural sleep, oral triclofos was administered. Sleep parameters and adverse effects were noted. Results: One-hundred and sixty children were then enrolled. EEG was successfully recorded in 149 (93.1%) children. Median latency of sleep onset was 30 min and median duration of sleep was 90 min. The adverse effects in the following 24 h were mild and included dizziness, irritability, and vomiting. Conclusions: Oral triclofos was found to be an effective sedative for EEG in children with minimal adverse effects.

  10. Evaluation of Blalock-Taussig shunts using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients aged 3 to 18 months (mean 13 months) with a total of five Blalock-Taussig shunts (BT shunts; two were original BT shunts and three were modified BT shunts using GOLASKI grafts) underwent evaluation by ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging. There were two cases with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, one with double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis and one with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia who underwent bilateral BT shunts. At the time of study, an auscultory shunt murmur was audible in all patients. The magnetic resonance images were obtained with a Picker International Vista MR with a superconducting magnet operating at 0.5 Tesla. A spin echo sequence (echo time 40 msec) was used. All patients were placed within a 30 cm head coil radio antenna and sedated with chloral hydrate or diazepam. Four of 5 shunts were imaged on both coronal sections and sagittal sections during enddiastole. And there was no signal within the grafts. When the velocity of blood flow is beyond the cutoff velocity, the signal intensity of flowing blood is near background level. So we judged these grafts were patient. Our results showed that MRI was a very useful noninvasive method for evaluation of BT shunts. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Blalock-Taussig shunts using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okajima, Yoshitomo; Tashima, Kazuyuki; Terai, Masaru; Niwa, Koichirou.

    1988-10-01

    Four patients aged 3 to 18 months (mean 13 months) with a total of five Blalock-Taussig shunts (BT shunts; two were original BT shunts and three were modified BT shunts using GOLASKI grafts) underwent evaluation by ECG-gated magnetic resonance imaging. There were two cases with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, one with double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis and one with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia who underwent bilateral BT shunts. At the time of study, an auscultory shunt murmur was audible in all patients. The magnetic resonance images were obtained with a Picker International Vista MR with a superconducting magnet operating at 0.5 Tesla. A spin echo sequence (echo time 40 msec) was used. All patients were placed within a 30 cm head coil radio antenna and sedated with chloral hydrate or diazepam. Four of 5 shunts were imaged on both coronal sections and sagittal sections during enddiastole. And there was no signal within the grafts. When the velocity of blood flow is beyond the cutoff velocity, the signal intensity of flowing blood is near background level. So we judged these grafts were patient. Our results showed that MRI was a very useful noninvasive method for evaluation of BT shunts.

  12. Effects of ozone and ozone/peroxide pretreatments on disinfection byproduct formation during subsequent chlorination and chloramination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Peng, Jinfeng; Chen, Baiyang; Guo, Wanhong; Liang, Yongmei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Lu

    2012-11-15

    Ozone (O3) and ozone/hydrogen peroxide (O3/H2O2) can be used in water treatment facilities to remove many organic micropollutants with taste, odor, and color implications. The effects of O3 and O3/H2O2 on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in subsequent chlorination and chloramination processes, however, are not well determined. In this study, we compared the yields of a series of regulated and emerging DBPs during sequenced O3-Cl2, O3/H2O2-Cl2, O3-NH2Cl, and O3/H2O2-NH2Cl oxidation of 11 samples, each with different hydrophobicity, bromide concentration, soluble microbial products, and humic substances. For most water, pretreatment with O3 and O3/H2O2 increased the formation of chloral hydrate (CH), trichloronitromethane (TCNM) and haloketones (HKs) but lowered the yields of haloacetonitriles (HANs) during chlorination processes. Compared with O3 alone, O3/H2O2 in combination generated more CH and HKs during chlorination, and their extents of formation appeared to depend on the O3 doses. In terms of chloramination, both O3 and O3/H2O2 reduced THM, HAA, and HAN formation significantly without increasing CH, TCNM, or HKs. These results suggest that O3 or O3/H2O2 pretreatments may provide some benefits for the chloramination process in controlling regulated and emerging DBPs in waters without high bromide content. PMID:23009791

  13. Exploiting methyl groups as motional labels for structure analysis in solid polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J L

    1997-12-01

    We report results of magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear Overhauser experiments on solid polymers. Specifically, the focus of this work is to demonstrate that methyl groups provide unique motional labels in crystalline and amorphous materials that may be exploited to provide spatial information. The motivation for this work stems from the fact that recently developed techniques for distance determination in organic solids, e.g. REDOR and related spin-echo methods, typically require isotopic labelling. Comparison of heteronuclear MAS 13C-1H NOE growth rates for bis-phenol A (a crystalline organic solid), polycarbonate, chloral polycarbonate, polystyrene, poly(4-methylstyrene), and poly(alpha-methylstyrene) confirms that methyl groups are the only sources of cross-relaxation in these rigid polymers. The experiments are straightforward, and have the advantage that no isotopic labelling is required. In general, decreased growth rates and increased induction periods for carbons distant from methyl groups are observed. Critical analysis of the data suggests that the rates are sensitive to packing density, and we address the contribution of intrachain and interchain interactions to the observed rates. We expect that methyl-stimulated NOE's are general to all rigid solids, and that these experiments could prove useful for local structure characterization of polymers in cases where isotopic labelling is not practical. PMID:9472795

  14. 全身麻醉下顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位的影响%Effects of cisatracurium on compound muscle action potential of sciatic nerve in rats under general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧光辉; 孟祥虎; 樊龙昌; 李新华; 刘继红; 张传汉; 罗爱林; 田玉科

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究水合氯醛全麻状态下顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠坐骨神经复合肌肉动作电位(CMAP)的影响.方法:60只SD大鼠随机分为2组,7%水合氯醛腹腔注射麻醉后,实验组腹腔注射顺式阿曲库铵(0.93 mg/kg),对照组腹腔注射等体积生理盐水,立即刺激坐骨神经,记录大鼠腓肠肌CMAP变化,刺激间隔5 min.结果:麻醉生效后18 ~ 48 min 2组间峰峰值及潜伏期差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).实验组CMAP变化分3个阶段:诱导期,表现为峰峰值逐步下降,潜伏期延长,持续约10 min;抑制期,表现为峰峰值进一步降低,潜伏期进一步延长,之后有恢复趋势,持续约30 min;恢复期,表现为峰峰值、潜伏期恢复至用药前水平.对照组CMAP峰峰值与潜伏期均无显著变化(均P>0.05).结论:顺式阿曲库铵对大鼠腓肠肌CMAP有显著影响,而且呈阶段性变化,准确了解这种变化趋势,有助于术中及时为术者反馈信息,减少神经损伤.%Objective: To study the effects of cisatracurium on compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of sciatic nerve in rats under general anesthesia by chloral hydrate. Methods: A total of 60 SD rats were divided into two groups randomly. Cisatracurium (0. 93mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally into the rats of the experimental group, and isotonic saline of the same volume in the control group after anesthetized by 7% chloral hydrate, respectively. Sciatic nerve was stimulated after injection at 5 minutes'intervals, and recorded the changes of CMAPs of gastrocnemius muscle. Results: Significant differences existed in peak-to-peak values and latencies between two groups 18-48 minutes after general anesthesia (P0. 05). Conclusions: The CMAPs of gastrocnemius muscles can be significantly impacted by cisatracurium, and present phase changes. Accurate understanding the trend of variation of CMAPs conduces to gather feedback information for operater during surgery, and thus may reduce nerve injury.

  15. In vivo imaging of microglial activation using a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand. [11C]PK-11195 and animal PET following ethanol injury in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether [11C]PK-11195, a specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) ligand for positron emission tomography (PET), can show activated microglia in a rat brain injury model. On day 1, ethanol was injected into the rat's right striatum (ST) using a stereotaxic operative procedure. On day 3, head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for surgically treated rats were performed to evaluate ethanol injury morphologically. On day 4, dynamic PET scans (17 injured rats and 7 non-injured controls) were performed for 60 min with an animal PET scanner under chloral hydrate anesthesia following a bolus injection of [11C]PK-11195 through tail vein. Because PBRs are present throughout the brain, there is no suitable receptor-free reference region. The reference tissue model may not be applicable because of low target to back-ground ratio for low affinity of [11C]PK-11195 to PBRs. We evaluated the PBRs binding with regions of interest (ROIs)-based approach to estimate total distribution volume (V). We used an integral from 0 min to 60 min (V60) as an estimate of V. On the coronal PET image, ROIs were placed on bilateral ST. Differences in right/left ST V60 ratios between lesioned and unlesioned control rats were compared using unpaired t tests. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for confirming the presence of activated microglia following decapitation on the PET experiment day. The right/left ST V60 ratios in lesioned rats (1.07±0.08) were significantly higher than those in unlesioned control rats (1.00±0.06, P11C]PK-11195 PET imaging would be a useful tool for evaluating microglial activation in a rat brain injury model. (author)

  16. Comparing a silver-impregnated activated carbon with an unmodified activated carbon for disinfection by-product minimisation and precursor removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Knight, Nicole

    2016-01-15

    During disinfection, bromide, iodide and natural organic matter (NOM) in source waters can lead to the formation of brominated and/or iodinated disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are often more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of a silver-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) with the equivalent unimpregnated granular activated carbon (GAC) for the removal of bromide, iodide and NOM from a matrix of synthetic waters with variable NOM, halide, and alkalinity concentrations, and to investigate the impact on DBP formation. An enhanced coagulation (EC) pre-treatment was employed prior to sample exposure to either carbon adsorbent. Excellent halide removals were observed by the SIAC treatment across the sample matrix, with iodide concentrations consistently reduced to below the method reporting limit (removal of bromide achieved. Bromide removal by unimpregnated GAC was poor, however iodide removal was comparable to that achieved by SIAC. The combination of EC with SIAC treatment removed 77±8% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present, across the sample matrix, which was similar to removals by EC/GAC (67±14%). Combined EC/SIAC treatment reduced both total trihalomethanes (tTHMs) and total dihaloacetonitriles (tDHANs) formation by 97±3%, while also achieving a greater than 74% removal of two chloropropanones and a 92±8% decrease in chloral hydrate (CH), compared to untreated samples, regardless of the sample's starting water quality (bromide, alkalinity and NOM concentration). Combined EC/GAC treatment led to similar DBP removals to EC/SIAC for the fully chlorinated DBPs, however, brominated DBPs were less efficiently removed, or experienced concentration increases. PMID:26546763

  17. Formation of disinfection byproducts upon chlorine dioxide preoxidation followed by chlorination or chloramination of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Guo, Wanhong; Lee, Wontae

    2013-06-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is often used as an oxidant to remove taste, odor and color during water treatment. Due to the concerns of the chlorite formation, chlorination or chloramination is often applied after ClO2 preoxidation. We investigated the formation of regulated and emerging disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in sequential ClO2-chlorination and ClO2-chloramination processes. To clarify the relationship between the formation of DBPs and the characteristics of natural organic matter (NOM), changes in the properties of NOM before and after ClO2 oxidation were characterized by fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and size and resin fractionation techniques. ClO2 preoxidation destroyed the aromatic and conjugated structures of NOM and transformed large aromatic and long aliphatic chain organics to small and hydrophilic organics. Treatment with ClO2 alone did not produce significant amount of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), but produced chlorite. ClO2 preoxidation reduced THMs, HAAs, haloacetonitriles (HANs) and chloral hydrate (CH) during subsequent chlorination, but no reduction of THMs was observed during chloramination. Increasing ClO2 doses enhanced the reduction of most DBPs except halonitromethanes (HNMs) and haloketones (HKs). The presence of bromide increased the formation of total amount of DBPs and also shifted DBPs to more brominated ones. Bromine incorporation was higher in ClO2 treated samples. The results indicated that ClO2 preoxidation prior to chlorination is applicable for control of THM, HAA and HAN in both pristine and polluted waters, but chlorite formation is a concern and HNMs and HKs are not effectively controlled by ClO2 preoxidation. PMID:23312737

  18. [On the history of barbiturates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  19. Dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules under giga hertz electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Dutta; S K Sit; S Acharyya

    2001-10-01

    The dielectric relaxation phenomena of rigid polar liquid molecules chloral and ethyltrichloroacetate () in benzene, -hexane and -heptane () under 4.2, 9.8 and 24.6 GHz electric fields at 30°C are studied to show the possible existence of double relaxation times 2 and 1 for rotations of the whole and the flexible parts of molecules. The probability of showing double relaxation is more in aliphatic solvents indicating their nonrigidity. The symmetric and asymmetric distribution parameters and are obtained from $'_{ij}/_{0ij}$ and $''_{ij}/_{0ij}$ at $w_{j}→ 0$ where $'_{ij}$ and $''_{ij}$ are real and imaginary parts of the complex orientational susceptibility $^{*}_{ij}$ and $_{0ij}$ is the low frequency susceptibility which is real. $_{ij}$’s are involved with the measured dielectric relative permittivities $'_{ij}$, $''_{ij}$, $_{0ij}$ and $_{∞ ij}$ of solutions. The theoretical weighted contributions $c_{1}$ and $c_{2}$ towards dielectric dispersions by Fröhlich’s method are compared with the experimental ones obtained from the graphical variation of $'_{ij}/_{0ij}$ and $''_{ij}/_{0ij}$ with weight fractions $w_{j}$’s at $w_{j}→ 0$. The measured dipole moments $_{2}$ and $_{1}$ of the whole and the flexible part of a polar molecule in terms of the linear coefficients 's of $'_{ij}$’s with $w_{j}$’s and the estimated $_{2}$ and $_{1}$ reveal their associations with aliphatic solvents. The theoretical dipole moments $_{\\text{theo}}$’s from the available bond angles and bond moments of the substituent polar groups of the molecules with the estimated ’s suggest the mesomeric, inductive and electromeric effects in them under GHz electric field.

  20. Role of gastric oxidative stress and nitric oxide in formation of hemorrhagic erosion in rats with ischemic brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Road Hung

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of gastric oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) in the formation of gastric hemorrhagic erosion and their protection by drugs in rats with ischemic brain.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were deprived of food for 24 h. Under chloral hydrate (300 mg/kg) anesthesia,bilateral carotid artery ligation was performed. The pylorus and carotid esophagus of the rats were also ligated. The stomachs were then irrigated for 3 h with either normal saline or simulated gastric juice containing 100 mmol/L HCl plus 17.4 mmol/L pepsin and 54 mmol/L NaCl. Rats were killed and stomachs were dissected.Gastric mucosa and gastric contents were harvested. The rat brain was dissected for the examination of ischemia by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining method.Changes in gastric ulcerogenic parameters, such as decreased mucosal glutathione level as well as enhanced gastric acid back-diffusion, mucosal lipid peroxide generation, histamine concentration, luminal hemoglobin content and mucosal erosion in gastric samples, were measured.RESULTS: Bilateral carotid artery ligation produced severe brain ischemia (BI) in rats. An exacerbation of various ulcerogenic parameters and mucosal hemorrhagic erosions were observed in these rats. The exacerbated ulcerogenic parameters were significantly (P< 0.05) attenuated by antioxidants, such as exogenous glutathione and allopurinol. These gastric parameters were also improved by intraperitoneal aminoguanidine (100 mg/kg) but were aggravated by NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME: 25 mg/kg). Intraperitoneal L-arginine (0-500 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated BI-induced aggravation of ulcerogenic parameters and hemorrhagic erosions that were reversed by L-NAME.CONCLUSION: BI could produce hemorrhagic erosions through gastric oxidative stress and activation of arginine-nitric oxide pathway.

  1. Roles of autophagy in MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in vivo: the involvement of mitochondria and α-synuclein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chih Hung

    Full Text Available Macroautophagy (also known as autophagy is an intracellular self-eating mechanism and has been proposed as both neuroprotective and neurodestructive in the central nervous system (CNS neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the role of autophagy involving mitochondria and α-synuclein was investigated in MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced oxidative injury in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats in vivo. The oxidative mechanism underlying MPP+-induced neurotoxicity was identified by elevated lipid peroxidation and heme oxygenase-1 levels, a redox-regulated protein in MPP+-infused substantia nigra (SN. At the same time, MPP+ significantly increased LC3-II levels, a hallmark protein of autophagy. To block MPP+-induced autophagy in rat brain, Atg7siRNA was intranigrally infused 4 d prior to MPP+ infusion. Western blot assay showed that in vivo Atg7siRNA transfection not only reduced Atg7 levels in the MPP+-infused SN but attenuated MPP+-induced elevation in LC3-II levels, activation of caspase 9 and reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels, indicating that autophagy is pro-death. The immunostaining study demonstrated co-localization of LC3 and succinate dehydrogenase (a mitochondrial complex II as well as LC3 and α-synuclein, suggesting that autophagy may engulf mitochondria and α-synuclein. Indeed, in vivo Atg7siRNA transfection mitigated MPP+-induced reduction in cytochrome c oxidase. In addition, MPP+-induced autophagy differentially altered the α-synuclein aggregates in the infused SN. In conclusion, autophagy plays a prodeath role in the MPP+-induced oxidative injury by sequestering mitochondria in the rat brain. Moreover, our data suggest that the benefits of autophagy depend on the levels of α-synuclein aggregates in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of the rat brain.

  2. PPCP degradation by UV/chlorine treatment and its impact on DBP formation potential in real waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Sun, Jianliang; Fu, Wenjie; Shang, Chii; Li, Yin; Chen, Yiwei; Gan, Wenhui; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-07-01

    The ultraviolet/chlorine (UV/chlorine) water purification process was evaluated for its ability to degrade the residues of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) commonly found in drinking water sources. The disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed after post-chlorination were documented. The performance of the UV/chlorine process was compared with that of the UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) process in treating three types of sand-filtered natural water. Except caffeine and carbamazepine residues, the UV/chlorine process was found to be 59-99% effective for feed water with a high level of dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity, and 27-92% effective for water with a high ammonia content. Both chlorine radicals and hydroxyl radicals were found to contribute to the observed PPCP degradation. The removal efficiencies of chlorine- and UV-resistant PPCPs such as carbamazepine and caffeine were 2-3 times greater than in the UV/H2O2 process in waters not enriched with ammonia. UV/chlorine treatment slightly enhanced the formation chloral hydrate (CH), haloketone (HK) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM). It reduced haloacetonitrile (HAN) formation during the post-chlorination in comparison with the UV/H2O2 process. In waters with high concentrations of ammonia, the UV/chlorine process was only 5-7% more effective than the UV/H2O2 process, and it formed slightly more THMs, HKs and TCNM along with reduced formation of CH and HAN. The UV/chlorine process is thus recommended as a good alternative to UV/H2O2 treatment for its superior PPCP removal without significantly enhancing DBP formation. PMID:27110887

  3. Changes of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 in brain and plasma after brain injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱涛; 姚智; 袁汉娜; 陆伯刚; 杨树源

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in brain and plasma after brain injury and to assess the relationship between the cytokine levels and injury severity in rats. Methods: A total of 51 male Wistar rats, weighing 280-340 g, were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg body weight) through intraperitoneal injection and fixed on a stereotaxic instrument. Severe brain injury was created in 16 rats (severe injury group) and moderate brain injury in 18 rats (moderate injury group) by a fluid percussion model, and cytokine levels of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were measured with biological assay. And sham operation was made on the other 17 rats (control group). Results: In the control group, the levels of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were hardly detected in the cortex of the rats, but in the ipsilateral cortex of the rats in both injury groups, they increased obviously at 8 hours after injury. The increasing degree of these cytokines had no significant difference between the two injury groups. The levels of IL-6 in the plasma of all the rats increased slightly, whereas the levels of IL-1β and TNFα were undetectable. Conclusions: The increase of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 levels is closely related to brain injury. The increased cytokine levels in the central nervous system are not parallel to those in the peripheral blood. It suggests that inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the secondary neural damage after brain injury.

  4. Characteristics and DBP formation of dissolved organic matter from leachates of fresh and aged leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Qianyun; Boyer, Treavor H; Yang, Xiuhong; Xia, Beicheng; Yang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was leached from leaves of two trees commonly grown in subtropical regions, Pinus elliottii (commonly known as slash pine) and Schima superba (S. superba), and its degradation pattern and potential for forming disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were evaluated. The leaves were exposed in the field for up to one year before leaching. The DOM leached from slash pine litter contained on average 10.4 mg of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) per gram of dry weight; for S. superba the average was 37.2 mg-DOC/g-dry weight. Ultraviolet and visible light absorbance, fluorescence, and molecular weight analysis indicated that more aromatic/humic and higher molecular weight compounds are formed as leaf litter ages. A 4-component parallel factor analysis of the fluorescence data showed that the intensity of peaks related with protein-like components decreased gradually during biodegradation, while that of peaks attributed to humic-acid-like components increased continuously. Fresh slash pine leachates formed on average 40.0 μg of trihalomethane (THM) per milligram of DOC, while S. superba leachates formed 45.6 μg. THM formation showed peak values of 55.7 μg/mg DOC for slash pine and 74.9 μg/mg DOC for S. superba after 8 months of aging. The formation of haloacetonitrile (HAN) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) increased with increasing leaf age, while chloral hydrate (CH) formation did not show such a trend. Specific UV absorbance showed some positive correlation with DBPs, but humic-acid-like and protein-like absorbance peaks correlated with CH and TCNM yields in only some leaf samples. PMID:26991382

  5. Temporal variations of disinfection byproduct precursors in wildfire detritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Erşan, Mahmut S; Karanfil, Tanju; Chow, Alex T

    2016-08-01

    The Rim Fire ignited on August 17, 2013 and became the third largest wildfire in California history. The fire consumed 104,131 ha of forested watersheds that were the drinking water source for 2.6 million residents in the San Francisco Bay area. To understand temporal variations in dissolved organic matter (DOM) after the wildfire and its potential impacts on disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in source water supply, we collected the 0-5 cm ash/soil layer with surface deposits of white ash (high burn severity) and black ash (moderate burn severity) within the Rim Fire perimeter in Oct 2013 (pre-rainfall) for five sequential extractions, and in Dec 2013 (∼87 mm cumulative precipitation) and Aug 2014 (∼617 mm cumulative precipitation) for a single water extraction. Water-extractable DOM was characterized by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and DBP formation tests. Both increasing cumulative precipitation in the field or number of extractions in the lab resulted in a significant decrease in specific conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, and DBP formation potential, but an increase in DOM aromaticity (reflected by specific UV absorbance). However, the lab sequential leaching failed to capture the increase of the NOx(-)-N/NH4(+)-N ratio and the decrease in pH and dissolved organic carbon/nitrogen ratio of ash/soil extracts from Oct 2013 to Aug 2014. Increasing cumulative precipitation, inferring an increase in leaching after fire, led to an increase in DOM reactivity to form trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and chloral hydrate, but not for haloketones, haloacetonitrile, or N-nitrosodimethylamine, which were more related to the original burn severity. This study highlights that fire-affected DBP precursors for different DBP species have distinct temporal variation possibly due to their various sensitivity to biogeochemical alterations. PMID:27135374

  6. Health effects of disinfection by-products in chlorinated swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florentin, Arnaud; Hautemanière, Alexis; Hartemann, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Increased attendance at swimming pools is correlated with higher input of organic and minerals pollutants introduced by swimmers in the swimming pool water. In most swimming pools, microbiological control is performed by disinfection with the addition of chlorine. Chlorine is now well-known to lead to the formation of many disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes and chloramines. The hypothesis of a link between the presence of eye and skin irritation syndromes in swimmers and contact with swimming pool water treated with chlorine was initially proposed by Mood (1953). During recent decades many epidemiological studies have described the importance of DBPs generated with natural or imported organic matter present in water. Many of these DBPs are suspected to be toxic or even carcinogenic. Trihalomethanes and haloacetic acid families are the most studied but others DBPs, like chloral hydrate, haloacetonitriles, N-nitrosodimethylamine and the bromate ion, are emerging compounds of interest. Epidemiological data about the risk of cancer are still controversial. However, numerous publications highlight a toxic risk especially the risk of allergy and respiratory symptoms for babies and elite swimmers. The few publications dedicated to risk assessment do not suggest increased risk, other than for elite swimmers. These publications are likely to underestimate the risk associated with DBPs because of the lack of data in the literature precludes the calculation of risk associated with certain compounds or certain pathways. Thus for regulations, the need to take into account the risks associated with disinfection by-products is now important without forgetting the need of the control of microbiological hazards in swimming pools. PMID:21885333

  7. Protective effect of aqueous extract of Embelia ribes Burm fruits in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandari Uma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Embelia ribes , in focal ischemic brain. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar albino rats were fed with the aqueous extract of Embelia ribes (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding, all the animals were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate (400 mg/kg, i.p.. The right middle cerebral artery was occluded with a 4-0 suture for 2 h. The suture was removed after 2 h, to allow reperfusion injury. The animals were used for grip strength measurement, biochemical estimation in serum and brain tissue (hippocampus and frontal cortex and cerebral infarct size measurement. Results: In the ischemic group, a significant (P < 0.01 alteration in the markers of oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; reduced glutathione (GSH; glutathione peroxidase (GPx; glutathione reductase (GR; and, glutathione-S-transferase (GST was observed in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as compared to sham operated rats. We observed that the animals treated with the aqueous extract of Embelia ribes had a significant (P < 0.01 increase in the poststroke grip strength activity. Further, supplementation with aqueous extract of Embelia ribes reversed the levels/activities of the above mentioned biochemical parameters significantly (P< 0.01 and also resulted in decreased cerebral infarct area, as compared to the ischemic group. Conclusion: The results of our study, for the first time, provide clear evidence that aqueous extract of Embelia ribes pretreatment ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and enhances the antioxidant defense against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cerebral infarction in rats; it exhibits neuroprotective property.

  8. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, C. H.; Lim, S. Y.; Lee, I. Y.; Kim, O. H.; Bai, M. S.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W. [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84{+-}17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78{+-}10.36), mild defect (<50MQ : n=9, MQ=66.11{+-}13.87). The degree of rCBF decrease between the two groups was evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients.

  9. MRCP in the evaluation of pancreaticobiliary disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Radiologic assessment of pancreaticobiliary ductal disease (PBDD) in children currently consists of physiologic tests (radionuclide examinations) or invasive anatomic studies (ERCP and PTC). An accurate noninvasive and reproducible examination that can direct the subsequent need for more invasive studies would be helpful in this patient group. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of MRCP as a screening tool for PBBD in the pediatric population. Materials and methods. Over the last year, 33 patients ranging from 7 months to 20 years of age were prospectively evaluated with MRCP on a 1.5 T magnet. One patient was examined twice, several months apart. Thirteen patients had liver transplants. Coronal SPGR and heavily T-2W FSE cross-sectional images were obtained. Standard and oblique 2- to 6-cm-thick slab SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) acquisition and 3D MIP reconstruction of 2D FSE images were obtained in the planes of the CBD and pancreatic duct. Nine studies were performed with the patient under sedation with chloral hydrate or nembutal and fentanyl with quiet respiration, and the non-sedated patients were assessed with single breath hold or quiet respiration. Three patients received secretin. MRCP results were correlated with ERCP (9), PTC (7), liver biopsy (13), clinical information (6), surgery (3), and autopsy (2). Results. All 34 studies performed were considered diagnostic. Periportal fluid, proximal bowel fluid, and gallbladder distention did not significantly diminish the diagnostic information in any cases. Motion artifact did not cause serious degradation in image quality. MRCP depicted abnormalities including stones, stricture, intraductal tumor, and extrinsic compression, all of which were confirmed at ERCP, PTC (two unsuccessful in patients with non-dilated ducts by MRCP), surgery, liver biopsy, and autopsy. There were no false-negative examinations. Normal pancreatic studies performed to exclude pancreas divisum were followed

  10. MRCP in the evaluation of pancreaticobiliary disease in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcement, C.M.; Meza, M.P.; Arumanla, S.; Towbin, R.B. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Dept. of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-02-01

    Background. Radiologic assessment of pancreaticobiliary ductal disease (PBDD) in children currently consists of physiologic tests (radionuclide examinations) or invasive anatomic studies (ERCP and PTC). An accurate noninvasive and reproducible examination that can direct the subsequent need for more invasive studies would be helpful in this patient group. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of MRCP as a screening tool for PBBD in the pediatric population. Materials and methods. Over the last year, 33 patients ranging from 7 months to 20 years of age were prospectively evaluated with MRCP on a 1.5 T magnet. One patient was examined twice, several months apart. Thirteen patients had liver transplants. Coronal SPGR and heavily T-2W FSE cross-sectional images were obtained. Standard and oblique 2- to 6-cm-thick slab SSFSE (single-shot fast spin echo) acquisition and 3D MIP reconstruction of 2D FSE images were obtained in the planes of the CBD and pancreatic duct. Nine studies were performed with the patient under sedation with chloral hydrate or nembutal and fentanyl with quiet respiration, and the non-sedated patients were assessed with single breath hold or quiet respiration. Three patients received secretin. MRCP results were correlated with ERCP (9), PTC (7), liver biopsy (13), clinical information (6), surgery (3), and autopsy (2). Results. All 34 studies performed were considered diagnostic. Periportal fluid, proximal bowel fluid, and gallbladder distention did not significantly diminish the diagnostic information in any cases. Motion artifact did not cause serious degradation in image quality. MRCP depicted abnormalities including stones, stricture, intraductal tumor, and extrinsic compression, all of which were confirmed at ERCP, PTC (two unsuccessful in patients with non-dilated ducts by MRCP), surgery, liver biopsy, and autopsy. There were no false-negative examinations. Normal pancreatic studies performed to exclude pancreas divisum were followed

  11. What's new in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M H

    1953-11-01

    epileptogenic foci in the cortex is also being done in young patients if drug control of seizures fails. Frontal topectomy, cingulate gyrectomy or prefrontal labotomy may be advisable in cases in which proper response to drug therapy is not obtained. Improvement in behavior as well as control of seizures may follow the use of Benzedrine,(R) Dexedrine,(R) Dilantin(R) sodium, Mebaral(R) and phenobarbital. Alcohol, paraldehyde and chloral hydrate have been effective as relaxants. PMID:13106711

  12. Clinical significance of brain SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in cerebral palsy with normal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cerebral palsy(CP) encephalopathies are often of uncertain etiology and various functional image findings comparing with anatomical image findings have been reported. However, only a few have mentioned its clinical implications. The purpose of our report is to compare clinical severity and functional SPECT abnormalities of thalami and cerebellum in CP patients with normal MRI. Thirty six CP patients with bilateral spastic palsy who had normal MRI and brain SPECT were studied from July 1996 to September 1997. The patients' age at the time of SPECT was 22.84±17.69 months. The patients were divided into two groups according to motor quotient(MQ); moderate defect (>50MQ : n=27 MQ=22.78±10.36), mild defect (2 test. Brain SPECT was performed following IV administration of 0.05-0.1 mCi/kg (minimum 2.0 mCi) of Tc-99m ECD and chloral hydrate sedation (50-80 mg/kg p.o) using a triple head system (MS 3, Siemens). Interpretation of brain SPECT was visual analysis: severe decrease is defined when the defect is moderate to marked and mild decrease in rCBF as mild. Seven of 36 (19.4%) showed unilateral or bilateral moderate decrease in rCBF in thalami, 20(55.6%) showed mild decrease, and 9(25.0%) showed no decreased rCBF. All 7 who had moderate thalamic defect reveled moderate motor defect clinically. Ten of 36(27.9%) revealed unilateral or bilateral moderate rCBF defect, 23 (63.9%) depicted mild defect, and 3(8.3%) showed no defect. Sixteen with moderate thalamic rCBF defect showed moderate motor defect in 15 patients. There was statistically significant (p=0.02605) relationship between rCBF defect and motor defect in our CP patients. In conclusion, brain SPECT appears sensitive, non-invasive tool in the evaluation as well as in the prognostication of bilateral spastic cerebral palsy patients and deserves further study using larger number of patients

  13. Digital Microscopic Identification of Flower Crude Drug%花类生药的数码显微鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 金锐; 姚丽

    2012-01-01

    It is to provide the scientific reference of the flower crude drugs'identification through identifying the flower crude drugs'powder and taking the digital photos of its microscopic features. Chloral hydrate method was used to observe the microscopic features of the flowers crude drugs'powder with Motic Digital Microscope. Honeysuckles main features of microscopic identification are the Pollen granule,glandular hair and non - glandular hair;the secreting cell,pollen granule, Stigma debris and corolla lobe in safflower can be seen with the microscope;pollen granule,oil cavity,fiber and calcium oxalate crystals in Clove was seen. Colorful digital pictures reflect the features of crude drugs'microscopic identification character truly and directly. Microscopic identification features and digital pictures can be seen as the scientific reference of microscopic identifications of honeysuckle,safflower and Clove's powder and the standard assessment of medicine.%目的:对部分花类生药进行粉末显微鉴别,并拍摄其显微特征的数码照片,以期为生药的鉴别提供科学的参考依据.方法:采用水合氯醛法(粉末透化法)应用Motic数码显微镜观察花类生药的粉末显微特征.结果:金银花的主要显微鉴别特征是花粉粒、腺毛和非腺毛;红花镜下可看分泌细胞、花粉粒、柱头碎片和花冠裂片;丁香具有花粉粒、油室、纤维和草酸钙簇晶.并以彩色数码图片来真实、直观的反映花类生药的显微鉴别特征.结论:以上显微鉴别特征及数码图片可作为金银花、红花和丁香粉末显微鉴别及药材评价的科学参考依据.

  14. Establishment of a liver cancer model induced by DENA in Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasible approach for establishment of a liver cancer model induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA) with Sprague-Dawley rat, and to provide ideal animal model for imaging diagnosis and interventional therapy. Methods: One-hundred and forty male SD rats were administrated with 0.95 g/L DENA for l0 weeks, and MRI was performed for inspecting pathological changes of rat livers on the following week. When the liver tumor was proved then the rat will be the candidate for sequential procedures, otherwise the animal continued under observation until next MRI examination after 4 weeks. DSA was done in 64 rats for detecting blood supply of liver tumors. Animals were sacrificed with an overdose of chloral hydrate, The representative tumor tissues were fixed in 10% formalin and 2.5% glutaraldehyde for light and electron microscopy analysis respectively. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and hepatocyte were assaied by immunohistochemistry technique in order to identify intrinsic trait of the harvested tumors. Results: The earliest induced tumor was detected on 11th week and the latest was on 20th week by MRI, and the median period was 13.9 weeks. Tumor size ranged from 2 mm to 40 mm in diameter. The rate of single and multi-induced tumor was 9.7% (7/72) and 90.3% (65/72), respectively. 87.7% (57/65) of the induced multiple tumors was with hepatocirrhosis and 18.1% of these tumors combined with extrahepatic neoplasm or metastasis. Plenty blood supply was proved by DSA in most of those tumors. Tumors not only derived from hepatocyte but also manifested positive expression of AFP. Histological types of these tumors include hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (92.0%, 66/72), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) (4.0%, 3/72), and combined HCC and ICC (4.0%, 3/72), respectively. Electro-microscope analysis indicated that cytoplasm and organelle of induced tumors were abnormal distinctly compared with those of non-carcinomatous cells. Conclusion: DENA can induce ideal rat

  15. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide and nerve growth factor on spatial learning and memory abilities of rats following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangshun Zheng; Yongjie Yang; Xiubin Fang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nerve growth actor (NGF) cam improve spatial learning and memory abilities of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion; however, the effect of combination of them on relieving learning and memory injury following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion should be further studied.OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of exogenous CGRP and NGF on learning and memory abilities of rats with focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.SETTING:Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Hospital of Xiamen; Department of Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University; Department of Neurobiology, Basic Medical College of China Medical University.MATERIALS:A total of 30 healthy male SD rats, aged 8 weeks, of clean grade, weighing 250-300 g, were provided by Experimental Animal Department of China Medical University. All rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group, ischemia/reperfusion group and treatment group with 10 in each group. The main reagents were detailed as the follows: 100 g/L chloral hydrate, 0.5 mL CGRP (2 mg/L, Sigma Company, USA),and NGF (1 × 106 U/L, 0.5 mL, Siweite Company, Dalian).METHODS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Neurobiology, Basic Medical College of China Medical University from February to duly 20055. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were established by method of occlusion, 2 hours after that rats were anesthetized and the thread was slightly drawn out for 10 mm under direct staring to perform reperfusion. Rats in the ischemia/reperfusion group received intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL saline via the abdomen at two hours later, while rats in the treatment group at 2 hours later received intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg/L CGRP (0.5 mL) and 1 ×106 U/L NGF (0.5 mL) once a day for 10 successive days. First administration was accomplished within 15 minutes after ischemia/reperfusion. Rats in the sham

  16. Peripheral Nerve Discharge Elicited by Manual Acupuncture at Zusanli (ST 36) Regulates Blood Pressure in Anesthetized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李为民; 陈颖渡; 王智君

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate target organ response by recording mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) fluctuation corresponding to nerve-tract discharges from the nerve innervating acupoint of Zusanli (ST 36) in the hind limb evoked by MA in anesthetized rats. Methods: Male SD rats anesthetized with chloral hydrate were randomly divided into 3 groups which were treated with manual acupuncture (MA), injection of lidocaine followed by MA and injection of normal saline (NS) followed by MA, respectively. The right carotid artery was canulated for persistent measurement of the blood pressure and meanwhile nerve discharges from the nerve-tract were recorded for analysis with amplitude spike counts for every 5 s. Results: The results showed that there were significant nerve discharges recorded from the nerve-tract when applying MA at Zusanli (ST 36) and simultaneous decrease in the MAP, while there was no response when inserting a needle into the Zusanli (ST 36) without manipulation (P<0.05). Furthermore, the reduction of MAP during MA could be completely abolished after blockade of peripheral nerve discharges with an injection of lidocaine into the tissue around Zusanli (ST 36) but not with that of normal saline (NS). Conclusion: These results indicate that MA at Zusanli (ST 36) can elicit the peripheral nerve discharges from the nerve innervating the acupoint; such kind of nerve discharges may contain acupuncture signal regulating blood pressure via somato-cardiovascular reflex.%目的:麻醉状态下观察手针大鼠后肢足三里穴位引起的支配该穴区的特异性神经束放电以及由此诱发的相应靶器官血压波动效应.方法:将水合氯醛麻醉处理的雄性大鼠随机分为针刺组、利多卡因注射后针刺组(穴位邻近区域肌肉注射2%利多卡因后进行足三里手针刺激)并设生理盐水注射后针刺组(穴位邻近区域肌肉注射生理盐水后进行足三里手针刺激)作为对照.持续记录足三里针刺过程中

  17. Análise morfoanatômica das partes aéreas de Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Asteraceae Morphoanatomic analysis of aerial parts of Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Baccarin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estabelecimento de parâmetros para análise morfo-anatômica das partes aéreas (caule e folhas da planta Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. A droga vegetal e o respectivo pó foram submetidos às análises macro e microscópica após preparação de lâminas semi-permanentes de cortes transversais e paradérmicos. O pó foi analisado após diafanização com cloral hidratado. É uma planta herbácea com caule castanho-avermelhado, folhas opostas, curto-pecioladas e membranáceas, apresentando pêlos nas duas faces, estreitada em direção à base acima do meio provida de dois pequenos lobos laterais e um terminal, maior e denteado. A planta apresenta secção circular de caule, que em crescimento primário, possui epiderme, colênquima angular, parênquima cortical e cilindro vascular, assim como oxalato de cálcio (várias drusas e alguns cristais prismáticos. A folha é simples, contendo tricomas tectores e estômato anomocítico. O mesofilo possui organização dorso-ventral e a nervura central, em corte transversal, apresenta-se côncavo-convexo com três feixes colaterais e presença de drusas de oxalato de cálcio nas células parenquimáticas. No pó obtido da droga vegetal foram verificadas as mesmas estruturas microscópicas observadas na droga vegetal rasurada. Os parâmetros morfo-anatômicos estabelecidos neste trabalho permitem o controle de qualidade macro e microscópico da planta tanto rasurada como na forma de pó.This study aimed to establish parameters for morphoanatomical analysis of the aerial parts (stem and leaves of the plant Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. The drug and its respective powder were characterized by macro and microscopic analysis after obtaining semi-permanent lamina of transverse and paradermal sections. The powder was analyzed after being cleared with chloral hydrate. It is an herbaceous plant with reddish-brown stems, opposite leaves, short-petiolated and

  18. DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS FORMATIONS FROM TWO GROWTH FORMS OF PSEDUMONAS AERUGINOSA IN THE PROCESS OF CHLORINE DISINFECTION%2种形态铜绿假单胞菌在氯消毒过程中消毒副产物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕; 周达诚; 王保强

    2012-01-01

    To study the disinfection byproducts formations (DBPs) from suspended and adherent growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under chlorination, the sterilized saline water and the galavanized-zinc material were used to simulate suspended growth environment and establish adherent growth model, respectively. Uniform formation conditions (UFC) were applied in the process of chlorine disinfection. Gas chromatography analysis results showed that the two kinds of form by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were DBP precursors. The main DBPs included four trihaloraethanes (THMs), trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) and chloral hydrate (CH). THM yields followed the total organic carbon and specific chlorine demand relationships, however such were not found with TCAN and CH. It can be inferred that some protein structure existed in the extracellular polymers of the galvanized-zinc biofilm may play an important role. The presence of bromine ion produced inhibition to CHCl3 and TCAN, but promoted the production of CHBr3 and dibromoacetonitrile (HANs). When p(Br)=2 mg/L, CHBr3 and dibromoacetonitrile reached maximum, and mainly affected the total THMs and HANs concentrations. The concentrations of BrCl-THMs and BrCl-HANs increased first, and then decreased with the Br increasing.%为研究悬浮和附着生长下的铜绿假单胞菌经氯消毒后消毒副产物的生成情况,以无菌生理盐水模拟悬浮生长环境,选取镀锌材料建立附着生长模型,采用UFC法进行加氯试验,气相色谱分析.结果表明,2种形态下的铜绿假单胞菌均为消毒副产物前驱物质,主要副产物包括三卤甲烷(THMs)、三氯乙腈(TCAN)和水合三氯乙醛(CH),且THMs符合TOC含量、单位耗氯量大小关系,而TCAN和CH则相反,可能是由生物膜胞外聚合物中的某种蛋白质结构引起.Br的存在对CHCl3和TCAN产生抑制作用,转而形成更多的CHBr3和二溴乙腈,当Br的质量浓度为2 mg/L时,CHBr3和二溴乙腈含量达到最大值,且主要影响总THMs

  19. Mechanisms involved in the induction of aneuploidy: the significance of chromosome loss

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    A.I. Seoane

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The induction of aneuploidy by physical and chemical agents using different test systems was evaluated. The effect of X-rays, caffeine, acetaldehyde, ethanol, diethylstilbestrol, propionaldehyde, and chloral hydrate was studied by chromosome counting in Chinese hamster embryonic diploid cells. Aneugenic ability of cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, potassium dichromate, chromium chloride, nickel chloride, and nickel sulfate was assessed by means of anaphase-telophase analysis in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Chromosome counting in human fibroblasts (MRC-5 cell line was employed to evaluate the effect of cacodilic acid, cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, and potassium dichromate. Finally, the induction of kinetochore-positive and kinetochore negative micronuclei by cadmium chloride, cadmium sulfate, potassium dichromate, chromium chloride, and nickel chloride was studied using CREST antibodies. When the effect of different agents was determined by chromosome counting, an increase of hypoploid but not of hyperploid cells was observed. Anaphase-telophase analysis showed that metal salts increased the frequency of lagging chromosomes. This finding has been confirmed by the increment of kinetochore-positive micronuclei using CREST antibodies. Therefore, chromosome loss could be considered as the main cause of induced aneuploidy.A indução de aneuploidia por agentes físicos e químicos usando diferentes sistemas de teste foi avaliada. O efeito de raios-X, cafeína, acetaldeído, etanol, dietilestilbestrol, propionaldeído e hidrato de cloral foi estudado por contagem cromossômica em células diplóides embriônicas de hamster chinês. A habilidade aneugênica de cloreto de cádmio, sulfato de cádmio, dicromato de potássio, cloreto de crômio, cloreto de níquel e sulfato de níquel foi avaliada por meio de análise de anáfase-telófase em células de ovário de hamster chinês. A contagem cromossômica em fibroblastos humanos (linhagem celular

  20. Uso crônico de decanoato de nandrolona como fator de risco para hipertensão arterial pulmonar em ratos Wistar Chronic use of nandrolone decanoate as risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension in Wistar rats

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    Jones Bernardes Graceli

    2010-02-01

    muscle once a week for 4 weeks. After the treatment, rats were anesthetized with chloral hydrate (4.0mL/kg-1, ip, and catheterized in the femoral artery. Twenty-four hours later, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart ratio were measured. The heart, kidneys and liver were removed, weighed and the rates of hypertrophy (RH were measured, which were calculated by the ratio of the weight of the organs by the body weight (mg.g-1. RESULTS: DECA treatment increased body weight (338 ± 6g; p <0.01 vs. CONT (315 ± 5g. This treatment had no effect on the MAP (CONT, 110±4mmHg, DECA, 113 ± 4mmHg. However, the bradycardia of animals treated with DECA (321 ± 13bpm, p<0.01 was significantly lower than that of CONT (368 ±11bpm. RH increased (p <0.01 the cardiac ventricles and the kidneys, but not in the liver. The correlation between the RVH and MAP in DECA showed positive and higher Pearson's coefficient (r² = 0.4013 vs CONT (r² = 0.0003. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that chronic nandrolone decanoate treatment induced bradycardia and RVH, which suggests increased risk for PAH.

  1. Sobre a morte da cobaya consecutiva á dupla Vagotomia

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    Miguel Ozorio de Almeida

    1920-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. A secção dos vagos na cobaya produza morte em prazos que variam de meia hora a algumas horas. 2. A morte se dá por intensas lesões pulmonares, caracterisadas por congestão e edema. 3. As cobayas introduzidas em camaras em que a atmosphera tem altas tensões de gaz carbonico, caem anesthesiadas ao fim de alguns segundos, seguindo-se logo depois a morte. Na autopsia, se encontram lesões pulmonares muito semelhantes ás que se verificam nas cobayas vagotomisadas. 4. Nas cobayas profundamente anesthesiadas pelo chloral, a sobrevida á vagotomia é muito maior que nas cobayas não anesthesiadas. Nesses casos a morte muitas vezes se dá quando o animal vem a despertar da anesthesia. 5. Foram feitas novas experiencias que demonstram produzir a novocaina uma interrupção completa de todas as fórmas de conductibilidade dos nervos. 6. Quando se produz a secção physiologica pela novocaina dos vagos na cobaya, observam-se modificações do typo respiratorio que se caracterisam por diminuição consideravel da frequencia e augmento da amplitude. A respiração não apresenta porém, o typo francamente dyspneico, istoé, ella não se faz com difficuldade. 7. A secção physiologia dos pneumogastricos permitte uma sobrevida muito maior que a secção cirurgica. 8. A morte nas condições da conclusão precedente se dá pelas mesmas lesões pulmonares que se encontram habitualmente depois de secção cirurgica, mas é produzida unicamente pela irritação dos pneumogastricos exercida pelas gotteiras de borracha e pelo algodão, depois que a novocaina é absorvida e que se dissipa a anesthesia local. 9. Quando se operam as secções dos vagos com irritações variaveis as sobrevidas são differentes. 10. A sangria immediata não tem effeito sobre o tempo de vida da cobaya vagotomisada. 11. A sangria tardia parece augmentar ligeiramente essa sobrevida. Todos os factos expostos neste trabalho demonstram: 1 De um lado a irritação sem secção dos

  2. Sedoanalgesia pediátrica en lugares fuera de quirófano Pediatric sedoanalgesia outside the operating theatre

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    M. Castilla-Moreno

    2004-12-01

    .Objective: To review the sedations that are performed in pediatric care outside the surgical area. This is always a challenge for the anesthesiologist, but particularly when the patients are children. We believe that the keys are: a protocol that establishes the drugs to be used and their routes of administration, monitoring, appointment of a nurse for the support of the anesthesiologist and, of course, a very good selection of the procedures. In fact, despite the many studies that have been published about sedation, many of these fail because the indications are not appropriate or because the person that performs them is not an anesthesiologist. Our working method has been the following: -We carried out a literature search of a basic drug: propofol. -In order to establish the procedures that have to be conducted under sedation in children, we contacted several hospitals with a recognized prestige in Pediatric Anesthesia with a list of procedures. The hospitals consulted were: Children's Hospital de Pittsburgh, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Department of Pediatric Anesthesia of the Varsaw University, Children's Hospital of Colonia (Alemania and Sick Great Ormond Street of London. All of them agreed on the need of sedation for the following procedures: bath of burned children, radiotherapy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, computerized axial tomography (CAT, positron emission tomography (PET. The echocardiography in small children is mostly performed with chloral hidrate, either orally (85% or rectally administered. Material and method: We reviewed recently published literature with Internet search tools, in most cases using the propofol word and crossing-over the key words: propofol and children, propofol and infants y propofol and neonates. Conclusions: Sedation procedures in children require, such as any other type of anesthesia, the following: 1. Informed consent. 2. Fasting, depending on age. 3. Availability of a venous access. 4. Appropriate monitoring depending on the

  3. Effect of diabetes on baclofen-induced inhibition of mEPSCs in spinal glutamatergic neurons in rats with neuropathic pain%糖尿病因素对巴氯芬抑制神经痛大鼠脊髓谷氨酸能神经元突触后电流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白惠萍; 彭云水; 王倩; 吴川; 刘飞飞; 刘朋; 郭跃先; 王秀丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of diabetes on baclofen-induced inhibition of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in spinal glutamatergic neurons in rats with neuropathic pain.Methods Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats,aged 4 weeks,weighing 150-170 g,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=15 each group):control group (C group) and diabetic neuropathic pain group (D group).Diabetic neuropathic pain was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 50 mg/kg and confirmed 28 days later by blood glucose > 16.7 mmol/L and pain threshold < 4 g in group D,while the rats received the equal volume of normal saline in C group.The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% chloral hydrate 50 mg/kg.The rats were then sacrificed and lumbar segments (L1.5) of the spinal cord were removed for slice preparations.Glutamatergic mEPSCs in lamina Ⅱ neurons were recorded by using whole-cell patch-clamp technique and 20 neurons located in lamina Ⅱ of the spinal cord were recorded in each group.The cells stabilized for 30 min after sealing,and then baclofen with the final concentrations of 1,10,20,50 μmol/L was added to the perfusion solution at 5 min intervals followed by washout.The frequency and intensity of glutamatergic mEPSCs were recorded immediately before and after administration and at 5 min after washout.The inhibitory effect of baclofen on glutamatergic mEPSCs was measured and the inhibitory rate was calculated.Results Compared with group C,the frequency of glutamatergic mEPSCs was significantly increased and the inhibitory rate was decreased under each concentration (P < 0.05),and no significant change was found in the intensity of mEPSCs under each concentration in D group (P > 0.05).Conclusion Diabetes decreases baclofen-induced analgesic effect in rats with neuropathic pain,which is related to inhibition of mEPSCs in spinal glutamatergic neurons.%目的 评价糖尿病因素对巴氯芬抑制神经痛大鼠脊髓谷氨酸

  4. 先天显性脊柱裂胎鼠羊水蛋白谱差异性分析%Comparative proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid in rats with spina bifida aperta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单立平; 李慧; 范洋; 周凤华; 顾卉; 袁正伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential biomarker for early diagnosis of spina bifida aperta by analyzing of proteomic profile of amniotic fluid in rats with spina bifida aperta (SBA) induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).Methods The pregnant rats were randomly divided into 2 groups:SBA group (24 rats) and normal group (9 rats).SBA was induced by a single intragastric administration of ATRA to the pregnant rats on gestational day 10 (E10).All pregnant rats were sacrificed by an overdose chloral hydrate on E17 day,and fetuses and amniotic fluid were collected.Albumin and IgG were removed using Protein A/G kit to increase the concentration of target proteins.The proteomic profiles of amniotic fluid were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/mass spectrometry (MS).Results Six proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the amnioticfluid of SBA rats.Of the 6 proteins,transferrin,alpha-1 antiproteinase and signal recognition particle receptor were unregulated,and apolipoprotein A Ⅳ and Srprb 77 kDa were down-regulated.Additionally,46 protein fragments in SBA amniotic fluid were found,including 11 were upregulated and 35 were downregulated.A Western blot analysis confirmed the 2-DE/MS data,indicating the 6 isoforms of AFP (69-,52-,36-,24-and 14-kDa) were associated with SBA.Moreover,the 69-kDa AFP was the most abundant protein in the amniotic fluid of SBA,which was increased by 1.42-fold (P<0.05).Conclusions Six proteins in amniotic fluid are correlated with spinal bifida aperta,and may be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis of spina bifida aperta.%目的 采用2-D/质谱电泳方法,比较孕17d正常组胎鼠和全反式维甲酸诱导的显性脊柱裂胎鼠羊水蛋白表达谱的变化,筛查先天性显性脊柱裂相关羊水标记物.方法 孕10d大鼠,采用全反式维甲酸胃管灌饲的方法建立先天显性脊柱裂动物模型24只(脊柱裂组),正常对照组9只(正常组).孕17d晨,麻醉孕鼠,显微镜下获取每

  5. Experimental study on Yougui recipe (右归饮)in preventng osteolysis surrounding artificial prosthesis%右归饮防治人工关节假体周围骨溶解的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡运火; 赵鹏; 毛强; 鲍航行; 王金法; 胡淼锋; 肖鲁伟; 童培建

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore effects of Yougui recipe (右归饮) and salmon calcitonin acetate in preventing osteolysis surrounding artificial prosthesis. Methods:Thirty-two SD male rats with weighted (250±20) g,aged 8 weeks,were randomly divided into four groups ;blank group,model group,salmon ealcitonin acetate group and Yougui recipe (右归饮) group,and 8 rats in each group. Blank group did not undergo any process,other 24 rats underwent anesthesia by chloral hydrate,their knee joints were exposed through medial patellar side,drilling from fermoral condyle nest to marrow cavity,high density of polyth-lene particles were injected into hole,titanium nail were put into,bone wax closed the window,then suturing step by step. After the molding, saline were used to gavaged in blank group and model group, Yougui recipe (右归饮) for Yougui recipe (右归饮) group,salmon calcitonin maximus injection for calcitonin group. After 10 weeks' mediation,rats were executed,and arterial blood and bilateral femoral organization were collected to biochemical ,imaging morphology, tissue pathology and molecular biology detection. Results:The key gene expression of activiting osteoclast were inhibited in Yougui recipe (右归饮) group and calcitonin group. The level of OPG, Ca, ALP in Yougui recipe (右归饮) group were higher than calcitonin group (P<0.01); the content of RANKL were lower (P<0.01). There were no significance meaning in RANK,Trap5b,P between two groups. Conclusion : Both of Yougui recipe ( 右归饮) and calcitonin can slow and treat surrounding osteolysis of artificial joint prosthesis, and Yougui recipe (右归饮 ) has better effect in promoting bone formation. The effect of Yougui recipe (右归饮) in promoting bone formation, inhibiting osteoclasts to provide a new method to treating surrounding osteolysis of artificial joint prosthesis.hesis, and Yougui recipe (右归饮%目的:观察右归饮和鲑鱼降钙素防治人工关节假体周

  6. Preparation of EUS-guided radiofrequency probe and test of its functions%可经超声内镜引导的射频消融电极针的制备及其性能初探

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    马士杰; 张国新; 施瑞华; 郭峰; 苗毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prepare a radiofrequency (RF) ablation probe guided by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Methods A modified 19-gauge needle ( Olympus) was used, which was electrically insulated with shrink tubing, with the tip of lcm naked. The insulation was tested, and the current signal was stable. Three rabbits were anesthetized with 8% chloral hydrate ( 3 ml/kg) intraperitoneally, fixed on the dissecting table. A standard neutral pad was applied to the thigh of the rabbit to complete the electrical circuit, both the pad and the needle electrode connected with RF generator. After anesthesia was ready, the needle was advanced through the gastric wall into the liver. Ablations were performed three times in the same zone. Extent and tissue lesion were measured after ablation. Results Ablation could be successfully performed by the needle electrode, with brown lesions surrounded by normal hepatic tissue. The mean diameter of the ablated zone in the liver was 1.0 cm× 1.2 cm. After ablation,specimens along the passage were subjected to NADH staining, and no lesions were found. HE and NADH staining showed no viable cells in the central ablation area. Conclusion With the advance of the technology and selection of materials, an EUS-guided needle electrode can be made. This preliminary animal trial demonstrates that radiofrequency ablation can be performed effectively and safely by using this EUS-guided needle electrode.%目的 制备能经超声内镜引导下的射频消融电极并初步测试其性能.方法 对能经超声内镜引导的Olympus胰腺19 G穿刺针进行改造,手柄部位进行导线外接,其尖端予以绝缘、疏水涂层,尖端裸露1 cm.进行测试后显示绝缘部分绝缘良好,裸露电极电流信号稳定.将3只家兔用8%的水合氯醛3 ml/kg腹腔注射,麻醉后固定于解剖台上,腿部接中性电极板,连接于Radionics射频消融发生器.射频消融发生器另一端接制备好的消

  7. Sedação e analgesia em neonatologia Sedación y analgesia en neonatología Sedation and analgesia in neonatology

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    Yerkes Pereira e Silva

    2007-10-01

    dolor en Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal y también para hacer el ambiente más humanizado y menos estresante para los pacientes y sus familiares. El tratamiento del dolor en el recién nacido consiste en medidas no farmacológicas (succión no nutritiva, glicosis y farmacológicas (analgésicos no-opioides, opioides y anestésicos locales. La sedación en recién nacidos es producida por fármacos que actúan disminuyendo la actividad, la ansiedad y la agitación del paciente, pudiendo conllevar a la amnesia de eventos dolorosos o no dolorosos. La sedación puede ser hecha a través del uso de hidrato de cloral, barbitúricos, propofol y benzodiazepínicos. CONCLUSIONES: La prevención del dolor y la indicación de analgesia deben ser individualizadas y siempre consideradas en todos los recién nacidos portadores de enfermedades potencialmente dolorosas y/o sometidos a procedimientos invasivos, quirúrgicos o no.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The study of pain in neonatology is important because pain and stress mean suffering and discomfort for newborns and, despite it, very little has been done to minimize them. In this revision we discuss: prevention of pain, non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment, and sedation in newborns. CONTENTS: Several non-pharmacological measures can be taken to prevent pain in Neonatal Intensive Care Units, and to humanize and reduce the stress on the environment for patients and their families. Pain treatment in the newborn consists of non-pharmacological (non-nutritive suckling, glucose and pharmacological (non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and local anesthetics measures. Sedation in the newborn is achieved with drugs that decrease activity, anxiety, and agitation of the patient, and that could lead to amnesia of painful and non-painful events. Sedation can be accomplished with chloral hydrate, barbiturates, propofol, and benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of pain and the indication of analgesia should be individualized

  8. Role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the mild head hypothermia induced attenuation of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats%线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道在头部浅低温减轻大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振明; 薄立军; 韩建民; 黄立宁; 康荣田; 曹瑞旗; 吴文浩

    2009-01-01

    目的 评价线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道在头部浅低温减轻大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤中的作用.方法 健康雄性SD大鼠32只,体重200~250 g,随机分为4组(n=8):假手术组(S组)、全脑缺血再灌注组(I/R组)、头部浅低温组(H组)和5-羟基葵酸钠组(5-HD组).采用三血管阻断法建立大鼠全脑缺血再灌注模型.S组仅分离血管,不阻断;I/R组制备大鼠全脑缺血再灌注模型;H组于再灌注前即刻实施头部浅低温(使鼓膜温度在1 min内降至32~34℃),维持3 h后复温;5-HD组于缺血前30 min腹腔注射5-羟基葵酸钠10 mg/kg,于再灌注前即刻实施头部浅低温.于再灌注12 h时评估大鼠神经行为学(跨格次数和转体时间),采用EIJSA法测定血清神经元特异性烯醇化酶(NSE)的浓度,电镜下观察额叶皮质神经元的超微结构.结果 与S组比较,I/R组、H组和5-HD组跨格次数减少,转体时间延长,I/R组和5-HD组血清NSE浓度升高(P<0.05),H组血清NSE浓度差异无统计学意义(P0.05);与I/R组比较,H组跨格次数增多,转体时间缩短,血清NSE浓度降低,5-HD组转体时间缩短(P<0.05),其余指标差异无统计学意义(P0.05);与H组比较,5-HD组跨格次数减少,转体时间延长,血清NSE浓度升高(P<0.05).H组额叶皮质神经元病理学改变较I/R组和5-HD组减轻,5-HD组与I/R组损伤程度相似.结论 头部浅低温减轻大鼠全脑缺血再灌注损伤可能与开放线粒体ATP敏感性钾通道有关.%Objective To investigate the role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mito-KATP) in the mild head hypothermia induced attenuation of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods Thirty-two healthy male SD rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=8each): group Ⅰ sham operation (S);group Ⅱ I/R;group Ⅲ mild head hypothermia + I/R (H) and group 5-HD + mild head hypothermia + I/R (5-HD). The animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal 10% chloral

  9. Glial reaction in the hippocampus after global cardiogenic ischemia Reação glial no hipocampo após isquemia global cardiogênica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Fachin Martins

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental surgerical procedures have been perfomed in the analyse of the phenomenon of brain trophism and plasticity, however undesirable intercorrence can occour leading to specific changes in the results that should be taken into attention. To study this issue we have promoted a transient cardiogenic interruption of the blood flow together with a transient occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (2VO in rats and analysed the state of activation of astrocyte and microglia by means of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and OX42 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Rats were submitted to incomplete global cerebral ischemia (IGCI by occlusion of the bilateral carotid arteries for 30 minutes. During the IGCI surgical, some rats received a higher dose of the chloral hydrate anaesthesia which promoted a cardiogenic interruption of the blood flow (CIBF for a period of 10 minutes followed by and prompt reperfusion. During that period, animals were submited to a cardiac massage and ventilated. Sham operation were made in control animals. Rats were killed and their brains processed 14 days after the surgery. The animals that have received a IGCI showed a slight astroglial and microglial reaction in all subfields of the hippocampal formation, however the animal submitted to CIBF showed a massive infiltration of the reactive astrocyte and microglia in CA1 subfield. This results demonstrated that a transient occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries leads to activation of glial cells in the hippocampus, however this response can be remarkable changed in animal developing a transient systemic hypoperfusion during surgery. Thus, an accurated monitoration of the hemodinamic condition of the animal has to be done in experimental models of brain ischemia and the results have to be analysed in view of this aspect.Muitos procedimentos experimentais são desenvolvidos para analisar o fenômeno do trofismo e plasticidade cerebral

  10. Utilização da terapia ultra-sônica de baixa intensidade na redução da lipodistrofia ginecóide: uma terapia segura ou risco cardiovascular transitório? Um estudo pré-clínico Use of low intensity ultrasonic therapy in the reduction of gynecoid lipodystrofy: a safe therapy or transitory cardiovascular risk? A pre-clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Luiz S. Gonçalves

    2005-12-01

    . After induced anesthesia with halotano, the rats had been submitted to UST pulse way, with power 1,0W/cm2 and 3 MHz frequency in the inguinal region (3cm2, during 03 min. per 10 days. At the treatment end, after anesthesia with Chloral 10% (0,4mL / 100g a catheter made of PE-50 tubing connected to PE-10 tubing was implanted in the femoral artery, the blood pressure (BP and hart rate (HR was measured; the blood was collected for determination of lipids and glucose levels. To follow, hearts were isolated and perfused by Langendorff apparatus; was determined the baseline coronary perfused pressure (CPP after 40 minutes and determined dose-response curve by adenosine. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA for independent sample, followed by the Tukey test for comparison of the means. Differences were considered significant when P<0.05 and values were reported as mean+SEM. RESULTS: We observed increase (P<0,01 in blood pressure in the UST (114+1 vs. in the control-sham (103+1mmHg group. The serum glucose (97+2 vs. 133+6 mg/dL and lipids profile showed significant differences in the LDL-C (10+1 vs. 14+1 mg/dL HDL-C (59+1 vs. 54+1 mg/dL; triglyceride (33+2 vs. 82+6 mg/dL in the control and UST groups, respectively. The baseline CPP was reduced (P<0,01 from 94+2 mmHg in the control-sham to 79+1 mmHg in the UST group. CONCLUSIONS: Immediately after use of ultrasound therapy, the hemodynamics parameters and serum lipids and glucose levels were modified and producing attenuation induced-vasodilatation by adenosine. Therefore, we can consider that the UST increases the cardiovascular risk in female rats.

  11. Effects of different perfusate on the morphological structure of rabbit corneal endothelium during phacoemulsification%不同成分灌注液对超声乳化术中兔角膜内皮细胞形态结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶仕英; 穆长征; 刘华; 王晓梅

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between the ingredients of perfusate and its protection on corneal endothelium is always the hot issue in ophthalmology and pharmacology.OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of different perfusates on the structure and function of rabbit corneal endothelium during phacoemulsification.DESIGN: A randomized grouping designed and controlled animal trial.SETTINGS: Laboratory of experimental animal center of Jinzhou Medical College and the laboratory of experimental animal operation of an urban hospital.MATERIALS: The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of experimental animal center of Jinzhou Medical College and the laboratory of experimental animal operation of Jinzhou Yadong Ophthalmology Hospital from September 2004 to March 2005. Sixteen pure Japanese big-ear rabbits of 3.5 months old, clean degree, were randomly divided into four groups with 4 rabbits in each group: normal control group, saline group, shike group and balanced salt solution group. Shike was produced by Shenyang Qixing Pharmaceutical Co.,Ltd.; Balanced salt solution by Alcon Company (USA).METHODS: The rabbits were intraperitoneally anesthetized with 100 ml/L chloral hydrate (3 mL/kg), 4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride eye drops were used for surface anesthesia of eyes, and both eyes were operated. Alcon phacoemulsification apparatus (USA) and routine microsurgical instruments were used. A 3.5-mm incision was made on sclerotic tunnel at 2 mm posterior to superior limbus of sclera, punctured into the anterior chamber, then 0.25 mL Viscoat (Alcon) was infused. Curvilinear capsulorhexis was performed with the diameter of about 5 mm. The phacoemulsification head was placed in the center to suck out the crystal nucleus and cortex, and the incision was closed after the operation. The morphology of the corneal endothelium was quantitatively determined using contact specular microscope preoperativley and 6 hours postoperatively, including the density and area of corneal

  12. Improvement of valerian-ligusticum extract on cerebral microcirculatory disturbance%复方缬芎提取物改善脑微循环障碍作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛存宽; 何学斌; 屈文; 李颖; 曾伶; 彭仁琇

    2005-01-01

    injected in coccygeal nerve. Fifteen minutes later, radio-immunity counter was used periment of arteral-ovenous bypass method for thrombosis, before the opercal saline successively, continuously for 7 days, once per day. After 24 hours of medication pause, with abdominal anesthesia with pentobarbitol sodium, a catheter (with surgical thread inside) was used in vitro to connect common cervical vein and carotid artery. Thrombus mass was scaled 15 dominal anesthesia of chloral hydrate, intraluminal thread approach (ITA)was used to block unilateral MCA. Except that ITA was not used, the other management in sham-operation group was same as experimental groups.Gastric perfusion was done with VLE(156, 94, 31.3 mg/kg), ligustrazine operation and 3 hours and 12 hours after operation. 24 hours after modeling, the assessment was done for behavioral neurological damage and brain sive cerebral ischemia experiment, the model was prepared by coccygeal injection of collagen + adrenalin (AD). Respectively, 30 minutes before modeling injection and 1 hour after injection, gastric perfusion was done with VLE (200, 40 mg/kg), ligustrazine (10 mg/kg) or solvent enhancer of equal volume successively to observe the numbers of dead mice in 5 minutes after modeling and the numbers of hemiplegia mice in 15 minutes;and to determine brain mass index 8 hours later after sacrificed and lactic acid level of brain tissue homogenate with ultraviolet spectrophotometry.group.RESULTS: In the experiment of acute extensive brain ischemia in mice, in solvent control, during modeling, 3 mice were died and the rest 207 mice brain tissue in mice, the ratios of brain with and blood γ ray pulsating intensity in VLE 85 mg/kg group and VLE 170 mg/kg were higher than model group (0.53±0.09, 0.55±0.08, 0.45±0.08, t=2.234 6, 2.793 3, P method in rats, the thrombus masses in VLE 156 mg/kg group, 94 mg/kg group and 31.3 g/kg group were lower remarkably than the model group [(12.66±4.79), (13.31 ±3.97), (13.49±4