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Sample records for chlamydial inclusion membrane

  1. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1

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    Norkin Leonard C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid raft domains form in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells by the tight packing of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Caveolae are invaginated structures that form in lipid raft domains when the protein caveolin-1 is expressed. The Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate entirely within inclusions that develop from the phagocytic vacuoles in which they enter. We recently found that host cell caveolin-1 is associated with the intracellular vacuoles and inclusions of some chlamydial strains and species, and that entry of those strains depends on intact lipid raft domains. Caveolin-2 is another member of the caveolin family of proteins that is present in caveolae, but of unknown function. Methods We utilized a caveolin-1 negative/caveolin-2 positive FRT cell line and laser confocal immunofluorescence techniques to visualize the colocalization of caveolin-2 with the chlamydial inclusions. Results We show here that in infected HeLa cells, caveolin-2, as well as caveolin-1, colocalizes with inclusions of C. pneumoniae (Cp, C. caviae (GPIC, and C. trachomatis serovars E, F and K. In addition, caveolin-2 also associates with C. trachomatis serovars A, B and C, although caveolin-1 did not colocalize with these organisms. Moreover, caveolin-2 appears to be specifically, or indirectly, associated with the pathogens at the inclusion membranes. Using caveolin-1 deficient FRT cells, we show that although caveolin-2 normally is not transported out of the Golgi in the absence of caveolin-1, it nevertheless colocalizes with chlamydial inclusions in these cells. However, our results also show that caveolin-2 did not colocalize with UV-irradiated Chlamydia in FRT cells, suggesting that in these caveolin-1 negative cells, pathogen viability and very likely pathogen gene expression are necessary for the acquisition of caveolin-2 from the Golgi. Conclusion Caveolin-2 associates with the chlamydial

  2. Sortilin is associated with the chlamydial inclusion and is modulated during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Xuan; Kerr, Markus Charles; Huston, Wilhelmina May; Teasdale, Rohan David

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that have a major impact on human health. The pathogen replicates within an intracellular niche called an inclusion and is thought to rely heavily on host-derived proteins and lipids, including ceramide. Sortilin is a transmembrane receptor implicated in the trafficking of acid sphingomyelinase, which is responsible for catalysing the breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide. In this study, we examined the role of sortilin in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 development. Western immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry analysis revealed that endogenous sortilin is not only associated with the inclusion, but that protein levels increase in infected cells. RNAi-mediated depletion of sortilin, however, had no detectable impact on ceramide delivery to the inclusion or the production of infectious progeny. This study demonstrates that whilst Chlamydia redirects sortilin trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion, RNAi knockdown of sortilin expression is insufficient to determine if this pathway is requisite for the development of the pathogen. PMID:26962046

  3. The Chlamydial Inclusion Preferentially Intercepts Basolaterally Directed Sphingomyelin-Containing Exocytic Vacuoles

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Elizabeth R.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Mead, David J.; Hackstadt, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydiae replicate intracellularly within a unique vacuole termed the inclusion. The inclusion circumvents classical endosomal/lysosomal pathways but actively intercepts a subset of Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles containing sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol. To further examine this interaction, we developed a polarized epithelial cell model to study vectoral trafficking of lipids and proteins to the inclusion. We examined seven epithelial cell lines for their ability to form single monola...

  4. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

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    Vahid, Afshin; Idema, Timon

    2016-09-01

    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane mediated interactions in strongly curved tubular membranes. We model inclusions as constraints coupled to the curvature tensor of the membrane tube. First, as special test cases, we analyze the interaction between ring- and rod-shaped inclusions. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we further show how pointlike inclusions interact to form linear aggregates. To minimize the curvature energy of the membrane, inclusions self-assemble into either line- or ringlike patterns. Our results show that the global curvature of the membrane strongly affects the interactions between proteins embedded in it, and can lead to the spontaneous formation of biologically relevant structures.

  5. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

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    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala.

  6. The broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 restricts chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial growth and localizes to host cell lipid droplets within treated cells.

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    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Valiant, William G; Eriksen, Steven G; Hruby, Dennis E; Allen, Robert D; Rockey, Daniel D

    2014-07-01

    Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process. PMID:24777097

  7. Sensitivity of immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in cell culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, R S; Kuo, C C; Tam, M R

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies which recognize the species-specific major outer membrane protein antigen of Chlamydia trachomatis were used for immunofluorescence staining of chlamydial inclusions in cell culture. A total of 115 clinical specimens were inoculated onto replicate HeLa 229 cell monolayers and assayed for chlamydial inclusions by immunofluorescence staining and Giemsa staining. Of the isolates, 38 were detected by immunofluorescence staining on passage 1 and 1 was detected on passage 2; 2...

  8. Liposome delivery of Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein primes a Th1 response that protects against genital chlamydial infection in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Follmann, Frank;

    2008-01-01

    ) received a genital inoculation of 1.5 x 10(5) inclusion-forming units of C. muridarum. The role played by CD4(+) T cells in MOMP/CAF01-raised immunity was investigated by depleting CD4(+) T cells in vaccinated mice, and antigen conformation dependence was evaluated by vaccination with recombinant MOMP....... RESULTS: Mice vaccinated with MOMP/alum displayed a strong anti-MOMP humoral response with high IgG1 titers, low levels of IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and only a slight reduction in chlamydial load. Mice vaccinated with MOMP/CAF01 displayed high titers of IgG2b, IFN-gamma, and TNF...

  9. Dynamics of the force exchanged between membrane inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-03-28

    We study the dynamical response of a fluid membrane to the sudden conformation change of active inclusions linearly coupled to the membrane curvature. The mutual force between two inclusions triggered simultaneously is shown to exhibit a transient maximum much larger than the equilibrium force. Even in the presence of tension, this dynamical interaction is long range over distances much larger than the correlation length. We derive the scaling laws describing these phenomena analytically, and we stress the importance of the damping due to intermonolayer friction. PMID:24724681

  10. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime.

  11. Protective role of serum antibody in immunity to chlamydial genital infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; Batteiger, B E

    1989-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were injected intraperitoneally with pooled immunoglobulin derived from animals immunized to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Genital infections in animals receiving pooled immunoglobulin from immune animals were markedly decreased with regard to the number of inclusions detected compared with control animals. These data indicated that serum-derived antibody was able to provide a degree of protection against a chlamydial genital tract infection.

  12. Imaging chemical extraction by polymer inclusion membranes using fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) transport chemicals between bodies of liquid by simultaneously performing chemical extraction and back-extraction. The internal chemical and physical mechanisms by which this transport occurs are, however, poorly understood. Also, some PIMs, which are otherwise optimal for their task, age and lose function after only days, limiting their feasibility for industrial upscaling. Through the application of fluorescence imaging methods we are able for the first time to see where chemical extraction occurs in the membrane. Extraction of fluorescein from solution by PIMs demonstrates inhomogeneities that do not correlate to surface morphology. Fluorescence lifetime imaging demonstrates that regions of increased extraction have distinctly different fluorescence lifetimes to that of the surrounding PIM indicating localized chemical environments, and this is observed to change with membrane age. Fluorescence imaging is shown to allow probing and novel understanding of PIM internal chemical morphology. (paper)

  13. Imaging chemical extraction by polymer inclusion membranes using fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Clare A.; Nagul, Edward A.; Cattrall, Robert W.; Kolev, Spas D.; Smith, Trevor A.

    2014-06-01

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) transport chemicals between bodies of liquid by simultaneously performing chemical extraction and back-extraction. The internal chemical and physical mechanisms by which this transport occurs are, however, poorly understood. Also, some PIMs, which are otherwise optimal for their task, age and lose function after only days, limiting their feasibility for industrial upscaling. Through the application of fluorescence imaging methods we are able for the first time to see where chemical extraction occurs in the membrane. Extraction of fluorescein from solution by PIMs demonstrates inhomogeneities that do not correlate to surface morphology. Fluorescence lifetime imaging demonstrates that regions of increased extraction have distinctly different fluorescence lifetimes to that of the surrounding PIM indicating localized chemical environments, and this is observed to change with membrane age. Fluorescence imaging is shown to allow probing and novel understanding of PIM internal chemical morphology.

  14. Chlamydial plasmids and bacteriophages.

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    Pawlikowska-Warych, Małgorzata; Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia are absolute pathogens of humans and animals; despite being rather well recognised, they are still open for discovery. One such discovery is the occurrence of extrachromosomal carriers of genetic information. In prokaryotes, such carriers include plasmids and bacteriophages, which are present only among some Chlamydia species. Plasmids were found exclusively in Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis, C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, C. felis, C. muridarum and C. caviae. In prokaryotic organisms, plasmids usually code for genes that facilitate survival of the bacteria in the environment (although they are not essential). In chlamydia, their role has not been definitely recognised, apart from the fact that they participate in the synthesis of glycogen and encode proteins responsible for their virulence. Furthermore, in C. suis it was evidenced that the plasmid is integrated in a genomic island and contains the tetracycline-resistance gene. Bacteriophages specific for chlamydia (chlamydiaphages) were detected only in six species: C. psittaci, C. abortus, C. felis, C. caviae C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae. These chlamydiaphages cause inhibition of the developmental cycle, and delay transformation of reticulate bodies (RBs) into elementary bodies (EBs), thus reducing the possibility of infecting other cells in time. Plasmids and bacteriophages can be used in the diagnostics of chlamydioses; although especially in the case of plasmids, they are already used for detection of chlamydial infections. In addition, bacteriophages could be used as therapeutic agents to replace antibiotics, potentially addressing the problem of increasing antibiotic-resistance among chlamydia.

  15. Shape deformation of lipid membranes by banana-shaped protein rods: Comparison with isotropic inclusions and membrane rupture

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    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    The assembly of curved protein rods on fluid membranes is studied using implicit-solvent meshless membrane simulations. As the rod curvature increases, the rods on a membrane tube assemble along the azimuthal direction first and subsequently along the longitudinal direction. Here, we show that both transition curvatures decrease with increasing rod stiffness. For comparison, curvature-inducing isotropic inclusions are also simulated. When the isotropic inclusions have the same bending rigidity as the other membrane regions, the inclusions are uniformly distributed on the membrane tubes and vesicles even for large spontaneous curvature of the inclusions. However, the isotropic inclusions with much larger bending rigidity induce shape deformation and are concentrated on the region of a preferred curvature. For high rod density, high rod stiffness, and/or low line tension of the membrane edge, the rod assembly induces vesicle rupture, resulting in the formation of a high-genus vesicle. A gradual change in the curvature suppresses this rupture. Hence, large stress, compared to the edge tension, induced by the rod assembly is the key factor determining rupture. For rod curvature with the opposite sign to the vesicle curvature, membrane rupture induces inversion of the membrane, leading to division into multiple vesicles as well as formation of a high-genus vesicle.

  16. STIM1 Is a Novel Component of ER-Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane Contact Sites.

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    Hervé Agaisse

    Full Text Available Productive developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the interaction of the replicative vacuole, named the inclusion, with cellular organelles. We have recently reported the formation of ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs, where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is in apposition to the inclusion membrane. These platforms contain the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane protein IncD, the mammalian ceramide transfer protein CERT and the ER resident proteins VAPA/B and were proposed to play a role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids to the inclusion. Here, we identify STIM1 as a novel component of ER-Inclusion MCSs. STIM1, an ER calcium (Ca2+ sensor that relocate to ER-Plasma Membrane (PM MCSs upon Ca2+ store depletion, associated with C. trachomatis inclusion. STIM1, but not the general ER markers Rtn3C and Sec61ß, was enriched at the inclusion membrane. Ultra-structural studies demonstrated that STIM1 localized to ER-Inclusion MCSs. Time-course experiments showed that STIM1, CERT and VAPB co-localized throughout the developmental cycle. By contrast, Orai1, the PM Ca2+ channel that interacts with STIM1 at ER-PM MCSs, did not associate with C. trachomatis inclusion. Upon ER Ca2+ store depletion, a pool of STIM1 relocated to ER-PM MCSs, while the existing ER-Inclusion MCSs remained enriched in STIM1. Finally, we have identified the CAD domain, which mediates STIM1-Orai1 interaction, as the minimal domain required for STIM1 enrichment at ER-Inclusion MCSs. Altogether this study identifies STIM1 as a novel component of ER-C. trachomatis inclusion MCSs. We discuss the potential role(s of STIM1 during the infection process.

  17. Identification and characterization of a novel porin family highlights a major difference in the outer membrane of chlamydial symbionts and pathogens.

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    Karin Aistleitner

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae constitute an evolutionary well separated group of intracellular bacteria comprising important pathogens of humans as well as symbionts of protozoa. The amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila lacks a homologue of the most abundant outer membrane protein of the Chlamydiaceae, the major outer membrane protein MOMP, highlighting a major difference between environmental chlamydiae and their pathogenic counterparts. We recently identified a novel family of putative porins encoded in the genome of P. amoebophila by in silico analysis. Two of these Protochlamydiaouter membrane proteins, PomS (pc1489 and PomT (pc1077, are highly abundant in outer membrane preparations of this organism. Here we show that all four members of this putative porin family are toxic when expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibodies against heterologously expressed PomT and PomS purified directly from elementary bodies, respectively, demonstrated the location of both proteins in the outer membrane of P. amoebophila. The location of the most abundant protein PomS was further confirmed by immuno-transmission electron microscopy. We could show that pomS is transcribed, and the corresponding protein is present in the outer membrane throughout the complete developmental cycle, suggesting an essential role for P. amoebophila. Lipid bilayer measurements demonstrated that PomS functions as a porin with anion-selectivity and a pore size similar to the Chlamydiaceae MOMP. Taken together, our results suggest that PomS, possibly in concert with PomT and other members of this porin family, is the functional equivalent of MOMP in P. amoebophila. This work contributes to our understanding of the adaptations of symbiotic and pathogenic chlamydiae to their different eukaryotic hosts.

  18. Analysis of the Nonlinear Elastic Response of Rubber Membrane with Embedded Circular Rigid Inclusion

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    Jianbing Sang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber membranes exhibit a particular nonlinear elastic behaviour known as hyper elasticity. Analysis has been proposed by utilizing the modified strain energy function from Gao’s constitutive model, in order to reveal the mechanical property of rubber membrane containing circular rigid inclusion. Rubber membrane is taken into incompressible materials under axisymmetric stretch, based on finite deformations theory. Stress distribution of different constitutive parameters has been analyzed by deducing the basic governing equation. The effects on membrane deformation by different parameters and the failure reasons of rubber membrane have been discussed, which provides reasonable reference for the design of rubber membrane.

  19. Antibody and Cytokine Responses of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Vaccinated with Recombinant Chlamydial Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) with Two Different Adjuvants

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    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Desclozeaux, Marion; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Developing a vaccine against Chlamydia is key to combating widespread mortalities and morbidities associated with this infection in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In previous studies, we have shown that two or three doses of a Recombinant Major Outer Membrane Protein (rMOMP) antigen-based vaccine, combined with immune stimulating complex (ISC) adjuvant, results in strong cellular and humoral immune responses in koalas. We have also separately evaluated a single dose vaccine, utilising a tri-adjuvant formula that comprises polyphosphazine based poly I: C and host defense peptides, with the same antigen. This formulation also produced strong cellular and humoral immune responses in captive koalas. In this current study, we directly compared the host immune responses of two sub-groups of wild Chlamydia negative koalas in one population vaccinated with the rMOMP protein antigen and adjuvanted with either the ISC or tri-adjuvant formula. Overall, both adjuvants produced strong Chlamydia-specific cellular (IFN-γ and IL-17A) responses in circulating PBMCs as well as MOMP-specific and functional, in vitro neutralising antibodies. While the immune responses were similar, there were adjuvant-specific immune differences between the two adjuvants, particularly in relation to the specificity of the MOMP epitope antibody responses. PMID:27219467

  20. Effect of antithymocyte serum on the course of chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; Barron, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The treatment of female guinea pigs, infected in the genital tract with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, with rabbit anti-guinea pig thymocyte serum extended the course of the infection by 20 to 30 days. The rabbit anti-guinea pig thymocyte serum was shown to suppress delayed hypersensitivity responses to the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent and the contact allergen oxazolone. The appearance of antibody in genital secretions was delayed, but the infection ...

  1. Self-assembling morphologies in a 1D model of two-inclusion-containing lipid membranes

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    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Mingfei; Fang, Jinghuai; Peng, Ju

    2016-08-01

    The self-assembling morphologies in a 1D model of two-inclusion-containing lipid membranes are investigated by using self-consistent field theory. It is found that the shape and overall volume fraction of lipids, the hydrophobic strength and the distance of inclusions play important roles in the morphology of lipid membrane. The membrane consisting of cylindrical lipids with a symmetrical head and tail only forms the well-known normal morphology. However, for the membrane consisting of cone-like lipids with a relatively big head, the increase of the hydrophobic strength of inclusions can realize the membrane transition from the normal morphology to the pore morphologies. With increasing distance between two inclusions, two pores, three pores and four pores appear in turn. Conversely, the increase of the overall volume fraction of lipids can make the membrane undergo a reentrant transition from pore morphologies to normal morphologies. The results may be helpful in our understanding of the pore-forming mechanism.

  2. Transmission of chlamydial infections to sexual partners.

    OpenAIRE

    Worm, A M; Petersen, C S

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of chlamydial infections was studied in 33 male and 48 female regular sexual partners of 81 patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic who had chlamydial infections. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 42% of the male partners and 62% of the female partners (p greater than 0.05). The number of infected partners was independent of the incidence of sexual intercourse and of the presenting symptoms. The use of condoms was the only contraceptive method that seemed ...

  3. Inclusion of photosensitive molecules into host lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Zargarani, Dordaneh; Elsen, Annika;

    configuration between its cis and trans by absorption of UV and visible light (365nm / 440 nm). It was imbedded in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho¬choline (POPC) monolayer (ratio 6:1, POPC:AzCh) at the air/water interface of a Langmuir trough (Kibron Microtrough) for simultaneous compression...... mN/m. Measurements were done on the monolayer in the dark and during exposure to light. Preliminary results of the reflectivity curves give evidence of the structural details of the lipid monolayer. They indicate changes in the its organization by inoculation of the photosensitive molecules......Phosphocholine (PC) lipid membranes exhibit polymorphic variances including the biologically relevant disordered fluid phase. The incorporation of cholesterol into such a fluid host membrane may readily induce a local ordered, named fluid-ordered, phase. Here, results are reported on the impact...

  4. Effects of Fatty Acid Inclusion in a DMPC Bilayer Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Møller, Martin S.;

    2009-01-01

    with fluid DMPC. The simulations, which were benchmarked against the densitometric data, revealed interesting differences in the structure and location of the fatty acids depending on their protonation status. Thus, the protonated (uncharged) acid is located rather deeply in the membrane with an average...... position of the carboxy group near the second carbon segment of the lipid chains with a typical end-to-end distance of 16−18 Å. This structure of the fatty acid brings about a rather tight lateral packing in the mixed membrane and a moderate ordering and hence stretching of the lipid chains. Deprotonation......Free fatty acids in biomembranes have been proposed to be a central component in several cellular control and regulatory mechanisms. To elucidate some fundamental elements underlying this, we have applied molecular dynamics simulations and experimental density measurements to study the molecular...

  5. Ammonium across a Selective Polymer Inclusion Membrane : Characterization, Transport, and Selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casadella, Anna; Schaetzle, Olivier; Loos, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of ammonium from urine requires distinguishing and excluding sodium and potassium. A polymer inclusion membrane selective for ammonium is developed using an ionophore based on pyrazole substituted benzene. The interactions of the components are studied, as well as their effect on transp

  6. Pmp-like proteins Pls1 and Pls2 are secreted into the lumen of the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Ine; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2008-09-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis secretes effector proteins across the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole (inclusion) to modulate host cellular functions. In an immunological screen for secreted chlamydial proteins, we identified CT049 and CT050 as potential inclusion membrane-associated proteins. These acidic, nonglobular proteins are paralogously related to the passenger domain of the polymorphic membrane protein PmpC and, like other Pmp proteins, are highly polymorphic among C. trachomatis ocular and urogenital strains. We generated antibodies to these Pmp-like secreted (Pls) proteins and determined by immunofluorescence microscopy that Pls1 (CT049) and Pls2 (CT050) localized to globular structures within the inclusion lumen and at the inclusion membrane. Fractionation of membranes and cytoplasmic components from infected cells by differential and density gradient centrifugation further indicated that Pls1 and Pls2 associated with membranes distinct from the bulk of bacterial and inclusion membranes. The accumulation of Pls1 and, to a lesser extent, Pls2 in the inclusion lumen was insensitive to the type III secretion inhibitor C1, suggesting that this translocation system is not essential for Pls protein secretion. In contrast, Pls secretion and stability were sensitive to low levels of beta-lactam antibiotics, suggesting that a functional cell wall is required for Pls secretion from the bacterial cell. Finally, we tested the requirement for these proteins in Chlamydia infection by microinjecting anti-Pls1 and anti-Pls2 antibodies into infected cells. Coinjection of anti-Pls1 and -Pls2 antibodies partially inhibited expansion of the inclusion. Because Pls proteins lack classical sec-dependent secretion signals, we propose that Pls proteins are secreted into the inclusion lumen by a novel mechanism to regulate events important for chlamydial replication and inclusion expansion.

  7. The lipid transfer protein CERT interacts with the Chlamydia inclusion protein IncD and participates to ER-Chlamydia inclusion membrane contact sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Derré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens that reside in membrane bound compartment manipulate the host cell machinery to establish and maintain their intracellular niche. The hijacking of inter-organelle vesicular trafficking through the targeting of small GTPases or SNARE proteins has been well established. Here, we show that intracellular pathogens also establish direct membrane contact sites with organelles and exploit non-vesicular transport machinery. We identified the ER-to-Golgi ceramide transfer protein CERT as a host cell factor specifically recruited to the inclusion, a membrane-bound compartment harboring the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. We further showed that CERT recruitment to the inclusion correlated with the recruitment of VAPA/B-positive tubules in close proximity of the inclusion membrane, suggesting that ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites are formed upon C. trachomatis infection. Moreover, we identified the C. trachomatis effector protein IncD as a specific binding partner for CERT. Finally we showed that depletion of either CERT or the VAP proteins impaired bacterial development. We propose that the presence of IncD, CERT, VAPA/B, and potentially additional host and/or bacterial factors, at points of contact between the ER and the inclusion membrane provides a specialized metabolic and/or signaling microenvironment favorable to bacterial development.

  8. Chlamydial Pneumonitis: A Creepy Neonatal Disease

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    Kam Lun Hon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of neonatal chlamydial pneumonitis to illustrate that a high index of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis so that treatment can be promptly instituted. The child was afebrile and the only symptom was a cough. The respiratory equations are calculated to understand the respiratory physiology. There was no overt abnormality with ventilation, oxygenation, compliance, resistance, or ventilation-perfusion mismatch despite radiographic abnormality. The literature is searched to review if treatment with a systemic macrolide antibiotic is needed in an otherwise asymptomatic neonate with chlamydial pneumonitis.

  9. Pathogenesis of endometritis and salpingitis in a guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, R. G.; Sanders, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    The development of tubal obstruction and subsequent infertility is a major sequelum of upper genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of the infection. In this investigation, the authors present a detailed study of the progression of ascending chlamydial infection in female guinea pigs resulting from intravaginal inoculation of the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Isolation of chlamydiae from different tissues of the genital tract revealed definitive evidence for ascending infection that was not dose-related. By 7 days after infection, GPIC was isolated from the endometrium and oviducts of 78% of the animals. Pathologic changes analogous to those seen in human chlamydial disease, including polymorphonuclear, mononuclear, and plasma cell infiltration, were seen in the endometrium and oviducts, although not all isolation positive animals developed overt tubal disease. Long-term fibrosis, often in combination with hydrosalpinx, was noted in the mesosalpingeal tissue in 20% of the animals. Thus, the guinea pig:GPIC system represents a model for ascending chlamydial infection resulting from vaginal inoculation of normal guinea pigs that closely approximates the disease as seen in humans and can be used to study the pathogenesis of chlamydial genital infection. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:1562052

  10. Specific effect of estradiol on the genital mucosal antibody response in chlamydial ocular and genital infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; Barron, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Estradiol treatment of female guinea pigs was found to alter the course of genital, but not ocular, infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA responses in genital secretions of genitally infected animals were delayed by estradiol treatment, but neither response in the eye resulting from either ocular or genital infection was affected. However, the appearance of IgG in the genital tract after ocular infection was markedly inhibit...

  11. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Josh Lane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of persistent human chlamydial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja ePuolakkainen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic assays for persistent chlamydial infection are much needed to conduct high-quality, large-scale studies investigating the persistent state in vivo, its disease associations and the response to therapy. Yet in most studies the distinction between acute and persistent infection is based on the interpretation of the data obtained by the assays developed to diagnose acute infections or on complex assays available for research only and/or difficult to establish for clinical use. Novel biomarkers for detection of persistent chlamydial infection are urgently needed. Chlamydial whole genome proteome arrays are now available and they can identify chlamydial antigens that are differentially expressed between acute infection and persistent infection. Utilizing these data will lead to the development of novel diagnostic assays. Carefully selected specimens from well-studied patient populations are clearly needed in the process of translating the proteomic data into assays useful for clinical practice. Before such antigens are identified and validated assays become available, we face a challenge of deciding whether the persistent infection truly induced appearance of the proposed marker or do we just base our diagnosis of persistent infection on the presence of the suggested markers. Consequently, we must bear this in mind when interpreting the available data.

  13. [Clinico-anamnestic diagnostics of chronic maxillary sinusitis associated with chlamydial infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parilova, O V; Kapustina, T A; Markina, A N

    2016-01-01

    The present study included 201 adult patients presenting with exacerbation of chronic maxillary sinusitis. The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chl. pneumoniae was verified by the direct immunofluorescencetechnique and polymerase chain reaction. The study material consisted of swipes und swabs from the mucous membrane of the middle nasal passage. The information from the patients was collected with the use of a questionnaire specially elaborated for the purpose of this study. The correlation relationships were established by means of gamma-statistics. The method is based on the calculation of the integral index characterizing the risk of development of chlamydial infection using the scoring scale for the evaluation of the clinical and anamnestic characteristics of the patients. The assessment of the risk of chlamydial colonization by the anamnestic method makes it possible to enhance the effectiveness of clinical diagnostics of chlamydial infection and thereby provides a basis for the prescription of the adequate anti-chlamydial treatment facilitating reduction of the frequency of complications and preventing dissemination of the causative factor of the disease. Moreover, this approach creates the conditions for the targeted selection of the patients to be referred to the laboratory verification of Chlamydia. Highoperating performance and effectiveness characteristics of the clinic-anamnestic diagnostics make it a method of choice for the wide application in the clinical practice. PMID:27500582

  14. The application of polymer inclusive membranes for removal of heavy metal ions from waste solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the conducted studies was to determine the possibility of selective separation and precipitation of metal ions from polimetalic solution containing nickel(II, cobalt(II, cadmium(II and zinc(II cations using polymer inclusive membranes. 1-decylimidazole was used in membrane as a carrier of ions. The influence of chloride anions concentration on the process has also been investigated.Design/methodology/approach: Polymer inclusive membranes (PIM containing cellulose acetate as a matrix, orto-nitrophenyl octyl ether (ONPOE as a plasticizer and 1-decylimidazole as a carrier were used in investigations. The membrane processes were carried out in a membrane module for 24 hours.Findings: The results obtained point out a significant influence of chloride anions concentration on separation process of certain metal ions. It was observed that zinc(II ions are isolated most effectively from the solution containing 2M of chloride anions. About 88% of Zn(II, 5.5% of Co(II, 6.5% of Cd(II and below 1% of Ni(II were separated from such a solution.Research limitations/implications: The obtained results show that it is possibility of the selective extraction of heavy metal ions from polymetallic chloride solutions in membrane processes. The aqueous solution containing 2M of chloride ions was used in the investigation.Practical implications: The results show that Zn(II can be effectively recovered from solutions containing Co(II, Cd(II and Ni(II. This process would allow the utilization of waste solutions containing the heavy metal ions. The results of the study presented in the paper can be used in the utilization process of the spent batteries and accumulators.Originality/value: The innovative issue shown in this paper concerns the usage of 1-decylimidazole in selective separation of nickel(II, cobalt(II, cadmium(II and zinc(II ions in membrane process using PIM.

  15. A novel electro-driven membrane for removal of chromium ions using polymer inclusion membrane under constant D.C. electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Onac, Canan; Alpoguz, H Korkmaz

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the use of polymer inclusion membrane under constant electric current for the removal of Cr(VI) from water has investigated for the first time. Transport of Cr(VI) is performed by an electric current from the donor phase to the acceptor phase with a constant electric current of 0.5A. The optimized membrane includes of 12.1% 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (2-NPOE), 77.6% cellulose triacetate (CTA), 10.3% tricapryl-methylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as a carrier. We tested the applicability of the selected membrane for Cr(VI) removal in real environmental water samples and evaluated its reusability. Electro membrane experiments were carried out under various parameters, such as the effect of electro membrane voltage at constant DC electric current; electro membrane current at constant voltage, acceptor phase pH, and stable electro membrane; and a comparison of polymer inclusion membrane and electro membrane transport studies. The Cr(VI) transport was achieved 98.33% after 40min under optimized conditions. An alternative method has been employed that eliminates the changing of electrical current by the application of constant electric current for higher reproducibility of electro membrane extraction experiments by combining the excellent selective and long-term use features of polymer inclusion membrane. PMID:27239722

  16. A novel electro-driven membrane for removal of chromium ions using polymer inclusion membrane under constant D.C. electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Onac, Canan; Alpoguz, H Korkmaz

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the use of polymer inclusion membrane under constant electric current for the removal of Cr(VI) from water has investigated for the first time. Transport of Cr(VI) is performed by an electric current from the donor phase to the acceptor phase with a constant electric current of 0.5A. The optimized membrane includes of 12.1% 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (2-NPOE), 77.6% cellulose triacetate (CTA), 10.3% tricapryl-methylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as a carrier. We tested the applicability of the selected membrane for Cr(VI) removal in real environmental water samples and evaluated its reusability. Electro membrane experiments were carried out under various parameters, such as the effect of electro membrane voltage at constant DC electric current; electro membrane current at constant voltage, acceptor phase pH, and stable electro membrane; and a comparison of polymer inclusion membrane and electro membrane transport studies. The Cr(VI) transport was achieved 98.33% after 40min under optimized conditions. An alternative method has been employed that eliminates the changing of electrical current by the application of constant electric current for higher reproducibility of electro membrane extraction experiments by combining the excellent selective and long-term use features of polymer inclusion membrane.

  17. Was the Chlamydial Adaptative Strategy to Tryptophan Starvation an Early Determinant of Plastid Endosymbiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Ugo; Ducatez, Mathieu; Kadouche, Derifa; Colleoni, Christophe; Ball, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiales were recently proposed to have sheltered the future cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids in a common inclusion. The intracellular pathogens are thought to have donated those critical transporters that triggered the efflux of photosynthetic carbon and the consequent onset of symbiosis. Chlamydiales are also suspected to have encoded glycogen metabolism TTS (Type Three Secretion) effectors responsible for photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the eukaryotic cytosol. We now review the reasons underlying other chlamydial lateral gene transfers evidenced in the descendants of plastid endosymbiosis. In particular we show that half of the genes encoding enzymes of tryptophan synthesis in Archaeplastida are of chlamydial origin. Tryptophan concentration is an essential cue triggering two alternative modes of replication in Chlamydiales. In addition, sophisticated tryptophan starvation mechanisms are known to act as antibacterial defenses in animal hosts. We propose that Chlamydiales have donated their tryptophan operon to the emerging plastid to ensure increased synthesis of tryptophan by the plastid ancestor. This would have allowed massive expression of the tryptophan rich chlamydial transporters responsible for symbiosis. It would also have allowed possible export of this valuable amino-acid in the inclusion of the tryptophan hungry pathogens. Free-living single cell cyanobacteria are devoid of proteins able to transport this amino-acid. We therefore investigated the phylogeny of the Tyr/Trp transporters homologous to E. coli TyrP/Mre and found yet another LGT from Chlamydiales to Archaeplastida thereby considerably strengthening our proposal. PMID:27446814

  18. Evaluation of polymer inclusion membranes containing crown ethers for selective cesium separation from nuclear waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, P K; Lakshmi, D S; Bhattacharyya, A; Manchanda, V K

    2009-09-30

    Transport behaviour of (137)Cs from nitric acid feed was investigated using cellulose triacetate plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing several crown ether carriers viz. di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), di-benzo-21-crown-7 (DB21C7) and di-tert-butylbenzo-18-crown-6 (DTBB18C6). The PIM was prepared from cellulose triacetate (CTA) with various crown ethers and plasticizers. DTBB18C6 and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) were found to give higher transport rate for (137)Cs as compared to other carriers and plasticizers. Effect of crown ether concentration, nitric acid concentration, plasticizer and CTA concentration on the transport rate of Cs was also studied. The Cs selectivity with respect to various fission products obtained from an irradiated natural uranium target was found to be heavily dependent on the nature of the plasticizer. The present work shows that by choosing a proper plasticizer, one can get either good transport efficiency or selectivity. Though TBP plasticized membranes showed good transport efficiency, it displayed poor selectivities. On the other hand, an entirely opposite separation behaviour was observed with 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) plasticized membranes suggesting the possible application of the later membranes for the removal of bulk (137)Cs from the nuclear waste. The stability of the membrane was tested by carrying out transport runs for nearly 25 days.

  19. Inclusion of thiol DAB dendrimer/CdSe quantum dots based in a membrane structure: Surface and bulk membrane modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fluorescent nanocomposite based in CdSe quantum dots (QDs) coated by thiol polypropylenimine (DAB). ► Bulk chemical characterization by TEM and EDAX ► Inclusion of the S-DAB-CdSe QDs in a cellulosic support and its characterization by Fluorescence and XPS. ► Electrical characterization by Impedance Spectroscopy of dry and wet samples containing a heavy metal. -- Abstract: The behavior of a fluorescent nanocomposite, obtained by means of a thiol polypropylenimine dendrimer of third generation coated with CdSe quantum dots, and embedded in a hydrophilic cellulosic membrane as support is electrochemically studied in order to evaluate its applicability as a sensor in liquid media. The characterization of the nanocomposite by TEM and EDAX shows uniform nano morphology (size comprised in the range 60–90 nm) and composition, respectively. The analysis of the engineered hybrid cellulose-dendrimer quantum dots material by confocal fluorescence microscopy indicates almost mono-dispersion distribution of the nanocomposite when irradiated under UV light, while its presence on the film surface was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Impedance spectroscopy measurements performed with dry membrane samples show a decrease in the conductivity and dielectric constant of the modified membrane in comparison with the raw support. Electrical changes in the modified film associated to the presence of Cd(II) uptakes from a Cl2Cd solution were also obtained. These results support the possible application of this nanocomposite material as heavy metal sensor in liquid media

  20. Chlamydial Pneumonitis: A Creepy Neonatal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kam Lun Hon; Leung, Alexander K.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of neonatal chlamydial pneumonitis to illustrate that a high index of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis so that treatment can be promptly instituted. The child was afebrile and the only symptom was a cough. The respiratory equations are calculated to understand the respiratory physiology. There was no overt abnormality with ventilation, oxygenation, compliance, resistance, or ventilation-perfusion mismatch despite radiographic abnormality. The literature is search...

  1. Extraction and transport of uranium (VI) by polymer inclusion membranes incorporating Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) is a commonly used extraction reagent for the separation of uranium from aqueous solutions. Previous work showed the suitability of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) based on D2EHPA and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for the extraction and transport of uranium (VI) from sulfate solutions. This study investigates the influence of the main system parameters (i.e. stirring rate, percentage of D2EHPA in the membrane, initial U(VI) concentration, membrane thickness, and concentration of sulfuric acid) on the extraction process. A comprehensive mathematical model, describing the extraction of U(VI), was developed, numerically solved and fitted to the experimental extraction data to determine the values of the extraction constant and the diffusion coefficient of the U(VI)-D2EHPA complex in the membrane. The transport properties of the PVC/D2EHPA PIM have been further improved by adding o-nitrophenyloctyl ether as plasticizer. Fluxes of U(VI) as high as 1.5 x 10-6 mol m-2 S-1 were recorded using a membrane composed of 35% D2EHPA, 10% o-nitrophenyloctyl ether and 55% PVC (m/m) from a solution containing 100 mg L-1 U(VI) in 0.1 mol L-1 H2SO4 into a solution containing 6 mol L-1H2SO4. The effect of the counter-ion on the extraction and back extraction of uranium was also investigated and the membranes were tested for durability over repeated cycles of extraction and back-extraction. It was demonstrated that a 45% D2EHPA and 55% PVC PIM (m/m) allowed U(VI) to be completely separated thermodynamically from a range of common metal cations and kinetically from iron (III). (author)

  2. Synthesis of modified polymer inclusion membranes for photo-electrodeposition of cadmium using polarized electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia Cherif, Asma [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Arous, Omar, E-mail: omararous@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Center of Research in Physical and Chemical Analysis CRAPC, BP 248 Algiers, RP 16004, Algiers (Algeria); Amara, Mourad [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Omeiri, Said [Center of Research in Physical and Chemical Analysis CRAPC, BP 248 Algiers, RP 16004, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Kerdjoudj, Hacene [Laboratory of Hydrometallurgy and Inorganic Molecular Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Trari, Mohamed [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry, USTHB, BP 32 El Alia, 16111, Algiers (Algeria)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Homogeneous PIM membranes containing water soluble polymers have been obtained under new experimental conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoelectrodeposition of 'Cd' has been carried out using WO{sub 3} and CuFeO{sub 2} as electrode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using both photo-polarized electrodes enhances transference of cadmium compared to one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane with poly-phosphoric acid (PPA) give a rise of transferred amount of Cd. - Abstract: In this work, we have developed a novel class of polymeric inclusion membranes (PIMs) for the cations separation. The membrane is made up of cellulose triacetate modified by poly-electrolytes (poly-phosphoric acid, polyvinyl pyrolidone, polyacrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol and poly-anetholsulfonic acid) using 2-hydroxy-5-dodecylbenzaldehyde incorporated into the polymer as carrier and tris ethyl hexyl phosphate or glycerine as plasticizers. Different PIMs are synthesized and characterized by the Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the membrane nature is studied using supports with different physical characteristics (porosity, thickness, hydrophobia). As application, the transport of Cd{sup 2+} using PIMs coupled with photo-electrodes is investigated. The photo-catalytic results indicate that the combined system p-CuFeO{sub 2}/membrane/n-WO{sub 3} enhances considerably the electrons transfer toward the delafossite CuFeO{sub 2}. The position of the conduction band of CuFeO{sub 2} is looked to be the key issue for the photo electrochemical Cd{sup 2+} reduction.

  3. Active cloaking of resonant coated inclusions for waves in membranes and Kirchhoff plates

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, J; McPhedran, R C; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Moggach, C Henderson

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic response of a coated inclusion is considered in the context of active cloaking. The active cloak is achieved for a coated inclusion in the presence of membrane and flexural waves. In this paper, we investigate the design of an active cloak for a coated inclusion in three frequency regimes: the very low frequency (monopole dominated) range, the intermediate range, and the higher frequency range in which scattering resonances occur. In the first of these ranges, we validate previous work, which resulted in a simple mass-compensation design for the monopole scatterer, while in the second and third ranges, a combination of the use of an appropriate coating and the appropriate choice of the amplitudes of the active cloaking sources is necessary. We show that such cloaking can indeed be effective in the region of strong scattering resonances. We give closed form analytic expressions for the required amplitudes of the active cloaking sources in the three frequency regions and provide asymptotic estimates...

  4. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft-dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down-stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473-coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose-dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473-dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae.

  5. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft‐dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chlamydiae are Gram‐negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down‐stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473‐coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp‐2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp‐2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose‐dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473‐dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae. PMID:26780295

  6. Electric field-driven extraction of lipophilic anions across a carrier-mediated polymer inclusion membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Hong Heng; Hauser, Peter C

    2011-10-01

    The use of a cationic carrier-mediated polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) for extraction and preconcentration of anionic model analytes driven by an electric field directly into an aqueous acceptor solution is demonstrated. The optimized membrane was 20 μm thick and consisted of 60% cellulose triacetate as base polymer, 20% o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer, and 20% Aliquat 336 as cationic carrier in the perchlorate form. By applying voltages of up to 700 V across the membrane, the lipophilic model analytes propanesulfonate, octanesulfonate, and decanesulfonate could be transported from the aqueous donor solution to the aqueous acceptor solution with efficiences >90% within 5 to 20 min. A preconcentration factor of 26, defined by the volume ratio between donor and acceptor compartments of the current cell design, could be achieved. The utility of the method for analytical applications is demonstrated by extraction of the herbicide glyphosate and its breakdown product aminomethylphosphonic acid from spiked river water, followed by quantification with capillary electrophoresis using contactless conductivity detection. Limits of detection of 0.8 and 1.5 ng/mL were obtained for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, respectively.

  7. Ammonium across a Selective Polymer Inclusion Membrane: Characterization, Transport, and Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadellà, Anna; Schaetzle, Olivier; Loos, Katja

    2016-05-01

    The recovery of ammonium from urine requires distinguishing and excluding sodium and potassium. A polymer inclusion membrane selective for ammonium is developed using an ionophore based on pyrazole substituted benzene. The interactions of the components are studied, as well as their effect on transport and selectivity. Spectroscopic and thermogravimetric measurements show no extensive physical interactions of the components, and that the plasticizer reduces the intermolecular forces (rigidity) of the membrane. The ionophore turns the membrane more rigid, although it increases its swelling degree and therefore the affinity of cations. A ratio of plasticizer (DEHP) and polymer (PVC) of 1:3 in mass gives the highest ammonium flux. Tested contents of ionophore (2 and 5 wt%) show that the higher the content of the ionophore, the fastest the flux is (7.5 × 10(-3) mmol cm(-2) h(-1) ). Selectivity of NH4 (+) over Na(+) and over K(+) is reduced from 13.07 to 9.33 and from 14.15 to 9.57 correspondingly. PMID:27062504

  8. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Marti

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C. in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination

  9. Numerical study of the phase separation in binary lipid membrane containing protein inclusions under stationary shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Bo; Shi, Hui-Ji; Niu, Li-Sha

    2009-03-26

    The phase separation of lipids is believed to be responsible for the formation of lipid rafts in biological cell membrane. In the present work, a continuum model and a particle model are constructed to study the phase separation in binary lipid membrane containing inclusions under stationary shear flow. In each model, employing the cell dynamical system (CDS) approach, the kinetic equations of the confusion-advection process are numerically solved. Snapshot figures of the phase morphology are performed to intuitively display such phase evolving process. Considering the effects from both the inclusions and the shear flow, the time growth law of the characteristic domain size is discussed.

  10. Polymer Inclusion Membranes (PIM for the Recovery of Potassium in the Presence of Competitive Cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Casadellà

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an important nutrient used in fertilizers but is not always naturally available  We investigated the properties of polymer inclusion membranes (PIM regarding their selective recovery of K+ over competitive ions typically present in urine (Na+ and NH4+. The greatest flux was observed when the ratio of mass 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (2-NPOE used as plasticizer to cellulose triacetate (CTA used as polymer was 0.25. The highest flux was achieved with a content of 24.8 wt % of dicyclohexan-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6 used as carrier, although the highest selectivity was observed with a content of 14.0 wt % of DCH18C6. We also studied whether the transport mechanism occurring in our system was based on co-transport of a counter-ion or ion exchange. Two different receiving phases (ultrapure water and 100 mM HCl were tested. Results on transport mechanisms suggest that co-transport of cations and anions is taking place across our PIMs. The membrane deteriorated and lost its properties when the receiving phase was acidic; we suggested that this was due to hydrolysis of CTA. The greatest flux and selectivity were observed in ultrapure water as receiving phase.

  11. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate. Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

  12. Development of Carriers for Polymer Inclusion Membranes (PIMs) Applied to Radioactive Wastewater Treatment. Improvement in Durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer inclusion membrane (PIM), which is prepared with cellulose triacetate (CTA) as a polymer matrix, 2-nitrophenyl n-octyl ether (NPOE) as a liquid plasticizer, and an adequate carrier, is the most promising method to apply a liquid membrane system to a practical process. Here, NPOE simultaneously acts as an organic solvent similar to that used in the liquid membrane. One of possible applications of PIMs is the treatment of low level radioactive wastewater. For the environmental safety, the large volume of the wastes must be concentrated into the smallest possible volume before the storage. We have presented that the up-hill transport of cerium ion, which is used as a model substance for actinoids, is feasible using PIM prepared with octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) or N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane diamide (TODGA), which are the well known extractants for actinoids, as a carrier. In this study, we systematically designed and synthesized new carriers for cerium ion and evaluated the cerium transport performance and durability of the PIMs made with the carriers comparing with those with CMPO and TODGA. The cerium transport performance of one of the PIMs was nearly equal to that of the PIM with TODGA, and the durabilities of some of the PIMs were superior to that of the PIM with CMPO. The durabilities of the PIMs were different between the carries used for the PIMs. The cause was discussed relating to the microstructures of the PIMs with the effects of the carriers and NPOE. (author)

  13. Surface expression, single-channel analysis and membrane topology of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClafferty Heather

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens containing a cysteine-rich porin (Major Outer Membrane Protein, MOMP with important structural and, in many species, immunity-related roles. MOMP forms extensive disulphide bonds with other chlamydial proteins, and is difficult to purify. Leaderless, recombinant MOMPs expressed in E. coli have yet to be refolded from inclusion bodies, and although leadered MOMP can be expressed in E. coli cells, it often misfolds and aggregates. We aimed to improve the surface expression of correctly folded MOMP to investigate the membrane topology of the protein, and provide a system to display native and modified MOMP epitopes. Results C. trachomatis MOMP was expressed on the surface of E. coli cells (including "porin knockout" cells after optimizing leader sequence, temperature and medium composition, and the protein was functionally reconstituted at the single-channel level to confirm it was folded correctly. Recombinant MOMP formed oligomers even in the absence of its 9 cysteine residues, and the unmodified protein also formed inter- and intra-subunit disulphide bonds. Its topology was modeled as a (16-stranded β-barrel, and specific structural predictions were tested by removing each of the four putative surface-exposed loops corresponding to highly immunogenic variable sequence (VS domains, and one or two of the putative transmembrane strands. The deletion of predicted external loops did not prevent folding and incorporation of MOMP into the E. coli outer membrane, in contrast to the removal of predicted transmembrane strands. Conclusions C. trachomatis MOMP was functionally expressed on the surface of E. coli cells under newly optimized conditions. Tests of its predicted membrane topology were consistent with β-barrel oligomers in which major immunogenic regions are displayed on surface-exposed loops. Functional surface expression, coupled with improved understanding of MOMP

  14. Preparation, characterization and thermal studies of polymer inclusion cellulose acetate membrane with calix[4]resorcinarenes as carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benosmane, Nadjib [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Guedioura, Bouzid [Division reacteur/Centre de Recherche Nucleaire de Draria, CRND, BP 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Hamdi, Safouane Mohammed [Laboratoire de Biochimie-Purpan, Institut Federatif de Biologie, CHU Toulouse 330, avenue de Grande-Bretagne - F-31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Hamdi, Maamar [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Boutemeur, Baya, E-mail: bayakheddis@hotmail.com [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Appliquee (Groupe Heterocycles Associe CRAPC), Faculte de Chimie, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-07-20

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) system with cellulose acetate polymer as support and calix[4]resorcinarenes as carriers has been developed. Special attention was paid to PIM characterization using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infra-red study, X-ray scattering and thermogravimetric analyses. The efficiency of the membrane transport was optimized as a function of pH, stirring speed, aqueous phases and membrane composition. The results suggested that the transport mechanism is a counter-transport of protons, the mechanism was mainly controlled by the diffusion of the complex formed in the membrane core. Analysis of lead(II) transport through these PIMs was performed. It was found that calix[4]resorcinarenes containing membranes were flexible, resistant and heterogeneous without plasticizer addition.

  15. Preparation, characterization and thermal studies of polymer inclusion cellulose acetate membrane with calix[4]resorcinarenes as carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) system with cellulose acetate polymer as support and calix[4]resorcinarenes as carriers has been developed. Special attention was paid to PIM characterization using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infra-red study, X-ray scattering and thermogravimetric analyses. The efficiency of the membrane transport was optimized as a function of pH, stirring speed, aqueous phases and membrane composition. The results suggested that the transport mechanism is a counter-transport of protons, the mechanism was mainly controlled by the diffusion of the complex formed in the membrane core. Analysis of lead(II) transport through these PIMs was performed. It was found that calix[4]resorcinarenes containing membranes were flexible, resistant and heterogeneous without plasticizer addition.

  16. Vaccination with the Defined Chlamydial Secreted Protein CPAF Induces Robust Protection Against Female Infertility Following Repeated Genital Chlamydial Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Li, Weidang; Guentzel, M. Neal; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2011-01-01

    We previously have shown the efficacy of recombinant (r) chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) vaccination against hydrosalpinx development following primary genital chlamydial challenge. In this study, we evaluated further the protection induced by rCPAF vaccination against infertility. Following primary challenge, fertility levels were not significantly different between the mock- and CPAF-vaccinated and Chlamydia alone challenged mice. However, following secondary genital chlamyd...

  17. Determination of oxytetracycline in milk samples by polymer inclusion membrane separation coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Silva, Irma; Rodríguez, José A; Ramírez-Silva, Ma Teresa; Páez-Hernández, Ma Elena

    2012-03-01

    The determination of oxytetracycline in milk samples using a polymer inclusion membrane concept with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was studied. The membranes developed are composed by cellulose acetate as polymer base, Cyanex 923 as carrier and o-nitrophenyl octyl ether as plasticizer. In the optimal conditions, the method exhibits good linearity in the range 0.03-0.20 mg L(-1) with a limit of detection and quantification of 8.2 and 27.3 μg L(-1) respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of milk samples with high selectivity.

  18. Comparative evaluation of actinide ion uptake by polymer inclusion membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanty, B.N. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401502 (India); Raut, D.R. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Mohapatra, P.K., E-mail: mpatra@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Das, D.K.; Behere, P.G.; Afzal, Md. [Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra, 401502 (India)

    2014-06-30

    Highlights: • PIMs containing TODGA were used for actinide ion uptake and transport. • The trend of uptake was: Am{sup 3+} > Pu{sup 4+} > Th{sup 4+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. • The transport trend was similar though significant amount was held in the PIM. • The diffusion coefficients were lower than those obtained with SLM. - Abstract: Polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing TODGA (N,N,N′,N′-tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide) were evaluated for the separation of actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} from acidic feeds. The PIMs were prepared using cellulose triacetate (CTA) as the polymer matrix and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer along with the diglycolamide carrier extractants and were characterized by conventional techniques such as XRD, thermal analysis and AFM. The PIM composition was optimized by a series of studies which involved variation in the CTA, NPOE and carrier concentration which suggested 58% TODGA, 30% NPOE and 12% CTA to be optimum. The uptake studies were carried out using feed solutions containing varying concentrations of nitric acid and showed the trend: Am{sup 3+} > Pu{sup 4+} > Th{sup 4+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Transport studies were carried out in a two-compartment cell where nitric acid concentration the feed was varied (1–3 M) while the receiver compartment contained alpha-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid (AHIBA). The actinide ion transport efficiencies with TODGA containing PIMs followed the same trend as seen in the uptake studies. The AFM patterns of the PIMs changed when loaded with Eu{sup 3+} carrier (used as a surrogate for Am{sup 3+}) while the regenerated membranes have displayed comparable morphologies. Diffusion coefficient values were experimentally obtained from the transport studies and were found to be 8.89 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup 2}/s for Am{sup 3+} transport.

  19. Scintillating polymer inclusion membrane for preconcentration and determination of radionuclides. Effect of plasticizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scindia, Y.M.; Sodaye, S.; Pandey, A.K.; Reddy, A.V.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Desigan, N. [RDL, IGKAR, Kalpakkam (India)

    2004-07-01

    Extractive scintillators enable the preconcentration of a radionuclide of interest from an aqueous sample directly into the scintillator organic phase and its detection by scintillation counting. Many schemes for selective preconcentration and measurement of {alpha} and {beta} emitting nuclides have been developed using extractive scintillator liquids and resins. The extractive scintillating resins are prepared by impregnating polymer beads with an organic phase containing extractant, primary scintillator and a wavelength shifter. The extractive scintillating resins have the advantage over the extractive scintillating liquids, as they are amenable for on-line use with a high preconcentration factor. However, the stability of the organic phase held inside the resin matrix is a key issue for their application. As an alternative to extractive scintillating resins, we have developed a scintillating polymer inclusion membrane (S-PIM) for the preconcentration and determination of {alpha} - emitting radionuclides. The S-PIM was prepared by physical immobilization of an extractant bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and, 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 1,4-bis(2-methylstyryl)benzene (MSB) as primary and secondary fluors respectively in a dioctly phthalate (DOP) plasticized cellulose triacetate (CTA) matrix. The S-PIM has been found to be effective for quantitative sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The {alpha} emitting radionuclides held in the sample of S-PIM could be directly measured by scintillation counting. It was observed that {beta}-scintillation pulses could be discriminated from {alpha} pulses based on their pulse height, thereby achieving {alpha}/{beta} discrimination. In this work we have tested different plasticizers for preparing the S-PIM, in terms of maximum extraction and scintillation efficiency. (orig.)

  20. Do bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection affect serum cytokine level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogavac Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Serbia is the country with extremely low birth rate and a relatively high percentage of preterm deliveries (8%. With this in mind, discovering new diagnostic methods that could be used for the prediction of preterm delivery is of great importance. In this study we tried to determine whether bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection could provoke preterm delivery by activation of systemic cytokine network. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α in pregnant women with symptoms of preterm delivery and to make correlation between these parameters and the presence of bacterial vaginosis or chlamydial infection. Method. In the serum of 35 pregnant women, which were divided in groups according to the presence or absence of bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection, commercial ELISA tests for proinflammatory cytokines were performed. Results. The serum level of IFN-γ was significantly increased in pregnant women having chlamydial infection, as well as the level of IL-1β in women with bacterial vaginosis. The levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were not significantly different between the investigated groups. Conclusion. The preliminary results obtained in this research point out the possibility that not only intrauterine or systemic infections, but also bacterial vaginosis and chlamydial infection can cause a partial activation of systemic cytokine network and contribute to the occurrence of preterm delivery.

  1. Chlamydial virulence determinants in atherogenesis: the role of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and heat shock protein 60 in macrophage-lipoprotein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayoglu, M V; Indrawati; Morrison, R P; Morrison, S G; Yuan, Y; Byrne, G I

    2000-06-01

    Data from a spectrum of epidemiologic, pathologic, and animal model studies show that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with coronary artery disease, but it is not clear how the organism may initiate or promote atherosclerosis. It is postulated that C. pneumoniae triggers key atherogenic events through specific virulence determinants. C. pneumoniae induces mononuclear phagocyte foam cell formation by chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (cLPS) and low-density lipoprotein oxidation by chlamydial hsp60 (chsp60). Thus, different chlamydial components may promote distinct events implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Data implicating cLPS and chsp60 in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis are discussed and novel approaches are presented for attempting to elucidate how these putative virulence determinants signal mononuclear phagocytes to modulate lipoprotein influx and modification.

  2. 9 CFR 113.43 - Detection of chlamydial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of chlamydial agents. 113.43 Section 113.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD...

  3. Immunization with chlamydial plasmid protein pORF5 DNA vaccine induces protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To validate the immune protective efficacy of pORF5 DNA vaccine and to analyze potential mechanisms related to this protection. In this study, pORF5 DNA vaccine was constructed and evaluated for its protective immunity in a mouse model of genital chlamydial infection. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally with pORF5 DNA vaccine. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses were evaluated. The clearance ability of chlamydial challenge from the genital tract and the chlamy- dia-induced upper genital tract gross pathology and histopathological characterization were also de- tected. The results showed that the total and the IgG2a anti-pORF5 antibody levels in serum were sig- nificantly elevated after pcDNA3.1-pORF5 vaccination, as were the total antibody and IgA levels in vaginal fluids. pcDNA3.1-pORF5 induced a significantly high level of Th1 response as measured by robust gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Minimal IL-4 was produced by immune T cells in response to the re-stimulation with pORF5 protein or the inactive elementary body in vitro. pcDNA3.1-pORF5-vacci- nated mice displayed significantly reduced bacterial shedding upon a chlamydial challenge and an accelerated resolution of infection. 100% of pcDNA3.1-pORF5 vaccinated mice successfully resolved the infection by day 24. pcDNA3.1-pORF5-immunized mice also exhibited protection against patho- logical consequences of chlamydial infection. The stimulated index was significantly higher than that of mice immunized with pcDNA3.1 and PBS (P<0.05). Together, these results demonstrated that immu- nization with pORF5 DNA vaccine is a promising approach for eliciting a protective immunity against a genital chlamydial challenge.

  4. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy—A Simple Method for the Characterization of Polymer Inclusion Membranes Containing Aliquat 336

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle O’Rourke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS has been used to estimate the non-frequency dependent (static dielectric constants of base polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride (PVC, cellulose triacetate (CTA and polystyrene (PS. Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs containing different amounts of PVC or CTA, along with the room temperature ionic liquid Aliquat 336 and plasticizers such as trisbutoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP, dioctyl sebecate (DOS and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE have been investigated. In this study, the complex and abstract method of EIS has been applied in a simple and easy to use way, so as to make the method accessible to membrane scientists and engineers who may not possess the detailed knowledge of electrochemistry and interfacial science needed for a rigorous interpretation of EIS results. The EIS data reported herein are internally consistent with a percolation threshold in the dielectric constant at high concentrations of Aliquat 336, which illustrates the suitability of the EIS technique since membrane percolation with ion exchangers is a well-known phenomenon.

  5. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy—A Simple Method for the Characterization of Polymer Inclusion Membranes Containing Aliquat 336

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Michelle; Duffy, Noel; De Marco, Roland; Potter, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to estimate the non-frequency dependent (static) dielectric constants of base polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polystyrene (PS). Polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) containing different amounts of PVC or CTA, along with the room temperature ionic liquid Aliquat 336 and plasticizers such as trisbutoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP), dioctyl sebecate (DOS) and 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) have been investigated. In this study, the complex and abstract method of EIS has been applied in a simple and easy to use way, so as to make the method accessible to membrane scientists and engineers who may not possess the detailed knowledge of electrochemistry and interfacial science needed for a rigorous interpretation of EIS results. The EIS data reported herein are internally consistent with a percolation threshold in the dielectric constant at high concentrations of Aliquat 336, which illustrates the suitability of the EIS technique since membrane percolation with ion exchangers is a well-known phenomenon. PMID:24957616

  6. Molecular mimicry and horror autotoxicus: do chlamydial infections elicit autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanborg, Robert H; Boros, Dov L; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2006-11-30

    All species of the order Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular eubacterial pathogens of their various hosts. Two chlamydial species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, are primarily human pathogens, and each is known to cause important diseases. Some strains of C. trachomatis are sexually transmitted and frequently cause severe reproductive problems, primarily in women. Other strains of the organism serve as the aetiological agents for blinding trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness in underdeveloped nations. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to cause community-acquired pneumonia. Importantly, both organisms engender an immunopathogenic response in the human host, and both have been associated with widely diverse, relatively common and currently idiopathic chronic diseases, most of which include an important autoimmune component. In this article, we explore the available experimental data regarding the possible elicitation of autoimmunity in various contexts by chlamydial infection, and we suggest several avenues for research to explore this potentially important issue further.

  7. Novel polymer inclusion membranes containing T2EHDGA as carrier extractant for actinide ion uptake from acidic feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahanty, Bholanath; Das, Dillip Kumar; Behere, Praveen Gajanan; Afzal, Mohammad [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur, Maharashtra (India). Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar; Raut, Dhaval Ramakant [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.

    2015-06-01

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing N,N,N',N'-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) were evaluated for the separation of actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} from acidic feeds. The PIMs were prepared using cellulose triacetate (CTA) as the polymer matrix, 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as the plasticizer and T2EHDGA as the carrier extractant and the optimized membrane composition was found to be 68.4% T2EHDGA, 17.9% NPOE and 13.7% CTA which resulted in 74% Am{sup 3+} uptake at 1 M HNO{sub 3} in 2 h. The uptake studies were carried out using feed solutions containing varying concentrations of nitric acid (0.5-3.0 M) and showed the trend: Pu{sup 4+} > Am{sup 3+} > Th{sup 4+} > UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Quantitative stripping (> 99%) of the sorbed Am{sup 3+} was possible using a solution containing 0.01 M EDTA at pH 3.0. Reusability studies indicated deterioration of the PIM on continuous use.

  8. Cadmium (II) and lead (II) transport in a polymer inclusion membrane using tributyl phosphate as mobile carrier and CuFeO2 as a polarized photo electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a development of polymeric inclusion membranes for the cations separation is reported. The membrane was made up of cellulose triacetate (CTA) with a tributyl phosphate (TBP) incorporated into the polymer as metal ions carrier. The transport of lead (II) and cadmium (II) ions in two membrane systems polymer inclusion membrane (PIM), PIM coupled with photo-chemical electrode using TBP as carrier and 2-nitro phenyl octyl ether (NPOE) or tris ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP) as plasticizer have been investigated. The membranes: polymer + plasticizer + carrier were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transports of lead and cadmium have been studied using these systems and the results were compared to commercial cation exchange membrane (CRA). The obtained results showed that for Pb2+ ion, the concentrations of the strip phase increases using synthesized membranes. The conduction band of the delafossite CuFeO2 (-1.25 VSCE) yields a thermodynamically M2+ (=Pb2+, Cd2+) photo electrodeposition and speeds up the diffusion process. In all the cases, the potential of the electrode M/M2+ in the feed compartment increases until a maximum value, reached at ∼100 min above which it undergoes a diminution.

  9. Clinical and imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical and imaging features of chlamydial pneumonia in newborns. Methods: Medical records,chest X-Ray and CT findings of 17 neonates with chlamydia pneumonia were reviewed. The age was ranged from 9.0 to 28.0 days with mean of (16.8 ± 5.8) days. There were 11 males and 6 females. Sixteen were full term infants and one was born post term. All babies were examined with chest X-ray film, and 13 patients also underwent chest CT scan. Serologic test using immunofluorescence method for Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in all patients. Results: All newborns presented with cough but without fever. Positive results of the serologic tests were demonstrated. Chest films showed bilateral hyperventilation in 10 patients, diffuse reticular nodules in 10 patients including nodules mimicking military tuberculosis in 7 patients, and accompanying consolidation in 9 patients. CT features included interstitial reticular nodules in 13 patients with size, density, and distribution varied. Subpleural nodules (11 patients) and fusion of nodules (10 patients) predominated. Bilateral hyperinflation was found in 10 patients, which combined with infiltration in 12 patients, thickening of bronchovascular bundles in 10 patients, and ground glass sign in 5 patients. No pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy was detected in any patient. Conclusions: Bilateral hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial reticular nodules were the most common imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia. The main clinical characteristic of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia is respiratory symptoms without fever, which is helpful to its diagnosis. (authors)

  10. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in McCoy and HeLa-229 cells: an alternative staining technique using toluidine blue.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, N R; Hillary, I B

    1984-01-01

    Toluidine blue staining was used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in both McCoy and HeLa-229 cells from clinical specimens. This method was more sensitive than iodine staining for detecting C trachomatis inclusions in both McCoy and HeLa-229 cells and also more sensitive than Giemsa staining for detecting chlamydial inclusions in HeLa-229 cells. While its sensitivity for detection of chlamydial inclusions in McCoy cells is equal to that of Giemsa staining, toluidine blue staining is...

  11. Experimental and modeling study of Eu3+ uptake by polymer inclusion membrane containing C-Pivot tripodal diglycolamide from acidic feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) containing C-Pivot tripodal diglycolamide was used for the uptake study of Eu(III) from 1M HNO3. Kinetic and equilibrium uptake data were evaluated with different model equations. The uptake followed pseudo second order kinetics. The experimental isotherms were evaluated with two and three parameters equations. (Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Sips) using nonlinear regression. The experimental data were best fitted with Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherm. (author)

  12. Expression, processing, and localization of PmpD of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey O Kiselev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While families of polymorphic membrane protein (pmp genes have been identified in several Chlamydia species, their function remains mostly unknown. These proteins are of great interest, however, because of their location in the outer membrane and possible role in chlamydial virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We analyzed the relative transcription of the pmpD gene, a member of the pmp gene family in C. trachomatis serovar L2, and its protein product translation and processing during the chlamydial developmental cycle. By real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the pmpD gene was found to be upregulated at 16 to 24 four hours after infection. Using polyclonal antibodies generated against the predicted passenger domain of PmpD, we demonstrated that it is initially localized on the surface of reticulate bodies, followed by its secretion outside Chlamydia starting at 24 hours after infection. In elementary bodies, we found a approximately 157 kDa PmpD only inside the cell. Both events, the upregulation of pmpD gene transcription and PmpD protein processing and secretion, are coincidental with the period of replication and differentiation of RBs into EBs. We also demonstrated that, in the presence of penicillin, the cleavage and secretion of the putative passenger domain was suppressed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are in agreement with the general concept that PmpD is an autotransporter protein which is post-translationally processed and secreted in the form of the putative passenger domain outside Chlamydia at mid- to- late point after infection, coinciding with the development of RBs into EBs.

  13. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Jewett

    Full Text Available The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  14. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

    2013-08-30

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species.

  15. Gender-based screening for chlamydial infection and divergent infection trends in men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Rogers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential impact of chlamydial screening policy that recommends routine screening of women but not men. METHODS: Population surveys of probability samples of Baltimore adults aged 18 to 35 years in 1997-1998 and 2006-2009 collected biospecimens to estimate trends in undiagnosed chlamydial infection. Survey estimates are compared to surveillance data on diagnosed chlamydial infections reported to the Health Department. RESULTS: Prevalence of undiagnosed chlamydial infection among men increased from 1.6% to 4.0%, but it declined from 4.3% to 3.1% among women (p = 0.028 for test of interaction. The annual (average number of diagnosed infections was substantially higher among women than men in both time periods and increased among both men and women. Undiagnosed infection prevalence was substantially higher among black than non-black adults (4.0% vs 1.2%, p = 0.042 in 1997-98 and 5.5% vs 0.7%, p<0.001 in 2006-09. CONCLUSION: Divergent trends in undiagnosed chlamydial infection by gender parallel divergent screening recommendations that encourage chlamydial testing for women but not for men.

  16. Chlamydial infection increases gonococcal colonization in a novel murine coinfection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonck, Rachel A; Darville, T; O'Connell, C M; Jerse, Ann E

    2011-04-01

    Genital tract infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D to K occur at high incidence in many areas of the world. Despite high rates of coinfection with these pathogens, investigations of host-parasite interactions have focused on each pathogen individually. We describe here a coinfection model in which female BALB/c mice were first infected with the mouse Chlamydia species C. muridarum and then inoculated with N. gonorrhoeae following treatment with water-soluble 17β-estradiol to promote long-term gonococcal infection. Viable gonococci and chlamydiae were recovered for an average of 8 to 10 days, and diplococci and chlamydial inclusions were observed in lower genital tract tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Estradiol treatment reduced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in chlamydia-infected mice; however, coinfected mice had a higher percentage of vaginal neutrophils compared to mice infected with either pathogen alone. We detected no difference in pathogen-specific antibody levels due to coinfection. Interestingly, significantly more gonococci were recovered from coinfected mice compared to mice infected with N. gonorrhoeae alone. We found no evidence that C. muridarum increases gonococcal adherence to, or invasion of, immortalized murine epithelial cells. However, increased vaginal concentrations of inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detected in C. muridarum-infected mice prior to inoculation with N. gonorrhoeae concurrently with the downregulation of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide and secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor genes. We conclude that female mice can be successfully infected with both C. muridarum and N. gonorrhoeae and that chlamydia-induced alterations in host innate responses may enhance gonococcal infection. PMID:21245268

  17. Membraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner......Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner...

  18. The role of NOD1 and NOD2 in host defense against chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Lei, Wenbo; He, Zhansheng; Li, Zhongyu

    2016-09-01

    Chlamydial species are common intracellular parasites that cause various diseases, mainly characterized by persistent infection, which lead to inflammatory responses modulated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The best understood PRRs are the extracellular Toll-like receptors, but recent significant advances have focused on two important proteins, NOD1 and NOD2, which are members of the intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptor family and are capable of triggering the host innate immune signaling pathways. This results in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is vital for an adequate host defense against intracellular chlamydial infection. NOD1/2 ligands are known to derive from peptidoglycan, and the latest research has resolved the paradox of whether chlamydial species possess this bacterial cell wall component; this finding is likely to promote in-depth investigations into the interaction between the NOD proteins and chlamydial pathogens. In this review, we summarize the basic characteristics and signal transduction functions of NOD1 and NOD2 and highlight the new research on the roles of NOD1 and NOD2 in the host defense against chlamydial infection.

  19. All subtypes of the Pmp adhesin family are implicated in chlamydial virulence and show species-specific function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elisabeth; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2014-08-01

    The bacterial pathogens Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae are obligate intracellular parasites, cause a number of serious diseases, and can infect various cell types in humans. Chlamydial infections are probably initiated by binding of the bacterial outer membrane protein OmcB to host cell glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Here, we show that all nine members of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family of C. trachomatis mediate adhesion to human epithelial and endothelial cells. Importantly, exposure of infectious particles to soluble recombinant Pmps blocks subsequent infection, thus implicating an important function of the entire protein family in the infection process. Analogous experiments with pairs of recombinant Pmps or a combination of Pmp and OmcB revealed that all Pmps probably act in an adhesion pathway that is distinct from the OmcB-GAG pathway. Finally, we provide evidence that the Pmps of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae exhibit species and tissue specificity. These findings argue for the involvement of C. trachomatis Pmps in the initial phase of infection and suggest that they may interact with a receptor other than the epidermal growth factor receptor recently identified for their counterparts in C. pneumoniae.

  20. [In-vitro evaluation of cinnarizine as a competing agent to beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes: effect of cinnarizine on the membrane permeation rate of progesterone from its beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Atsushi; Tokumura, Tadakazu; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2008-01-01

    The use of competing agents is considered a powerful tool for the development of a drug-delivery system with drug/cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. However, there are very few studies examining this issue. To explain this phenomenon, it was thought that a competing agent with a sufficiently high stability constant had not yet been reported. In this study, cinnarizine (CN), which has a high stability constant with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and unique solubility characteristics, was selected, and its ability as a competing agent was examined in a membrane permeability study. The permeability study showed that the permeation rates of the drugs flurbiprofen, progesterone, and spironolactone decreased with their stability constants with the addition of beta-CD. In one of the drugs, progesterone (Pro), the decrease was restored by the addition of CN. The amount of CN added was a 1:1 molar ratio to the amount of Pro. However, no similar action was induced with the addition of DL-phenylalanine (Phe) in the permeation study at the 1:5 (Pro:Phe) molar ratio. These finding indicate that CN acts as a competing agent, and its action is much stronger than that of Phe. PMID:18176059

  1. Association of caveolin with Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions at early and late stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, L C; Wolfrom, S A; Stuart, E S

    2001-06-10

    The mechanism by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis enters eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. There are conflicting reports of entry occurring by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. We report here that C. trachomatis serovar K enters HEp-2 and HeLa 229 epithelial cells and J-774A.1 mouse macrophage/monocyte cells via caveolin-containing sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains in the host cell plasma membranes. First, filipin and nystatin, drugs that specifically disrupt raft function by cholesterol chelation, each impaired entry of C. trachomatis serovar K. In control experiments, filipin did not impair entry of the same organism by an antibody-mediated opsonic process, nor did it impair entry of BSA-coated microspheres. Second, the chlamydia-containing endocytic vesicles specifically reacted with antisera against the caveolae marker protein caveolin. These vesicles are known to become the inclusions in which parasite replication occurs. They avoid fusion with lysosomes and instead traffic to the Golgi region, where they intercept Golgi-derived vesicles that recycle sphingolipids and cholesterol to the plasma membrane. We also report that late-stage C. trachomatis inclusions continue to display high levels of caveolin, which they likely acquire from the exocytic Golgi vesicles. We suggest that the atypical raft-mediated entry process may have important consequences for the host-pathogen interaction well after entry has occurred. These consequences include enabling the chlamydial vesicle to avoid acidification and fusion with lysosomes, to traffic to the Golgi region, and to intercept sphingolipid-containing vesicles from the Golgi.

  2. Activation of Raf/MEK/ERK/cPLA2 signaling pathway is essential for chlamydial acquisition of host glycerophospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Heng; McClarty, Grant; Dong, Feng; Hatch, Grant M; Pan, Zhixing K; Zhong, Guangming

    2004-03-01

    Chlamydiae, a diverse group of obligate intracellular pathogens replicating within cytoplasmic vacuoles of eukaryotic cells, are able to acquire lipids from host cells. Here we report that activation of the host Raf-MEK-ERK-cPLA2 signaling cascade is required for the chlamydial uptake of host glycerophospholipids. Both the MAP kinase pathway (Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) and Ca(2+)-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) were activated in chlamydia-infected cells. The inhibition of cPLA2 activity resulted in the blockade of the chlamydial uptake of host glycerophospholipids and impairment in chlamydial growth. Blocking either c-Raf-1 or MEK1/2 activity prevented the chlamydial activation of ERK1/2, leading to the suppression of both chlamydial activation of the host cPLA2 and uptake of glycerophospholipids from the host cells. The chlamydia-induced phosphorylation of cPLA2 was also blocked by a dominant negative ERK2. Furthermore, activation of both ERK1/2 and cPLA2 was dependent on chlamydial growth and restricted within chlamydia-infected cells, suggesting an active manipulation of the host ERK-cPLA2 signaling pathway by chlamydiae.

  3. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, Michael

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In order to improve primary treatment, prevention, and control of infection caused by these organisms, an analysis of all cases presenting from July 2002 to December 2006 at a major Irish regional teaching hospital was performed. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of conjunctivitis in total. Among neonates and adults, C. trachomatis was the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Of the adult patients, 75% were men. The annual incidence of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis increased yearly from 2002 and correlated with an overall increase in genital chlamydia infection in the region. Neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis has an overall incidence of 0.65\\/1000 live births and is continuing to rise annually. In 2006, gonococcal conjunctivitis accounted for 20% of all cases of conjunctivitis caused by sexually transmitted bacteria presenting to our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in the incidence of gonococcal keratitis serves to remind us that this important infection should be borne in mind when treating cases of purulent conjunctivitis. The diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with systemic antibiotics.

  4. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintin Lau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60 are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or chlamydia-associated disease and infertility. In this study, we characterised partial MHCII DAB and DBB genes in female koalas (n = 94 from a single geographic population, and investigated associations among antibody responses to c-hsp60 quantified by ELISA, susceptibility to chlamydial infection, or age. The identification of three candidate MHCII variants provides additional support for the functional role of MHCII in the koala, and will inform more focused future studies. This is the first study to investigate an association between MHC genes with chlamydial pathogenesis in a non-model, free-ranging species.

  5. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis and genital chlamydial infection among women in north-west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseffa, A; Ishak, A; Stevens, R; Fergussen, E; Giles, M; Yohannes, G; Kidan, K G

    1998-03-01

    The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among women visiting antenatal (ANC) and gynaecological clinics in Gondar, north-west Ethiopia, was investigated. Between April and August 1995, 728 women consented to enter the study. Prevalence rates were 5.9% (41/693) for chlamydial antigen in cervix, 18.8% (113/600) for syphilis (Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay [TPHA]) and 25.3% (150/593) for HIV. Active syphilis (RPR)+, TPHA+ was detected in 74% (44/597). HIV infection rate was higher among women with higher age of first marriage and low gravidity. It was significantly associated with young age, urban residence, and presence of genital ulcer (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3), and lymphadenopathy (OR = 2.8) on examination. Women seropositive for syphilis had married at an earlier age, were significantly older and had changed husbands. Low gravidity and age < 30 were independently significant risk factors for cervical chlamydial antigen positivity which was predominantly asymptomatic. Significant association was observed between HIV infection and syphilis (OR = 2.6). Active syphilis was associated with chlamydial (OR = 3.4) and HIV infection (OR = 4.1). The rate of 23.4% and 15.1% of HIV seropositivity among ANC attenders and rural women respectively is an indicator of the rapid progression of the HIV epidemic in the area. PMID:9593487

  6. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    OpenAIRE

    Marsela Robo

    2014-01-01

    The key question addressed in this article is social inclusion, as an opposite concept of social exclusion. The author provides a historical of social inclusion/exclusion terminology. Further, some of the principles of social inclusion are presented. A brief review of the literature provides key views and theories of social inclusion. In particular, the author brings to attention that the included/excluded dualism apparent in the writings of social inclusion and exclusion cannot be take...

  7. Sequence Homologies between Mycoplasma and Chlamydia spp. Lead to False-Positive Results in Chlamydial Cell Cultures Tested for Mycoplasma Contamination with a Commercial PCR Assay▿

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, Viola; Kern, Jan Marco; Poeckl, Matthias; Maass, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma contamination is a frequent problem in chlamydial cell culture. After obtaining contradictory contamination results, we compared three commercial PCR kits for mycoplasma detection. One kit signaled contamination in mycoplasma-free Chlamydia pneumoniae cultures. Sequencing of cloned PCR products revealed primer homology with the chlamydial genome as the basis of this false-positive result.

  8. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  9. Interleukin 17A is an immune marker for chlamydial disease severity and pathogenesis in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Waugh, Courtney; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an iconic Australian marsupial species that is facing many threats to its survival. Chlamydia pecorum infections are a significant contributor to this ongoing decline. A major limiting factor in our ability to manage and control chlamydial disease in koalas is a limited understanding of the koala's cell-mediated immune response to infections by this bacterial pathogen. To identify immunological markers associated with chlamydial infection and disease in koalas, we used koala-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qrtPCR) assays to profile the cytokine responses of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) collected from 41 koalas with different stages of chlamydial disease. Target cytokines included the principal Th1 (Interferon gamma; IFNγ), Th2 (Interleukin 10; IL10), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha; TNFα). A novel koala-specific IL17A qrtPCR assay was also developed as part of this study to quantitate the gene expression of this Th17 cytokine in koalas. A statistically significant higher IL17A gene expression was observed in animals with current chlamydial disease compared to animals with asymptomatic chlamydial infection. A modest up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα and IFNγ, was also observed in these animals with signs of current chlamydial disease. IL10 gene expression was not evident in the majority of animals from both groups. Future longitudinal studies are now required to confirm the role played by cytokines in pathology and/or protection against C. pecorum infection in the koala.

  10. Immunobiological outcomes of repeated chlamydial infection from two models of within-host population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Vickers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is a common human pathogen that mediates disease processes capable of inflicting serious complications on reproduction. Aggressive inflammatory immune responses are thought to not only direct a person's level of immunity but also the potential for immunopathology. With human immunobiology being debated as a cause of prevailing epidemiological trends, we examined some fundamental issues regarding susceptibility to multiple chlamydial infections that could have implications for infection spread. We argue that, compared to less-frequent exposure, frequent exposure to chlamydia may well produce unique immunobiological characteristics that likely to have important clinical and epidemiological implications. METHODS AND RESULTS: As a novel tool for studying chlamydia, we applied principles of modeling within-host pathogen dynamics to enable an understanding of some fundamental characteristics of an individual's immunobiology during multiple chlamydial infections. While the models were able to reproduce shorter-term infection kinetics of primary and secondary infections previously observed in animal models, it was also observed that longer periods between initial and second infection may increase an individual's chlamydial load and lengthen their duration of infectiousness. The cessation of short-term repeated exposure did not allow for the formation of long-lasting immunity. However, frequent re-exposure non-intuitively linked the formation of protective immunity, persistent infection, and the potential for immunopathology. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results provide interesting insights that should be verified with continued study. Nevertheless, these results appear to raise challenges for current evidence of the development of long-lasting immunity against chlamydia, and suggest the existence of a previously unidentified mechanism for the formation of persistent infection. The obvious next goal is to investigate the

  11. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation.

  12. High frequency of chlamydial co-infections in clinically healthy sheep flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachse Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological situation of ovine chlamydial infections in continental Europe, especially Germany is poorly characterised. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the chlamydial sero- and antigen prevalence was estimated in thirty-two randomly selected sheep flocks with an average abortion rate lower than 1%. Seven vaccinated flocks were reviewed separately. Results A wide range of samples from 32 flocks were examined. Assumption of a seroprevalence of 10% (CI 95% at flock level, revealed that 94% of the tested flocks were serologically positive with ongoing infection (i.e. animals with seroconversion in nearly half (47% of the flocks. On the basis of an estimated 25% antigen prevalence (CI 95%, PCR and DNA microarray testing, together with sequencing revealed the presence of chlamydiae in 78% of the flocks. The species most frequently found was Chlamydophila (C. abortus (50% followed by C. pecorum (47% and C. psittaci genotype A (25%. Mixed infections occurred in 25% of the tested flocks. Samples obtained from the vaccinated flocks revealed the presence of C. abortus field samples in 4/7 flocks. C. pecorum was isolated from 2/7 flocks and the presence of seroconversion was determined in 3/7 flocks. Conclusions The results imply that chlamydial infections occur frequently in German sheep flocks, even in the absence of elevated abortion rates. The fact that C. pecorum and the potentially zoonotic C. psittaci were found alongside the classical abortifacient agent C. abortus, raise questions about the significance of this reservoir for animal and human health and underline the necessity for regular monitoring. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of C. psittaci infections in sheep.

  13. Natural killer cells regulate Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance in chlamydial lung infection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Natural killer (NK) cell is an important component in innate immunity, playing a critical role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by modulating the function of other immune cells including T cells. In this study, we focused on the role of NK cells in regulating Th1/Treg and Th17/Treg balance during chlamydial lung infection. We found that NK cell‐depleted mice showed decreased Th1 and Th17 cells, which was correlated with reduced interferon‐γ, interleukin (IL)‐12, IL‐17 and IL‐...

  14. The Waddlia genome: a window into chlamydial biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bertelli

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that a novel member of the Chlamydiales order, Waddlia chondrophila, is a potential agent of miscarriage in humans and abortion in ruminants. Due to the lack of genetic tools to manipulate chlamydia, genomic analysis is proving to be the most incisive tool in stimulating investigations into the biology of these obligate intracellular bacteria. 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina technologies were thus used to sequence and assemble de novo the full genome of the first representative of the Waddliaceae family, W. chondrophila. The bacteria possesses a 2'116'312 bp chromosome and a 15'593 bp low-copy number plasmid that might integrate into the bacterial chromosome. The Waddlia genome displays numerous repeated sequences indicating different genome dynamics from classical chlamydia which almost completely lack repetitive elements. Moreover, W. chondrophila exhibits many virulence factors also present in classical chlamydia, including a functional type III secretion system, but also a large complement of specific factors for resistance to host or environmental stresses. Large families of outer membrane proteins were identified indicating that these highly immunogenic proteins are not Chlamydiaceae specific and might have been present in their last common ancestor. Enhanced metabolic capability for the synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, lipids and other co-factors suggests that the common ancestor of the modern Chlamydiales may have been less dependent on their eukaryotic host. The fine-detailed analysis of biosynthetic pathways brings us closer to possibly developing a synthetic medium to grow W. chondrophila, a critical step in the development of genetic tools. As a whole, the availability of the W. chondrophila genome opens new possibilities in Chlamydiales research, providing new insights into the evolution of members of the order Chlamydiales and the biology of the Waddliaceae.

  15. Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor and Type III Secreted Effectors Cooperate in Inhibition of p65 Nuclear Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael John; McCorrister, Stuart; Grant, Chris; Westmacott, Garrett; Fariss, Robert; Hu, Pingzhao; Zhao, Kaiqiong; Blake, Mary; Whitmire, Bill; Yang, Chunfu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) is hypothesized to be an important secreted virulence factor; however, challenges in denaturing its proteolytic activity have hampered attempts to identify its legitimate targets. Here, we use a genetic and proteomic approach to identify authentic CPAF targets. Human epithelial cells infected with CPAF-sufficient and CPAF-deficient chlamydiae were lysed using known CPAF-denaturing conditions. Their protein profiles were analyzed using isobaric mass tags and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative analysis of CPAF-sufficient and CPAF-deficient infections identified a limited number of CPAF host and chlamydial protein targets. Host targets were primarily interferon-stimulated gene products, whereas chlamydial targets were type III secreted proteins. We provide evidence supporting a cooperative role for CPAF and type III secreted effectors in blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, resulting in decreased beta interferon and proinflammatory cytokine synthesis. Genetic complementation of null organisms with CPAF restored p65 nuclear translocation inhibition and proteolysis of chlamydial type III secreted effector proteins (T3SEs). We propose that CPAF and T3SEs cooperate in the inhibition of host innate immunity. PMID:27677792

  16. Inclusive Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Judy; Burnette, Jane

    1994-01-01

    This review of five recent (1992 and 1993) books and journal articles is intended to illuminate characteristics of inclusive schools. The review defines inclusion as more than merely regular class placement for students with disabilities, to include a philosophy which celebrates diversity and the provision of a continuum of educational options.…

  17. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  18. Clinical and morphological characteristics of chronic uretheroprostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Kondratyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical symptoms, features of morphological structure of prostate in patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis associated with chlamydial and mycoplasmal infections. 60 male patients were examined. Anamnesis and interview data, results of laboratory and instrumental tests were analyzed. In 73.3% of cases cultural test and PCR allowed to identify M. hominis, U. urealiticum, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis in patients with chronic uretheroprostatitis. Out of 16 patients (26,6% of all examined with chronic recurrent uretheroprostatitis for whom neither chlamidial nor mycoplasmal infection was diagnosed by laboratory tests, for 14 patients (87,5% it was confirmed that patogenic urogenital infectious agents were localized intracellularly. Pathomorphological investigation of prostate bioptates allowed to estimate the type and degree of specific changes in the prostate tissue in cases of recurrent uretheroprostatitis resistant to the therapy and with frequent relapses.

  19. Chlamydial Proctitis in a Young Man Who Has Sex with Men: Misdiagnosed as Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jin; Shin, Dong Hwan; Jung, Jun Oh; Koh, Seokyoung; Kim, Ka Young; Lee, Jae Min

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old man with a 2-month history of anal pain and bloody rectal discharge. He was referred to our clinic of gastroenterology for suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The colonoscopy showed mucosal nodularities on the rectum and an anal tag. Because the colonoscopic findings were not consistent with the typical manifestations of IBD, we took an additional sexual history and performed studies for infectious proctitis, including serologic tests for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Treponema pallidum. He had homosexual experience, and the serologic tests and PCR of a rectal swab were positive for C. trachomatis infection. Finally he was diagnosed as having chlamydial proctitis and was treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg in a single dose and doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days. After 2 months, he had no lower abdominal symptoms and his endoscopic findings were improved. PMID:26730366

  20. Chlamydial endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, J; Aine, R; Teisala, K; Heinonen, P K; Punnonen, R; Lehtinen, M; Miettinen, A; Grönroos, P

    1985-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 32 women with suspected pelvic inflammatory disease, of whom 23 (72%) had histopathological evidence of endometritis. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the endometria of nine (39%) women (chlamydia group) but not from the other 14 (non-chlamydia group). Severe plasma cell endometritis and lymphoid follicles with transformed lymphocytes were significantly more common in the chlamydia group than in the non-chlamydia group. This suggests that C trachomatis is an invasive endometrial pathogen which often causes severe inflammation. The association was independent of predisposing factors such as use of intrauterine contraceptive devices. Images PMID:4019796

  1. Chlamydial endometritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Paavonen, J.; Aine, R; Teisala, K; Heinonen, P. K.; Punnonen, R; Lehtinen, M; Miettinen, A; Grönroos, P

    1985-01-01

    Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 32 women with suspected pelvic inflammatory disease, of whom 23 (72%) had histopathological evidence of endometritis. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the endometria of nine (39%) women (chlamydia group) but not from the other 14 (non-chlamydia group). Severe plasma cell endometritis and lymphoid follicles with transformed lymphocytes were significantly more common in the chlamydia group than in the non-chlamydia group. This suggests that C trach...

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis interrupts an exocytic pathway to acquire endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin in transit from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackstadt, T; Rockey, D D; Heinzen, R A; Scidmore, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis acquires C6-NBD-sphingomyelin endogenously synthesized from C6-NBD-ceramide and transported to the vesicle (inclusion) in which they multiply. Here we explore the mechanisms of this unusual trafficking and further characterize the association of the chlamydial inclusion with the Golgi apparatus. Endocytosed chlamydiae are trafficked to the Golgi region and begin to acquire sphingolipids from the host within a few hours following infection. The transport of NBD-sphingolip...

  3. Towards understanding microvillus inclusion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Georg F; Hess, Michael W; Pfaller, Kristian; Huber, Lukas A; Janecke, Andreas R; Müller, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is characterised by onset of intractable life-threatening watery diarrhoea during infancy. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates shortening or absence of apical microvilli, pathognomonic microvillus inclusions in mature enterocytes and subapical accumulation of periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules or vesicles confirming diagnosis. Mutations in MYO5B have been found to cause MVID. In two patients with MVID, whole-exome sequencing of DNA revealed homozygous truncating mutations in STX3. Mutations in these genes disrupt trafficking between apical cargo vesicles and the apical plasma membrane. Thus, disturbed delivery of certain brush border membrane proteins is a common defect in MVID. PMID:26830108

  4. Evaluation of the Kinetic Properties of the Sporulation Protein SpoIIE of Bacillus subtilis by Inclusion in a Model Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Searls, Tim; Chen, Xingyong; Allen, Stephanie; Yudkin, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Starvation induces Bacillus subtilis to initiate a developmental process (sporulation) that includes asymmetric cell division to form the prespore and the mother cell. The integral membrane protein SpoIIE is essential for the prespore-specific activation of the transcription factor σF, and it also has a morphogenic activity required for asymmetric division. An increase in the local concentration of SpoIIE at the polar septum of B. subtilis precedes dephosphorylation of the anti-anti-sigma fac...

  5. Inclusion Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Colver, David

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion analysis is the name given by Operis to a black box testing technique that it has found to make the checking of key financial ratios calculated by spreadsheet models quicker, easier and more likely to find omission errors than code inspection.

  6. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach will...

  7. Inclusion Means...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Davis, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    Under current law, public and private institutions must educate children with disabilities just as they educate other children. Inclusion becomes a civil-rights issue when special-education students' rights are perceived to be violated because of unequal treatment due to segregated programs. A survey of attendees at a summer training institute on…

  8. ARE INCLUSIVE DESIGNERS DESIGNING INCLUSIVELY?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature exists relating to Inclusive Design. The literature can be divided into theory concerning methodology and case studies concerning practice. With such a large body of theoretical literature available, the question arises as to how closely practice matches that theory....... This paper is a survey of the methods used in the execution of self-declared inclusively design products based on an analysis of academic papers, posters and oral presentations. The case studies are divided into two groups, product design and assistive technology. Design steps were assigned to six categories...

  9. Discovery of chlamydial peptidoglycan reveals bacteria with murein sacculi but without FtsZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilhofer, Martin; Aistleitner, Karin; Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Kuru, Erkin; Hall, Edward; Brun, Yves V.; Vannieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydiae are important pathogens and symbionts with unique cell biological features. They lack the cell-division protein FtsZ, and the existence of peptidoglycan (PG) in their cell wall has been highly controversial. FtsZ and PG together function in orchestrating cell division and maintaining cell shape in almost all other bacteria. Using electron cryotomography, mass spectrometry and fluorescent labelling dyes, here we show that some environmental chlamydiae have cell wall sacculi consisting of a novel PG type. Treatment with fosfomycin (a PG synthesis inhibitor) leads to lower infection rates and aberrant cell shapes, suggesting that PG synthesis is crucial for the chlamydial life cycle. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of PG in a member of the Chlamydiae. They also present a unique example of a bacterium with a PG sacculus but without FtsZ, challenging the current hypothesis that it is the absence of a cell wall that renders FtsZ non-essential.

  10. Inclusive Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永芳

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned about inclusive education in China,which is exemplified bythe following aspects:creating inclusive culture,producing inclusive policies and evolving inclusivepractice.Also,problems related to the inclusion are identified in this paper.

  11. Direct fluorescent-antibody confirmation of chlamydial antigen below the detection threshold of the chlamydiazyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Kellogg, J A; Seiple, J W; Stroll, E S

    1993-01-01

    Of 4,000 endocervical specimens tested with the Chlamydiazyme enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Abbott Laboratories), 233 (5.8%) gave positive results (A492 above the cutoff), which were confirmed with a blocking reagent (Abbott). An additional 34 specimens (14.6%) with chlamydial antigen were detected and confirmed with the direct fluorescent-antibody test (Syva) from among those 66 Chlamydiazyme-negative specimens which had A492s that ranged from 0.030 to the cutoff and that could be block...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP......60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis-specific...

  13. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Wali

    Full Text Available Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  14. Inclusion Body Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Inclusion Body Myositis Information Page Table of Contents (click ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Inclusion Body Myositis? Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is one ...

  15. Inclusions in DKDP crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The shape and the size of inclusions in DKDP crystal have been observed and measured microscopically.Three kinds of inclusions were found and the components of the inclusions were measured. The formation mechanisms were proposed and discussed.``

  16. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  17. A T Cell Epitope-Based Vaccine Protects Against Chlamydial Infection in HLA-DR4 Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weidang; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Lanka, Gopala Krishna; Chetty, Senthilnath L; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Forsthuber, Thomas G.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) has been shown to provide robust protection against genital Chlamydia infection. Adoptive transfer of IFN-γ competent CPAF-specific CD4+ T cells was sufficient to induce early resolution of chlamydial infection and reduction of subsequent pathology in recipient IFN-γ-deficient mice indicating the importance of IFN-γ secreting CD4+ T cells in host defense against Chlamydia. In this study, we identify CD4+ T cell reactive CPAF epitopes and characterize the activation of epitope-specific CD4+ T cells following antigen immunization or Chlamydia challenge. Using the HLA-DR4 (HLA-DRB1*0401) transgenic mouse for screening overlapping peptides that induced T cell IFN-γ production, we identified at least 5 CPAF T cell epitopes presented by the HLA-DR4 complex. Immunization of HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with a rCPAFep fusion protein containing these 5 epitopes induced a robust cell-mediated immune response and significantly accelerated the resolution of genital and pulmonary Chlamydia infection. rCPAFep vaccination induced CPAF-specific CD4+ T cells in the spleen were detected using HLA-DR4/CPAF-epitope tetramers. Additionally, CPAF-specific CD4+ clones could be detected in the mouse spleen following C. muridarum and a human C. trachomatis strain challenge using these novel tetramers. These results provide the first direct evidence that a novel CPAF epitope vaccine can provide protection and that HLA-DR4/CPAF-epitope tetramers can detect CPAF epitope-specific CD4+ T cells in HLA-DR4 mice following C. muridarum or C. trachomatis infection. Such tetramers could be a useful tool for monitoring CD4+ T cells in immunity to Chlamydia infection and in developing epitope-based human vaccines using the murine model. PMID:24096029

  18. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Lucas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB into the reticulate body (RB. The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE, syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical towards understanding the molecular signals involved in

  19. Social Imaginaries and Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this entry is to introduce inclusion as a sociological concept consistent with which exclusion is an internal part of inclusion. When exclusion is the basis of inclusion, the establishment of communities will always involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. Similarly......, the development of inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments will involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. With this starting point, international educational research knowledge about inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments in general will be related to the fundamental dilemma...... that inclusion on the one hand may be seen to be about human rights, solidarity, and democracy, and on the other hand, it is about ensuring the cohesion of neoliberal society by means of every person’s obligation to realize one’s potential through learning, development, and education regardless of one’s needs...

  20. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Allan; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    We propose that foresight can contribute to inclusive development by making innovation policy processes more inclusive, which in turn makes innovation systems more inclusive. Processes of developing future-oriented innovation policies are often unsuccessful and rarely inclusive. We conceptualize ...... and processes in two foresight cases in two emerging economies - Brazil and South Korea. Although the research is exploratory and the results tentative, the empirical studies support our main propositions....

  1. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal disti

  2. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; Zee, van der Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal disti

  3. Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Mohammad Tariq; Burnip, Lindsay

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on inclusive education in Bangladesh for children with special needs. Bangladesh is not behind other developed countries in enacting laws and declarations in favour of inclusive education, but a lack of resources is the main barrier in implementing inclusive education. Special education and integrated education models exist in…

  4. Delimiting Inclusive Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper was written as an answer to the question raised by my PhD dissertation on accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design (ID) methods: can Inclusive Design be delimited? The literature on Inclusive Design deals almost entrirely with consumer product design and assistive...

  5. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal distin

  6. Inclusion in Middle Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Derrick; Ashley, Mandi; Hayes, Brandalyn

    2013-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide school districts within Tennessee with more research about how weekly hours of inclusion impact student achievement. Specifically, researchers examined which models of inclusion were in use in two school districts in Tennessee, administrators' and teachers' perceptions of inclusion, and whether or…

  7. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  8. Towards Inclusive Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Social inclusion is the process that will enable every person in society to participate in normal activities of societies they live in, including education, employment, public services and social recreational activities. For the development of an inclusive society, preparation of younger generation also needs to be inclusive. Our schools must…

  9. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2016-01-01

    We propose that foresight can contribute to inclusive development by making innovation systems more inclusive. Processes of developing future oriented innovation policies are often unsuccessful and rarely inclusive. We conceptualize such processes as foresighting. We focus on how the ex-ante design...... of policymaking processes affects the actual process with a focus on inclusion, and we discuss how it affects policy effectiveness and innovation system transformation. Our argument is that processes of policymaking must be inclusive to affect and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors......, rather than ministries and innovation agencies, is the gatekeepers of change. From this perspective, inclusion is a precondition rather than an obstacle for transformation. Based on the notion of innovation system foresight, we develop an analytical framework that we use to study design and processes...

  10. Measuring Attitudes Toward Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Kunz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable worldwide demand for an inclusive education system has driven Switzerland to reconsider the approach of segregated schooling for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN. Recently, an agreement was signed among the states with the intention to adopt a more inclusive practice in school. There is evidence suggesting that an inclusive practice established at policy level is not enough, as many times it becomes teacher’s effort to translate the policies in classroom setting. The effectiveness of inclusive practices can be tightly related to the attitude of teachers, parents and students to inclusion of children with SEN in mainstreaming classes. Attitude towards inclusion is an observable construct but it presents difficulties in terms of measurement. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the attitude to inclusion of teachers, parents and students, an American Scale, the 11-items Parent Attitude to Inclusion (Palmer et al., 1998a, 1998b, 2001 and the version for teachers (Stanley, Grimbeek, Bryer, Beamisch, 2003; Bryer, Grimbeek, Beamish, Stanley, 2004, has been slightly modified and translated into German language. The resulting scales have been used to collect data in Switzerland in two regions. Results show that the German version of the scale can be potentially used for reliable measurement of attitudes toward inclusion in German speaking countries.

  11. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...

  12. Modelling Meso-Scale Diffusion Processes in Stochastic Fluid Bio-Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Rafii-Tabar, H

    1999-01-01

    The space-time dynamics of rigid inhomogeneities (inclusions) free to move in a randomly fluctuating fluid bio-membrane is derived and numerically simulated as a function of the membrane shape changes. Both vertically placed (embedded) inclusions and horizontally placed (surface) inclusions are considered. The energetics of the membrane, as a two-dimensional (2D) meso-scale continuum sheet, is described by the Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian, with the membrane height function treated as a stochastic process. The diffusion parameter of this process acts as the link coupling the membrane shape fluctuations to the kinematics of the inclusions. The latter is described via Ito stochastic differential equation. In addition to stochastic forces, the inclusions also experience membrane-induced deterministic forces. Our aim is to simulate the diffusion-driven aggregation of inclusions and show how the external inclusions arrive at the sites of the embedded inclusions. The model has potential use in such emerging fields as...

  13. Assessment of inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    the quality of the learning environment in regard to inclusion – this model draws heavily on the logic and mindset of ECERS (Early child environment program). This article will relate the rationale of the assessment model called “Dialoger om Kvalitet” (dialogues on quality) to LSP’s definition of inclusion...

  14. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  15. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  16. Towards Inclusive Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Uses classroom vignettes to examine reasons why schools in the United Kingdom are not yet generally successful in including students with disabilities and suggests simple ways that ordinary teachers can implement inclusive practices. These include the importance of teamwork, a school climate which encourages inclusive practices, and teacher…

  17. Index for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  18. What Counts as Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E.; Nel, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the years since the publication in South Africa of White Paper Six: Special needs education (Department of Education (DoE) 2001) various schools in the state and independent sectors have begun to implement inclusive policies and practices. With reference to the Guidelines for full-service/inclusive schools issued in 2009, and by discussing a…

  19. Perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with chlamydial infection: a meta-analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Penna Maisonnette de Attayde Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy on perinatal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis in an electronic database and manual, combining high sensitivity specific descriptors seeking to answer the research objective. The articles considered to be of high methodological quality (score above 6 on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were assessed by meta-analysis. RESULTS: Summary estimates of 12 studies were calculated by means of Mantel-Haenszel test with 95% confidence interval. It was observed that Chlamydia infection during pregnancy increased risk of preterm labor (relative risk (RR = 1.35 [1.11, 1.63], low birth weight (RR = 1.52 [1.24, 1.87] and perinatal mortality (RR = 1.84 [1.15, 2.94]. No evidence of increased risk was associated with Chlamydia infection in regard to premature rupture of membranes (RR = 1.13 [0.95, 1.34], abortion and postpartum endometritis (RR = 1.20 [0.65, 2.20] and 0.89 [0.49, 1.61] respectively. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia cervicitis during pregnancy can reduce perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with this infection. However, clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Evaluation of Different Techniques in Diagnosing Chlamydial Endocervical Infection Among Egyptian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa H. Mohamed and Taghreed M. Sharaf

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the prevalence of Chlamydia. Trachomatis infection symptomatic and asymptomatic in Egyptian females and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR, direct immunofluorescence technique (DIF, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of C Trachomatis DNA, antigen and antibody respectively. Study design: The study included 70 females who have been classified into :20 patients with tubal infertility, 15 patients with ectopic pregnancy, 20 patients with premature rupture of membrane (PROM and 15 apparently healthy women (asymptomatic group. Endocervical specimens, vaginal swab and 3 ml blood samples have been collected from all subjects and stored at ­20 C till being processed. PCR,DIF and ELISA techniques have been done to detect C. Trachomatis DNA, antigen and antibody respectively. Results: C. Trachomatis DNA was detected by PCR in the endocervix of 17 out of 55 infected cases (30.9 % . however DIF technique was positive for 21.6% of patient groups and 13.3% of asymptomatic group. The tubal infertility group showed the highest percentage of active C. Trachomatis infection (45% (P<0.05 PCR showed better sensitivity than DIF for detection of C. Trachomatis infection (96.2% versus 70% respectively, however both techniques had 100% specificity. Tubal infertility group showed highest sero prevalence (45%, followed by ectopic pregnancy group (35% (P= 0.001 and P<0.05 respectively. Conclusions: PCR procedure is suitable for confirmation of ELISA results in high-volume laboratories. Cost, experience of the laboratory personnel and the patient well-being must be taken into account to select the test for the detection of C.Trachomatis infections.

  1. Inclusion in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Allan Galis

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of reform policy focused on inclusive education in the 1990s in the state of Georgia, United States of America. Program modifications including, individualizing instructional methods, adapting the instructional environment, and lowering maximum class size emerged as significant issues. We found that policies related to these areas were compounded by the less experienced educators not readily accepting change strategies for serving students. Apparently younger educators are engrossed in surviving daily routine and have difficulty coping with the complex demands of change. Regular education teachers have difficulty with the idea of inclusion. Legal aspects dealing inclusion need clarification, especially for regular education teachers.

  2. Immunization with Dendritic Cells Pulsed ex vivo with Recombinant Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Induces Protective Immunity Against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard eArulanandam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that immunization with soluble recombinant (r chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF and a T helper (Th 1 type adjuvant can induce significantly enhanced bacterial clearance and protection against Chlamydia–induced pathological sequelae in the genital tract. In this study, we investigated the use of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs pulsed ex vivo with rCPAF+CpG in an adoptive subcutaneous immunization for the ability to induce protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection. We found that BMDCs pulsed with rCPAF+CpG efficiently up-regulated the expression of activation markers CD86, CD80, CD40 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II, and secreted interleukin-12, but not IL-10 and IL-4. Mice adoptively immunized with rCPAF+CpG-pulsed BMDCs or UV-EB+CpG-pulsed BMDCs produced elevated levels of antigen-specific IFN- and enhanced IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Moreover, mice immunized with rCPAF+CpG-pulsed BMDCs or UV-EB+CpG-pulsed BMDCs exhibited significantly reduced genital Chlamydia shedding, accelerated resolution of infection, and reduced oviduct pathology when compared to infected mock-immunized animals. These results suggest that adoptive subcutaneous immunization with ex vivo rCPAF-pulsed BMDCs is an effective approach, comparable to that induced by UV-EB-BMDCs, for inducing robust anti-Chlamydia immunity.

  3. Inclusive Global Value Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Cusolito, Ana Paula; Safadi, Raed; Taglioni, Daria

    2016-01-01

    This report's focus is making global value chains (GVCs) more inclusive. To achieve inclusiveness is by overcoming participation constraints for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and facilitation access for Low Income Developing Countries (LIDCs). The underlying assumption is that most firms in LIDCs are SMEs. Even larger firms in LIDCs are likely to face similar challenges to SMEs, including a less supportive domestic operating environment and weaker institutions that lead to higher fixed ...

  4. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  5. Vaccination of koalas with a recombinant Chlamydia pecorum major outer membrane protein induces antibodies of different specificity compared to those following a natural live infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kollipara

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infection in koalas is common across the east coast of Australia and causes significant morbidity, infertility and mortality. An effective vaccine to prevent the adverse consequences of chlamydial infections in koalas (particularly blindness and infertility in females would provide an important management tool to prevent further population decline of this species. An important step towards developing a vaccine in koalas is to understand the host immune response to chlamydial infection. In this study, we used the Pepscan methodology to identify B cell epitopes across the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP of four C. pecorum strains/genotypes that are recognized, either following (a natural live infection or (b administration of a recombinant MOMP vaccine. Plasma antibodies from the koalas naturally infected with a C. pecorum G genotype strain recognised the epitopes located in the variable domain (VD four of MOMP G and also VD4 of MOMP H. By comparison, plasma antibodies from an animal infected with a C. pecorum F genotype strain recognised epitopes in VD1, 2 and 4 of MOMP F, but not from other genotype MOMPs. When Chlamydia-free koalas were immunised with recombinant MOMP protein they produced antibodies not only against epitopes in the VDs but also in conserved domains of MOMP. Naturally infected koalas immunised with recombinant MOMP protein also produced antibodies against epitopes in the conserved domains. This work paves the way for further refinement of a MOMP-based Chlamydia vaccine that will offer wide cross-protection against the variety of chlamydial infections circulating in wild koala populations.

  6. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications for...

  7. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  8. TOWARDS AN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía López Menéndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays schools have to direct all efforts towards the comprehensive development of all students whatever their individual characteristics and their environment; they have to give a quality educational attention a qualified educational attention to the diversity in all their schools. This article presents an approach on the possibilities of developing a self-assessment using the Guide: "Index for Inclusion": “Index for Inclusion” published in the United kingdom by Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE Tony Booth - Mel Ainscow (2002. This guide is a simple tool intended for schools to evaluate their reality in relation to important aspects of school organization and teaching-learning from the perspective of inclusion. From this self-assessment they can design specific programs to guide their educacional practice.

  9. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  10. Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme was i...

  11. Can we build inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    for an inclusive society – e.g. that a kindergarten should be for all children. But in practice this intention may be met by considerable challenges. So many factors influence the process. In this paper the question is raised, whether the physical frame of the kindergartens makes a difference for daily life...

  12. Inclusion Art Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel, Melisa Dauzat

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ease a school system into the transitions that occur when Inclusion is incorporated. An entire Middle School was used to collect data from. The grades in that school were 6th, 7th and 8th grade. The initial intent was to foment a community feeling among the students. The results were completely unexpected as they…

  13. Penile Epidermal Inclusion Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Shazly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of epidermal inclusion cyst in a 32-year-old male. This was a complication of circumcision that was neglected over years to form stones and urethrocutaneous fistula. Complete excision of the cyst and repair of the fistula were performed successfully. Histopathological examination confirmed our diagnosis.

  14. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej

    2012-01-01

    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...

  15. Optimization of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2006-02-01

    The first fully explicit argument is given that broadly supports a widespread belief among whole-organism biologists that natural selection tends to lead to organisms acting as if maximizing their inclusive fitness. The use of optimization programs permits a clear statement of what this belief should be understood to mean, in contradistinction to the common mathematical presumption that it should be formalized as some kind of Lyapunov or even potential function. The argument reveals new details and uncovers latent assumptions. A very general genetic architecture is allowed, and there is arbitrary uncertainty. However, frequency dependence of fitnesses is not permitted. The logic of inclusive fitness immediately draws together various kinds of intra-genomic conflict, and the concept of 'p-family' is introduced. Inclusive fitness is thus incorporated into the formal Darwinism project, which aims to link the mathematics of motion (difference and differential equations) used to describe gene frequency trajectories with the mathematics of optimization used to describe purpose and design. Important questions remain to be answered in the fundamental theory of inclusive fitness. PMID:16046225

  16. Inclusion Forum, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Maxine

    1994-01-01

    These two newsletter issues focus on training strategies for developing more inclusive programs for children with disabilities and for developing collaborative programs. An interview with Dr. Barbara Wolfe addresses successful inservice teacher training strategies. Additional information in the first issue includes guidelines for empowering…

  17. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Waugh

    Full Text Available Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive at either urogenital (UGT and/or ocular sites (Oc, but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking, results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  18. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Carver, Scott; Hanger, Jonathan; Loader, Joanne; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative) at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive) at either urogenital (UGT) and/or ocular sites (Oc), but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking), results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  19. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  20. Creative activity and inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shemanov A.Yu.; Vostrov I.M.; Yegorova V.A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being...

  1. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  2. Supporting Teachers in Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina S.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the issues of support provision to teachers involved in inclusive education as the main requirement for successful realization of inclusion. The methodological framework used in the study is a resource approach. The article describes the ways of extending the means of supporting teachers. The article also arguments for consolidating all the educators of inclusive schools into inclusive teams equally interested in joint work of administration and educators of intervention programs.

  3. Supporting Teachers in Inclusive Education

    OpenAIRE

    Alekhina S.V.; Silanteva T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article regards the issues of support provision to teachers involved in inclusive education as the main requirement for successful realization of inclusion. The methodological framework used in the study is a resource approach. The article describes the ways of extending the means of supporting teachers. The article also arguments for consolidating all the educators of inclusive schools into inclusive teams equally interested in joint work of administration and educators of intervention p...

  4. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes.

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, R G; Batteiger, B E; Soderberg, L S

    1990-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae (agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis), belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except t...

  5. Inclusion bodies in Plesiomonas shigelloides.

    OpenAIRE

    Pastian, M R; Bromel, M C

    1984-01-01

    Inclusion bodies were discovered in seven environmental isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides and the P. shigelloides control (ATCC 14029). Differential staining indicated that the inclusion bodies may be composed of polyphosphates, and developmental stages of the bodies may occur. The inclusion bodies may be useful for rapid presumptive identification of this organism.

  6. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  7. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment...

  8. How to measure inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, S

    1990-09-22

    Although inclusive fitness (Hamilton 1964) is regarded as the basic currency of natural selection, difficulty in applying inclusive fitness theory to field studies persists, a quarter-century after its introduction (Grafen 1982, 1984; Brown 1987). For instance, strict application of the original (and currently accepted) definition of inclusive fitness predicts that no one should ever attempt to breed among obligately cooperative breeders. Much of this confusion may have arisen because Hamilton's (1964) original verbal definition of inclusive fitness was not in complete accord with his justifying model. By re-examining Hamilton's original model, a modified verbal definition of inclusive fitness can be justified. PMID:1979447

  9. Singing and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  10. Singing and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  11. Singing and social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Frederick Welch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  12. Asymmetric inclusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuveni, Shlomi; Eliazar, Iddo; Yechiali, Uri

    2011-10-01

    We introduce and explore the asymmetric inclusion process (ASIP), an exactly solvable bosonic counterpart of the fermionic asymmetric exclusion process (ASEP). In both processes, random events cause particles to propagate unidirectionally along a one-dimensional lattice of n sites. In the ASEP, particles are subject to exclusion interactions, whereas in the ASIP, particles are subject to inclusion interactions that coalesce them into inseparable clusters. We study the dynamics of the ASIP, derive evolution equations for the mean and probability generating function (PGF) of the sites’ occupancy vector, obtain explicit results for the above mean at steady state, and describe an iterative scheme for the computation of the PGF at steady state. We further obtain explicit results for the load distribution in steady state, with the load being the total number of particles present in all lattice sites. Finally, we address the problem of load optimization, and solve it under various criteria. The ASIP model establishes bridges between statistical physics and queueing theory as it represents a tandem array of queueing systems with (unlimited) batch service, and a tandem array of growth-collapse processes.

  13. Inclusive Business - What It Is All About? Managing Inclusive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the challenges we face today, the inclusive business models are future business models through which the Millennium Development Goals can be fostered and strengthen. These are the models which, through their strategic orientation on inclusivity, include low income communities in their value chain. This can be done through combining variety of strategies which all have two common points – recognition of stakeholders and adjustment of the product to the target market. The paper presents the analysis of inclusive markets. Hence, the research results show the dispersion of inclusive businesses worldwide, type of the organization, sector coverage, and contribution to MDGs as well as the particular way of inclusion of low income communities in their value chain. The aim is to present how inclusive business benefits not only the low income societies, but the companies that operate in this way as well.

  14. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  15. IPads in Inclusive Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Bente Tobiesen

    2015-01-01

    This paper builds on data from a research project where iPads were used in a lower secondary school in Denmark to support school development and inclusive learning environments. The paper explores how iPads enter into and work as part of an ecology of learning resources in five classes in lower...... secondary school. I conceptualize the systems of related technologies observed in this school as ecologies of learning resources as they present themselves as carefully balanced systems in which educational resources circulate in different ways that make sense for learners’ needs. Inspired by Actor......-Network Theory (ANT) and studies in the materiality of learning I use the term socio-material bricolage (Johri 2011) as an analytical framework to describe this ‘ecological’ entanglement of material and social aspects of teaching and learning. Based on an analysis of the processes of bricolage engaged...

  16. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  17. Inclusive Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Charlotte; Rostbøll, Solveig Fogh

    2015-01-01

    of PA in schools. A considerable percentage of Danish children do not participate in PA and are marginalized in PE lessons. One of the primary problems is that PE in Danish schools is characterized by a performative culture. Several studies confirm that PE is characterized by performative ideals......EN317 - Inclusive Physical Education - with a focus on active and successful participation Charlotte Østergaard, Solveig Fogh Rostbøll, Department of School and Learning, Metropolitan University College (DK) chao@phmetropol.dk The Danish School Reform 2014 intends to raise the amount and intensity...... and ability to participate in PE must be understood in specific socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions. The hypothesis of the study is that the experience of being acknowledged for your efforts in physical education by significant others can form the basis for the construction of physical capital. EN323...

  18. Inclusive design research in action

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this special issue, we shall share our inclusive insights through our experience of working with designers, working with the public, working with different types of users, and working with different disciplines. Real world research case studies will be used to demonstrate the impact of inclusive design research on improving people’s quality of life. Student design projects will be introduced to illustrate how inclusive design principles were incorporated into design education a...

  19. Inclusion in a Polarised World

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This paper on inclusion was presented to the at the 2005 summer school of DEEEP (Development Education Exchange in Europe Project), Härnösand - Sweden, 5 - 12 June 2005. It addresses the significance of the concept of world civilisation. It assesses how meaning may be attached to the concept of inclusion in an economically polarised world. It develops a critique of the conception of economic inclusion, by means of an exploration of linguistic inclusion and the notion of ‘disability’. ‘...

  20. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however, requires both…

  1. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  2. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  3. Multicomponent membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  4. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  5. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  7. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  9. Forum, Dedicated to Inclusive Education

    OpenAIRE

    Vachkov I.V.

    2015-01-01

    26 – 27 of February 2015 in Kazan, in the University of Management “TISBI” been held National (All-Russian) forum of promotion of ideas and principles of inclusive education (with international participants) “Study and live together: open space of inclusion”. During the work of Forum the most topical questions of inclusive education implement in Russian Federation been discussed.

  10. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  11. Fluid Inclusions in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Le L.; Schwandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are present in carbonaceous chondrites. Of the chondrites studied (CI1, CM1 and 2, CV3) fluid inclusions were found only in CM2s and CI1s, and by extrapolation are most likely to be found there in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  13. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia pecorum strains in wild koala locations across Australia and the implications for a recombinant C. pecorum major outer membrane protein based vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Avinash; Polkinghorne, Adam; Wan, Charles; Kanyoka, Pride; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Joanne; Callaghan, John; Bell, Alicia; Ellis, William; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Melzer, Alistar; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2013-12-27

    The long term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is at risk due to a range of threatening processes. A major contributing factor is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia pecorum, which has been detected in most mainland koala populations and is associated with ocular and genital tract infections. A critical aspect for the development of vaccines against koala chlamydial infections is a thorough understanding of the prevalence and strain diversity of C. pecorum infections across wild populations. In this study, we describe the largest survey (403 koalas from eight wild populations and three wildlife hospitals) examining the diversity of C. pecorum infections. 181 of the 403 koalas tested (45%) positive for C. pecorum by species-specific quantitative PCR with infection rates ranging from 20% to 61% in the eight wild populations sampled. The ompA gene, which encodes the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP), has been the major target of several chlamydial vaccines. Based on our analysis of the diversity of MOMP amino types in the infected koalas, we conclude that, (a) there exists significant diversity of C. pecorum strains in koalas, with 10 distinct, full length C. pecorum MOMP amino types identified in the 11 koala locations sampled, (b) despite this diversity, there are predicted T and B cell epitopes in both conserved as well as variable domains of MOMP which suggest cross-amino type immune responses, and (c) a recombinant MOMP-based vaccine consisting of MOMP "F" could potentially induce heterotypic protection against a range of C. pecorum strains.

  14. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  15. How Bureaucracy Promotes Inclusive Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    Diversity literature in general and Feminist in particular have long promoted alternatives to bureaucracy on the premise that this form of governance is far from gender- and race-neutral, and that inclusive organizing necessitate a flatter, decentralized and more ‘organic’ set-up (Ferguson 1984...... and opportunities conducive to their inclusion. Guided by Ashcraft (2001) concept of organized dissonance, this paper explores how the combination of apparent incongruent elements of stability/flexibility and formality/informality might offer a passage for inclusive organizing....

  16. Genetics Home Reference: microvillus inclusion disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions microvillus inclusion disease microvillus inclusion disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Print All Open All Close All Description Microvillus inclusion disease is a condition characterized by chronic, watery, ...

  17. Membrane purification in radioactive waste management: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hazards of radionuclides arising from nuclear plant facilities are well known. Separation technologies are used to concentrate the radionuclides and prevent the spread of this hazard to the environment. The present review describes the recent advances made in radioactive waste treatment using membrane separation technology. The first part discusses the membrane methods for collective separation of radionuclides and the second part discusses the membrane methods for selective separation of individual radionuclides. For the collection separation of radionulides, methods include reverse osmosis, precipitation followed by ultrafiltration or microfiltration and membrane distillation. Individual elements have been separated using liquid supported membranes, polymer inclusion membranes, solid polymer based electrolysis, nanofiltration, electrochemical salt-splitting process and other advanced separation methods. - Highlights: ► Collective ions and colloids and Selective ions separation using membranes has been reviewed. ► Ultrafiltration and membrane distillation aide in collective waste remediation. ► Supported membranes aide in purification of radioisotopes.

  18. EDUCATIONAL INCLUSION AND CRITICAL PEDAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Molina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the basic principles of educational inclusion, focusingspecifically on the inclusion of disabled students in mainstream classrooms, and arguesthat inclusive education should be understood as a process of transforming traditionalschools into spaces of learning for all students. The article uses the lens of critical pedagogyto argue that exclusionary educational practices have been developed through themedicalization of learning disabilities which focused on the disability rather than theabilities of disabled students. Following the same line of thinking, the article providesscientific evidence to debunk myths related to the education of disabled students; especiallymyths that contributed to their exclusion from mainstream classrooms. Finally,based on the Learning Communities model, we provide some concrete strategies fortransforming mainstream classrooms into fully inclusive environments.

  19. Hydrodynamics of Inclusions in Freely Suspended Liquid Crystal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhiyuan

    Hydrodynamic interaction of pairs of circular inclusions in two-dimensional (2D), fluid smectic membranes suspended in air has been studied systematically. By analyzing their Brownian motion, it is found that the radial mutual mobilities of identical inclusions are independent of their size but that the angular coupling becomes strongly size-dependent when their radius exceeds a characteristic hydrodynamic length. These observations are described well for arbitrary inclusion separations by a model that generalizes the Levine/MacKintosh theory of point-force response functions and uses a boundary-element approach to calculate the mobility matrix for inclusions of finite extent. Beyond that, 2D flow fields generated by a rigid, oscillating post inserted in the film have been measured by analyzing the motion of tracer particles and provide a detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior in the film/gas system. The Brownian diffusion of micron-scale inclusions in freely suspended smectic A liquid crystal films a few nanometers thick and several millimeters in diameter depends strongly on the air surrounding the film. Near atmospheric pressure, the three-dimensionally coupled film/gas system is well described by Hughes/Pailthorpe/White hydrodynamic theory but at lower pressure, the diffusion coefficient increases substantially, tending in high vacuum toward the two-dimensional limit where it is determined by film size. In the absence of air, the films are found to be a nearly ideal physical realization of a two-dimensional, incompressible Newtonian fluid.

  20. Financial Inclusion: Islamic Finance Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mirakhor, Abbas; Iqbal, Zamir

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing financial inclusion or access to finance can make critical contributions to the economic development. Conventional mechanisms such as micro-finance, small-medium-enterprises (SME), and micro-insurance to enhance financial inclusion have been partially successful in enhancing the access and are not without challenges. Islamic finance, based on the concept of risk-sharing offers set of financial instruments promoting risk-sharing rather than risk-transfer in the financial system. In a...

  1. ENLACE Social Inclusion Trust Fund: Social Inclusion Survey: Staff Perceptions on Social Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mary S. Thompson

    2007-01-01

    This paper is intended to contribute to the promotion of social inclusion as a cross-cutting priority in the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), a key issue in the Bank's Renewed Strategic Framework, as a key approach to reducing poverty and inequality in Latin America. It is based upon a staff opinion survey, designed and implemented under the framework of the IDB-UK ENLACE Social Inclusion Trust Fund, to assess how staff view social inclusion as an operational approach. The results of th...

  2. Mesothelial cell inclusions mimicking adenocarcinoma in cervical lymph nodes in association with chylous effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Manu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesothelial cell inclusions in lymph nodes are of rare occurrence and can be mistaken as metastatic adenocarcinomas, mesothelioma or sinus histiocytosis. These are usually found in mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes and are associated with effusions. We report a case of benign mesothelial cell inclusions in cervical lymph nodes, which was associated with chylous effusion, and immunohistochemistry revealed unusual weak cytoplasmic epithelial membrane antigen positivity in the cells.

  3. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in Mccoy cell cultures with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, W. E.; Tam, M; Koester, M; Cles, L

    1983-01-01

    We compared two methods for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in McCoy cell monolayers: conventional iodine staining and immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies against the species-specific major outer membrane protein antigen of C. trachomatis. Among 878 urethral and cervical specimens tested in parallel, the immunofluorescence method detected eightfold more inclusions per monolayer, identified a higher proportion of positive specimens on first passage (98 ver...

  4. Inclusion body purification and protein refolding using microfiltration and size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batas, B; Schiraldi, C; Chaudhuri, J B

    1999-02-19

    The presence of inclusion body impurities can affect the refolding yield of recombinant proteins, thus there is a need to purify inclusion bodies prior to refolding. We have compared centrifugation and membrane filtration for the washing and recovery of inclusion bodies of recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL). It was found that the most significant purification occurred during the removal of cell debris. Moderate improvements in purity were subsequently obtained by washing using EDTA, moderate urea solutions and Triton X-100. Centrifugation between each wash step gave a purer product with a higher rHEWL yield. With microfiltration, use of a 0.45 micron membrane gave higher solvent fluxes, purer inclusion bodies and greater protein yield as compared with a 0.1 micron membrane. Significant flux decline was observed for both membranes. Second, we studied the refolding of rHEWL. Refolding from an initial concentration of 1.5 mg ml-1, by 100-fold batch dilution gave a 43% recovery of specific activity. Purified inclusion bodies gave rise to higher refolding yields, and negligible activity was observed after refolding partially purified material. Refolding rHEWL with a size exclusion chromatography based process gave rise to a refolding yield of 35% that corresponded to a 20-fold dilution.

  5. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting. PMID:23104751

  6. Demands from the school inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Norberto Matos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living and learning in diversity. Whereas this inclusive process is new in the schools, the study aimed to analyze the demands of teachers from the school inclusion. The research was qualitative and exploratory, and six teachers, their students with special educational needs and three professionals in the Nucleus of Inclusive Education from the Municipal Department of Education took in it. Technique of participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, while analysis of content was used for discussion of the data. The results indicate that there are achievements and contradictions in the reality of schools that themselves propose inclusive; advances and limitations resulting from the municipal politics; that the model of performance of the group of special education, in the context analyzed, may be revised or expanded; and that the teachers has demands with regard to public policy, training, and the psychologist.

  7. Interpreting Inclusivity: An Endeavour of Great Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlach, Richard George; Chambers, Dianne Joy

    2011-01-01

    Commencing with a historical account of how special needs education has informed the inclusivity debate, the authors consider the knotty problem of what is meant by inclusivity. An examination of the characteristics of inclusivity is then undertaken, and a functional school-based inclusivity framework--a three-faceted model--is proposed. The model…

  8. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide range of…

  9. INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena NOVACHEVSKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the pre­school staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.

  10. Special Teaching for Special Children? Pedagogies for Inclusion. Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ann, Ed.; Norwich, Brahm, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Some special needs groups (for example dyslexia) have argued strongly for the need for particular specialist approaches. In contrast, many proponents of inclusion have argued that "good teaching is good teaching for all" and that all children benefit from similar approaches. Both positions fail to scrutinise this issue rigorously and coherently,…

  11. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  12. Inclusion body myositis and myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, K; Dalakas, M C

    1997-10-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis is a frequent, acquired, adult-onset vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles with a distinct, easily identifiable clinical pattern. Although its primary cause is still unknown, autoimmune, viral, and degenerative processes, alone or in combination, are being considered. A uniform and sustained therapeutic response using the currently available immunomodulatory agents has not yet been achieved. Hereditary, inherited noninflammatory rimmed vacuolar myopathies with similar histologic features, collectively called hereditary inclusion body myopathies, are being redefined with the use of molecular genetics. The implications of the recent advances in clinical and basic sciences are discussed in the present review.

  13. Oxidative refolding from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher A; Lee, Chung A; Fremont, Daved H

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes the growth and purification of bacterial inclusion body proteins with an option to selenomethionine label the targeted protein through feedback inhibition of methionine biosynthesis in common (non-auxotrophic) strains of E. coli. The method includes solubilization of inclusion body proteins by chemical denaturation and disulfide reduction, renaturation of the solubilized material through rapid dilution by pulsed injection into refolding buffer containing arginine and a mixture of oxidized and reduced glutathione, recovery of the recombinant protein using a stirred cell concentrator, and removal of the aggregated or misfolded fraction by passage over size-exclusion chromatography. The quality of the resulting protein can be assessed by SDS-PAGE.

  14. Inclusive Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis

    1996-01-01

    School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...

  15. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  16. Error bounds for set inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Xiyin(郑喜印)

    2003-01-01

    A variant of Robinson-Ursescu Theorem is given in normed spaces. Several error bound theorems for convex inclusions are proved and in particular a positive answer to Li and Singer's conjecture is given under weaker assumption than the assumption required in their conjecture. Perturbation error bounds are also studied. As applications, we study error bounds for convex inequality systems.

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  19. Inclusive Education: Programmes and Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, Mini Dejo

    2010-01-01

    Inclusive education is a practice of teaching handicapped children in regular classrooms with non-handicapped children to the fullest extent possible; such children may have orthopedic, intellectual, emotional, or visual difficulties or handicaps associated with hearing or learning. In India there are constitutional provisions for Inclusive…

  20. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  1. Social Inclusion and Integrative Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cappo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the passage of time valuable lessons have been learnt about both effective practices for program and system integration and the sizable barriers, including the challenges in sustaining constructive integration. This paper is a reflection on sustainable integrative practices and is grounded in the direct experience of one of the authors, who held the post of the South Australian Social Inclusion Commissioner. We reflect upon the structure and mechanism of the South Australian Social Inclusion Initiative (2002–2011 as well as using a case study of a successful integrative program of the Social Inclusion Initiative, a program in South Australia’s School Retention Action Plan 2004 Making the Connections (South Australian Social Inclusion Board, 2004 that was implemented to improve school retention. The case study draws out salient factors of clear rationale, coordination, collaboration, communication, team work and trust as skills and ingredients to bring about integration in policy and programs. While the integration literature affirms that these ingredients are primary skills for the development of an integrative framework, we also assert that they are not enough for successful and sustained integration. Absent from much of the literature is a discussion about the use of power and the manner in which horizontal integrative work occurs. We take up this theme to draw out some implications for analysis of sustainable integrative practices.

  2. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, Patrick; Abe, Jun; Alcock, John;

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. Howev...

  3. The Inclusive Education in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-García, Beatriz; Fernández, María Tomé

    2016-01-01

    One of the phenomena that is of most concern to educational policy in Europe is immigration due to the fact that this is the source of new educational needs. This research looks at how European educational legislation deals with this topic. For this intercultural values that make inclusive education will be evaluated, we will analyze intercultural…

  4. Primordial Compositions of Refractory Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, L; Simon, S B; Rai, V K; Thiemens, M H; Hutcheon, I D; Williams, R W; Galy, A; Ding, T; Fedkin, A V; Clayton, R N; Mayeda, T K

    2008-02-20

    Bulk chemical and oxygen, magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions were measured for each of 17 Types A and B refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites. After bulk chemical compositions were corrected for non-representative sampling in the laboratory, the Mg and Si isotopic compositions of each inclusion were used to calculate its original chemical composition assuming that the heavy-isotope enrichments of these elements are due to Rayleigh fractionation that accompanied their evaporation from CMAS liquids. The resulting pre-evaporation chemical compositions are consistent with those predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for high-temperature nebular condensates but only if different inclusions condensed from nebular regions that ranged in total pressure from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -1} bar, regardless of whether they formed in a system of solar composition or in one enriched in OC dust relative to gas by a factor of ten relative to solar composition. This is similar to the range of total pressures predicted by dynamic models of the solar nebula for regions whose temperatures are in the range of silicate condensation temperatures. Alternatively, if departure from equilibrium condensation and/or non-representative sampling of condensates in the nebula occurred, the inferred range of total pressure could be smaller. Simple kinetic modeling of evaporation successfully reproduces observed chemical compositions of most inclusions from their inferred pre-evaporation compositions, suggesting that closed-system isotopic exchange processes did not have a significant effect on their isotopic compositions. Comparison of pre-evaporation compositions with observed ones indicates that 80% of the enrichment in refractory CaO + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to more volatile MgO + SiO{sub 2} is due to initial condensation and 20% due to subsequent evaporation for both Type A and Type B inclusions.

  5. Inclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sheri

    1989-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of local PTA involving all parents in their programs, especially parents from minority groups. This article includes a checklist for rating local PTA. Also included is a brief case study of one PTA's successful efforts to increase the ethnic and language diversity of its membership. (IAH)

  6. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  7. Inclusive Design in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ZAMFIR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Much instruction starts with abstract representations for which learners have insufficient foundation [1]. The British Standard, BS 7000-6:2005 Guide to Managing Inclusive Design, provides a comprehensive framework that can help all private enterprises, public sector and not-for-profit organizations, build a consistent approach to inclusive design into organizational culture as well as processes [2]. While courses, technology, and student services are typically designed for the narrow range of characteristics of the average student, the practice of universal design in education (UDE considers people with a broad range of characteristics in the design of all educational products and environments [3]. This paper has been designed to provide an overview about the curriculum paradigm consisting in the fusion of the technology and the classroom instruction in economic higher education.

  8. STUDENTS’ RESPONSES TO INCLUSIVE DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    and intelligent devices. This paper will show the results of students' work with the problem of changed demographics and emerging needs in products and services. In so doing it looks at how the use of inclusive design methods affects students´work processes. This is done by the use of work diaries which provided......This paper looks at how students’ design process responds to the requirements of inclusive design. The background to the students´ brief was the concept of welfare technology. People wish to retain their customary life-style even as ageing brings with it a reduction in physical capability: loss...... of muscle strength and manual dexterity or deterioration of eyesight and hearing. They wish to remain in their familiar home and to be able to equip it with such necessary enhancements that help them cope with the minimum of outside support. At the Aarhus School of Architecture, Institute of Design...

  9. Inclusive distributions near kinematic thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E

    2006-01-01

    The main challenge in computing inclusive cross sections and decay spectra in QCD is posed by kinematic thresholds. The threshold region is characterized by stringent phase-space constraints that are reflected in large perturbative corrections due to soft and collinear radiation as well as large non-perturbative effects. Major progress in addressing this problem was made in recent years by Dressed Gluon Exponentiation (DGE), a formalism that combines Sudakov and renormalon resummation in moment space. DGE has proven effective in extending the range of applicability of perturbation theory well into the threshold region and in identifying the relevant non-perturbative corrections. Here we review the method from a general perspective using examples from deep inelastic structure functions, event-shape distributions, heavy-quark fragmentation and inclusive decay spectra. A special discussion is devoted to the applications of DGE to radiative and semileptonic B decays that have proven valuable for the interpretatio...

  10. Inclusive breakup of Borromean nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Mahir S; Frederico, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We derive the inclusive breakup cross section of a three-fragment projectile nuclei, $a = b +x_1 + x_2$, in the spectator model. The resulting four-body cross section for observing $b$, is composed of the elastic breakup cross section which contains information about the correlation between the two participant fragments, and the inclusive non-elastic breakup cross section. This latter cross section is found to be a non-trivial four-body generalization of the Austern formula \\cite{Austern1987}, which is proportional to a matrix element of the form, $\\langle\\hat{\\rho}_{{x_1},{x_2}}\\left|\\left[W_{{x_1}} + W_{{x_2}} + W_{3B}\\right]\\right|\\hat{\\rho}_{{x_1}, {x_2}}\\rangle$. The new feature here is the three-body absorption, represented by the imaginary potential, $W_{3B}$. We analyze this type of absorption and supply ideas of how to calculate its contribution.

  11. Demands from the school inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Norberto Matos; Eniceia Gonçalves Mendes

    2014-01-01

    From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living an...

  12. Diversity, Inclusiveness and Social Cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene; Zahid PERVAIZ; A. R. Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This study aims to investigate the role of diversity (ethnic, linguistic and religious) and social inequality in determining social cohesion. By using cross-country data, we have found that social inequality may be more important factor than diversity in determining cohesiveness of a society. Our analysis suggests that inclusive societies may be in better position to cope with the possible threat of diversity for social cohesion. By reducing social inequality, soc...

  13. Mutual benefit : Rethinking social inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Martinson, Lina

    2005-01-01

    geography, where segregation and social exclusion of neighbourhoods and marginalised groups are mounting problems. Concurrently, globalisation and structural changes have altered the conditions for the national state and the public sector as well as for other actors. Previous efforts to decrease social inequalities have failed to achieve sufficient results. Today, promoting social inclusion and integration is a top priority on the political agenda and calls for innovative interventions. These...

  14. STUDENTS’ RESPONSES TO INCLUSIVE DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at how students’ design activities respond to inclusive design (ID) requirements. The background to the students´ brief was the concept of welfare technology. People wish to retain their customary life-style even as ageing brings with it a reduction in physical capability: loss of muscle strength and manual dexterity or the deterioration of eyesight and hearing. At the Aarhus School of Architecture, Platform Design, the teaching content in the Spring 2011 semester addressed t...

  15. Preschool teachers and inclusive education

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanova-Mitkovska, Snezana; Popeska, Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Quality of education largely depends of the quality of the work of one of the key subjects in education, teacher, preschool teacher, of his expert knowledge of teaching area, the subject and the methods of teaching, of its abilities of the teaching and learning; creativity in creating a stimulating learning environment; of its abilities of the establishing social and educational inclusion in class, school; of its communication and cooperation with the family and of his interest and opportunit...

  16. Impulsive differential inclusions with constrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Donchev

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we study weak invariance of differential inclusions with non-fixed time impulses under compactness type assumptions. When the right-hand side is one sided Lipschitz an extension of the well known relaxation theorem is proved. In this case also necessary and sufficient condition for strong invariance of upper semi continuous systems are obtained. Some properties of the solution set of impulsive system (without constrains in appropriate topology are investigated.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inclusion body myopathy: the Middle Eastern genetic cluster. Neurology. 2003 May 13;60(9):1519-23. Citation ... vacuoles is allelic to hereditary inclusion body myopathy. Neurology. 2002 Dec 10;59(11):1689-93. Citation ...

  18. INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NOVACHEVSKA Irena; Ilinka DIMCHEVSKA; Sashka PAVLOVSKA; Natasha CHICHEVSKA-JOVANOVA; DIMITROVA-RADOJICHIKJ Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive...

  19. Deconstructing normalisation: clearing the way for inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Culham, Andrew; Nind, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers two major movements affecting the lives of people with an intellectual disability: normalisation and inclusion. The authors look back at the normalisation movement, reviewing its aims, processes and outcomes, and explore its relationship and compatibility with inclusion. In looking forward to the realisation of the inclusion agenda they ask whether normalisation is a suitable platform on which to build inclusion, or whether a process of deconstruction is needed. They disc...

  20. Editorial Note: Special Issue 'Inclusive Education'

    OpenAIRE

    Hernaiz Agreda, Nerea; Carmona Rodríguez, Carmen; Senent Sánchez, Joan Maria

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive Education appears as the possibility of construction of an inclusive society in which all the citizens are recognized and inform, eliminating all kinds of social, economic and cultural exclusions. Though, sometimes, the defense of the inclusive schools has linked itself to the defense of certain groups and specific groups with educational special needs, Inclusive Education tries to educate together to all students, with particular attention to those pupils who traditionally have bee...

  1. What counts as evidence of inclusive education?

    OpenAIRE

    Florian, Lani

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education takes many forms, raising important questions about what constitutes good practice, what counts as evidence of such practice and how it can be known. This paper responds to Göransson and Nilholm’s critical review of research on inclusive education by considering why a clear working definition of inclusion has thus far proved elusive. It agrees that new types of studies and more theoretically informed work is needed if knowledge about inclusive education is to advance. A fr...

  2. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  3. "Inclusion in Practice": Does Practice Make Perfect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Discusses four issues raised in this special issue: (1) problems with the term "inclusion"; (2) reductionist approaches to inclusive education; (3) politics of special education research and the need to include parent and student voices; and (4) preparation of teachers for inclusive education. (Contains 53 references.) (SK)

  4. Elements of Inclusion: Findings from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has set the target of 100% of New Zealand schools to be "mostly" inclusive by 2014. But what are the essential elements of inclusion? This paper explores essential core elements that allow inclusion to flourish. Based on an extensive time in the field as part of a year-long doctoral research project, these…

  5. Ingredients for Inclusion: Lessons from the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores features of successful inclusion through examples found in the literature. Schools have been given the imperative to become more inclusive through various government pronouncements and initiatives, but guidance in achieving that goal has been arguably wanting. School communities that have demonstrated more inclusive practice…

  6. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  7. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  8. Evaluation of the permeability of modified cellulose acetate propionate membranes for use in biosensors based on hydrogen peroxide detection

    OpenAIRE

    Guiomar, A. Jorge; Stephen D. Evans; Guthrie, James

    2001-01-01

    Phase inversion cellulose acetate propionate membranes showed lowpermeability to hydrogen peroxide aqueous solutions. Their permeability wasincreased by alkaline hydrolysis of the ester linking units. However, thepermeability remained lower than that of an unsubstituted cellulose membrane.The inclusion of hydroxypropyl cellulose in the membrane formulation, followedby an alkaline hydrolysis step, increased permeability to hydrogen peroxideaqueous solutions to 29% of that of an unsubstituted c...

  9. Thermodynamic aspects of inclusion engineering in steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Costa e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Tailoring non-metallic inclusions in accordance to the desired effect on steel properties has gained widespread acceptance in the last decades and has become known as "inclusion engineering". Effective inclusion engineering involves three steps: (a) a good knowledge of how inclusions influence properties, (b) understanding what is the effect of each type of inclusions on these properties and thus which is the most desirable inclusion in a given product and (c) adjusting the processing parameters to obtain these inclusions. A significant portion of the process adjustment is done during steel refining, where the steel can be tailored so that the desired chemical composition of the non-metallic inclusions that will precipitate can be altered. Understanding the relations between steel chemistry, processing variables and inclusion chemical composition requires significant understanding of the thermodynamics of the systems involved. These complex equilibrium calculations are best done using computational thermodynamics. In this work some of the basic techniques used to control inclusion composition are reviewed and the thermodynamic information required to perform this task is presented. Several examples of the application of computational thermodynamics to inclusion engineering of different steels grades are presented and compared with experimental results, whenever possible. The potential and limitations of the method are highlighted, in special those related to thermodynamic data and databases.

  10. Characterization of ubiquitinated intraneuronal inclusions in a novel Belgian frontotemporal lobar degeneration family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Daniel; Vandenberghe, Rik; Rademakers, Rosa; Dermaut, Bart; Cruts, Marc; Vennekens, Krist'l; Cuijt, Ivy; Lübke, Ursula; Ceuterick, Chantal; Martin, Jean-Jacques; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2006-03-01

    The most common histologic feature in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is intracellular brain inclusions of yet uncharacterized proteins that react with antiubiquitin (Ub) antibodies, but not with tau or synuclein (FTLD-U). We identified a four-generation Belgian FTLD family in which 8 patients had dominantly inherited FTLD. In one patient, we showed frontotemporal atrophy with filamentous Ub-positive intracellular inclusions in absence of tau pathology or any alterations in the levels of soluble tau. We characterized the cellular and subcellular localization and morphology of the inclusions. Ub-positive inclusions predominantly occurred within neurons (>97%), but were also observed within oligodendroglia (approximately 2%) and microglia (INI) were up to approximately four-fold more frequent than the cytoplasmic inclusions, although the latter were more specific to neurons. The INIs frequently appeared spindle-shaped and 3-dimensional confocal reconstructions identified flattened, leaf-like structures. Ultrastructurally, straight 10- to 18-nm-diameter filaments constituted the spindle-shaped inclusions that occurred in close proximity to the nuclear membrane. Staining for HSP40, p62, and valosin/p97 was observed in only a minority of the inclusions. Whereas the precise nature of the protein remains elusive, characterization of such familial FTLD-U patients would be helpful in identifying a common denominator in the pathogenesis of familial and the more prevalent sporadic FTLD-U.

  11. An Arendtian perspective on inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    2016-01-01

    has allowed inclusive movements and initiatives around the world to succumb to neo-liberal policy-making and has neglected the development of an educational vocabulary that is theoretically and conceptually appropriate for confronting teachers’ central concerns regarding inclusive practices......Inclusive education currently appears to be undergoing a crisis and re- examination. This paper presents a new approach to thinking about inclusiveness in the school context. Many positions within inclusive education seem to take political, social and ethical perspectives as a starting point, which....... The concepts of suspension, bearing with strangers and enlarged thought inspired by Hannah Arendt provide a basis for a re-imagining of inclusive education and for outlining a future school in which inclusiveness is embedded in the very way we think and position ourselves as teachers and pupils...

  12. Leadership for Inclusion School leadership that motivates teachers to build inclusive classrooms.

    OpenAIRE

    Qeleni, Merelesita Tiadama

    2013-01-01

    The promotion of inclusive education and demand by governments for schools to become a School for All will demand school leadership that will help classroom teachers build inclusive classrooms. Using qualitative interviews, the study investigated how three Norwegian inclusive school leaders motivated their teachers to build inclusive classrooms. The research found that the extent to which school leaders perceived the importance of inclusive education through the promotion of teachers learning...

  13. Teaching Competences and Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Fernández Batanero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on teaching competencies that are conducive to good educational practices in relation to inclusion, from the perspective of teachers. The methodology employed in the study is descriptive/comprehensive, and of an exploratory nature. By means of four case studies, the perceptions of teachers from two secondary schools—characterized by the Spanish Educational Administration as having “good practices”— are examined. The techniques used for information collection in this study include documentary analysis, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The findings emphasize the importance of strategic skills, combined with innovation and creativity, among others.

  14. Students' responses to inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at how the use of inclusive design (ID) methods affects students' work processes in designing welfare technology. Work diaries showed students sub-divided their project: problem solving, data gathering and ideation, among others. This shows how the design problem was resolved...... into design solutions. The results provide some quantitative insight into time allocation and how this changes as projects progress. The study visualises design activities and finds patterns underlying a process which is perceived to be chaotic. It provides a rough measure of the dynamics of a project...

  15. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, Patrick; Abe, Jun; Alcock, John; Alizon, Samuel; Alpedrinha, Joao A C; Andersson, Malte; Andre, Jean-Baptiste; van Baalen, Minus; Balloux, Francois; Balshine, Sigal; Barton, Nick; Beukeboom, Leo W; Biernaskie, Jay M; Bilde, Trine; Borgia, Gerald; Breed, Michael; Brown, Sam; Bshary, Redouan; Buckling, Angus; Burley, Nancy T; Burton-Chellew, Max N; Cant, Michael A; Chapuisat, Michel; Charnov, Eric L; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Cockburn, Andrew; Cole, Blaine J; Colegrave, Nick; Cosmides, Leda; Couzin, Iain D; Coyne, Jerry A; Creel, Scott; Crespi, Bernard; Curry, Robert L; Dall, Sasha R X; Day, Troy; Dickinson, Janis L; Dugatkin, Lee Alan; El Mouden, Claire; Emlen, Stephen T; Evans, Jay; Ferriere, Regis; Field, Jeremy; Foitzik, Susanne; Foster, Kevin; Foster, William A; Fox, Charles W; Gadau, Juergen; Gandon, Sylvain; Gardner, Andy; Gardner, Michael G; Getty, Thomas; Goodisman, Michael A D; Grafen, Alan; Grosberg, Rick; Grozinger, Christina M; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Gwynne, Darryl; Harvey, Paul H; Hatchwell, Ben J; Heinze, Jürgen; Helantera, Heikki; Helms, Ken R; Hill, Kim; Jiricny, Natalie; Johnstone, Rufus A; Kacelnik, Alex; Kiers, E Toby; Kokko, Hanna; Komdeur, Jan; Korb, Judith; Kronauer, Daniel; Kümmerli, Rolf; Lehmann, Laurent; Linksvayer, Timothy A; Lion, Sébastien; Lyon, Bruce; Marshall, James A R; McElreath, Richard; Michalakis, Yannis; Michod, Richard E; Mock, Douglas; Monnin, Thibaud; Montgomerie, Robert; Moore, Allen J; Mueller, Ulrich G; Noë, Ronald; Okasha, Samir; Pamilo, Pekka; Parker, Geoff A; Pedersen, Jes S; Pen, Ido; Pfennig, David; Queller, David C; Rankin, Daniel J; Reece, Sarah E; Reeve, Hudson K; Reuter, Max; Roberts, Gilbert; Robson, Simon K A; Roze, Denis; Rousset, Francois; Rueppell, Olav; Sachs, Joel L; Santorelli, Lorenzo; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schwarz, Michael P; Scott-Phillips, Tom; Shellmann-Sherman, Janet; Sherman, Paul W; Shuker, David M; Smith, Jeff; Spagna, Joseph C; Strassmann, Beverly; Suarez, Andrew V; Sundström, Liselotte; Taborsky, Michael; Taylor, Peter; Thompson, Graham; Tooby, John; Tsutsui, Neil D; Tsuji, Kazuki; Turillazzi, Stefano; Ubeda, Francisco; Vargo, Edward L; Voelkl, Bernard; Wenseleers, Tom; West, Stuart A; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane; Westneat, David F; Wiernasz, Diane C; Wild, Geoff; Wrangham, Richard; Young, Andrew J; Zeh, David W; Zeh, Jeanne A; Zink, Andrew

    2011-03-24

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However, we believe that their arguments are based upon a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory and a misrepresentation of the empirical literature. We will focus our comments on three general issues. PMID:21430721

  16. Electrophysiology of mycoplasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Schummer, U.; Schiefer, H G

    1983-01-01

    The influence of transmembrane ion fluxes on mycoplasma membrane potentials was studied. Fluorescence intensity of potential-sensitive carbocyanine dyes was calibrated vs. electric membrane potential. Potassium and sodium ion diffusion potentials significantly contributed to mycoplasma membrane potential. Chloride ions were obviously freely permeable across mycoplasma membranes. Under growth conditions the mycoplasma membrane potential was estimated to be delta psi = - 80 mV.

  17. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  18. Inclusion of Outsiders Through Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehsenfeld Michael

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social work strategy is increasingly applying sports and physical activity programs as a vehicle for the social inclusion of outsiders. The underlying assumption is that interactions between diverse social groups generate social capital, which can potentially function as a social lever for socially disadvantaged groups. Knowledge about how and when this levering process occurs is, however, insufficient. The generation and acquisition of social capital requires adequate qualities in the relationship between social entities. Hence, meticulous research is essential to expound on the mechanisms and circumstances under which the socially disadvantaged can benefit from social capital generated through sports and physical activity. The article is primarily based on qualitative interviews with different groups of socially disadvantaged people. The interviews were conducted as part of a large-scale investigation of participation in sports in socially deprived neighborhoods. Subsequently, the findings from the qualitative interviews were triangulated with findings from an assessment of documentation and evaluation reports covering about 200 projects, and findings from a scientific literature review. The findings suggest that strategies aiming at social inclusion through sports and physical activities need to take social context into consideration

  19. Transport Policy and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ricci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Transport-related Social inclusion’ is a specific naming of the complex set of interrelationships within which accessibility plays an important role in whether a citizen achieves the level of participation in socioeconomic life that he or she seeks. It has its origins in the United Kingdom of the early 2000s, but the diversity of theoretical perspectives, research methods and practical focus shown by the contributions to the present issue on this theme bears witness to the evolution and translation this concept and term has undergone over more than a decade. Nine papers are presented, concerning applications of the concept in three continents, and including some of the poorest and richest per capita income countries on the globe. As well as developing and applying the multi-faceted theories of the processes of exclusion and techniques for the quantitative identification of inclusion, they consider important topics such as the treatment of the less abled and more frail members of society when on the move and the potential for new technological design methods and practical solutions either to enhance inclusion or deepen inequality in our societies. Collectively their conclusions reinforce the message that social exclusion remains multi-dimensional, relational and dynamic, located both in the circumstances of the excluded individual as well as in the processes, institutions and structures that permeate wider society.

  20. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors with nuclear inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Saori; Tsuta, Koji; Sekine, Shigeki; Yoshida, Akihiko; Sasaki, Naoshi; Shibuki, Yasuo; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Asamura, Hisao; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Nuclear inclusion or pseudoinclusion is a peculiar cytological feature, and its recognition in appropriate clinicopathological settings can aid in the diagnosis of several disease entities. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 case of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with nuclear pseudoinclusion has been reported. A review of 227 patients who had undergone surgical resection for pulmonary NETs revealed 2 tumors with different mechanisms of nuclear inclusion. To explore the cause of nuclear inclusion, NET with nuclear inclusion was characterized immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Nuclear inclusions were observed in 2 of the 227 (0.9%) patients with pulmonary NETs. The first patient was a 46-year-old woman with small cell carcinoma. Tumor cells with nuclear inclusions were distributed focally. Ultrastructural analysis showed that these inclusions were pseudoinclusions. The second patient was a 62-year-old man with large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Nuclear inclusions were observed in the focal area of the tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the intra-nuclear materials consisted of biotin and aberrant cytoplasmic and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. Mutational analysis revealed a CTNNB1 gene mutation. Although very rare, diagnostic errors may be observed in cases of pulmonary NETs with nuclear inclusions. The mechanisms of nuclear inclusion differed, with one due to herniation of the cytoplasm into the nucleus (pseudoinclusion) and the other due to accumulation of biotin resulting from a CTNNB1 gene mutation. PMID:23896262

  1. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Van, Lier, G

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines the rejection properties of the system. The present research studies the applicat...

  2. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  3. The Evolution of Inclusive Education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig, Thomas Thyrring

    2016-01-01

    bring forward some conflicting understandings and practices that seem to lie on a continuum that ranges from Salamanca-inspired, equity-focused inclusion to a more US-inspired, accountability-focused inclusion (Engsig & Johnstone, 2014). This presentation will discuss the notion of inclusive education......The notion of inclusive education in the public school system is highly debated in Denmark, and internationally. Teachers and school leaders in Denmark are struggling with identifying good inclusive practices, and there seems to be discrepancies between multiple national educational policies, which...... inform teachers and stakeholders in their understanding of inclusive education. The Danish government passed and initiated a large reform of the Danish public school system in the beginning of 2014. Among other key aspects, the reform involves a more goal-oriented school with quantifiable national goals...

  4. Cyclodextrin Inclusion Polymers Forming Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun

    This chapter reviews the advances in the developments of supramolecular hydrogels based on the polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes formed by inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins threading onto polymer chains. Both physical and chemical supramolecular hydrogels of many different types are discussed with respect to their preparation, structure, property, and gelation mechanism. A large number of physical supramolecular hydrogels were formed induced by self-assembly of densely packed cyclodextrin rings threaded on polymer or copolymer chains acting as physical crosslinking points. The thermo-reversible and thixotropic properties of these physical supramolecular hydrogels have inspired their applications as injectable drug delivery systems. Chemical supramolecular hydrogels synthesized from polypseudorotaxanes and polyrotaxanes were based on the chemical crosslinking of either the cyclodextrin molecules or the included polymer chains. The chemical supramolecular hydrogels were often made biodegradable through incorporation of hydrolyzable threading polymers, end caps, or crosslinkers, for their potential applications as biomaterials.

  5. Inclusion body myositis: therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rohit Aggarwal, Chester V OddisDepartment of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include dermatomyositis (DM, polymyositis (PM, inclusion body myositis (IBM and other less common myopathies. These are clinically and histopathologically distinct diseases with many shared clinical features. IBM, the most commonly acquired inflammatory muscle disease occurs in individuals aged over 50 years, and is characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy affecting proximal and distal muscle groups, often asymmetrically. Unlike DM and PM, IBM is typically refractory to immunotherapy. Although corticosteroids have not been tested in randomized controlled trials, the general consensus is that they are not efficacious. There is some suggestion that intravenous immunoglobulin slows disease progression, but its long-term effectiveness is unclear. The evidence for other immunosuppressive therapies has been derived mainly from case reports and open studies and the results are discouraging. Only a few clinical trials have been conducted on IBM, making it difficult to provide clear recommendations for treatment. Moreover, IBM is a slowly progressive disease so assessment of treatment efficacy is problematic due to the longer-duration trials needed to determine treatment effects. Newer therapies may be promising, but further investigation to document efficacy would be expensive given the aforementioned need for longer trials. In this review, various treatments that have been employed in IBM will be discussed even though none of the interventions has sufficient evidence to support its routine use.Keywords: inclusion body myositis, clinical features, treatment

  6. Without agreement: Inclusive processes and conflict transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Pomatto Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    This article studies two inclusive processes that were carried out inGenoa about the strongly contested projects of a motorway and a waste incinerator.It shows how inclusive processes may contribute to the de-escalation of the conflicteven when stakeholders are not able to reach an agreement.In both cases inclusive processes favoured the development of win-win solutionsderiving from various form of coordination that took place without reaching anagreement involving citizens committees and env...

  7. Measuring Financial Inclusion: A Multidimensional Index

    OpenAIRE

    Noelia Camara; David Tuesta

    2014-01-01

    We rely on demand and supply-side information to measure the extent of financial inclusion at country level for eighty-two developed and less-developed countries. We postulate that the degree of financial inclusion is determined by three dimensions: usage, barriers and access to financial inclusion. Weights assigned to the dimensions are determined endogenously by employing a two-stage Principal Component Analysis. Our composite index offers a comprehensive measure of the degree of financial ...

  8. Single fluid inclusion study by SRXRF microprobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.He; G.C.Li; K.X.Lin; Y.Y.Huang; K.F.Li

    2001-01-01

    The nondestructive analysis technique of single fluid inclusions by SRXRF microprobe at BSRF was developed.To test the method,A canning analysis reult of a single fluid inclusion in quartz crystal was presented.With this technique,the semi-quantitative inorganic ompositions of two typical individual organic fluid inclusions were also determined by using a thin glass film of known compositions as a standard.2001 Elsevier Science B.V.All rights reserved.

  9. Is Urban Economic Growth Inclusive in India?

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures the overall inclusive growth of a city by considering changing trends in the key economic variables based on ‘Borda ranking’ and establishes a relationship between city economic growth and overall city inclusive growth. By using data of 52 large cities in India, this paper finds that higher urban economic growth is associated with an increase in urban inequality, a reduction in urban poverty, and a lower level of overall inclusive growth of a city.

  10. Pupil Teachers' Perceptions Towards Inclusive Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nishta Rana

    2012-01-01

    On the assumption that the successful implementation of any inclusive policy is largelydependent on educators being positive about it, a great deal of research has sought toexamine teachers' attitudes and perceptions towards the inclusion and, more recently, theinclusion of children with special needs (CWSN) in general education is becoming moreprevalent. This study explores the perceptions of pupil teachers in teacher traininginstitutions towards inclusive education. Specifically, the study ...

  11. Deploying and implementing Inclusive Physical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Lúcia Ferreira; Carolina Lessa Cataldi

    2014-01-01

    Physical Education, as a curricular component of basic education, is not indifferent to the movement of Inclusive physical education. Differentiated bodies are conquering new social spaces. Our aim through this investigation is to identify the main historical practices regarding Brazilian Policy of Inclusive Education and to point out proposals to implement inclusive Physical education. Our methodology consists of a descriptive study based on two main axes. The first axis is related to a hist...

  12. The global partnership for inclusive growth

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongfu; Quibria, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of inclusive growth with a focus on foreign aid. Based on the Solow growth model, a theoretical model has been developed which shows that foreign aid can stimulate inclusive growth if it is effectively used for augmenting either physical or human productive capacity. Based on UNDP's (2011) human development index, this research calculates the inequality-adjusted human development index, and uses its growth rate to measure inclusive growth. The empirica...

  13. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A.; BOSSERT, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  14. Erythrocyte membrane proteins and membrane skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yiqin; LIU Junfan

    2007-01-01

    Considerable advances in the research field of erythrocyte membrane were achieved in the recent two decades.New findings in the structure-function correlation and interactions of erythrocyte membrane proteins have attracted extensive attention.Interesting progress was also made in the molecular pathogenesis of erythrocyte membrane disorders.Advances in the composition,function and interaction of erythrocyte membrane proteins,erythrocyte membrane skeleton,and relevant diseases are briefly described and summarized here on the basis of domestic and world literatures.

  15. Making the case for inclusive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Sam; Bradley, Mike; Hosking, Ian; Clarkson, P John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the University of Cambridge, Engineering Design Centre's (EDC) case for inclusive design, based on 10 years of research, promotion and knowledge transfer. In summary, inclusive design applies an understanding of customer diversity to inform decisions throughout the development process, in order to better satisfy the needs of more people. Products that are more inclusive can reach a wider market, improve customer satisfaction and drive business success. The rapidly ageing population increases the importance of this approach. The case presented here has helped to convince BT, Nestlé and others to adopt an inclusive approach. PMID:23538129

  16. Diversity at work the practice of inclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Deane, Barbara R

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines the key issues involved in framing, designing, and implementing inclusion initiatives for organizations and groups. It offers ideas for helping individuals develop competencies for inclusion. It shows how to apply the practices of inclusion and provides a unified model by employing diverse voices to address a range of related topics in multiple contexts. It also contains examples of how diversity and inclusion has worked in a variety of settings. The book is includes information from topic experts, including internal and external change agents and academics.

  17. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  18. A membrane disdrometer based on membrane vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raindrop sizes were indirectly determined through the distinctive vibrations and sounds that occur when raindrops of different sizes impact on a membrane. The relationships between diameter, raindrop kinetic momentum, membrane deflection, and impact force were analyzed. Membrane deflection and vibration models were created, and the optimum membrane diameter and thickness were identified. A prototype membrane disdrometer was developed on the basis of these findings. The relationship between raindrop size and membrane vibration sound pressure was determined experimentally. The fundamental parameter of raindrop size recognition was used. The test results indicate that raindrops 0.4–2.0 mm in diameter can be detected by the proposed membrane disdrometer, and 50 raindrops per second in a zone area of 28.3 cm2 can be detected in natural rain. (paper)

  19. Composite sensor membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arun; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Yue, Min

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  20. Compositional asynchronous membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cosmin Bonchis; Cornel Izbasa; Gabriel Ciobanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithmic way of building complex membrane systems by coupling elementary membranes. Its application seems particularly valuable in the case of asynchronous membrane systems, since the resulting membrane system remains asynchronous. The composition method is based on a handshake mechanism implemented by using antiport rules and promoters.

  1. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  2. Bank-based Financial Intermediation for Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, Vighneswara

    2010-01-01

    Financial Inclusion for inclusive growth is a topic of contemporary significance and relevance. This study besides establishing the growth enhancing role of bank-based financial intermediation through empirical evidence has also found that access to finance by the poor is a prerequisite for poverty reduction in order to achieve inclusive growth and sustainable economic development. The study has evaluated using appropriate statistical techniques the impact of financial inclusion efforts on th...

  3. Japanese in-service teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and self-efficacy for inclusive practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yada, Akie

    2015-01-01

    Although inclusive education has become mainstream in global educational policy, its implementation in national educational policies and in actual practice is often prob-lematic. In Japan, for example, inclusion is relatively new concept for teachers and the overall support system for children with disabilities is underdeveloped. Previous stud-ies suggested that teachers needed to adopt positive attitudes towards inclusive educa-tion and to have high self-efficacy for inclusive practices if t...

  4. Creating inclusive schools : guidelines for the implementation of the National Curriculum policy on inclusive education

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Paul A.; Agius Ferrante, Charmaine; Azzopardi, Andrew; Bason, Louise; Grech, Louisa; King, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This book was produced by the Maltese National Curriculum (NMC) Focus Group for Inclusive Education (2001-03). It breaks new ground by addressing the issue of the meaning of inclusive education and providing a fresh approach about how to go about implementing an educational policy. The book is based in the first place on the NMC policy on inclusive education, while also closely following the corresponding principles, approach and materials from Booth and Ainscow (2002), Index for inclusion: D...

  5. More Policies, Greater Inclusion? Exploring the Contradictions of New Labour Inclusive Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulstone, Alan; Prideaux, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The era of New Labour government has witnessed unprecedented growth in inclusive education policies. There is, however, limited evidence that policies have increased disabled children's inclusion. This article explores reasons for this contradiction. Drawing on sociological insights, it is argued that New Labour policies on inclusive education…

  6. Inclusion in High-Achieving Singapore: Challenges of Building an Inclusive Society in Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2016-01-01

    Building an inclusive society in which all people can participate effectively and live together requires understanding inclusive education and its impact on the social order. As countries of different regions face the vast array of challenges unique to their educational systems, it becomes apparent that inclusive societies are intricately tied to…

  7. Supporting Students with Severe Disabilities in Inclusive Schools: A Descriptive Account From Schools Implementing Inclusive Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Lyon, Kristin J.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate practices that support the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in the learning and social activities of inclusive K-8 schools to inform inclusive school reform research and practice. Eighteen K-8 students with severe disabilities in six schools recognized for their implementation of…

  8. Moving Forward in Inclusive Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Ozlem; Savage, Robert Samuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address conceptual and methodological challenges of doing research in the field of inclusive education and revisit school effectiveness research literature to inform future research. First, we present the rationale for inclusive education and briefly review the evolution of special needs education. Then, we discuss limitations…

  9. Guided Reading in Inclusive Middle Years Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Wanda; Thompson, Scott Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in inclusive classrooms are challenged to provide reading instruction for students with a wide range of instructional levels. This article reports on the implementation of guided reading in four middle years inclusive classrooms, the impact on student engagement and reading progress, and teacher perspectives on the guided reading…

  10. Metaphors of Literacy: Dialogues in Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causarano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of metaphors in education and in inclusive settings in particular. Metaphors are seen as the fabric of collaboration through dialogue across the curriculum. The article analyzes the dialogues among the Language Arts, Social Studies, and inclusion teacher in a large middle school in the Southwest of the United…

  11. Social Inclusion and Critical Consciousness in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.; Ortega, Lilyana

    2010-01-01

    Australia's Indigenous population is excluded from a range of opportunities, experiences and amenities that facilitate wellbeing, self-determination and social inclusion. This social exclusion constrains the career development and occupational attainment of Indigenous youth, which represent key routes to societal inclusion. Critical…

  12. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  13. How Does Supervision Support Inclusive Teacherhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alila, Sanna; Määttä, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Supervision is a multidimensional concept and phenomenon. In this study, the advantages of supervision and its development in inclusive teacherhood was studied. Inclusive teacherhood means a teacher's professional development and the school culture's change toward participatory school for all students. The study analyzed the views of supervisors…

  14. Diversity ? Inclusion: Promoting Integration in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    I argue that enrollment of a diverse student body is but a pragmatic first step toward the broader social goal of inclusion and ask whether motives for campus diversification are aligned with pedagogic goals. I address this question by focusing on inclusion, namely, organizational strategies and practices that promote meaningful social and…

  15. Social Justice Leadership and Inclusion: A Genealogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in an historical analysis of research about two concepts: social justice leadership and leadership for inclusion. Recent experiences have caused me to wonder about our interpretations of justice, equity, and inclusion. Analysis of the relevant literature revealed a lack of consensus among scholars as to a…

  16. Teachers' Misunderstanding: The Concept of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagi, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' misunderstanding the concept of inclusive education will not lead to good practices, rather make an exclusive environment for pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools. This study clarified teachers' attitudes towards the image of inclusive education with conjoint analysis and cluster analysis. The participants for this…

  17. School Inclusion and the "Community of Practice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laluvein, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    "Inclusion" is not a mechanism for relocating educationally disadvantaged youngsters in mainstream rather than in special schools. Rather, inclusion implies a whole school approach to social relations and production of meaning reached through processes of negotiation between parents, teachers and children. Such an approach places equal value upon…

  18. Design, development and implementation of inclusive education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Smeets, Ed

    2016-01-01

    In inclusive education different pupils, including pupils with special educational needs and high ability pupils, can be stimulated to learn according to their capacities and potentials. The research question concentrates on the design features of inclusive education that will optimally promote the

  19. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  20. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  1. Secondary General Education Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the inception of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, educators have struggled with including students with disabilities in the general education classroom with their nondisabled peers. The inclusion educational model was utilized in this study to explore secondary teachers' attitudes toward inclusive educational…

  2. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... activities. The proposed rule will implement this statutory provision. See 75 FR 1289 (January 11, 2010). The... Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of... inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section 1319A of...

  3. Teachers’ Attitudes Towards inclusive Education in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rossmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the results of several empirical studies on teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of pupils with special education needs in different academic settings. The survey’s data sets of altogether 578 primary school teachers in Austria, queried in 1998 and 2009, were reanalyzed. The chosen instrument of investigation was Reicher’s scale “Einstellung zur Integration in der Schule (EIS [attitudes towards inclusion in school]“ (1988. Concerning reliability and factorial structure, the scale fulfills the requirements which an instrument of investigation has to achieve. With regards to content, the analysis of the data showed that teachers evaluate the inclusion of pupils with mental retardation as a greater challenge than the inclusion of pupils with physical or learning disabilities. With reference to the general attitude towards academic inclusion, there were no differences between primary school teachers and special education teachers. However, the results revealed a moderate effect of the field of work the respondents were engaged in. Teachers working in inclusive fields declare a more positive attitude towards academic inclusion than teachers in non-inclusive settings, disregarding the type of disability.

  4. Beyond Political Correctness: Toward the Inclusive University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Stephen, Ed.; Weir, Lorna, Ed.

    This collection of 12 essays examines the history of the discourse over political correctness (PC) in Canadian academia, focusing on the neoconservative backlash to affirmative action, inclusive policies, and feminist and anti-racist teaching in the classroom. It includes: (1) "Introduction: Political Correctness and the Inclusive University"…

  5. Inclusive Education: Teacher Perspectives from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy; Nomanbhoy, Alefiya; Tubpun, Tida

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of views of inclusive education expressed by nearly 300 Malaysian primary school teachers involved in remedial literacy and numeracy education under the country's Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. Overall, the views expressed were positive towards the principle of inclusion. However, despite common professional…

  6. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  7. Gender Inclusive Policy Developments in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn

    2002-01-01

    Traces two chronologies of gender-inclusive policy development in Australia's national and state education-policy arenas to demonstrate, from a feminist perspective, their limited applicability at the school level. Argues that more transformative conceptions of gender inclusiveness evident in the feminist academy be promoted in policy. (Contains…

  8. Effective Leadership Makes Schools Truly Inclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…

  9. Inclusive Education in Malaysia: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelas, Zalizan M.; Ali, Manisah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia's move towards inclusion was given impetus by its participation in workshops and conferences set up under the auspices of the United Nations (UNESCO 1990; UN 1993; UNESCO 1994). Inclusive education was introduced in the Education Act 1996 as part of the continuum of services available for children with special needs. The purpose of…

  10. Inclusive Education: Is This Horse a Trojan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Roger

    2006-01-01

    In Canada and elsewhere, governments are expending considerable effort in the production of inclusive education policy texts, resources allocation models, and programs. The author notes that despite of the analytic power and the political intent of inclusive education as a counterpoint to special education, its appropriation is imminent if not…

  11. Inclusive Partnership: Enhancing Student Engagement in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth; Nicholson, Dawn T.; Andrews, Will

    2016-01-01

    Partnership is currently the focus of much work within higher education and advocated as an important process to address a range of higher education goals. In this paper, we propose the term "inclusive partnership" to conceptualise a non-selective staff-student relationship. While recognising the challenges of inclusive partnership…

  12. On Graph Refutation for Relational Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. S. Veloso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a graphical refutation calculus for relational inclusions: it reduces establishing a relational inclusion to establishing that a graph constructed from it has empty extension. This sound and complete calculus is conceptually simpler and easier to use than the usual ones.

  13. Understanding the Development of Inclusive Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel

    2005-01-01

    It is now almost ten years since the Salamanca Conference on Special Needs Education endorsed the idea of inclusive education. Arguably the most significant international document that has ever appeared in the special needs field, the Salamanca Statement argues that regular schools with an inclusive orientation are "the most effective means of…

  14. Making Education for All Inclusive: Where Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel; Miles, Susie

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that a common sense of purpose around inclusive education, together with a consistent use of language, is essential if Education for All (EFA) strategies are to become more inclusive. This does not require the introduction of new techniques; rather it involves: collaboration within and between schools, closer links between…

  15. Leading under Pressure: Leadership for Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Ainscow, Mel; Dyson, Alan; Raffo, Carlo; Goldrick, Sue; Kerr, Kirstin; Lennie, Clare; Miles, Susie

    2010-01-01

    In this study we undertook to look at leadership issues specifically in relation to social inclusion, through a series of six case studies in three districts showing high levels of disadvantage. Findings indicated that schools' views on social inclusion could be typified as leaning towards three main orientations: (1) improving achievement and…

  16. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it.

  17. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. PMID:24530825

  18. Social Inclusion and Local Practices of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Social inclusion has been conceptualised as having two key aspects: distributional aspects relating to access to resources including employment, and relational aspects which concern the connections between people and the wider society. While both are important, the emphasis in Australian social inclusion policy has been on distributional aspects. This paper focuses on the relational aspects of social inclusion, and argues that it is critically important to include relational considerations in social inclusion policy. Central to the relational aspects of social inclusion is achieving a sense of belonging, particularly at the everyday, local level. Belonging in this everyday sense can be thought of as an ongoing project achieved through everyday practices, rather than solely in terms of membership of a group. While many such practices, for example regularly engaging in team sports, are accepted ways of establishing and maintaining belonging, for others in a community practices of belonging may necessitate disrupting or at least broadening the established norms of how one belongs. To ground this discussion of inclusion and belonging, this paper draws on practices of belonging in a regional community. Established norms of belonging are examined through the idea of ‘being a local’, a way of belonging that appears to be based on membership. The paper then turns to two local projects which disrupt the exclusive bounds of local membership and establish new and inclusive practices of belonging. To conclude, parallels are drawn between the boundaries which define ‘the social’ in social inclusion and ‘the local community’ in being a local, to argue for the importance of including relational aspects of social inclusion within social inclusion policy debates and program formulation.

  19. Exons 16 and 17 of the amyloid precursor protein gene in familial inclusion body myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, K; Cervenáková, L; Dalakas, M C; Leon-Monzon, M; Isaacson, S H; Nagle, J W; Vasconcelos, O; Goldfarb, L G

    1995-08-01

    Accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (A beta) occurs in some muscle fibers of patients with inclusion body myopathy and resembles the type of amyloid deposits seen in the affected tissues of patients with Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular amyloidosis. Because mutations in exons 16 and 17 of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) gene on chromosome 21 have been identified in patients with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease and Dutch-type cerebrovascular amyloidosis, we searched for mutations of the same region in patients with familial inclusion body myopathy. Sequencing of both alleles in 8 patients from four unrelated families did not reveal any mutations in these exons. The amyloid deposition in familial forms of inclusion body myopathy may be either due to errors in other gene loci, or it is secondary reflecting altered beta APP metabolism or myocyte degeneration and cell membrane degradation.

  20. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M G

    2004-01-01

    The relation between two different methods of membrane fluid description is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  1. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  2. 基于环糊精/卟啉包络物荧光猝灭的二氧化碳光学敏感膜的研究%An Optode Membrane for CO2 Based on Fluorescence Quenching of the Inclusion Complex of Cyclodextrin and Porphyrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣华; 王柯敏; 肖丹; 张留德; 羊小海

    2001-01-01

    Heptakis(2,6-di-O-isobutyl)-β-cyclodextrin(DOB-β-CD) is able to increase the fluorescence of meso-tetra (4-methoxylphenyl)porphyrin (TMOPP) immobilized in plasticized PVC membrane,and the fluorescence is quenched by carbon dioxide in aqueous solution.Based on this mechanism,a fluorescence sensing membrane has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide in aqueous solution.The optimal membrane consists of 2 mg of TMOPP,8 mg of DOB-β-CD,50 mg of PVC and 100 mg of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebate (DOS).With the optimal condition described,carbon dioxide in solution from 4.75×10-7 to 3.9×10-5 mol/L can be determined.Besides a high reproducibility of the optical signals,the very short response time less than 30 s is realized.The sensor exhibits a good selectivity over some common ions.%全-(2,6-二-O-异丁基)-β-环糊精(DOB-β-CD)对固定于增塑PVc膜中的meso-四(4-甲氧基苯基)卟啉(TMOPP)有明显的荧光增强效应,且该荧光可被溶液中的二氧化碳可逆猝灭.本文据此研制了一种可用于测定水溶液中二氧化碳含量,即[H2CO3]浓度的荧光敏感膜.研究了最佳膜的组成.经过组成优化的敏感膜测定[H2CO3]浓度的范围为4.75×10-7~3.9×10-5mol/L.该传感器响应迅速、重现性好,常见的离子无明显干扰.

  3. Recombinant polymorphic membrane protein D in combination with a novel, second-generation lipid adjuvant protects against intra-vaginal Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Wayne; Brown, Naj; Brzozowski, Andrzej M; Coler, Rhea; Reed, Steve; Carter, Darrick; Bland, Martin; Kaye, Paul M; Lacey, Charles J N

    2016-07-29

    The development of a chlamydial vaccine that elicits protective mucosal immunity is of paramount importance in combatting the global spread of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infections. While the identification and prioritization of chlamydial antigens is a crucial prerequisite for efficacious vaccine design, it is likely that novel adjuvant development and selection will also play a pivotal role in the translational potential of preclinical Ct vaccines. Although the molecular nature of the immuno-modulatory component is of primary importance, adjuvant formulation and delivery systems may also govern vaccine efficacy and potency. Our study provides the first preclinical evaluation of recombinant Ct polymorphic membrane protein D (rPmpD) in combination with three different formulations of a novel second-generation lipid adjuvant (SLA). SLA was rationally designed in silico by modification of glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA), a TLR4 agonistic precursor molecule currently in Phase II clinical development. We demonstrate robust protection against intra-vaginal Ct challenge in mice, evidenced by significantly enhanced resistance to infection and reduction in mean bacterial load. Strikingly, protection was found to correlate with the presence of robust anti-rPmpD serum and cervico-vaginal IgG titres, even in the absence of adjuvant-induced Th1-type cellular immune responses elicited by each SLA formulation, and we further show that anti-rPmpD antibodies recognize Ct EBs. These findings highlight the utility of SLA and rational molecular design of adjuvants in preclinical Ct vaccine development, but also suggest an important role for anti-rPmpD antibodies in protection against urogenital Ct infection. PMID:27389169

  4. Amyloid-linked cellular toxicity triggered by bacterial inclusion bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aggregation of proteins in the form of amyloid fibrils and plaques is the characteristic feature of some pathological conditions ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. The mechanisms by which the aggregation processes result in cell damage are under intense investigation but recent data indicate that prefibrillar aggregates are the most proximate mediators of toxicity rather than mature fibrils. Since it has been shown that prefibrillar forms of the nondisease-related misfolded proteins are highly toxic to cultured mammalian cells we have studied the cytoxicity associated to bacterial inclusion bodies that have been recently described as protein deposits presenting amyloid-like structures. We have proved that bacterial inclusion bodies composed by a misfolding-prone β-galactosidase fusion protein are clearly toxic for mammalian cells but the β-galactosidase wild type enzyme forming more structured thermal aggregates does not impair cell viability, despite it also binds and enter into the cells. These results are in the line that the most cytotoxic aggregates are early prefibrilar assemblies but discard the hypothesis that the membrane destabilization is Key event to subsequent disruption of cellular processes, such as ion balance, oxidative state and the eventually cell death

  5. Social inclusion policy: Producing justice or retribution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kym Macfarlane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of social inclusion has currently gained extraordinary credence in Australia. Policy incorporating social inclusion abounds across all discipline areas with the federal government for the first time instituting a government portfolio for this area, headed by the Deputy Prime Minister. Such a move indicates the importance of managing aspects of inclusion across all sectors, in a country where diversity abounds. However, this focus on inclusion can prove highly problematic, when it becomes such an integral part of policy formulation and of the assumptions, omissions and contradictions that policy produces. This paper examines how policy discourse produces ways of thinking about inclusion/exclusion. Using three vignettes, the author applies the theories of Michel Foucault to argue that the discursive production of such inclusive policy works to simultaneously exclude by categorising particular types of individuals and families as “proper” participants in society. The author contends that understandings of propriety relating to the inclusion/exclusion binary reinscribe each other, in ways that situate particular citizens outside of possibilities for “success” in social and systemic participation. Such understanding is highlighted by a conceptual examination of the ways in which discursively produced notions of propriety become normalised. Keywords: bricolage, discourse, authorised knowledge, imperative discourse, regimes of truth

  6. Deploying and implementing Inclusive Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Lúcia Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical Education, as a curricular component of basic education, is not indifferent to the movement of Inclusive physical education. Differentiated bodies are conquering new social spaces. Our aim through this investigation is to identify the main historical practices regarding Brazilian Policy of Inclusive Education and to point out proposals to implement inclusive Physical education. Our methodology consists of a descriptive study based on two main axes. The first axis is related to a historical discussion whose source was national documents of reference about Inclusive Physical Education. The second axis is related to the experience of 2000 teachers; we have the occasion to analyze their practices on the subject of Inclusive physical education. As a result, this investigation also develops a proposal to inclusive physical education; this proposal is established in another dimension and understanding of work and movement. Concerning the final considerations we suggest a disruption with already crystallized bodily practices and we suggest actions respecting individual differences. Moreover, we point out the fact that Inclusive Physical Education has advocated another meaning for the body, in favor of a more collective physical education and searching for activities in which individuality prevails.

  7. Membrane Automata with Priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luděk Cienciala; Lucie Ciencialová

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the one-way P automata with priorities are introduced. Such automata are P systemshere the membranes are only allowed to consume objects from parent membranes, under the given conditions. The result of computation of these systems is the set of multiset sequences consumed by skin membrane intc the system. The rules associated in some order with each membrane cannot modify any objects, they can only move them through membrane. We show that P automata with priorities and two membranes can accept every recursively enumerated language.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF RUTIN-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine the potential of beta-cyclodextrin to improve the solubility of rutin and obtain inclusion compounds that were analyzed by different techniques: UV-Vis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis. The presence of β-cyclodextrin raises the content of rutin in water. The inclusion compounds were prepared by dry mixing, complexation in semisolid and liquid medium in 1:2 molar ratio rutin - β-cyclodextrin. The UV-Vis and IR analysis demonstrated the obtaining of inclusion compounds and the thermal analysis show that these compounds are more stable than the parent substance.

  9. Strain distribution of strips with spherical inclusion during cold rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hai-liang; BI Hong-yun; LIU Xiang-hua; TU Yan-feng

    2008-01-01

    The deformation of 304 stainless steel strips with a spherical inclusion during cold rolling was simulated by 3D finite element method, and the strain distribution was calculated for a variety of the material attribution of inclusion (hard inclusions and soft inclusions) and the inclusion size (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 μm). During rolling, the strain in front of inclusion is larger than that in rear of inclusion for both the hard and soft inclusions. For hard inclusions, the strain in front and rear of inclusions is larger than that of inclusions, and the maximum and minimum strains increase with the increase of inclusion diameter (from 10 μm to 50 μm). For soft inclusions, the strain in front and rear of inclusions is smaller than that of inclusions, and the maximum and minimum strains decrease with the increase of inclusion sizes when the inclusion diameter is larger than 20 μm but increase when the inclusion diameter is smaller than 20 μm. Finally, the relationship between the inclusion deformation and the crack generation was discussed.

  10. Nav Channels in Damaged Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C E; Joos, B

    2016-01-01

    Sick excitable cells (ie, Nav channel-expressing cells injured by trauma, ischemia, inflammatory, and other conditions) typically exhibit "acquired sodium channelopathies" which, we argue, reflect bleb-damaged membranes rendering their Nav channels "leaky." The situation is excitotoxic because untreated Nav leak exacerbates bleb damage. Fast Nav inactivation (a voltage-independent process) is so tightly coupled, kinetically speaking, to the inherently voltage-dependent process of fast activation that when bleb damage accelerates and thus left-shifts macroscopic fast activation, fast inactivation accelerates to the same extent. The coupled g(V) and availability(V) processes and their window conductance regions consequently left-shift by the same number of millivolts. These damage-induced hyperpolarizing shifts, whose magnitude increases with damage intensity, are called coupled left shift (CLS). Based on past work and modeling, we discuss how to test for Nav-CLS, emphasizing the virtue of sawtooth ramp clamp. We explain that it is the inherent mechanosensitivity of Nav activation that underlies Nav-CLS. Using modeling of excitability, we show the known process of Nav-CLS is sufficient to predict a wide variety of "sick excitable cell" phenomena, from hyperexcitability through to depolarizing block. When living cells are mimicked by inclusion of pumps, mild Nav-CLS produces a wide array of burst phenomena and subthreshold oscillations. Dynamical analysis of mild damage scenarios shows how these phenomena reflect changes in spike thresholds as the pumps try to counteract the leaky Nav channels. Smart Nav inhibitors designed for sick excitable cells would target bleb-damaged membrane, buying time for cell-mediated removal or repair of Nav-bearing membrane that has become bleb-damaged (ie, detached from the cytoskeleton). PMID:27586295

  11. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  12. Solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutczak, Szymon Maria

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes preparation and characterization of membranes for organic solvent filtration (OSF). The main aim was developing membranes for solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) with molecular weight cut-off below 500 g mol-1.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  15. Voices: An Inclusive Choir in Dortmund, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard Merkt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the concept and work with an inclusive choir, in which students of the Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences at TU Dortmund University sing together with adult mentally challengedpeople. The choir ‘Voices’ was founded in 2010, as a part of the project Dortmunder Modell: Musik (DOMO: Musik. The choir and project are committed to realising the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, particularly in developing models of cultural participation, relevant both for people with and without disabilities. After describing the DOMO: Musik project and its principles, newly developed ideas for inclusive choir work are presented, together with imminent difficulties and positive results. Special attention is drawn to the selection of the pieces under the aspect of artistic variety. Five pieces of the artistic interdisciplinary repertoire are presented. Finally, the student choirmembers reflect on their experiences in the inclusive choir and make clear the importance of joint activities leading to an inclusive society.

  16. Inclusive development in search of political will

    OpenAIRE

    Pouw, N.; J Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive development builds upon the three pillars of increased human wellbeing for all, social and environmental sustainability, and empowerment. Political will at multiple levels of governance needs to be mobilized to curb the global inequality trend.

  17. Lifelong inclusive education of people with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gluzman Aleksandr Vladimirovich; Boginskaya Yuliya Valerievna

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the current state of lifelong inclusive education of people with disabilities. The authors highlight the conditions of developing a lifelong education system for children and youth with disabilities.

  18. Transverse Λ polarization in inclusive processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anselmino, M; Boer, D; D'Alesio, U; Murgia, F

    2003-01-01

    A formalism proposed to study transverse A polarization in unpolarized hadronic processes, based on a generalized pQCD factorization theorem, is extended to semi-inclusive DIS. Analytical expressions and examples of numerical estimates are given.

  19. Advanced functional evolution equations and inclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Benchohra, Mouffak

    2015-01-01

    This book presents up-to-date results on abstract evolution equations and differential inclusions in infinite dimensional spaces. It covers equations with time delay and with impulses, and complements the existing literature in functional differential equations and inclusions. The exposition is devoted to both local and global mild solutions for some classes of functional differential evolution equations and inclusions, and other densely and non-densely defined functional differential equations and inclusions in separable Banach spaces or in Fréchet spaces. The tools used include classical fixed points theorems and the measure-of non-compactness, and each chapter concludes with a section devoted to notes and bibliographical remarks. This monograph is particularly useful for researchers and graduate students studying pure and applied mathematics, engineering, biology and all other applied sciences.

  20. Membrane Curvature in Flaviviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Kaufmann, Bärbel; Chipman, Paul R.; Kuhn, Richard J; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated interplay between membrane proteins and the lipid bilayer is required for such processes as transporter function and the entrance of enveloped viruses into host cells. In this study, three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy density maps of mature and immature flaviviruses were analyzed to assess the curvature of the membrane leaflets and its relation to membrane-bound viral glycoproteins. The overall morphology of the viral membrane is determined by icosahedral scaffolding compo...

  1. Anthocyanin Vacuolar Inclusions Form by a Microautophagy Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanoca, Alexandra; Kovinich, Nik; Burkel, Brian; Stecha, Samantha; Bohorquez-Restrepo, Andres; Ueda, Takashi; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Grotewold, Erich; Otegui, Marisa S

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins are flavonoid pigments synthesized in the cytoplasm and stored inside vacuoles. Many plant species accumulate densely packed, 3- to 10-μm diameter anthocyanin deposits called anthocyanin vacuolar inclusions (AVIs). Despite their conspicuousness and importance in organ coloration, the origin and nature of AVIs have remained controversial for decades. We analyzed AVI formation in cotyledons of different Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes grown under anthocyanin inductive conditions and in purple petals of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiorum). We found that cytoplasmic anthocyanin aggregates in close contact with the vacuolar surface are directly engulfed by the vacuolar membrane in a process reminiscent of microautophagy. The engulfed anthocyanin aggregates are surrounded by a single membrane derived from the tonoplast and eventually become free in the vacuolar lumen like an autophagic body. Neither endosomal/prevacuolar trafficking nor the autophagy ATG5 protein is involved in the formation of AVIs. In Arabidopsis, formation of AVIs is promoted by both an increase in cyanidin 3-O-glucoside derivatives and by depletion of the glutathione S-transferase TT19. We hypothesize that this novel microautophagy mechanism also mediates the transport of other flavonoid aggregates into the vacuole. PMID:26342015

  2. AESTHETIC EDUCATION OF ELDERLY BY DIGITAL INCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Barreto Cesarino; Marcos Antonio Oliveira Cruz; Isa Omena Machado Freitas; Vinicius Pinheiro Marques; João Marcelo dos Santos Silva

    2014-01-01

    This research project has as delimiting central theme and also central question whether digital inclusion of elderly enable increasing their aesthetic education. Being its specific goals study what is aesthetic education, using the theoretical framework the German philosopher Friedrich Schiller, conceptualize what is senior and define digital inclusion. Its relevance is the increment that Beauty favors the increased awareness of self, others and their environment. The population and sample wi...

  3. Financial Inclusion in Asia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ayyagari, Meghana; Beck, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of financial development and inclusion in developing Asia using data from a wide array of sources. We show that in terms of aggregate measures of financial development, the region as a whole has superior banking sector depth compared to other developing regions; however, this masks a great deal of variation across Asian economies. Furthermore, in terms of financial inclusion, fewer than 27% of adults in developing Asia have an account in a formal financial inst...

  4. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nai; TIAN ZuoJi; LENG YingYing; WANG HuiTong; SONG FuQing; MENG JianHua

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2)branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4)phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hydrocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclusions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram.And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion,saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  5. The Political Economy of Social Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Stéphane Pallage; Désiré Vencatachellum

    2012-01-01

    We build a political economy model of state policy choice highlighting the challenges to breaking barriers to the adoption of inclusive policies in Africa. We highlight necessary and sufficient conditions for a political leader to gain from implementing exclusive policies: (i) Implementing inclusive policies must be risky; (ii) the political leader must have adequate access to an overseas’ financial safe haven as a technology for protecting the spoils from implementing exclusive policies, or ...

  6. Raman characteristics of hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon standard samples show that: (1) the Raman spectrogram of normal paraffin has very strong peaks of methyl and methylene (from 2700 cm-1 to 2970 cm-1); (2) branch methyl has the particular peak of 748 cm-1±; (3) six cyclic has the particular peak of 804 cm-1±; (4) phenyl has two particular peaks of 988 cm-1± and 3058 cm-1± and the 988 cm-1± peak is stronger than the 3058 cm-1± peak; and (5) hexene has three alkenyl spectrum peaks of 1294 cm-1±, 1635 cm-1± and 2996 cm-1±, with the 1635 cm-1± peak being the strongest, showing that the number of carbon in hy-drocarbon does not affect its Raman spectrogram, and the hydrocarbon molecular structure and base groups affect its Raman spectrogram, the same hydrocarbons (such as normal paraffin) have the same Raman spectrogram; the types (such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8) and the content of hydrocarbon in oil inclu-sions are not estimated by their characteristic Raman peaks. According to the Raman spectrograms of hydrocarbon compositions, the Raman spectrogram of hydrocarbon inclusion can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon Raman spectrogram, fluoresce Raman spectrogram, saturated hydro-carbon bitumen Raman spectrogram, bitumen Raman spectrogram, and ethane Raman spectrogram. And according to the characteristics of Raman spectrogram, hydrocarbon inclusions can be divided into five types: saturated hydrocarbon inclusion, less saturated hydrocarbon (oil or gas) inclusion, saturated hydrocarbon bitumen inclusion, bitumen inclusion, and methane water inclusion.

  7. Attitudes towards inclusive education in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gorban, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The paper looks at the factors affecting people’s attitudes towards inclusive education — a practice of educating children with special needs jointly with the «ordinary» children. The analysis uses the data from a pilot survey in four Russian regions which covered people with three different types of disability, as well as general population and shows that in general, people with different types of disability are perceiving the idea of inclusive education differently. The level of education a...

  8. Axonal inclusions in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Schultz, Christian; Paulson, Henry; Frank, Stefanie; de Vos, Rob A.; Brunt, Ewout R.; Deller, Thomas; Harm H Kampinga; Rüb, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a major pathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders including polyglutamine diseases. Aggregation of the mutated form of the disease protein ataxin-3 into neuronal nuclear inclusions is well described in the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3 or Machado–Joseph disease), although these inclusions are not thought to be directly pathogenic. Neuropil aggregates have not yet been described in SCA3. We performed a systematic immunohistoch...

  9. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  10. Membrane contactor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.; Feron, P.H.M.; Jansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a membrane contactor the membrane separation is completely integrated with an extraction or absorption operation in order to exploit the benefits of both technologies fully. Membrane contactor applications that have been developed can be found in both water and gas treatment. Several recently dev

  11. Organic compounds trapped in aqueous fluid inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, T.E.D.; George, S.C.; Lisk, M.; Quezada, R.A. [CSIRO Div. of Petroleum Resources, North Ryde (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Fluid inclusion samples from several Australian oil wells have been analysed to document the prevalence and composition of volatile hydrocarbons contained within aqueous inclusions. These results clearly establish that trapped palaeo formation waters can be a source of such compounds, which are frequently predominant in samples with a low content of oil-bearing inclusions. The apparent ``anomalous`` hydrocarbons distributions derived from aqueous inclusions contain abundant water-soluble compounds, such as benzene and toluene, which may originate from interaction of formation waters with subsurface petroleum accumulations. Aqueous inclusions are also often enriched in alkenes and oxygenated species, such as furans, which are minor constituents of petroleum but could form via secondary processes such as anoxic microbial degradation in formation waters. The co-occurrence of aqueous-derived organic compounds within samples containing oil inclusions suggest the need for caution when interpreting volatile hydrocarbon distributions. However, the presence of these components in samples from dry wells could be used as a tool to substantiate the proximity of a petroleum accumulation in an area which would otherwise be considered to have low prospectivity. (author)

  12. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Koyano, Yuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous 2D fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it has been shown [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)] that such active proteins should in- duce non-thermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxis-like drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  13. One-step extraction of functional recombinant aquaporin Z from inclusion bodies with optimal detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Hu; Li, Zhengjun; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Xin Shan; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are integral membrane channel proteins found in all kingdoms of life. The Escherichia coli aquaporin Z (AqpZ) has been shown to solely conduct water at high permeability. Functional AqpZ is generally purified from the membrane fraction. However, the quantity of the purified protein is limited. In this study, a new method is developed to achieve high yield of bioactive AqpZ protein. A mild detergent n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM) was used to solubilize the over-expressed insoluble AqpZ from inclusion bodies without a refolding process. The recovered AqpZ protein showed high water permeability comparable with AqpZ obtained from the membrane fraction. In this way, the total yield of bioactive AqpZ has been increased greatly, which will facilitate the structural and functional characterization and future applications of AqpZ. PMID:26278820

  14. One-step extraction of functional recombinant aquaporin Z from inclusion bodies with optimal detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Hu; Li, Zhengjun; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Xin Shan; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are integral membrane channel proteins found in all kingdoms of life. The Escherichia coli aquaporin Z (AqpZ) has been shown to solely conduct water at high permeability. Functional AqpZ is generally purified from the membrane fraction. However, the quantity of the purified protein is limited. In this study, a new method is developed to achieve high yield of bioactive AqpZ protein. A mild detergent n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM) was used to solubilize the over-expressed insoluble AqpZ from inclusion bodies without a refolding process. The recovered AqpZ protein showed high water permeability comparable with AqpZ obtained from the membrane fraction. In this way, the total yield of bioactive AqpZ has been increased greatly, which will facilitate the structural and functional characterization and future applications of AqpZ.

  15. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  16. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura;

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma...... membrane include ABC transporters, vacuolar (V-type) H+ pumps, and P-type pumps. These pumps all utilize ATP as a fuel for energizing pumping. This review focuses on the physiological roles of plasma membrane P-type pumps, as they represent the major ATP hydrolytic activity in this membrane....

  17. Mixed matrix membrane development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    2003-03-01

    Two types of mixed matrix membranes were developed by UOP in the late 1980s. The first type includes adsorbent polymers, such as silicalite-cellulose acetate (CA), NaX-CA, and AgX-CA mixed matrix membranes. The silicalite-CA has a CO(2)/H(2) selectivity of 5.15 +/- 2.2. In contrast, the CA membrane has a CO(2)/H(2) selectivity of 0.77 +/- 0.06. The second type of mixed matrix membrane is PEG-silicone rubber. The PEG-silicone rubber mixed matrix membrane has high selectivity for polar gases, such as SO(2), NH(3), and H(2)S.

  18. Elastic membranes in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, Joshua; Miksis, Michael; Davis, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and DNA, have finer internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically ``confined'' by another object. We study the shape stability of elastic membranes in a ``confining'' box and introduce repulsive van der Waals forces to prevent the membrane from intersecting the wall. We aim to define the parameter space associated with mitochondria-like deformations. We compare the confined to `unconfined' solutions and show how the structure and stability of the membrane shapes changes with the system parameters.

  19. Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  20. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the...... microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  1. Noncholesteatomatous Cyst of the Tympanic Membrane: A Nonpublished Entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ramírez-Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The presence of a serous cyst in the tympanic membrane implies the description of a new or unpublished entity based on our knowledge whose origin may be very unlikely explained on actual embryologic and anatomic background. Clinical Case. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman with progressing right hearing loss. Physical examination revealed a whitish, round-shaped malformation in the posterior-inferior quadrant of the right tympanic membrane. The cyst was removed with a transcanal tympanoplasty. Discussion. A thorough PubMed search that involved the terms tympanic membrane gland, epithelial inclusion cysts, mucous-secreting cyst, and tympanic cyst has shown no positive results. The first description of an unknown entity, such as a tympanic membrane serous cyst, may be the key for clinicians to start paying attention to patients who suffer from similar pathologies and may pass unnoticed because of their rarity or peculiarity.

  2. TRAINING FOR WORK IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Михайловна Ташина

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislative consolidation of inclusive education brings to the fore the problems and issues associated with the preparation in the system of higher and secondary professional education of specialists of special type, with inclusive, competent and able to work in new conditions. The analysis of the literature has shown that this problem is not given due attention, even though we already have experience of its practical solutions.The article traces the basic historical stages of formation of the inclusive education and fixing it at the legislative level in Russia and abroad. Based on the literature analysis and own experience identified and analysed the problems associated with the introduction of inclusive education in the mass of the institution. The main attention is paid to the problem of training of personnel to work in inclusive education, revealed the existing experience of such training in Shuya State branch of the Ivanovo state University. Described Hiking, proposed courses may be of interest to practitioners.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-2-21

  3. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease and juvenile parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, J D; Hanagasi, H A; Daniel, S E; Tidswell, P; Davies, S W; Lees, A J

    2000-09-01

    Juvenile parkinsonism (onset age boy who presented with asymmetric arm tremor and bulbar symptoms. His paternal great aunt had parkinsonism with onset at age 22 years. Examination revealed parkinsonism in the absence of additional neurologic signs except for delayed pupillary responses to light. He responded well to levodopa but developed motor fluctuations and disabling dyskinesias after 3 years of treatment. Following attempted withdrawal of levodopa at age 24 years, he developed severe aspiration pneumonia complicated by cardiorepiratory arrests and he died 6 months later. At autopsy, the dominant histologic feature was wide-spread neuronal hyaline intranuclear inclusions. Neuronal depletion was observed in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and, to a lesser extent, in the frontal cortex, and inclusions were particularly prominent in these areas. Inclusions were immunoreactive for ubiquitin and were typical of those seen in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), a rare, multisytem neurodegenerative disease. NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of juvenile parkinsonism. A link between NIID and hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by expanded polyglutamine tracts is supported by the similar appearance of intranuclear inclusions in both conditions and by a family history in some cases of NIID. PMID:11009211

  4. The P2 of Wheat yellow mosaic virus rearranges the endoplasmic reticulum and recruits other viral proteins into replication-associated inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liying; Andika, Ida Bagus; Shen, Jiangfeng; Yang, Di; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Viruses commonly modify host endomembranes to facilitate biological processes in the viral life cycle. Infection by viruses belonging to the genus Bymovirus (family Potyviridae) has long been known to induce the formation of large membranous inclusion bodies in host cells, but their assembly and biological roles are still unclear. Immunoelectron microscopy of cells infected with the bymovirus Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) showed that P1, P2 and P3 are the major viral protein constituents of the membranous inclusions, whereas NIa-Pro (nuclear inclusion-a protease) and VPg (viral protein genome-linked) are probable minor components. P1, P2 and P3 associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but only P2 was able to rearrange ER and form large aggregate structures. Bioinformatic analyses and chemical experiments showed that P2 is an integral membrane protein and depends on the active secretory pathway to form aggregates of ER membranes. In planta and in vitro assays demonstrated that P2 interacts with P1, P3, NIa-Pro or VPg and recruits these proteins into the aggregates. In vivo RNA labelling using WYMV-infected wheat protoplasts showed that the synthesis of viral RNAs occurs in the P2-associated inclusions. Our results suggest that P2 plays a major role in the formation of membranous compartments that house the genomic replication of WYMV.

  5. Nafion®/ODF-silica composite membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Treekamol, Yaowapa

    2014-01-01

    A series of composite membranes were prepared by dispersing fluorinated polyoxadiazole oligomer (ODF)-functionalized silica nanoparticles in a Nafion matrix. Both melt-extrusion and solvent casting processes were explored. Ion exchange capacity, conductivity, water uptake and dimensional stability, thermal stability and morphology were characterized. The inclusion of functionalized nanoparticles proved advantageous, mainly due to a physical crosslinking effect and better water retention, with functionalized nanoparticles performing better than the pristine silica particles. For the same filler loading, better nanoparticle dispersion was achieved for solvent-cast membranes, resulting in higher proton conductivity. Filler agglomeration, however,was more severe for solvent-castmembranes at loadings beyond 5wt.%. The composite membranes showed excellent thermal stability, allowing for operation in medium temperature PEM fuel cells. Fuel cell performance of the compositemembranesdecreaseswithdecreasing relativehumidity, but goodperformance values are still obtained at 34% RHand 90 °C,with the best results obtained for solvent castmembranes loaded with 10 wt.% ODF-functionalized silica. Hydrogen crossover of the composite membranes is higher than that forpureNafion membranes,possiblydue toporosityresulting fromsuboptimalparticle- matrixcompatibility. © 2013 Crown Copyright and Elsevier BV. All rights reserved.

  6. Emulsification using microporous membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran T. Vladisavljević

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane emulsification is a process of injecting a pure dispersed phase or pre-emulsion through a microporous membrane into the continuous phase. As a result of the immiscibility of the two phases, droplets of the dispersed phase are formed at the outlets of membrane pores. The droplets formed in the process are removed from the membrane surface by applying cross-flow or stirring of the continuous phase or using a dynamic (rotating or vibrating membrane. The most commonly used membrane for emulsification is the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG membrane, fabricated through spinodal decomposition in a melt consisting of Japanese volcanic ash (Shirasu, boric acid and calcium carbonate. Microsieve membranes are increasingly popular as an alternative to highly tortuous glass and ceramic membranes. Microsieves are usually fabricated from nickel by photolithography and electroplating or they can be manufactured from silicon nitride via Reactive Ion Etching (RIE. An advantage of microsieves compared to the SPG membrane is in much higher transmembrane fluxes and higher tolerance to fouling by the emulsion ingredients due to the existence of short, straight through pores. Unlike conventional emulsification devices such as high-pressure valve homogenisers and rotor-stator devices, membrane emulsification devices permit a precise control over the mean pore size over a wide range and during the process insignificant amount of energy is dissipated as heat. The drop size is primarily determined by the pore size, but it depends also on other parameters, such as membrane wettability, emulsion formulation, shear stress on the membrane surface, transmembrane pressure, etc.

  7. Leadership for Inclusion: Conceptualising and Enacting Inclusion in Integrated Schools in a Troubled Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Claire; London, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion is increasingly understood as an educational reform that responds to the diversity of all learners, challenging the marginalisation, exclusion and underachievement which may result from all forms of "difference". Leadership for inclusion is conceptualised here as driving a constant struggle to create shared meanings of…

  8. Exploring the Landscape of Inclusion: Profiles of Inclusive versus Segregated School Districts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Susan Unok; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Bartz, Jody Marie

    2014-01-01

    Although inclusive education has been increasing in frequency for students with disabilities in the United States, for many students, the opportunity to be educated with their peers without disabilities continues to be out of reach despite decades of efforts by those promoting the vision of inclusion. This exploratory case study used interviews…

  9. Inclusive Education: Identifying Teachers' Strategies for Coping with Perceived Stressors in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenreed, Darlene

    2011-01-01

    This research replicates the study conducted by Forlin (2001) in Churchlands, Western Australia. Forlin's Inclusive Education "Teacher Stress and Coping Questionnaire" was adapted from the original questionnaire to more accurately reflect the language and practice of inclusion in Ontario. The purpose of this portion of the study was to determine…

  10. When Inclusion Is Innovation: An Examination of Administrator Perspectives on Inclusion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2011-01-01

    This article examines administrator perspectives of innovative services for the inclusion of young children with disabilities in regular preschool classrooms in China. Twelve directors from 12 pilot inclusion preschools in Beijing participated in this study. Qualitative interview results revealed the following subthemes: definition, advocacy,…

  11. Insights into Inclusive Education through a Small Finnish Case Study of an Inclusive School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Jane Mary; Tsokova, Diana; Takkunen, Ulla-Maija

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to present data and discussion arising from a case study of a school in Finland renowned for its practice in the inclusion of learners with additional support requirements due to cognitive and physical disabilities. It aims to establish how the school staff understand their practice with inclusion through day-to-day professional…

  12. An Arendtian Perspective on Inclusive Education: Towards a Reimagined Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education currently appears to be undergoing a crisis and re-examination. This paper presents a new approach to thinking about inclusiveness in the school context. Many positions within inclusive education seem to take political, social and ethical perspectives as a starting point, which has allowed inclusive movements and initiatives…

  13. 26 CFR 26.2642-5 - Finality of inclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finality of inclusion ratio. 26.2642-5 Section...-5 Finality of inclusion ratio. (a) Direct skips. The inclusion ratio applicable to a direct skip...) Other GSTs. With respect to taxable distributions and taxable terminations, the inclusion ratio for...

  14. Language and Social Inclusion: Unexplored Aspects of Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Simon; Bradshaw, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Social inclusion policy in Australia has largely ignored key issues of communication for linguistic minorities, across communities and with the mainstream community. In the (now disbanded) Social Inclusion Board's reports (e.g., Social Inclusion Unit, 2009), the emphasis is on the economic aspects of inclusion, while little attention has been…

  15. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Attitudes Towards Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, Isabel; Woronko, Dagmara; Zaretsky, Hayley

    2014-01-01

    This study responds to a call for research into existing teacher-education programmes and their impact on teacher candidates' attitudes. An inclusive education course that examined the difference between "soft inclusion" (inclusion which addresses the issue of place rather than substance of learning) and genuine inclusion was used…

  16. Decoding the matrix: Coincident membranes on the plane wave

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, R; Bousso, Raphael; Mints, Aleksey L.

    2006-01-01

    At the core of nonperturbative theories of quantum gravity lies the holographic encoding of bulk data in large matrices. At present this mapping is poorly understood. The plane wave matrix model provides a laboratory for isolating aspects of this problem in a controlled setting. At large boosts, configurations of concentric membranes become superselection sectors, whose exact spectra are known. From the bulk point of view one expects product states of individual membranes to be contained within the full spectrum. However, for non-BPS states this inclusion relation is obscured by Gauss law constraints. Its validity rests on nontrivial relations in representation theory, which we identify and verify by explicit computation.

  17. On Ternary Inclusion-Exclusion Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, Gennady

    2010-01-01

    Taking a combinatorial point of view on cyclotomic polynomials leads to a larger class of polynomials we shall call the inclusion-exclusion polynomials. This gives a more appropriate setting for certain types of questions about the coefficients of these polynomials. After establishing some basic properties of inclusion-exclusion polynomials we turn to a detailed study of the structure of ternary inclusion-exclusion polynomials. The latter subclass is exemplified by cyclotomic polynomials $\\Phi_{pqr}$, where $p

  18. Inclusion probability with dropout: an operational formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F

    2015-05-01

    In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications.

  19. Inclusive Education for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki Balakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces briefly the evolution of Inclusive Education for students with special education needs (SEN and discusses some significant challenges in its implementation. While the aim of Inclusive Education is to include all children with SEN in mainstream schools, there are many challenges that have to be overcome for their education to be meaningful. This paper focuses primarily on the inclusion of students with intellectual disability, since they are likely to be the largest number with special education needs in ‘inclusive’ schools. It offers the outline of a curriculum that may be derived from the mainstream one in use, and suggests a model that emphasises the replacement of age / grade placement, as is the present practice, with experience and maturity underpinning learning in persons with intellectual disability. The proposed model needs, of course, to be field-tested.doi 10.5463/DCID.v23i2.111

  20. Many diversity for an inclusive perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Canevaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Canevaro’s paper to the congress: Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti. Approcci culturali, questioni educative, prospettive inclusive. (Students with disabilities, children of migrants: Cultural approaches, educational questions, inclusive perspectives Bologna, 29 ottober 2010, Cappella Farnese, Comune di Bologna. The congress is part of a study and research project “Alunni con disabilità, figli di migranti” (Students with disabilities, children of migrants run by Bologna City Council , Education Department, and the University of Bologna, Education Faculty. Coordinator: Roberta Caldin.

  1. THE INTERACTION PROBLEM BETWEEN THE ELASTIC LINE INCLUSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶昉敏; 张明焕; 汤任基

    2002-01-01

    Using the engineering model of elastic line inclusion and the basic solutions of a single inclusion, the interaction problem between line inclusions in an elastic solid was investigated. A set of standard Cauchy-type singular equations of the problem was presented. The stress intensity factors at points of inclusions and the interface stresses of two sides of the inclusion were calculated. Several numerical examples were given. The results could be regarded as a reference to engineering.

  2. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-22

    The present application offers a solution to the current problems associated with recovery and recycling of precious metals from scrap material, discard articles, and other items comprising one or more precious metals. The solution is premised on a microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  3. Polyarylether composition and membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Joyce; Brunelle, Daniel Joseph; Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth; Moore, David Roger; Stone, Joshua James; Zhou, Hongyi; Suriano, Joseph Anthony

    2010-11-09

    A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

  4. Solid inclusion thermobarometry under fire: Heating experiments on encapsulated quartz inclusions in garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Kyle T.; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Bodnar, Robert J.; Darling, Robert S.

    2016-04-01

    Internal pressures of mineral inclusions (Pincl) result from differences in elastic properties of the inclusion mineral and its host mineral. Recent studies utilize pressure-sensitive Raman spectroscopic waveshifts to determine the retained Pincl and apply elastic theory to estimate pressure (or temperature) conditions of entrapment. Quartz inclusions are commonly utilized because quartz is a "soft," compressible mineral that is ubiquitous as an inclusion phase in continental metamorphic rocks. Garnet is a commonly used host because it is rigid and isotropic. Quartz inclusions trapped in garnet at high-P, low-T conditions will retain high Pincl; whereas those trapped at low-P, high-T conditions yield negative waveshifts equating to "negative" pressure, or net tensile stress on the inclusion. While Pincl can be accurately calculated from Raman data, barometry relies also upon the quality of the elastic model, which fundamentally depends on the quality of the P ‑V ‑T equations of state (EOS) applied. For quartz, EOS modeling is challenging due to the spontaneous strain that develops close to the lambda transition. In this study we conduct heating experiments on quartz inclusions in garnet from natural samples to assess the response of inclusion pressure to varying temperature (at ambient external pressure), and to evaluate predictions based on commonly applied EOS. Experiments were conducted on two quartz standards (a Herkimer "diamond" and Brazillian quartz) and four completely encapsulated inclusions of quartz in garnet from three tectonically diverse terranes, including: (i) a dilated quartz inclusion (Pincl = -4.3 kbar) from Port Leyden, Adirondack Mountains, New York, (ii) a Barrovian-sequence quartz inclusion from northern Scotland (Pincl = 3.1 kbar), and (iii) two high-pressure (blueschist) quartz inclusions from Sifnos, Greece (Pincl = 7.7 and 8.9 kbar). Standards were heated in 25 ° C increments with smaller increments near the lambda transition. Quartz

  5. Proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Taro; Nagai, Yuhei; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kimura, Katsuki; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the details of proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating real municipal wastewater were investigated. Two separate pilot-scale MBRs were continuously operated under significantly different operating conditions; one MBR was a submerged type whereas the other was a side-stream type. The submerged and side-stream MBRs were operated for 20 and 10 days, respectively. At the end of continuous operation, the foulants were extracted from the fouled membranes. The proteins contained in the extracted foulants were enriched by using the combination of crude concentration with an ultrafiltration membrane and trichloroacetic acid precipitation, and then separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis of the proteins which formed intensive spots on the 2D-PAGE gels allowed us to partially identify one protein (OmpA family protein originated from genus Brevundimonas or Riemerella anatipestifer) from the foulant obtained from the submerged MBR, and two proteins (OprD and OprF originated from genus Pseudomonas) from that obtained from the side-stream MBR. Despite the significant difference in operating conditions of the two MBRs, all proteins identified in this study belong to β-barrel protein. These findings strongly suggest the importance of β-barrel proteins in developing membrane fouling in MBRs.

  6. Anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  7. Drugging Membrane Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Flynn, Aaron D

    2016-07-11

    The majority of therapeutics target membrane proteins, accessible on the surface of cells, to alter cellular signaling. Cells use membrane proteins to transduce signals into cells, transport ions and molecules, bind cells to a surface or substrate, and catalyze reactions. Newly devised technologies allow us to drug conventionally "undruggable" regions of membrane proteins, enabling modulation of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this review, we survey the state of the art of high-throughput screening and rational design in drug discovery, and we evaluate the advances in biological understanding and technological capacity that will drive pharmacotherapy forward against unorthodox membrane protein targets. PMID:26863923

  8. How a membrane agent buys goods in a membrane store

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rudolf Freund; Marion Oswald; Thomas Schirk

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider a specific model of membrane systems, i.e. membrane systems with attributes. In these systems, the information is placed at the membranes in form of attributes, no objects are considered inside the membranes except for other membranes. The membrane system with attributes evolves according to rules that compute new values for the attributes from the attributes assigned to the membranes involved in the rule. The model of membrane systems with attributes allows us to specify business transactions in a precise way and to simulate different models for such transactions with a suitable tool for membrane systems with attributes.

  9. When social inclusion is not enough: Implicit expectations of extreme inclusion in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Riva, Paolo; Preti, Emanuele; Cabrino, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) might feel rejected even when socially included by others. A psychological mechanism accounting for this response bias could be that objective social inclusion violates BPD patients' underlying implicit needs of "extreme" inclusion. Thus, this study investigated whether, during interpersonal exchanges, BPD patients report more rejection-related negative emotions and less feelings of social connection than controls unless they are faced with conditions of extreme social inclusion. Sixty-one BPD patients and 61 healthy controls completed a modified Cyberball paradigm. They were randomly assigned to a condition of ostracism, social inclusion, or overinclusion (a proxy for extreme social inclusion). They then rated their emotional states and feelings of social connection immediately and 20 min after the game. BPD patients reported greater levels of negative emotions than controls in the ostracism and the inclusion conditions, but not when overincluded. Furthermore, only for BPD participants was overinclusion associated with experiencing less negative emotions than the ostracism condition. However, BPD patients reported lower feelings of social connection than controls in any experimental situation. Thus, in BPD, a laboratory condition of "overinclusion" is associated with a reduction of negative emotions to levels comparable to those of control participants, but not with similar degrees of social connection. These results suggest that for BPD patients, even "including contexts" activate feelings of rejection. Their implicit expectations of idealized interpersonal inclusion may nullify the opportunity of experiencing "real" social connection and explain their distorted subjective experiences of rejection.

  10. When social inclusion is not enough: Implicit expectations of extreme inclusion in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Riva, Paolo; Preti, Emanuele; Cabrino, Chiara; Marchesi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) might feel rejected even when socially included by others. A psychological mechanism accounting for this response bias could be that objective social inclusion violates BPD patients' underlying implicit needs of "extreme" inclusion. Thus, this study investigated whether, during interpersonal exchanges, BPD patients report more rejection-related negative emotions and less feelings of social connection than controls unless they are faced with conditions of extreme social inclusion. Sixty-one BPD patients and 61 healthy controls completed a modified Cyberball paradigm. They were randomly assigned to a condition of ostracism, social inclusion, or overinclusion (a proxy for extreme social inclusion). They then rated their emotional states and feelings of social connection immediately and 20 min after the game. BPD patients reported greater levels of negative emotions than controls in the ostracism and the inclusion conditions, but not when overincluded. Furthermore, only for BPD participants was overinclusion associated with experiencing less negative emotions than the ostracism condition. However, BPD patients reported lower feelings of social connection than controls in any experimental situation. Thus, in BPD, a laboratory condition of "overinclusion" is associated with a reduction of negative emotions to levels comparable to those of control participants, but not with similar degrees of social connection. These results suggest that for BPD patients, even "including contexts" activate feelings of rejection. Their implicit expectations of idealized interpersonal inclusion may nullify the opportunity of experiencing "real" social connection and explain their distorted subjective experiences of rejection. PMID:26147068

  11. Liposomes incorporating cyclodextrin-drug inclusion complexes: Current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Riham; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie; Charcosset, Catherine; Auezova, Lizette

    2015-09-20

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides, consisting of glucopyranose units, which are able to form host-guest inclusion complexes with lipophilic molecules. The ability of CD to increase drug solubility may be used to increase drug entrapment in the aqueous compartment of liposomes and liposomes can protect CD/drug inclusion complexes until drug release. Liposomes are phospholipid vesicles composed of lipid bilayers enclosing one or more aqueous compartments. They have been widely used as safe and effective carriers for both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. However, lipophilic drugs incorporated in the membrane bilayers can be rapidly released, which limits the effectiveness of this drug delivery system. The coupling of both delivery systems by encapsulating CD/drug inclusion complex into liposomes is proposed to circumvent the drawbacks of each separate system. Here, we review the literature regarding the encapsulation of CD/drug inclusion complex into conventional, deformable and double loaded liposomes. The review highlights the characteristics of these systems and presents the advantages and disadvantages of each one. PMID:26050903

  12. Inclusive Schooling: Are We There yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causton, Julie; Theoharis, George

    2013-01-01

    Today, when trying to find a way to an unfamiliar destination, many rely on global positioning systems, or GPS technology. "Recalibrating" and "Whenever possible make a legal U-turn" are now ubiquitous phrases in the audio backdrop to many car trips. One can think about modern-day inclusive education in similar terms. The programming decisions…

  13. Ensemble. Mobile Learning to Promote Social Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bonaiuti; Ranieri, M.; P. Ravotto

    2010-01-01

    Final English Booklet of Ensemble project. Mobile learning, or m-learning, is the new term that is gaining ground in the educational technology vocabulary. The project has tried to find out how mobile devices could be integrated into learning settings to improve social inclusion.

  14. Making Campuses More Inclusive of Transgender Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemyn, Brett Genny

    2005-01-01

    This article examines a number of areas of campus life where transgender students experience discrimination because of gender-exclusive policies and practices: health care, residence halls, bathrooms, locker rooms, records and documents, public inclusion, and programming, training, and support. The specific obstacles faced by transgender students…

  15. Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

  16. Inclusive design: Bridging theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, A.H.M.; Neerincx, M.A.; Jong, J.G.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Large groups in society lack the necessary skills to be sufficiently self-reliant and are in need of personal assistance. These groups could be supported by information and information technology (ICT), but only if this technology is designed to fit their (cognitive) abilities. Inclusive design theo

  17. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  18. Coupling independent walkers and the inclusion process

    OpenAIRE

    Opoku, Alex; Redig, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We show propagation of local equilibrium for the symmetric inclusion process (SIP) after diffusive rescaling of space and time, as well as the local equilibrium property of the non-equilibrium steady state in the boundary driven SIP. The main tool is self-duality and a coupling between $n$ SIP particles and $n$ independent random walkers.

  19. On the Dirt Road to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education in the Republic of South Africa has been codified and written down in the form of White Papers. From the legislative point of view, the situation is clear. The reality however shows that the implementation of the law is still at its infancy. Students with visual impairments are practically confined to being educated in…

  20. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae), the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), and the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and.... The Banks believe that requiring such clauses places them at a competitive disadvantage in...

  1. Adulthood and mental illness in full inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Dieter Stobäus

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reweaves the information included in Bins’ Master Dissertation discussions with his guide Stobäus and with Mosquera, centered in interfaces between Special Education and Full Inclusion, more in direction of the constitution of adult with mental deficiency and the relationship with learning, at the modality of teaching at Adolescent and Adult Education.

  2. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  3. Target asymmetry in inclusive photoproduction of pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the target asymmetry in inclusive pion photoproduction in the photon fragmentation region using a helicity dependent Mueller-Regge model, in which the Regge cut contributions are also included. We obtained predictions for the t-dependence and the magnitude of the target asymmetry. (orig.)

  4. Advances in Schoolwide Inclusive School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights three significant advances in schoolwide inclusive school reform and suggests three next steps to improve educational outcomes for "all" students, particularly for students for whom typical instruction is not effective. Significant advances are as follows: (a) a multi-tiered system of support (MTSS) with embedded…

  5. Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

  6. Large inclusion cyst complicating female genital mutilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziem AbdAllah Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an inclusion cyst, resulting from female genital mutilation (FGM, which enlarged to such a degree that it restricted the patient’s movement. This report aims to raise the awareness of the medical community to the dangers that arise from a common remote complication of FGM.

  7. Educational Technology for the Inclusive Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcic, Andreja Istenic

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates the development of an educational technology curriculum aimed at pre-service, primary education and undergraduates; the focus is on the incorporation of ICT competences for inclusive education. The framework was the introduction of SEVERI e-learning environment in Slovenian schools. Students were able to monitor…

  8. Inclusive quasielastic ν reaction in 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the inclusive quasielastic νμ cross sections in 16O. The calculations are done in the Local Density Approximation(LDA) and take into account Pauli blocking, Fermi motion and the effect of renormalization of weak coupling constants in the nuclear medium

  9. Everyday Inclusive Web Design: An Activity Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Website accessibility is a problem that affects millions of people with disabilities. While most current accessibility initiatives target government or commercial sites, a growing segment of online content is being created by non-professionals. This content is often inaccessible to users with disabilities. Everyday inclusive Web…

  10. Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    worldwide on 'initiatives by governments', this interest has centred on the school environment and institutions of higher education. Thus, despite increasing recognition of the significance of preschool and after-school-care, inclusion in these environments remains peripheral to the main debate....

  11. Economic and Demographic Predictors of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Meghan E.; Causton-Theoharis, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated economic and demographic predictors of levels of inclusion of students with disabilities in 129 school districts. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to address the following research questions: (a) Is there a relationship between economic factors and percentage of highly included students with disabilities in general…

  12. What is Inclusive Growth? An Alternative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Suryanarayana

    2013-01-01

    Ever since UNDP started advocating for ?inclusive growth?, developing countries have set it as an avowed goal of their long-term strategies. However, there is no universally accepted definition of the concept or how to measure it, which are important considerations for policy formulation as well as evaluation. (?)

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  14. Inclusive education in schools in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Callado Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the classroom in which they have been integrated in order to cover any special educational needs. Our research aims to find out if schools situated in rural areas follow this principle and, once it has been put into practice, what strategies are being used. To this end, we designed a questionnaire addressed to Infant and Primary school teachers in the Sierra Sur area in the province of Jaén, in an agricultural context where most of the population live on olive picking and the cultivation of olive groves. Given the extension of the area, our research concentrated on schools situated in urban nuclei with a population of less than one thousand five hundred inhabitants. The results obtained demonstrate that rural areas do not take full advantage of the context they are in to favour inclusion processes and continue to develop proposals that are merely integrative.

  15. Inclusion and Participation: Working with the Tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Calder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Democracy is crucially about inclusion: a theory of democracy must account for who is to be included in the democratic process, how, and on what terms. Inclusion, if conceived democratically, is fraught with tensions. This article identifies three such tensions, arising respectively in: (i the inauguration of the democratic public; (ii enabling equal participation; and (iii the relationship between instrumental and non-instrumental accounts of democracy’s value. In each case, I argue, rather than seeking somehow to dissolve or avoid such tensions, theories of democracy should allow us to live with their implications reflexively: to work with them. Such tensions are counter-democratic to the extent that they derail what Nancy Fraser calls “participatory parity,” under which citizens count as “full partners in social interaction.” But the extent to which they do this is not itself dependent on points of paradox in the very idea of inclusion. Such parity relies on complex factors, social and economic, which democratic institutions and procedures will not by themselves address. To achieve full democratic inclusion we must already have addressed such factors; no account of democracy itself, however finely-tuned, will do this.

  16. Diversity and Inclusion in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriwskyj, A.

    2010-01-01

    The emphasis on inclusion of diverse learners presents challenges to early-years teachers, particularly those whose understandings have been framed by notions of school readiness and of special education for children with disabilities. This mixed-method study of children and teachers in early-years classes across three school sites in Australia…

  17. Inclusion in PK-12: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcic, Svjetlana

    2009-01-01

    With an aim to investigate inclusion across borders, quantitative and qualitative data were examined that came from 18 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cyprus, Finland, France, Iceland, India, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. Four themes emerged in this study: (1) concerns…

  18. Understanding Teachers' Concerns about Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monika; Das, Ajay; Sharma, Sushama; Tiwari, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the concerns of regular elementary school teachers in Gurgaon, India, in order to work with students with disabilities in inclusive education settings. A total of 175 teachers responded to a two-part questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The data indicated that the teachers in Gurgaon,…

  19. Inclusive Education--Empirical Experience from Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Jasmina; Macesic-Petrovic, Dragana

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive study finds out the problems most frequently facing the children with special needs in regular schooling. The sample included 500 teachers in elementary schools from Serbia. The results point out the problems in inclusive education. Most educational problems occur in relations and communications with their peers in typical…

  20. Inclusive single muon production in D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, A.K.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias e Cosmologia; D0 Collaboration

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary cross section measurements from the D0 experiment at Fermilab for the inclusive production of single muons in proton- antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV are presented. It is found that the experimental results are consistent with those obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation using N.L.O. calculations from ISAJET.

  1. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.

    2013-10-16

    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder.

  2. Recent Developments in Inclusive Education in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines recent developments in Malta's inclusive education policy, discourse, and practice, noting the influence of United Nations policies, local political developments, parent associations, a National Commission for Persons with Disabilities, and a nongovernmental organization for persons with developmental disabilities. Discusses the…

  3. Inclusive polarization measurements at the ZGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne polarized beam provides a unique facility for the study of polarization in multi-particle reactions and we are interested in exploring the possibilities for experiments in this area of research. There is very little that can be said about polarization inclusive processes without a model. The best known model, the triple Regge model, is considered in the next section

  4. INDIVIDUALLY ADAPTED CURRICULUM FOR INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Alamdar oglu Suleymanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyse and discuss, with regard tothe Curriculum Relation Model proposed by Berit Johnsen, how to plan a meaningful and individually adapted curriculum related to class curriculum as a means to realise the international principle of inclusive education.Methods. The methods involve scientific and pedagogical analyses of one of the recent and sophisticated theories relating to the best model of an adapted curriculum and literature review for the international principle of inclusive education.Results. Detailed investigation of Curriculum Relation Model reveals that this model involves all relevant aspects which should be taken into consideration when curriculum needs adaptation within inclusive education setting all over the world. An extension of the model with all the relevant aspects (the pupil/s, educational intentions, educational content, methods and organisation, assessment, communication, care and context/frame factors makes it an ideal tool for a teacher/special needs educator to plan meaningful and individually adapted curriculum with a full relation to class curriculum. As for the international principle of inclusive education, literature review suggest that there are several international declarations and other relevant documents proposed by the United Nations regarding the rights of children with special needs to quality education without being exposed to any kinds of discrimination.Scientific novelty. Scientific novelty of the study involves a fresh innovation in the sphere of curriculum development which still keeps its importance urgency in the countries initiating reforms in education.Practical significance. Currently, inclusive education is an intensively discussed issue almost in all the countries. Although inclusive education has a history of couple of decades, some countries are at the beginning of inclusive education initiation. This is a point they come across quite a lot

  5. Rigid proteins and softening of biological membranes—with application to HIV-induced cell membrane softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Himani; Zelisko, Matthew; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    A key step in the HIV-infection process is the fusion of the virion membrane with the target cell membrane and the concomitant transfer of the viral RNA. Experimental evidence suggests that the fusion is preceded by considerable elastic softening of the cell membranes due to the insertion of fusion peptide in the membrane. What are the mechanisms underpinning the elastic softening of the membrane upon peptide insertion? A broader question may be posed: insertion of rigid proteins in soft membranes ought to stiffen the membranes not soften them. However, experimental observations perplexingly appear to show that rigid proteins may either soften or harden membranes even though conventional wisdom only suggests stiffening. In this work, we argue that regarding proteins as merely non-specific rigid inclusions is flawed, and each protein has a unique mechanical signature dictated by its specific interfacial coupling to the surrounding membrane. Predicated on this hypothesis, we have carried out atomistic simulations to investigate peptide-membrane interactions. Together with a continuum model, we reconcile contrasting experimental data in the literature including the case of HIV-fusion peptide induced softening. We conclude that the structural rearrangements of the lipids around the inclusions cause the softening or stiffening of the biological membranes.

  6. Membrane capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an ion-removal process based on applying an electrical potential difference across an aqueous solution which flows in between oppositely placed porous electrodes, in front of which ion-exchange membranes are positioned. Due to the applied potential, ions ar

  7. Stability of charged membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Bensimon, D; David, F.; Leibler, S.; Pumir, A.

    1990-01-01

    The electrostatic contribution to the bending elastic modulus of charged phospholipid bilayers in an ionic solution is computed. It is found to be the same for conducting and non-conducting membranes and is always stabilizing. This stability for free membranes is shown to be a simple consequence of the vanishing of the physical surface tension.

  8. Membrane projection lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  9. Ion-conducting membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masel, Richard L.; Chen, Qingmei; Liu, Zengcai; Kutz, Robert

    2016-06-21

    An ion conducting polymeric composition mixture comprises a copolymer of styrene and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. R.sub.s is selected from the group consisting of imidazoliums and pyridiniums. The composition contains 10%-90% by weight of vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s. The composition can further comprise a polyolefin comprising substituted polyolefins, a polymer comprising cyclic amine groups, a polymer comprising at least one of a phenylene group and a phenyl group, a polyamide, and/or the reaction product of a constituent having two carbon-carbon double bonds. The composition can be in the form of a membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  10. Development of hybride membrane materials (mixed matrix membranes)

    OpenAIRE

    Borge, Tone

    2010-01-01

    The existence of an upper bound for the separation performance of polymeric membranes has motivated the development of new membrane materials with improved separation performance. Inorganic porous membranes like carbon molecular sieve (CMS) or zeolites have superior separation performance compared to polymeric membranes, but a challenging and costly manufacturing process have limited the commercialization of these membranes so far. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) consisting of porous inorganic ...

  11. A inclusão digital como fator significativo para a inclusão social

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Carlo; Wataya, Roberto Sussumu; Coelho, Adriano de Sales

    2013-01-01

    O artigo trata da importância da inclusão digital no processo da inclusão social, discute o tema da inclusão social e ainda aborda como a tecnologia e seus avanços estão presentes na vida do cidadão, evidenciando que a acessibilidade a tecnologia e a internet facilitam a comunicação, conhecimento, entretenimento, informação, cultura, lazer e até mesmo a inclusão de indivíduos no meio social. Evidencia as características e funções da tecnologia como ferramentas essenciais que podem ser decisiv...

  12. Inclusion and Bubble in Steel--A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2006-01-01

    The type, morphology and sources of inclusion in steels, including indigenous and exogenous inclusions, were discussed and reviewed. Indigenous inclusions are deoxidation products or inclusions precipitated during cooling and solidification of steel. Exogenous inclusions arise primarily from the incidental chemical (reoxidation) and mechanical interaction of liquid steel with its surroundings (slag entrainment and erosion of lining refractory). Types and causes for the nozzle clogging were also summarized. Reasons for bubble formation and bubble size distribution in steels were discussed thereafter. Finally, morphology and causes of inclusion-related defects in continuously cast steel products were reviewed, such as flange cracking in cans, slag spots and line defects on strips.

  13. Novel tubular inclusions in the bone marrow in multiple sclerosis: an ultrastructural study of early autopsy material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J; Dermott, E

    1981-01-01

    Samples of bone marrow taken at early autopsy from patients who died with multiple sclerosis and from control cases, were examined ultrastructurally with the aim of detecting any infectious agents which might be present. No recognizable virus or mycoplasma was detected. However, rare bizarre cellular inclusions were found in 2 cases. The inclusions which are unlike anything previously described in MS consisted of fine (ca 17 nm) sinuous tubules occasionally showing dilated discoid ends. They occurred together with fragmentary electron opaque material in large membrane bound vacuoles in unidentified cells. Despite superficial resemblance to some viral nucleocapsids it is considered more likely that they have been formed as a result of degenerative phagocytic or autolytic activity. The specificity or otherwise of these inclusions to MS remains to be demonstrated. PMID:6939232

  14. Determinants of financial inclusion in Mexico based on the 2012 National Financial Inclusion Survey (ENIF)

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Pena; Carmen Hoyo; David Tuesta

    2014-01-01

    Even though 97% of the population in Mexico has at least one access point into the financial system, only 38% has some sort of saving or credit product in a formal financial institution. These figures show the insufficient use of the formal financial system and highlight the importance of analysing the determinant factors for financial inclusion in Mexico in more depth. This paper explores the factors determining financial inclusion in Mexico from the demand side, based on information from th...

  15. When Social Inclusion Is Not Enough: Implicit Expectations of Extreme Inclusion in Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    De Panfilis, C; Riva, P; Preti, E; Cabrino, C; C. Marchesi

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) might feel rejected even when socially included by others. A psychological mechanism accounting for this response bias could be that objective social inclusion violates BPD patients' underlying implicit needs of "extreme" inclusion. Thus, this study investigated whether, during interpersonal exchanges, BPD patients report more rejection-related negative emotions and less feelings of social connection than...

  16. Inclusive Business – What It Is All About? Managing Inclusive Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tea Golja; Samanta Požega

    2012-01-01

    Following the challenges we face today, the inclusive business models are future business models through which the Millennium Development Goals can be fostered and strengthen. These are the models which, through their strategic orientation on inclusivity, include low income communities in their value chain. This can be done through combining variety of strategies which all have two common points – recognition of stakeholders and adjustment of the product to the target market. The paper presen...

  17. FOSTERING INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN TEACHER EDUCATION: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN IMPLEMENTING INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN INDIAN SCENARIO

    OpenAIRE

    SHAZLI HASAN KHAN

    2012-01-01

    India is the fourth largest economy of the world in terms of purchasing power. Despite this improvement, more than 460 million people in India live in abject poverty. The reciprocity of poverty producing disability, and disability resulting in poverty has created new challenges for the implementation of inclusive education in India. The Constitution of India ensures equality, freedom, justice and dignity of all individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society for all including perso...

  18. Origins of Majoritic Inclusions in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseeva, K.; Wood, B. J.; Ghosh, S. K.; Stachel, T.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral inclusions in diamonds are the only available samples from the transition zone and the lower mantle. The dominant type of inclusions for the range of transition zone (410-660 km) pressures is majoritic garnet, a high-pressure Si-rich tetragonal garnet which crystallises when pyroxene breaks down and dissolves in the garnet structure. Two majoritic garnet endmembers: Na2MgSi5O12 and Mg4Si4O12 can be distinguished for eclogitic and peridotitic parageneses, respectively. In our recent study [1] we used these idealised substitutions to show that the majority of majoritic garnets reported in the literature belong to neither eclogitic nor peridotitic lithologies and rather crystallised from a wide range of intermediate compositions, referred to as pyroxenites [1]. Here we elaborate on the origin and composition of the pyroxenite lithology. According to Si geobarometry most majoritic garnet inclusions formed at mantle transition zone pressures, predominantly within the stability field of clinopyroxene + garnet. Using experimental partition coefficients for Na, Al, Mg and Fe between garnet and clinopyroxene, we have calculated the compositions of clinopyroxene in equilibrium with majoritic garnet, which allows us to estimate the locus of possible bulk rock compositions. These lie in the field of upper mantle pyroxenites as defined by Hirschmann and Stolper [2]. We also find that occasional clinopyroxene inclusions in diamond actually coexisting with majoritic garnet inclusions are all close in composition to those predicted by our study. Additionally, we show experimentally that the pyroxenite-diamond association is probably a consequence of the interaction between basaltic and peridotitic compositions in the presence of carbonate melt and that layering of pyroxenites is a natural consequence of this interaction. Reduction of carbonate to carbon at high pressures is responsible for the genetic connection between pyroxenite and diamond and the abundance of

  19. Ordered ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.A.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Zeltner, W.A.

    1991-10-01

    Ceramic membranes have been formed from colloidal sols coated on porous clay supports. These supported membranes have been characterized in terms of their permeabilities and permselectivities to various aqueous test solutions. The thermal stabilities and pore structures of these membranes have been characterized by preparing unsupported membranes of the correpsonding material and performing N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and X-ray diffraction studies on these membranes. To date, membranes have been prepared from a variety of oxides, including TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as Zr-, Fe-, and Nb-doped TiO{sub 2}. In many of these membranes pore diameters are less than 2 nm, while in others the pore diameters are between 3 and 5 nm. Procedures for fabricating porous clay supports with reproducible permeabilities for pure water are also discussed. 30 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequier, Laurance; Horton, Stephen B; McMullan, D Michael; Bartlett, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is made of a number of components that have been customized to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery in patients with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure for a prolonged period of time (days to weeks). A standard extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit consists of a mechanical blood pump, gas-exchange device, and a heat exchanger all connected together with circuit tubing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits can vary from simple to complex and may include a variety of blood flow and pressure monitors, continuous oxyhemoglobin saturation monitors, circuit access sites, and a bridge connecting the venous access and arterial infusion limbs of the circuit. Significant technical advancements have been made in the equipment available for short- and long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applications. Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits have greater biocompatibility and allow for more prolonged cardiopulmonary support time while minimizing the procedure-related complications of bleeding, thrombosis, and other physiologic derangements, which were so common with the early application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Modern era extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry and components are simpler, safer, more compact, and can be used across a wide variety of patient sizes from neonates to adults. PMID:23735989

  1. Continuum approaches to understanding ion and peptide interactions with the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorraca, Naomi R; Callenberg, Keith M; Boyle, Jon P; Grabe, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Experimental and computational studies have shown that cellular membranes deform to stabilize the inclusion of transmembrane (TM) proteins harboring charge. Recent analysis suggests that membrane bending helps to expose charged and polar residues to the aqueous environment and polar head groups. We previously used elasticity theory to identify membrane distortions that minimize the insertion of charged TM peptides into the membrane. Here, we extend our work by showing that it also provides a novel, computationally efficient method for exploring the energetics of ion and small peptide penetration into membranes. First, we show that the continuum method accurately reproduces energy profiles and membrane shapes generated from molecular simulations of bare ion permeation at a fraction of the computational cost. Next, we demonstrate that the dependence of the ion insertion energy on the membrane thickness arises primarily from the elastic properties of the membrane. Moreover, the continuum model readily provides a free energy decomposition into components not easily determined from molecular dynamics. Finally, we show that the energetics of membrane deformation strongly depend on membrane patch size both for ions and peptides. This dependence is particularly strong for peptides based on simulations of a known amphipathic, membrane binding peptide from the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. In total, we address shortcomings and advantages that arise from using a variety of computational methods in distinct biological contexts. PMID:24652510

  2. Membrane photobiophysics and photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti Tien, H.

    Life, as we know it, depends on solar energy, in particular in the visible range of the solar spectrum. However, visible light alone is useless to the living organism unless a means is available for its capture, transformation, and utilization. Nature, through its long evolution, has perfected a process known as photosynthesis by which visible light is transduced into electrical/ chemical energy. However, the heart of Nature's energy transducer is the thylakoid membrane whose molecular organization was not known until early in the 1960s. Then it was established that the bilayer lipid membrane was central to the design of the thylakoid membrane. To explain the light-driven reactions from water oxidation to carbon dioxide reduction, the so-called Z-scheme was proposed. Concurrent with the establishment of Mitchell's Chemiosmotic Hypothesis for electron transfer and phosphorylation, the experimental bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) system was developed in 1960. But what are the fundamental biophysical mechanisms involved in the phototransduction via pigmented bilayer lipid membrane-based transducers? One of the main purposes of this review is to consider these questions. A second main purpose is to introduce to the reader the experimental aspects of lipid bilayers in the investigation of photoactive biomembranes. The areas covered in this review include a brief summary of the laws of photochemistry relevant to membrane photobiophysics and photobiology. The current exploitation of the BLM system in relation to the thylakoid membrane and to the visual receptor membrane will be considered in turn. The purple membrane of H. Halobium is then discussed. Consideration will also be given to dye-sensitized BLMs, semiconducting BLMs, and BLMs formed from liquid crystals. A common characteristic in the topics covered in this review is the desire to stimulate further studies in the use of the BLM system, not only for the fundamental understanding of biomembranes, but also towards

  3. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  4. Electrochemically switchable polypyrrole coated membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, Claudia, E-mail: weidlich@dechema.d [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mangold, Klaus-Michael [DECHEMA e.V., Karl-Winnacker-Institut, Theodor-Heuss-Allee 25, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    A method for coating membranes with polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed. Different membranes, such as microfiltration as well as ion exchanger membranes have been coated with PPy to yield electrical conductivity of the membranes. The coated membranes have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy and their permeability and permselectivity have been tested. The results show that PPy can be tailored as cation or anion exchanger and its porosity can be controlled to avoid any impairment of the membrane by the polymer layer. These PPy coated membranes can be applied as electrochemically switchable, functionalised membranes with controllabel and variable separation properties.

  5. Inclusive science education: learning from Wizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2016-06-01

    This case study reports on a student with special education needs in an inclusive seventh grade life science classroom using a framework of disability studies in education. Classroom data collected over 13 weeks consisted of qualitative (student and classroom observations, interviews, student work samples and video-taped classroom teaching and learning record using CETP-COP) methods. Three key findings emerged in the analysis and synthesis of the data: (1) The learning experiences in science for Wizard are marked by a dichotomy straddled between autonomy ["Sometimes I do" (get it)] and dependence ["Sometimes I don't (get it)], (2) the process of learning is fragmented for Wizard because it is underscored by an emerging disciplinary literacy, (3) the nature of the inclusion is fragile and functional. Implications for classroom practices that support students with learning disabilities include focusing on student strengths, intentional use of disciplinary literacy strategies, and opportunities for eliciting student voice in decision making.

  6. Study on the Supramolecular Inclusion Complex of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao; Kaijun

    2001-01-01

    Lappaconitine (Lap) is a diterpenoid akaliamide, naturally occurring in roots and rhizomes of Aconitum and delphinium. Lap reveals bradycardic, hypotensive, antinocieptive activity. However, its application is restrained owing to its poor water solubility, toxicity and side effects on humans. In a number of pharmaceutical studies,CDs have been reported to interact with many drug molecules to form inclusion complexes. These inclusion complexes have been extensively used to improve water solubility of poorly soluble drugs, to reduce their toxicity, and to increase the dissolution rate [1]. In the present work, the β-CD/Lap complex was prepared by kneading method. The products have been characterized by the solubility measurement as well as UV, FTIR, NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry.  ……

  7. Student´responses to inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    of muscle strength and manual dexterity or the deterioration of eyesight and hearing. At the Aarhus School of Architecture, Platform Design, the teaching content in the Spring 2011 semester addressed the theme “Health” with a focus on the elderly´s home. During this semester the emphasis was on how we...... in products and services. In so doing it looks at how the use of inclusive design methods affects students´ work processes. Work diaries provided raw data on how students broke down their project into a variety of tasks: problem solving, data gathering and ideation, among others. The work thus provides......The article looks at how students’ design activities respond to inclusive design (ID) requirements. The background to the students´ brief was the concept of welfare technology. People wish to retain their customary life-style even as ageing brings with it a reduction in physical capability: loss...

  8. Integration, inclusion, or still just segregation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Rensinghoff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available How do handicapped youth feel in inpatient facilities of professional care services for the disabled? Do they perceive these residences in a way that justifies calling them “total institutions”, where people “vegetate under isolated conditions”? Isn’t it rather a great dreaming of inclusion scientists that integration and (ultimately inclusion are the only ways to salvation? This article is intended to arouse its readers in some sense by presenting them with statements from 14 physically handicapped people who spent all or some of their school days in a boarding school for physically disabled girls and boys. All life sketches were taken from a collection comprising 20 firsthand reports by former students of the aforementioned institution. The statements from seven authors were excluded because they focused on topics (e.g. school-related aspects not relevant with regard to its professed aim.

  9. A Path Integral Approach to Inclusive Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nachtmann, O

    2000-01-01

    The single-particle inclusive differential cross-section for a reaction$a+b\\to c+X$ is written as the imaginary part of a correlation function in afor ward scattering amplitude for $a+b\\to a+b$ in a modified effective theory.In this modified theory the interaction Hamiltonian $\\tilde H_I$ equals $H_I$in the original theory up to a certain time. Then there is a sign change and$\\tilde H_I$ becomes nonlocal. This is worked out in detail for scalar fieldmodels and for QED plus the abelian gluon model. A suitable path integral fordirect calculations of inclusive cross sections is presented.

  10. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422

  11. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  12. Inclusive Planning: Paramount in Today's Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohr, Trine; Langset, Eli Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Democratic rights are granted by its nations legislation and systems, but needs enforcement by its institutions to be effective. This also relates to Universal Design. The refugee crisis in Europe raises questions as to how planning in the societies can be designed and implemented to include the new groups of the population. The Norwegian Planning and Building Act (PBA) put weight on the individual's or a group's right to influence public assessment and decision making processes. In this article a case from the Veitvet-Sletteløkka area in the ward of Bjerke, Oslo, is presented to show how these principles can be put into practice. The case clearly demonstrates how the presence of representatives from the ward and planning authority built trust to the various parts of the local community by a consistent and inclusive approach. Also, to further enhance inclusion and effectiveness in planning, the case illustrates the need for adapting new technologies, communication modes and perspectives. PMID:27534305

  13. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  14. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, M. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  15. Inclusive institutions and long-run misallocation

    OpenAIRE

    Galor, Oded; Munshi, Kaivan; Wilson, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This research advances the hypothesis that resource abundant economies characterized by a socially cohesive workforce and network externalities triggered the emergence of efficiency-enhancing inclusive institutions designed to restrict mobility and to enhance the attachment of community members to the local labor market. However, the persistence of these institutions, and the inter-generational transmission of their value, ultimately resulted in the misallocation of talents across occupations...

  16. Nonmetallic inclusions in HSLA steel weldments

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Brent A.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Navy is currently funding a program for certification of HSLA steels to replace the HY series of high strength steels for structural fabrication. Integral to this program is the certification of welding consumables for use with these steels. The size, distribution and composition of nonmetallic inclusions in HSLA steel weld metal has been shown to play a key role in the final strength and toughness of the deposited weld. Th...

  17. Student´responses to inclusive design

    OpenAIRE

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The article looks at how students’ design activities respond to inclusive design (ID) requirements. The background to the students´ brief was the concept of welfare technology. People wish to retain their customary life-style even as ageing brings with it a reduction in physical capability: loss of muscle strength and manual dexterity or the deterioration of eyesight and hearing. At the Aarhus School of Architecture, Platform Design, the teaching content in the Spring 2011 semester addressed ...

  18. Inclusive Education: The Parents’ Concerns and Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Vilija Grincevičienė; Alicja Szerląg; Krystyna Dziubacka; Vilija Targamadzė

    2015-01-01

    The article revealed the opinions of the pupils’ parents about where should their children’s peers with minor mental disorders and/or physical disabilities learn and develop. Based uponthe results of studies conducted in 2002 and 2012 it becomes clear that the changes of education reality had impact also to the parents’ of pupils approach to integrated education: former vision of inclusive education became a reality. Respondents agree that their children may attend general education school to...

  19. Inclusive jet production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-08-01

    Preliminary results on inclusive jet production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV based on 1 fb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data are presented. Measurements are preformed using different jet algorithms in a wide range of jet transverse momentum and jet rapidity. The measured cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations

  20. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  1. Impulsive differential inclusions a fixed point approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ouahab, Abdelghani; Henderson, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations have been developed in modeling impulsive problems in physics, population dynamics, ecology, biotechnology, industrial robotics, pharmacokinetics, optimal control, etc. The questions of existence and stability of solutions for different classes of initial values problems for impulsive differential equations and inclusions with fixed and variable moments are considered in detail. Attention is also given to boundary value problems and relative questions concerning differential equations. This monograph addresses a variety of side issues that arise from its simple

  2. Optimal Control of Evolution Mixed Variational Inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduncin, Gonzalo, E-mail: alduncin@geofisica.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Instituto de Geofísica (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Optimal control problems of primal and dual evolution mixed variational inclusions, in reflexive Banach spaces, are studied. The solvability analysis of the mixed state systems is established via duality principles. The optimality analysis is performed in terms of perturbation conjugate duality methods, and proximation penalty-duality algorithms to mixed optimality conditions are further presented. Applications to nonlinear diffusion constrained problems as well as quasistatic elastoviscoplastic bilateral contact problems exemplify the theory.

  3. Loss of syntaxin 3 causes variant microvillus inclusion disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Caroline L; Janecke, Andreas R; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Vogel, Georg F; van Haaften-Visser, Désirée Y; Escher, Johanna C; Adam, Rüdiger; Thöni, Cornelia E; Pfaller, Kristian; Jordan, Alexander J; Weis, Cleo-Aron; Nijman, Isaac J; Monroe, Glen R; van Hasselt, Peter M; Cutz, Ernest; Klumperman, Judith; Clevers, Hans; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Houwen, Roderick H J; van Haaften, Gijs; Hess, Michael W; Huber, Lukas A; Stapelbroek, Janneke M; Müller, Thomas; Middendorp, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a disorder of intestinal epithelial differentiation characterized by life-threatening intractable diarrhea. MVID can be diagnosed based on loss of microvilli, microvillus inclusions, and accumulation of subapical vesicles. Most patients with MVID have mutation

  4. Silicate Inclusions in the Kodaikanal IIE Iron Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurat, G.; Varela, M. E.; Zinner, E.

    2005-03-01

    II-E iron meteorites are particularly interesting because they contain an exotic zoo of silicate inclusions including some chemically strongly fractionated ones. Here we present preliminary findings in our study of Kodaikanal silicate inclusions.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions FENIB familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... All Close All Description Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies ( FENIB ) is a disorder that causes progressive ...

  6. DESTRUCTION CONDITIONS WHEN DITTING HOMOGENEOUS GROUND AND GROUND WITH INCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Nichke, V.; Demishkan, V.

    2005-01-01

    On the base of analyses strained state the strong a ground with inclusion, and take into account a bigger traction effort of a modern bulldozers, was shoved as destroyed a rocks ground, a ground with inclusion, homogeneous a ground.

  7. Shielding Effectiveness of Composites Containing Flaky Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; QU Zhaoming; WANG Yilong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the quantitative relationship between the electromagnetic-shielding property of composites and the distribution of inclusions,a scheme for predicting the shielding effectiveness of composites containing variously-distributed flaky inclusions is proposed.The scheme is based on equivalent parameters of homogeneous comparison materials and the plane-wave shielding theory.It leads to explicit formulas for the shielding effectiveness of multi-layered composites in terms of microstructural parameters that characterize the shape,distribution and orientation of the inclusions.For single layer composite that contains random and aligned flaky silver-coated carbonyl-iron particles with fractions of different volume,the predicted shielding effectiveness agrees well with the experimental data.As for composites containing aligned flaky particles,the shielding effectiveness obtained by the proposed scheme and experiment data is higher than that the random case,e.g.about 20 dB higher at 750 MHz.The proposed scheme is a straightforward method for optimizing future composite designs.

  8. AESTHETIC EDUCATION OF ELDERLY BY DIGITAL INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Barreto Cesarino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research project has as delimiting central theme and also central question whether digital inclusion of elderly enable increasing their aesthetic education. Being its specific goals study what is aesthetic education, using the theoretical framework the German philosopher Friedrich Schiller, conceptualize what is senior and define digital inclusion. Its relevance is the increment that Beauty favors the increased awareness of self, others and their environment. The population and sample will be among the students of the University of maturity (UMA, extension course of Pedagogy of the University of Tocantins in Palmas / TO campus and as a sample of eighteen individuals without mental abnormalities or loss, of both sexes, above sixty years. A qualitative study will be used as a qualitative methodological strategy the Focus Group. The data will be analyzed in order to assess the perception of the respondents in relation to specific goals. Case study. The project will be submitted to the Ethics Committee on Human Research of the Federal University of Tocantins as required by Resolution 196/96 of the National Health Council under No. 179/2012 and shall be applied only after approval. Have hypothesized that through digital inclusion the elderly will have more access to different forms of arts and therefore broaden the chances of their meeting with the aesthetic education.

  9. Perturbative QCD contributions to inclusive processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritbergen, T. van

    1996-09-24

    This thesis treats the calculation of quantum corrections to a number of high energy processes that are measured in current and future accelerator experiments. The main objective of these experiments is to accurately verify the generally accepted theory of electro-weak and strong interactions, known as the Standard model, and to look for possible deviations. Most of the processes that are treated in this thesis are of a type for which the final state of of a highly energetic scattering or decay process is measured inclusively. The higher order quantum corrections discussed in this thesis are due to strong interactions. To the inclusive decay rate of Z{sup 0} bosons into all possible final states consisting of hadrons third order QCD contributions have been obtained. Also in the third order QCD an expansion for the inclusive hadronic decay rate of a {tau}-lepton was obtained. Then the top-quark-mass effects on the decay channels of a Higgs boson: Higgs{yields}b-quarks and Higgs{yields}gluons, were investigated. Thereafter the calculation of 3-loop contributions to the deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering process is discussed. Finally the 3-loop contributions to the q{sup 2}-dependence of the lower moments {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}x{sup N-1}F(x,q{sup 2})dx, N=2,4,6,8 of the structure functions F{sub 2} and F{sub L} were obtained. (orig./HSI).

  10. On Integro-Differential Inclusions with Operator-valued Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Trostorff, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    We study integro-differential inclusions in Hilbert spaces with operator-valued kernels and give sufficient conditions for the well-posedness. We show that several types of integro-differential equations and inclusions are covered by the class of evolutionary inclusions and we therefore give criteria for the well-posedness within this framework. As an example we apply our results to the equations of visco-elasticity and to a class of nonlinear integro-differential inclusions describing Phase ...

  11. PROVISIONS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK (NCF) 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Avanish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Providing Quality Education for All children in inclusive setting has been identified as the most challenging, yet the most important issue in education across the world. Inclusive Education means that all students in school irrespective of their abilities in any area, become part of the school community. NCF 2005 emphasizes the need of inclusive curriculum keeping in view the diversity of learners. An inclusive curriculum aims to provide quality education that will enable all children to lea...

  12. Synthesis of zeolite membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Haiyang; ZHANG Baoquan; Y. S. Lin; LI Yongdan

    2004-01-01

    Zeolite membranes offer great application potentials in membrane separation and/or reaction due to their excellent separation performance and catalytic ability. Up to present, various synthesis methods of zeolite membranes have been developed, including embedded method,in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method, and secondary growth method etc. Compared with the in-situ hydrothermal synthesis method, the secondary growth method possesses a variety of advantages such as easier operation, higher controllability in crystal orientation, microstructure and film thickness, leading to much better reproducibility. This review provides a concise summary and analysis of various synthesis methods reported in the literature. In particular, the secondary growth method was discussed in detail in terms of crystal orientation, defects and crystal grain layers. Some critical issues were also highlighted, which were conducive to the improvement in the synthesis technology of zeolite membranes.

  13. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2009-01-01

    be provided by microscopy-related techniques. In this chapter, I will attempt to summarize representative examples concerning how microscopy (which provides information on membrane lateral organization by direct visualization) and spectroscopy techniques (which provides information about molecular interaction...

  14. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is k

  15. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  16. Student Perceptions of Inclusion in Unit/Course Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Elizabeth; Hicks, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Good teaching should be inclusive of all students. There are very strong arguments for making courses/units/modules as inclusive as possible, based on issues of equity and access. Inclusive teaching has been a catch cry in recent times and most universities have policies related to this issue. However, research into the effectiveness of measures…

  17. A Conceptual Analysis of Key Concepts in Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston-Kemple, Thomas Ernest

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of an inclusive classroom, inclusion, co-teaching, and disability have been called poorly defined and in need of fresh conceptual analyses. In Chapter 1, I respond to this call for further analysis and then demonstrate, using current educational headlines, that these concepts of "an inclusive classroom,"…

  18. Inclusion: The Pros and Cons--A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, Carl

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review, analyze, and critique the pros and cons, the advantages and disadvantages, of inclusion. The methodology consisted in analyzing and comparing research findings on the benefits and costs of inclusion. Federal legislation and regulations on inclusion were examined, analyzed, and discussed. The results showed…

  19. Inclusive education and students without special educational needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Ruijs; I. van der Veen; T.T.D. Peetsma

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the debate on inclusive education, students without special educational needs (SEN) are an important topic. However, there is a lot unknown about differences between these typical students in inclusive and non-inclusive classes. For example, the neutral results that are often found in

  20. Variables Affecting Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmmed, Masud; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Inclusive education is a worldwide reform strategy intended to include students with different abilities in mainstream regular schools. Evidence from previous research shows that success in implementing effective inclusive teaching practices in the school is contingent on teachers' positive attitudes towards inclusive education. This study was…

  1. ON THE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS OF DIFFERENTIAL INCLUSIONS AND APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国成; 薛小平; 宋士吉

    2004-01-01

    The periodic problem of evolution inclusion is studied and its results are used to establish existence theorems of periodic solutions of a class of semi-linear differential inclusion.Also existence theorem of the extreme solutions and the strong relaxation theorem are given for this class of semi-linear differential inclusion. An application to some feedback control systems is discussed.

  2. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  3. Modelling Inclusive Special Needs Education: Insights from Dutch Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Bij, T.; Geijsel, F. P.; Garst, G. J. A.; Ten Dam, G. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive special needs education is prominent on the international education agenda. Research on the characteristics of inclusive education for students with special needs and schools providing this is scarce, however. Our aim in the present study was therefore to further theory-building with regard to inclusive special needs education. On the…

  4. Leadership for All Students: Planning for More Inclusive School Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, William R.; Simon, Marsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Educational policies and leadership practice has evolved to support efforts for inclusive education for students with disabilities. This article focuses on how leaders support and develop inclusive practices for students with disability through engaging institutional norms and inertia; developing inclusive practice as a planned organization-wide…

  5. Challenges of the Secondary School Context for Inclusive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michelle; Gray, Jan; Campbell-Evans, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    Senate and State Government reviews into inclusion in Australian schools during the last two decades have revealed that the inclusion of students with disabilities in schools has proved challenging. A qualitative study involving interviews with 50 leaders in inclusive education suggest that currently the secondary school context is a barrier to…

  6. Trekking Back to Mainstream for Inclusive Education, Is It There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenga, Rosemary Chimbala; Fourie, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the ecosystemic management strategies for inclusive schools due to challenges faced by the schools in the mainstream school where learners from the specialised institutions are referred back to mainstream for inclusive education. Ecosystemic perspective on inclusive education, ecological theories and systems theories underpin…

  7. Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jenzi C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that in addition to positive attitudes toward inclusion, high-level beliefs about knowledge and learning (i.e., epistemological beliefs) are essential for all teachers of students with disabilities in inclusive settings. This study examined the attitudes toward inclusion and epistemological belief status of 71…

  8. The Czech Way of Inclusion through an Experiential Education Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlacek, Martin; Bocarro, Jason; Jirasek, Ivo; Hanus, Radek

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the development of inclusive experiential education courses in the Czech Republic. The inclusion of people with disabilities (PWD) in recreation, sport, and education has become more prevalent in Czech society. This article describes the conceptual meaning of the term inclusion from both a historical and…

  9. Statistical Trends and Developments within Inclusive Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan; Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    The education of students with special needs in an inclusive environment is becoming more widespread throughout the world. Similarly, in Turkey, the inclusion of students with disabilities has also improved. However, current statistical trends and developments within inclusive education are not well known. The purpose of this study is to provide a…

  10. A New Perturbed Algorithm for Generalized Quasi-Variational Inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海丽; 郭兴明

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a perturbed iterative method for solving a general class of quasi-variational inclusions was studied. The existence and convergence of solution were proved. Furthermore, a new iterative method for solving a general class of quasi-variational inclusions was proposed. The continuity of the perturbed solution was also proved for a parametric variational inclusion problem. Several special cases were discussed.

  11. 40 CFR 35.133 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.133... Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible, in accordance with appropriation acts, for inclusion in...

  12. 26 CFR 26.2642-1 - Inclusion ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion ratio. 26.2642-1 Section 26.2642-1... GENERATION-SKIPPING TRANSFER TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1986 § 26.2642-1 Inclusion ratio. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, the inclusion ratio is determined...

  13. A Perspective of Inclusion: Challenges for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunsteiner, Maria-Luise; Mariano-Lapidus, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The term, "inclusion," particularly in the educational setting, is still based on a deficit view. Perceptions of "dis"-ability create barriers to true inclusion and are often reinforced through higher education training programs. To promote inclusive values, acceptance of individual and cultural differences must be included in…

  14. 40 CFR 35.533 - Programs eligible for inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programs eligible for inclusion. 35.533... § 35.533 Programs eligible for inclusion. (a) Eligible programs. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the environmental programs eligible for inclusion in a Performance Partnership Grant...

  15. Academic Performance of Students without Disabilities in the Inclusive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruth, Jason D.; Woods, Melanie N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of inclusion on secondary students by focusing on the performance of students without disabilities in the inclusive environment compared to their performance in a segregated environment. Many studies exist demonstrating the positive impact of the inclusive environment on the performance of students with disabilities.…

  16. Inclusion in Viet Nam: More than a Decade of Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Richard A.; Tac, Le Van; Muc, Pham Minh; Ryan, Susan; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Weill, Cindy; Thousand, Jacqueline S.

    2003-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of special education policies and services and the introduction of inclusive education as a service delivery model in Viet Nam. The impact of a series of inclusion projects and resultant goals of the Ministry of Education and Training to expand inclusive education are described. (Contains 8 references.) (Author/CR)

  17. Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tony; Ainscow, Mel

    The Index for Inclusion is a compilation of materials to support British schools in the process of inclusive school development. Part 1 introduces the Index, then identifies the following key concepts: inclusion, barriers to learning and participation, resources to support learning and participation, and support for diversity. Part 1 then…

  18. International Developments in Inclusive Schooling: Mapping the Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebba, Judy; Ainscow, Mel

    1996-01-01

    Maps out the rationale and scope of this special edition of the journal, focusing on international developments in inclusive schooling. Describes the debate surrounding the search for an appropriate definition of inclusion. Gives consideration to some of the main issues emerging from the literature on developing inclusive schooling. (DSK)

  19. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  20. Criticality in Plasma Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machta, Benjamin; Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Sethna, James; Veatch, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    We are motivated by recent observations of micron-sized critical fluctuations in the 2d Ising Universality class in plasma membrane vesicles that are isolated from cortical cytoskeleton. We construct a minimal model of the plasma membrane's interaction with intact cytoskeleton which explains why large scale phase separation has not been observed in Vivo. In addition, we use analytical techniques from conformal field theory and numerical simulations to investigate the form of effective forces mediated by the membrane's proximity to criticality. We show that the range of this force is maximized near a critical point and we quantify its usefulness in mediating communication using techniques from information theory. Finally we use theoretical techniques from statistical physics in conjunction with Monte-Carlo simulations to understand how criticality can be used to increase the efficiency of membrane bound receptor mediated signaling. We expect that this sort of analysis will be broadly useful in understanding and quantifying the role of lipid ``rafts'' in a wide variety of membrane bound processes. Generally, we demonstrate that critical fluctuations provide a physical mechanism to organize and spatially segregate membrane components by providing channels for interaction over relatively large distances.