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Sample records for chlamydial elementary bodies

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies possess proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenman, W M; Meuser, R U

    1986-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis proteins were electrophoresed and then transferred to nitrocellulose paper to detect chlamydial proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes. Resolved polypeptides of C. trachomatis serovars J and L2 were reacted with iodinated HeLa cell membranes and autoradiographed. Infectious elementary bodies of both serovars possess 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins which bind to HeLa cells. In contrast, noninfectious reticulate bodies do not possess eucaryotic cell-binding proteins. Both proteins are antigenic when reacted with hyperimmune rabbit antisera in immunoblots and antisera raised against the 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins are inhibitory to chlamydia-host cell association. In addition, these antisera exhibit neutralizing activity. Our data suggest that these putative chlamydial adhesins play a key role in the early steps of chlamydia-host cell interaction and that antibody directed against them may be protective. Images PMID:3511037

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies possess proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenman, W.M.; Meuser, R.U.

    1986-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis proteins were electrophoresed and then transferred to nitrocellulose paper to detect chlamydial proteins which bind to eucaryotic cell membranes. Resolved polypeptides of C. trachomatis serovars J and L/sub 2/ were reacted with iodinated HeLa cell membranes and autoradiographed. Infectious elementary bodies of both serovars possess 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins which bind to HeLa cells. In contrast, noninfectious reticulate bodies do not possess eucaryotic cell-binding proteins. Both proteins are antigenic when reacted with hyperimmune rabbit antisera in immunoblots and antisera raised against the 31,000- and 18,000-dalton proteins are inhibitory to chlamydia-host cell association. In addition, these antisera exhibit neutralizing activity. These data suggest that these putative chlamydial adhesions play a key role in the early steps of chlamydia-host cell interaction and that antibody directed against them may be protective.

  3. Unique ultrastructure in the elementary body of Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, E Y; Kuo, C C; Grayston, J T

    1987-08-01

    The ultrastructure of two prototype strains (TW-183 and AR-39) of Chlamydia sp. strain TWAR was described. The TWAR elementary body (EB) demonstrated a unique morphology and structure distinct from those of other chlamydial organisms. It was pleomorphic but typically pear shaped. The average size was 0.38 micron, with a long axis of 0.44 micron, a short axis of 0.31 micron, and a ratio of the long to the short axes of 1.42. The cytoplasmic mass was round, with an average diameter of 0.24 micron. There was a large periplasmic space. Small, round electron-dense bodies (0.05 micron in diameter), which were attached to the cytoplasm by a stringlike structure, were seen in the periplasmic space. These features are in contrast to those of other chlamydiae, which are typically round with a narrow or barely discernible periplasmic space. The TWAR reticulate body (RB) was morphologically and structurally similar to those of other Chlamydia species, having an average diameter of 0.51 micron and being circular in shape. The ultrastructural observations of the intracellular growth of TWAR in HeLa cells revealed that TWAR underwent the same developmental cycle as do other chlamydiae, i.e., transformation of EB to RB, multiplication by binary fission, and maturation by transformation of RB to EB via the intermediate-form stage.

  4. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

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    B Josh Lane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  5. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP......60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis-specific...

  7. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

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    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  8. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette,Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data an...

  9. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva; Stella Regina Taquette; Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the d...

  10. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

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    Hanna Marti

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C. in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination

  11. Chlamydial hemagglutinin identified as lipopolysaccharide.

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    Watkins, N G; Caldwell, H D; Hackstadt, T

    1987-01-01

    Chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) agglutinated mouse and rabbit erythrocytes but not human, guinea pig, or pronghorn antelope erythrocytes. Hemagglutination was not specific for Chlamydia spp., as rough LPSs from Coxiella burnetii and Escherichia coli also agglutinated erythrocytes from the same animal species. Nonagglutinated and agglutinated erythrocytes bound equivalent amounts of LPS, indicating that hemagglutination was not due to a specific interaction of chlamydial LPS with erythrocy...

  12. In vivo ultrastructural analysis of the intimate relationship between polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the chlamydial developmental cycle.

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    Rank, Roger G; Whittimore, Judy; Bowlin, Anne K; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2011-08-01

    We utilized a recently developed model of intracervical infection with Chlamydia muridarum in the mouse to elicit a relatively synchronous infection during the initial developmental cycle in order to examine at the ultrastructural level the development of both the chlamydial inclusion and the onset of the inflammatory response. At 18 h after infection, only a few elementary bodies attached to cells were visible, as were an occasional intracellular intermediate body and reticulate body. By 24 h, inclusions had 2 to 5 reticulate bodies and were beginning to fuse. A few polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were already present in the epithelium in the vicinity of and directly adjacent to infected cells. By 30 h, the inclusions were larger and consisted solely of reticulate bodies, but by 36 to 42 h, they contained intermediate bodies and elementary bodies as well. Many PMNs were adjacent to or actually inside infected cells. Chlamydiae appeared to exit the cell either (i) through disintegration of the inclusion membrane and rupture of the cell, (ii) by dislodgement of the cell from the epithelium by PMNs, or (iii) by direct invasion of the infected cell by the PMNs. When PMNs were depleted, the number of released elementary bodies was significantly greater as determined both visually and by culture. Interestingly, depletion of PMNs revealed the presence of inclusions containing aberrant reticulate bodies, reminiscent of effects seen in vitro when chlamydiae are incubated with gamma interferon. In vivo evidence for the contact-dependent development hypothesis, a potential mechanism for triggering the conversion of reticulate bodies to elementary bodies, and for translocation of lipid droplets into the inclusion is also presented.

  13. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-06-01

    To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents' feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects' context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents' self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  14. Ca. Similichlamydia in Epitheliocystis Co-infection of Gilthead Seabream Gills: Unique Morphological Features of a Deep Branching Chlamydial Family.

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    Seth-Smith, Helena M B; Katharios, Pantelis; Dourala, Nancy; Mateos, José M; Fehr, Alexander G J; Nufer, Lisbeth; Ruetten, Maja; Guevara Soto, Maricruz; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2017-01-01

    The Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum constitutes a broad range of organisms with an intriguing array of ultrastructural morphologies, including intracellular membranes and compartments and their corresponding complex genomes encoding these forms. The phylum Chlamydiae are all obligate intracellular bacteria and, although much is already known of their genomes from various families and how these regulate the various morphological forms, we know remarkably little about what is likely the deepest rooting clade of this phylum, which has only been found to contain pathogens of marine and fresh water vertebrates. The disease they are associated with is called epitheliocystis; however, analyses of the causative agents is hindered by an inability to cultivate them for refined in vitro experimentation. For this reason, we have developed tools to analyse both the genomes and the ultrastructures of bacteria causing this disease, directly from infected tissues. Here we present structural data for a member of the family Ca. Similichlamydiaceae from this deep-rooted clade, which we have identified using molecular tools, in epitheliocystis lesions of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in Greece. We present evidence that the chlamydial inclusions appear to develop in a perinuclear location, similar to other members of the phylum and that a chlamydial developmental cycle is present, with chlamydial forms similar to reticular bodies (RBs) and elementary bodies (EBs) detected. Division of the RBs appeared to follow a budding process, and larger RBs with multiple condensed nucleoids were detected using both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by focused-ion beam, scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). As model hosts, fish offer many advantages for investigation, and we hope by these efforts to encourage others to explore the biology of fish pathogens from the PVC.

  15. In Vivo Ultrastructural Analysis of the Intimate Relationship between Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and the Chlamydial Developmental Cycle ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Roger G.; Whittimore, Judy; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2011-01-01

    We utilized a recently developed model of intracervical infection with Chlamydia muridarum in the mouse to elicit a relatively synchronous infection during the initial developmental cycle in order to examine at the ultrastructural level the development of both the chlamydial inclusion and the onset of the inflammatory response. At 18 h after infection, only a few elementary bodies attached to cells were visible, as were an occasional intracellular intermediate body and reticulate body. By 24 h, inclusions had 2 to 5 reticulate bodies and were beginning to fuse. A few polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were already present in the epithelium in the vicinity of and directly adjacent to infected cells. By 30 h, the inclusions were larger and consisted solely of reticulate bodies, but by 36 to 42 h, they contained intermediate bodies and elementary bodies as well. Many PMNs were adjacent to or actually inside infected cells. Chlamydiae appeared to exit the cell either (i) through disintegration of the inclusion membrane and rupture of the cell, (ii) by dislodgement of the cell from the epithelium by PMNs, or (iii) by direct invasion of the infected cell by the PMNs. When PMNs were depleted, the number of released elementary bodies was significantly greater as determined both visually and by culture. Interestingly, depletion of PMNs revealed the presence of inclusions containing aberrant reticulate bodies, reminiscent of effects seen in vitro when chlamydiae are incubated with gamma interferon. In vivo evidence for the contact-dependent development hypothesis, a potential mechanism for triggering the conversion of reticulate bodies to elementary bodies, and for translocation of lipid droplets into the inclusion is also presented. PMID:21576327

  16. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lídia de Abreu Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS : A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS : Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS : The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  17. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem. PMID:25119938

  18. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

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    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  19. Eating Issues and Body Image in Elementary School: Detection and Prevention Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sarah I.; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2016-01-01

    Body image disturbance continues to be recognized in increasingly younger populations. Eating issues among elementary school children have become more overt and statistically prevalent in recent years. Elementary school counselors are in important positions to provide their communities with early detection information and prevention strategies.…

  20. Immune responses to chlamydial antigens in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, L; Kerlan, R; Senyk, G; Stites, D P; Juster, R P; Jawetz, E

    1982-01-01

    Antibody titer, lymphocyte stimulation and leukocyte migration inhibition with chlamydial antigens were determined repeatedly over many months on human subjects. The volunteers were retrospectively placed into four groups on the basis of clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic criteria. Group A consisted of persons with proven or probable chlamydial infection, including an illness confirmed by chlamydial isolation or seroconversion, or a clinically compatible illness with positive serologic results. Group B were sexual partners or close contacts of group A individuals. Group C were laboratory workers with prolonged exposure to viable chlamydiae or their antigens. Group D included persons of comparable age as those in groups A and B, but lacking a history of symptomatic chlamydial infection or of contact with chlamydiae. Individual cases illustrated the rise of antibody and some cell mediated immunity reactions (CMI) with active chlamydial infection. By contrast, laboratory exposure resulted in elevation of CMI but not of antibody. Statistical analysis of the results in 46 volunteers tested repeatedly indicated a strong association of specific antibody with lymphocyte stimulation, but not with leukocyte migration inhibition. Regression analysis suggested that the type of exposure markedly influenced the relationship between antibody and lymphocyte stimulation. Measurement of immunotype-specific antibody titer by microimmunofluorescence (or an equally sensitive method) remains the best laboratory indicator of past chlamydial infection. Neither antibody nor CMI can, as yet, be definitely related to resistance to re-infection in humans.

  1. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

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    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  2. Chlamydial eye infections: Current perspectives

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    Gita Satpathy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India. In 2016, as per the WHO report, trachoma is restricted to 42 countries, causing blindness/visual impairment in ~1.9 million people. India is one of the five countries with nearly half of total active trachoma patients. Introduction of Global Elimination of Trachoma 2020 program by the WHO, using SAFE strategy (surgery for trachomatous trichiasis; Antibiotics for C. trachomatis; Facial cleanliness; and environmental improvement greatly reduced the prevalence, but trachoma still persists in India. Global increase in the reproductive tract infection by C. trachomatis urogenital serotypes (D-K has led to concurrent increase in C. trachomatis eye infections. Therefore, kerato eye infections due to chlamydial infections continue to be seen in hospitals. Over the years, there have been advances in laboratory diagnostics, in understanding the pathogenesis, tissue tropism, C. trachomatis genomics, and treatment modalities. Due attention and research is still needed for the study of C. trachomatis eye infections.

  3. Dietary Habits and Body Size Perception of Elementary School Children

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    Murimi, Mary W.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes and concerns of children in grades 1 through 5 regarding their perceived body size and ideal body size, and it assessed their Body Mass Index (BMI) and dietary habits. This study found an overweight prevalence of 11.4%, based on the children's BMI. Most of the overweight students were either African American or…

  4. Laboratory diagnosis of persistent human chlamydial infection

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    Mirja ePuolakkainen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic assays for persistent chlamydial infection are much needed to conduct high-quality, large-scale studies investigating the persistent state in vivo, its disease associations and the response to therapy. Yet in most studies the distinction between acute and persistent infection is based on the interpretation of the data obtained by the assays developed to diagnose acute infections or on complex assays available for research only and/or difficult to establish for clinical use. Novel biomarkers for detection of persistent chlamydial infection are urgently needed. Chlamydial whole genome proteome arrays are now available and they can identify chlamydial antigens that are differentially expressed between acute infection and persistent infection. Utilizing these data will lead to the development of novel diagnostic assays. Carefully selected specimens from well-studied patient populations are clearly needed in the process of translating the proteomic data into assays useful for clinical practice. Before such antigens are identified and validated assays become available, we face a challenge of deciding whether the persistent infection truly induced appearance of the proposed marker or do we just base our diagnosis of persistent infection on the presence of the suggested markers. Consequently, we must bear this in mind when interpreting the available data.

  5. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-01-01

    .... An interview guide with questions about the adolescents' feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image...

  6. Single-dose trospectomycin for chlamydial urethritis in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, M C; Menegus, M A; Nasello, M A; Reid, J A; Long, M; Reichman, R C

    1991-01-01

    Trospectomycin is an aminocyclitol analog of spectinomycin with significant in vitro activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. A single 1-g intramuscular dose was administered to 10 men with symptomatic, culture-positive chlamydial urethritis. Trospectomycin was well tolerated but failed to eradicate chlamydial infection, as determined by cultures obtained approximately 1 week after treatment. PMID:1830196

  7. Influencing Factors of the Body Mass Index of Elementary Students in Southern Taiwan.

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    Chou, Li-Na; Chen, Min-Li

    2017-02-23

    The body mass index (BMI) of school children in Taiwan is markedly increasing. According to statistical data from the Taiwan Ministry of Education, the prevalence of obesity in school children from the southern part of the country is the highest in Taiwan. Thus, exploring the factors influencing BMI in elementary school children from southern Taiwan is crucial. This study investigated the influencing factors including physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits, and perceived body shape on the BMIs of elementary school children from southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used, and the participants consisted of 3251 fifth-grade students (1628 boys, 50.1%; 1623 girls, 49.9%). The average BMI values for boys and girls were 19.69 and 18.70 (kg/cm) respectively. Statistically significant associations were observed between BMI and sex, 31-60 min of daily vigorous or moderate physical activities levels, length of time spent watching television, time spent on video games or the computer, and intake of vegetable or meat gravy with rice (p < 0.001). Perceived body shape also affected the BMI of school children. The results of this study enable educational institutions in Taiwan to understand the factors affecting the BMI of school children and use this information as the basis for future healthy body weight policies.

  8. Influencing Factors of the Body Mass Index of Elementary Students in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Chou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI of school children in Taiwan is markedly increasing. According to statistical data from the Taiwan Ministry of Education, the prevalence of obesity in school children from the southern part of the country is the highest in Taiwan. Thus, exploring the factors influencing BMI in elementary school children from southern Taiwan is crucial. This study investigated the influencing factors including physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, dietary habits, and perceived body shape on the BMIs of elementary school children from southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used, and the participants consisted of 3251 fifth-grade students (1628 boys, 50.1%; 1623 girls, 49.9%. The average BMI values for boys and girls were 19.69 and 18.70 (kg/cm respectively. Statistically significant associations were observed between BMI and sex, 31–60 min of daily vigorous or moderate physical activities levels, length of time spent watching television, time spent on video games or the computer, and intake of vegetable or meat gravy with rice (p < 0.001. Perceived body shape also affected the BMI of school children. The results of this study enable educational institutions in Taiwan to understand the factors affecting the BMI of school children and use this information as the basis for future healthy body weight policies.

  9. Reactive Chlamydial Arthritis and Ophtalmopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.К. Pavliuchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oculopathies in reactive chlamydial arthritis are diagnosed in 63 % of patients, with «conjunctivitis — uveitis — scleritis — glaucoma — cataract — keratitis» ratio as 13 : 8 : 2 : 2 : 1 : 1, and the nature of eye pathology is closely related to the severity of inflammatory process in uroge­nitalia and general activity of the disease, influences the le­vel of antichlamidial antibodies in the blood, prevalence, severity of joint syndrome and rates of its progression, development of cardiopath

  10. Association between dental caries and body mass index among hamedan elementary school children in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarad, F; Maybodi, M Haeri

    2011-01-01

    Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children. The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys) aged 6-11 years from 20 private and state elementary schools (10 boys, 10 girls). The weight status was measured in children by assessment of body mass index (BMI) (=body weight/body height(2) kg/m(2)) corresponding to gender and age-ranked percentages. To assess the caries frequency the decayed filled teeth (DFT) index for permanent dentition and the dft index for primary dentition were used since they give good perception about the situation of tooth caries in young patients. The highest mean total dft/DFT was seen in normal weight and lowest average in at risk of overweight children. There was not a statistically significant relationship found between high weight and caries frequency in the first (p=0.08) and permanent dentitions (p=0.06). The results of this preliminary study do not support an association between dental caries and obesity.

  11. Culture-independent approaches to chlamydial genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Madden, Danielle; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2018-01-03

    The expanding field of bacterial genomics has revolutionized our understanding of microbial diversity, biology and phylogeny. For most species, DNA extracted from culture material is used as the template for genome sequencing; however, the majority of microbes are actually uncultivable, and others, such as obligate intracellular bacteria, require laborious tissue culture to yield sufficient genomic material for sequencing. Chlamydiae are one such group of obligate intracellular microbes whose characterization has been hampered by this requirement. To circumvent these challenges, researchers have developed culture-independent sample preparation methods that can be applied to the sample directly or to genomic material extracted from the sample. These methods, which encompass both targeted [immunomagnetic separation-multiple displacement amplification (IMS-MDA) and sequence capture] and non-targeted approaches (host methylated DNA depletion-microbial DNA enrichment and cell-sorting-MDA), have been applied to a range of clinical and environmental samples to generate whole genomes of novel chlamydial species and strains. This review aims to provide an overview of the application, advantages and limitations of these targeted and non-targeted approaches in the chlamydial context. The methods discussed also have broad application to other obligate intracellular bacteria or clinical and environmental samples.

  12. Association Between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index Among Hamedan Elementary School Children in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haeri Maybodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children.Materials and Methods: The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys aged 6-11 years from 20 private and state elementary schools (10 boys, 10 girls. The weight status was measured in children by assessment of body mass index (BMI (=bodyweight/body height2 kg/m2 corresponding to gender and age-ranked percentages.To assess the caries frequency the decayed filled teeth (DFT index for permanent dentition and the dft index for primary dentition were used since they give good perception about the situation of tooth caries in young patients.Results: The highest mean total dft/DFT was seen in normal weight and lowest average in at risk of overweight children. There was not a statistically significant relationship found between high weight and caries frequency in the first (p=0.08 and permanent dentitions (p=0.06.Conclusion: The results of this preliminary study do not support an association between dental caries and obesity.

  13. Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China. ... samples from 729 dairy goats (263 Saanen dairy goats and 466 Guanzhong dairy goats). ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Identification and properties of chlamydial polypeptides that bind eucaryotic cell surface components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackstadt, T

    1986-01-01

    An electroblotting technique was used to identify proteins of Chlamydia that bound surface-radioiodinated and Triton X-100-solubilized HeLa cell extracts. Two proteins, with apparent molecular masses of 18 and 32 kilodaltons (kDa), that bound HeLa cell surface components were identified on Chlamydia trachomatis L2 elementary bodies (EBs). Radioiodinated heparin, which disrupts chlamydial association with cultured cells, was also bound by these proteins. These two proteins were found on EBs but were absent or were present in reduced amounts on the noninfectious reticulate bodies. All C. trachomatis strains tested displayed two such proteins, although the apparent molecular weight of the larger protein varied with serotype in correlation with biotype and the disease that it caused. Two Chlamydia psittaci strains examined displayed only a single binding protein in the range of 17 to 19 kDa. All of the binding proteins stained intensely and distinctively on silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and displayed an unusual sensitivity to reducing agents. The 32-kDa protein was not seen and did not bind 125I-labeled HeLa cell components if the EBs were solubilized in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The 32-kDa protein was not affected by dithiothreitol, however. Similar to the effect of 2-mercaptoethanol, the 32-kDa protein was not visualized after treatment of EBs with the protease inhibitors tosyl-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) or tosyl-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK). TPCK and TLCK also abolished infectivity as did the alkylating agents N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetamide, yet the latter two agents did not affect the appearance of the 32-kDa protein. These proteins were not detected in immunoblots with either rabbit antisera to C. trachomatis L2 EBs or by serum from a patient with lymphogranuloma venereum. The role of these proteins in the interaction of chlamydiae with host cells is not clear, but the binding of eucaryotic cell surface

  15. Rebound Body Mass Index Growth in Year-Round Elementary Education Students of Largely Hispanic Descent Undergoing Obesity Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Andrew G.; Lyons, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) increases when students are away on summer vacation. Evaluation of serial BMI measurements on year-round students allows new insight into the reasons children gain weight seasonally. Methods: The 206 first and second graders of 2-year-round elementary schools with obesity intervention programs were weighed and…

  16. Chlamydial infection induces host cytokinesis failure at abscission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather M; Knowlton, Andrea E; Grieshaber, Scott S

    2012-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacteria and the infectious agent responsible for the sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia. Infection with Chlamydia can lead to serious health sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease and reproductive tract scarring contributing to infertility and ectopic pregnancies. Additionally, chlamydial infections have been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in patients with a prior human papilomavirus (HPV) infection. Chlamydial infection of cultured cells causes multinucleation, a potential pathway for chromosomal instability. Two mechanisms that are known to initiate multinucleation are cell fusion and cytokinesis failure. This study demonstrates that multinucleation of the host cell by Chlamydia is entirely due to cytokinesis failure. Moreover, cytokinesis failure is due in part to the chlamydial effector CPAF acting as an anaphase promoting complex mimic causing cells to exit mitosis with unaligned and unattached chromosomes. These lagging and missegregated chromosomes inhibit cytokinesis by blocking abscission, the final stage of cytokinesis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Prevalence and Outcome of Asymptomatic Chlamydial Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of those with HSG result (64), the accuracy of the test kit showed low sensitivity - 44.2% (19/43) and negative predictive value 40.0% (16/40) (but, high specificity - 76.2%(16/21), and positive predictive value - 79.2% (19/24). Conclusion: Asymptomatic Chlamydial infection is common among infertile women and it positively ...

  18. chlamydial neonatal conjuntivitis (cnnc) in ilorin, middle belt of nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An increasing number of babies with conjunctivitis in our center what require an urgent evaluation was observed. To evaluate Chlamydial aetiology of Neonatal conjunctivitis in our environment all babies born in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a six months period were prospectively screened for Neonatal ...

  19. Human cell-mediated immune responses to chlamydial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, L; Schmidt, L; Sharp, M; Stites, D P; Jawetz, E

    1979-02-01

    A reproducible method was developed to determine the ability of chlamydial antigens to stimulate lymphocytes from volunteers. In tests repeated 4 to 14 times, the cells from a given volunteer gave a relatively narrow range of responses, but there were great differences in the mean response of different volunteers. In the entire group of 52 volunteers, lymphocyte stimulation was significantly associated with the presence of antibody, but in a given individual results of one test did not aid in predicting the results of the other. A majority of persons with either antichlamydial antibody or elevated lymphocyte stimulation, or both, did not have a history of signs or symptoms within a spectrum of chlamydial diseases. This may reflect the great frequency of asymptomatic infection with these organisms. The lymphocytes of some individuals were stimulated to a significantly greater degree by antigens of one chlamydial species (Chlamydia trachomatis or C. psittaci) than by the other. These and other cell-mediated reactions in human chlamydial infections, and their possible medical significance, are under continued study.

  20. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced chlamydial persistence/stress does not require viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoborg, Robert V; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae may exist at the site of infection in an alternative replicative form, called the aberrant body (AB). ABs are produced during a viable but non-infectious developmental state termed "persistence" or "chlamydial stress." As persistent/stressed chlamydiae: (i) may contribute to chronic inflammation observed in diseases like trachoma; and (ii) are more resistant to current anti-chlamydial drugs of choice, it is critical to better understand this developmental stage. We previously demonstrated that porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced Chlamydia pecorum persistence/stress in culture. One critical characteristic of persistence/stress is that the chlamydiae remain viable and can reenter the normal developmental cycle when the stressor is removed. Thus, we hypothesized that PEDV-induced persistence would be reversible if viral replication was inhibited. Therefore, we performed time course experiments in which Vero cells were C. pecorum/PEDV infected in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX), which inhibits viral but not chlamydial protein synthesis. CHX-exposure inhibited PEDV replication, but did not inhibit induction of C. pecorum persistence at 24 h post-PEDV infection, as indicated by AB formation and reduced production of infectious EBs. Interestingly, production of infectious EBs resumed when CHX-exposed, co-infected cells were incubated 48-72 h post-PEDV co-infection. These data demonstrate that PEDV co-infection-induced chlamydial persistence/stress is reversible and suggest that this induction (i) does not require viral replication in host cells; and (ii) does not require de novo host or viral protein synthesis. These data also suggest that viral binding and/or entry may be required for this effect. Because the PEDV host cell receptor (CD13 or aminopeptidase N) stimulates cellular signaling pathways in the absence of PEDV infection, we suspect that PEDV co-infection might alter CD13 function and induce the chlamydiae to enter the

  2. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chang Soo; Freidoony, Leila

    2016-01-01

    The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173) participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT) was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD) and about one-third had poor IQ (IQ score. More commonly, BMI and IQ scores were significantly lower in the ultra-poor group. Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI. PMID:27417241

  3. Teaching Body and Spatial Awareness in Elementary Physical Education Using Integration of Core Content Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollett, Nikki; Sluder, J. Brandon; Taunton, Sally; Howard-Shaughnessy, Candice

    2016-01-01

    Studies have found that movement can have a positive effect on the linguistic and intellectual capabilities of the brain, proving that physical fitness is related to academic performance. By allowing elementary students to move around and be involved in physical activity at school, the brain is able to make stronger connections with the material…

  4. Molecular mimicry and horror autotoxicus: do chlamydial infections elicit autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanborg, Robert H; Boros, Dov L; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2006-11-30

    All species of the order Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular eubacterial pathogens of their various hosts. Two chlamydial species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, are primarily human pathogens, and each is known to cause important diseases. Some strains of C. trachomatis are sexually transmitted and frequently cause severe reproductive problems, primarily in women. Other strains of the organism serve as the aetiological agents for blinding trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness in underdeveloped nations. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to cause community-acquired pneumonia. Importantly, both organisms engender an immunopathogenic response in the human host, and both have been associated with widely diverse, relatively common and currently idiopathic chronic diseases, most of which include an important autoimmune component. In this article, we explore the available experimental data regarding the possible elicitation of autoimmunity in various contexts by chlamydial infection, and we suggest several avenues for research to explore this potentially important issue further.

  5. The Prevalence and Outcome of Asymptomatic Chlamydial Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of those with HSG result (64), the accuracy of the test kit showed low sensitivity ‑ 44.2% (19/43) and negative predictive value 40.0% (16/40) (but, high specificity. ‑ 76.2%(16/21), and positive predictive value ‑ 79.2% (19/24). Conclusion: Asymptomatic. Chlamydial infection is common among infertile women and it positively ...

  6. Trafficking of chlamydial antigens to the endoplasmic reticulum of infected epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, David K.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2008-01-01

    Confinement of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis to a membrane-bound vacuole, termed an inclusion, within infected epithelial cells neither prevents secretion of chlamydial antigens into the host cytosol nor protects chlamydiae from innate immune detection. However, the details leading to chlamydial antigen presentation are not clear. By immunoelectron microscopy of infected endometrial epithelial cells and in isolated cell secretory compartments, chlamydial major out...

  7. Crossing the border - Solute entry into the chlamydial inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Ilka

    2017-08-26

    Chlamydiales comprise important human and animal pathogens as well as endosymbionts of amoebae. Generally, these obligate intracellular living bacteria are characterized by a biphasic developmental cycle, a reduced genome and a restricted metabolic capacity. Because of their metabolic impairment, Chlamydiales essentially rely on the uptake of diverse metabolites from their hosts. Chlamydiales thrive in a special compartment, the inclusion, and hence are surrounded by an additional membrane. Solutes might enter the inclusion through pores and open channels or by redirection of host vesicles, which fuse with the inclusion membrane and release their internal cargo. Recent investigations shed new light on the chlamydia-host interaction and identified an additional way for nutrient uptake into the inclusion. Proteome studies and targeting analyses identified chlamydial and host solute carriers in inclusions of Chlamydia trachomatis infected cells. These transporters are involved in the provision of UDP-glucose and biotin, and probably deliver further metabolites to the inclusion. By the controlled recruitment of specific solute carriers to the inclusion, the chlamydial resident thus can actively manipulate the metabolite availability and composition in the inclusion. This review summarizes recent findings and new ideas on carrier mediated solute uptake into the chlamydial inclusion in the context of the bacterial and host metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Association Between Dental Caries and Body Mass Index Among Hamedan Elementary School Children in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, F.; Maybodi, M. Haeri

    2011-01-01

    Objective Excessive weight in children is a major public health concern. The intake of refined carbohydrates, especially sugars and the prevalence of dental caries are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental caries and BMI in elementary school children. Materials and Methods The sampling technique used in the present study was a cluster random sampling. A total of 1000 pupils (500 girls, 500 boys) aged 6–11 years from 20 ...

  9. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Chhabi; Kim, Chun-Bae; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chang Soo; Freidoony, Leila

    2016-02-03

    The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173) participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT) was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD) and about one-third had poor IQ (<85). The age of the children (p < 0.05) and household economic status (p < 0.001) were significant for the BMI. Likewise, frequencies of illness in the previous year, mother's education (p < 0.05) and father's education (p < 0.001) were significant factors for the IQ score. More commonly, BMI and IQ scores were significantly lower in the ultra-poor group. Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI.

  10. Determinants of Body Mass Index and Intelligence Quotient of Elementary School Children in Mountain Area of Nepal: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabi Ranabhat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The physical growth and cognitive development of elementary school children are very crucial and this group is large in number but has little research dedicated to it. The physical growth and cognitive development of children occur simultaneously and can be measured by body mass index (BMI and intelligence quotient (IQ. Previous studies could not sufficiently focus on both aspects. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of BMI and IQ of students in two elementary schools in the Humla district of Nepal. Two randomly selected elementary schools and all children available there (n = 173 participated in the study. BMI was calculated with the objective of proper measurement of height and weight of the children. Likewise, the updated universal nonverbal intelligence test (UNIT was applied for IQ. Descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regressions were used when appropriate. Study findings showed that one-tenth of the children had grade 2 thinness (-2SD and about one-third had poor IQ (<85. The age of the children (p < 0.05 and household economic status (p < 0.001 were significant for the BMI. Likewise, frequencies of illness in the previous year, mother’s education (p < 0.05 and father’s education (p < 0.001 were significant factors for the IQ score. More commonly, BMI and IQ scores were significantly lower in the ultra-poor group. Economic status and parent education are still major determinants of IQ and BMI in these students. Special programs and strategies should be launched to improve the poor ranking of IQ and BMI.

  11. Body motion and physics: How elementary school students use gesture and action to make sense of the physical world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Tracy

    This study is an exploration of the role of physical activity in making sense of the physical world. Recent work on embodied cognition has helped to break down the barrier between the body and cognition, providing the inspiration for this work. In this study, I asked ten elementary-school students to explain to me how a toy parachute works. The methods used were adapted from those used to study the role of the body in cognition in science education, child development, and psychology. This study focused on the processes of learning rather than on measuring learning outcomes. Multiple levels of analysis were pursued in a mixed-method research design. The first level was individual analyses of two students' utterances and body motions. These analyses provided initial hypotheses about the interaction of speech and body motion in students' developing understandings. The second level was group analyses of all ten students' data, in search of patterns and relationships between body motion and speech production across all the student-participants. Finally, a third level of analysis was used to explore all cases in which students produced analogies while they discussed how the parachute works. The multiple levels of analysis used in this study allowed for raising and answering some questions, and allowed for the characterization of both individual differences and group commonalities. The findings of this study show that there are several significant patterns of interaction between body motion and speech that demonstrate a role for the body in cognition. The use of sensory feedback from physical interactions with objects to create new explanations, and the use of interactions with objects to create blended spaces to support the construction of analogies are two of these patterns. Future work is needed to determine the generalizability of these patterns to other individuals and other learning contexts. However, the existence of these patterns lends concrete support to the

  12. Incidence of chlamydial infection in women in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rao MS

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Chlamydial infection was studied in 160 women of different age groups in Hyderabad from different categories of patients. They were 50 prostitutes from red light area, 40 women with mucopurulent vaginal discharge, 40 women with infertility and 30 women attending antenatal clinics. The enzyme linked immunoassy incorporated in Orgenics Immunocomb kit (supplied by Orgenics Ltd. Israel was used to detect low level of antibodies in single serum dilutions. The study showed an incidence of 54% in prostitutes, 47.5% in women with mucopurulent vaginal discharge, 15% in women with infertility and 13.35% in women attending antenatel clinics.

  13. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  14. [Chlamydial heat shock protein (hsp 60) and fertility disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospísil, L; Canderle, J

    2003-05-01

    Summarization of recent knowledge on heat shock proteins (HSPs) of human and bacterial (chlamydial) origin and their participation in fertility disturbances. Review article for training of physicians (gynecologists and obstetricians). Veterinary Research Institute, Brno. The subject of the study is heat shock protein--hsp60 as a significant epitope Chlamydia trachomatis. Heat shock proteins are induced as a response to various stress insults from external environment (hyperthermy, UV radiation, free oxygen radicals, heavy metals, ethanol etc.) and certain processes related to the cell cycle. Sensitization with the heat shock protein Chlamydia trachomatis and subsequent excretion of highly homologous human heat shock protein are co-operating factors in the development of fertility disturbances. Significant levels of IgA antibodies to hsp60 occur in cervical mucus of women and in seminal plasma of men with fertility disturbances. Preceding infection C. trachomatis and resulting sensitization with chlamydial heat shock protein indicate an unfavourable prognosis of the reproductive outcome and impairs the perspective of a successful in vitro fertilization.

  15. Chlamydial infections of fish: diverse pathogens and emerging causes of disease in aquaculture species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, M C; Polkinghome, A; Nowak, B F

    2014-06-25

    Chlamydial infections of fish are emerging as an important cause of disease in new and established aquaculture industries. To date, epitheliocystis, a skin and gill disease associated with infection by these obligate intracellular pathogens, has been described in over 90 fish species, including hosts from marine and fresh water environments. Aided by advances in molecular detection and typing, recent years have seen an explosion in the description of these epitheliocystis-related chlamydial pathogens of fish, significantly broadening our knowledge of the genetic diversity of the order Chlamydiales. Remarkably, in most cases, it seems that each new piscine host studied has revealed the presence of a phylogenetically unique and novel chlamydial pathogen, providing researchers with a fascinating opportunity to understand the origin, evolution and adaptation of their traditional terrestrial chlamydial relatives. Despite the advances in this area, much still needs to be learnt about the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in fish if these pathogens are to be controlled in farmed environments. The lack of in vitro methods for culturing of chlamydial pathogens of fish is a major hindrance to this field. This review provides an update on our current knowledge of the taxonomy and diversity of chlamydial pathogens of fish, discusses the impact of these infections on the health, and highlights further areas of research required to understand the biology and epidemiology of this important emerging group of fish pathogens of aquaculture species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of the war events on body weight and height in children enrolling the first grade of elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakić, Marijana; Jakić, Marko

    2005-01-01

    Physical growth is usually estimated by body weight and height measurements. Both parameters are strongly influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The study investigated the effect of war related psychological stress and socioeconomic deterioration on growth of children who were born and grew during the war-years. We compared body weight and height in 2 groups of preschool children at time of admission to the first grade of elementary school. In the first group of children, school entry medical examination was performed in spring 1990 and 1991 (pre-war group), while the second group of children had school entry medical examination in spring 1998, 1999 and 2000 (war group). The mean body weight of children in pre-war group (n = 200; 98 girls) was M = 24.52, SD = 4.16 kg, height M = 122.50, SD = 4.71 cm, and the average age was M = 6.67, SD = 0.33 years. The war-group (n = 214; 100 girls) were of the same mean age (M = 6.67, SD = 0.34 years), but they were 500 g lighter and 5 mm lower in average. However, the differences in body weight and height were not statistically significant (t(weight) = 1.21, p > 0.05; t(height) = 1.13, p > 0.05). The two groups matched in gender (chi2-test = 0.13, p > 0.05). More educated parent of every child in pre-war group was employed, while 4 more educated parents (1.87%) in war-group were unemployed, but the difference was not statistically significant (chi2-test = 2.07, p > 0.05). We conclude that growth of preschool children in our region was not statistically significantly affected by stressful war events and war related socioeconomic situation. One could expect that these influences might be significant if we could examine the secular growth trend if there had been no war.

  17. THE EFFICACY OF CYCLICAL POLYANTIBIOTIC OF CHLAMYDIAL LESIONS OF THE PARANASAL SINUSES IN CHILDREN

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    E. V. Belova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a scheme of antibiotic treatment of children with acute sinus infections, paired with Chlamydial  infection, which is based on the use of cyclic poliantibiotikoterapii macrolide drugs. The most significant advantage of this therapy is the high degree of eradication of Chlamydial agent (87.5 %, which allows high-quality conduct antichlamydial treatment prevents the chronization inflammation, disseminated infection and helps reduce the number of complications. Recommended for use in medical practice physicians otorhinolaryngology for the treatment of acute sinusitis in children,  coupled with the Chlamydial infection.

  18. Efficacy and Tolerance of Single-dose Azithromycin for Treatment of Chlamydial Cervicitis During Pregnancy

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    Joseph M. Miller

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The intent of this study was to determine the efficacy and tolerance of single-dose oral azithromycin in the treatment of pregnant women with endocervical chlamydial carriage.

  19. Effects of order and sequence of resistance and endurance training on body fat in elementary school-aged girls

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    Ana R. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years, were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R, Endurance-only (E, Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER, Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER, Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE, and a Control group (C. In R and E, the subjects performed single sessions of resistance or endurance exercises, respectively (two days per week. In CDER, resistance-endurance training was performed on different days each week (four days per week. CPER and CPRE performed single-session combined endurance-resistance training or combined resistance-endurance training, respectively, each week (two days per week. After an 8-week training period, BFP decreased in all experimental groups (CPER: 13.3%, p0.05; and CDER: 5.6%, p>0.05. However, a significant difference was found in CPER and CPRE when compared to CDER, E, and R, indicating that training sequence may influence BFP. All programmes were effective, but CPER and CPRE obtained better results for BFP than CDER, E, or R. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage can be mediated by order and sequence of exercise. These results provide insight into optimization of school-based fat loss exercise programmes in childhood.

  20. The chlamydial type III secretion mechanism: Revealing cracks in a tough nut

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    Helen Jennifer Betts-Hampikian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Present-day members of the Chlamydiaceae contain parasitic bacteria that have been co-evolving with their eukaryotic hosts over hundreds of millions of years. Likewise, a type III secretion system encoded within all genomes has been refined to complement the unique obligate intracellular niche colonized so successfully by Chlamydia spp. All this adaptation has occurred in the apparent absence of the horizontal gene transfer responsible for creating the wide range of diversity in other Gram-negative, type III-expressing bacteria. The result is a system that is, in many ways, uniquely chlamydial. A critical mass of information has been amassed that sheds significant light on how the chlamydial secretion system functions and contributes to an obligate intracellular lifestyle. Although the overall mechanism is certainly similar to homologous systems, an image has emerged where the chlamydial secretion system is essential for both survival and virulence. Numerous differences, some subtle and some profound, differentiate chlamydial type III secretion from others. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge regarding the Chlamydia type III secretion mechanism. We focus on the aspects that are distinctly chlamydial and comment on how this important system influences chlamydial pathogenesis. Gaining a grasp on this fascinating system has been challenging in the absence of a tractable genetic system. However, the surface of this tough nut has been scored and the future promises to be fruitful and revealing.

  1. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

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    Travis J Jewett

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  2. Effects of Daily Physical Activity on the Body Composition and Physical Fitness of Upper Grade Elementary School Students in Kumamoto City

    OpenAIRE

    大石, 康晴; オオイシ, ヤスハル; Oishi, Yasuharu

    2011-01-01

    In my previous study (Oishi, 2010), I have reported the changes of body growth and physical fitness levels of the junior high school students in the Kumamoto University. In this paper, I analyzed the body growth and the effects of daily sports activity on the physical fitness levels of the upper grade students of elementary school in the Kumamoto city.A total of 5092 students were divided into daily sports or non-sport group, and their sports test data for 1) hand grip strength, 2) side step...

  3. Secretion of the chlamydial virulence factor CPAF requires the Sec-dependent pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding; Lei, Lei; Lu, Chunxue; Flores, Rhonda; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Roberts, Tucker C.; Romesberg, Floyd E.; Zhong, Guangming

    2010-01-01

    The chlamydial protease/proteasome-like activity factor (CPAF) is secreted into the host cytosol to degrade various host factors that benefit chlamydial intracellular survival. Although the full-length CPAF is predicted to contain a putative signal peptide at its N terminus, the secretion pathway of CPAF is still unknown. Here, we have provided experimental evidence that the N-terminal sequence covering the M1–G31 region was cleaved from CPAF during chlamydial infection. The CPAF N-terminal sequence, when expressed in a phoA gene fusion construct, was able to direct the export of the mature PhoA protein across the inner membrane of wild-type Escherichia coli. However, E. coli mutants deficient in SecB failed to support the CPAF signal-peptide-directed secretion of PhoA. Since native PhoA secretion was known to be independent of SecB, this SecB dependence must be rendered by the CPAF leader peptide. Furthermore, lack of SecY function also blocked the CPAF signal-peptide-directed secretion of PhoA. Most importantly, CPAF secretion into the host cell cytosol during chlamydial infection was selectively inhibited by an inhibitor specifically targeting type I signal peptidase but not by a type III secretion-system-specific inhibitor. Together, these observations have demonstrated that the chlamydial virulence factor CPAF relies on Sec-dependent transport for crossing the chlamydial inner membrane, which has provided essential information for further delineating the pathways of CPAF action and understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:20522495

  4. The Incidence of Co-occurrence of Chlamydial Cervicitis with Bacterial Vaginosis

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    Yusefi S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an imbalance in normal vaginal bacterial flora mainly caused by the introduction of pathogenic bacteria. Failure to properly treat this condition can not only induce abortion but also increase the chance of acquiring other serious infections such as AIDS, gonorrhea and chlamydiosis. Chlamydia trchomatis is one of the causative agents of cervicitis of which 70% is totally asymptomatic. Untreated cases can lead to salpengititis, pelvic inflammatory diseases, infertility, pelvic area pains and other complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of these two conditions.Methods: A total of 137 patients were examined for both Chlamydial cervicitis and for bacterial vaginosis. Gram stain was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and anti-chlamydial antibodies were titered by microimmunofluoresence (MIF assay. Results: According to the MIF results, 10 patients(7.3% had elevated anti-chlamydial IgG and 3 patients (2.2% showed high IgM titers. Gardnerella vaginalis was detected in 6 patients(4.7% as the causative agent of vaginosis. There were 3 cases of co-occurrence of chlamydial cervicitis and bacterial vaginosis (30%. Conclusion: Due to the fact that bacterial vaginosis can provide the pre-disposing conditions for cervicitis and its chronicity and the similarity of the cilinical singns of these two conditions, Infections with Chlamydia are often overlooked. It therefore seems necessary to check any patient with bacterial vaginosis for chlamydial co-infection.

  5. Interventions to increase rescreening for repeat chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Rebecca; Hocking, Jane; Low, Nicola; Ali, Hammad; Bauer, Heidi M; Walker, Jenny; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M

    2012-02-01

    Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis following treatment is common and increases the risk of sequelae. Despite clinical guidelines recommending rescreening within 3 months of treatment, rescreening rates remain low. We undertook a systematic review to identify studies that compared rates of rescreening for repeat chlamydial infection between patients receiving and not receiving an intervention. We searched Medline, EMBASE, and conference Web sites from 2000 to September 2010 using variations of the terms "chlamydia" and "rescreening" and "intervention." We used meta-analysis to calculate the overall relative risk (RR) effect on rescreening rates by study design and strategy type. We identified 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 4 controlled observational studies, all conducted in the United States. Four RCTs assessed mailed screening kits ± reminders, with an average effect estimate of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.50); 2 RCTs assessed motivational interviewing ± reminders with a summary effect of 2.15 (95% CI: 0.92-3.37); one RCT evaluated the effect of reminders with a RR of 9.67 (95% CI: 1.31-71.31), and another RCT assessed the effect of a $20 patient incentive with a RR of 1.16 (95% CI: 0.62-2.17). Three controlled observational studies assessed reminder strategies with RRs of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.76-2.21), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.66-1.55), and 1.88 (95% CI: 1.58-2.24)-a summary effect was not calculated due to significant heterogeneity; and one controlled observational study assessed the promotion of clinical guidelines with a RR of 1.35 (95% CI: 0.96-1.90). The review suggests that the use of mailed screening kits is an important strategy to increase rescreening, reminder systems are promising, and motivational interviewing is worth investigation.

  6. Impact of capsaicin, an active component of chili pepper, on pathogenic chlamydial growth (Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae) in immortal human epithelial HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kazuya; Matsuo, Junji; Okubo, Torahiko; Nakamura, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Capsaicin, a component of chili pepper, which can stimulate actin remodeling via capsaicin receptor TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) and anti-inflammatory effects via PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) and LXRα (liver X receptor α), is a potential candidate to control chlamydial growth in host cells. We examined whether capsaicin could inhibit C. trachomatis growth in immortal human epithelial HeLa cells. Inclusion forming unit and quantitative PCR assays showed that capsaicin significantly inhibited bacterial growth in cells in a dose-dependent manner, even in the presence of cycloheximide, a eukaryotic protein synthesis inhibitor. Confocal microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations revealed an obvious decrease in bacterial numbers to inclusions bodies formed in the cells. Although capsaicin can stimulate the apoptosis of cells, no increase in cleaved PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), an apoptotic indicator, was observed at a working concentration. All of the drugs tested (capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist; 5CPPSS-50, an LXRα inhibitor; and T0070907, a PPARγ inhibitor) had no effect on chlamydial inhibition in the presence of capsaicin. In addition, we also confirmed that capsaicin inhibited Chlamydia pneumoniae growth, indicating a phenomena not specific to C. trachomatis. Thus, we conclude that capsaicin can block chlamydial growth without the requirement of host cell protein synthesis, but by another, yet to be defined, mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chlamydial infection and spatial ascension of the female genital tract: a novel hybrid cellular automata and continuum mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Dann G.; Heymer, Kelly-Jean; Rank, Roger G.; Wilson, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Sexually transmitted chlamydial infection initially establishes in the endocervix in females but if the infection ascends the genital tract significant disease, including infertility, can result. Many of the mechanisms associated with chlamydial infection kinetics and disease ascension are unknown. We attempt to elucidate some of these processes by developing a novel mathematical model, employing a cellular automata-partial differential equation model. We matched our model outputs to experimental data of chlamydial infection of the guinea pig cervix and carried out sensitivity analyses to determine the relative influence of model parameters. We found that the rate of recruitment and action of innate immune cells to clear extracellular chlamydial particles and the rate of passive movement of chlamydial particles are the dominant factors in determining the early course of infection, magnitude of the peak chlamydial time-course and the time of the peak. The rate of passive movement was found to be the most important factor in determining whether infection would ascend to the upper genital tract. This study highlights the importance of early innate immunity in the control of chlamydial infection and the significance of motility-diffusive properties and the adaptive immune response in the magnitude of infection and in its ascension. PMID:19735471

  8. Characterization of in vitro chlamydial cultures in low-oxygen atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Jensen, Helene; Hvid, Malene

    2007-01-01

    To mimic in vivo conditions during chlamydial infections, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D and Chlamydia pneumoniae CWL029 were cultured in low-oxygen atmospheres containing 4% O(2), with parallel controls cultured in atmospheric air. Both were enriched with 5% CO(2). The results showed a dramatic...

  9. Prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections among young adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William C; Ford, Carol A; Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark S; Schmitz, John L; Hobbs, Marcia M; Cohen, Myron S; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Udry, J Richard

    2004-05-12

    Chlamydial and gonococcal infections are important causes of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Although screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is widely recommended among young adult women, little information is available regarding the prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in the general young adult population. To determine the prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in a nationally representative sample of young adults living in the United States. Cross-sectional analyses of a prospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of 14,322 young adults aged 18 to 26 years. In-home interviews were conducted across the United States for Wave III of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) from April 2, 2001, to May 9, 2002. This study sample represented 66.3% of the original 18,924 participants in Wave I of Add Health. First-void urine specimens using ligase chain reaction assay were available for 12,548 (87.6%) of the Wave III participants. Prevalences of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in the general young adult population, and by age, self-reported race/ethnicity, and geographic region of current residence. Overall prevalence of chlamydial infection was 4.19% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.48%-4.90%). Women (4.74%; 95% CI, 3.93%-5.71%) were more likely to be infected than men (3.67%; 95% CI, 2.93%-4.58%; prevalence ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.03-1.63). The prevalence of chlamydial infection was highest among black women (13.95%; 95% CI, 11.25%-17.18%) and black men (11.12%; 95% CI, 8.51%-14.42%); lowest prevalences were among Asian men (1.14%; 95% CI, 0.40%-3.21%), white men (1.38%; 95% CI, 0.93%-2.03%), and white women (2.52%; 95% CI, 1.90%-3.34%). Prevalence of chlamydial infection was highest in the south (5.39%; 95% CI, 4.24%-6.83%) and lowest in the northeast (2.39%; 95% CI, 1.56%-3.65%). Overall prevalence of gonorrhea was 0.43% (95% CI, 0.29%-0.63%). Among black men and

  10. Relationship of lifestyle and body stature growth with the development of myopia and axial length elongation in Taiwanese elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Ying; Hou, Chiun-Ho; Lin, Ken-Kuo; Lee, Jiahn-Shing; Yang, Meng-Ling

    2014-08-01

    The development of myopia and growth of the eye, occur at a time when body stature is increasing. To investigate the relationship of lifestyle and body growth with axial elongation and myopia development among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years. Prospective study. Children in elementary schools without serious eye disorders were invited to participate. We measured cycloplegic refraction, corneal curvature, intraocular pressure, axial length, body height, and weight. Questionnaires about the children's daily lifestyles, family members' myopia and parents' socio-demographic status were completed. The children were followed up every 6 months in a 3-year period. Bivariate correlations, simple and multiple regression. Eighty-eight children participated in this study. Forty-eight were myopic at the beginning of the study, and their myopia correlated with longer axial length and parental myopia (P = 0.015, 0.012). Sixty-five children (74%) completed the study, and the rates of change per year were -0.43 ± 0.58 (mean + standard deviation) diopters in spherical equivalence, 0.32 ± 0.25 mm in axial length (AL), 5.73 ± 2.71 cm in body height, and 3.84 ± 2.23 kg in weight. The axial length change was positively correlated with the height change (P children aged 7-9 years. Genetic factors such as parental myopia and body height had a possible influence on myopia development, and the environment factor as near work intensity was related to myopia progression.

  11. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  12. Host Nectin-1 Promotes Chlamydial Infection in the Female Mouse Genital Tract, but Is Not Required for Infection in a Novel Male Murine Rectal Infection Model.

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    Jessica A Slade

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen, but more than 70% of patients fail to seek treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of these infections. Women suffer from numerous complications from chronic chlamydial infections, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. We previously demonstrated in culture that host cell nectin-1 knockdown significantly reduced chlamydial titers and inclusion size. Here, we sought to determine whether nectin-1 was required for chlamydial development in vivo by intravaginally infecting nectin-1-/- mice with Chlamydia muridarum and monitoring chlamydial shedding by chlamydial titer assay. We observed a significant reduction in chlamydial shedding in female nectin-1-/- mice compared to nectin-1+/+ control mice, an observation that was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical staining in mouse cervical tissue confirmed that there are fewer chlamydial inclusions in Chlamydia-infected nectin-1-/- mice. Notably, anorectal chlamydial infections are becoming a substantial health burden, though little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. We therefore established a novel male murine model of rectal chlamydial infection, which we used to determine whether nectin-1 is required for anorectal chlamydial infection in male mice. In contrast to the data from vaginal infection, no difference in rectal chlamydial shedding was observed when male nectin-1+/+ and nectin-1-/- mice were compared. Through the use of these two models, we have demonstrated that nectin-1 promotes chlamydial infection in the female genital tract but does not appear to contribute to rectal infection in male mice. These models could be used to further characterize tissue and sex related differences in chlamydial infection.

  13. Comprehensive in silico prediction and analysis of chlamydial outer membrane proteins reflects evolution and life style of the Chlamydiae

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    Myers Garry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising some of the most important bacterial pathogens of animals and humans. Although chlamydial outer membrane proteins play a key role for attachment to and entry into host cells, only few have been described so far. We developed a comprehensive, multiphasic in silico approach, including the calculation of clusters of orthologues, to predict outer membrane proteins using conservative criteria. We tested this approach using Escherichia coli (positive control and Bacillus subtilis (negative control, and applied it to five chlamydial species; Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila caviae, and Protochlamydia amoebophila. Results In total, 312 chlamydial outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins in 88 orthologous clusters were identified, including 238 proteins not previously recognized to be located in the outer membrane. Analysis of their taxonomic distribution revealed an evolutionary conservation among Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes as well as lifestyle-dependent conservation of the chlamydial outer membrane protein composition. Conclusion This analysis suggested a correlation between the outer membrane protein composition and the host range of chlamydiae and revealed a common set of outer membrane proteins shared by these intracellular bacteria. The collection of predicted chlamydial outer membrane proteins is available at the online database pCOMP http://www.microbial-ecology.net/pcomp and might provide future guidance in the quest for anti-chlamydial vaccines.

  14. Discovery of chlamydial peptidoglycan reveals bacteria with murein sacculi but without FtsZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biboy, Jacob; Gray, Joe; Kuru, Erkin; Hall, Edward; Brun, Yves V.; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Horn, Matthias; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydiae are important pathogens and symbionts, with unique cell biology features. They lack the cell-division protein FtsZ, which functions in maintaining cell shape and orchestrating cell division in almost all other bacteria. In addition, the existence of peptidoglycan (PG) in chlamydial cell envelopes has been highly controversial. Using electron cryotomography, mass spectrometry and fluorescent labeling dyes, here we show that some environmental chlamydiae have cell-wall sacculi consisting of an unusual PG type. Treatment with fosfomycin (a PG synthesis inhibitor) leads to lower infection rates and aberrant cell shapes, suggesting that PG synthesis is crucial for the chlamydial life cycle. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of PG in a member of the Chlamydiae. They also present a unique example of a bacterium with a PG sacculus but without FtsZ, challenging the current hypothesis that it is the absence of a cell wall that renders FtsZ non-essential. PMID:24292151

  15. MicroRNAs Modulate Pathogenesis Resulting from Chlamydial Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Pouncey, Dakota L.; Eledge, Michael R.; Bhattacharya, Sudeepa; Luo, Chunqiao; Weatherford, Erin W.; Ojcius, David M.; Rank, Roger G.

    2016-01-01

    Not all women infected with chlamydiae develop upper genital tract disease, but the reason(s) for this remains undefined. Host genetics and hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle are possible explanations for variable infection outcomes. It is also possible that disease severity depends on the virulence of the chlamydial inoculum. It is likely that the inoculum contains multiple genetic variants, differing in virulence. If the virulent variants dominate, then the individual is m...

  16. Prevalence of chlamydial infections in fattening pigs and their influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Karolin; Schott, Franziska; Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Hässig, Michael; Wanninger, Sabrina; Sidler, Xaver; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at ...

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydial Infections in Fattening Pigs and Their Influencing Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolin Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infections in pigs are associated with respiratory disease, diarrhea, conjunctivitis and other pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae in Swiss fattening pigs by applying sensitive and specific detection methods and to correlate prior antibiotic treatment and farm related factors with differences in prevalence. Conjunctival and fecal swabs were collected from 636 pigs in 29 Swiss fattening pig farms with and without antibiotic treatment, at the beginning and the end of the fattening period. The swabs were screened by real-time PCR for Chlamydiaceae. For the chlamydial detection and species-identification, a DNA-microarray analysis was performed. All farms were positive for Chlamydiaceae with 94.3 and 92.0% prevalence in fecal swabs as well as 45.9 and 32.6% in conjunctival swabs at the first and second time points, respectively. Antibiotic treatment could not clear the infection on herd level. Potential contact with wild boars was a significant risk factor, while hygiene criteria did not influence chlamydial prevalence. A correlation of chlamydial positivity to diarrhea, but not to conjunctivitis was evident. Chlamydia suis was the predominant species. Mixed infections with C. suis and C. pecorum were common, with a substantial increase in C. pecorum positivity at the end of the fattening period, and this finding was associated with ruminant contact. C. abortus was detected in one conjunctival swab. In this study, C. suis inhabited the intestinal tract of nearly all examined pigs, implying a long-term infection. C. pecorum was also common and might be transmitted to pigs by ruminants.

  18. Diagnosis of chlamydial infection in women attending antenatal and gynecologic clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. W.; Rogers, R. E.; Katz, B.P.; Brickler, J F; Lineback, P L; Pol, B; Jones, R B

    1987-01-01

    Two antigen detection systems (MicroTrak [MT], Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.; and Chlamydiazyme [CZ], Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) were compared with semiquantitative culture for diagnosis of chlamydial infection in 1,059 patients. Cultures were done on microtiter plates and blind passaged once. Culture-negative but CZ- or MT-positive specimens were recultured. True positives were positive by either initial or repeat cultures. Of 827 nonpregnant and 231 pregnant patients, 9.1 and 1...

  19. The novel chlamydial adhesin CPn0473 mediates the lipid raft-dependent uptake of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechtner, Tim; Galle, Jan N; Hegemann, Johannes H

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Chlamydial surface molecules are essential for host cell invasion. The first interaction with the host cell is thereby accomplished by the Outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) binding to heparan sulfate moieties on the host cell surface, followed by the interaction of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with host cell receptors. Specifically, the interaction of the Pmp21 adhesin and invasin with its human interaction partner, the epidermal growth factor receptor, results in receptor activation, down-stream signalling and finally internalization of the bacteria. Blocking both, the OmcB and Pmp21 adhesion pathways, did not completely abolish infection, suggesting the presence of additional factors relevant for host cell invasion. Here, we show that the novel surface protein CPn0473 of Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the binding and invasion of infectious chlamydial particles. CPn0473 is expressed late in the infection cycle and located on the infectious chlamydial cell surface. Soluble recombinant CPn0473 as well as rCPn0473-coupled fluorescent latex beads adhere to human epithelial HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, in classical infection blocking experiments pretreatment of HEp-2 cells with rCPn0473 does not attenuate adhesion but promotes dose-dependently internalization by C. pneumoniae suggesting an unusual mode of action for this adhesin. This CPn0473-dependent promotion of infection by C. pneumoniae depends on two different domains within the protein and requires intact lipid rafts. Thus, inhibition of the interaction of CPn0473 with the host cell could provide a way to reduce the virulence of C. pneumoniae. © 2016 The Authors Cellular Microbiology Publised by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Recent trends in chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis among neonates and adults in an Irish hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quirke, Michael

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are two important and frequently overlooked causes of neonatal and adult conjunctivitis. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: In order to improve primary treatment, prevention, and control of infection caused by these organisms, an analysis of all cases presenting from July 2002 to December 2006 at a major Irish regional teaching hospital was performed. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of conjunctivitis in total. Among neonates and adults, C. trachomatis was the most common cause of conjunctivitis. Of the adult patients, 75% were men. The annual incidence of adult chlamydial conjunctivitis increased yearly from 2002 and correlated with an overall increase in genital chlamydia infection in the region. Neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis has an overall incidence of 0.65\\/1000 live births and is continuing to rise annually. In 2006, gonococcal conjunctivitis accounted for 20% of all cases of conjunctivitis caused by sexually transmitted bacteria presenting to our hospital. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in the incidence of gonococcal keratitis serves to remind us that this important infection should be borne in mind when treating cases of purulent conjunctivitis. The diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal conjunctivitis requires a high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with systemic antibiotics.

  1. Chlamydial IgG and IgM assessment in patients with non infectious ophthalmic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi Amoli F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Chlamydia Trachomatis is the most common cause of trachoma and subsequently give rise to neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis (NCC, adult ophthalmic inclusion infection, sexually transmitted diseases (STD and pneumonia. The goal of this study was to access the incidence of chlamydia trachomatis in the normal (ophthalmic infection free population. "nMethods: In a cross sectional study 250 patients referring to Farabi Eye university Hospital Tehran, Iran for non infectious ophthalmic disease in different age categories were selected and accessed for chlamydial IgM and IgG by ELISA method. "nResults: 250 patients (50% men and 50% women with the mean age of 40 (ranging from one to 83 years old were tested. IgG was detected in 11 (five females and six males patients (4.4% All of them had more than 31 years old. IgM was detected in 18 (13 females and 5 males patients (7.2%. No test revealed simultaneous high IgG and IgM titre in the same patient. "nConclusions: There was a low grade of chlamydial infection in our study population. So it is recommended to use serological methods for screening of ophthalmic infections in centers where no other test methods are available and in case of positive results confirmatory antigen tests to be used.

  2. Identification of MHCII variants associated with chlamydial disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus

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    Quintin Lau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiosis, the most common infectious disease in koalas, can cause chronic urogenital tract fibrosis and infertility. High titres of serum immunoglobulin G against 10 kDa and 60 kDa chlamydial heat-shock proteins (c-hsp10 and c-hsp60 are associated with fibrous occlusion of the koala uterus and uterine tube. Murine and human studies have identified associations between specific major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII alleles or genotypes, and higher c-hsp 60 antibody levels or chlamydia-associated disease and infertility. In this study, we characterised partial MHCII DAB and DBB genes in female koalas (n = 94 from a single geographic population, and investigated associations among antibody responses to c-hsp60 quantified by ELISA, susceptibility to chlamydial infection, or age. The identification of three candidate MHCII variants provides additional support for the functional role of MHCII in the koala, and will inform more focused future studies. This is the first study to investigate an association between MHC genes with chlamydial pathogenesis in a non-model, free-ranging species.

  3. Was the Chlamydial Adaptative Strategy to Tryptophan Starvation an Early Determinant of Plastid Endosymbiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Ugo; Ducatez, Mathieu; Kadouche, Derifa; Colleoni, Christophe; Ball, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiales were recently proposed to have sheltered the future cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids in a common inclusion. The intracellular pathogens are thought to have donated those critical transporters that triggered the efflux of photosynthetic carbon and the consequent onset of symbiosis. Chlamydiales are also suspected to have encoded glycogen metabolism TTS (Type Three Secretion) effectors responsible for photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the eukaryotic cytosol. We now review the reasons underlying other chlamydial lateral gene transfers evidenced in the descendants of plastid endosymbiosis. In particular we show that half of the genes encoding enzymes of tryptophan synthesis in Archaeplastida are of chlamydial origin. Tryptophan concentration is an essential cue triggering two alternative modes of replication in Chlamydiales. In addition, sophisticated tryptophan starvation mechanisms are known to act as antibacterial defenses in animal hosts. We propose that Chlamydiales have donated their tryptophan operon to the emerging plastid to ensure increased synthesis of tryptophan by the plastid ancestor. This would have allowed massive expression of the tryptophan rich chlamydial transporters responsible for symbiosis. It would also have allowed possible export of this valuable amino-acid in the inclusion of the tryptophan hungry pathogens. Free-living single cell cyanobacteria are devoid of proteins able to transport this amino-acid. We therefore investigated the phylogeny of the Tyr/Trp transporters homologous to E. coli TyrP/Mre and found yet another LGT from Chlamydiales to Archaeplastida thereby considerably strengthening our proposal.

  4. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  5. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norkin Leonard C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid raft domains form in plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells by the tight packing of glycosphingolipids and cholesterol. Caveolae are invaginated structures that form in lipid raft domains when the protein caveolin-1 is expressed. The Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate entirely within inclusions that develop from the phagocytic vacuoles in which they enter. We recently found that host cell caveolin-1 is associated with the intracellular vacuoles and inclusions of some chlamydial strains and species, and that entry of those strains depends on intact lipid raft domains. Caveolin-2 is another member of the caveolin family of proteins that is present in caveolae, but of unknown function. Methods We utilized a caveolin-1 negative/caveolin-2 positive FRT cell line and laser confocal immunofluorescence techniques to visualize the colocalization of caveolin-2 with the chlamydial inclusions. Results We show here that in infected HeLa cells, caveolin-2, as well as caveolin-1, colocalizes with inclusions of C. pneumoniae (Cp, C. caviae (GPIC, and C. trachomatis serovars E, F and K. In addition, caveolin-2 also associates with C. trachomatis serovars A, B and C, although caveolin-1 did not colocalize with these organisms. Moreover, caveolin-2 appears to be specifically, or indirectly, associated with the pathogens at the inclusion membranes. Using caveolin-1 deficient FRT cells, we show that although caveolin-2 normally is not transported out of the Golgi in the absence of caveolin-1, it nevertheless colocalizes with chlamydial inclusions in these cells. However, our results also show that caveolin-2 did not colocalize with UV-irradiated Chlamydia in FRT cells, suggesting that in these caveolin-1 negative cells, pathogen viability and very likely pathogen gene expression are necessary for the acquisition of caveolin-2 from the Golgi. Conclusion Caveolin-2 associates with the chlamydial

  6. Effect of a two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in body mass index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, Danielle; Messiah, Sarah E; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Hollar, T Lucas; Almon, Marie; Agatston, Arthur S

    2010-04-01

    We assessed the effects of a school-based obesity prevention intervention that included dietary, curricula, and physical activity components on body mass index (BMI) percentiles and academic performance among low-income elementary school children. The study had a quasi-experimental design (4 intervention schools and 1 control school; 4588 schoolchildren; 48% Hispanic) and was conducted over a 2-year period. Data are presented for the subset of the cohort who qualified for free or reduced-price school lunches (68% Hispanic; n = 1197). Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in the fall and spring of each year, and academic data were collected at the end of each year. Significantly more intervention than control children stayed within normal BMI percentile ranges both years (P = .02). Although not significantly so, more obese children in the intervention (4.4%) than in the control (2.5%) decreased their BMI percentiles. Overall, intervention schoolchildren had significantly higher math scores both years (P < .001). Hispanic and White intervention schoolchildren were significantly more likely to have higher math scores (P < .001). Although not significantly so, intervention schoolchildren had higher reading scores both years. School-based interventions can improve health and academic performance among low-income schoolchildren.

  7. Chlamydial infections in wildlife-conservation threats and/or reservoirs of 'spill-over' infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Delaney; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-11-30

    Members of the order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular pathogens known to cause disease in both humans and animals. As we learn more about the genetic diversity of this group of pathogens, evidence is growing that these bacteria infect a broader range of animal hosts than previously thought. Over 400 host species are now documented globally with the majority of these being wild animals. Given the impact of chlamydial infections on humans and domesticated animals, the identification of members of the order Chlamydiales in wildlife raises significant questions over a) their impact on animal health and b) the relationships to those strains also found in humans and domestic animals. In some species such as the iconic marsupial, the koala, the conservation impact is known with chlamydial infections associated with debilitating disease, however, in general, little is known about the pathogenic potential of Chlamydiae infecting most wildlife hosts. Accumulating evidence suggests contact with wild animals is a risk factor for infections in domestic animals and/or humans. Beyond the well-recognised zoonotic pathogen, Chlamydia psittaci, a range of studies have now reported traditional pathogens in the family Chlamydiaceae such as Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus in wild animals. The spectre of cross-host transmission 'spill-over' and 'spill-back' in the epidemiology of infections is of potential concern, however, comprehensive epidemiological studies are lacking for most of these. Accurate evaluation of the significance of chlamydial infections in wildlife is otherwise hampered by i) the cross-sectional nature of most impact studies, ii) a lack of standardised diagnostic approaches, iii) limited study sizes, and iv) biases associated with opportunistic sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-09

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High frequency of chlamydial co-infections in clinically healthy sheep flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachse Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiological situation of ovine chlamydial infections in continental Europe, especially Germany is poorly characterised. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the chlamydial sero- and antigen prevalence was estimated in thirty-two randomly selected sheep flocks with an average abortion rate lower than 1%. Seven vaccinated flocks were reviewed separately. Results A wide range of samples from 32 flocks were examined. Assumption of a seroprevalence of 10% (CI 95% at flock level, revealed that 94% of the tested flocks were serologically positive with ongoing infection (i.e. animals with seroconversion in nearly half (47% of the flocks. On the basis of an estimated 25% antigen prevalence (CI 95%, PCR and DNA microarray testing, together with sequencing revealed the presence of chlamydiae in 78% of the flocks. The species most frequently found was Chlamydophila (C. abortus (50% followed by C. pecorum (47% and C. psittaci genotype A (25%. Mixed infections occurred in 25% of the tested flocks. Samples obtained from the vaccinated flocks revealed the presence of C. abortus field samples in 4/7 flocks. C. pecorum was isolated from 2/7 flocks and the presence of seroconversion was determined in 3/7 flocks. Conclusions The results imply that chlamydial infections occur frequently in German sheep flocks, even in the absence of elevated abortion rates. The fact that C. pecorum and the potentially zoonotic C. psittaci were found alongside the classical abortifacient agent C. abortus, raise questions about the significance of this reservoir for animal and human health and underline the necessity for regular monitoring. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of C. psittaci infections in sheep.

  10. Interleukin 17A is an immune marker for chlamydial disease severity and pathogenesis in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Marina; Waugh, Courtney; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is an iconic Australian marsupial species that is facing many threats to its survival. Chlamydia pecorum infections are a significant contributor to this ongoing decline. A major limiting factor in our ability to manage and control chlamydial disease in koalas is a limited understanding of the koala's cell-mediated immune response to infections by this bacterial pathogen. To identify immunological markers associated with chlamydial infection and disease in koalas, we used koala-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qrtPCR) assays to profile the cytokine responses of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) collected from 41 koalas with different stages of chlamydial disease. Target cytokines included the principal Th1 (Interferon gamma; IFNγ), Th2 (Interleukin 10; IL10), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha; TNFα). A novel koala-specific IL17A qrtPCR assay was also developed as part of this study to quantitate the gene expression of this Th17 cytokine in koalas. A statistically significant higher IL17A gene expression was observed in animals with current chlamydial disease compared to animals with asymptomatic chlamydial infection. A modest up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα and IFNγ, was also observed in these animals with signs of current chlamydial disease. IL10 gene expression was not evident in the majority of animals from both groups. Future longitudinal studies are now required to confirm the role played by cytokines in pathology and/or protection against C. pecorum infection in the koala. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Combined treatment of complicated chlamydial infection in males with ozone therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neĭmark, A I; Kondrat'eva, Iu S

    2008-01-01

    Urogenital chlamydial monoinfection was diagnosed in 127 males using enzyme immunoassay, polymerase chain reaction, transrectal ultrasound examination of the prostatic gland. Of them, 72 patients had chronic urethroprostatitis. Microhemodynamics of these patients was studied with laser doppler flowmetry of the prostate and urethra. The patients received etiotropic therapy with fromilide, regional transurethral and transrectal ozone therapy. The symptoms relieved in 4-6 weeks. Repeated enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction stated elimination of the infective agent. Improvement of hemodynamics and urethral, prostatic microcirculation was stated after administration of regional ozone therapy.

  12. Elementary algebra

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1981-01-01

    Elementary Algebra 2e, Second Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first tackles the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the substitution method, solving linear systems by graphing, solutions to linear equations in two variables, multiplication property of equality, word problems, addition property of equality, and subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division of real numbers. The manuscript then examines exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational e

  13. Elementary algebra

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1986-01-01

    Elementary Algebra, Third Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first ponders on the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the elimination method, solving linear systems by graphing, word problems, addition property of equality, solving linear equations, linear inequalities, addition and subtraction of real numbers, and properties of real numbers. The text then takes a look at exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational expressions. Topics include reducing ra

  14. The WHO programme for prevention and control of viral, chlamydial, and rickettsial diseases. Brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, F A; Schild, G C

    1983-01-01

    Through the advancement of biological and medical sciences and the application of modern technology, the disease burden imposed by viral, chlamydial and rickettsial disease has steadily decreased. Smallpox has been eradicated, poliomyelitis is under control in many countries, and measles, mumps and rubella viruses may eventually be eliminated in many developed countries. New and improved vaccines have also recently become available for rabies and hepatitis. These are major advancements. Not to be overshadowed however, are the developments which may lead to the prevention or control of other infectious diseases. For many agents, recently acquired knowledge relating to virology, replication, structural and genetic characteristics, and host responses to infection pave the way for disease intervention in numerous ways. For other agents, recent advances in molecular biology make possible new classes of effective vaccines. It is crucial that these advances be incorporated as soon as possible into effective public health programmes for developing as well as developed nations. Much work yet remains, particularly in the prevention and control of respiratory diseases, diarrhoeal diseases, vector-borne diseases and hepatitis. The WHO Viral Diseases Programme has a major role in supporting laboratory and field research on new technologies and intervention strategies, in disseminating technological advances through teaching and training, and in translating the newer knowledge into action programmes for the prevention and control of viral, chlamydial and rickettsial diseases.

  15. Horizontal gene transfer of chlamydial-like tRNA genes into early vascular plant mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, Nils; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial genomes of lycophytes are surprisingly diverse, including strikingly different transfer RNA (tRNA) gene complements: No mitochondrial tRNA genes are present in the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii, whereas 26 tRNAs are encoded in the chondrome of the clubmoss Huperzia squarrosa. Reinvestigating the latter we found that trnL(gag) and trnS(gga) had never before been identified in any other land plant mitochondrial DNA. Sensitive sequence comparisons showed these two tRNAs as well as trnN(guu) and trnS(gcu) to be very similar to their respective counterparts in chlamydial bacteria. We identified homologs of these chlamydial-type tRNAs also in other lycophyte, fern, and gymnosperm DNAs, suggesting horizontal gene transfer (HGT) into mitochondria in the early vascular plant stem lineages. These findings extend plant mitochondrial HGT to affect individual tRNA genes, to include bacterial donors, and suggest that Chlamydiae on top of their recently proposed key role in primary chloroplast establishment may also have participated in early tracheophyte genome evolution. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Targeted delivery of antibiotics to intracellular chlamydial infections using PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toti, Udaya S; Guru, Bharath R; Hali, Mirabela; McPharlin, Christopher M; Wykes, Susan M; Panyam, Jayanth; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae are intracellular bacterial pathogens that have been shown to cause, or are strongly associated with, diverse chronic diseases. Persistent infections by both organisms are refractory to antibiotic therapy. The lack of therapeutic efficacy results from the attenuated metabolic rate of persistently infecting chlamydiae in combination with the modest intracellular drug concentrations achievable by normal delivery of antibiotics to the inclusions within which chlamydiae reside in the host cell cytoplasm. In this research, we evaluated whether nanoparticles formulated using the biodegradable poly(d-L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer can enhance the delivery of antibiotics to the chlamydial inclusion complexes. We initially studied the trafficking of PLGA nanoparticles in Chlamydia-infected cells. We then evaluated nanoparticles for the delivery of antibiotics to the inclusions. Intracellular trafficking studies show that PLGA nanoparticles efficiently concentrate in inclusions in both acutely and persistently infected cells. Further, encapsulation of rifampin and azithromycin antibiotics in PLGA nanoparticles enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotics in reducing microbial burden. Combination of rifampin and azithromycin was more effective than the individual drugs. Overall, our studies show that PLGA nanoparticles can be effective carriers for targeted delivery of antibiotics to intracellular chlamydial infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate. Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

  18. The frequency of gonorrheal and chlamydial infections in Zanjanian women in 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Molaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in women. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gonorrheal and chlamydial infections and determination of related risk factors in married women with vaginal discharge attending gynecological outpatient department (OPD in Zanjan in 2013-2014. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 100 married women aged 18- 49 years with vaginal discharge were evaluated for signs and symptoms of gonococcal and chlamydial infections. Then cervical discharge samples and blood samples were collected from each subject for the detection of Nisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis by bacterial culture and serological tests, respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Nisseria gonorrhoeae were 16% and 4%, respectively. There was no significant relationship between the contraception methods, previous history of vaginal infections, previous history of urinary tract infections, number of coitus per week and self-reported symptoms (itching, burning, abdominal pain with prevalence of Nisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Conclusion: According to our results, the prevalence of gonococci infection in Zanjan was remarkable and relatively was higher than other parts of Iran, therefore it is necessary to put emphasis on education and further preventive and therapeutic programs.

  19. Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andre; Vastermark, Ake; Saier, Milton H

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporters (MCUs) (TC no. 1.A.77) are oligomeric channel proteins found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. MCUs have two well-conserved transmembrane segments (TMSs), connected by a linker, similar to bacterial MCU homologues. These proteins and chlamydial IncA proteins (of unknown function; TC no. 9.B.159) are homologous to prokaryotic Mg(2+) transporters, AtpI and AtpZ, based on comparison scores of up to 14.5 sds. A phylogenetic tree containing all of these proteins showed that the AtpZ proteins cluster coherently as a subset within the large and diverse AtpI cluster, which branches separately from the MCUs and IncAs, both of which cluster coherently. The MCUs and AtpZs share the same two TMS topology, but the AtpIs have four TMSs, and IncAs can have either two (most frequent) or four (less frequent) TMSs. Binary alignments, comparison scores and motif analyses showed that TMSs 1 and 2 align with TMSs 3 and 4 of the AtpIs, suggesting that the four TMS AtpI proteins arose via an intragenic duplication event. These findings establish an evolutionary link interconnecting eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transporters with chlamydial IncAs, and lead us to suggest that all members of the MCU superfamily, including IncAs, function as divalent cation channels. © 2014 The Authors.

  20. A holistic school-based intervention for improving health-related knowledge, body composition, and fitness in elementary school students: an evaluation of the HealthMPowers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachel M; Meyer, Adria; Kay, Christi; Allensworth, Diane; Gazmararian, Julie A

    2014-06-26

    Over the past 30 years, obesity in the United States has increased twofold in children and threefold in adolescents. In Georgia, nearly 17% of children aged 10 - 17 are obese. In response to the high prevalence of child obesity in Georgia and the potential deleterious consequences that this can have, HealthMPowers was founded in 1999 with the goal of preventing childhood obesity by improving health-enhancing behaviors in elementary schools, utilizing a holistic three-year program. This study measures the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in improving the school environment, student knowledge, behavior, cardiovascular fitness levels, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The present analysis utilizes data from 40 schools that worked with HealthMPowers over the course of the 2012 - 2013 school year (including schools at each of the three years of the intervention period) and provided information on demographics, student knowledge and behaviors, BMI, performance on the PACER test of aerobic capacity, and school practices and policies (measured via school self-assessment with the HealthMPowers-developed instrument "Continuous Improvement Tracking Tool" or CITT), measured at the beginning and end of each school year. Paired two-sample T tests were used to compare continuous variables (e.g., student knowledge scores, BMI-for-age Z scores), while chi-squared tests were used to assess categorical variables (e.g., trichotomized PACER performance). Students across all grades and cohorts demonstrated improvements in knowledge and self-reported behaviors, with particularly significant improvements for third-graders in schools in the second year of the HealthMPowers program (p schools tended to improve their practices over time, as measured via the CITT instrument. The present report demonstrates the effectiveness of the HealthMPowers program in producing positive change in school policies and practices, student knowledge and behaviors, and student fitness and BMI, supporting

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis today: treatment, detection, immunogenetics and the need for a greater global understanding of chlamydial disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D

    2009-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen causing a myriad of severe and debilitating diseases. While antibiotics have been a mainstay of treatment, there is increasing evidence for potential drug resistance, reinfection and persistent infections that require a reevaluation of treatment strategies. A critical need to address these issues will be a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic that can be used for global screening, treatment and test-of-cure of infected individuals instead of empirical therapy that not only drives drug resistance but is not costeffective. This type of diagnostic would allow clinicians and researchers to evaluate the true incidence and prevalence of chlamydial infections in both developed and developing countries. There are extremely limited data on chlamydial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in many developing countries, including those in Central and South America. In addition, advancing our understanding of chlamydial disease pathogenesis will require an evaluation of host genetic susceptibility to infection and sequelae. We provide preliminary data on rates of chlamydial STDs and host genetic factors that predispose to infection among adolescent pregnant and nonpregnant commercial sex worker populations residing in Quito, Ecuador. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  2. The prevalence and outcome of asymptomatic chlamydial infection screening among infertile women attending gynecological clinic in ibadan, South west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morhason-Bello, Io; Ojengbede, Oa; Oladokun, A; Adedokun, Bo; Ajayi, A; Adeyanju, Aa; Ogundepo, O; Kareem, Oi

    2014-03-01

    Chlamydial trachomatis infection is the most common cause of tubal infertility among women world-wide. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydial infection that may suggest previous, persistent or on-going infection is now incorporated into routine pre-treatment evaluation of infertile women including assisted conception. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and predictors of asymptomatic Chlamydial infection screening among infertile women and also to compare the screening outcome with findings on hysterosalpingogram (HSG). This was an observational study conducted among 132 infertile women that were attending Adeoyo Maternity Hospital Ibadan. A total volume of 2-3 ml of venous blood was collected for Chlamydia serology using ImmunoComb Bivalent immunoglobulin G kit (Code 50416002) and the results were compared with their HSG. Other information collected was socio-demographics and clinical parameters. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate tests were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 (Chicago, IL USA) and statistical significance was set at (P infertile for 5 years or less. The prevalence of Chlamydial trachomatis was 20.5% (27/132). Bivariate analysis between the biosocial variables and serology result showed a significant association with education (P infertile women and it positively predict HSG blockage. The serological test may prove invaluable in predicting the presence of tubal blockage; therefore, prophylactic antibiotics may be justified to be included in their care.

  3. Persistent and acute chlamydial infections induce different structural changes in the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiling; Li, Hongmei; Wang, Pu; Chen, Mukai; Huang, Zengwei; Li, Kunpeng; Li, Yinyin; He, Jian; Han, Jiande; Zhang, Qinfen

    2014-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a wide range of diseases that have a significant impact on public health. Acute chlamydial infections can cause fragmentation of the Golgi compartment ensuring the lipid transportation from the host cell. However, the changes that occur in the host cell Golgi apparatus after persistent infections are unclear. Here, we examined Golgi-associated gene (golga5) transcription and expression along with the structure of the Golgi apparatus in cells persistently infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The results showed that persistent infections caused little fragmentation of the Golgi. The results also revealed that Golgi fragmentation might be associated with the suppression of transcription of the gene golga5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnosis of chlamydial infection in women attending antenatal and gynecologic clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J W; Rogers, R E; Katz, B P; Brickler, J F; Lineback, P L; Van der Pol, B; Jones, R B

    1987-05-01

    Two antigen detection systems (MicroTrak [MT], Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.; and Chlamydiazyme [CZ], Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) were compared with semiquantitative culture for diagnosis of chlamydial infection in 1,059 patients. Cultures were done on microtiter plates and blind passaged once. Culture-negative but CZ- or MT-positive specimens were recultured. True positives were positive by either initial or repeat cultures. Of 827 nonpregnant and 231 pregnant patients, 9.1 and 12.1%, respectively, had positive cultures. Overall sensitivity of the initial culture was 48.5% without passage and 86.4% with passage. The sensitivity of CZ was 67%. The sensitivity of MT in our laboratory was 50%; however, further review of these specimens by Syva employees gave a combined sensitivity of 71.6%. MT and CZ were more sensitive for pregnant patients (MT, 84.6%; CZ, 85.7%) than for nonpregnant patients (MT, 65.5%; CZ, 60.0%). All the tests had specificities above 95%. Of the specimens that were positive after initial culture without subculture, MT-negative specimens had a mean of 3.7 inclusions in culture, and MT-positive specimens had a mean of 24.8 (P = 0.002); CZ-negative specimens had a mean of 4.3 inclusions, and CZ-positive specimens had a mean of 20.0 (P = 0.026). In addition, cultures of specimens from pregnant patients had more inclusions than did those from gynecology patients, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.096). No method is ideal; however, MT and CZ were less sensitive than was this culture system for detecting chlamydial infection in patients in gynecology clinics and were of comparable sensitivity for pregnant patients.

  5. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  6. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  7. Delivery of a Chlamydial Adhesin N-PmpC Subunit Vaccine to the Ocular Mucosa Using Particulate Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inic-Kanada, Aleksandra; Stojanovic, Marijana; Schlacher, Simone; Stein, Elisabeth; Belij-Rammerstorfer, Sandra; Marinkovic, Emilija; Lukic, Ivana; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Schuerer, Nadine; Bintner, Nora; Kovacevic-Jovanovic, Vesna; Krnjaja, Ognjen; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Lubitz, Werner; Barisani-Asenbauer, Talin

    2015-01-01

    Trachoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), remains the world’s leading preventable infectious cause of blindness. Recent attempts to develop effective vaccines rely on modified chlamydial antigen delivery platforms. As the mechanisms engaged in the pathology of the disease are not fully understood, designing a subunit vaccine specific to chlamydial antigens could improve safety for human use. We propose the delivery of chlamydia-specific antigens to the ocular mucosa using particulate carriers, bacterial ghosts (BGs). We therefore characterized humoral and cellular immune responses after conjunctival and subcutaneous immunization with a N-terminal portion (amino acid 1–893) of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane protein C (PmpC) of Ct serovar B, expressed in probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts (EcN BGs) in BALB/c mice. Three immunizations were performed at two-week intervals, and the immune responses were evaluated two weeks after the final immunization in mice. In a guinea pig model of ocular infection animals were immunized in the same manner as the mice, and protection against challenge was assessed two weeks after the last immunization. N-PmpC was successfully expressed within BGs and delivery to the ocular mucosa was well tolerated without signs of inflammation. N-PmpC-specific mucosal IgA levels in tears yielded significantly increased levels in the group immunized via the conjunctiva compared with the subcutaneously immunized mice. Immunization with N-PmpC EcN BGs via both immunization routes prompted the establishment of an N-PmpC-specific IFNγ immune response. Immunization via the conjunctiva resulted in a decrease in intensity of the transitional inflammatory reaction in conjunctiva of challenged guinea pigs compared with subcutaneously and non-immunized animals. The delivery of the chlamydial subunit vaccine to the ocular mucosa using a particulate carrier, such as BGs, induced both humoral and

  8. Delivery of a Chlamydial Adhesin N-PmpC Subunit Vaccine to the Ocular Mucosa Using Particulate Carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Inic-Kanada

    Full Text Available Trachoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct, remains the world's leading preventable infectious cause of blindness. Recent attempts to develop effective vaccines rely on modified chlamydial antigen delivery platforms. As the mechanisms engaged in the pathology of the disease are not fully understood, designing a subunit vaccine specific to chlamydial antigens could improve safety for human use. We propose the delivery of chlamydia-specific antigens to the ocular mucosa using particulate carriers, bacterial ghosts (BGs. We therefore characterized humoral and cellular immune responses after conjunctival and subcutaneous immunization with a N-terminal portion (amino acid 1-893 of the chlamydial polymorphic membrane protein C (PmpC of Ct serovar B, expressed in probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts (EcN BGs in BALB/c mice. Three immunizations were performed at two-week intervals, and the immune responses were evaluated two weeks after the final immunization in mice. In a guinea pig model of ocular infection animals were immunized in the same manner as the mice, and protection against challenge was assessed two weeks after the last immunization. N-PmpC was successfully expressed within BGs and delivery to the ocular mucosa was well tolerated without signs of inflammation. N-PmpC-specific mucosal IgA levels in tears yielded significantly increased levels in the group immunized via the conjunctiva compared with the subcutaneously immunized mice. Immunization with N-PmpC EcN BGs via both immunization routes prompted the establishment of an N-PmpC-specific IFNγ immune response. Immunization via the conjunctiva resulted in a decrease in intensity of the transitional inflammatory reaction in conjunctiva of challenged guinea pigs compared with subcutaneously and non-immunized animals. The delivery of the chlamydial subunit vaccine to the ocular mucosa using a particulate carrier, such as BGs, induced both

  9. Elementary analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A

    1966-01-01

    Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is

  10. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  11. MicroRNAs Modulate Pathogenesis Resulting from Chlamydial Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Pouncey, Dakota L; Eledge, Michael R; Bhattacharya, Sudeepa; Luo, Chunqiao; Weatherford, Erin W; Ojcius, David M; Rank, Roger G

    2017-01-01

    Not all women infected with chlamydiae develop upper genital tract disease, but the reason(s) for this remains undefined. Host genetics and hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle are possible explanations for variable infection outcomes. It is also possible that disease severity depends on the virulence of the chlamydial inoculum. It is likely that the inoculum contains multiple genetic variants, differing in virulence. If the virulent variants dominate, then the individual is more likely to develop severe disease. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesized that the relative degree of virulence of a chlamydial population dictates the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of the host, which, in turn, through regulation of the host inflammatory response, determines disease severity. Thus, we infected C57BL/6 mice with two populations of Chlamydia muridarum, each comprised of multiple genetic variants and differing in virulence: an attenuated strain (NiggA) and a virulent strain (NiggV). NiggA and NiggV elicited upper tract pathology in 54% and 91% of mice, respectively. miRNA expression analysis in NiggV-infected mice showed significant downregulation of miRNAs involved in dampening fibrosis (miR-200b, miR-200b-5p, and 200b-3p miR-200a-3p) and in transcriptional regulation of cytokine responses (miR-148a-3p, miR-152-3p, miR-132, and miR-212) and upregulation of profibrotic miRNAs (miR-142, and miR-147). Downregulated miRNAs were associated with increased expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8), CXCL2, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-6. Infection with NiggV but not NiggA led to decreased expression of Dicer and Ago 2, suggesting that NiggV interaction with host cells inhibits expression of the miRNA biogenesis machinery, leading to increased cytokine expression and pathology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. The chlamydial organism Simkania negevensis forms ER vacuole contact sites and inhibits ER-stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlitz, Adrian; Karunakaran, Karthika; Herweg, Jo-Ana; Krohne, Georg; van de Linde, Sebastian; Rieck, Elke; Sauer, Markus; Rudel, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Most intracellular bacterial pathogens reside within membrane-surrounded host-derived vacuoles. Few of these bacteria exploit membranes from the host's endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form a replicative vacuole. Here, we describe the formation of ER-vacuole contact sites as part of the replicative niche of the chlamydial organism Simkania negevensis. Formation of ER-vacuole contact sites is evolutionary conserved in the distantly related protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii. Simkania growth is accompanied by mitochondria associating with the Simkania-containing vacuole (SCV). Super-resolution microscopy as well as 3D reconstruction from electron micrographs of serial ultra-thin sections revealed a single vacuolar system forming extensive ER-SCV contact sites on the Simkania vacuolar surface. Simkania infection induced an ER-stress response, which was later downregulated. Induction of ER-stress with Thapsigargin or Tunicamycin was strongly inhibited in cells infected with Simkania. Inhibition of ER-stress was required for inclusion formation and efficient growth, demonstrating a role of ER-stress in the control of Simkania infection. Thus, Simkania forms extensive ER-SCV contact sites in host species evolutionary as diverse as human and amoeba. Moreover, Simkania is the first bacterial pathogen described to interfere with ER-stress induced signalling to promote infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cell-mediated immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs injected with inactivated chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyk, G; Sharp, M; Stites, D P; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E

    1980-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to chlamydial antigens was readily induced in guinea pigs by a single injection of Betaprone-inactivated chlamydiae in complete Freund adjuvant. The CMI was measured in vivo by delayed hypersensitivity skin tests, and in vitro by inhibition of migration of peritoneal exudate cells and by proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes. There was an overall correlation between in vivo and in vitro responses. Of the in vitro assays, migration inhibition reflected the state of sensitization, as judged by skin tests, more uniformly than lymphocyte stimulation. Extensive inter- and intra-species cross-reactivity was noted between LB-1, a strain of C. trachomatis, and three strains of C. psittaci, 6BC, GPIC, and 562F. Cross-reactivity between LB-1 and 6BC was one-way only, by all three parameters: LB-1 elicited strong cross-reactions in 6BC-immunized animals but not vice versa. Antichlamydial antibodies could not be demonstrated in any of the animals by microimmunofluorescence.

  14. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: prevalence and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovay, Fruzsina; Németh, István; Balázs, Andrea; Balla, Eszter

    2015-09-01

    The extragenital manifestation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection frequently results in non-specific conjunctivitis among sexually active adults. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis, to describe the distribution of serovars among patients with conjunctivitis and to characterize the relationship between the prevalence and patient demographics such as age and gender. A total of 245 conjunctival specimens were screened for C. trachomatis DNA targeting the plasmid gene. Serovar determination of the C. trachomatis-positive specimens was carried out by an omp1 PCR-based RFLP analysis method. Statistical analysis was done using a generalized linear model. C. trachomatis was detected in 53 cases (21.6 %) of adult conjunctivitis. Molecular genotyping differentiated seven distinct urogenital serovars, the most prevalent being serovar E (16/53), followed by F (15/53), D (6/53), K (6/53), G (4/53), H (4/53) and J (2/53). Statistical analysis showed higher C. trachomatis prevalence in the younger age groups, and this peaked at younger age in women than in men. The high prevalence of this pathogen found in ocular samples should alert ophthalmologists to focus on the role of C. trachomatis in adult conjunctivitis. The serovar distribution indicated that ocular chlamydial infections usually have a genital source. Nevertheless, conjunctivitis might be the only sign of this sexually transmitted infection. Further comparative genotyping of C. trachomatis in ocular and genital specimens might give more detailed epidemiological information about the aetiology of the disease.

  15. Chlamydial Type III Secretion System Needle Protein Induces Protective Immunity against Chlamydia muridarum Intravaginal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Koroleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis imposes serious health problems and causes infertility. Because of asymptomatic onset, it often escapes antibiotic treatment. Therefore, vaccines offer a better option for the prevention of unwanted inflammatory sequelae. The existence of serologically distinct serovars of C. trachomatis suggests that a vaccine will need to provide protection against multiple serovars. Chlamydia spp. use a highly conserved type III secretion system (T3SS composed of structural and effector proteins which is an essential virulence factor. In this study, we expressed the T3SS needle protein of Chlamydia muridarum, TC_0037, an ortholog of C. trachomatis CdsF, in a replication-defective adenoviral vector (AdTC_0037 and evaluated its protective efficacy in an intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum model. For better immune responses, we employed a heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol in which mice were intranasally primed with AdTC_0037 and subcutaneously boosted with recombinant TC_0037 and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A mixed in a squalene nanoscale emulsion. We found that immunization with TC_0037 antigen induced specific humoral and T cell responses, decreased Chlamydia loads in the genital tract, and abrogated pathology of upper genital organs. Together, our results suggest that TC_0037, a highly conserved chlamydial T3SS protein, is a good candidate for inclusion in a Chlamydia vaccine.

  16. Inclusion keratoconjunctivitis ('pink eye') in sheep. A proposal for a new name for chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis in sheep and comment on recent clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, A E

    1984-09-01

    The cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies, which, in 1931, Coles discovered in the corneal cells of sheep suffering from contagious keratoconjunctivitis are now considered to be the reticulate bodies of a chlamydia, Colesiota conjunctivae (synonym: Chlamydia psittaci ovis). According to the postulates of Koch Colesiota conjunctivae is a primary cause of contagious keratoconjunctivitis in sheep, but the clinical picture is complex and is a result of the interaction between the infecting chlamydiae, host resistance factors, and secondary infections caused by opportunistic bacterial ocular pathogens. The clinical syndrome might also be caused by other micro-organisms, such as Mycoplasma conjunctivae or environmental factors, such as dust. However, in these cases, cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies cannot be found in the corneal cells of diseased eyes. To differentiate chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis from keratoconjunctivitis due to other causes, it is proposed to include in the name the laboratory findings typical for this disease: Sheep Inclusion Keratoconjunctivitis. Chlamydia are Gram-negative bacteria, which are obligate intracellular parasites. Prolonged treatment seems to be required to eradicate chlamydiae from a host and antibiotics must reach intracellular levels that are higher than their minimum inhibitory concentration for chlamydiae. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice. This means that for a microbiological cure, diseased sheep must be injected several times a day for a week or more. Because the disease is usually self-limiting and economic losses are considered low, this seems unnecessary and control of the disease by local treatment of secondary infections seems sufficient. However, this will not prevent spreading of the disease in a herd and relapses may occur.

  17. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyk, G; Kerlan, R; Stites, D P; Schanzlin, D J; Ostler, H B; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E

    1981-04-01

    Cell-mediated immune response and humoral response to chlamydial antigens were investigated in guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Pronounced cell-mediated immune response to the homologous antigen, as well as to two other chlamydial antigens, 6BC (Chlamydia psittaci) and LB-1 (C. trachomatis), occurred in all infected animals. Cell-mediated immune response to GPIC, and to a lesser extent to 6BC and LB-1 as well, was enhanced with time after infection even without the re-inoculation of the infectious agent. Extensive cross-reactions among the three chlamydial antigens during the cell-mediated immune response appeared to be due to shared species-specific and group-reactive antigens. Serum antibody response was pronounced and uniform to GPIC; it was less marked to 6BC and LB-1, with fewer cross-reactions than seen in tests for cell-mediated immunity.

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae effector chlamydial outer protein N sequesters fructose bisphosphate aldolase A, providing a benefit to bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kasumi; Matsuo, Junji; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-21

    Pathogenic chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens and have adapted successfully to human cells, causing sexually transmitted diseases or pneumonia. Chlamydial outer protein N (CopN) is likely a critical effector protein secreted by the type III secretion system in chlamydiae, which manipulates host cells. However, the mechanisms of its action remain to be clarified. In this work, we aimed to identify previously unidentified CopN effector target in host cells. We first performed a pull-down assay with recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion CopN proteins (GST-CpCopN: Chlamydia pneumoniae TW183, GST-CtCopN: Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-3/CX) as "bait" and soluble lysates obtained from human immortal epithelial HEp-2 cells as "prey", followed by SDS-PAGE with mass spectroscopy (MS). We found that a host cell protein specifically bound to GST-CpCopN, but not GST-CtCopN. MS revealed the host protein to be fructose bisphosphate aldolase A (aldolase A), which plays a key role in glycolytic metabolism. We also confirmed the role of aldolase A in chlamydia-infected HEp-2 cells by using two distinct experiments for gene knockdown with an siRNA specific to aldolase A transcripts, and for assessment of glycolytic enzyme gene expression levels. As a result, both the numbers of chlamydial inclusion-forming units and RpoD transcripts were increased in the chlamydia-infected aldolase A knockdown cells, as compared with the wild-type HEp-2 cells. Meanwhile, chlamydial infection tended to enhance expression of aldolase A. We discovered that one of the C. pneumoniae CopN targets is the glycolytic enzyme aldolase A. Sequestering aldolase A may be beneficial to bacterial growth in infected host cells.

  19. Cell-mediated and humoral immune responses to chlamydial antigens in guinea pigs infected ocularly with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Senyk, G; Kerlan, R; Stites, D P; Schanzlin, D.J.; Ostler, H. B.; Hanna, L; Keshishyan, H; Jawetz, E.

    1981-01-01

    Cell-mediated immune response and humoral response to chlamydial antigens were investigated in guinea pigs infected with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC). Pronounced cell-mediated immune response to the homologous antigen, as well as to two other chlamydial antigens, 6BC (Chlamydia psittaci) and LB-1 (C. trachomatis), occurred in all infected animals. Cell-mediated immune response to GPIC, and to a lesser extent to 6BC and LB-1 as well, was enhanced with time after infe...

  20. Situated Meaning-Making of the Human Body: A Study of Elementary School Children's Reasons in Two Different Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Mattias; Jakobson, Britt

    2014-01-01

    In this text we compare children's expressions in drawings to their statements during interviews, for the purpose of understanding how different situations afford children to make meaning. In specific we study how two different activities interact and afford children to make meaning differently about the human body. The analytic attention is…

  1. Impact of NFL PLAY 60 Programming on Elementary School Children's Body Mass Index and Aerobic Capacity: The NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Bai, Yang; Welk, Gregory J.; Bandelli, Lorraine N.; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the impact of the Fuel Up to Play 60 (FUTP60) program on children's body mass index (BMI) and aerobic capacity (AC). Methods: Participation in the FUTP60 and both BMI and AC profiles were collected through the NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project involving over 100 schools from 22 US states. We specifically examined…

  2. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  3. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION ON THE VALUE OF BODY MASS INDEX OF PUPILS IN A THIRD GRADE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dževad Džibrić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the risk factors for the occurrence of cardiovascular disease is overweight. Body mass index presents approximate indicator of nutritional status. The aim of this research is to determine effects of physical and health education on the values of body mass index between initial and final measuring within three groups of male respondents, age of 8 ± 6 months. The research included 128 boys, divided in two experimental and one control group. According to obtained arithmetic mean results in applied variables in the beginning and at the end of implemented programs of physical education, as well as according to changes significance tested with T-test for dependent samples it is obvious that programs resulted with significant partial effects in experimental respondent groups

  4. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

  5. Cooperating Teacher Perceptions of Music Student Teacher Preparedness for the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Charlotte V.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the strengths and areas of improvement for elementary music teacher preparation from the perspective of multiple members of a single body of music teachers. Subjects for the study were elementary music teachers from an urban school district in the southern United States. All elementary music teachers in the school…

  6. Impact of NFL PLAY 60 Programming on Elementary School Children's Body Mass Index and Aerobic Capacity: The NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Bai, Yang; Welk, Gregory J; Bandelli, Lorraine N; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma

    2017-11-01

    We examined the impact of the Fuel Up to Play 60 (FUTP60) program on children's body mass index (BMI) and aerobic capacity (AC). Participation in the FUTP60 and both BMI and AC profiles were collected through the NFL PLAY 60 FitnessGram Partnership Project involving over 100 schools from 22 US states. We specifically examined the distributions of BMI and AC among participating versus nonparticipating schools in the 2012-2013 school year. Hierarchical linear models tested the impact of participation and availability of additional funding for program implementation on the proportions of youth meeting FitnessGram health-related fitness standards (ie, Needs Improvement-Health Risk [NIHR] and Healthy Fitness Zone [HFZ] categories). After 1 year implementing the program, participating schools had lower proportions of boys (-4.1 ± 2.0%, p = .04) and girls (-4.5 ± 2.0%, p = .03) in the NIHR for BMI, and lower proportion of girls (-9.7 ± 4.0%, p = .02) in the NIHR for AC. There were no differences in the distributions for the HFZ and the availability of additional funding did not alter the relationships (p > .05). This study provides preliminary evidence that participation in the FUTP60 is associated with improved profiles of health-related fitness. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  7. Bacterial vaginosis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection among women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic: a longitudinal analysis of possible causal links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Maria F; Macaluso, Maurizio; Warner, Lee; Fleenor, Michael E; Hook, Edward W; Brill, Ilene; Weaver, Mark A

    2012-03-01

    Interactions between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, are not well understood. Furthermore, evidence regarding the sexual transmission of BV is equivocal. We assessed associations between incident BV and incidences of gonorrhea and/or chlamydial infection ("gonorrhea/chlamydia"), as well as similarities in associations for the two processes, among 645 female patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Alabama followed prospectively for 6 months from 1995 to 1998. We identified predictors of both incident BV and gonorrhea/chlamydia and used bivariate logistic regression to determine whether these predictors differed. Participants completed 3188 monthly, follow-up visits. Several factors associated with incident BV involved sexual intercourse: young age (sexual behavior in the acquisition of BV and confirm that BV facilitates acquisition of gonorrhea/chlamydia and vice versa independently from other risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Elementary particles as signs

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo CHIATTI

    2014-01-01

    C.S. Peirce’s semiotic approach admits the possibility of natural signic systems. This article explores the possible connection between the concept of elementary particle and the irreducible relations of Peircean semiotics. The potentialities and the limitations of a semiotic vision of elementary physical processes are addressed.

  9. Dynamic energy dependency of Chlamydia trachomatis on host cell metabolism during intracellular growth: Role of sodium-based energetics in chlamydial ATP generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pingdong; Rosas-Lemus, Mónica; Patel, Dhwani; Fang, Xuan; Tuz, Karina; Juárez, Oscar

    2018-01-12

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen responsible for the most prevalent sexually-transmitted infection in the world. For decades C. trachomatis has been considered an "energy parasite" that relies entirely on the uptake of ATP from the host cell. The genomic data suggest that C. trachomatis respiratory chain could produce a sodium gradient that may sustain the energetic demands required for its rapid multiplication. However, this mechanism awaits experimental confirmation. Moreover, the relationship of chlamydiae with the host cell, in particular its energy dependence, is not well understood. In this work, we are showing that C. trachomatis has an active respiratory metabolism that seems to be coupled to the sodium-dependent synthesis of ATP. Moreover, our results show that the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis at an early stage decreases the rate of infection and the chlamydial inclusion size. In contrast, the inhibition of the chlamydial respiratory chain at mid-stage of the infection cycle decreases the inclusion size but has no effect on infection rate. Remarkably, the addition of monensin, a Na+/H+ exchanger, completely halts the infection. Altogether, our data indicate that chlamydial development has a dynamic relationship with the mitochondrial metabolism of the host, in which the bacterium mostly depends on host ATP synthesis at an early stage, and at later stages it can sustain its own energy needs through the formation of a sodium gradient. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Rapid assessment of sexually transmitted diseases in a sentinel population in Thailand: prevalence of chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, and syphilis among pregnant women--1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmarx, P H; Black, C M; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Shaffer, N; Yanpaisarn, S; Chaisilwattana, P; Siriwasin, W; Young, N L; Farshy, C E; Mastro, T D; St Louis, M E

    1998-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among pregnant women in Thailand, where case reporting suggests a marked decrease in STDs following a campaign promoting condom use during commercial sex. Cross sectional study of women at their first visit to the study hospitals' antenatal clinics in Chiang Rai (n = 500) and Bangkok (n = 521). First catch urine specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Amplicor CT/NG polymerase chain reaction assay. Syphilis and HIV serological testing were performed in the study hospitals' laboratories. The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 5.7%, gonorrhoea 0.2%, and syphilis 0.5% (all VDRL or RPR titres were gestational age at first antenatal clinic visit, but was not associated with marital status, gravidity, city of enrollment, or HIV infection status. There was a low prevalence of gonorrhoea and syphilis among these pregnant women in Thailand. Chlamydial infection was detected at a higher prevalence, especially among younger women and women registering later for antenatal care. Testing of pregnant women using easily collected urine specimens and a sensitive nucleic acid amplification assay is a feasible method of rapidly assessing chlamydial and gonococcal prevalence.

  11. Immune control of Chlamydial growth in the human epithelial cell line RT4 involves multiple mechanisms that include nitric oxide induction, tryptophan catabolism and iron deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igietseme, J U; Ananaba, G A; Candal, D H; Lyn, D; Black, C M

    1998-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of T cell-derived cytokines, especially interferon (IFN)-gamma, against intracellular pathogens, such as Chlamydia trachomatis, involves the induction of 3 major biochemical processes: tryptophan catabolism, nitric oxide (NO) induction and intracellular iron (Fe) deprivation. Since the epithelial cell is the natural target of chlamydial infection, the presence of these antimicrobial systems in the cell would suggest that they may be involved in T cell control of intracellular multiplication of Chlamydia. However, the controversy over whether these 3 antimicrobial processes are present in both mice and humans has precluded the assessment of the relative contribution of each of the 3 mechanisms to chlamydial inhibition in the same epithelial cell from either mice or humans. In the present study, we identified a Chlamydia-susceptible human epithelial cell line, RT4, that possesses the 3 antimicrobial systems, and we examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) induction, and deprivation of tryptophan or Fe in cytokine-induced inhibition of chlamydiae. It was found that the 3 antimicrobial systems contributed to cytokine-mediated inhibition of the intracellular growth of Chlamydia. NO induction accounted for approximately 20% of the growth inhibition; tryptophan catabolism contributed approximately 30%; iron deprivation was least effective; but the combination of the 3 systems accounted for greater than 60% of the inhibition observed. These results indicate that immune control of chlamydial growth in human epithelial cells may involve multiple mechanisms that include NO induction, tryptophan catabolism and Fe deprivation.

  12. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Elementary Principals' Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridenvalds, Kriss R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the beliefs of elementary teachers to determine if their perceptions of effective principal leadership align to transformational leadership theory vis-a-vis the Educational Leadership Policy Standards (ELPS). A phenomenological, single-case study approach was utilized by means of a mixed-methodological, Web-based survey,…

  13. Elementary particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Elementary particle physics is discussed. Status of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions; phenomena beyond the Standard Model; new accelerator projects; and possible contributions from non-accelerator experiments are examined.

  14. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs. Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research.

  15. Dissemination and genetic diversity of chlamydial agents in Polish wildfowl: Isolation and molecular characterisation of avian Chlamydia abortus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska

    Full Text Available Wild birds are considered as a reservoir for avian chlamydiosis posing a potential infectious threat to domestic poultry and humans. Analysis of 894 cloacal or fecal swabs from free-living birds in Poland revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 14.8% (n = 132 with the highest prevalence noted in Anatidae (19.7% and Corvidae (13.4%. Further testing conducted with species-specific real-time PCR showed that 65 samples (49.2% were positive for C. psittaci whereas only one was positive for C. avium. To classify the non-identified chlamydial agents and to genotype the C. psittaci and C. avium-positive samples, specimens were subjected to ompA-PCR and sequencing (n = 83. The ompA-based NJ dendrogram revealed that only 23 out of 83 sequences were assigned to C. psittaci, in particular to four clades representing the previously described C. psittaci genotypes B, C, Mat116 and 1V. Whereas the 59 remaining sequences were assigned to two new clades named G1 and G2, each one including sequences recently obtained from chlamydiae detected in Swedish wetland birds. G1 (18 samples from Anatidae and Rallidae grouped closely together with genotype 1V and in relative proximity to several C. abortus isolates, and G2 (41 samples from Anatidae and Corvidae grouped closely to C. psittaci strains of the classical ABE cluster, Matt116 and M56. Finally, deep molecular analysis of four representative isolates of genotypes 1V, G1 and G2 based on 16S rRNA, IGS and partial 23S rRNA sequences as well as MLST clearly classify these isolates within the C. abortus species. Consequently, we propose an expansion of the C. abortus species to include not only the classical isolates of mammalian origin, but also avian isolates so far referred to as atypical C. psittaci or C. psittaci/C. abortus intermediates.

  16. Describing Elementary Certification Methods across the Elementary Music Career Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe elementary music method choice and certification method choice overall and across the elementary music career cycle. Participants (N = 254) were categorized as Level I or Elementary Division in a southwestern music education association database. The questionnaire included 25 four-point Likert-type items…

  17. Elementary topology problem textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M

    2008-01-01

    This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr

  18. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood

    2008-01-01

    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  19. Logic in elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    This applications-related introductory treatment explores facets of modern symbolic logic useful in the exposition of elementary mathematics. The authors convey the material in a manner accessible to those trained in standard elementary mathematics but lacking any formal background in logic. Topics include the statement calculus, proof and demonstration, abstract mathematical systems, and the restricted predicate calculus. The final chapter draws upon the methods of logical reasoning covered in previous chapters to develop solutions of linear and quadratic equations, definitions of order and

  20. Elementary cycles of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolce Donatello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Elementary particles, i.e. the basic constituents of nature, are characterized by quantum recurrences in time. The flow of time of every physical system can be therefore decomposed in elementary cycles of time. This allows us to enforce the local nature of relativistic time, yielding interesting unified descriptions of fundamental aspects of modern physics, as shown in recent publications. Every particle can be regarded as a reference clock with time resolution of the order of the Compton time particle, many orders of magnitude more accurate than the atomic clocks. Here we report basic implications about the resulting notion of time.

  1. Elementary Thermal Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lostaglio, Matteo; Alhambra, Álvaro M.; Perry, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes-Cummings in......To what extent do thermodynamic resource theories capture physically relevant constraints? Inspired by quantum computation, we define a set of elementary thermodynamic gates that only act on 2 energy levels of a system at a time. We show that this theory is well reproduced by a Jaynes...

  2. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  3. Elementary, Dear Albert

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    Elementary, Dear Albert! fiction based upon every physicist's dream: have a chat with Albert Einstein. Starring theoretical physicist Alvaro de Rujula in the role of Dr. Nuts and experimental physicist Federico Antinori in the role of Albert Einstein. Directed by Silvano de Gennaro

  4. Sports in elementary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouter de Groot; Ben Moolenaar; Eralt Boers; dr. Remo Mombarg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the project is stimulating sport participation among elementary school children in the province of Friesland. The ultimate aim is to provide three hours of physical education, provided by an physical education specialist, plus two extra hours of sport activities. Part one is about

  5. Elementary School Principal Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ray

    A review of research linking elementary principal "antecedents" (defined as traits), behaviors, school conditions, and student outcomes furnishes few supportable generalizations. The studies relating principal antecedents with behavior and principal antecedents with organizational variables reveals that the trait theory of leadership has…

  6. Magnetism of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Vonsovsky, S V

    1975-01-01

    Spin magnetic moment of the electron ; magnetism of the atomic electron shell ; magnetism of nucleons (protons and neutrons) and atomic nuclei ; anomalous magnetic moments of elementary particles ; the magnetic monopole ; non-linear quantum-electrodynamic effects in a magnetic field.

  7. Vision in elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, W W

    2003-01-01

    Sure-fire techniques of visualizing, dramatizing, and analyzing numbers promise to attract and retain students' attention and understanding. Topics include basic multiplication and division, algebra, word problems, graphs, negative numbers, fractions, many other practical applications of elementary mathematics. 1964 ed. Answers to Problems.

  8. High prevalence of extra-genital chlamydial or gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan-Blitz, Lao-Tzu; Leon, Segundo R; Bristow, Claire C; Konda, Kelika A; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Brown, Brandon J; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are among the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world. Data are limited, however, on the burden of extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru. Data were gathered from self-collected anal or pharyngeal swabs from participants in Lima, Peru, and analyzed via cross-sectional methods. Prevalence ratios for the association between extra-genital infection with socio-demographic and sexual behaviors were determined. Overall, 127 (32.8%) participants had anal or pharyngeal infections. On multivariate modeling, anal infection was positively associated with practicing both receptive and insertive anal sex, when compared to insertive alone (PR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.32-4.71), and negatively associated with any antibiotic use in the prior three months (PR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.39-0.91). Pharyngeal infection was negatively associated with age greater than 30 years compared to 18-30 years (PR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.30-0.96), and positively associated with gender identity of transgender women (PR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.20-3.73). This study demonstrates considerable burden of extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru.

  9. Asymptomatic gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection in a population-based and work-site based sample of men in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouman, E; Masenga, E J; Sam, N E; Klepp, K I

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to screen healthy rural and urban Tanzanian men for chlamydial infection and gonorrhoea, and determine the prevalence and the predictive value of urethral symptoms, signs and pyuria. In 2 cross-sectional surveys, 796 men were interviewed regarding symptoms and examined for signs of urethritis. Gonorrhoea was detected by culture/gram-stained smears, Chlamydia trachomatis by antigen immunoassay, and pyuria by leukocyte esterase dipstick test. The prevalence of chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea and pyuria among rural men was 9.6%, 0.4%, and 12.7%, and among urban bar workers 7.4%, 8.1% and 6.3% respectively. Among all, 0.6% had urethral discharge confirmed by examination, while 2.6% reported urethral discharge and 7.4% dysuria. Among chlamydia-infected men, 59 (89%) of the 66 cases did not have urethritis symptoms or signs. Similarly, 24 (88%) of 28 men with gonorrhoea were asymptomatic. Treatment based on the urethral discharge sign, would have detected only one out of 92 cases with gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia in these populations.

  10. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...

  11. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Science Teaching Orientations and Experiences that Impacted their Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    A large body of literature illustrates that many elementary teachers are reluctant to teach science and confess a lack of confidence to teach it. Nevertheless, a review of the literature indicates a few cases of elementary teachers who do well in science and offers rare examples of enthusiast

  12. STATE NUTRITION THE YOUNGER ELEMENTARY SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica Stojanović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The obesty is a state characterized by pathological accumulation of fat tissue in the body, and nutritional disorders are associated with the high risk of numerous health problems since earliest childhood. The obesty has been increasing and it has now reached the proportion of an epidemic with the tendency of growth in the number of fat people. Such a negative trend directly influences the reduction of the functional and motorical abilities of the entire population. The research purpose to examine state nutrition the younger elementary schoolchildren and to see if there are deviations between the age groups. In the reasearching were included 313 tested divaidedin four groups. All tested were a regular pupils of the first and second grade of elementary school. In the resarching there were include the bouth the poles of pupils and the conditiones for testing were optimal. On the basis of anthropometric measurement of the body weight and height, body mass index (BMI values were calculated. And if is index of body mass is possible to find a lot of critrcizm, where is the most important that is not support constructive specific of the one man, but it gave information with results is possible standardation and clasification. The differences have been established through multivariant analysis of MANOVA variance, single variant univariant analysis of ANOVA variance and Discriminative analyses.

  13. Introduction to elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David J

    2008-01-01

    This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complicat

  14. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in “NOνA”, “Double Chooz”, and “KamLAND” neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  15. From genomes to genotypes: molecular epidemiological analysis of Chlamydia gallinacea reveals a high level of genetic diversity for this newly emerging chlamydial pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weina; Jelocnik, Martina; Li, Jing; Sachse, Konrad; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; You, Jinfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2017-12-06

    Chlamydia (C.) gallinacea is a recently identified bacterium that mainly infects domestic chickens. Demonstration of C. gallinacea in human atypical pneumonia suggests its zoonotic potential. Its prevalence in chickens exceeds that of C. psittaci, but genetic and genomic research on C. gallinacea is still at the beginning. In this study, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of C. gallinacea strain JX-1 isolated from an asymptomatic chicken, and comparative genomic analysis between C. gallinacea strains and related chlamydial species. The genome of C. gallinacea JX-1 was sequenced by single-molecule, real-time technology and is comprised of a 1,059,522-bp circular chromosome with an overall G + C content of 37.93% and sequence similarity of 99.4% to type strain 08-1274/3. In addition, a plasmid designated pJX-1, almost identical to p1274 of the type strain, except for two point mutations, was only found in field strains from chicken, but not in other hosts. In contrast to chlamydial species with notably variable polymorphic membrane protein (pmp) genes and plasticity zone (PZ), these regions were conserved in both C. gallinacea strains. There were 15 predicted pmp genes, but only B, A, E1, H, G1 and G2 were apparently intact in both strains. In comparison to chlamydial species where the PZ may be up to 50 kbp, C. gallinacea strains displayed gene content reduction in the PZ (14 kbp), with strain JX-1 having a premature STOP codon in the cytotoxin (tox) gene, while tox gene is intact in the type strain. In multilocus sequence typing (MLST), 15 C. gallinacea STs were identified among 25 strains based on cognate MLST allelic profiles of the concatenated sequences. The type strain and all Chinese strains belong to two distinct phylogenetic clades. Clade of the Chinese strains separated into 14 genetically distinct lineages, thus revealing considerable genetic diversity of C. gallinacea strains in China. In this first detailed comparative genomic analysis of C

  16. Weak interactions of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1965-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,

  17. Chlamydial infections - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swelling and tenderness of the testicles Chlamydia and gonorrhea often occur together. The symptoms of chlamydia infection may be similar to symptoms of gonorrhea, but they continue even after treatment for gonorrhea ...

  18. Relative motion of orbiting bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2001-01-01

    A problem of relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on the example of the free motion of any body ejected from the orbital station that stays in a circular orbit around the earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by a simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on approximate differential equations of the relative orbital motion.

  19. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  20. A Framework for Nonfiction in the Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. Lee

    2009-01-01

    The inclusion of nonfiction texts in the elementary classroom interests teachers and researchers alike. However, there is an inconsistent use of terms applied to this body of research, including informational texts, informational books, and expository texts, among others. In this article, an organizing framework for nonfiction is presented to…

  1. Learning Science through Talking Science in Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina Maruyama; Coffino, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students in grade two make sense of science ideas and knowledge through their contextual experiences. Mattis Lundin and Britt Jakobson find in their research that early grade students have sophisticated understandings of human anatomy and physiology. In order to understand what students' know about human body and various systems,…

  2. Partner management for gonococcal and chlamydial infection: expansion of public health services to the private sector and expedited sex partner treatment through a partnership with commercial pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M R; Whittington, W L; Handsfield, H H; Malinski, C; Clark, A; Hughes, J P; Gorbach, P M; Holmes, K K

    2001-11-01

    Public health partner notification (PN) services currently affect only a small minority of patients with gonorrhea or chlamydial infection and new approaches to PN are needed. To expand PN for gonorrhea and chlamydial infection to private sector patients and to assess the feasibility of treating sex partners through commercial pharmacies. Selected patients were offered PN assistance and were randomly offered medication to deliver to their partners. Providers permitted the health department to contact 3613 (91%) of 3972 potentially eligible patients, and 1693 (67%) of 2531 successfully contacted patients consented to interview. Of these, 1095 (65%) reported at least one untreated partner. Most patients (90%) wished to notify partners themselves. Patients were more likely to have partners who had not yet been treated and to request PN assistance if they had more than one sex partner in the preceding 60 days or a partner they did not anticipate having sex with in the future. These two factors characterized 49% of all patients interviewed, 70% of those with a partner that was untreated 7 or more days after index patient treatment, and 83% of those accepting PN assistance. Among 458 randomly selected patients with untreated partners at time of study interview, 346 (76%) agreed to deliver treatment to a partner. Of these, most (266) chose to obtain medication for a partner at a pharmacy, of whom 223 (84%) successfully did so. A substantial minority of private sector patients have untreated partners more than 7 days after their own treatment; some need help with PN, but most will agree to deliver medication to partners themselves.

  3. A Prototype Recombinant-Protein Based Chlamydia pecorum Vaccine Results in Reduced Chlamydial Burden and Less Clinical Disease in Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Waugh

    Full Text Available Diseases associated with Chlamydia pecorum infection are a major cause of decline in koala populations in Australia. While koalas in care can generally be treated, a vaccine is considered the only option to effectively reduce the threat of infection and disease at the population level. In the current study, we vaccinated 30 free-ranging koalas with a prototype Chlamydia pecorum vaccine consisting of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP adjuvanted with an immune stimulating complex. An additional cohort of 30 animals did not receive any vaccine and acted as comparison controls. Animals accepted into this study were either uninfected (Chlamydia PCR negative at time of initial vaccination, or infected (C. pecorum positive at either urogenital (UGT and/or ocular sites (Oc, but with no clinical signs of chlamydial disease. All koalas were vaccinated/sampled and then re-released into their natural habitat before re-capturing and re-sampling at 6 and 12 months. All vaccinated koalas produced a strong immune response to the vaccine, as indicated by high titres of specific plasma antibodies. The incidence of new infections in vaccinated koalas over the 12-month period post-vaccination was slightly less than koalas in the control group, however, this was not statistically significant. Importantly though, the vaccine was able to significantly reduce the infectious load in animals that were Chlamydia positive at the time of vaccination. This effect was evident at both the Oc and UGT sites and was stronger at 6 months than at 12 months post-vaccination. Finally, the vaccine was also able to reduce the number of animals that progressed to disease during the 12-month period. While the sample sizes were small (statistically speaking, results were nonetheless striking. This study highlights the potential for successful development of a Chlamydia vaccine for koalas in a wild setting.

  4. Elementary heat transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen; Hartnett, James P

    1976-01-01

    Elementary Heat Transfer Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of the nature of transient heat conduction. This book presents a thorough understanding of the thermal energy equation and its application to boundary layer flows and confined and unconfined turbulent flows. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the use of heat transfer coefficients in formulating the flux condition at phase interface. This text then explains the specification as well as application of flux boundary conditions. Other chapters consider a derivation of the tra

  5. Elementary Statistics Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Neave, Henry R

    2012-01-01

    This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat

  6. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  7. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  8. Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and…

  9. Some Results for Elementary Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakalidis, Athanasios K.

    We present a number of results for elementary operations concerning the areas of data structures, computational geometry, graph algorithms and string algorithms. Especially, we focus on elementary operations like the dictionary operations, list manipulation, priority queues, temporal precedence, finger search, nearest common ancestors, negative cycle, 3-sided queries, rectangle enclosure, dominance searching, intersection queries, hidden line elimination and string manipulation.

  10. Elementary chaotic snap flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munmuangsaen, Buncha [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, 131 M5, Tivanont Road, Bangkadi, Muang, Pathum-Thani 12000 (Thailand); Srisuchinwong, Banlue, E-mail: banlue@siit.tu.ac.th [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (SIIT), Thammasat University, 131 M5, Tivanont Road, Bangkadi, Muang, Pathum-Thani 12000 (Thailand)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing chaotic snap flow have been presented. > Three of all are conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. > Four cases need only a single control parameter and a single nonlinearity. > A cubic case in a jerk representation requires only two terms and a single nonlinearity. - Abstract: Hyperjerk systems with 4th-order derivative of the form x{sup ....}=f(x{sup ...},x{sup ..},x{sup .},x) have been referred to as snap systems. Five new elementary chaotic snap flows and a generalization of an existing flow are presented through an extensive numerical search. Four of these flows demonstrate elegant simplicity of a single control parameter based on a single nonlinearity of a quadratic, a piecewise-linear or an exponential type. Two others demonstrate elegant simplicity of all unity-in-magnitude parameters based on either a single cubic nonlinearity or three cubic nonlinearities. The chaotic snap flow with a single cubic nonlinearity requires only two terms and can be transformed to its equivalent dynamical form of only five terms which have a single nonlinearity. An advantage is that such a chaotic flow offers only five terms even though the (four) dimension is high. Three of the chaotic snap flows are characterized as conservative systems whilst three others are dissipative systems. Basic dynamical properties are described.

  11. The Band around a Convex Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    We give elementary proofs of formulas for the area and perimeter of a planar convex body surrounded by a band of uniform thickness. The primary tool is a integral formula for the perimeter of a convex body which describes the perimeter in terms of the projections of the body onto lines in the plane.

  12. Elementary differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pressley, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Curves and surfaces are objects that everyone can see, and many of the questions that can be asked about them are natural and easily understood Differential geometry is concerned with the precise mathematical formulation of some of these questions, and with trying to answer them using calculus techniques It is a subject that contains some of the most beautiful and profound results in mathematics yet many of these are accessible to higher-level undergraduates Elementary Differential Geometry presents the main results in the differential geometry of curves and surfaces while keeping the prerequisites to an absolute minimum Nothing more than first courses in linear algebra and multivariate calculus are required, and the most direct and straightforward approach is used at all times Numerous diagrams illustrate both the ideas in the text and the examples of curves and surfaces discussed there The book will provide an invaluable resource to all those taking a first course in differential geometry, for their lecture...

  13. Notes on elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, William Hugh

    1972-01-01

    Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul

  14. Sulfated Polysaccharides and a Synthetic Sulfated Polymer Are Potent Inhibitors of Chlamydia trachomatis Infectivity In Vitro but Lack Protective Efficacy in an In Vivo Murine Model of Chlamydial Genital Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hua; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    1998-01-01

    Heparin, dextran sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, and a sulfated synthetic copolymer of acrylic acid and vinyl alcohol were shown to be potent inhibitors of Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity for cultured human epithelial cells. Despite their potent antichlamydial activity in vitro, neither heparin nor dextran sulfate was effective in inhibiting the infectivity of C. trachomatis in a murine model of chlamydial infection of the female genital tract. PMID:9488423

  15. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty

    2015-01-01

    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  16. Interruption of CXCL13-CXCR5 axis increases upper genital tract pathology and activation of NKT cells following chlamydial genital infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Jiang

    Full Text Available Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection.Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT. Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922.These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology. In addition, CXCR5 appears to contribute to inter-individual differences in

  17. Preservice elementary teachers learning of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Chuck Gary

    formatted for journal submission. Chapter 1 outlines the intent, rationale, and design of the overall dissertation process and format. Chapter 2 describes an in-depth review of the specific astronomy curricula used for comparison by subsequent chapters and is not intended as a standalone article, but rather as an informative outline of events and activities to help the reader understand the differences of instruction between the two sections of sample populations. Chapter 3 uses qualitative interviews to explore the cosmic dimensions associated with learning of astronomy and finds diverse perceptions of astronomical scales may influence preservice teachers' mental organization of astronomical information. Chapter 4 further analyzes cosmic dimensions using quantitative analyses and specifically examines preservice teachers perceptions of scale and spatiality within the context of astronomy education. Findings from Chapter 4 show that perceptions of scale and spatiality are an interconnected set of learning skills which may greatly enhance the learning of astronomy. Chapter 5 describes how concepts of scale and spatiality may be operationalized within a secondary school science classroom in order to better understand the scaled distances of stars though an inquiry-based three-dimensional modeling activity. Chapter 6 briefly concludes the dissertation work. Due to the nature of this dissertation design, the conclusions chapter is quite succinct as previous chapters are designed with conclusions sections embedded within the body of the text as outlined by specific journal submission guidelines. These dissertation ideas are presented in a formal setting so that the various research undertakings can be studied and analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of research data are present to support the claims made in this study. The results of this research combine with features of previous research in order to advance our understanding of how preservice elementary teachers

  18. Regulating Readers' Bodies: A Discourse Analysis of Teachers' Body Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jessica Nina; Gabriel, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report findings from a discourse analysis study of reading instruction in eight primary/elementary school classrooms in the United States. Drawing upon discursive psychology, we specifically examined 96 hours of reading comprehension instruction, with a focus on how teachers talked about the body during the instruction and noted…

  19. Identification and characterization of a novel porin family highlights a major difference in the outer membrane of chlamydial symbionts and pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Aistleitner

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae constitute an evolutionary well separated group of intracellular bacteria comprising important pathogens of humans as well as symbionts of protozoa. The amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila lacks a homologue of the most abundant outer membrane protein of the Chlamydiaceae, the major outer membrane protein MOMP, highlighting a major difference between environmental chlamydiae and their pathogenic counterparts. We recently identified a novel family of putative porins encoded in the genome of P. amoebophila by in silico analysis. Two of these Protochlamydiaouter membrane proteins, PomS (pc1489 and PomT (pc1077, are highly abundant in outer membrane preparations of this organism. Here we show that all four members of this putative porin family are toxic when expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibodies against heterologously expressed PomT and PomS purified directly from elementary bodies, respectively, demonstrated the location of both proteins in the outer membrane of P. amoebophila. The location of the most abundant protein PomS was further confirmed by immuno-transmission electron microscopy. We could show that pomS is transcribed, and the corresponding protein is present in the outer membrane throughout the complete developmental cycle, suggesting an essential role for P. amoebophila. Lipid bilayer measurements demonstrated that PomS functions as a porin with anion-selectivity and a pore size similar to the Chlamydiaceae MOMP. Taken together, our results suggest that PomS, possibly in concert with PomT and other members of this porin family, is the functional equivalent of MOMP in P. amoebophila. This work contributes to our understanding of the adaptations of symbiotic and pathogenic chlamydiae to their different eukaryotic hosts.

  20. Preparation and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies against chlamydial protease-like activity factor to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae antigen in early pediatric pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Ding, T; Chen, Z; Fang, H; Li, H; Lu, H; Wu, Y

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae causes diseases in humans, including community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis. It is also associated with atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated novel materials with which to develop a sensitive and specific method to identify early C. pneumoniae infection, to allow more effective clinical treatment and prevention. We prepared novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant protein equivalent to the immunodominant region of chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) from C. pneumoniae. The mAbs specifically reacted with the endogenous CPAF antigen of the C. pneumoniae type strain in immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assays, but did not react with C. trachomatis type strains or genital secretions from patients with acute C. trachomatis infection. The mAb with the highest titer was used to develop a new IIF assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the C. pneumoniae antigen in clinical specimens from child patients suspected of pneumonia. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rate of the mAb-based IIF and ELISA tests were compared with those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results show that these mAbs have excellent specificity and may be used to develop new screening tools for the diagnosis of early pediatric pneumonia.

  1. The broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 restricts chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial growth and localizes to host cell lipid droplets within treated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Valiant, William G; Eriksen, Steven G; Hruby, Dennis E; Allen, Robert D; Rockey, Daniel D

    2014-07-01

    Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Acoustics in the elementary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Uwe J.

    2005-04-01

    The need for increased science exposure at all educational levels continues to be acute. Science is almost universally perceived as difficult, and its ability to raise the quality of life in the presence of apparently insurmountable social problems is increasingly suspect. Over the past 15 years we have conducted teacher workshops, visited classrooms, have organized hands-on demonstration sessions, judged science fairs, and mentored high school students in research efforts, all in an attempt to raise the level of enthusiasm for science. A look ahead suggests that the need continues. Elementary school teachers all too often limit their own science skills to plants and animals, and thus physics concepts do not get the exposure needed to generate the necessary excitement for the physical sciences. Workshops for Elementary grade teachers will be described, which are aimed at preparing teachers to use music as a vehicle to introduce basic physics concepts in the upper elementary grades.

  3. Elementary functions algorithms and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    This textbook presents the concepts and tools necessary to understand, build, and implement algorithms for computing elementary functions (e.g., logarithms, exponentials, and the trigonometric functions). Both hardware- and software-oriented algorithms are included, along with issues related to accurate floating-point implementation. This third edition has been updated and expanded to incorporate the most recent advances in the field, new elementary function algorithms, and function software. After a preliminary chapter that briefly introduces some fundamental concepts of computer arithmetic, such as floating-point arithmetic and redundant number systems, the text is divided into three main parts. Part I considers the computation of elementary functions using algorithms based on polynomial or rational approximations and using table-based methods; the final chapter in this section deals with basic principles of multiple-precision arithmetic. Part II is devoted to a presentation of “shift-and-add” algorithm...

  4. Assessment in Elementary Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebright, Krissa; Mahoney, Meg Robson

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two public school elementary dance educators share their experiences developing and implementing dance performance assessments. The assessments were developed for the State of Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction to assess student learning in dance education and bring dance assessment to an equal platform…

  5. Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.; Chasin, Gene

    This paper describes early outcomes of a Sacramento, California, elementary school that participated in the Accelerated Schools Project. The school, which serves many minority and poor students, began training for the project in 1992. Accelerated Schools were designed to advance the learning rate of students through a gifted and talented approach,…

  6. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  7. Petrov classification: An elementary approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalotas, T.M.; Eliezer, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    We reduce the length of the usual algebraic classification scheme of the Weyl tensor by avoiding the step centered around its reduction to canonical form. Instead the different algebraic types are established more economically via the elementary approach of constructing explicit examples.

  8. Elementary School Choirs and Auditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Janice L.

    1992-01-01

    Contends that the question of whether to audition students for participation in elementary choirs is a difficult decision. Discusses the advantage and disadvantages of each choice. Concludes that the decision must be made according to educational objectives and the rationale for establishing the choir. (CFR)

  9. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  10. Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

  11. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  12. Digital Photography for Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary…

  13. Franklin Elementary PTA's "Sweet Success"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Just a few short years ago, Franklin Elementary in Glendale, California, was in danger of closing its doors because enrollment was so low. The school district decided to put into place a series of language immersion programs at the site. It currently houses Spanish, Italian, and German immersion programs. These programs have boosted Franklin's…

  14. Optimization Problems in Elementary Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 6. Optimization Problems in Elementary Geometry. A K Mallik. General Article Volume 13 Issue 6 June 2008 pp 561-582 ... Author Affiliations. A K Mallik1. Department Of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.

  15. AIDS Elementary/Intermediate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy Rader

    This Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Curriculum was developed for intermediate elementary (5th, 6th, and 7th grade) students. It is an integrated unit that encompasses health, science, social studies, math, and language arts. The curriculum is comprised of nine class activities designed to meet the following objectives: (1) to determine…

  16. Elementary Particles A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FranciscoMartnezFlores.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is shown the inexistence of neutrinos to define precisely the concept of relativistics mass under this scheme to elementarys particles as electron and interactions particles like photons correspond an electromagnetic and virtual mass. Nucleons protons and neutrons have real or inertial mass for being composite particles since inertia needs structure it is provided by an interactive network originated by strong and weak forces. This mass is building up atoms and all the material world under Classical Physics and Chemistrys laws.These actual masses may be considered as electromagnetic and virtual one thanks to its charge in order to establish the high energies level needed to obtain all particles physics elementary or not which are governed by the laws of Quantum Physics. With all this one may set up amore reasonable and understandable new Standard Model which being projected into Cosmological Model can get rid of some inconsistencies and concepts difficult to be admitted.

  17. Elementary principles of linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Chlamydial partner notification in the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) 2011 UK national audit against the BASHH Medical Foundation for AIDS and Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections Management Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClean, H; Carne, C A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, K W; Ahmed-Jushuf, I

    2012-10-01

    This paper reports on chlamydial partner notification (PN) performance in the 2011 BASHH national audit against the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) Medical Foundation for AIDS Sexual Health (MedFASH) Sexually Transmitted Infection Management Standards (STIMS). There was wide regional variation in level 3 clinic PN performance against the current standard of index case-reported chlamydial PN, with 43% (regional range 0-80%) of clinics outside London meeting the ≥0.6 contacts seen per index standard, and 85% of clinics (regional range 82-88%) in London meeting the ≥0.4 standard. For level 2 clinics, 39% (regional range 0-100%) of clinics outside London met the ≥0.6 standard, and 43% (regional range 40-50%) of clinics in London met the ≥0.4 standard. Performance for health-care worker (HCW)-verified contact attendance is also reported. New standards for each of these performance measures are proposed for all level 3 clinics: ≥0.6 contacts seen per index case based on index case report, and ≥0.4 contacts seen per index case based on HCW verification, both within four weeks of the first partner notification interview. The results are discussed with regard to the importance of adoption of standards by commissioners of services, relevance to national quality agendas, and the need for development of a national system of PN quality assurance measurement and reporting.

  19. Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2008-02-05

    These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.

  20. English Education at Elementary School in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Triana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the implementation of English education in elementary school in Japan. What challenges faced by the implementation of English education in elementary school. This paper reviewed some articles and book chapter regarding teaching English at elementary school in Indonesia and Japan, and the principles of teaching English to young learners (TYL. First, it provides an overview of the characteristics of young learners and challenges faced by teachers in the teaching English to young learners. Second, it will briefly describe the history of English education in Japan, followed by the discussion of the present implementation of English education at elementary schools. Finally, it relates the discussion of English education at elementary school to Indonesian context. Key Words; English Education, Elementary School, TYL

  1. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Lucas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB into the reticulate body (RB. The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE, syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical towards understanding the molecular signals involved in

  2. Elementary Preservice Teachers' and Elementary Inservice Teachers' Knowledge of Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the differences in knowledge of mathematical modeling between a group of elementary preservice teachers and a group of elementary inservice teachers. Mathematical modeling has recently come to the forefront of elementary mathematics classrooms because of the call to add mathematical modeling tasks in mathematics classes through…

  3. Prevalence and Prediction of Overweight and Obesity among Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Geraldine; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Boles, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high rates of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States have generated interest in schools as sites for monitoring body mass index (BMI) information. This study established baseline values for a 5-year longitudinal assessment of BMI of elementary school children and examined variation across the schools, because little…

  4. Using Video in Urban Elementary Professional Development to Support Digital Media Arts Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca; Machado, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Using ethnographic methods, this article looks closely at how a team of first-grade teachers and digital media artists in an urban elementary school used video in innovative ways during professional development over the course of one year. Extending a body of literature that primarily documents how video can be used as a tool in professional…

  5. Finding the Gifted Child's Voice in the Public Elementary School Setting: A Phenomenological Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Keely S.

    2013-01-01

    Who are talented and gifted (TAG) students and how do we meet their unique needs in the elementary school setting? The body of literature clearly articulates the unique intellectual, social and emotional needs and characteristics of TAG students. Additionally, the literature supports the implementation of differentiated teaching strategies and…

  6. Trajectories of Anxiety during Elementary-School Years and the Prediction of High School Noncompletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephane; Vitaro, Frank; Larose, Simon; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has provided mixed results regarding the effect of anxiety on academic achievement. Building on this body of research, the present longitudinal study pursued two goals. The first goal was to describe trajectories of anxiety during elementary-school years. The second goal was to determine the predictive value of these trajectories…

  7. A Study of the Objectives for the Theological Preparation of Lutheran Church Missouri Synod Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockrohr, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined current practice in the area of theological preparation for Lutheran elementary teachers of the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod (LCMS). As a church body with a well-defined doctrine, the LCMS requires a particular preparation for all ordained and commissioned workers placed on its official roster. A historical review of archival…

  8. Dance in Elementary Education; A Program for Boys and Girls. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ruth Lovell

    This document is designed to help the elementary school teacher instruct children in how to use their bodies in functional and expressive movement. Part 1 provides an orientation for teachers who wish to learn more about dance in the education of children, and includes suggestions on approaching the teaching of dance. Part 2 presents a variety of…

  9. Dancing through the School Day: How Dance Catapults Learning in Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kelly Mancini

    2013-01-01

    The necessity for engaging the body in learning, the need for students to move throughout the school day, and the positive effects that dance has on students' development are all good reasons for dance to be included in the elementary curriculum. There are many ways for teachers to integrate movement into the school day, using math, science,…

  10. Elementary linear programming with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard

    1995-01-01

    Linear programming finds the least expensive way to meet given needs with available resources. Its results are used in every area of engineering and commerce: agriculture, oil refining, banking, and air transport. Authors Kolman and Beck present the basic notions of linear programming and illustrate how they are used to solve important common problems. The software on the included disk leads students step-by-step through the calculations. The Second Edition is completely revised and provides additional review material on linear algebra as well as complete coverage of elementary linear program

  11. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

  12. Elementary Methods for Computation of Quartiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žerovnik, Janez; Rupnik Poklukar, Darja

    2017-01-01

    Quartiles are usually introduced early, often in primary school together with box-and-whisker plots. Various methods are used, and in lack of explanation in many textbooks at elementary level, this leads to unnecessary confusion. We discuss some elementary methods that are consistent with the most common definition and are also easy to understand.

  13. Hawthorne Elementary School: The University Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    Describes positive results coming from Trinity University's active support of educational reform efforts at Hawthorne Elementary School (Houston, Texas). Trinity's teacher education agenda focused on preparing teachers for the real world of the elementary school and pursuing a teacher-selected school reform project. (GR)

  14. Elementary General Music Teachers' Reflections on Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Diane W.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was completed to identify and study the content of selected elementary general music teachers' evaluations of their own instruction and the instruction of another elementary general music teacher. Participants represented a variety of educational backgrounds and teaching experience: Teacher A (9 years teaching Grades 4-6 at…

  15. Elementary School Teachers and Teaching with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between elementary school teachers' ICT engagement with their attitudes towards technology. To this end, one hundred elementary school students were asked to fill out questionnaires related to their ICT knowledge, usage, and attitude towards technology. The results show that teachers' ICT knowledge and…

  16. Vacuum alignment with and without elementary scalars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Gertov, Helene; Meroni, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    We systematically elucidate differences and similarities of the vacuum alignment issue in composite and renormalizable elementary extensions of the Standard Model featuring a pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We also provide general conditions for the stability of the vacuum in the elementary framework...

  17. Applying Disciplinary Literacy in Elementary Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Judy; Ming, Kavin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a social studies teacher and a literacy teacher describe a vision for social studies that highlights reading practices that foster disciplinary literacy in elementary geography. Their purpose is to share a practical approach for enriching elementary social studies lessons and activities with a geographic lens. During the…

  18. Elementary Children's Retrodictive Reasoning about Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie C.; Schneps, Matthew H.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interviews conducted with twenty-one elementary school children (grades 1-5) about a number of Earth science concepts. These interviews were undertaken as part of a teacher training video series designed specifically to assist elementary teachers in learning essential ideas in Earth science. As such, children were interviewed about a…

  19. Assessment, Autonomy, and Elementary Social Studies Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.; Lambert, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background/context: In an era of accountability and standardization, elementary social studies is consistently losing its curricular foothold to English/language arts, math, and science instruction. Purpose: This article examines the relationship between elementary teachers' perceptions of instructional autonomy, teaching context, state testing…

  20. Effective Hand Washing in an Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Linda; Bartlett, Connie; Hileman, Judy Willis; Dillon, Lisa; Cessna, Tamara

    2000-01-01

    Elementary school is the perfect place to teach and reinforce the lifelong skill of effective handwashing for students and adults. One collaboration between an elementary school and a nursing education program to augment school health services without taxing the school budget is described. Nursing students spent 260 professional nursing service…

  1. Getting Elementary Students Involved in Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    The author discusses getting elementary students involved in a band. The goals of an elementary band instructor should include introduction of good practice habits, working within an ensemble, and rehearsal procedures, along with the focusing on the essentials of music. Instructors should let students use the basic instruments: flute, clarinet,…

  2. Introducing Technology Education at the Elementary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Many school districts are seeing a need to introduce technology education to students at the elementary level. Pennsylvania's Penn Manor School District is one of them. Pennsylvania has updated science and technology standards for grades 3-8, and after several conversations the author had with elementary principals and the assistant superintendent…

  3. Fair partitions of polygons: An elementary introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 122, No. 3, August 2012, pp. 459–467. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Fair partitions of polygons: An elementary introduction. R NANDAKUMAR1 and N RAMANA ... uses only elementary topology and is essentially a constructive one, could still be of non- trivial interest and have updated [9] ...

  4. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology.

  5. Finding All Elementary Circuits Exploiting Transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair and current mirror basically exploit the transconductance of transistors. This paper aims at finding ALL elementary transconductance based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port circuits with

  6. Finding all elementary circuits exploiting transconductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Bruccoleri, F.; Nauta, Bram

    2001-01-01

    Commonly used elementary circuits like single-transistor amplifier stages, the differential pair, and current mirrors basically exploit the transconductance property of transistors. This paper aims at finding all elementary transconductance-based circuits. For this purpose, all graphs of two-port

  7. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial ... Read on for tips to have a healthy body image. Â Topics About body image When you ...

  8. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... spreads up in a V shape over time. Body hair is normal, and some people think it looks ...

  9. Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Alternative Conceptions of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Koc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the extent to which preservice elementary teachers held alternative conceptions in fundemental elementary science concepts. Eighty-six preservice elementary teachers participated in this study. Twelve preservice elementary teachers participated in follow-up interviews. Data were collected through the use of Alternative Conceptions in Science Instrument (Schoon, & Boone, 1998, a participant information form, and utilization of interviews. The results indicated that the majority of preservice elementary teachers (67.4% held a number of alternative conceptions with mostly in the physical science. Various sources of alternative conceptions emerged during the interviews. Findings from the study also confirmed that science courses completed do not seem to have influenced participants’ alternative conceptions. Overall, the results of the study suggest that more consideration be given to identifying and modifying of the alternative conceptions of science so that teachers could better help their own students arriving at more accurate conceptions.

  10. Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Shahin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and cooperative learning into this inquiry-based learning course where students work in small groups on carefully designed activities and utilize available software to support problem solving and understanding of real life situations. We emphasize the use of graphical and numerical techniques, rather than theoretical techniques, to investigate and analyze the behavior of the solutions of the difference equations.As an illustration of our approach, we will show a nontraditional and efficient way of introducing models from finance and economics. We will also present an interesting model of supply and demand with a lag time, which is called the cobweb theorem in economics. We introduce a sample of a research project on a technique of removing chaotic behavior from a chaotic system.

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor Superfamily Member 1b on CD8+ T Cells and TNF Receptor Superfamily Member 1a on Non-CD8+ T Cells Contribute Significantly to Upper Genital Tract Pathology Following Chlamydial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manam, Srikanth; Thomas, Joshua D; Li, Weidang; Maladore, Allison; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Murthy, Ashlesh K

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-producing Chlamydia-specific CD8(+) T cells cause oviduct pathological sequelae. In the current study, we used wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) mice with a deficiency in genes encoding TNF receptor superfamily member 1a (TNFR1; TNFR1 knockout [KO] mice), TNF receptor superfamily member 1b (TNFR2; TNFR2 KO mice), and both TNFR1 and TNFR2 (TNFR1/2 double KO [DKO] mice) and mix-match adoptive transfers of CD8(+) T cells to study chlamydial pathogenesis. TNFR1 KO, TNFR2 KO, and TNFR1/2 DKO mice displayed comparable clearance of primary or secondary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection but significantly reduced oviduct pathology, compared with WT animals. The Chlamydia-specific total cellular cytokine response in splenic and draining lymph nodes and the antibody response in serum were comparable between the WT and KO animals. However, CD8(+) T cells from TNFR2 KO mice displayed significantly reduced activation (CD11a expression and cytokine production), compared with TNFR1 KO or WT animals. Repletion of TNFR2 KO mice with WT CD8(+) T cells but not with TNFR2 KO CD8(+) T cells and repletion of TNFR1 KO mice with either WT or TNFR1 KO CD8(+) T cells restored oviduct pathology to WT levels in both KO groups. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TNFR2-bearing CD8(+) T cells and TNFR1-bearing non-CD8(+) T cells contribute significantly to oviduct pathology following genital chlamydial infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. An excursion through elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Caminha Muniz Neto, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, in-depth overview of elementary mathematics as explored in Mathematical Olympiads around the world. It expands on topics usually encountered in high school and could even be used as preparation for a first-semester undergraduate course. This first volume covers Real Numbers, Functions, Real Analysis, Systems of Equations, Limits and Derivatives, and much more. As part of a collection, the book differs from other publications in this field by not being a mere selection of questions or a set of tips and tricks that applies to specific problems. It starts from the most basic theoretical principles, without being either too general or too axiomatic. Examples and problems are discussed only if they are helpful as applications of the theory. Propositions are proved in detail and subsequently applied to Olympic problems or to other problems at the Olympic level. The book also explores some of the hardest problems presented at National and International Mathematics Olympiads, as we...

  13. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Science Teaching Orientations and Experiences that Impacted their Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    A large body of literature illustrates that many elementary teachers are reluctant to teach science and confess a lack of confidence to teach it. Nevertheless, a review of the literature indicates a few cases of elementary teachers who do well in science and offers rare examples of enthusiast elementary teachers. The question then becomes how those cases came to be? The purpose of this study is to document two such cases of prospective elementary teachers, illustrate their unique characteristics and shed light on how those came to be. The study was designed upon a narrative inquiry approach focusing on the collection of personal stories. Multiple sources of data were used in order to examine the participants' science teaching orientations and the kinds of experiences that influenced their development: drawings, interviews, reflective assignments, and others. The analysis of the data was grounded within the Three-Dimensional Space Narrative Structure. The findings of the analysis illustrated that the participants perceived certain experiences they had during their university coursework as critical to shaping their orientations to science and science teaching: inquiry-based investigations, contemporary theoretical discussions, outdoors field study, friendly classroom environment and the characteristics of their instructors. These findings have implications for the design of teacher education courses that aim to engage prospective elementary teachers, especially females, in meaningful learning experiences and support them in developing science teaching orientations that are in line with reform recommendations.

  14. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  15. A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

    2013-07-25

    Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

  16. Elementary process theory axiomatic introduction and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

    2011-01-01

    Modern physics lacks a unitary theory that applies to all four fundamental interactions. This PhD thesis is a proposal for a single, complete, and coherent scheme of mathematically formulated elementary laws of nature. While the first chapter presents the general background, the second chapter addresses the method by which the main result has been developed. The next three chapters rigorously introduce the Elementary Process Theory, its mathematical foundations, and its applications to physics, cosmology and philosophy of mind. The final two chapters discuss the results and present the conclusions. Summarizing, the Elementary Process Theory is a scheme of seven well-formed closed expressions, written in the mathematical language of set matrix theory – a generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. In the physical world, these seven expressions can be interpreted as elementary principles governing the universe at supersmall scale. The author critically confronts the theory with Quantum Mechanics and Genera...

  17. Nutrition Education in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, John E.; Bell, Paul E.

    1976-01-01

    The involvement of seven elementary teachers in a summer nutrition workshop expanded into a complete nutrition education program on nutrients, caloric balance, junk foods, food selection, preparation, and storage. (MB)

  18. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology. PMID:27828637

  19. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Elementary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum materials are important resources with which teachers make pedagogical decisions about the design of science learning environments. To become well-started beginning elementary teachers capable of engaging their students in inquiry-based science, preservice elementary teachers need to learn to use science curriculum materials…

  20. National Science Resources Center Project for Improving Science Teaching in Elementary Schools. Appendix A. School Systems With Exemplary Elementary Science Programs. Appendix B. Elementary Science Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Belleview Public Schools Anthony, Margaret, Northwest Elementary School Appel, Alice, No. 70 Elementary School Appleman, Daniel E., Geologist ...Patricia A., Geologist Research Center National Air and Space Museum Jacobs, Betsy, Director of Children’s Education Brooklyn Botanic Garden Jacobs...John, President Amateur Astronomers Association of New York City Pear, Lou, Science Coordinator West Hill School Pearsall, Robert, Kingston Elementary

  1. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-An Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. Methods This is a secondary analysis of 1651 elementary school children with complete biannual longitudinal data from kindergarten to the beginning of 5th grade. Heights and weights were measured by trained school nurses using standard procedures at the beginning and end of each school year for 11 consecutive assessments. Group-based trajectory clustering and multinomial logit modeling were conducted. Results When using BMIz score, six trajectory groups were identified revealing substantial consistency in BMIz score across time. When using a categorical variable separating overweight/obese children (BMI ≥ 85%ile from the rest, five developmental trajectories (persistently non-overweight/obese weight: 51.1 %; early-onset overweight/obese: 9.2 %; late-onset overweight/obese: 9.7 %; becoming healthy weight: 8.2 %; and chronically overweight/obese: 21.8 % were identified. When using a categorical variable separating obese children (BMI ≥ 95%ile from the rest, three trajectories (persistently non-obese: 74.1 %, becoming obese: 12.8 %; and chronically obese: 13.2 % were identified. For both cutoffs (≥ BMI percentile 85 % or 95 %, girls were more likely than boys to be classified in the persistently non-overweight and/or obese group (odds ratios (OR ranged from 0.53 to 0.67; and Hispanic children and non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to be chronically overweight and/or obese than non-Hispanic White children (OR ranged from 1.57 to 2.44. Hispanic children were also more likely to become obese (OR: 1.84 than non-Hispanic White children when ≥ BMI percentile 95 % was used. Conclusions Boys, Hispanic

  2. Report of decontamination at Tominari Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, S

    2016-12-01

    On 19 April 2011, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology designated 13 elementary schools, including Tominari Elementary School in Date city, as high-dose schools that needed to restrict outdoor activities due to the effects of the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Approximately 1 week later, the municipal government took action to remove the topsoil from the school grounds, and the prohibition of outdoor activities at Tominari Elementary School was lifted. The school staff continued to work on decontaminating the surrounding areas using high-pressure washers and brushes. There were certain positive outcomes, but a more effective decontamination method was required. In July 2011, the municipal government started an environmental remediation project, both inside and outside the school buildings, with researchers and decontamination workers at Tominari Elementary School, involving members of the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), local communities, and volunteers using various effective and specialised forms of decontamination. As a result, Tominari Elementary School was able to recommence swimming lessons at the end of the first semester, which had been thought to be impossible. This article will provide information about the importance of 'dialogue' for decontamination, how engagement of the experts gave members of the PTA and the local community a feeling of 'security and safety', and how the decontamination work was an ever-expanding collaborative work of a large number of people.

  3. Anxiety in elementary and high-school students during physical education classes

    OpenAIRE

    Orlić, Ana; Ilić, Slađana; Lazarević, Dušanka

    2012-01-01

    During physical education classes anxiety is manifested by feelings of worry, tension, fear and physical arousal of the body, all connected with the teaching process. The aims of the research were to check the factor structure and metric characteristics of the instruments for measuring anxiety during physical education classes (Physical Education State Anxiety Scale (PESAS)), to determine the levels of anxiety among elementary and high-school students, aged 12-17, and examine the relatedness ...

  4. Disturbed eating tendency and related factors in grade four to six elementary school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yueching; Chang, Yu-Jhen; Tsao, Shu-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated Taiwanese elementary school students' status in terms of body size, body satisfaction and disturbed eating tendencies. In a cross-sectional survey, 1,261 elementary school children from grades four to six participated in this study. We used an anonymous selfreported questionnaire, which included: demographics and body satisfaction; Children's Eating Attitude Test -26 (ChEAT-26); Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale; and Influence of Significant Others Scale and Media Impact Scale. We found that 58.4% of the children were of normal weight, and 32.7% of the boys and 22.2% of the girls were over-weight or obese. Moreover, 39% of the children wanted to be thinner. The mean ChEAT-26 score was 8.71±8.35, and 10.5% of the children were at high risk for disturbed eating tendencies (ChEAT-26≥20), including 8.4% of the boys and 12.6% of the girls. Scores on the ChEAT-26, Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, Influence of Significant Others Scale and Media Impact Scale were positively correlated. The level of external control and the influence of significant others and the media were significantly higher in children with disturbed eating attitudes than in those without them. Multivariable logistic regressions showed that disturbed eating attitudes were associated with body satisfaction, locus of control, and the level of influence of significant others and the media. Disturbed eating behaviors exist among elementary school students in Taiwan. This survey highlights the need for education in acquiring healthy mental attitudes and eating behaviors by elementary school students.

  5. Shifting from Fear to Self-Confidence: Body Mapping as a Transformative Tool in Music Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Shelley M.

    2015-01-01

    Fear and lack of self-confidence toward music teaching are frequently experienced by many Bachelor of Education teacher candidates when they imagine themselves as future elementary general music teachers. Integrating visual art body mapping in elementary music methods fosters a unique opportunity to identify and interrogate musical experience.…

  6. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... hygiene and by frequently washing parts of the body and hair with soap and clean, running water ( ...

  7. Body Alchemy

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition "Body Alchemy" centers on the artistic concept of jewelry and metal art, new materials and the relation and dialogue between body and space. It discusses the evolution of contemporary jewelry and metal art from alchemy to casting body, from material aesthetics to conceptual art and from space shaping to body language. (subtracts from invite and event program). \\ud \\ud International contemporary jewelry artists and metal artists are invited to participate in the exhibition next ...

  8. Zero Energy Building Pays for Itself: Odyssey Elementary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Odyssey Elementary is a large public school in an area of Utah with a growing population. Created as a prototype for the Davis School District, Odyssey is a zero energy building whose design has already been copied for two other new schools, both of which are targeting zero energy. It has a unique design with four 'houses' (or classroom wings) featuring generously daylit classrooms. This design contributes to the school's energy efficiency. In an effort to integrate positive messages about fitness into the learning environment, each house has a different take on the theme of 'bodies in motion' in the natural world. In a postoccupancy survey of parents, students, and teachers, more than 87% were satisfied with the building overall.

  9. Psychomotor assessment of 2nd grade children of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Carvalho Silvério

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychomotor is a multidisciplinary science that incorporates motor, affective and cognitive aspects. This study aimed to measure the psychomotor skills to see if the results are within the expected for the age group studied and investigate whether there are differences between the performance of boys and girls. 91 children participated in this research. 59.3% were boys (M = 7.16 years, SD = 0.37 of the 2nd year of elementary school in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais-Brasil. The results of psychomotor tests of Oliveira (2014 indicated that the profile of children was within the expected range, according to the stages of development of psychomotor skills. The only statistically significant difference between the sexes appeared in the psychomotor skills "body schema", with higher average of children. It is suggested that more studies will be developed with children of different types of institutions to confront these findings.

  10. Implementation of additive technologies in elementary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Melita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of additive manufacturing (AM in the wider sense at the level of elementary education is not sufficiently analysed in Republic of Croatia at the moment. Partially, CAD/CAM technologies requires far more specialized knowledge than what the Croatian curriculum provides. The application of different technological devices in the educational process, accelerates the teaching process, and makes it more interesting and more acceptable. The knowledge that pupil need to have at the end of schooling is rapidly changing. It is quite possible scenario that most of the knowledge gained during the elementary and secondary education will be obsolete before future student applies to the university. In order to achieve further progress, it is necessary to systematically explain all the possibilities of using these technologies from the elementary level. By developing different strategies, the young generation can focus on the knowledge they will need in their future jobs.

  11. Conservation Laws, Symmetries, and Elementary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekzema, Dick; Schooten, Gert; van den Berg, Ed; Lijnse, Piet

    2005-05-01

    The following student text on conservation laws, symmetries, and elementary particles was developed in a Dutch project for teaching modern physics to the top stream of the sixth year of secondary education (age 17-18). In a series of 35 lessons of 45-50 minutes each, students study particle-wave duality, the Heisenberg principle, probability models for properties of particles, the particle in a box, and applications, elementary particles, and astrophysics (http://www.phys.uu.nl/˜wwwpmn). In this paper we focus on particle physics and the key concepts of this chapter are: transformation, reaction equation, conservation laws, and symmetry. For recent literature regarding the teaching of symmetries and/or elementary particles, we refer to articles by Hill & Lederman, Pascolini & Pietroni,2 Kalmus,3 O'Connell,4 and Hanley.5

  12. Elementary particle physics in early physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Wiener, Gerfried

    2017-01-01

    Current physics education research is faced with the important question of how best to introduce elementary particle physics in the classroom early on. Therefore, a learning unit on the subatomic structure of matter was developed, which aims to introduce 12-year-olds to elementary particles and fundamental interactions. This unit was iteratively evaluated and developed by means of a design-based research project with grade-6 students. In addition, dedicated professional development programmes were set up to instruct high school teachers about the learning unit and enable them to investigate its didactical feasibility. Overall, the doctoral research project led to successful results and showed the topic of elementary particle physics to be a viable candidate for introducing modern physics in the classroom. Furthermore, thanks to the design-based research methodology, the respective findings have implications for both physics education and physics education research, which will be presented during the PhD defen...

  13. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español About Body Basics KidsHealth / For Parents / About Body Basics Print Remember the biology class you had ... do, lots of new knowledge about how the body works helps us to understand it now better ...

  14. The Elementary Private School Recognition Program: Mike Mulligan's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes the goals, the selection criteria, and the selection process of the Elementary Private School Recognition Program. Includes a listing, by states, of the 60 private elementary schools selected for 1985-86 recognition. (IW)

  15. Schools K-12 - MDC_ElementaryAttendanceBoundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Public Schools attendance zones for Elementary schools (PK-5) and K-8 Centers (PK-8) schools. K-8 Centers are elementary...

  16. Elementary school students’ health-related self-beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia L. Fedewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Increased action is needed to combat the growing epidemic of pediatric obesity. It is imperative that researchers investigate psychological and demographic variables that may be associated with pediatric obesity in order to formulate and implement more appropriate and effective interventions. The present study examined the univariate and multivariate relationships between child physical and psychological characteristics in a diverse sample of elementary students. METHODS: Questionnaires were collected from 109 students (63 girls, 46 boys; Mean age= 9.25 years in grades 3-5 from two elementary schools in the Southeastern United States. Explanatory variables were gender, ethnicity, grade level, and body mass index; outcomes examined were self-reported life satisfaction, physical self-concept, social self-concept, general self-concept, eating self-efficacy, and exercise self-efficacy scores. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used. RESULTS: Correlations showed children with higher physical self-concept, social self-concept, general self-concept, and eating self-efficacy tend to have higher life satisfaction. Regressions revealed that African American students had a higher physical self-concept than both White and Hispanic students and older students had a higher perceived social self-concept than younger students. Multivariate regression results showed that the explanatory influence of gender, ethnicity, and grade level varied across outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS: The strongest explanatory variables of children’s perceived life satisfaction, self-concept and self-efficacy were children’s characteristics (age, gender, and race. Interestingly, children’s psychological functioning was not found to be in direct relationship with their weight classification and children’s body mass index was not significantly related to most outcome variables.

  17. Elementary School Students’ Health-Related Self-Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia L. FEDEWA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Increased action is needed to combat the growing epidemic of pediatric obesity. It is imperative that researchers investigate psychological and demographic variables that may be associated with pediatric obesity in order to formulate and implement more appropriate and effective interventions. The present study examined the univariate and multivariate relationships between child physical and psychological characteristics in a diverse sample of elementary students. METHODS: Questionnaires were collected from 109 students (63 girls, 46 boys; Mean age= 9.25 years in grades 3-5 from two elementary schools in the Southeastern United States. Explanatory variables were gender, ethnicity, grade level, and body mass index; outcomes examined were self-reported life satisfaction, physical self-concept, social self-concept, general self-concept, eating self-efficacy, and exercise self-efficacy scores. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used. RESULTS: Correlations showed children with higher physical self-concept, social self-concept, general self-concept, and eating self-efficacy tend to have higher life satisfaction. Regressions revealed that African American students had a higher physical self-concept than both White and Hispanic students and older students had a higher perceived social self-concept than younger students. Multivariate regression results showed that the explanatory influence of gender, ethnicity, and grade level varied across outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS: The strongest explanatory variables of children’s perceived life satisfaction, self-concept and self-efficacy were children’s characteristics (age, gender, and race. Interestingly, children’s psychological functioning was not found to be in direct relationship with their weight classification and children’s body mass index was not significantly related to most outcome variables.

  18. Kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.L. Jr. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This program concerning kinetic studies of elementary chemical reactions is presently focussed on understanding reactions of NH{sub x} species. To reach this goal, the author is pursuing experimental studies of reaction rate coefficients and product branching fractions as well as using electronic structure calculations to calculate transition state properties and reaction rate calculations to relate these properties to predicted kinetic behavior. The synergy existing between the experimental and theoretical studies allow one to gain a deeper insight into more complex elementary reactions.

  19. Observations on English education in elementary schools

    OpenAIRE

    藤澤, 良行; カドゥアー, ドナルド; フジサワ, ヨシユキ; Donald, KADUHR; Yoshiyuki, FUJISAWA

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines English-language teaching in the People's Republic of China through visitations to some elementary school grades in two large urban centres, Beijing and Dalian, in March 2008. Observations of English classes in China for students in grades 1 to 6, provide the basis of what we feel needs to be addressed for the implementation of English-language teaching in lower levels of Japanese elementary schools (grade 5 and above) from 2011. After giving a brief overview of the develo...

  20. Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0320 EXPLOITING ELEMENTARY LANDSCAPES FOR TSP , VEHICLE ROUTING AND SCHEDULING Darrell Whitley COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Final...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP , Vehicle Routing and Scheduling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0088...Traveling Salesman Problem ( TSP ) and Graph Coloring are elementary. Problems such as MAX-kSAT are a superposition of k elementary landscapes. This

  1. Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon K. P., Seema

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to find out the awareness on learning disabilities among elementary school teachers. The sample for the present study consisted of 500 elementary school teachers of Kerala. In this study the investigator used an Awareness Test on Learning Disabilities to measure the Awareness on Learning Disabilities among Elementary School…

  2. Outliers: Elementary Teachers Who Actually Teach Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study identified six elementary teachers, who, despite the widespread marginalization of elementary social studies, spent considerable time on the subject. These six outliers from a sample of forty-six Michigan elementary teachers were interviewed, and their teaching was observed to better understand how and why they deviate…

  3. Preservice Elementary Teachers and the Fundamentals of Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Clark

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how preservice elementary teachers think about situations involving probability. Twenty-four preservice elementary teachers who had not yet studied probability as part of their preservice elementary mathematics coursework were interviewed using a task-based interview. The participants' responses showed a wide variety of…

  4. Verbal Behavior in Resource and Regular Elementary Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jerry B.

    1983-01-01

    Behaviors of 42 elementary resource teachers and 57 regular elementary teachers were analyzed. Resource teachers spent more time than elementary teachers in accepting students' feelings, praising/encouraging students, and accepting student ideas. In general, verbal behavior of teachers in the two settings was not significantly different. (CL)

  5. Imagery Teaches Elementary Economics Schema Efficiently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Gary R.

    In a complex domain such as economics, elementary school students' knowledge of formal systems beyond their immediate experience is often too incomplete, superficial, and disorganized to function as schema or model. However, visual imagery is a good technique for teaching young children a network of 10 to 20 propositions and the relationships…

  6. Enzyme Kinetics? Elementary, my dear 3 -8 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elementary, my dear. 2. The Analysis and Significance of Kinetic Parameters. Desirazu N. Rao is at the. Department of. Biochemistry, Indian. Institute of Science,. Bangalore. His main research interests are in the areas of protein-DNA interactions using restriction enzymes as model systems, and in. DNA methylation.

  7. Exploring Collective Mathematical Creativity in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Esther

    2011-01-01

    This study combines theories related to collective learning and theories related to mathematical creativity to investigate the notion of collective mathematical creativity in elementary school classrooms. Collective learning takes place when mathematical ideas and actions, initially stemming from an individual, are built upon and reworked,…

  8. Handwriting Instruction in Elementary Schools: Revisited!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…

  9. Musical Creativity in Slovenian Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Janja Crcinovic

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Slovenian music education curriculum for the first years of elementary school emphasises the following musical activities in the classroom: singing, playing instruments, listening to music, movement to music and musical creativity. In the field of musical creativity, there are two activities where students can be original and…

  10. Hawthorne Elementary School: The Teachers' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, Debra; Shaughnessy, Tricia

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorne Elementary School (Houston, Texas) reform efforts that targeted inner-city, low-income student academic improvement. The forceful use of national and local resources to implement teacher-initiated changes and to further a successful site-based school restructuring is presented. (GR)

  11. Hawthorne Elementary School: The Evaluator's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubnell, Gail Owen

    1996-01-01

    Provides an evaluator's view of the quantitative effects of the Core Knowledge Sequence, a content-based K-6 curriculum model, and other reforms at Hawthorne Elementary School (Houston, Texas). Pretest and posttest results show increased academic performance in reading, writing, and mathematics, based on Texas Assessment of Academic Skills…

  12. Freedom of Expression in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    Uses question and answer format to discuss scope of elementary students' First Amendment freedom of expression rights. For example, does the First Amendment prevent the disciplining of a sixth grader for writing a sexually inappropriate remark in another student's notebook? Answer: No. (Contains 13 references.) (PKP)

  13. Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Vichea

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…

  14. Scripted Collaborative Drawing in Elementary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Alieke M.; Gijlers, Hannie; Weinberger, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Creating graphical representations can foster knowledge gains on science topics in elementary school students by promoting active integration and translation of new information. Collaborating on joint representations may encourage children to discuss and elaborate their knowledge. To foster productive interactions, children may greatly benefit…

  15. Rural Elementary School Teachers' Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Wood, Lawrence; Hough, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey responses from more than 500 third-grade teachers, this study addressed three research questions relating to technology integration and its impact in rural elementary schools. The first analyses compared rural with non-rural teachers, revealing that the rural teachers had more positive attitudes toward technology integration. Then…

  16. Character Development in Elementary-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickona, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Identifies goals of character development for elementary school children. Offers four processes that promote positive social growth and moral maturity: (1) building self-esteem and a sense of community; (2) learning to cooperate and help others; (3) reflecting on moral choices; and (4) participating in decision making. Suggests how teachers have…

  17. Chaos and fractals an elementary introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, David P

    2012-01-01

    For students with a background in elementary algebra, this text provides a vivid introduction to the key phenomena and ideas of chaos and fractals, including the butterfly effect, strange attractors, fractal dimensions, Julia sets and the Mandelbrot set, power laws, and cellular automata.

  18. Examining Mathematics Anxiety in Elementary Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnallen, Rachel R.

    2010-01-01

    Test anxiety and mathematics anxiety have been found to relate to mathematics performance in both children and adults. This study investigated mathematics anxiety in elementary teachers and whether those who experience mathematics anxiety also have professional anxiety about teaching mathematics. A researcher-developed instrument called the…

  19. Conferenza internazionale di Siena sulle particelle elementari

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    Last year the editor of CERN Courier was privileged to be able to attend the Sienna international conference on elementary particles, held in the historic Italian city at the beginning of October. The following article is a personal recollection of the conference activities, both formal and informal, and of the physics that was discussed there.

  20. Integrating Technology into Your Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses the inclusion of technology in elementary music education. The Technology Institute for Music Educators was an excellent place for learning music technology as they offer summer courses for teachers with novice to advanced skills in technology. Music technology differentiates instruction and challenge the musically gifted…

  1. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Beliefs about Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a Beliefs About Teaching (BAT) scale was created to examine preservice elementary science teachers' self-reported comfort level with both traditional and reform-based teaching methods, assessment techniques, classroom management techniques, and science content. Participants included 166 preservice teachers from three different US…

  2. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2014-01-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was…

  3. What Do Elementary Students Know about Insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview-based study of (n=56) elementary school students. Determines students' understanding about insect characteristics, life cycles, environmental conditions, and impact on humans. Suggests building units of instruction based on students' personal questions about insects. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Learning Leadership Skills in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Leadership is everyone's responsibility-even first graders. The most important contribution that any educator can make in an era of unrelenting change is identifying and developing aspiring leaders. Elementary school teachers can embed leadership development opportunities into the classroom to foster leadership dispositions and skills…

  5. Safety First: Safety--The Elementary Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Activities involving the construction of a model solar oven, soda bottle rocket, catapult, bridge, roller coaster, playground, and plane glider all have one thing in common. They are examples of STEM project activities for elementary students. STEM is one of the areas of emphasis in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS), which…

  6. Solar Heating in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Solar-heating and hot-water system installed in elementary school in Virginia is described in 154 page report. Report contains discussion of design philosophy and acceptance-test report. Provides instructions for installation, maintenance, and operation. Also furnishes mechanical drawings and manufacturers' data on pumps, valves, controllers, and other components.

  7. Tips for Teaching Math to Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpello, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Since most elementary school teachers do not hold a degree in mathematics, teaching math may be a daunting task for some. Following are a few techniques to help make teaching and learning math easier and less stressful. First, know that math is a difficult subject to teach--even for math teachers. The subject matter itself is challenging. Second,…

  8. 34 CFR 300.13 - Elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elementary school. 300.13 Section 300.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH...

  9. Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S

    2013-04-01

    This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

  10. Distributed Leadership Behaviours among Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ayça Irem; Beycioglu, Kadir

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of distributed leadership behaviours of the elementary school teachers in Turkey. In this study, surveying was used as the quantitative data gathering method and focus group was used as the qualitative one. To gather quantitative data, "The Distributed Leadership Scale"-"DLS" developed by…

  11. Elementary Magnet School Students' Interracial Interaction Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Gerald B.; Holifield, Mitchell L.; Holifield, Glenda; Creer, Donna Grady

    2000-01-01

    Investigated elementary students' interracial interaction preferences in four desegregated, urban magnet schools. Data from a sociogram of students' working, playing, and sitting choices indicated that black students were less willing than white students to interact. Racial considerations were more pronounced among girls. There was no trend toward…

  12. Integrating Children's Literature in Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynsey; Feng, Jay

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this professional development project was to train teachers in using children's literature for math instruction and to also examine its effect on student math learning at an elementary school. Teachers were taught how to use children's literature to instruct and enhance their math curriculum through the use of literature pieces,…

  13. Assigning Elementary Pupils to Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Examines variation in the methods used to assign students to classrooms and teachers in a small but highly diversified sample of elementary schools. Gives explicit attention to parental influence on pupil assignments as well as to effects of having an unusually incompetent or excellent teacher at a particular grade level. (NH)

  14. Staying Alive: Social Studies in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Social studies, particularly in the elementary grades, has been pushed to the back burner in schools. Time is the biggest nemesis. Increased attention to math and language arts under the federal No Child Left Behind law is squeezing out social studies. Many states have standards in social studies so teachers are expected to cover the topic, but…

  15. Students' constructs of elementary school physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissanos, B W; Allison, P C

    1993-12-01

    The constructivist educational orientation acknowledges that students construct their own learning as they experience and make meaning from their schooling. An elementary school physical education master teacher and 10 of her former students participated in a naturalistic study designed to answer two research questions: (a) How did 10 students at the time of their high school graduation construct the meaning of elementary school physical education? and (b) What factors associated with their elementary school physical education experiences influenced the ways they constructed meaning? Participants were asked to reminisce in a semistructured, open-ended interview format specifically designed to enhance the recall of their physical education experiences during the 7-year, K-6 time frame. Data were inductively analyzed using the constant comparative analytic strategy. The meanings constructed by the students from their elementary school physical education experiences were defined by the teacher's value orientation and her invitational teaching style. Gender was the only factor evidenced in influencing the construction of meaning, with females recalling more variety and greater detail in the sport curricular area.

  16. Elementary Particle Physics-Then and Now

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Elementary Particle Physics-Then and Now. Avinash Khare. Reflections Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 80-80. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/07/0080-0080. Author Affiliations.

  17. Listening and Reading in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Presenting many listening activities, this paper discusses reading and listening development in elementary school. It lists five pointers to stress in developing pupils who listen well and gives a set of criteria to provide a framework to use in evaluating pupil achievement in listening. The paper lists six items teacher assistants should listen…

  18. Challenging mathematical problems with elementary solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Yaglom, A M

    1987-01-01

    Volume I of a two-part series, this book features a broad spectrum of 100 challenging problems related to probability theory and combinatorial analysis. The problems, most of which can be solved with elementary mathematics, range from relatively simple to extremely difficult. Suitable for students, teachers, and any lover of mathematics. Complete solutions.

  19. Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2011-01-01

    I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a…

  20. Number Theory in the Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beougher, Elton E.

    The paper presents reasons for teaching topics from number theory to elementary school students: (1) it can help reveal why numbers "act" in a certain way when added, multiplied, etc., (2) it offers drill material in new areas of mathematics, (3) it can develop interest - as mathematical enrichment, (4) it offers opportunities for students to…

  1. Grace and Courtesy in the Elementary Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneke-Stone, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Don't be fooled by Elise Huneke-Stone's disarming beginning where she implies that grace and courtesy is not normally associated with the elementary. She goes on to elaborate that grace and courtesy is indeed everywhere: in project-based learning, understanding of moral precepts, social and intellectual independence, in the utilization of empathy,…

  2. Differentiated Instruction in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Susan G.

    2008-01-01

    As classrooms become more culturally diverse, it becomes more imperative that differentiated instruction occur in elementary classrooms. Today's classrooms usually contain students with a wide range of abilities and varied experiential backgrounds. These students learn at different rates and in different ways. Differentiation is important in the…

  3. Dress: Images of America. Elementary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary school (grades 2-6) unit which traces the history of dress in America over the last century. Using authentic visuals including posters, paintings, advertising, documentary photography, movies, cartoons,…

  4. City: Images of America. Elementary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Edward; And Others

    Designed to accompany an audiovisual filmstrip series devoted to presenting a visual history of life in America, this guide contains an elementary social studies (grades 2-6) unit on the American city over the last century. Using authentic visuals including paintings, posters, advertising, documentary photography, and cartoons, the guide offers…

  5. The Humanities in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ralph

    1972-01-01

    Believes the continued inclusion of the Humanities in the Elementary School Curriculum may be threatened and examines the reasons. Suggests ways literature, art, music, creative writing and dramatics can be included in the program if they are developed with a new conception of the Humanities. (RB)

  6. Teaching Elementary School Children about Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching elementary school students about Korea by introducing them to the country's folktales, clothing, art, music, and food. Includes a folktale adapted as a play and suggestions for teaching about traditional costumes, folk dances, music, and masks, as well as Korean mealtime and table manners. (GEA)

  7. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  8. Exploring Elementary Student Perceptions of Writing Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Sarah; Zumbrunn, Sharon; McBride, Caitlin; Stringer, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative investigation was to explore elementary students' (N = 867) perceptions of the feedback they receive on their writing. After responding to the closed-ended question, "Do you like to receive feedback about your writing?" students were branched to the appropriate follow-up open-ended question,…

  9. Geotechnical Engineering in US Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data…

  10. Fifth Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci, Funda; Uluduz, Hatice

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate the fifth grade students' conceptions of earthquakes. Twenty two grade 5 students (11-12 years old) from five different elementary schools in Istanbul voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with each participant. Six interview questions were designed by…

  11. Transformational Leadership Behaviors in Elementary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergle, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    School leaders face high expectations from society for leadership effectiveness. While it is commonly accepted that leadership practices contribute to school excellence, specific behaviors of effective elementary principals in the local context were not well understood. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate self-reported…

  12. The Amish. [An Elementary School Teaching Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Marilyn

    Readings and activities in this elementary school unit are designed to introduce students to Amish culture. Specific reference is made to the Amish communities in Iowa. Four lessons focus on the history of the Amish in the United States, Amish family life, community life, and customs (such as clothing and occupations) in modern Amish communities.…

  13. Teacher Assessment of Elementary Schools' Computer Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollman, Alan; Wyrick, James

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the elementary computer laboratories and the Educational Systems Corporation (ESC) software in the Fayette County (Kentucky) Public Schools, a Likert-type questionnaire on teacher attitudes and beliefs was designed, field-tested, revised, and distributed at the end of the 1988 spring semester. Analyses of…

  14. Bullying in Elementary School: An American Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Bullying in elementary schools is a recognized and widespread occurrence that threatens to rob children of their childhood. Part I of this commentary describes existing scientifically-based research on the nature, extent and effects of the phenomenon on children in United States schools. Part II analyzes the effectiveness of bullying prevention…

  15. Modulation of the host immune response as a result of Chlamydia psittaci infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lammert, J K; Wyrick, P B

    1982-01-01

    After intraperitoneal injection of mice with infectious, inactivated, or envelope preparations of the elementary body of Chlamydia psittaci, lymphocyte transformation of spleen cells to the mitogens concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide was significantly reduced 1 and 2 weeks postinjection. Lymphocyte response returned to the control values by 4 weeks. Similarly, transformation of cells by chlamydial antigen was not detected until 4 weeks postinjection. Injection of the n...

  16. Preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction during a methods course using the learning cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneca, Faye

    This work investigated how preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and science instruction evolved during a science methods course using the learning cycle methodology. The preservice teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction were compared to their lesson plans to determine if their conceptions of science relate to how they plan for science instruction. Two assertions were made regarding this relationship. The first assertion was that preservice elementary teachers who view scientific knowledge as static will plan science lessons that are fact-based, whereas those who view scientific knowledge as dynamic will plan science lessons that are concept-based. The second assertion was that preservice elementary teachers who view learning as a process of transmission will plan science lessons involving teacher demonstrations and textbook explanations, whereas those who view learning as a process of construction will plan science lessons involving inquiry and discovery activities. Findings indicate that the learning cycle influenced preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and science instruction. At the beginning of the term, students viewed science primarily as a static body of knowledge. By the end of the term, students had more complete understandings of the dynamic nature of science and of the processes used to generate scientific knowledge. Regarding science instruction, students' conceptions evolved from traditional approaches to constructivist approaches using discovery and inquiry explorations. Findings also indicate that preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction do relate to how they plan for science instruction. However, the ability to apply their newly learned instructional strategies was influenced by subject matter knowledge. During mid-term interviews, the students cited the following factors as producing change in their beliefs of science and science

  17. Elementary Continuum Mechanics for Everyone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    •The principle of virtual work is used to establish consistent theories of kinematic nonlinearity and linearity for other kinds of bodies, such as beams and plates •An in-depth treatment of structural instability as many structures fail due to this phenomenon •An introduction to the most versatile...... for solids. Then the principle of virtual work is utilized to derive the simpler, kinematically linear 3-D theory and to provide the foundation for developing consistent theories of kinematic nonlinearity and linearity for specialized continua, such as beams and plates, and finite element methods...... for these structures. A formulation in terms of the versatile Budiansky-Hutchinson notation is used as basis for the theories for these structures and structural elements, as well as for an in-depth treatment of structural instability....

  18. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...... and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...

  19. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  20. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    Olmsted, Marion P; McFarlane, Traci

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  1. Disciplined knowledge: Differentiating and binding the elementary science curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael Thomas

    The purpose of this research was to investigate elementary science curriculum differentiation at two schools with widely divergent student demographics. Historically, elementary school students of ethnic-minority and low-socioeconomic backgrounds have not performed on traditional assessments of academic achievement and progress in science education at the same level as their White and more affluent peers. This inequality has long been of interest to the proponents of science education reform who are concerned with the ability of students to participate successfully in a democratic society and in the labor market. Differentiating the curriculum such that students, because of their socioeconomic, ethnic, or racial backgrounds, receive different knowledge, skills, and experiences is a key component of school activity that supports social inequality. Participants in the study included the teachers and students of four classrooms in two schools with student populations that differed in their socioeconomic and ethnic demographics. Qualitative research methods, including fieldnotes, audiorecordings, and interviews, were utilized to gather data. The collection and analysis of data were articulated in a developmental research process in which theories and interpretations were continuously constructed and tested for validity. The results of this research show that the science curricula at the two schools were different, with differences being understood in terms of the populations served. The particular form of differentiation observed in this study was closely correlated to elements of social discipline, knowledge segmentation and reconfiguration, time and pacing, control of bodies, and testing. The elementary science curriculum at the two schools differed in the formality and intensity with which the curriculum was constructed in adherence to these elements of discipline. Such differences cannot be understood in traditional terms as supporting White middle-class students

  2. Correlates of weight gain in German children attending elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Wirt, Tamara; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2013-10-01

    To examine the association of physical fitness, sports participation, physical activity and sedentary behavior as well as dietary patterns and family background with weight gain in non-overweight elementary school children, independent of absolute body weight. Height, weight, and physical fitness were assessed in 1249 (51% male) children in south-west Germany during the fall of 2010 and 2011 (age at baseline: 7.0±0.6years). Based on changes in body mass index percentiles children were classified into a weight loss, constant weight, or weight gain group. Health behavior and family background were assessed via parent questionnaire. Group differences were examined via analysis of variance and multinomial logistic regression. Weight gain was associated with low physical activity, lack of active transport, and lack of regular breakfast at follow-up. Children in the weight gain category also displayed lower fitness during baseline and follow-up, but differences were more pronounced during follow-up. TV time, migration background or parental education was not associated with weight gain. Ensuring adequate physical activity and high fitness is an important aspect in the prevention of excessive weight gain during childhood. In addition to sports participation active transport should be emphasized in future weight management programs in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Footwear as a risk factor of hookworm infection in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semuel Sandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background In Indonesia, there is still a high prevalence of hookworm infection, especially in poor areas with poor sanitation. The number of helminthic diseases in Keerom Regency was about 599 cases in 2010. This number is bound to increase due to the low sanitation, hygiene and socio-economic status of the people in the regency. The children are a group at risk for contracting infections, especially intestinal worms, which affect the child’s physical growth and intelligence. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors of hookworm diseases in elementary school students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 elementary school students. Demographic data were obtained by questionnaire, comprising gender, parental socio-economic status, household sanitation, and personal hygiene. Body mass index was calculated by measurement of body weight and height. And hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Quick Check Hb-meter. Stool samples were microscopically examined using the Kato-Katz method. We used chi-square and logistic regression to find predictors of hookworm infections, with level of significance at p<0.05. Results The number of hookworm infection was 6.7% and the risk factor of hookworm infection among elementary school students was the habit of using footwear outdoors [OR 5.3; 95% CI 1.7-17.7; p=0.004]. Conclusion The use of footwear outdoors was a predictor of hookworm infections in elementary school children. An effective and efficient intervention program is needed to prevent and eradicate hookworm infection among primary school children.

  4. Development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate lifestyle-related behaviors in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Beneit, G; Sotos-Prieto, M; Bodega, P; Rodríguez, C; Orrit, X; Pérez-Escoda, N; Bisquerra, R; Fuster, V; Peñalvo, J L

    2015-09-16

    The SI! Program promotes cardiovascular health through a multilevel school-based intervention on four lifestyle-related components: diet, physical activity, understanding the body and heart, and management of emotions. We report here the development and validation of the KAH (knowledge, attitudes and habits)-questionnaire adapted for elementary school children (6-7 years old) as a tool for the forthcoming evaluation of the SI! Program, where the KAH scoring will be the primary outcome. The efficacy of such an intervention will be based on the improvements in children's KAH towards a healthy lifestyle. The questionnaire validation process started with a pool of items proposed by the pedagogical team who developed the SI! Program for elementary school. The questionnaire was finalized by decreasing the number of items from 155 to 48 using expert panels and statistical tests on the responses from 384 children (ages 6-7). A team of specialized psychologists administered the questionnaire at schools providing standard directions for the final administration. The internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's α coefficients. Reliability was measured through the split-half method, and problematic items were detected applying the item response theory. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test of additivity were used for multiple comparisons. The final KAH-questionnaire for elementary school children should be administered to children individually by trained staff. The 48 items-questionnaire is divided evenly between the 4 components of the intervention, with an overall Cronbach's α = 0.791 (α = 0.526 for diet, α = 0.537 for physical activity, α = 0.523 for human body and heart, and α = 0.537 for management of emotions). The KAH-questionnaire is a reliable instrument to assess the efficacy of the SI! Program on instilling healthy lifestyle-related behaviors in elementary school children.

  5. Assessing Elementary Lesions in Gout by Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Christensen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of the consensus-based ultrasound (US) definitions of elementary gout lesions in patients. METHODS: Eight patients with microscopically proven gout were evaluated by 16 sonographers for signs of double contour (DC), aggregates, erosions, and tophi in the first...... metatarsophalangeal joint and the knee bilaterally. The patients were examined twice using B-mode US to test agreement and inter- and intraobserver reliability of the elementary components. RESULTS: The prevalence of the lesions were DC 52.8%, tophus 61.1%, aggregates 29.8%, and erosions 32.4%. The intraobserver...... reliability was good for all lesions except DC, where it was moderate. The best reliability per lesion was seen for tophus (κ 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.85) and lowest for DC (κ 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.67). The interobserver reliability was good for tophus and erosions, but fair to moderate for aggregates and DC...

  6. Introducing Ergonomics in Two US Elementary Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C L; Tien, D

    2003-06-25

    The increasing presence of computers and other forms of information and communications technology (ICT) in schools has raised concerns in the United States (US) and elsewhere. Children are using computers more than any other age group in the US. It is not known whether early intensive use of ICT predisposes children to future injury. Ergonomics is not included in state curriculum standards or requirements but can be supported by some of the existing standards. Some who believe that children are better off being educated early about ergonomics are taking action to bring ergonomics into elementary and secondary schools. This paper describes the process used to introduce ergonomics into two elementary schools in two different states by initiators with two different roles.

  7. Bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, John

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we provide a unifying framework for a set of seemingly disparate models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies in financial markets. Markets operate by balancing intrinsic levels of risk and return. This seemingly simple observation is commonly over-looked by academics and practitioners alike. Our model shares its origins in statistical physics with others. However, under our approach, changes in market regime can be explicitly shown to represent a phase transition from random to deterministic behaviour in prices. This structure leads to an improved physical and econometric model. We develop models for bubbles, shocks and elementary technical trading strategies. The list of empirical applications is both interesting and topical and includes real-estate bubbles and the on-going Eurozone crisis. We close by comparing the results of our model with purely qualitative findings from the finance literature.

  8. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma......In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  9. Musical creativity in Slovenian elementary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Črčinovič Rozman, Janja

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Slovenian music education curriculum for the first years of elementary school emphasises the following musical activities in the classroom: singing, playing instruments, listening to music, movement to music and musical creativity. In the field of musical creativity, there are two activities where students can be original and creative: making music and moving or drawing/painting activities stimulated by music. Purpose: This research investigated musical creativity in Slovenian...

  10. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas About Scientific Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Amy

    2014-10-01

    With the goal of producing scientifically literate citizens who are able to make informed decisions and reason critically when science intersects with their everyday lives, the National Research Council (NRC) has produced two recent documents that call for a new approach to K-12 science education that is based on scientific practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. These documents will potentially influence future state standards and K-12 curricula. Teachers will need support in order to teach science using a practices based approach, particularly if they do not have strong science backgrounds, which is often the case with elementary teachers. This study investigates one cohort (n = 19) of preservice elementary teachers' ideas about scientific practices, as developed in a one-semester elementary science teaching methods course. The course focused on eight particular scientific practices, as defined by the National Research Council's A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (2012). Participants' written reflections, lesson plans and annotated teaching videos were analyzed in fine detail to better understand their ideas about what it means to engage in each of the practices. The findings suggest that preservice elementary teachers hold promising ideas about scientific practices (such as an emphasis on argumentation and communication between scientists, critical thinking, and answering and asking questions as the goal of science) as well as problematic ideas (including confusion over the purpose of modeling and the process of analysis, and conflating argumentation and explanation building). These results highlight the strengths and limitations of using the Framework (NRC 2012) as an instructional text and the difficulties of differentiating between preservice teachers' content knowledge about doing the practices and their pedagogical knowledge about teaching the practices.

  11. Current status of elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the state-of-the-art in elementary particle physics based on the talk of the same title given on January 22, 1998, at the seminar marking the 90th anniversary of the birth of L.D. Landau. (The seminar was hosted by the P.L. Kapitza institute for physical problems in cooperation with the L.D. Landau institute of theoretical physics). (0 refs).

  12. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  13. Current experiments in elementary particle physics, 1989

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory. Berkeley; Armstrong, F E; Trippe, T G; Yost, G P; Oyanagi, Y; Dodder, D C; Ryabov, Yu G; Slabospitsky, S R; Frosch, R; Olin, A; Lehar, F; Klumov, I A; Ivanov, I I

    1989-01-01

    Contains more than 1,800 experiments in elementary particle physics from the Experience database. Search and browse by author; title; experiment number or prefix; institution; date approved, started or completed; accelerator or detector; polarization, reaction, final state or particle; or by papers produced. Maintained at SLAC for the Particle Data Group. Supplies the information for Current Experiments in Particle Physics (LBL-91). Print version updated every second year.

  14. Implementation of additive technologies in elementary education

    OpenAIRE

    Milić Melita; Maričić Sven; Radolović Donald

    2017-01-01

    The use of additive manufacturing (AM) in the wider sense at the level of elementary education is not sufficiently analysed in Republic of Croatia at the moment. Partially, CAD/CAM technologies requires far more specialized knowledge than what the Croatian curriculum provides. The application of different technological devices in the educational process, accelerates the teaching process, and makes it more interesting and more acceptable. The knowledge that pupil need to have at the end of sch...

  15. Bringing Science Public Outreach to Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucas; Speck, A.; Tinnin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Many science "museums” already offer fantastic programs for the general public, and even some aimed at elementary school kids. However, these venues are usually located in large cities and are only occasionally used as tools for enriching science education in public schools. Here we present preliminary work to establish exciting educational enrichment environments for public schools that do not easily have access to such facilities. This program is aimed at motivating children's interest in science beyond what they learn in the classroom setting. In this program, we use the experience and experiments/demonstrations developed at a large science museum (in this case, The St. Louis Science Center) and take them into a local elementary school. At the same time, students from the University of Missouri are getting trained on how to present these outreach materials and work with the local elementary schools. Our pilot study has started with implementation of presentations/demonstrations at Benton Elementary School within the Columbia Public School district, Missouri. The school has recently adopted a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) centered learning system throughout all grade levels (K-5), and is therefore receptive to this effort. We have implemented a program in which we have given a series of scientific demonstrations at each grade level's lunch hour. Further enrichment ideas and plans include: addition demonstrations, hands-on experiments, and question and answer sessions. However, the application of these events would be to compliment the curriculum for the appropriate grade level at that time. The focus of this project is to develop public communications which links science museums, college students and local public schools with an emphasis on encouraging college science majors to share their knowledge and to strengthen their ability to work in a public environment.

  16. Implementing Elementary School Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Katheryn B.

    Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards requires developing elementary teacher content and pedagogical content knowledge of science and engineering concepts. Teacher preparation for this undertaking appears inadequate with little known about how in-service Mid-Atlantic urban elementary science teachers approach this task. The purpose of this basic qualitative interview study was to explore the research questions related to perceived learning needs of 8 elementary science teachers and 5 of their administrators serving as instructional leaders. Strategies needed for professional growth to support learning and barriers that hamper it at both building and district levels were included. These questions were considered through the lens of Schon's reflective learning and Weick's sensemaking theories. Analysis with provisional and open coding strategies identified informal and formal supports and barriers to teachers' learning. Results indicated that informal supports, primarily internet usage, emerged as most valuable to the teachers' learning. Formal structures, including professional learning communities and grade level meetings, arose as both supportive and restrictive at the building and district levels. Existing formal supports emerged as the least useful because of the dominance of other priorities competing for time and resources. Addressing weaknesses within formal supports through more effective planning in professional development can promote positive change. Improvement to professional development approaches using the internet and increased hands on activities can be integrated into formal supports. Explicit attention to these strategies can strengthen teacher effectiveness bringing positive social change.

  17. Differential Use of Elementary Science Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gail; Robertson, Laura; Gardner, Grant E.; Dotger, Sharon; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2012-10-01

    The use of kits in elementary science classes is a growing trend in some countries. Kits provide materials and inquiry lessons in a ready-to-teach format for teachers to use in their science instruction. This study examined elementary teachers' instructional strategies, classroom practices, and assessment types in relation to the frequency of science kit use. A total of 503 elementary teachers from an urban school district received professional development, implemented kits in their classrooms for a year, and then completed a survey about science kit use and teaching practices. Despite similarities in demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, certification/educational level), there were significant differences in teachers' use of inquiry-based teaching and assessment practices by kit use. Teachers who reported using kits the most often were significantly more likely to report that their students designed and implemented laboratory investigations as well recorded, represented, and analyzed data. In addition, the high kit users indicated that they were more likely to use student groups, require students to use evidence to support claims, and use alternative assessments of student work including portfolios, notebooks, and long-term projects than those teachers who used kits less frequently. Those teachers who reported using kits the least often were significantly more likely to report having students practice for standardized tests. The role of kits in promoting reform-based teaching practices is discussed.

  18. Written narrative practices in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Soares, Soraia; Soares, Aparecido José Couto; Cárnio, Maria Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Promotion of a written narratives production program in the third grade of an Elementary School. To analyze two written narrative practice proposals in order to verify which resources are more efficient in benefitting the textual productions of third grade Elementary School students. Sixty students were selected from two third grade groups of a public Elementary School in São Paulo (Brazil). For the analysis, students were divided into two groups (Group A and Group B). Fourteen children's storybooks were used. In Group A, the story was orally told by the researchers in a colloquial manner, keeping the narrator role and the original structure proposed by the author. In Group B, the story was fully read. The book was projected onto a screen and read aloud so the students could follow the reading and observe the corresponding illustrations. Voice changing resources in the characters' dialogues were used. In the overall comparison, statistically significant results were found for moment (initial and final assessments) and for interaction between groups. It was observed that both groups presented substantial development from initial to final assessment. The Written Narratives Promotion Program based on the shared reading of children's storybooks constituted a more effective strategy than telling the stories using a single reader.

  19. Cultural Astronomy in Elementary and Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafelice, Luiz Carlos

    2015-07-01

    This work is addressed to educators and geography, science, biology and physics teachers who deal with elementary, middle and high school education. It discusses the importance of adopting the anthropological perspective regarding issues that are considered within the astronomy area. It also presents practical proposals for those who intend to introduce cultural astronomy in elementary, middle and high school education - from the beginning of the 1st grade in Elementary school to the end of the 3rd grade in Secondary school, in formal as well as in informal education. This work is proposed within the context of the holistic and transdisciplinary environmental education. Our approach values above all the experience and aims at a humanistic education that includes epistemological and cultural diversities. The suggested practical proposals can be also beneficially used to address works that include contents related to Brazilian indigenous and Afro-descent cultures in the school curriculum, as the new law requires. The guidelines presented here were tested in real school situations.

  20. Body composition analysis for healthy Italian vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siani, V; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Di Daniele, N; Ratiu, A; Leonardi, A; De Lorenzo, A

    2003-10-01

    The elementary nutritional needs of vegetarians are totally, or in great part, supplied by vegetarian food; thus the body composition of vegetarians could differ from that of omnivorous persons. The objective of the present study was to compare healthy Italian vegetarians to healthy omnivorous individuals in terms of body composition, determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry. The study population consisted of 20 vegetarians [mean age (+/-SD), 34.78+/-15.07 years; mean BMI, 22.41+/-2.15 kg/m(2)] and 10 omnivorous persons matched for age and BMI. We found no significant differences between the two groups in terms of fat mass, lean body mass, soft tissue, bone mineral content, or bone mineral density. These findings suggest that the vegetarian diet does not induce negative alterations in body composition.

  1. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  2. Performance-based classrooms: A case study of two elementary teachers of mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth W.

    This case study depicts how two elementary teachers develop classrooms devoted to performance-based instruction in mathematics and science. The purpose is to develop empirical evidence of classroom practices that leads to a conceptual framework about the nature of performance-based instruction. Performance-based assessment and instruction are defined from the literature to entail involving students in tasks that are complex and engaging, requiring them to apply knowledge and skills in authentic contexts. In elementary mathematics and science, such an approach emphasizes problem solving, exploration, inquiry, and reasoning. The body of the work examines teacher beliefs, curricular orientations, instructional strategies, assessment approaches, management and organizational skills, and interpersonal relationships. The focus throughout is on those aspects that foster student performance in elementary mathematics and science. The resulting framework describes five characteristics that contribute to performance-based classrooms: a caring classroom community, a connectionist learning theory, a thinking and doing curriculum, diverse opportunities for learning, and ongoing assessment, feedback, and adjustment. The conclusion analyzes factors external to the classroom that support or constrain the development of performance-based classrooms and discusses the implications for educational policy and further research.

  3. Effects of obesity and obesity-induced stress on depressive symptoms in Korean elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Min; Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Kim, Yeol; Hyun, Mi-Youl; Kwak, Young-Sook; Lee, Chang-In; Park, Min-Jeong; Jang, Yun-Hee; Moon, Ji-Hyun; Seok, Eun-Mi; Song, Young-Ja; Hyeon Ju Kim

    2009-07-01

    Obesity is becoming prevalent in Korean children. Because body image is becoming increasingly important, it is likely that obesity-induced stress has a significant effect on childhood depression. To examine the correlation between obesity-induced stress and depressive symptoms in Korean elementary school students. The study participants were 2,305 elementary school children and their parents in the districts of Jeju-si, Seogwipo-si, Namjeju-gun and Bukjeju-gun on Jeju Island, Korea, who completed questionnaires involving demographic information, an obesity-induced stress scale and the Korean form of Kovacs' Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) from September to December 2006. After controlling for significant independent variables that are wellknown correlates of depressive symptoms in children (e.g. age, gender, residence, family monthly income, obesity status of both parents, family history of chronic illness, and time spent with mother), obesity-induced stress had an odds ratio of 1.128 (95% CI 1.111-1.146). Reducing the prevalence of depressive symptoms in elementary school children in Jeju Island will require special attention, particularly the development of coping strategies to resolve obesity-induced stress in various areas including school, family and society.

  4. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    -sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  5. Body lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pubic lice if you have body lice. Treatment To get rid of lice, take the following important steps: Bathe regularly to get rid of lice and their eggs. Change your clothes often. Wash clothes in hot water (at least 130°F/54°C) and machine ...

  6. Body / Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence R. Schehr

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Unique object in the exchange-system, the gay body occupies a locus where a phantom identity and an imagined reciprocity define the poles of the subject-object relation. Made of the right stuff, it is an object circulating in a system that tends to reproduce the concept of identity in its search for mirror images of itself. Often rejected by the world, it has recently become a cynosure equated with sickness, pestilence, and death in the age of AIDS. The representations of that object change: no longer perceived as a part of libidinal economy, it has become a mass of symptoms, having changed from being an index of sexuality into being the visible dissipation of the flesh. The gay body in the age of AIDS is the mark of a pariah with the abject nature of the outcast. The body with AIDS takes the form of a text made of many signs and with many ways of reading the checkerboard pattern of the flesh. And the AIDS-narrative turns the body into the limit of the representable.

  7. On Mathematics in Curriculum Reform in Elementary Mathematics. Elementary Subjects Center Series No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David E.

    This paper, one of a series considering eight disciplines, describes historical developments and current thinking in mathematics concerning what ought to be included in the elementary school mathematics curriculum. The first part of this paper is devoted to a discussion of the previous involvement of mathematicians in curriculum reform projects.…

  8. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa; Jennifer Campbell; Ediriweera Desapriya

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6–10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8...

  9. Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity among Kuwaiti Elementary Male School Children Aged 6–10 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahab Naser Al-Isa; Jennifer Campbell; Ediriweera Desapriya

    2010-01-01

    Background. Childhood obesity is becoming a global epidemic which may result in increased morbidity and mortality during young adulthood. Objectives. To identify factors associated with overweight and that of obesity among Kuwaiti elementary male school children aged 6?10 years. Methods. Weights and heights of 662 students at a randomly selected school were collected to obtain body mass index (BMI). Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among the students were 20.2% and 16.8%, res...

  10. Eating disorders in elementary and middle school children: risk factors, early detection, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J H

    2000-04-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are significant problems that are typically diagnosed during adolescence. However, the risk factors for and early symptoms of EDs often develop in the elementary and middle school years. Dieting, body dissatisfaction, obesity, parental attitudes, and the influence of the media are some of the significant identifiable risk factors. Prevention programs need to be developed that focus on education, consultation, and consciousness-raising. Early detection involves screening, assessment, and referral for appropriate treatment. School nurses are skilled, educated, and positioned to develop programs for the prevention and early detection of EDs.

  11. PET-biomechanical: postural education in elementary school, with emphasis on balance, proprioception and core

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Marcelo de Maio

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8042.2016v28n49p207This study presents activities carried out by PET-Biomechanics group of school education Elementary I and II, in 2015 in the city of Petrolina. This group is linked to the course of Physical Education of the Federal University of São Francisco Valley (UNIVASF). It aims to prevent postural deficits and the adoption of correct body posture. 101 children between 8 and 11 years old participated in the activities. The methodological procedures incl...

  12. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  13. Elementary numerical mathematics for programmers and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Stoyan, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the basics of numerical methods, while avoiding the definition-theorem-proof style and instead focusing on numerical examples and simple pseudo-codes. The book is divided into ten chapters. Starting with floating number calculations and continuing up to ordinary differential equations, including "Euler backwards". The final chapter discusses practical error estimations. Exercises (including several in MATLAB) are provided at the end of each chapter. Suitable for readers with minimal mathematical knowledge, the book not only offers an elementary introduction to numerical mathematics for programmers and engineers but also provides supporting material for students and teachers of mathematics.

  14. An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    A thought-provoking look at statistical learning theory and its role in understanding human learning and inductive reasoning A joint endeavor from leading researchers in the fields of philosophy and electrical engineering, An Elementary Introduction to Statistical Learning Theory is a comprehensive and accessible primer on the rapidly evolving fields of statistical pattern recognition and statistical learning theory. Explaining these areas at a level and in a way that is not often found in other books on the topic, the authors present the basic theory behind contemporary machine learning and

  15. Elementary polarization properties in the backscattering configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Oriol; Garcia-Caurel, Enric; Ossikovski, Razvigor

    2014-10-15

    In the normal incidence backscattering configuration, a polarimetric measurement always preserves the reciprocal symmetry. For a reciprocal Jones matrix, the number of elementary polarization properties is reduced from six to four. In this work, the physical interpretation of these properties is examined and they are compared with the equivalent polarization properties in transmission. It is found that, with the exception of natural optical activity, a polarimetric backreflection experiment can essentially provide the same type of information about the anisotropy of a medium as a transmission analysis, although transmission and backreflection information comes in a completely different form. Experimental examples are provided to illustrate the discussion.

  16. Elementary particles and emergent phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Zenczykowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The Standard Model of elementary particles, although very successful, contains various elements that are put in by hand. Understanding their origin requires going beyond the model and searching for ""new physics"". The present book elaborates on one particular proposal concerning such physics. While the original conception is 50 years old, it has not lost its appeal over time. Its basic idea is that space - an arena of events treated in the Standard Model as a classical background - is a concept which emerges from a strictly discrete quantum layer in the limit of large quantum numbers. This bo

  17. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  18. Baryogenesis via Elementary Goldstone Higgs Relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertov, Helene; Pearce, Lauren; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We extend the relaxation mechanism to the Elementary Goldstone Higgs framework. Besides studying the allowed parameter space of the theory we add the minimal ingredients needed for the framework to be phenomenologically viable. The very nature of the extended Higgs sector allows to consider very...... flat scalar potential directions along which the relaxation mechanism can be implemented. This fact translates into wider regions of applicability of the relaxation mechanism when compared to the Standard Model Higgs case. Our results show that, if the electroweak scale is not fundamental...... but radiatively generated, it is possible to generate the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry via the relaxation mechanism....

  19. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  20. Elementary particle physics in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Tully, Christopher C

    2011-01-01

    The new experiments underway at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland may significantly change our understanding of elementary particle physics and, indeed, the universe. This textbook provides a cutting-edge introduction to the field, preparing first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduates to understand and work in LHC physics at the dawn of what promises to be an era of experimental and theoretical breakthroughs. Christopher Tully, an active participant in the work at the LHC, explains some of the most recent experiments in the field. But this book, which emerged fr

  1. Job satisfaction of Jamaican elementary school teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers-Jenkinson, Fay; Chapman, David W.

    1990-09-01

    This study investigated correlates of job satisfaction among public (N=190) and private (N=100) Jamaican elementary school teachers. Emphasis was on the identification of factors that could be affected through administrative intervention. Results indicated that the quality of school working conditions and respondents' relationships with other teachers were significantly related to satisfaction for both public and private school teachers. School prestige and parental encouragement were also significant predictors for public school teachers; leadership style, organizational structure, and teacher-parent relationships predicted job satisfaction for private school teachers. Implications of these findings for Jamaican education are discussed.

  2. Elementary Particles The first hundred years

    CERN Document Server

    Perkins, Donald Hill

    1997-01-01

    To mark the centenary of the discovery of that first elementary particle, the electron, some remarks and recollections from the early days of high energy physics, including the impact of early experiments and ideas on todayÕs research. Much of our progress in this field has been carefully anticipated and planned, but a surprising number of successes were the result of incredibly lucky breaks, where headway was made despite - or even because of - incorrect experimental results, crossed wires or simply asking the wrong question at the right time. We can be sure therefore that the next century - or perhaps even what remains of this one - will have unexpected surprises in store.

  3. Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).

  4. Perceptions of Elementary School Children's Parents Regarding Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…

  5. Can Elementary Students Gather Information from Concept Maps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulcu, Ismail; Karakuyu, Yunus; Dogan, Mevlut

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether concept maps were used as often and as effectively in elementary science and technology classrooms as recommended by the National Ministry of Education (MEB) in the new curricula in Turkey. In the new elementary science and technology curricula, the MEB provides a general concept map for each unit. We used…

  6. Roles of Teachers in Orchestrating Learning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study delves into the different roles that elementary science teachers play in the classroom to orchestrate science learning opportunities for students. Examining the classroom practices of three elementary science teachers in Singapore, we found that teachers shuttle between four key roles in enabling student learning in science. Teachers…

  7. Effective Leadership Practices Exercised by Elementary Principals in Turnaround Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Jill Deanne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective leadership practices, processes, and strategies utilized by elementary school principals in low-achieving schools as well as to discuss and identify leadership practices as they emerged in the literature. Qualitative methods in the form of case studies of three elementary school principals…

  8. Exploring Plant and Animal Content in Elementary Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Weber, Kirk M.; Dollo, Vanessa H.

    2010-01-01

    Student knowledge about plants is typically less than student knowledge about animals. Textbooks are a commonly-used curriculum material in elementary grades and contain embedded cultural ideologies that may impact instruction. This study analyzed two nationally-syndicated elementary science textbook series to explore their presentation of plant…

  9. Reconceptualizing Elementary Teacher Preparation : A case for informal science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore the ways in which 3 different informal science experiences in the context of an elementary methods course influenced a group of prospective elementary teachers' ideas about science teaching and learning as well as their understandings about the role of

  10. Cortical Bases of Elementary Deductive Reasoning: Inference, Memory, and Metadeduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverberi, Carlo; Shallice, Tim; D'Agostini, Serena; Skrap, Miran; Bonatti, Luca L.

    2009-01-01

    Elementary deduction is the ability of unreflectively drawing conclusions from explicit or implicit premises, on the basis of their logical forms. This ability is involved in many aspects of human cognition and interactions. To date, limited evidence exists on its cortical bases. We propose a model of elementary deduction in which logical…

  11. Elementary School Psychologists and Response to Intervention (RTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Suzanne; Marrs, Heath; Bogue, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of Response to Intervention (RTI) in elementary schools may have important implications for school psychologists. Therefore, it is important to better understand how elementary school psychologists perceive RTI and what barriers to successful RTI implementation they identify. Although previous research has investigated the…

  12. Inappropriate Lessons: Elementary Schools and the Social Organization of Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Erica Misako

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation responds to the question: How is sexuality organized in elementary schools? I argue that despite the absence of overt discussions on sexuality in elementary schools, sexuality is "organized" through social processes that are recursively linked to ideology. Due to the widely held belief that "children" and…

  13. Common Core Implementation Decisions Made by Principals in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Alexis Cienfuegos

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the decisions elementary principals have made during the Common Core State Standards reform. Specifically, (a) what decisions principals have made to support Common Core implementation, (b) what strategies elementary principals have employed to communicate with stakeholders about Common Core State…

  14. Mathematical Models of Elementary Mathematics Learning and Performance. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Patrick

    This project was concerned with the development of mathematical models of elementary mathematics learning and performance. Probabilistic finite automata and register machines with a finite number of registers were developed as models and extensively tested with data arising from the elementary-mathematics strand curriculum developed by the…

  15. 43 CFR 17.220 - Preschool, elementary, and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. 17.220 Section 17.220 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Handicap § 17.220 Preschool, elementary, and secondary education. This section applies to preschool...

  16. Using Smart Boards and Manipulatives in the Elementary Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan F.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.; Daughenbaugh, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    This study summarizes the results of a survey administered to 48 elementary schools in the largest school district in a southeastern U.S. state, conducted by university faculty to evaluate the use of SMART Boards and hands-on experiences, the objectives of which were to identify preparedness of elementary classroom teachers in teaching elementary…

  17. Implications for Developing and Researching Elementary School Mathematics Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Drew; Mraz, Maryann; Algozzine, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, national organizations, mathematics educators, and policy makers have called for the development of elementary school mathematics coaches to improve mathematics teaching and learning in elementary schools. The literacy field has found success and promise in the work of instructional coaches, and the mathematics education community…

  18. "Macbeth." A Play Packet To Accompany "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Barbara; Campbell, Joy

    Intended for use by elementary school teachers as a supplement to the book, "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare," or for use by itself to produce one Shakespeare play, this play packet contains ready-to-reproduce materials for the production of "Macbeth." Materials include: staging suggestions for scenery, props, lighting, and…

  19. Traditional Games and Pupils' Violent Behaviour in Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Tatjana; Opic, Siniša

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the impact of using traditional games with the purpose of decreasing violent behavior among pupils in elementary schools as well as improving their mutual relationships. The research was conducted among second-, third- and fourth-graders in elementary schools in Karlovac (a total of 232 pupils). In order to…

  20. Future Elementary School Teachers' Conceptual Change Concerning Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Anto, Erkki; Penttinen, Marjaana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine conceptual change among future elementary school teachers while studying a scientific text concerning photosynthesis. Students' learning goals in relation to their learning outcomes were also examined. The participants were future elementary school teachers. The design consisted of pre- and post-tests. The…

  1. A Phenomenological Narrative Study: Elementary Charter School Principals' Managerial Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study was a phenomenological narrative research investigating the managerial roles of elementary charter school principals. Managerial leadership practices were investigated under three categories personnel management, student management, and finance management. Elementary charter school principals provided positive feedback for having small…

  2. Prospective Elementary Teachers Making Sense of Multidigit Multiplication: Leveraging Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Ian; Nickerson, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how collective activity related to multiplication evolved over several class sessions in an elementary mathematics content course that was designed to foster prospective elementary teachers' number-sense development. We document how the class drew on as-if-shared ideas to make sense of multidigit multiplication in terms of…

  3. Question and Answer: Observation in the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kay

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Kay Baker sets out to answer the questions, "What is observation? What is the nature of observation in the elementary class? How can observation help the adult guide the development of children?" She responds by listing the areas that can be observed in the elementary class (the prepared environment, the work of the…

  4. Influential Factors on Students' Vocational Aspiration in Turkish Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentli, Fulya Damla

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the fifth grade elementary school students' vocational aspiration and the factors affecting it. The sample consisted of 115 students in 20 elementary public schools with whom face-to- face interviews were conducted. The findings showed that engineering, medical doctor, and school teachers were the most frequently mentioned…

  5. Elementary School Principals' Level of Practicing Democratic Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincal, Remzi Y.; Isik, Halil

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the elementary school principals' level of practicing democratic values while managing their schools, according to teachers' perceptions. The results show that Turkish elementary principals are doing well in having democratic values in general. However, some values were more well practiced or reflected…

  6. The Elementary Child's Place in the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phoebe

    2013-01-01

    Phoebe Allen's article speaks for the early bonding of children to the natural world prior to the elementary class. She also suggests the continuing exploration of children at elementary age in the outdoors in order to build the necessary sense of wonder and love of the environment to overcome anxiety over the negative realities of the planet's…

  7. System Thinking Skills at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Orion, Nir

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the development of system thinking skills at the elementary school level. It addresses the question of whether elementary school students can deal with complex systems. The sample included 40 4th grade students from one school in a small town in Israel. The students studied an inquiry-based earth systems curriculum that…

  8. Preparing Elementary Prospective Teachers to Teach Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensee, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have argued that integrating early algebra into elementary grades will better prepare students for algebra. However, currently little research exists to guide teacher preparation programs on how to prepare prospective elementary teachers to teach early algebra. This study examines the insights and challenges that prospective teachers…

  9. Selected Practices and Characteristics of Highly Effective Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritson, George Allen

    2012-01-01

    The federal government, through NCLB legislation, has provided target proficiency goals schools will be accountable to meet. Missouri public elementary schools use these target goals to determine their success. The focus of this study was to examine the highly effective public elementary schools in Missouri that met or exceeded the 2011 Adequate…

  10. Predicting the Geometry Knowledge of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duatepe Aksu, Asuman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to examine the factors that predict the geometry knowledge of pre-service elementary teachers. Data was collected on 387 pre-service elementary teachers from four universities by using a geometry knowledge test, the van Hiele geometric thinking level test, a geometry self efficacy scale and a geometry attitude scale.…

  11. Critical Review of Elementary Flows in LCA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Elementary flows are essential components of data used for life cycle assessment. A standard list is not used across all sources, as data providers now manage these flows independently. Elementary flows must be consistent across a life cycle inventory for accurate invento...

  12. Vector valued logarithmic residues and the extraction of elementary factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bart (Harm); T. Ehrhardt; B. Silbermann

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAn analysis is presented of the circumstances under which, by the extraction of elementary factors, an analytic Banach algebra valued function can be transformed into one taking invertible values only. Elementary factors are generalizations of the simple scalar expressions λ – α, the

  13. Mindless bodies-bodyless minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekacs-Weisz, Judit

    2007-09-01

    Possibilities opened up by scientific-technical developments of the last century have led to the breaking up of our basic concepts regarding elementary aspects of human life. Boundaries are more easily crossed (also among genders); the reality of functions and the functions of reality are becoming interchangeable. The audio-visual galaxy, which has evolved over the course of the 20th century, with its two dimensionality has resulted in generations growing up in the past decades who have learnt that the "other" can be a virtual body: the sensual is no longer an essential part of human relations. The somato-affective aspects of the experience get split off-relationships emerge between bodyless minds. This fragmentation also means that the body is seen increasingly as mindless: the linkages between body and mind are profoundly undermined. Reality and fantasy melt into one another. Reality control and thinking becomes insecure effected by a view of the world that has lost its keystones of orientation. When body boundaries get confused in such a manner how do ego boundaries develop? How will primary relationships alter among such conditions? What will the internal images of the objects be like? The deconstruction of our basic concepts about space, time, dimensions, body- and ego boundaries made differentiation and the processes of symbolization extremely difficult. Postmodern ideas, questioning the validity of facts have contributed greatly to transforming our image of reality also on a theoretical level. How do these massive changes effect our daily clinical work and our theory of the mind? My paper tries to explore some experiences and ideas related to these questions through clinical cases and narratives of our present times.

  14. Professional Identity and Burnout among Pre-School, Elementary, and Post-Elementary School Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2015-01-01

    The novelty of the present study is its attempt to distinguish between pre-school, elementary, and post-elementary school teachers, regarding the relationship between professional identity and burnout. Two hundred and forty teachers responded to two questionnaires: professional identity and teacher burnout scales. Pre-school teachers were found to…

  15. Effect of the SQ4R Technique on the Reading Comprehension of Elementary School 4th Grade Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar, Murat; Gürbüz, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review) technique of the reading comprehension ability of elementary school 4th grade students. The sampling was constituted by 57 students from two different branches of the Ataturk Elementary School in the center of Usak region during the 2nd…

  16. STEM Is Elementary: Challenges Faced by Elementary Teachers in the Era of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.

    2017-01-01

    For students to achieve the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) by Grade 12, thinking and acting like scientists and engineers must begin in the elementary grades. However, elementary teachers may find this challenging -because language arts and mathematics still dominate many classrooms--often at the expense of science. This…

  17. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  18. Genetic differences in the Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase alpha-subunit can explain variations in serovar pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A C; Christiansen, G; Roepstorff, P

    2000-01-01

    (IFN-gamma) inhibits chlamydial multiplication in human epithelial cells by induction of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase. IFN-gamma causes persistent C. trachomatis serovar A infections with atypical reticulate bodies that are unable to redifferentiate into elementary bodies...... and show diminished expression of important immunogens, but not of GroEL. However, the sensitivity to IFN-gamma varies among serovars of C. trachomatis. In our previous study significant IFN-gamma-specific, but tryptophan reversible, induction of proteins in C. trachomatis A and L2 with molecular masses......-subunits of the chlamydial tryptophan synthase using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. DNA sequencing of the trpA genes from C. trachomatis A and C shows that the TrpA in these serovars is a 7.7-kDa truncated version of C. trachomatis D and L2 TrpA. The truncation probably impairs the Trp...

  19. Body weight concerns and antifat attitude in iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saideh Garousi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  2. Elementary Goldstone Higgs Boson and Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Gertov, Helene; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a perturbative extension of the Standard Model featuring elementary pseudo-Goldstone Higgs and dark matter particles. These are two of the five Goldstone bosons parametrising the SU(4)/Sp(4) coset space. They acquire masses, and therefore become pseudo-Goldstone bosons, due...... of the theory, the quantum corrections are precisely calculable. The remaining pseudo-Goldstone boson is identified with the dark matter candidate because it is neutral with respect to the Standard Model and stable. By a direct comparison with the Large Hadron Collider experiments, the model is found...... to be phenomenologically viable. Furthermore the dark matter particle leads to the observed thermal relic density while respecting the most stringent current experimental constraints....

  3. The development of elementary quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Capellmann, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    This book traces the evolution of the ideas that eventually resulted in the elementary quantum theory in 1925/26. Further, it discusses the essential differences between the fundamental equations of Quantum Theory derived by Born and Jordan, logically comprising Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Optics, and the traditional view of the development of Quantum Mechanics. Drawing on original publications and letters written by the main protagonists of that time, it shows that Einstein’s contributions from 1905 to 1924 laid the essential foundations for the development of Quantum Theory. Einstein introduced quantization of the radiation field; Born added quantized mechanical behavior. In addition, Born recognized that Quantum Mechanics necessarily required Quantum Optics; his radical concept of truly discontinuous and statistical quantum transitions (“quantum leaps”) was directly based on Einstein’s physical concepts.

  4. Sports profile in public elementary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren Pedersen, Lise; Trangbæk, Else

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, Copenhagen municipality decided to develop and implement a sport and movement profile at a local elementary school. The overall development is discussed as are specific results and consequences of the decision. The role of physical education and teachers in relation to a health discourse......, sport and school sports viewed as an arena for talent identification and development will be discussed. In addition, a question of inequality raised, as a group of talented athletes are accepted into specific sports classes, focusing on cultural capital and the possibility of the educational system...... as reproducing or as an arena for social mobility. Finally a discussion of the possibilities for either sports policy development or school policy development through single initiatives is presented....

  5. (Research in elementary particles and interactions). [1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adair, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Schmidt, M.

    1992-05-01

    Research of the Yale University groups in the areas of elementary particles and their interactions are outlined. Work on the following topics is reported: development of CDF trigger system; SSC detector development; study of heavy flavors at TPL; search for composite objects produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions; high-energy polarized lepton-nucleon scattering; rare K{sup +} decays; unpolarized high-energy muon scattering; muon anomalous magnetic moment; theoretical high-energy physics including gauge theories, symmetry breaking, string theory, and gravitation theory; study of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions with the SLD detector at SLAC; and the production and decay of particles containing charm and beauty quarks.

  6. Elementary school principals' perceptions of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J H; Desmond, S M; Stelzer, C M

    1987-11-01

    This survey assessed school principals' perceptions regarding childhood obesity and the schools' role in dealing with the problem. A randomly selected group of 300 school principals was obtained from the National Association of Elementary School Principals; 227 (76%) administrators returned the questionnaire. Fifty-one percent of the principals believed normal weight was important to child health. Although 35% believed schools were not doing enough to alleviate childhood obesity, responses suggested principals oppose schools becoming obesity treatment centers. They do not believe teachers or parents would support such programs. They perceived the school's role to be educational and referral in nature. However, they supported elimination of "junk food" machines (71%) and provision of low calorie lunches (60%). They believed school nurses play the most important role in treating childhood obesity at school.

  7. Geotechnical engineering in US elementary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data acquisition, the soil profile and foundations activity employed natural and transparent soils as well as LEGO-based foundation models, and the erosion activity utilised a 3D printer to assist with construction of building models. The activities seek to enhance students' academic achievement, excite them about geotechnical engineering, and motivate them to study science and math. Pre- and post-activity evaluations were conducted to assess both the suitability of the activities and the students' learning. Initial results show that students gain a reasonable understanding of engineering principles. Moreover, the geotechnical engineering activities provided students an opportunity to apply their math skills and science knowledge.

  8. Developing Coherent Conceptual Storylines: Two Elementary Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuscin, Deborah; Lipsitz, Kelsey; Cisterna-Alburquerque, Dante; Arnone, Kathryn A.; van Garderen, Delinda; de Araujo, Zandra; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-06-01

    The `conceptual storyline' of a lesson refers to the flow and sequencing of learning activities such that science concepts align and progress in ways that are instructionally meaningful to student learning of the concepts. Research demonstrates that when teachers apply lesson design strategies to create a coherent science content storyline, student learning is positively impacted (Roth et al., 2011). Because the conceptual storyline is often implicit within a lesson, and teachers often have difficulty articulating this aspect of lesson design (Lo et al., 2014), our professional development program engages elementary teachers in analyzing and developing graphic representations of a lesson's conceptual storyline to make that element explicit. In this exploratory study, we present typologies that represent two primary challenges teachers faced in developing coherent conceptual storylines in their lesson design, and examine the extent to which professional development enhanced their capacity to develop a coherent conceptual storyline.

  9. Vanishing cosmological constant in elementary particles theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, F. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tonasse, M.D. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-01-01

    The quest of a vanishing cosmological constant is considered in the simplest anomaly-free chiral gauge extension of the electroweak standard model where the new physics is limited to a well defined additional flavordynamics above the Fermi scale, namely up to a few TeVs by matching the gauge coupling constants at the electroweak scale, and with an extended Higgs structure. In contrast to the electroweak standard model, it is shown how the extended scalar sector of the theory allows a vanishing or a very small cosmological constant. the details of the cancellation mechanism are presented. At accessible energies the theory is indistinguishable from the standard model of elementary particles and it is in agreement with all existing data. (author). 32 refs. 32 refs.

  10. On an elementary definition of visual saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Various approaches to computational modelling of bottom-up visual attention have been proposed in the past two decades. As part of this trend, researchers have studied ways to characterize the saliency map underlying many of these models. In more recent years, several definitions based...... on probabilistic and information or decision theoretic considerations have been proposed. These provide experimentally successful, appealing, low-level, operational, and elementary definitions of visual saliency (see eg, Bruce, 2005 Neurocomputing 65 125 - 133). Here, I demonstrate that, in fact, all...... these characterizations provide essentially the same measure of saliency. Moreover, where the original formulations rely on empirical estimates of the underlying probability density of low-level pre-attentive features, I show that saliency can be expressed as a closed-form solution based on purely local measurements and...

  11. Facilitating Lasting Changes at an Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie JAMES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how to minimize waste in a school setting by reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting waste products. Specifically, the desire was to identify what steps could be taken to decrease waste practices at a Title I elementary school. Through the Washington Green Schools certification process, a Waste and Recycling Assessment and Characterization Audit allowed for the collection of data. The assessment examined how much and what types of waste products were disposed of at the school. Based on the audit, 93% of waste products in the cafeteria were recyclable or compostable. The results provided ways for the students and staff to take action resulting in behavioral changes that taught and modeled environmental conservation. This study can help revolutionize school communities by serving as a prototype for environmental sustainability enhancing an eco-friendly citizenry.

  12. Unlocking Elementary Students’ Perspectives of Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan DAMIANI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether and how principals take their lead from students, and use student voice, to create more responsive schools, and more responsible models of leadership. I consider issues of student agency and voice within four very different elementary school settings. Further, I consider the challenges students face, and the ways principals are preparing to address these challenges. In this study I address roadblocks to responsive leadership in urban, suburban, and rural schools using a cogenerative qualitative approach that principals and students can use to create new dialogue and shared theories that are focused on improving both administrative function and the instructional programs of their schools.This approach has revealed a new shared theory which includes students in models of school leadership. Central to this theory is a call for principals to use more student-driven approaches, so that young students can be empowered as learners and leaders in their own right.

  13. Unlocking elementary students’ perspectives of leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Damiani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether and how principals take their lead from students, and use student voice, to create more responsive schools, and more responsible models of leadership. I consider issues of student agency and voice within four very different elementary school settings. Further, I consider the challenges students face, and the ways principals are preparing to address these challenges. In this study I address roadblocks to responsive leadership in urban, suburban, and rural schools using a cogenerative qualitative approach that principals and students can use to create new dialogue and shared theories that are focused on improving both administrative function and the instructional programs of their schools.This approach has revealed a new shared theory which includes students in models of school leadership. Central to this theory is a call for principals to use more student-driven approaches, so that young students can be empowered as learners and leaders in their own right.

  14. Facilitating lasting changes at an elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie James

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how to minimize waste in a school setting by reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting waste products. Specifically, the desire was to identify what steps could be taken to decrease waste practices at a Title I elementary school. Through the Washington Green Schools certification process, a Waste and Recycling Assessment and Characterization Audit allowed for the collection of data. The assessment examined how much and what types of waste products were disposed of at the school. Based on the audit, 93% of waste products in the cafeteria were recyclable or compostable. The results provided ways for the students and staff to take action resulting in behavioral changes that taught and modeled environmental conservation. This study can help revolutionize school communities by serving as a prototype for environmental sustainability enhancing an eco-friendly citizenry.

  15. Compilation of data on elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippe, T.G.

    1984-09-01

    The most widely used data compilation in the field of elementary particle physics is the Review of Particle Properties. The origin, development and current state of this compilation are described with emphasis on the features which have contributed to its success: active involvement of particle physicists; critical evaluation and review of the data; completeness of coverage; regular distribution of reliable summaries including a pocket edition; heavy involvement of expert consultants; and international collaboration. The current state of the Review and new developments such as providing interactive access to the Review's database are described. Problems and solutions related to maintaining a strong and supportive relationship between compilation groups and the researchers who produce and use the data are discussed.

  16. Elementary Particle Spectroscopy in Regular Solid Rewrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trell, Erik

    2008-10-01

    The Nilpotent Universal Computer Rewrite System (NUCRS) has operationalized the radical ontological dilemma of Nothing at All versus Anything at All down to the ground recursive syntax and principal mathematical realisation of this categorical dichotomy as such and so governing all its sui generis modalities, leading to fulfilment of their individual terms and compass when the respective choice sequence operations are brought to closure. Focussing on the general grammar, NUCRS by pure logic and its algebraic notations hence bootstraps Quantum Mechanics, aware that it "is the likely keystone of a fundamental computational foundation" also for e.g. physics, molecular biology and neuroscience. The present work deals with classical geometry where morphology is the modality, and ventures that the ancient regular solids are its specific rewrite system, in effect extensively anticipating the detailed elementary particle spectroscopy, and further on to essential structures at large both over the inorganic and organic realms. The geodetic antipode to Nothing is extension, with natural eigenvector the endless straight line which when deployed according to the NUCRS as well as Plotelemeian topographic prescriptions forms a real three-dimensional eigenspace with cubical eigenelements where observed quark-skewed quantum-chromodynamical particle events self-generate as an Aristotelean phase transition between the straight and round extremes of absolute endlessness under the symmetry- and gauge-preserving, canonical coset decomposition SO(3)×O(5) of Lie algebra SU(3). The cubical eigen-space and eigen-elements are the parental state and frame, and the other solids are a range of transition matrix elements and portions adapting to the spherical root vector symmetries and so reproducibly reproducing the elementary particle spectroscopy, including a modular, truncated octahedron nano-composition of the Electron which piecemeal enter into molecular structures or compressed to each

  17. On the Origin of Elementary Particle Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The oldest enigma in fundamental particle physics is: Where do the observed masses of elementary particles come from? Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum we propose that the masses of elementary parti cles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with a particle. We thus assume that the mass is proportional to the strength of the interaction of th e field with itself. A simple application of this idea to the fermions is seen to yield a mas s for the neutrino in line with constraints from direct experimental upper limits and correct order of magnitude predictions of mass separations between neutrinos, charge d leptons and quarks. The neutrino interacts only through the weak force, hence becom es light. The electron in- teracts also via electromagnetism and accordingly becomes heavier. The quarks also have strong interactions and become heavy. The photon is the only fundamental parti- cle to remain massless, as it is chargeless. Gluons gain mass comparable to quarks, or slightly larger due to a somewhat larger color charge. Inclu ding particles outside the standard model proper, gravitons are not exactly massless, but very light due to their very weak self-interaction. Some immediate and physically interesting consequences arise: i Gluons have an e ff ective range ∼ 1 fm, physically explaining why QCD has finite reach; ii Gravity has an effective range ∼ 100 Mpc coinciding with the largest known structures, the cosmic voids; iii Gravitational waves undergo dispersion even in vacuum, and have all five polarizations (not just the two of m = 0, which might explain why they have not yet been detected.

  18. Activity patterns in elementary and high school students exposed to oxidant pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier, C.E.; Little, D.E.; Trim, S.C.; Johnson, T.R.; Linn, W.S.; Hackney, J.D. (Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States))

    1992-07-01

    We investigated activity patterns of 17 elementary school students aged 10-12, and 19 high school students aged 13-17, in suburban Los Angeles during the oxidant pollution season. Individuals' relationships between ventilation rate (VR) and heart rate (HR) were calibrated' in supervised outdoor walking/jogging. Log VR was consistently proportional to HR; although calibrations' were limited by a restricted range of exercise, and possibly by artifact due to mouthpiece breathing, which may cause overestimation of VR at rest. Each subject then recorded activities in diaries, and recorded HR once per minute by wearing Heart Watches, over 3 days (Saturday-Monday). For each activity the subject estimated a breathing rate--slow (slow walking), medium (fast walking), or fast (running). VR ranges for each breathing rate and activity type were estimated from HR recordings. High-school students' diaries showed their aggregate distribution of waking hours as 68% slow inside, 8% slow outside, 10% medium inside, 9% medium outside, 1.5% fast inside, 1.5% fast outside. Elementary students' distribution was 47% slow inside, 15% slow outside, 20% medium inside, 12% medium outside, 2.5% fast inside, 3.5% fast outside. Sleep occupied 38% of high-school students' and 40% of elementary students' time; HR were generally lower in sleep than in slow waking activity. High school students' mean VR estimates were 13 L/min for slow breathing, 18 for medium, and 23 for fast; elementary students' were 14 slow, 18 medium, and 19 fast. VR distributions were approximately lognormal. Maximum estimated VR were approximately 70 L/min in elementary and approximately 100 L/min in high school students. Compared to adults studied similarly, students reported more medium or fast breathing, and had equal or higher VR estimates during slow and medium breathing despite their smaller size. These results suggest that, relative to body size, young people inhale larger

  19. Chlamydial conjunctivitis presenting as pre septal cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaper Charles JM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydia conjuctivitis results from infection by chlamydia trachomatis, the commonest treatable sexually transmitted infection in Europe. Its clinical manifestations involve the conjunctiva and the cornea. The inflammation under the upper eyelid may be sufficient to present as ptosis, however previously it has not been documented to cause a preseptal cellulitis. We present such a case. A 15-year-old girl was diagnosed with a left viral conjunctivitis. Five days later, she returned with marked oedema of the left upper and lower lids accompanied by erythema. The tarsal conjunctiva revealed follicles and large papillae and extra ocular movements revealed discomfort on elevation. A secondary diagnosis of bacterial pre septal cellulitis was made and the treatment was changed a broad spectrum oral antibiotic. On review at two days, the patient now complained of a large amount of purulent discharge in association with the marked pre septal swelling. As previous bacteriology and virology had been negative, the patient was re swabbed for chlamydia. This proved positive and her symptoms completely resolved following administration of Azithromycin. In this particular case recognition of the pathogen is important to alert the patient to the likelihood of unknown genital infestation. In all cases of positive culture, the patient should be counselled to attend a genitourinary clinic and to alert any sexual partners to the need to do likewise.

  20. Quantum harmonic oscillator: an elementary derivation of the energy spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Riccardo

    2017-03-01

    An elementary treatment of the quantum harmonic oscillator is proposed. No previous knowledge of linear differential equation theory or Fourier analysis are required, but rather only a few basics of elementary calculus. The pivotal role in our analysis is played by the sole particle localization constraint, which implies square integrability of stationary-state wavefunctions. The oscillator ground-state characterization is then achieved in a way that could be grasped, in principle, even by first-year undergraduates. A very elementary approach to build up and to characterize all higher-level energy eigenstates completes our analysis.

  1. Incorporating Remote Robotic Telescopes into an Elementary Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Zoe; Hock, Emily

    2016-03-01

    As Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are implemented across the nation, engaging and content-specific lessons are becoming an important addition to elementary classrooms. This paper demonstrate how effective hands-on teaching tactics, authentic learning, scientifically significant data, and research in the elementary realm can aid students in selfdiscovery about astronomy and uncover what it is to be a researcher and scientist. It also outlines an effective, engaging, and integrated classroom unit that is usable in both the scientific community and elementary schools. The lesson unit consists of NGSS science and engineering practices and performance expectations as well as California Common Core Standards (CCSS).

  2. Do Elementary Science Methods Textbooks Promote Understanding of Shadows?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd H. Barrow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elementary science methods textbooks can be an important resource for future elementary teachers of science. Since shadows are a common topic in elementary school and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013. A series of ten shadows concepts were formed into a learning progression by Wizman and Fortus (2007. For this research, ten science methods textbook were read and analyzed about how each of the shadow concepts were addressed. These methods textbooks focused on a limited number of shadow concepts. Consequently, as a future reference, they are very limited in addressing all ten shadow concepts.

  3. Modeling for Deformable Body and Motion Analysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the modeling methods for deformable human body and motion analysis in the recent 30 years. First, elementary knowledge of human expression and modeling is introduced. Then, typical human modeling technologies, including 2D model, 3D surface model, and geometry-based, physics-based, and anatomy-based approaches, and model-based motion analysis are summarized. Characteristics of these technologies are analyzed. The technology accumulation in the field is outlined for an overview.

  4. Commercialism in US elementary and secondary school nutrition environments: trends from 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Turner, Lindsey; Sandoval, Anna; Johnston, Lloyd D; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-03-01

    Schools present highly desirable marketing environments for food and beverage companies. However, most marketed items are nutritionally poor. To examine national trends in student exposure to selected school-based commercialism measures from 2007 through 2012. Annual nationally representative cross-sectional studies were evaluated in US public elementary, middle, and high schools with use of a survey of school administrators. School-based commercialism, including exclusive beverage contracts and associated incentives, profits, and advertising; corporate food vending and associated incentives and profits; posters/advertisements for soft drinks, fast food, or candy; use of food coupons as incentives; event sponsorships; and fast food available to students. Changes over time in school-based commercialism as well as differences by student body racial/ethnic distribution and socioeconomic status. Although some commercialism measures-especially those related to beverage vending-have shown significant decreases over time, most students at all academic levels continued to attend schools with one or more types of school-based commercialism in 2012. Overall, exposure to school-based commercialism increased significantly with grade level. For 63.7% of elementary school students, the most frequent type of commercialism was food coupons used as incentives. For secondary students, the type of commercialism most prevalent in schools was exclusive beverage contracts, which were in place in schools attended by 49.5% of middle school students and 69.8% of high school students. Exposure to elementary school coupons, as well as middle and high school exclusive beverage contracts, was significantly more likely for students attending schools with mid or low (vs high) student body socioeconomic status. Most US elementary, middle, and high school students attend schools where they are exposed to commercial efforts aimed at obtaining food or beverage sales or developing brand recognition

  5. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  6. An elementary approach to electromagnetic momentum in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Medina, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    We present an elementary discussion of the momentum transferred to a conducting sheet by an electromagnetic wave propagating in a polarizable medium. We show that conservation of momentum is consistent with Minkowski's expression for the momentum density.

  7. Perspectives on learning, learning to teach and teaching elementary science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2003-01-01

    The framework that characterizes this work is that of elementary teachers' learning and development. Specifically, the ways in which prospective and beginning teachers' develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching science in light of current recommendations for reform emphasizing teaching and

  8. Viewpoint 1. Superbaby Syndrome Can Lead to Elementary School Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that there is a danger that prekindergarten and kindergarten children may experience learning problems (stress and "educational burnout") in elementary school if they are exposed to developmentally inappropriate teaching methods in early childhood programs. (BB)

  9. Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    1999-01-01

    Expands on earlier work to examine pre-service teachers' views on environmental issues, especially global warming and the related term "greenhouse effect." Suggests that pre-service elementary teachers hold many misconceptions about environmental issues. (DDR)

  10. Vocabulary Growth and Reading Development across the Elementary School Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Vermeer, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    The associations between vocabulary growth and reading development were examined longitudinally for a representative sample of Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. Data on basic and advanced vocabulary, word decoding, and reading comprehension were collected across the different

  11. Quantum field theory and the internal states of elementary particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new application of quantum field theory is developed that gives a description of the internal dynamics of dressed elementary particles and predicts their masses. The fermionic and bosonic quantum fields are treated as interdependent fields...

  12. Theoretical Studies of Elementary Hydrocarbon Species and Their Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Wesley D. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry; Schaefer, III, Henry F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry

    2015-11-14

    This is the final report of the theoretical studies of elementary hydrocarbon species and their reactions. Part A has a bibliography of publications supported by DOE from 2010 to 2016 and Part B goes into recent research highlights.

  13. Level of Work Related Stress among Teachers in Elementary Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    .... To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience...

  14. [Obesity, overweight and physical activity in elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, D; De Giorgi, G; Porqueddu Zacchello, G; Zanon, A; Rigon, F

    1995-12-01

    This research presents an epidemiological study on the prevalence of obesity and overweightness in an Elementary School population. 243 children of third and fourth grade (males 52.26% and females 47.74%, 9-10 years old) of the Selvazzano (Padova) District, were evaluated during the annual medical visit. The Body Max Index (BMI) and the Cole index were calculated. The parents filled out a questionnaire which investigated the level and quality of involvement in sports. The statistical analysis was executed by the ANOVA test and post Hoc analysis. 59.02% of the children resulted within the ponderal normality with the Cole index resulted overweight (Cole index 110 divided by 120), 20% resulted obese (Cole index 120 divided by 140), 7.3% resulted highly obese (Cole index > 140). High level obesity was found in fourth grade boys (p sports are concerned, it is noted that 173 children (73.3%) practise some sport. The more practised sports, swimming (44.5%), soccer (27.1%) and gymnastic (15.02%), are practised twice a week by 58.3% of the children. Obesity and overweight in the examined population result high even in relation to data found in literature. When choosing a sport activity to prevent overweightness or obesity, one should advise parents, school operators and students to choose a sport with a great caloric consumption, at least 250-300 kcal per session, twice a week, along with a change in active lifestyle. Regarding swimming, the most practised sport, children should be sent at an early age (4-5 years old) in order to anticipate learning of the athletic gesture, and to do this at an age in which obesity and overweightness have less an incidence.

  15. [Human body structure in Su Wen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shizhe

    2011-05-01

    The ancient medical book Su Wen states that the human is a dual composition of physical and spiritual bodies. Thus, if only physical perspectives were applied to interpret its medical terms, confusion would result because of the misunderstanding of spiritual terms. The descriptions in Su Wen didn't show a complete anatomy system or at least at organ levels. The fragments of its context revealed proofs of gross anatomical studies with measurement in ancient China. Su Wen was not a special work for the circulatory route of the channels, so the anatomy terms used was simple. The anatomy position of the body couldn't be judged. The elementary superficial anatomy system formed, which can be traced from the superficial anatomy locations expounded in the book.

  16. Elementary Teachers’ Views about School Administrators’ Technology Leadership Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sincar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles, according to elementary classroom and subject teachers’ perception, and to evaluate these roles. In this mixed method research both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. In order to determine whether elementary school principals’ technology leadership role differentiate in respect of the independent variables such as subjects, gender, experience years in teaching, and number of student, the parametric analyze technique was used. Qualitative data was analyzed with the content analysis technique. According to the opinion of classroom and subject teachers, the technology leadership roles of the elementary school administrators such as human-centered, vision, communication and cooperation were performed partially support role were determined to be performed enough. It was assured that findings obtained from quantitative research techniques were also supported by findings obtained from interviews which were the techniques of qualitative part. No significant differences between the views of subject teachers and classroom teachers were found about elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles. The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences in terms of gender variable among the views of the classroom teachers, related to the role of the vision of the elementary school administrators; among the views of the branch teacher, on the role of communication and cooperation. In terms of student number of schools, no significant differences were found between the views of teachers about elementary school administrators’ role of technology leadership. However, there were significant differences among subject teachers’ views about elementary school administrators’ technology leadership roles considering roles in vision and humancentered components

  17. Exploring elementary students’ understanding of energy and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin BOYLAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curriculaneed to develop students’ understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change.For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what theirstudents’ prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey was developed toexplore what elementary students know and understand about renewable and non-renewablesources of energy and their relationship to climate change issues. The findings from thissurvey are reported in this paper.

  18. Team building in an Elementary School: A Descriptive Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Holleran, David J.

    1997-01-01

    TEAM BUILDING IN AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL: A DESCRIPTIVE CASE STUDY David J. Holleran (ABSTRACT) The purpose of this study was to examine the team-building process implemented in an elementary school. Research questions were developed on what team-building activities took place, when the activities took place, what expenses were involved, what the outcomes were, and what the reactions of the staff were towards team building activities implemented at the school. Twen...

  19. Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Lambden, Paul R; Clarke, Ian N

    2011-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis remains one of the few major human pathogens for which there is no transformation system. C. trachomatis has a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. The extracellular infectious elementary body (EB) is an infectious, electron-dense structure that, following host cell infection, differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB). Host cells infected by C. trachomatis that are treated with penicillin are not lysed because this antibiotic prevents the maturation of RBs into EBs. Instead the RBs fail to divide although DNA replication continues. We have exploited these observations to develop a transformation protocol based on expression of β-lactamase that utilizes rescue from the penicillin-induced phenotype. We constructed a vector which carries both the chlamydial endogenous plasmid and an E.coli plasmid origin of replication so that it can shuttle between these two bacterial recipients. The vector, when introduced into C. trachomatis L2 under selection conditions, cures the endogenous chlamydial plasmid. We have shown that foreign promoters operate in vivo in C. trachomatis and that active β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase are expressed. To demonstrate the technology we have isolated chlamydial transformants that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP). As proof of principle, we have shown that manipulation of chlamydial biochemistry is possible by transformation of a plasmid-free C. trachomatis recipient strain. The acquisition of the plasmid restores the ability of the plasmid-free C. trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions. These findings pave the way for a comprehensive genetic study on chlamydial gene function that has hitherto not been possible. Application of this technology avoids the use of therapeutic antibiotics and therefore the procedures do not require high level containment and will allow the analysis of genome function by

  20. Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis remains one of the few major human pathogens for which there is no transformation system. C. trachomatis has a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. The extracellular infectious elementary body (EB is an infectious, electron-dense structure that, following host cell infection, differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB. Host cells infected by C. trachomatis that are treated with penicillin are not lysed because this antibiotic prevents the maturation of RBs into EBs. Instead the RBs fail to divide although DNA replication continues. We have exploited these observations to develop a transformation protocol based on expression of β-lactamase that utilizes rescue from the penicillin-induced phenotype. We constructed a vector which carries both the chlamydial endogenous plasmid and an E.coli plasmid origin of replication so that it can shuttle between these two bacterial recipients. The vector, when introduced into C. trachomatis L2 under selection conditions, cures the endogenous chlamydial plasmid. We have shown that foreign promoters operate in vivo in C. trachomatis and that active β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase are expressed. To demonstrate the technology we have isolated chlamydial transformants that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP. As proof of principle, we have shown that manipulation of chlamydial biochemistry is possible by transformation of a plasmid-free C. trachomatis recipient strain. The acquisition of the plasmid restores the ability of the plasmid-free C. trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions. These findings pave the way for a comprehensive genetic study on chlamydial gene function that has hitherto not been possible. Application of this technology avoids the use of therapeutic antibiotics and therefore the procedures do not require high level containment and will allow the analysis of genome

  1. Making space more interesting to elementary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, J.

    When in life do we take the big decision of deciding which path in our career we are going to take? Is this decision made from our experiences in school or is it taken before? Do our family or our friends hopes and dreams for us have any impact on our decision? These are questions that are useful for understanding why some people choose to work with science and why other has chosen another career. In my work to help the university to recruit new student to their master of science in space engineering programme, I have been visiting an elementary school and talked about different topics in space science. The pupils were very interested but when I did a survey of their dream jobs and future career I saw that most of them have hopes of a career that are based on their present talent and not on what education they are going to have. 11 out of 17 students that did this survey wanted to be some kind of artist or soccer professional. Only 4 of them had chosen a career that there are educations for. I do not think this is the situation only for this school, I think this situation is common for children I this age. Since the chance of being a pro in any sport is a really hard thing, probably the most of them have to give up their dream and chose a more realistic approach to their future career. This leaves us with a majority of the students that have not yet had their path chosen and hopefully with help of teachers and special lectures we can make science more attractive to them. This sound like an easy problem, since most of the students finds space really interesting. But there are some problems. The teachers do not have the kind of education, especially in elementary school that is needed for the kids to get proper answer to their questions. The solution is not easy. Should the teachers take more courses in physics and chemistry or should it be their responsibility to search for facts when these kinds of questions appear? I found that in some cases the student have

  2. Fostering Student Sense Making in Elementary Science Learning Environments: Elementary Teachers' Use of Science Curriculum Materials to Promote Explanation Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.; Biggers, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    While research has shown that elementary (K-5) students are capable of engaging in the scientific practice of explanation construction, commonly-used elementary science curriculum materials may not always afford them opportunities to do so. As a result, elementary teachers must often adapt their science curriculum materials to better support…

  3. Computing and Engineering in Elementary School: The Effect of Year-Long Training on Elementary Teacher Self-Efficacy and Beliefs about Teaching Computing and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Peter Jacob; Jones, Brian; Belikov, Olga; Yoshikawa, Emily; Perkins, McKay

    2017-01-01

    STEM, the integration of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics is increasingly being promoted in elementary education. However, elementary educators are largely untrained in the 21st century skills of computing (a subset of technology) and engineering. The purpose of this study was to better understand elementary teachers'…

  4. An Exploration of the Instructional Practices of Former University Elementary Education Students: Are Research-Based Practices for Teaching Reading Being Implemented in Their Elementary Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the instructional reading practices of four elementary teachers, all graduates of a small branch campus of a large Midwestern University, who obtained their Bachelor of Arts in Elementary Education and have been employed in public elementary schools for nearly three years. The four individuals were former university students of…

  5. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special ... the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to ...

  7. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Deema J; Elkhodary, Heba M; Merdad, Leena A; Farsi, Najat M A; Alaki, Sumer M; Alamoudi, Najlaa M; Bakhaidar, Haneen A; Alolayyan, Mohammed A

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of obesity among elementary school children and to examine the association between obesity and caries activity in the mixed dentition stage. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and June 2015 using a multi-stage stratified sample of 915 elementary school children (482 boys, 433 girls) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, consisting of height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC), were obtained. Children were classified as underweight/healthy, overweight, or obese and as non-obese or obese according to their BMI and WC, respectively. Each child's caries experience was assessed using the decay score in the primary and permanent teeth. Results: Based on BMI, 18% of children were obese, 18% were overweight, and 64% were underweight/normal. Based on WC, 16% of children were obese, and 84% were non-obese. Girls had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity based on WC measurements (p less than 0.001), but not BMI. Children enrolled in private schools had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity (p less than 0.05) than those in public schools. For primary and permanent teeth combined, children with higher BMI and WC had a lower prevalence of caries (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of obesity was high among male and female elementary school children. Overall caries activity was inversely proportional to BMI and WC.

  8. Facts and mysteries in elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, Martinus J G

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern particle physics accessible to anyone with a true passion for wanting to know how the universe works. We are introduced to the known particles of the world we live in. An elegant explanation of quantum mechanics and relativity paves the way for an understanding of the laws that govern particle physics. These laws are put into action in the world of accelerators, colliders and detectors found at institutions such as CERN and Fermilab that are in the forefront of technical innovation. Real world and theory meet using Feynman diagrams to solve the problems of infinities and deduce the need for the Higgs boson. Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics offers an incredible insight from an eyewitness and participant in some of the greatest discoveries in 20th century science. From Einstein's theory of relativity to the spectacular discovery of the Higgs particle, this book will fascinate and educate anyone interested in the world of quarks, leptons an...

  9. Mars Robotics in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, D.

    2003-05-01

    Kenneth E. Little Elementary is a public school grades Pre-K to 5th in Bacliff, Texas. It has an ethnically diverse population of one-thousand boys and girls. It is a Title 1 school with eighty-six percent of the students receiving free or reduced meals. K.E. Little has a large at-risk population with a thirty-three percent transition rate. The Young Astronauts @ K.E. Little is an on-going afterschool space science program in it's third year of operation. Thirty students,fourth and fifth grade, were involved in our spring robotics program. Each co-operative group was assigned a LEGO robotics kit to inventory,organize, and familiarize themselves with. Each team made decisions, by consensus, concerning the robots design and capabilities. Students used the Dell Computer Lab on campus to program their robots. Although time did not permit the construction of a simulated Martian landscape, future Young Astronauts will continue this project in January 2004.

  10. Theory of elementary excitations in quasiperiodic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, E.L.; Cottam, M.G

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the main physical properties (such as energy profiles, localization, scale laws, multifractal analysis, transmission spectra, transmission fingerprints, electronic structures, magnetization curves and thermodynamic properties) of the elementary excitations that can propagate in multilayered structures with constituents arranged in a quasiperiodic fashion. These excitations include plasmon-polaritons, spin waves, light waves and electrons, among others. A complex fractal or multifractal profile of the energy spectra is the common feature among these excitations. The quasiperiodic property is formed by the incommensurate arrangement of periodic unit cells and can be of the type referred to as deterministic (or controlled) disorder. The resulting excitations are characterized by the nature of their Fourier spectrum, which can be dense pure point (as for the Fibonacci sequence) or singular continuous (as for the Thue-Morse and double-period sequences). These sequences are described in terms of a series of generations that obey particular recursion relations, and they can be considered as intermediate systems between a periodic crystal and the random amorphous solids, thus defining a novel description of disorder. A discussion is also included of some spectroscopic techniques used to probe the excitations, emphasizing Raman and Brillouin light scattering.

  11. Elementary excitations of ferromagnetic metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cehovin, A.; Canali, C.; MacDonald, A.

    2003-07-01

    We present a theory of the elementary spin excitations in transition-metal ferromagnet nanoparticles which achieves a unified and consistent quantum description of both collective and quasiparticle physics. The theory starts by recognizing the essential role played by spin-orbit interactions in determining the energies of ferromagnetic resonances in the collective excitation spectrum and the strength of their coupling to low-energy particle-hole excitations. We argue that a crossover between Landau-damped ferromagnetic resonance and pure-state collective magnetic excitations occurs as the number of atoms in typical transition-metal ferromagnet nanoparticles drops below approximately 104, about where the single-particle level spacing, δ, becomes larger than (α)Eres, where Eres is the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and α is the Gilbert damping parameter. We illustrate our ideas by studying the properties of semirealistic model Hamiltonians, which we solve numerically for nanoparticles containing several hundred atoms. For small nanoparticles, we find one isolated ferromagnetic resonance collective mode below the lowest particle-hole excitation energy, at Eres≈0.1 meV. The spectral weight of this pure excitation nearly exhausts the transverse dynamical susceptibility spectral weight. As δ approaches (α)Eres, the ferromagnetic collective excitation is more likely to couple strongly with discrete particle-hole excitations. In this regime the distinction between the two types of excitations blurs. We discuss the significance of this picture for the interpretation of recent single-electron tunneling experiments.

  12. Scientific Investigations of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanides, Nicos; Papageorgiou, Maria; Angeli, Charoula

    2013-04-01

    The study provides evidence concerning elementary school children's ability to conduct a scientific investigation. Two hundred and fifty sixth-grade students and 248 fourth-grade students were administered a test, and based on their performance, they were classified into high-ability and low-ability students. The sample of this study was randomly selected and included 80 students, 40 fourth-grade and 40 sixth-grade students of low and high abilities. Students were specifically instructed to investigate the functioning of a device, to think aloud prior and after any experiment with the device, and to keep a record of their experimental results. The results showed that students were inclined to mainly collect evidence from the experimental space and failed to control variables during their investigation. The majority of the students had difficulties with effectively organizing collected data and failed to coordinate hypotheses with evidence. The significant interaction effect that was found between grade level and ability in terms of students' investigation ability indicates that the existing gap between high- and low-ability students becomes bigger as students become older. Undoubtedly, ongoing research efforts for identifying patterns of children's cognitive development will be most valuable as they can have important implications for the design of teaching scenarios and inquiry-based science activities conducive to accelerating students' cognitive growth and scientific investigation abilities.

  13. Reading motivation in elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pečjak

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Reading motivation is one of the crucial factors of reading and consequently also learning efficiency of students. The purpose of the contribution is to establish the connection between dimensions of reading motivation and reading achievement in elementary school students. Participating in the study were 1073 third-grade and 1282 seventh-grade students. We used the questionnaire of reading motivation which consists of two factors: the reading competence factor and the interest and perceived reading importance factor. The findings of the study are the following: third-graders are more competent and more interested in reading compared to seventh-graders. The same is true for girls in both educational levels. Reading competence , interest and perceived reading importance reflect also in the actual reading behaviour of students – students who are more competent and more interested in reading read more frequently, for longer periods and more often autonomously decide to read compared to their less motivated peers. Higher reading motivation has implications also for higher reading efficiency. Namely, good readers are more competent, show higher interest and perceive reading as more important compared to average and bad readers.

  14. Visuospatial training improves elementary students' mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay

    2017-06-01

    Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Traveling science: An elementary science enhancement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotlib, L.; Brown, S. [South Granvile High School, Creedmoor, NC (United States); Bibby, E. [Granville County Schools, Oxford, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Traveling Science is an elementary science visitation program by two high school teachers (using scheduled release time) for every third to fifth grade student and teacher in Granville County, North Carolina (a total of sixty-one classes, 1,600 students-over 25,000 student contacts in three years). Teachers and students see and participate in hands-on, inquiry-based science done with inexpensive, readily available materials (usually less than 2% per class). Teachers become more confident and self-reliant with respect to science education, and students get increased exposure to hands-on science. In addition to the classroom visits (a total of six per year for each class), teachers receive a guide containing introductory and follow-up materials, and a monthly newsletter. Visit topics cover the physical, life and earth sciences; designed to stress the processes of science. We try to use topics of interest and relevance to students, such as toys, food, animals and playground activities. Teachers and schools also receive additional materials (posters and videos).

  16. How Healthy Is Homeschool? An Analysis of Body Composition and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Laura S.; Mitchell, Katy; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    Background: Public school children regularly participate in school-based physical activity, physical education, and fitness testing. However, almost 2 million American children are homeschooled. The purpose of this research was to assess the body composition of elementary school-aged homeschool children and their corresponding cardiovascular…

  17. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  18. Balancing Teacher and Student Roles in Elementary Classrooms: Preservice elementary teachers' learning about the inquiry continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy; Forbes, Cory T.

    2012-09-01

    Using the National Research Council's inquiry continuum framework, we use a multiple-case study research design to investigate the teacher- and student-directedness of elementary preservice teachers' planned and enacted science lessons and their pedagogical reasoning about science instruction during a semester-long science methods course. Our specific research questions were (1) What ideas do elementary preservice teachers bring to a science teaching methods course about the inquiry continuum? and (2) How do their ideas about the inquiry continuum change over the course of the semester through engaging in planning, enactment, and reflection upon science instruction? Participants' course artifacts (journals, reflective teaching assignments, and lesson plan rationales), interviews, and field observations of their enacted science lessons served as data for this study. Findings show that although the preservice teachers began the semester defining inquiry as highly student-directed, their ideas and definitions broadened over the course of the semester to include and embrace more teacher-directed forms of inquiry. Their early science lessons were more student-directed but, as they encountered challenges engaging in inquiry-based instruction and increasingly emphasized students' learning needs, they began to plan and enact lessons that were more teacher-directed. Teacher education programs need to explicitly emphasize these variations of inquiry as a core component of supporting preservice teachers' learning to teach science as inquiry.

  19. The multifaceted impact of peer relations on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher J; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    Following a large, diverse sample of 4,096 children in 27 schools, this study evaluated the impact of 3 aspects of peer relations, measured concurrently, on subsequent child aggressive-disruptive behavior during early elementary school: peer dislike, reciprocated friends' aggressiveness, and classroom levels of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Teachers rated child aggressive-disruptive behavior in 1st and 3rd grades, and peer relations were assessed during 2nd grade. Results indicated that heightened classroom aggressive-disruptive behavior levels were related to proximal peer relations, including an increased likelihood of having aggressive friends and lower levels of peer dislike of aggressive-disruptive children. Controlling for 1st grade aggressive-disruptive behavior, the three 2nd grade peer experiences each made unique contributions to 3rd grade child aggressive-disruptive behavior. These findings replicate and extend a growing body of research documenting the multifaceted nature of peer influence on aggressive-disruptive behavior in early elementary school. They highlight the importance of the classroom ecology and proximal peer relations in the socialization of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Earlier school start times are associated with higher rates of behavioral problems in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; Gilbert, Lauren R; Haak, Eric A; Bi, Shuang; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-04-01

    Early school start times may curtail children's sleep and inadvertently promote sleep restriction. The current study examines the potential implications for early school start times for behavioral problems in public elementary schools (student ages 5-12 years) in Kentucky. School start times were obtained from school Web sites or by calling school offices; behavioral and disciplinary problems, along with demographic information about schools, were obtained from the Kentucky Department of Education. Estimated associations controlled for teacher/student ratio, racial composition, school rank, enrollment, and Appalachian location. Associations between early school start time and greater behavioral problems (harassment, in-school removals, suspensions, and expulsions) were observed, although some of these associations were found only for schools serving the non-Appalachian region. Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may contribute to student problems, and extend this research through a large-scale examination of elementary schools, behavioral outcomes, and potential moderators of risk. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rejection and victimization among elementary school children: the buffering role of classroom-level predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdiouk, Marina; Rodkin, Philip; Madill, Rebecca; Logis, Handrea; Gest, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This study examined features of classroom peer ecologies and teaching practices that may attenuate the prevalence of victimization and its connection to peer rejection. Participants were 1020 elementary school students from 54 classrooms and their teachers followed for one academic year. In the majority of classrooms students who were rejected in fall tended to be victimized in spring, but the strength of this association varied across classrooms. The positive relationship between rejection in the fall and victimization in the spring was stronger in classrooms where victimization was strongly centralized around specific victims in the fall. In addition, victimization in the spring was higher in classrooms that had higher levels of peer rejection in the fall, where victimization was strongly centralized in the fall, and where teachers reported making fewer efforts to reduce social status inequality. This study contributes to a growing body of research into contextual factors that may attenuate negative outcomes associated with peer rejection and reduce levels of peer harassment in elementary school.

  2. Do Inquiring Minds Have Positive Attitudes? The Science Education of Preservice Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Morton, Karisma; Moore, Chelsea; Chimonidou, Antonia; Labrake, Cynthia; Kopp, Sacha

    2015-09-01

    Due to their potential impact on students' cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, the negative attitudes towards science held by many elementary teachers are a critical issue that needs to be addressed. This study focuses on the science education of pre-service elementary teachers with the goal of improving their attitudes before they begin their professional lives as classroom teachers. Specifically, this study builds on a small body of research to examine whether exposure to inquiry-based science content courses that actively involve students in the collaborative process of learning and discovery can promote a positive change in attitudes towards science across several different dimensions. To examine this issue, surveys and administrative data were collected from over 200 students enrolled in the Hands on Science (HoS) program for pre-service teachers at the University of Texas at Austin, as well as more than 200 students in a comparison group enrolled in traditional lecture-style classes. Quantitative analyses reveal that after participating in HoS courses, pre-service teachers significantly increased their scores on scales measuring confidence, enjoyment, anxiety, and perceptions of relevance, while those in the comparison group experienced a decline in favorable attitudes to science. These patterns offer empirical support for the attitudinal benefits of inquiry-based instruction and have implications for the future learning opportunities available to students at all education levels.

  3. Factors Related to Satisfaction with Body Image in Children Undergoing Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Li-Min; Chin, Chi-Chun

    2003-01-01

    This cross-sectional correlational study explored factors related to satisfaction with body image in children undergoing chemotherapy. We recruited 118 children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy at three medical centers. Subjects ranged from 6 to 18 years old (mean, 10.8 years). Most had leukemia, were in the first to third grade of elementary school, and had their mother as the primary caregiver. Two structured questionnaires were used, the Body Image Scale (part I, Cronbach's α = 0.82; pa...

  4. Chronic Teacher Turnover in Urban Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacey Guin

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the characteristics of elementary schools that experience chronic teacher turnover and the impacts of turnover on a school’s working climate and ability to effectively function. Based on evidence from staff climate surveys and case studies, it is clear that high turnover schools face significant organizational challenges. Schools with high teacher turnover rates have difficulty planning and implementing a coherent curriculum and sustaining positive working relationships among teachers. The reality of these organizational challenges is particularly alarming, given that high turnover schools are more likely to serve low-income and minority students. The negative relationship between teacher turnover and school functioning, and the fact that turbulent schools are disproportionately likely to serve lowincome and minority students have important implications for both district and school-level policies. Specifically: Teacher turnover rates are one indicator of school health, which school districts should consider when focusing on school improvements. Districts need to begin by developing the means to identify individual schools that experience high levels of teacher turnover. Current district policies in implementing professional development for teachers in low-performing schools are inefficient when teachers do not remain in the schools in which they are trained. In order for low-performing schools to improve, districts need to consider providing incentive programs so that high quality teachers apply for, and remain in, these schools. Future research is needed to address the causal link between turnover, organizational functioning and student outcomes. Additionally, there is a need for research examining district policies that may facilitate teacher turnover within a district, including how districts place and transfer teachers, as well as how teachers’ salaries are budgeted.

  5. Elementary excitations and flow in the liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Takeshi

    2013-03-01

    A new mode of excitation is introduced to elucidate the dynamics in simple liquids at the atomic scale. Some properties of liquid defy easy explanations. For instance, in liquids phonons are overdamped with a very short lifetime. Nevertheless the Dulong-Petit law (CV ~ 3kB) is widely observed at high temperatures. As temperature is reduced the specific heat markedly increases in the supercooled state, only to drop down sharply at the glass transition. Viscosity shows an Arrhenian behavior at high temperatures, but increases rapidly toward the glass transition in the supercooled state. We suggest that these perplexing observations can be naturally explained in terms of the local configurational excitations (LCE's) which locally change the atomic connectivity by an atom losing or gaining one nearest neighbor. We show that the lifetime of LCE, τLC, is equal to the Maxwell relaxation time, τM, at temperatures above the crossover temperature, TA. Above TA the phonon mean-free path, ξ =cTτLC , where cT is the transverse sound velocity, becomes shorter than the interatomic distance, resulting in phonon localization. Therefore LCE's are the elementary excitations in the liquid. They are independent of each other above TA, but below TA LCE's interact through phonon exchange, resulting in the rapid increase in τM , culminatingintheglasstransition . LCE' sarealsothemechanism of flow at low temperature under strong shear stress. In this case, however, losing and gaining of the neighbors are strongly coupled, so that τM = LC / 2 [ 1 ] . Wealsodiscussdynamicheterogeneityin terms of LCE interactions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division.

  6. Examining elementary students' perceptions of engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oware, Euridice A.

    There has been a national focus on improving K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) education. The integration of engineering education from kindergarten through high school (K-12) has been identified as key to sustaining the U.S. economy and standard of living. Misconceptions about the nature of engineering may deter children from even considering this profession. Currently, there are few research studies on young children's perceptions of engineers, and such research can be used to support children along STEM pathways. The purpose of this research was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of engineers for children enrolled in a gifted and talented outreach program. Participants included students enrolled in two structural engineering classes: one for 3rd and 4th graders and another for 5th and 6th grade students. Participants represented an age group that is not typically exposed to engineering. This research was framed within a constructivist theoretical framework, and qualitative research methods were utilized to develop a rich understanding of the perspectives of students enrolled in the engineering classes. Data collection included student pre- and post-questionnaires, Draw-an-Engineer tasks, and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis entailed the use of open and axial coding. Trustworthiness of data was determined through triangulation of multiple data sources. Results demonstrated how children describe the work of engineers, objects associated with engineering, tools used or created by engineers, and professional characteristics of engineers. In addition, images of engineers were discussed and influences on students' perceptions of engineers were identified. The findings of this study have implications for the development of formal and informal K-12 curricula and programs that focus on improving students' understanding and engagement in engineering. Implications for researchers interested in studying children

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... to demonstrate surface-exposed epitopes on infectious elementary bodies or reproductive reticulate body forms either by immunofluorescence or immuno-gold electron microscopy. However, a complement-dependent inhibition of up to 91% of infectivity for cell cultures was observed with antibodies to the N...

  8. Chance, choice and opportunity: Life history study of two exemplary female elementary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Kathleen Milligan

    adequate conceptual understanding in college science courses. Addressing knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and gender issues inherent in prior science education assists students to be reflective. Practicing teachers should be encouraged to work collaboratively, be reflective, and be aware of gender inequity issues. In-depth professional development efforts are need to support these changes. Administrators must be supportive of the process. Further research can add to and expand this body of knowledge through additional research into male elementary science teachers' life experiences. Research with preservice teachers may reveal similar findings even though their historical time period differs from the two participants in this study.

  9. Considering Children’s Methods of Grasping and Carrying Elementary School Chairs for Easy Carrying, Lifting, and Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu’lu’ Purwaningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrying, lifting, and turning chairs improve learning activities in schools, which leads to higher quality education. However, it has been shown that elementary school chairs in Indonesia are too heavy for children aged 6 to 9 to easily lift and carry. The present study aimed to investigate children’s methods of carrying chairs as well as lifting and turning them onto desks. Forty-two children (aged 6-9, including 17 Indonesians (6 boys, 11 girls and 25 Japanese (12 boys, 13 girls, participated in the study. The experiment used three elementary school chairs (one Indonesian, two Japanese and two desk types (standard and tall. The most popular method for carrying a chair was to carry it in front of the body with the chair in a lateral position (75%. In all carrying methods, participants showed a preference for grasping two particular points to hold the chair. Children lifted and turned chairs most successfully when they used this popular grasping pattern. The carrying method and the popular grasping pattern for carrying, lifting, and turning chairs need to be considered when redesigning heavy Indonesian elementary school chairs to improve the ease of transport without decreasing the weight.

  10. Elementary Anatomy: Activities Designed to Teach Preschool Children about the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that children may not be able to conceptualize some of the topics associated with anatomy, including internal organs and involuntary muscles, because the concepts are too abstract and are not easily visualized. Thus, this article presents activities that incorporate a variety of models and hands-on activities designed to provide…

  11. Improving Health among Elementary School Children: A Comparison of Aerobic and Mind-Body Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Children today are under much more stress than a few decades ago due to academic pressure, family financial hardship, competition with peers, and stressed parents. Consequently, stress-related health issues and behavioral problems, such as cardiovascular diseases, headaches, insomnia, anxiety, depression, violent or withdrawal…

  12. University and Elementary School Perspectives of Ideal Elementary Science Teacher Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewart, Bethany Bianca

    Teacher education knowledge, skills, and dispositions have recently become a well-discussed topic among education scholars around the nation, mainly due to its attention by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) over the past few years. Accrediting agencies, such as NCATE and the Interstate New Teacher and Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC), have sought to improve the quality of teacher education programs by examining knowledge, skills, and dispositions as factors in preparing highly-qualified teachers. There is a paucity of research examining these factors for elementary science teachers. Because these factors influence instruction, and students are behind in scientific and mathematical knowledge, elementary science teachers should be studied. Teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions should be further researched in order to ultimately increase the quality of teachers and teacher education programs. In this particular case, by determining what schools of education and public schools deem important knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to teach science, higher education institutions and schools can collaborate to further educate these students and foster the necessary qualities needed to teach effectively. The study of knowledge, skills, and dispositions is crucial to nurturing effective teaching within the classroom. Results from this study demonstrated that there were prominent knowledge, skills, and dispositions identified by teachers, administrators, and science teacher educators as important for effective teaching of elementary science. These characteristics included: a willingness to learn, or open-mindedness; content knowledge; planning, organization, and preparation; significance of teaching science; and science-related assessment strategies. Interestingly, administrators in the study responded differently than their counterparts in the following areas: their self-evaluation of teacher effectiveness; how the

  13. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Game Multimedia in Numeracy Learning for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohendi, D.; Sumarna, N.; Sutarno, H.

    2017-03-01

    Numeracy is one of the basic skills for elementary students to understand further concepts of mathematics. However teaching numeracy is still using recitation that can overload student’s memory and make them reluctant to learn mathematics, so an innovative way by using multimedia to attract student interest in numeracy is needed. Therefore, the purpose of this study are: 1) to develop numeracy learning multimedia for elementary school students; and 2) to find out whether the implementation of numeracy learning multimedia can improve the students numeracy skills, and how is the response of elementary school students by using multimedia in learning numeracy? The results showed that multimedia can improve students’ numeracy skill which is quit medium and the student response by using multimedia in numeracy learning are good.

  15. The Phase Space Elementary Cell in Classical and Generalized Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Quarati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the phase-space elementary cell of a non-quantized system was set equal to the third power of the Planck constant; in fact, it is not a necessary assumption. We discuss how the phase space volume, the number of states and the elementary-cell volume of a system of non-interacting N particles, changes when an interaction is switched on and the system becomes or evolves to a system of correlated non-Boltzmann particles and derives the appropriate expressions. Even if we assume that nowadays the volume of the elementary cell is equal to the cube of the Planck constant, h3, at least for quantum systems, we show that there is a correspondence between different values of h in the past, with important and, in principle, measurable cosmological and astrophysical consequences, and systems with an effective smaller (or even larger phase-space volume described by non-extensive generalized statistics.

  16. State-to-State Dynamics of Elementary Bimolecular Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueming

    2007-05-01

    The study of state-to-state dynamics of elementary bimolecular reactions has provided remarkable insights into chemical reactivity at the most fundamental level. This review covers exciting developments in this important field in the past decade. I focus on recent studies of quantum-state-resolved molecular-beam reactive-scattering studies of elementary chemical reactions, from triatomic to polyatomic systems. Researchers have made great advances in the fundamental understanding of many elementary chemical reactions through state-to-state dynamics studies. The strong interaction between theory and experiment has significantly enhanced our understanding of the dynamics of these reactions. I hope this review provides a glimpse of this exciting research field to both experts and beginners.

  17. The origin of mass elementary particles and fundamental symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, John

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a new elementary particle at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in 2012 made headlines in world media. Since we already know of a large number of elementary particles, why did this latest discovery generate so much excitement? This small book reveals that this particle provides the key to understanding one of the most extraordinary phenomena which occurred in the early Universe. It introduces the mechanism that made possible, within tiny fractions of a second after the Big Bang, the generation of massive particles. The Origin of Mass is a guided tour of cosmic evolution, from the Big Bang to the elementary particles we study in our accelerators today. The guiding principle of this book is a concept of symmetry which, in a profound and fascinating way, seems to determine the structure of the Universe.

  18. Measuring student engagement among elementary students: pilot of the Student Engagement Instrument--Elementary Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Chandra P; Reschly, Amy L; Lovelace, Matthew D; Appleton, James J; Thompson, Dianne

    2012-06-01

    Early school withdrawal, commonly referred to as dropout, is associated with a plethora of negative outcomes for students, schools, and society. Student engagement, however, presents as a promising theoretical model and cornerstone of school completion interventions. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Student Engagement Instrument-Elementary Version (SEI-E). The psychometric properties of this measure were assessed based on the responses of an ethnically diverse sample of 1,943 students from an urban locale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 4-factor model of student engagement provided the best fit for the current data, which is divergent from previous SEI studies suggesting 5- and 6-factor models. Discussion and implications of these findings are presented in the context of student engagement and dropout prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. USEEIO Elementary Flows and Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Characterization Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This file contains all the elementary flows (defined in ISO 14044) used in the USEEIO model. The elementary flows come from a draft master list used by USEPA...

  20. From elementary flux modes to elementary flux vectors: Metabolic pathway analysis with arbitrary linear flux constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Müller, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Elementary flux modes (EFMs) emerged as a formal concept to describe metabolic pathways and have become an established tool for constraint-based modeling and metabolic network analysis. EFMs are characteristic (support-minimal) vectors of the flux cone that contains all feasible steady-state flux vectors of a given metabolic network. EFMs account for (homogeneous) linear constraints arising from reaction irreversibilities and the assumption of steady state; however, other (inhomogeneous) linear constraints, such as minimal and maximal reaction rates frequently used by other constraint-based techniques (such as flux balance analysis [FBA]), cannot be directly integrated. These additional constraints further restrict the space of feasible flux vectors and turn the flux cone into a general flux polyhedron in which the concept of EFMs is not directly applicable anymore. For this reason, there has been a conceptual gap between EFM-based (pathway) analysis methods and linear optimization (FBA) techniques, as they operate on different geometric objects. One approach to overcome these limitations was proposed ten years ago and is based on the concept of elementary flux vectors (EFVs). Only recently has the community started to recognize the potential of EFVs for metabolic network analysis. In fact, EFVs exactly represent the conceptual development required to generalize the idea of EFMs from flux cones to flux polyhedra. This work aims to present a concise theoretical and practical introduction to EFVs that is accessible to a broad audience. We highlight the close relationship between EFMs and EFVs and demonstrate that almost all applications of EFMs (in flux cones) are possible for EFVs (in flux polyhedra) as well. In fact, certain properties can only be studied with EFVs. Thus, we conclude that EFVs provide a powerful and unifying framework for constraint-based modeling of metabolic networks. PMID:28406903

  1. Leptin and Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, SungChul; Yoon, Won Suck; Cho, Yunjung; Park, Sang Hee; Choung, Ji Tae; Yoo, Young

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) and obesity have been increasing considerably in Korean school-children. AD is a chronic pruritic recurrent inflammatory skin disorder. Leptin is secreted by adipocytes which has been suggested to be immunologically active; however, their role in AD has not yet been well understood. A total of 227 subjects out of 2,109 elementary school children were defined as having AD based on the ISAAC questionnaire survey. Ninety subjects with AD, aged between 6 and 12 years, completed scoring of severity of AD (SCORAD), skin prick testing, blood tests for total IgE, eosinophil counts, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and lipid profiles. Serum leptin levels were also measured. A subject with atopic AD was defined as an AD patient showing at least 1 positive reaction to allergens in skin prick testing. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index, percentage of breast milk feeding, mode of delivery, prevalence of atopy, and lipid profiles between atopic AD and non-atopic AD subjects. The serum leptin levels (log mean±SD) were significantly higher in non-atopic AD group than in the atopic AD group (0.86±0.57 ng/mL vs 0.53±0.72 ng/mL, p=0.045). Subjects with mild-to-moderate AD showed significantly higher serum leptin levels than those with severe AD (0.77±0.67 ng/mL vs 0.33±0.69 ng/mL, p=0.028). There was a marginal inverse correlation between the SCORAD index and the serum leptin concentration in total AD subjects (r=-0.216, p=0.053). The serum leptin levels were significantly higher in non-atopic AD subjects or mild-to-moderate AD subjects. Leptin did not seem to be associated with IgE-mediated inflammation in AD. Obesity-associated high leptin differed between non-atopic AD and atopic AD subjects.

  2. Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-10-04

    Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities

  3. Elementary science education: Dilemmas facing preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sherry Elaine

    Prospective teachers are involved in a process of induction into a culture of teaching that has rules, or codes of conduct for engaging in teaching practice. This same culture of teaching exists within a larger culture of schooling that also has values and norms for behaviors, that over time have become institutionalized. Teacher educators are faced with the challenging task of preparing preservice teachers to resolve dilemmas that arise from conflicts between the pressure to adopt traditional teaching practices of schooling, or to adopt inquiry-based teaching practices from their university methods classes. One task for researchers in teacher education is to define with greater precision what factors within the culture of schooling hinder or facilitate implementation of inquiry-based methods of science teaching in schools. That task is the focus of this study. A qualitative study was undertaken using a naturalistic research paradigm introduced by Lincoln and Guba in 1985. Participant observation, interviews, discourse analysis of videotapes of lessons from the methods classroom and written artifacts produced by prospective teachers during the semester formed the basis of a grounded theory based on inductive analysis and emergent design. Unstructured interviews were used to negotiate outcomes with participants. Brief case reports of key participants were also written. This study identified three factors that facilitated or hindered the prospective teachers in this research success in implementing inquiry-based science teaching in their field placement classrooms: (a) the culture of teaching/teacher role-socialization, (b) the culture of schooling and its resistance to change, and (c) the culture of teacher education, especially in regards to grades and academic standing. Some recommendations for overcoming these persistent obstacles to best practice in elementary science teaching include: (a) preparing prospective teachers to understand and cope with change

  4. Strength-length scaling of elementary hemp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poriķe, E.; Andersons, J.

    2013-03-01

    The application of hemp fibers as a reinforcement of composite materials necessitates the characterization of fiber strength scatter and the effect of fiber length on its strength. With this aim, elementary hemp fibers were tested in tension at two different gage lengths. Due to the similar morphology of hemp and flax fibers, the probabilistic strength models derived and verified for the latter were applied to the former. The fiber strength was found to agree with the modified Weibull distribution. The modeling approaches developed for describing the variability of the strength and failure strain of elementary flax fibers are shown to be also applicable to hemp fibers.

  5. Mathematical Models of Contemporary Elementary Quantum Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, G.; Church, D. A.; Englert, B. -G.; Zubairy, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Computations with a future quantum computer will be implemented through the operations by elementary quantum gates. It is now well known that the collection of 1-bit and 2-bit quantum gates are universal for quantum computation, i.e., any n-bit unitary operation can be carried out by concatenations of 1-bit and 2-bit elementary quantum gates. Three contemporary quantum devices--cavity QED, ion traps and quantum dots--have been widely regarded as perhaps the most promising candidates for the c...

  6. Elementary wave interactions in blood flow through artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Sekhar, T.; Minhajul

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the Riemann problem and interaction of elementary waves for the quasilinear hyperbolic system of conservation laws that arises in blood flow through arteries. We study the properties of solution involving shocks and rarefaction waves and establish the existence and uniqueness conditions. We show that the Riemann problem is solvable for arbitrary initial data under certain condition and construct the condition for no-feasible solution. Finally, we present numerical examples with different initial data and discuss all possible interactions of elementary waves.

  7. A STUDY OF SELF ESTEEM OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. A. C. Lal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to determine the self esteem of elementary school teachers in Vellore district of Tamilnadu.  The sample comprised 160 elementary school teachers out of these 90 male and 70 female.  Self Esteem Inventory by M.S.Prasad and G.P. Thakur Psychology Department, University of Bihar, Muzaffarpur.  The investigator used the statistical techniques, Mean, SD and “t” test The results reveal that respect to the gender, locality of school, age and type of family have average l...

  8. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  9. Lewy Body Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body dementia Overview Lewy body dementia, also known as dementia with Lewy bodies, is the second most common type of progressive dementia after Alzheimer's disease dementia. Protein deposits, ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  11. Lewy Body Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss ... enough to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves ... and damage to surrounding tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies ... your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body and nature of the symptoms. ...

  15. Whole Body Counters (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodburn, John H. [Walter Johnson High School, Rockville, MD; Lengemann, Frederick W. [Cornell University

    1967-01-01

    Whole body counters are radiation detecting and measuring instruments that provide information about the human body. This booklet describes different whole body counters, scientific principles that are applied to their design, and ways they are used.

  16. Prioritizing Elementary School Writing Instruction: Cultivating Middle School Readiness for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Mason, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Helping elementary students with learning disabilities (LD) prepare for the rigor of middle school writing is an instructional priority. Fortunately, several standards-based skills in upper elementary school and middle school overlap. Teachers in upper elementary grades, specifically fourth and fifth grades, have the opportunity to provide…

  17. Formative Assessment as Educational and Administrative Adhesive: Establishing an Elementary School Writing Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brad; Black, Sharon; Anstead, Marcia Howell

    1997-01-01

    Describes the collaboration between a university and an elementary school to establish a writing center at the elementary school, staffed by university students (preservice teachers). Describes the crucial role of ongoing formative assessment activity for both elementary students and the university preservice teachers. (SR)

  18. Delivering Technological Literacy to a Class for Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuksoo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of creating a new introductory course emphasizing the development of technological literacy for elementary school pre-service teachers. This study also aimed to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' attitudinal transition toward elementary school technology education (ESTE) and its…

  19. Locus of Control as It Relates to the Teaching Style of Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Abidemi

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the relationship between elementary teachers' locus of control and teaching style. This research observed elementary teachers in their classrooms coupled with data gathered from information sheets, surveys, and interviews to determine if a relationship exists between the locus of control of the elementary teachers and…

  20. An Exploration of Elementary School Counselors' Perceptions of Students' Exposure to Violent Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Tammy Lynn

    2010-01-01

    This study explored elementary school counselors' perceptions of working with students exposed to violent video games. Certified elementary school counselors participated in both an online survey and individual interviews, revealing their observations regarding elementary school children and the phenomenon of gaming. An emphasis was placed on…