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Sample records for chlamydia trachomatis genotypes

  1. Progress in genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yong; Xiong Likuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the common genotyping techniques of Chlamydia trachomatis in terms of their principles,characteristics,applications and limitations.Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from English literatures of PubMed database.The search terms were "Chlamydia trachomatis" and "genotyping".Meanwhile,data from World Health Organization were also cited.Study selection Original articles and reviews relevant to present review's theme were selected.Results Different genotyping techniques were applied on different occasions according to their characteristics,especially in epidemiological studies worldwide,which pushed the study of Chlamydia trachomatis forward greatly.In addition,summaries of some epidemiological studies by genotyping were also included in this work for reference and comparison.Conclusions A clear understanding of common genotyping techniques could be helpful to genotype C.trachomatis more appropriately and effectively.Furthermore,more studies on the association of genotypes of Ch/amydia trachomatis with clinical manifestations should be performed.

  2. Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis by Microsphere Suspension Array▿

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chung-Ter; Wong, Wing-Wai; Li, Lan-Hui; Chiang, Chien-Chou; Chen, Bor-Dong; Li, Shu-Ying

    2008-01-01

    The identification of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes is important for both the study of molecular epidemiology and infection control. We have developed a microsphere suspension array assay that can identify C. trachomatis genotypes rapidly and accurately and also discriminate among multiple genotypes in one clinical specimen.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

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    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  4. Cloning of Omp1 Gene from Chlamydia trachomatis F Genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Manli(齐蔓莉); LIU Quanzhong(刘全中); JIAO Wenling(缴稳苓); TIAN Jingqun(田敬群); CHEN Jinying(陈锦英)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To directionally clone the omp1 gene fromChlamydia trachomatis (Ct) F genotype onto a plasmid vectorfor constructing a rudimentary DNA vaccine.Methods: The complete omp1 gene from genomic DNA of CtF genotype wild species was amplified with primers designedby computer. The recombinant gene was obtained byrestriction enzyme cutting, linking the gene with the plasmidvector in vitro, transforming the recombinant gene intobacteria, and extracting the DNA from the bacteria.Results: DNA extracted from the bacteria was composed ofthe omp1 gene and plasmid, which is identified by threemethods of singular restrictive enzyme cutting, doublerestrictive enzyme cutting and PCR.Conclusion: Cloning of the omp1 gene from the Ct Fgenotype means that a rudimentary DNA vaccine wassuccessfully constructed.

  5. Distribution study of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in symptomatic patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina: association between genotype E and neonatal conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corominas Ana I

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world. There is scarce data available referring to the distribution of C. trachomatis genotypes in Argentina. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of C. trachomatis circulating in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires (Argentina associated with ophthalmia neonatorum and genital infections. Findings From 2001 to 2006, 199 positive samples for C. trachomatis infection from symptomatic adult patients and neonates with ophthalmia neonatorum from two public hospitals were studied. C. trachomatis genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP of an ompA fragment. Genotype E was the most prevalent regardless of the sample origin (46.3% 57/123 in adults and 72.4% 55/76 in neonates, followed by genotype D (19.5% 24/123 and F (14.6% 18/123 in adults, and G (9.2% 7/76 and D (7.9% 6/76 in neonates. We detected a significantly higher frequency of genotype E (p ophthalmia neonatorum than in genital specimens. Genotype D was associated with genital localization (p Conclusion We found a particularly increased frequency of C. trachomatis genotype E in neonatal conjunctivitis, which may indicate an epidemiological association between this genotype and the newborn population. The present study also contributed to increase the knowledge on genotype distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in symptomatic adult patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in which genotypes E, D and F were the predominant ones.

  6. Endometritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mårdh, P A; Møller, B R; Ingerselv, H J; Nüssler, E; Weström, L; Wølner-Hanssen, P

    1981-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be the aetiological agent of endometritis in three women with concomitant signs of salpingitis. All patients developed a significant antibody response to the organism. Chlamydia were recovered from aspirated uterine contents of two patients and darkfield examination of histological sections showed chlamydial inclusions in endometrial cells in one patient. Thus, C trachomatis can be recovered from the endometrium of patients in whom the cervical culture resul...

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.M. Bom

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STT) worldwide. A better understand of the transmission of C. trachomatis may contribute to improved screening and prevention programs in the future and ultimately alleviate this burden. Through the us

  8. Prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Urogenital chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Sweden. In 2008 it was estimated by WHO that there were 105.7 million new cases of CT worldwide, an increase by 4.2 million cases (4.1%) compared to 2005. If untreated, CT infections can progress to serious reproductive health problems, especially in women. These complications include subfertility/infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. Th...

  9. Endometritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårdh, P A; Møller, B R; Ingerselv, H J; Nüssler, E; Weström, L; Wølner-Hanssen, P

    1981-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be the aetiological agent of endometritis in three women with concomitant signs of salpingitis. All patients developed a significant antibody response to the organism. Chlamydia were recovered from aspirated uterine contents of two patients and darkfield examination of histological sections showed chlamydial inclusions in endometrial cells in one patient. Thus, C trachomatis can be recovered from the endometrium of patients in whom the cervical culture result is negative. In one patient curettage showed endometritis with a characteristic plasma-cell infiltration. The occurrence of chlamydial endometritis may explain why irregular bleeding is a common finding in patients with salpingitis. It also suggests a canalicular spread of chlamydia from the cervix to the Fallopian tubes. Images PMID:7237083

  10. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  11. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Baud D.; Goy G.; Jaton K.; Osterheld M.C.; Blumer S.; Borel N.; Vial Y.; Hohlfeld P.; Pospischil A.; Greub G

    2011-01-01

    To determine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, we prospectively collected serum, cervicovaginal swab specimens, and placental samples from 386 women with and without miscarriage. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G against C. trachomatis was higher in the miscarriage group than in the control group (15.2% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.018). Association between C. trachomatis-positive serologic results and miscarriage remained significant after adjustment for age, origin, education, and number of...

  12. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among adolescents in a high-incidence area in Norway: genotypes, prevalence, early sexual behaviour and testing patterns – a cross-sectional study The Finnmark High School Study (FHSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Gravningen, Kirsten Midttun

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported curable sexually transmitted infection in Western high-income countries and can cause severe female reproductive tract morbidity. Despite extensive control efforts, chlamydia rates have increased in most countries since the mid-1990s. Young persons and especially adolescent girls have the highest infection rates. In general, girls are tested far more frequently than boys. High-resolution genotyping provides detailed information on the molecu...

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend;

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  14. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...... coding genes. Here, we repredict the protein-coding genes of the C. trachomatis genome using the gene-finder EasyGene that was trained specifically for C. trachomatis, and compare it with the primary C. trachomatis annotation. Our work predicts 15 genes not listed in the primary annotation and 853...... that are in agreement with the primary annotation. Forty two genes from the primary annotation are not predicted by EasyGene. The majority of these genes are listed as hypothetical in the primary annotation. The 15 novel predicted genes all overlap with genes on the complementary strand. We find homologues of several...

  15. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  16. [Current aspects of Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2013-04-01

    The number of detection and diagnosis of urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis is increasing among both men and women. Three-quarters involve young people between 15 and 24 years. Infection, often asymptomatic, is more common in women. It is necessary to identify it to avoid complications.The number of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is also growing. The affected patients are homo/bisexuel men frequently co-infected with HIV. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the tests of choice to the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection regardless of the clinical situation. Most of tests simultaneously detect C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The recommended treatment regimens for a non-complicated infection to C. trachomatis is azithromycin 1g orally in a single dose or doxycyline 100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days. Doxycyclin for 21 days remains the treatment of choice for LGV. Patients should be instructed to refer their sex partners for treatment. PMID:23419460

  17. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments. PMID:27505160

  18. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  19. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  20. IL-17/il-23 and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlakadze, N; Gorgoshidze, B

    2010-06-01

    Ch. trachomatis is a gram negative bacteria, infecting the most organs of the uro-genital tract and harming greatly the woman's or man's reproductive field. Moreover, as this is not the limit of its destructive nature, it can form a favorable ground for developing ulcer and tumor processes. As observed, a special place is occupied by Ch. trachomatis chronization skill, which is developed irrespective the mighty humoral and cellular respond to its intrusion into the host's organism. It is also known that T (CD4) lymphocytes and their products - cytokines are directly involved into these processes. IL-17 and its regulator IL-23 are among them. For the significance of the above-mentioned processes for expiring the chlamydiosis immune-pathogenesis we have studied the problem in the patients with IL-17 and IL-23 chlamydiosis. We have investigated 56 chlamydia infected patients; 31 non-infected patients who were the carriers of a different pathology flora and 21 healthy donors. The investigation covered some impaired localities as well as the organism overall. To gain the objective we analyzed clinical -anamnesis data and carried out the appropriate instrumental, laboratorial and immunological researches. Stating the chlamydia infection was carried on with the serological and immunofluorescentical and PCR methods. The study of IL-17 and IL-23 is done by ELISA and RT-PCR methods.The findings after the statistical analyses makes us drive to the following conclusions: IL-17 occurs in almost all the patients infected with chlamydia - their organs or systemic environment compared with the patients of non-chlamydia infection (97% against 21%, Pmetaplasy. The gained data point the opinion that Il-17 and IL-23 take part in Chlamydia Immune-pathogenesis. PMID:20622275

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes in Men Who Have Sex with Men and Men Who Have Sex with Women Using Multilocus VNTR Analysis-ompA Typing in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Qin

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in China. Although C. trachomatis genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing, currently available methods have limited resolutions. This study used a high-resolution genotyping method, namely, multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis with ompA sequencing (MLVA-ompA, to investigate the local epidemiology of C. trachomatis infections among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who have sex with women (MSW attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic in Guangzhou, China.Rectal specimens from MSM and urethral specimens from MSW were collected between January 2013 and July 2014 at the Guangdong Provincial Center STD clinic. The specimens were sent to the laboratory for analyses. All specimens that were tested positive for C. trachomatis by the commercial nucleic acid amplification tests were genotyped by MLVA-ompA.Fifty-one rectal specimens from MSM and 96 urethral specimens from MSW were identified with C. trachomatis. One hundred and forty-four of the 147 specimens were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Rectal specimens from MSM were divided into four ompA genotypes and urethral specimens from MSW into nine genotypes. No mixed infections were found among all specimens. The most frequent genotypes were D, G, J, E and F. All specimens were further divided into 46 types after ompA genotyping was combined with MLVA. Genotypes D-8.7.1 and G-3.4a.3 were the most frequent among MSM, whereas genotypes D-3.4a.4, E-8.5.1, F-8.5.1, and J-3.4a.2 were the most frequent subtypes among MSW. The discriminatory index D was 0.90 for MLVA, 0.85 for ompA, and 0.95 for MLVA-ompA.The most prevalent MLVA-ompA genotypes were significantly different between MSM and MSW from Guangzhou, China. Moreover, MLVA-ompA represented a more favorable degree of discrimination than ompA and could be a reliable complement for ompA for the routine

  2. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in Low-Risk Obstetric Patients

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    Robert K. Gribble

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in our rural obstetric population and assess the appropriateness of selective vs. universal prenatal screening.

  3. Study on Drug Resistance and Relative Mechanisms of Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯淑萍; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Chlamydia Trachomatis (C.T.) is one of the most common pathogens of human sexually transmitted diseases. Treatment of C.T. infection primarily depends on Tetracyclines, Macrolides and Quinolones, but with the wide use of antibiotics an increasing number of drug-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis cases have been reported. This review summarizes the resistant conditions and the possible resistance mechanisms of C.T..

  4. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  5. Chronic respiratory disease in premature infants caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Numazaki, K; Chiba, S.; Kogawa, K; Umetsu, M; Motoya, H; Nakao, T.

    1986-01-01

    The relation between chronic respiratory disease and infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in premature infants was investigated to ascertain the aetiological importance of intrauterine C trachomatis infection and chronic respiratory disease in premature infants. Serum IgM antibodies against C trachomatis were determined by enzyme linked fluorescence assay. Sections of lung tissues obtained by biopsy and at necropsy were also tested for the presence of antigens using fluorescein conjugated mon...

  6. Entry of genital Chlamydia trachomatis into polarized human epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrick, P B; Choong, J; Davis, C H; Knight, S T; Royal, M O; Maslow, A S; Bagnell, C R

    1989-01-01

    To study the initial invasion process(es) of genital chlamydiae, a model system consisting of hormonally maintained primary cultures of human endometrial gland epithelial cells (HEGEC), grown in a polarized orientation on collagen-coated filters, was utilized. After Chlamydia trachomatis inoculation of the apical surface of polarized HEGEC, chlamydiae were readily visualized, by transmission electron microscopy, in coated pits and coated vesicles. This was true for HEGEC maintained in physiol...

  7. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (plactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (plactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms.

  8. External Quality Assessment Program for Chlamydia trachomatis Diagnostic Testing by Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Land, Sally; Tabrizi, Sepehr; Gust, Anthony; Johnson, Elizabeth; Garland, Susan; Dax, Elizabeth M.

    2002-01-01

    We report the results from 57 Australian diagnostic laboratories testing two external quality assessment panels using either the Roche Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis test (R-PCR) or the Abbott LCx Chlamydia trachomatis assay (A-ligase chain reaction [LCR]). Panel samples were either normal urine spiked with Chlamydia trachomatis antigen or clinical urine specimens. There was no significant difference between laboratories or between assays in detection of C. trachomatis-positive clinical sampl...

  9. Ivermectin inhibits growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Pettengill

    Full Text Available Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia.

  10. Ivermectin inhibits growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, Matthew A; Lam, Verissa W; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Ojcius, David M

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. PMID:23119027

  11. TestPack Chlamydia, a new rapid assay for the direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, P.; Varitek, V; Mushahwar, I K; Marchlewicz, B; Safford, J; Hansen, J.; Kurpiewski, G; Grier, T

    1989-01-01

    TestPack Chlamydia (Abbott Laboratories) is a rapid enzyme immunoassay for the direct antigen detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical specimens. The assay is self-contained, requires no specialized equipment, and yields results in less than 30 min. The clinical performance of TestPack Chlamydia versus chlamydial cell culture was evaluated with a total of 1,694 paired endocervical specimens. Discordant samples were further investigated by immunofluorescent staining and by Chlamydiaz...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center

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    Kakar S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31% neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika;

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  14. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  15. DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guern, Rémi; Miaux, Brigitte; Pischedda, Patricia; Herwegh, Stéphanie; Courcol, René

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the DNA stability of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 55 urine samples. Crossing threshold (Ct) values were highly similar after 3 to 14 days at room temperature (+0.002, P = 0.99). Consequently, it does not seem necessary to transfer urine specimens into a transport medium in less than 24 hours as recommended by manufacturers. PMID:27130478

  16. Effects of Mentha suaveolens essential oil on Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Rosa; Di Pietro, Marisa; De Santis, Fiorenzo; Filardo, Simone; Ragno, Rino; Angiolella, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, has a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is responsible for severe reproductive complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and obstructive infertility. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Mentha suaveolens essential oil (EOMS) can be considered as a promising candidate for preventing C. trachomatis infection. Specifically, we investigated the in vitro effects of EOMS towards C. trachomatis analysing the different phases of chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results demonstrated that EOMS was effective towards C. trachomatis, whereby it not only inactivated infectious elementary bodies but also inhibited chlamydial replication. Our study also revealed the effectiveness of EOMS, in combination with erythromycin, towards C. trachomatis with a substantial reduction in the minimum effect dose of antibiotic. In conclusion, EOMS treatment may represent a preventative strategy since it may reduce C. trachomatis transmission in the population and, thereby, reduce the number of new chlamydial infections and risk of developing of severe sequelae.

  17. Effects of Mentha suaveolens Essential Oil on Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sessa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, has a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is responsible for severe reproductive complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and obstructive infertility. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Mentha suaveolens essential oil (EOMS can be considered as a promising candidate for preventing C. trachomatis infection. Specifically, we investigated the in vitro effects of EOMS towards C. trachomatis analysing the different phases of chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results demonstrated that EOMS was effective towards C. trachomatis, whereby it not only inactivated infectious elementary bodies but also inhibited chlamydial replication. Our study also revealed the effectiveness of EOMS, in combination with erythromycin, towards C. trachomatis with a substantial reduction in the minimum effect dose of antibiotic. In conclusion, EOMS treatment may represent a preventative strategy since it may reduce C. trachomatis transmission in the population and, thereby, reduce the number of new chlamydial infections and risk of developing of severe sequelae.

  18. Non-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction in pregnant Iranian women

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin Hassanzadeh; Hosein Sharifi; Abdollah Bazargani; Reza Khashei; Amir Emami; Mohammad Motamedifar

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infection. In 75% of women and 50% of men infection is asymptomatic. According to World Health Organization reports, the number of new genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis reaches 100 million annually. The sensitivity and specificity of nacid amplification tests are 95% and 99%, respectively. Urine samples can provide a non-invasive method of testing for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain r...

  19. The humoral immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with acute reactive arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Mordhorst, CH;

    1994-01-01

    Sera from 25 patients with clinical signs of reactive arthritis were analysed for antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis by immunoblotting. Purified elementary bodies, purified Chlamydia outer membrane complexes, and purified recombinant subcomponents were used as antigens. Antibodies against C...

  20. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... negative bacteria since incubation of EB with antibodies against LPS will liberate it from the chlamydial surface. Therefore the surface localized LPS may be important for chlamydial survival. OMP1 varies between the different serovar of C. trachomatis. Several very conserved regions are separated....... Patient serum samples will recognize the chlamydial DnaK-like protein. From the determined DNA sequence the amino acid sequence was determined. It was 57% homologous to the Eschrichia coli DnaK protein. Also the GroEL-like protein is antigenic and very conserved. Factors of importance for pathogenicity...

  1. [Purulent keratoconjunctivitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis coinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvai, Mariann; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mihalik, Noémi; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Marschalkó, Márta

    2013-05-26

    Gonococcal conjunctivitis is a rare infection induced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and it usually manifests as a hyperacute purulent conjunctivitis. Ocular access of the infectious secretion during sexual intercourse is the way of transmission among adults. Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by the serovars D-K of Chlamydia trachomatis also affects the sexually active population. Authors present a case of a 33-year-old homosexual man who was treated for late latent syphilis formerly. Clinical symptoms were yellow purulent discharge for 3 weeks without any urological or upper respiratory tract symptoms. Conjunctival Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified using cultures and polymerase chain reaction; pharyngeal swab culture and polymerase chain reaction showed positive results for both pathogens. The patient was probably under influence of party drugs at the time of sexual abuse when he became infected. After parenteral and oral cephalosporin and azithromycin therapy the patient had complete recovery within three weeks. PMID:23692878

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Serology in Women with and without Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in female genital tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty cases of female genital tract infection were investigated for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen. Endocervical swabs obtained were subjected to antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay. Rabbit antiserum to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide was used in a card test. Anti rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to alkaline phosphatase with a chromogenic substrate 5 bromo-4 chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and nitro blue tetrazolium were used for the enzymatic reaction. Chlamydial antigen could be detected in four out of thirty samples (13.3%. In contrast direct immunofluorescence detected 5 cases (16.6%. Although less sensitive, enzyme immunoassay can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in genital infections.

  4. Association of HPV infection and Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity in cases of cervical neoplasia in Midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Barros, Narriman Kennia; Costa, Maria Cecília; Alves, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo; Villa, Luísa Lina; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Dos Santos Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena

    2012-07-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. However, the presence of a single type HPV infection alone is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer. There is epidemiologic evidence suggesting that HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis play a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent cervical cancer. To evaluate the HPV prevalence and the seropositivity for C. trachomatis in women referred to the colposcopy clinic due to an abnormal cervical smear and to examine the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. Following enrollment, 131 patients underwent colposcopy and biopsies when necessary. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping was performed by reverse line-blot hybridization assay. C. trachomatis seropositivity was tested by ELISA for the detection of IgG antibodies. The prevalence of HPV infection was 86.3%. Seropositivity for C. trachomatis was 26%. Thirty-one women (27.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis antibodies and HPV-DNA. The most prevalent HPV type in C. trachomatis-seropositive women were HPV 16 (51.6%) and this HPV type was present mainly in neoplasia cases. Positivity for HPV, particularly HPV types 16 and 18, and C. trachomatis seropositivity was significantly associated with a diagnosis of high grade neoplasia. Borderline significance was observed after adjustment for HPV. C. trachomatis seropositivity is associated with high grade neoplasia in women infected with HPV, mainly when the types 16 and 18 were involved. PMID:22585734

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces replication of latent HHV-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh K Prusty

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 exists in latent form either as a nuclear episome or integrated into human chromosomes in more than 90% of healthy individuals without causing clinical symptoms. Immunosuppression and stress conditions can reactivate HHV-6 replication, associated with clinical complications and even death. We have previously shown that co-infection of Chlamydia trachomatis and HHV-6 promotes chlamydial persistence and increases viral uptake in an in vitro cell culture model. Here we investigated C. trachomatis-induced HHV-6 activation in cell lines and fresh blood samples from patients having Chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CiHHV-6. We observed activation of latent HHV-6 DNA replication in CiHHV-6 cell lines and fresh blood cells without formation of viral particles. Interestingly, we detected HHV-6 DNA in blood as well as cervical swabs from C. trachomatis-infected women. Low virus titers correlated with high C. trachomatis load and vice versa, demonstrating a potentially significant interaction of these pathogens in blood cells and in the cervix of infected patients. Our data suggest a thus far underestimated interference of HHV-6 and C. trachomatis with a likely impact on the disease outcome as consequence of co-infection.

  6. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P papilloma virus infections. This approach will not only protect against pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, but may also prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27043670

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: knowledge, test practices, and attitudes of Dutch midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the Netherlands, testing for C. trachomatis is based on risk assessment. We assessed midwives' knowledge, test practices, assessment of risk behavior, and attitudes regarding testing for C. trachomati

  8. Entry of genital Chlamydia trachomatis into polarized human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, P B; Choong, J; Davis, C H; Knight, S T; Royal, M O; Maslow, A S; Bagnell, C R

    1989-01-01

    To study the initial invasion process(es) of genital chlamydiae, a model system consisting of hormonally maintained primary cultures of human endometrial gland epithelial cells (HEGEC), grown in a polarized orientation on collagen-coated filters, was utilized. After Chlamydia trachomatis inoculation of the apical surface of polarized HEGEC, chlamydiae were readily visualized, by transmission electron microscopy, in coated pits and coated vesicles. This was true for HEGEC maintained in physiologic concentrations of estrogen (proliferative phase) and of estrogen plus progesterone (secretory phase), despite the finding that association of chlamydiae with secretory-phase HEGEC is significantly reduced (P = 0.025; A.S. Maslow, C.H. Davis, J. Choong, and P.B. Wyrick, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:1006-1014, 1988). In contrast, chlamydiae were rarely observed in the clathrin-associated structures if the HEGEC were cultured on plastic surfaces. The same pattern of coated pit versus noncoated pit entry was reproducible in HeLa cells. The quantity of coated pits associated with isolated membrane sheets derived from HeLa cells, grown on poly-L-lysine-coated cover slips in medium containing the female hormones, was not significantly different as monitored by radiolabeling studies and by laser scanning microscopy. These data suggest that culture conditions which mimic in vivo cellular organization may enhance entry into coated pits for some obligate intracellular pathogens. Images PMID:2744852

  9. Quinolones for the Treatment of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Faro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly sexually transmitted bacteria are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The quinolones ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have been shown to have activity against both of these bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Ofloxacin is particularly well suited for the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis cervical infection, which can be considered the earliest manifestation of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Not only can ofloxacin be effectively used as a single agent, it is also useful in treating urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Although it has moderate activity against anaerobes in general, ofloxacin does have activity against the anaerobes commonly isolated from female patients with soft tissue pelvic infections. Thus, ofloxacin has the potential for being utilized to treat early salpingitis.

  10. Non-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction in pregnant Iranian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Hassanzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infection. In 75% of women and 50% of men infection is asymptomatic. According to World Health Organization reports, the number of new genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis reaches 100 million annually. The sensitivity and specificity of nacid amplification tests are 95% and 99%, respectively. Urine samples can provide a non-invasive method of testing for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women referred to a teaching hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Urine samples were obtained from 210 pregnant women and investigated microscopically and macroscopically by urinalysis. Precipitants were also used for DNA extraction and PCR test for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis. Among 210 urine specimens from women aged 15-39 years, none were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR. In spite of the high sensitivity and specificity of PCR, and the elimination of inhibitory effects on PCR test, no pregnant woman was positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. Here, we suggest that a larger sample should be studied and other sensitive methods could also be used in the future.

  11. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, Vitaly; Gheit, Tarik; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Eklund, Carina; Tommasino, Massimo; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Background A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited. Methods A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls) were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG) assay. Results Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively. Conclusions A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection. Impact C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas. PMID:27227411

  12. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited.A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls, and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG assay.Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively.A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection.C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas.

  13. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamel RM

    2013-01-01

    Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sa...

  14. Subunit vaccines for the prevention of mucosal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Brunham, Robert C

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common preventable cause of tubal infertility in women. In high-income countries, despite public health control efforts, C. trachomatis case rates continue to rise. Most medium and low-income countries lack any Chlamydia control program; therefore, a vaccine is essential for the control of Chlamydia infections. A rationally designed Chlamydia vaccine requires understanding of the immunological correlates of protective immunity, pathological responses to this mucosal pathogen, identification of optimal vaccine antigens and selection of suitable adjuvant delivery systems that engender protective immunity. Fortunately, Chlamydia vaccinology is facilitated by genomic knowledge and by murine models that reproduce many of the features of human C. trachomatis infection. This article reviews recent progress in these areas with a focus on subunit vaccine development. PMID:26938202

  15. Prevalence and determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women from Bogota, Colombia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, M; Weiderpass, E; Posso, H; Morre, S.A.; Ronderos, M; Franceschi, S; Arslan, A; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Munoz, N.; Brule, van den AJ

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix and uterus has been hypothesised to be a co-factor for cervical cancer. We performed a cross sectional study in Bogota, Colombia, where cervical cancer rates are high, to determine the prevalence and determinants of C trachomatis infection, a

  16. Combined cervical swab and urine specimens for PCR diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, M; Reynolds, M.; Hoy, C.; Brayson, J.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Sampling of both the cervix and urine increases the chance of detection of Chlamydia trachomatis compared with sampling either site alone. We determined the effect of combining urine and cervical swab specimens in the clinic setting on the sensitivity of C trachomatis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  18. Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Honglei Ding; Siqi Gong; Yingxin Tian; Zhangsheng Yang; Robert Brunham; Guangming Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, ...

  19. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent Winding;

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...... tube following C. trachomatis infection. Because leukocytes are absent in the ex vivo model, this study strongly indicates that IL-1 is the initial proinflammatory cytokine activated by C. trachomatis infection....

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis detection in cervical PreservCyt specimens from an Irish urban female population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urban women undergoing routine cervical cytological screening and to investigate the relationship with age, cytology, smoking status and concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: A total of 996 women (age range 16-69 years) attending general practitioners for routine liquid-based cervical smear screening in the Dublin area were recruited in the study of prevalence of C. trachomatis. Informed consent was obtained and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were sent for cytological screening. DNA was extracted from residual LBC and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR using the highly sensitive C. trachomatis plasmid (CTP) primers and for HPV infection using the MY09\\/11 primers directed to the HPV L1 gene in a multiplex format. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 5.4%. Prevalence was highest in the <25 years age group (10%). Coinfection with HPV and C. trachomatis occurred in 1% of the screening population. A higher rate of smoking was observed in women positive for C. trachomatis, HPV infections or those with abnormal cervical cytology. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was not associated with abnormal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Women (5.4%) presenting for routine cervical screening are infected with C. trachomatis. Opportunistic screening for C. trachomatis from PreservCyt sample taken at the time of cervical cytological screening may be a possible strategy to screen for C. trachomatis in the Irish female population.

  1. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel RM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

  2. Lateral flow-based antibody testing for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwyn, Sarah; Mitchell, Alexandria; Dean, Deborah; Mkocha, Harran; Handali, Sukwan; Martin, Diana L

    2016-08-01

    We describe here a lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for the detection of antibodies against immunodominant antigen Pgp3 from Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of urogenital chlamydia infection and ocular trachoma. Optimal signal detection was achieved when the gold-conjugate and test line contained Pgp3, creating a dual sandwich capture assay. The LFA yielded positive signals with serum and whole blood but not with eluted dried blood spots. For serum, the agreement of the LFA with the non-reference multiplex assay was 96%, the specificity using nonendemic pediatric sera was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.961. For whole blood, the agreement of LFA with multiplex was 81.5%, the specificity was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.940. The LFA was tested in a field environment and yielded similar results to those from laboratory-based testing. These data show the successful development of a lateral flow assay for detection of antibodies against Pgp3 with reliable use in field settings, which would make antibody-based testing for trachoma surveillance highly practical, especially after cessation of trachoma elimination programs. PMID:27208400

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate body protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Roepstorff, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis comprises 894 genes predicted by computer-based analysis. As part of a large-scale proteome analysis of C. trachomatis, a small abundant protein encoded by a previously unrecognized novel 204-bp open reading frame was identi......The genome of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis comprises 894 genes predicted by computer-based analysis. As part of a large-scale proteome analysis of C. trachomatis, a small abundant protein encoded by a previously unrecognized novel 204-bp open reading frame...... cycle. The protein is rapidly degraded and is only present in reticulate or intermediate bodies, suggesting a possible function in the intracellular stage of C. trachomatis development. We have termed the protein '7-kDa reticulate body protein'....

  4. Sequence analysis and genotyping of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among patients with suspected-Neisseria gonorrhoeae%拟诊为淋病患者中泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体基因分型及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟娟; 卢次勇; 冯铁建; 赵广录; 张丽君; 王峰; 洪福昌; 蓝丽娜; 吴肖冰; 陶小华; 张春来

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市拟诊为淋病患者中泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体的合并感染情况及其基因型分布和序列变异特点.方法 采集401例拟诊为淋病患者的泌尿生殖道分泌物样本,应用Roche Amplicor全自动核酸检测系统对样本进行淋球菌和沙眼衣原体双检,提取DNA,应用巢式聚合酶链反应(nested-PGR)扩增沙眼衣原体主要外膜蛋白基因(omp1)中的VS1~VS2片段,并对其进行序列测定,所获得的序列利用Mega4.0软件与标准参考株进行比对,分析确定其基因型及序列变异情况.结果 401例拟诊为淋病患者中淋球菌的感染率为82.3%(330/401),沙眼衣原体的感染率为24.2%(97/401),淋球菌和沙眼衣原体的合并感染率为21.7%(87/401).97份沙眼衣原体阳性样本中获得73份沙眼衣原体基因片段序列,共检出8个基因型,分别为E型(27.4%)、G/Ga型(23.3%)、D/Da型(16.4%)、F型(13.7%)、J型(11.0%)、H型(5.5%)、B和K型(各1.4%).序列分析发现3例(4.1%)菌株发生错义突变,分别为D/Da型、E型、G/Ga型;F型、H型、J型和K型序列虽多见碱基突变,但均为同义突变.结论淋病患者合并感染沙眼衣原体的比例较高,且泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体的基因型以E、G/Ga、D/Da和F型为主.序列分析可以为泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体的分子流行病学研究提供依据.%Objective To understand the prevalence rate of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among a population with suspected-Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection,the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes,assess changes in omp1 sequences among patients with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis coinfections.Methods Four hundred and one swabs were collected.Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were detected by Roche Amplicor System.DNA were extracted from those samples and were amplified by nested PCR.PCR products were sequencing and analyzed by software Mega4.0.Results The prevalence of genital Chlamydia

  5. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  6. Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmeister, Denise; Vianna, Débora Renz Barreto; Helfer, Virgínia Etges; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Barcellos, Regina Bones; Rossetti, Maria Lucia; Calil, Luciane Noal; Buffon, Andréia; Pilger, Diogo André

    2016-02-01

    The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer. PMID:26841046

  7. Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Wohlmeister

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Low- and High-Risk Filipino Women and Performance of Chlamydia Rapid Tests in Resource-Limited Settings▿

    OpenAIRE

    Saison, Francis; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Michel, Claude-Edouard E.; Buttress, Nigel D.; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V; Emma M Harding-Esch; Villaruel, M. Odeta; Canong, Lorna; Celis, Rey L.; Lee, Helen H.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was determined with a PCR-based test of women from low- and high-risk populations in Iloilo City, Philippines, between August 2002 and March 2006. Two rapid tests for C. trachomatis, Clearview Chlamydia MF and the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT), were also evaluated in these resource-limited settings. Specimens were obtained from female sex workers (FSWs; n = 1,484) attending a social hygiene clinic (SHC) and from women (n = 838) attendi...

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis in Women with Ful-Term Deliveries and Women with Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are some documents which support the role of some certain infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis in spontaneous abortion. As there were not data about role this bacterium in abortion in this area of IRAN, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with abortion and compare it with healthy women with no previous history of abortion. Approach: This case-control study was carried out in Shariatee hospital of Hormozgan University of medical sciences, during 2004-2005. A number of 220 women with definite diagnosis of previous abortion and 200 matched women with normal full term delivery and negative history of miscarriage as controls were studied as case and control groups. All obtained PAP smears from the case and the control groups were then tested using Immunoflourescent method for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Data was analyzed, using SPSS software (chi square and t-test. Results: The prevalence of positive direct immunofluorescent test on PAP smears indicating the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was 56 (25.45% in women with abortion comparing to 13 (5.20% in women in control group, the difference was significant (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: This study showed Chlamydia trachomatis is an important causative agent for abortion in this area of IRAN.

  10. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum Transmission Between Regular Sexual Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全中; 齐蔓莉; 缴稳苓

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the transmission ratio and epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) between regular sexual partners. Methods: We collected secretion specimens of geni-tourinary tract from sexual partners who attended our clinic during the period from May 1, 1999 to May 31,2000 and then detected Ct and Uu in the specimens. Results: The inconsistent rate of Ct and Uu infected between sexual partners was 59.22% and 38.92% respectively. There were no correlations between pa-tients' age and the inconsistent rate of Ct and Uu in-fected (P>0.05). The most common inconsistency be-tween regular partners was seen in man with Ct infec-tion while in female with Uu infection; and in man with concurrent infection of Ct while in female only with Uu; or in man with Ct infection while in female no Ct and Uu were detected. Conclusion: The sexual transmitting ability of Ct and Uu is not as active as we have expected.

  11. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H.; Elborgy, Ebrahim S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. METHODS This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. CONCLUSION Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value. PMID:27803864

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Laboratory Strains versus Recent Clinical Isolates: Implications for Routine Microbicide Testing ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, M. C.; Stamm, W. E.; Lampe, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    A topical microbicide that women can use to prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is essential, and many microbicide candidates are being tested for activity against human immunodeficiency virus and other STDs, including Chlamydia trachomatis. Screening assays for assessing the activity of microbicides against C. trachomatis are typically done with laboratory-adapted strains, but it is possible that recent clinical isolates may have different susceptibilities to microbicides, as has be...

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Margarita Quinónez-Calvache; Dora Inés Ríos-Chaparro; Juan David Ramírez; Sara Cecilia Soto-De León; Milena Camargo; Luisa Del Río-Ospina; Ricardo Sánchez; Manuel Elkin Patarroyo; Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. tr...

  14. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in Mccoy cell cultures with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Stamm, W. E.; Tam, M; Koester, M; Cles, L

    1983-01-01

    We compared two methods for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in McCoy cell monolayers: conventional iodine staining and immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal antibodies against the species-specific major outer membrane protein antigen of C. trachomatis. Among 878 urethral and cervical specimens tested in parallel, the immunofluorescence method detected eightfold more inclusions per monolayer, identified a higher proportion of positive specimens on first passage (98 ver...

  15. Staining characteristics of six commercially available monoclonal immunofluorescence reagents for direct diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Cles, L D; Bruch, K; Stamm, W. E.

    1988-01-01

    Using purified elementary bodies of 14 Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in an in vitro assay, we compared the staining characteristics of six commercially available monoclonal antibody reagents used for direct immunofluorescent staining of patient smears. Considerable variation in the degree of brightness, consistency of staining, and specificity of the six reagents was found. Monoclonal antibodies against the major outer membrane proteins of C. trachomatis produced brighter fluorescence, more ...

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female inmates at Briman prison in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Fageeh, Wafa; Badawood, Sami; Al Thagafi, Hanin; Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam; Farraj, Suha; Alomary, Mona; Alsaeed, Moneerah; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Kumosani, Taha

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and ...

  17. Andrographolide inhibits intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication and reduces secretion of proinflammatory mediators produced by human epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Ziyu; Frohlich, Kyla M.; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Untreated C. trachomatis infections may cause inflammation and ultimately damage tissues. Here, we evaluated the ability of Andrographolide (Andro), a natural diterpenoid lactone component of Andrographis paniculata, to inhibit C. trachomatis infection in cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We found that Andro exposure inhibited C. trachomatis growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The great...

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  19. Comparative Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Iranian Women with Cervicitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zaeimi Yazdi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI recognized throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among a randomized statistical group of women suffering from cervicitis in Tehran- Iran. During a 12- month- period, Jan 2003 to Jan 2004, 142 endocervical samples were taken from women suffering from cervicitis attending to Mirzakoochakkhan Women Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA and PCR techniques were used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical samples. Twenty two (15.5% [95% CI, 9.54-21.4] of 142 samples were diagnosed as Chlamydia positive according to PCR results, while DFA diagnosed 20 (14.1% positive cases [95% CI, 8.37-19.8]. No statistically significant difference was found between two diagnosis methods applied in this study. The prevalence was the highest (25% among women aged 25 to 29 yr and 35 to 39 yr. The x 2 test showed a significant relationship between positive test result and bearing a history of STI (P= 0. The results of this study showed high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women suffering from cervicitis and suggested that patients diagnosed with genital Chlamydia infection should be referred to the genitourinary medicine clinic for further STI screening and partner notification.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  1. Infección por chlamydia trachomatis en el primer año de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, J.; Luis, C; Aguiar, T; Marcos, J; Brito, MJ

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: En la embarazada el rastreo de Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) es controvertido. La colonización asintomática ocurre en el 2—20%. El 40—70% de los recién-nacidos son infectados. Objetivo: Caracterizar la infección por C. trachomatis en los ni˜nos con menos de 1 a˜no de edad. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo de 13 a˜nos (enero de 1997 a diciembre de 2009) de las infecciones diagnosticadas en lactantes por immunofluorescencia del raspado ocular o inmunoglobulina M ...

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Tryptophan-Dependent Transcriptional Regulation in Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Akers, Johnny C.; Tan, Ming

    2006-01-01

    Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is required for normal development in Chlamydia species, and tryptophan metabolism has been implicated in chlamydial persistence and tissue tropism. The ability to synthesize tryptophan is not universal among the Chlamydiaceae, but species that have a predicted tryptophan biosynthetic pathway also encode an ortholog of TrpR, a regulator of tryptophan metabolism in many gram-negative bacteria. We show that in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D, TrpR regu...

  3. Need for Treatment of Gonorrhea to be Effective against Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Bowie

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Men and women with gonorrhea or contact to gonorrhea are frequently co-infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. To assess the importance of using treatment regimens active against both Neisseria gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis, tetracycline 500 mg orally four times daily for five days, with activity against both organisms, was compared with ceftriaxone, 250 mg once intramuscularly, with activity against only N gonorrhoeae. N gonorrhoeae microbiological failure occurred in six of 148 patients (4% on tetracycline and zero of 85 on ceftriaxone. Microbiological failure for C trachomatis occurred in zero of 27 on tetracycline and 10 of 12 (83% on ceftriaxone (P<0.001. In addition, 14 others on ceftriaxone had C trachomatis first isolated after treatment. When all types of microbiologialc and clinical failures are included, outcome was significantly better on tetracycline (P<0.001. Optimal treatment of patients with gonorrhea must include regimens with activity against both C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae.

  4. Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Skulnick, M; Small, G. W.; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; FRASER, S.; Chua, R

    1991-01-01

    Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificit...

  5. Investigation of high level of AsAb, EmAb in fertility female serum infected by chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of chlamydia trachomatis. AsAb, EmAb in female fertility. Methods: LPS antigen of chlamydia in reproduction tract of fertility female was detected by monoclonal antibody and immunology chromatography; the content of AsAb, EmAb in serum of fertility female was detected by ELISA. Results: Infections rate of chlamydia trachomatis in fertility female was higher than that in the control AsAb, EmAb in serum of the fertility patients who were infected with chlamydia trachomatis showed a significant difference from that in the control group. Conclusion: The level of AsAb, EmAb increases in patients who have been infected with chlamydia trachomatis and these cytokines is involved in the course of female fertility

  6. Identification of human T cell targets recognized during Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Follmann, Frank; Højrup, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    The specificity of the human T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis was investigated by stimulating lymphocytes from 16 case patients with urogenital infection by use of a size-fractionated serovar D lysate. Considerable heterogeneity was found among case patients, and multiple protein fraction...

  7. Ultrastructural study of Chlamydia trachomatis surface antigens by immunogold staining with monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, C C; Chi, E Y

    1987-01-01

    Surface antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis were studied by immunogold staining with monoclonal antibodies and by electron microscopy. The serovar- and subspecies-specific epitopes were the most surface accessible. The species- and genus-specific epitopes were the least surface exposed. Similar serological specificity as that in the microimmunofluorescence test was demonstrated by immunogold staining.

  8. Detection of infections of the eye with Chlamydia trachomatis by the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Fan (Jun); W.Y. Zhang (Wen); Y.Y. Wu (Yu); X.Y. Jing (Xiou); E.C.J. Claas (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to test the diagnostic feasibility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in eye swabs from patients with conjunctivitis, and to establish the basic technique of the PCR for epidemiological survey. The resul

  9. Reproducibility Problems with the Abbott Laboratories LCx Assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Gronowski, Ann M.; Copper, Susan; Baorto, David; Murray, Patrick R.

    2000-01-01

    This study demonstrates that significant reproducibility problems can occur during routine use of the Abbott Laboratories LCx assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These problems can go undetected by the quality control procedures outlined in the manufacturer's package insert. We outline here procedures for detecting and preventing contamination and reproducibility problems.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ;

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...... potentiator (mip) gene of Legionella pneumophila....

  11. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands. Oppo

  12. Cost-effectiveness of partner pharmacotherapy in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia Trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Welte, R; van den Hoek, J A; van Doornum, G J; Jager, H C; Coutinho, R A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for male partners in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). METHODS AND DATA: A pharmacoeconomic decision analysis model was constructed for the health outcomes of a CT screening program, such as aver

  13. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1...

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infections: When Host Immune Response and the Microbiome Collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziklo, Noa; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Hocking, Jane S; Timms, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis continue to be a major health problem worldwide. While some individuals clear their infection (presumed to be the result of an effective Th1/interferon-γ response), others develop chronic infections and some are prone to repeat infections. In females in particular, chronic asymptomatic infections are common and can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Recent studies suggest that the genital tract microbiota could be a significant factor and explain person-to-person variation in C. trachomatis infections. One hypothesis suggests that C. trachomatis can use its trpBA genes to rescue tryptophan from indole, which is a product of anaerobic members of the genital tract microbiota. Women with particular microbiota types, such as seen in bacterial vaginosis, have increased numbers of anaerobes, and this would enable the chlamydia in these individuals to overcome the host's interferon-γ attempts to eliminate it, resulting in more repeat and/or chronic infections. PMID:27320172

  15. A discrepancy of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence and prevalence trends in Finland 1983–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehtinen Matti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reported rates of Chlamydia trachomatis are on the rise contradicting the declining rates of C. trachomatis associated reproductive sequelae in Western countries. Population based evaluation of the real trend of C. trachomatis infection is important to contemplate prevention efforts. We studied C. trachomatis occurrence during the past 20 years in Finland comparing incidence rate data based on serology and reported C. trachomatis laboratory notifications. Methods A random sample of 7999 women with two consecutive pregnancies within five years was selected from the population of the Finnish Maternity Cohort (FMC serum bank stratified by calendar year and age. C. trachomatis IgG antibodies were determined by a standard peptide-ELISA. The reported incidence rates of C. trachomatis infections based on case notifications were obtained from the National Registry of Infectious Diseases (NIDR. Results C. trachomatis seroprevalence rates decreased significantly from 1983 to 2003 both in women under 23 years of age (23.3% to 9.2% and in women between 23–28-years of age (22.2% to 12.6%. However, seroconversion rates increased from 31 per 10000 person years in 1983–85 to 97 per 10000 person years in 2001–2003 (incidence rate ratio 3.2, 95% CI, 1.1–8.7 among the older age group. Seroconversion rate was highest (264 in 1983–1985 in the younger age-group, then declined and subsequently increased again (188 in 2001–2003. The incidence based on seroconversions was in agreement with the reported incidence rates in both age groups. Conclusion C. trachomatis seroprevalence rate decreased during 1983–2003 among fertile-aged women in Finland. During the same time period incidence rates based both on seroconversions and reported laboratory notifications of diagnosed C. trachomatis infections increased. The discrepancy between the C. trachomatis incidence and seroprevalence trends warrants further studies.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul;

    2007-01-01

    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (< 37 completed weeks gestation) was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes included infertility treatment, subfertility and ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) and...... odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven;

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical intraepithel...

  18. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis among Danish patients requesting abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Hvid, Malene; Lamy, P;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine lower genital tract carriage rate of Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) and to compare it to the carriage rates of Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis ) and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) among 102 women requesting termination of pregnancy at the Horsens...... Hospital in Denmark. Real-Time PCR was used for the detection of bacterial DNA, and the presence of antibodies to the three microorganisms was determined by ELISA and immunoblotting. Real-Time PCR detected M. genitalium in one swab sample (0.98%) only, while the prevalence of C. trachomatis was high (15....... There was no correlation between the presence of genital infection with C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas and no correlation between the presence of antibodies to these bacteria. In conclusion, in Danish patients it is not necessary to test for M. genitalium before abortion since less than 1% were found positive...

  19. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Cuba

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    Kouri Vivian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence rates and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections in Cuban women, two different groups were selected. Group I consisted of 60 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 seropositive women from different regions of Cuba and group II of 60 randomly selected women HIV seronegative and apparently healthy. C. trachomatis was detected in cervical scrapes by mean of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for major out membrane protein. The overall prevalence rate of C. trachomatis in cervical scrapes determined by nested PCR was 10% in group I and the estimated prevalence was 6.6% for group II; 83.3% of HIV seropositive women with C. trachomatis infection reported history of pelvic inflammatory disease followed by cervicitis (50%. The control group C. trachomatis-infected women referred a history of cervicitis in 75% of cases. Other reports in the latter group included infertility and pelvic inflamatory disease in 50%. The present study is the first report of C. trachomatis prevalence in Cuba. It showed that there was not significantly difference in the prevalence rate of C. trachomatis between both groups.

  1. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  2. Do host genetic traits in the bacterial sensing system play a role in the development of Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal pathology in subfertile women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito James I

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In women, Chlamydia (C. trachomatis upper genital tract infection can cause distal tubal damage and occlusion, increasing the risk of tubal factor subfertility and ectopic pregnancy. Variations, like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, in immunologically important host genes are assumed to play a role in the course and outcome of a C. trachomatis infection. We studied whether genetic traits (carrying multiple SNPs in different genes in the bacterial sensing system are associated with an aberrant immune response and subsequently with tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. The genes studied all encode for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs involved in sensing bacterial components. Methods Of 227 subfertile women, serum was available for C. trachomatis IgG antibody testing and genotyping (common versus rare allele of the PRR genes TLR9, TLR4, CD14 and CARD15/NOD2. In all women, a laparoscopy was performed to assess the grade of tubal pathology. Tubal pathology was defined as extensive peri-adnexal adhesions and/or distal occlusion of at least one tube. Results Following a C. trachomatis infection (i.e. C. trachomatis IgG positive, subfertile women carrying two or more SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes were at increased risk of tubal pathology compared to women carrying less than two SNPs (73% vs 33% risk. The differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.15, but a trend was observed. Conclusion Carrying multiple SNPs in C. trachomatis PRR genes tends to result in an aberrant immune response and a higher risk of tubal pathology following a C. trachomatis infection. Larger studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.

  3. Characterization of a linear epitope on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozkokmen, D; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    A cytoplasmic 75-kDa immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 has previously been characterized as being similar to the Escherichia coli heat shock protein DnaK. We have localized a linear epitope for one monoclonal antibody specific for C. trachomatis DnaK. By use of a recombinant DNA...... technique, the epitope was limited to 14 amino acids. With synthetic peptides, the epitope was further limited to eight amino acids. Six of these amino acids are conserved in bovine HSP70, which has a known three-dimensional structure. The amino acid sequence homologous to the epitope is located in a linear...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan David; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Sánchez, Ricardo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females. Methods C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study’s follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables. Results Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61). Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%), greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%), followed by HPV-58 (17.81%). It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59–26.05 95%CI) or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22–6.63 95%CI) had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis. Conclusions The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26807957

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Margarita Quinónez-Calvache

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC. Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females.C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study's follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables.Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61. Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%, greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%, followed by HPV-58 (17.81%. It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59-26.05 95%CI or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22-6.63 95%CI had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis.The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

  6. Genital forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos abortsøgende--korrelerer med ung alder og nulliparitet, men ikke tidligere underlivsbetoendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Out of 432 women applying for termination of pregnancy, 7.9% (34/428) had cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and 0.7% (3/431) genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of Chlamydia was 19.2% among the women applying for termination who were under 20 years and 12.8% among those aged 21-25 years. The...

  7. RNA interference screen identifies Abl kinase and PDGFR signaling in Chlamydia trachomatis entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherilyn A Elwell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. This conclusion was verified by deep sequencing and by PCR using species-specific primers. All data presented in the results section that refer to C. trachomatis should be interpreted as referring to C. muridarum. Since C. muridarum TARP lacks the consensus tyrosine repeats present in C. trachomatis TARP, we cannot make any conclusions about the role of TARP phosphorylation and C. muridarum entry. However, the conclusion that C. trachomatis L2 TARP is a target of Abl kinase is still valid as these experiments were performed with C. trachomatis L2 TARP [corrected]. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in early events in Chlamydia trachomatis infection, we conducted a large scale unbiased RNA interference screen in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. This allowed identification of candidate host factors in a simple non-redundant, genetically tractable system. From a library of 7,216 double stranded RNAs (dsRNA, we identified approximately 226 host genes, including two tyrosine kinases, Abelson (Abl kinase and PDGF- and VEGF-receptor related (Pvr, a homolog of the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR. We further examined the role of these two kinases in C. trachomatis binding and internalization into mammalian cells. Both kinases are phosphorylated upon infection and recruited to the site of bacterial attachment, but their roles in the infectious process are distinct. We provide evidence that PDGFRbeta may function as a receptor, as inhibition of PDGFRbeta by RNA interference or by PDGFRbeta neutralizing antibodies significantly reduces bacterial binding, whereas depletion of Abl kinase has no effect on binding. Bacterial internalization can occur through activation of PDGFRbeta or through independent

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis and sperm lipid peroxidation in infertile men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Segnini; M.I.Camejo; F.Proverbio

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To relate thepresence of anti-Chlamydial trachomatis IgA in semen with sperm lipid membrane peroxidation and changes in seminal parameters.Methods:Semen samples of the male partners of 52 couples assessed for undiagnosed infertility were examined for the presence of IgA antibody against C.trachomatis.The level of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation was estimated by determining the malondialdehyde(MDA) formation.Results:Sperm membrane of infertile males with positive IgA antibodies against C.trachomatis showed a higher level of lipid peroxidation than that of infertile males with negative IgA antibody(P<0.05).There was a positive correlation(P<0.01) between the level of C.trachomatis antibody and the magnitude of sperm membrane lipid peroxidation.All the other tested semen parameters were found to be similar in the two groups.Conclusion:The activation of immune system by C.trachomatis may promote lipid peroxidation of the sperm membrane.This could be the way by which C.trachomatis affects fertility.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP......60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis-specific...

  10. A new murine model for testing vaccines against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Two groups of 50 BALB/c male mice were immunized with live Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) using the intranasal (i.n.) or the meatus urethra (intraurethral: i.u.) routes. As a control group, 100 male mice were sham-immunized in parallel. Both groups of animals vaccinated with live organisms developed strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and the levels of IFN-γ both groups mounted a Th1 immune response. At six weeks ...

  11. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis from Urine Specimens by PCR in Women with Cervicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Fallah

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common agent of urogenital infections in both men and women. Diagnosis of chlamydial infections is based on isolation of bacteria in tissue culture media that requires at least 48 to 72h. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a sensitive and specific method for detection of small quantity of bacterial DNA in clinical samples. The first goal of this study was to perform a PCR testing for detecting of C. trachomatis from urine samples and after that to identify the frequency of C. trachomatis among cervicitis women and at the end, to identify the potential risk factors for chlamydial genital infection. From August to October 2002, a total of 122 consecutive women with cervicitis who attended Obstetric & Gynecology Clinic of Shoosh, Tehran-Iran were involved into the study. After DNA extraction from urine specimens, PCR tests were performed. C. trachomatis genome was detected in 14 of 94 (14/9% urine specimens. The highest C. trachomatis cervical infection frequency was found in women with 28 to 38 years old group, elementary education level group, and in users IUD for contraception. The results of this study indicate that PCR technique is a useful method for detecting C. trachomatis in urine.

  12. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components.

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    Lukas Aeberhard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells' antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection.

  13. Necesidad de un programa de tamizaje para chlamydia trachomatis para Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Calixto, Ángela María

    2012-01-01

    En el mundo, la infección Chlamydia trachomatis es la infección bacteriana de transmisión sexual más común. En la mayoría de los casos la infección es asintomática, lo que hace difícil su detección. Este microorganismo puede colonizar el tracto genital superior, causando inflamación y cicatrización en estos órganos tanto en mujeres como en hombres. La intervención actual para la detección y tratamiento de la Chlamydia trachomatis en el mundo no es generalizada, en cambio de esto encontram...

  14. Interaction between the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Pedersen, LB; Koehler, JF;

    1993-01-01

    The gene encoding the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) from serovar L2 was cloned into Escherichia coli by use of expression vector pET11d. In this vector, transcription of the gene is under the control of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, and T7 RNA polymerase is inducible in the h......The gene encoding the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) from serovar L2 was cloned into Escherichia coli by use of expression vector pET11d. In this vector, transcription of the gene is under the control of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, and T7 RNA polymerase is inducible...

  15. Evidence that the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis is glycosylated.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, A F; Kuo, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis was determined to be a glycoprotein on the basis of susceptibility to glycosidase digestion and the presence of carbohydrate by staining and radiolabeling. The MOMP of the serovar L2 organisms was isolated by electroelution from the protein band excised from the gel after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The incubation of MOMP with N-glycosidase F, an endoglycosidase that cleaves the N-glycan...

  16. Sero-epidemiological assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sub-fertility in Samoan women

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, S.; Stansfield, S. H.; Walsh, M.; Hope, E.; Isaia, L.; Righarts, A. A.; Niupulusu, T.; Temese, S. V. A.; Iosefa-Siitia, L.; Auvaa, L.; Tapelu, S. A.; Motu, M. F.; Suaalii-Sauni, T.; Timms, P; Hill, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background In our recent village-based cross-sectional study, the prevalence of nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT) diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in sexually active Samoan women was very high (36 %), and test positivity was associated with sub-fertility. We conducted a serological and epidemiological analysis in these participants to identify if serological data can provide further insight into the potential contribution of CT to sub-fertility in this population. Methods Serolo...

  17. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from prostatic fluid in association with inflammatory joint or eye disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, B T; Morgan-Capner, P.; Lim, K S

    1983-01-01

    We describe two patients, one with peripheral arthritis, sacro-iliitis, positive HLA B27, and autoantibodies to smooth muscle and gastric parietal cell; the other with aphthoid ulcers, geographical tongue, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis, peripheral arthralgia, and diarrhoea with distal proctocolitis. Neither patient would have been diagnosed as having urethritis on the basis of accepted microscopic criteria. In both patients, however, Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the prostatic fl...

  18. HLA-B27 Expression Does Not Modulate Intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Young, J. L.; Smith, L; Matyszak, M. K.; Gaston, J S H

    2001-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen. Infection of susceptible individuals with this bacterium can trigger the development of reactive arthritis, an acute inflammation that is associated with the expression of the class I major histocompatibility antigen, HLA-B27. Other facultative intracellular pathogens, such as Yersinia and Salmonella spp., are also known triggers of reactive arthritis. Previous studies report conflicting results concerning whether the presence of HL...

  19. Inhibition of growth of Chlamydia trachomatis by nonoxynol-9 in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Benes, S; McCormack, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of the widely used spermicide nonoxynol-9, Conceptrol gel containing nonoxynol-9, and Conceptrol vehicle (without nonoxynol-9) to inhibit the formation of inclusions of Chlamydia trachomatis in cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells. Conceptrol vehicle produced a non-dose-related 40 to 59% reduction of the number of inclusions formed. In contrast, the addition of nonoxynol-9 and Conceptrol gel containing nonoxynol-9 at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml reduced the numbe...

  20. Effects of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide on a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, R S; W. J. Chen; Kuo, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Suppression of the inflammatory reaction with daily doses of cortisone acetate or cyclophosphamide substantially prolonged the pulmonary infection in mice which had been intranasally inoculated with a trachoma biotype of Chlamydia trachomatis. Titration of organisms recovered from the lungs of treated mice revealed a drop in titer after day 2 (postinfection), followed by a prominent increase on day 6. In cyclophosphamide-treated mice the infection was resolved after day 12, whereas in cortiso...

  1. Sensitivity of immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in cell culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, R S; Kuo, C C; Tam, M R

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies which recognize the species-specific major outer membrane protein antigen of Chlamydia trachomatis were used for immunofluorescence staining of chlamydial inclusions in cell culture. A total of 115 clinical specimens were inoculated onto replicate HeLa 229 cell monolayers and assayed for chlamydial inclusions by immunofluorescence staining and Giemsa staining. Of the isolates, 38 were detected by immunofluorescence staining on passage 1 and 1 was detected on passage 2; 2...

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis testing among young people: what is the role of stigma?

    OpenAIRE

    Theunissen, Kevin A. T. M.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Kok, Gerjo; Vluggen, Stan; Crutzen, Rik; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background To reach young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing, new web-based strategies are used to offer testing via young people’s sexual and social networks. The success of such peer-driven strategies depends on whether individuals disclose their own testing and encourage others to get tested. We assessed whether public- and self-stigma would hamper these behaviours, by comparing anticipations and experiences relating to these issues in young men and women who already tested or n...

  3. Condom Use and Prevalence of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Among the Korean Female Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joongyub; Jung, Sun-Young; Kwon, Dong Seok; Jung, Minsoo; Park, Byung-Joo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Since 2004, availability of resources for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in Korean female sex workers (FSWs) has decreased because of strict application of a law against prostitution. This study is to evaluate the condom use and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among FSWs in Korea. METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study of FSWs from 15 major sex work sites in Korea from June to November 2008, using convenience sampling. Self-administered questionnaires and urine ...

  4. Antigen capture ELISA for the heat shock protein (hsp60) of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, P J; Ali, M.; Parker, D.; Weber, J. N.; Taylor-Robinson, D.; McClure, M O

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To develop an indirect ELISA using the heat shock protein (hsp60) of Chlamydia trachomatis as antigen. METHODS: The hsp60 gene was amplified by PCR, expressed in the vector pDEV-107 and transformed into Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion product, was captured onto a solid phase using a monoclonal antibody directed against beta-galactosidase. Following incubation with goat anti-human antibody conjugated to peroxidase and colour development...

  5. Expression of prostaglandin receptors in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected recurrent spontaneous aborters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namita; Prasad, Priya; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwar; Das, Banashree; Rastogi, Sangita

    2016-06-01

    A study was undertaken to quantify the expression of prostaglandin (PG) receptors and find the effect of gestational age on expression of PG receptor genes in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected recurrent spontaneous aborters (RSA). Endometrial curettage tissue (ECT) was collected from 130 RSA (Group I) and 100 age-matched controls (Group II) at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi (India). PCR was performed for diagnosis of C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid; mRNA expression of PG receptor genes was assessed by real-time PCR (q-PCR), while serum progesterone/estrogen levels were determined by respective commercial kits. Data were evaluated statistically. A total of 15.4 % RSA (GroupI) were diagnosed as C. trachomatis-positive (200 bp), whereas controls were uninfected. q-PCR showed significant upregulation (PRSA, mean serum progesterone level was significantly low (PRSA. PMID:27028620

  6. Conjuntivitis folicular por Chlamydia trachomatis: frecuencia y pruebas diagnósticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Muñoz Z

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available La Chlamydia trachomatis es la principal causa infecciosa de ceguera en el mundo, que empieza como conjuntivitis folicular. En el Perú se han realizado pocos estudios, debido a su dificultad diagnóstica. Se realizó un estudio en 55 pacientes de 18 a 68 años con diagnóstico de conjuntivitis folicular atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Oftalmología (Lima, Perú durante los años 2005 y 2006, con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y evaluar la utilidad de la tinción de Giemsa y la inmunofluorescencia directa (IFD para el diagnóstico de C. trachomatis en relación con el cultivo celular. La frecuencia de C. trachomatis en muestras de secreciones de conjuntivitis folicular fue de 13% (7/55 por cultivo celular, 20% (11/55 por IFD y de 9%(5/55 por Giemsa; los signos y síntomas más frecuentes fueron la presencia de secreciones y fotofobia. Todos los casos fueron varones y manifestaron no tener antecendentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual previas. Se encontró una sensibilidad de 42,9 y 85,7 % y una especificidad de 98,8 y 89,6% para la tinción Giemsa e IFD respectivamente.

  7. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  8. Transformation of sexually transmitted infection-causing serovars of chlamydia trachomatis using Blasticidin for selection.

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    Honglei Ding

    Full Text Available Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the β-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis.

  9. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

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    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  10. Formulation, characterization, and expression of a recombinant MOMP Chlamydia trachomatis DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

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    Cambridge CD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chino D Cambridge, Shree R Singh, Alain B Waffo, Stacie J Fairley, Vida A DennisCenter for NanoBiotechnology Research (CNBR, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Previous vaccination attempts have employed the recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP of C. trachomatis nonetheless, with limited success, perhaps, due to stability, degradation, and delivery issues. In this study we cloned C. trachomatis recombinant MOMP DNA (DMOMP and encapsulated it in chitosan nanoparticles (DMCNP using the complex coacervation technique. Physiochemical characterizations of DMCNP included transmission and scanning electron microcopy, Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and zeta potential. Encapsulated DMOMP was 167–250 nm, with a uniform spherical shape and homogenous morphology, and an encapsulation efficiency > 90%. A slow release pattern of encapsulated DMOMP, especially in acidic solution, was observed over 7 days. The zeta potential of DMCNP was ~8.80 mV, which indicated that it was highly stable. Toxicity studies of DMCNP (25–400 µg/mL to Cos-7 cells using the MTT assay revealed minimal toxicity over 24–72 hours with >90% viable cells. Ultra-violet visible (UV-vis spectra indicated encapsulated DMOMP protection by chitosan, whereas agarose gel electrophoresis verified its protection from enzymatic degradation. Expression of MOMP protein in DMCNP-transfected Cos-7 cells was demonstrated via Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. Significantly, intramuscular injection of BALB/c mice with DMCNP confirmed the delivery of encapsulated DMOMP, and expression of the MOMP gene transcript in thigh muscles and spleens. Our data show that encapsulation of DMOMP in biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles imparts stability and protection from enzymatic digestion, and enhances delivery and

  11. Molecular tests for human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cytology specimen

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    Vigliotti Veronica S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimens is now based on identification of the DNA sequences unique to these infectious agents. However, current commercial test kits rely on nucleotide probe hybridization to determine DNA sequences, which may lead to diagnostic errors due to cross-reactivity. The aim of this study was to find a practical approach to perform automated Sanger DNA sequencing in clinical laboratories for validation of the DNA tests for these three infectious agents. Methods A crude proteinase K digestate of 5% of the cells collected in a liquid-based cervicovaginal cytology specimen was used for the detection of DNA molecules specific for HPV, C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae, and for preparation of materials suitable for direct automated DNA sequencing. Several sets of commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were used to prepare nested PCR amplicons for direct DNA sequencing. Results Some variants of HPV-16 and HPV-31 were found to share an at least 34-base long sequence homology downstream of the GP5+ binding site, and all HPV-6 and HPV-11 variants shared an upstream 34-base sequence including part of the GP5+ primer. Accurate HPV genotyping frequently required more than 34-bases for sequence alignments to distinguish some of the HPV genotype variants with closely related sequences in this L1 gene hypervariable region. Using the automated Sanger DNA sequencing method for parallel comparative studies on split samples and to retest the residues of samples previously tested positive for C trachomatis and/or for N gonorrhoeae, we also found false-negative and false-positive results as reported by two commercial nucleic acid test kits. Conclusion Identification of a signature DNA sequence by the automated Sanger method is useful for validation of HPV genotyping and for molecular testing of

  12. Chlamydia Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Amplification Test (NAAT); Chlamydia trachomatis Culture; Chlamydia trachomatis DNA Probe Related tests: Gonorrhea Testing , HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen , Syphilis Tests , Herpes Testing , HPV Test , Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  13. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock proteins in women with tubal factor infertility are associated with prior infection by C. trachomatis but not by C. pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, K; Osser, S; Birkelund, Svend;

    1999-01-01

    The antibody response to heat shock proteins 60 and 10 were studied in 163 patients with tubal factor infertility and in 163 age-matched pregnant women. The associations of these antibodies with specific antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and to Chlamydia pneumoniae as well as with antibodies to...... shock proteins and to C. trachomatis but no independent influence of antibodies to C. pneumoniae. No interaction between C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae suggesting a synergistic effect was found although the heat shock proteins from these two organisms are immunologically similar. Antibodies to the...... the common chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen were studied. Patients with tubal factor infertility had significantly higher frequencies and titres of all antibodies except to C. pneumoniae. In a logistic regression model an association was found between the prevalence of antibodies to the heat...

  14. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend;

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples...... was minimized. The polymerase chain reaction detected a higher number of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among both symptomatic and asymptomatic females and males, and it also detected Chlamydia trachomatis at an earlier stage of infection when compared to cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction did...

  15. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend;

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples...... was minimized. The polymerase chain reaction detected a higher number of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among both symptomatic and asymptomatic females and males, and it also detected Chlamydia trachomatis at an earlier stage of infection when compared to cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction did...

  16. Aerobic bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii and Cytomegalovirus as agents of severe peneumonia in small infants Bactérias aeróbias, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii e Cytomegalovirus: agentes causadores de pneumonia grave em pequenos lactentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ejzenberg

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied 58 infants hospitalized for pneumonia in a semi-intensive care unit. Age ranged from 1 complete to 6 incomplete months. The infants were sent from another hospital in 20 cases and from home in a further 38. Pulmonary involvement, which was alveolar in 46 cases and interstitial in 12, was bilateral in 31 children. The investigation was carried out prospectively on the etiological agents associated with respiratory infection to look for evidence of aerobic bacteria (blood cultures, Chlamydia trachomatis and Cytomegalovirus (serology, and Pneumocystis carinii (direct microscopy of tracheal aspirated material. The following infectious agents were diagnosed in 21 children (36.2%: Aerobic bacteria (8, Chlamydia trachomatis (5, Pneumocystis carinii (3, Cytomegalovirus (3, Cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia trachomatis (1, Aerobic bacteria and Cytomegalovirus (1. Seven cases of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Cytomegalovirus were diagnosed out of the 12 cases with pulmonary interstitial involvement.Os autores estudaram prospectivamente 58 lactentes internados por pneumonia em unidade semi-intensiva. A idade foi limitada entre 1 mês completo e 6 meses incompletos. A procedência das crianças foi de outro hospital em 20 casos e domiciliar em 38. O acometimento pulmonar era alveolar em 46 casos, intersticial em 12 e bilateral em 31 crianças. Foram pesquisados agentes etiológicos associados à infecção respiratória dos lactentes jovens: Bactérias aeróbias (Hemoculturas, Chlamydia trachomatis e Cytomegalovirus (sorologia, e Pneumocystis carinii (microscopia direta do aspirado traqueal. Foram diagnosticadas infecções em 21 crianças (36,2%: Bactérias aeróbias (8, Chlamydia trachomatis (5, Cytomegalovirus (3, Pneumocystis carinii (3, Cytomegalovirus e Chlamydia trachomatis (1, Bactéria aeróbia e Cytomegalovirus (1. Foram diagnosticadas 7 infecções por Chlamydia trachomatis e/ou Cytomegalovirus entre as 12 crianças com

  17. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi women attending the infertility clinic in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Ali M. Somily; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate gro...

  18. Detection of Genitourinary Tract Chlamydia trachomatis Infection In Urine specimens by PCR Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪霞; 温泉; 夏迎华; 张林

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the cervical/urethral swabs with voided urine specimens for the detection of genitourinary tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and determine whether urine specimens can replace the cervical/urethral swabs in detection of C. trachomatis. Methods: The matched cervical/urethral swabs and voided urine specimens were collected from 569 patients of STD clinics.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for C. trachomatis plasmid DNA and rapid antigen testing (Clear view assay) was used to detect C. trachomatis. Standard criteria that defined """"true"""" positive included: 1) positive PCR results both in cervical/urethral swab and voided urine specimen or 2) positive voided urine results both by PCR assay and clear view test or 3)positive results in both PCR assay of cervical/urethral swab and clear view test of voided urine. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with symptoms was 12.1% (28/231) in women and 10.4%(10/96) in men, with no significant difference between them (x2=0.21,P>0.05). The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with no symptoms was 11.0% (11/100) in women and 15.5% (22/142) in men, with a significant difference existing between them. (x2=4.0, P0.05) existed between PCR testing of swabs (sensitivity 87.3 %; specificity 99.2 %) and PCR testing of urine (sensitivity 88.7%; specificity 98.8%). As for clear view assay, sensitivity was 60.6% and specificity was 100%. Conclusions: PCR assay is superior to clear view in detecting C. trachomatis. Although both PCR testing of swabs and PCR testing of urine specimens both have high sensitivity and specificity, urine specimen testing is more cost-effective, practical and noninvasive. Thus urine specimens can take the place of the swabs in PCR testing for chlamydia.

  19. Interplay of recombination and selection in the genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Deborah

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial parasite, which causes several severe and debilitating diseases in humans. This study uses comparative genomic analyses of 12 complete published C. trachomatis genomes to assess the contribution of recombination and selection in this pathogen and to understand the major evolutionary forces acting on the genome of this bacterium. Results The conserved core genes of C. trachomatis are a large proportion of the pan-genome: we identified 836 core genes in C. trachomatis out of a range of 874-927 total genes in each genome. The ratio of recombination events compared to mutation (ρ/θ was 0.07 based on ancestral reconstructions using the ClonalFrame tool, but recombination had a significant effect on genetic diversification (r/m = 0.71. The distance-dependent decay of linkage disequilibrium also indicated that C. trachomatis populations behaved intermediately between sexual and clonal extremes. Fifty-five genes were identified as having a history of recombination and 92 were under positive selection based on statistical tests. Twenty-three genes showed evidence of being under both positive selection and recombination, which included genes with a known role in virulence and pathogencity (e.g., ompA, pmps, tarp. Analysis of inter-clade recombination flux indicated non-uniform currents of recombination between clades, which suggests the possibility of spatial population structure in C. trachomatis infections. Conclusions C. trachomatis is the archetype of a bacterial species where recombination is relatively frequent yet gene gains by horizontal gene transfer (HGT and losses (by deletion are rare. Gene conversion occurs at sites across the whole C. trachomatis genome but may be more often fixed in genes that are under diversifying selection. Furthermore, genome sequencing will reveal patterns of serotype specific gene exchange and selection that will generate important

  20. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.

  1. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research. PMID:27366021

  2. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and men who have sex only with women (MSW, including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%, 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%, 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%, and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%, 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%, 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%, and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%, 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%, 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%, and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%. Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  3. Proof of concept: A bioinformatic and serological screening method for identifying new peptide antigens for Chlamydia trachomatis related sequelae in women☆

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfield, Scott H.; Patel, Pooja; Debattista, Joseph; Charles W Armitage; Cunningham, Kelly; Timms, Peter; Allan, John; Mittal, Aruna; Huston, Wilhelmina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new peptide antigens from Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis in a proof of concept approach which could be used to develop an epitope-based serological diagnostic for C. trachomatis related infertility in women. A bioinformatics analysis was conducted examining several immunodominant proteins from C. trachomatis to identify predicted immunoglobulin epitopes unique to C. trachomatis. A peptide array of these epitopes was screened against participant sera. The participants ...

  4. Evaluation of Clearview and Magic Lite tests, polymerase chain reaction, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.W. Mouton (Johan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); W.G.V. Quint (Wim); L. Habbema; E. Stolz (Ernst); J.H. Wagenvoort

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe Clearview Chlamydia test (CV; Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom), the Magic Lite Chlamydia test (ML; CIBA Corning, Medfield, Mass.), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cell culture (CC) were evaluated for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital spec

  5. Prokaryotic Expression and Identification of Outer Membrane Protein 2 of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超群; 吴移谋; 李忠玉; 朱翠明; 尹卫国

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To construct a recombinant plasmid containing the outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) gene of Chlamydia trachomatis and express Omp2 in E.coli. Methods: The omp2 gene of C. trachomatis serovar D was cloned into pQE30 vector following PCR amplification from genomic DNA. E. coli M15 transformants were induced to express the fusion protein by IPTG and the product was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Results: Confirmed by enzyme cleavage analysis and DNA sequencing, a correct recombinant plasmid pQE30/omp2 was constructed. The fusion protein from the transformants was approximately 60 kDa in size in SDS-PAGE analysis, which could specially react with anti-6 × His mouse monoclonal IgG antibodies. Conclusion: We successfully expressed Omp2 in E. coil M15, providing an efficient and simple system for assaying the immunological properties of Omp2.

  6. Ocular sensitization of mice by live (but not irradiated) Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocular exposure of mice to live elementary bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A results in immunological sensitization of the mice. This reactivity is manifested by the development of early (5 h) and delayed-type (24 h) dermal reactivity and serovar-specific antibody formation against either live or irradiated (100 kilorads) elementary bodies. Parallel ocular exposure of mice to irradiated elementary bodies does not result in this sensitization. The early and late dermal immune responses induced by ocular exposure to live organisms can be transferred to unexposed mice by serum and lymphoid cell transfers, respectively. It appears that successful murine ocular sensitization by human C. trachomatis serovar A elementary bodies is an ability manifested by live organisms and not by inactivated but antigenic organisms

  7. Public health policies and management strategies for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Shaw1,2, David Coleman1, Maree O'Sullivan1, Nicola Stephens31Department of Health and Human Services, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; 2Health and Wellbeing Research Cluster, Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia; 3NSW Health, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmissible bacterial infection that is asymptomatic in the majority of infected individuals and is associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. The population prevalence of the infection appears to be increasing. C. trachomatis is of public health significance because of the impacts of untreated disease on reproductive outcomes, transmission of other sexually acquired infections, and the costs to health systems. At the individual level, C. trachomatis infection is readily treatable with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance appears to be increasing. At the population level, public health control of spread of infection is more problematic. Approaches to control include primary preventive activities, increased access to testing and treatment for people with or at risk of infection, partner notification and treatment, and screening either opportunistically or as part of an organized population screening program. A combination of all of the above approaches is likely to be required to have a significant effect on the burden of disease associated with genital chlamdyia infection and to reduce population prevalence. The development of a vaccine for genital chlamydia infection could significantly reduce the public health burden associated with infection; however a vaccine is not expected to be available in the near future.Keywords: chlamydia, public health, health policy, screening

  8. Association of caveolin with Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions at early and late stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, L C; Wolfrom, S A; Stuart, E S

    2001-06-10

    The mechanism by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis enters eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. There are conflicting reports of entry occurring by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. We report here that C. trachomatis serovar K enters HEp-2 and HeLa 229 epithelial cells and J-774A.1 mouse macrophage/monocyte cells via caveolin-containing sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains in the host cell plasma membranes. First, filipin and nystatin, drugs that specifically disrupt raft function by cholesterol chelation, each impaired entry of C. trachomatis serovar K. In control experiments, filipin did not impair entry of the same organism by an antibody-mediated opsonic process, nor did it impair entry of BSA-coated microspheres. Second, the chlamydia-containing endocytic vesicles specifically reacted with antisera against the caveolae marker protein caveolin. These vesicles are known to become the inclusions in which parasite replication occurs. They avoid fusion with lysosomes and instead traffic to the Golgi region, where they intercept Golgi-derived vesicles that recycle sphingolipids and cholesterol to the plasma membrane. We also report that late-stage C. trachomatis inclusions continue to display high levels of caveolin, which they likely acquire from the exocytic Golgi vesicles. We suggest that the atypical raft-mediated entry process may have important consequences for the host-pathogen interaction well after entry has occurred. These consequences include enabling the chlamydial vesicle to avoid acidification and fusion with lysosomes, to traffic to the Golgi region, and to intercept sphingolipid-containing vesicles from the Golgi.

  9. Pilot Study of COBAS PCR and Ligase Chain Reaction for Detection of Rectal Infections Due to Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R Golden; Astete, Sabina G.; Galvan, Rosa; Lucchetti, Aldo; Sanchez, Jorge; Celum, Connie L.; Whittington, William L. H.; Stamm, Walter E.; Holmes, King K.; Totten, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    We tested rectal specimens from men who have sex with men for Chlamydia trachomatis by using COBAS PCR (Roche Diagnostics) and ligase chain reaction LCR (Abbott laboratories) and compared three PCR specimen-processing procedures. Chlamydiae were detected by one or more procedures in 22 of 186 specimens. All three PCR tests were positive for 17 specimens, all of which also tested positive by LCR.

  10. In vitro activity of the spermicide nonoxynol-9 against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, J P; Reynolds, R B; Stagno, S; Louv, W C; Alexander, W J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activity of nonoxynol-9 against four serotypes (C, D, H, and K) of Chlamydia trachomatis was investigated. A constant inoculum of each serotype was exposed to serial twofold dilutions (1:100 to 1:800) of Koromex, Conceptrol, or reference preparations (not containing nonoxynol-9) for 4 and 24 h at 37 degrees C. The mixtures of nonoxynal-9 or nonnonoxynol preparations and control inocula were dispensed into triplicate wells containing McCoy cell monolayers. After incubation at 37 d...

  11. 2015 UK national guideline for the management of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokolo, Nneka C; Dragovic, Bojana; Patel, Sheel; Tong, C Y William; Barker, Gary; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-03-01

    This guideline offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests, treatment regimens and health promotion principles needed for the effective management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. It covers the management of the initial presentation, as well the prevention of transmission and future infection. The guideline is aimed at individuals aged 16 years and older presenting to healthcare professionals working in departments offering Level 3 care in sexually transmitted infections management within the UK. However, the principles of the recommendations should be adopted across all levels, using local care pathways where appropriate.

  12. In vitro activity of clavulanic acid, amoxicillin, and ticarcillin against Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, W R

    1986-01-01

    In vitro, growth of Chlamydia trachomatis was not entirely eliminated by 960 micrograms of ticarcillin per ml, 64 micrograms of amoxicillin per ml, 32 micrograms of clavulanic acid per ml, a combination of ticarcillin (480 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (32 micrograms/ml), and a combination of amoxicillin (32 micrograms/ml) and clavulanic acid (8 micrograms/ml). However, a greater than or equal to 99% decrease in the number of inclusions was obtained at concentrations readily attainable in serum. PMID:3707116

  13. In Vitro Activities of Sparfloxacin, Ceftriaxone, Penicillin, Tetracycline and Doxycycline against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonhorrhoeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Talbot

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro sparfloxacin was highly active against 223 penicillin-susceptible isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90 of 0.004 μg/mL. Resistant strains of N gonorrhoeae totalled 55; 32 were penicillinase-producing and 23 chromosomally resistant. The MIC90 for these isolates was 0.004 μg/mL and 0.008 μg/mL, respectively. Chlamydia trachomatis was also very susceptible with an MIC50 of 0.063 μg/mL and a 50% minimal bactericidal concentration of 0.032 μg/mL for 11 isolates.

  14. Andrographolide inhibits intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication and reduces secretion of proinflammatory mediators produced by human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ziyu; Frohlich, Kyla M; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Shen, Li

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Untreated C. trachomatis infections may cause inflammation and ultimately damage tissues. Here, we evaluated the ability of Andrographolide (Andro), a natural diterpenoid lactone component of Andrographis paniculata, to inhibit C. trachomatis infection in cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We found that Andro exposure inhibited C. trachomatis growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed when exponentially growing C. trachomatis was exposed to Andro. Electron micrographs demonstrated the accumulation of unusual, structurally deficient chlamydial organisms, correlated with a decrease in levels of OmcB expressed at the late stage of infection. Additionally, Andro significantly reduced the secretion of interleukin6, CXCL8 and interferon-γ-induced protein10 produced by host cells infected with C. trachomatis. These results indicate the efficacy of Andro to perturb C. trachomatis transition from the metabolically active reticulate body to the infectious elementary body and concurrently reduce the production of a proinflammatory mediator by epithelial cells in vitro. Further dissection of Andro's anti-Chlamydia action may provide identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25854005

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis responds to heat shock, penicillin induced persistence, and IFN-gamma persistence by altering levels of the extracytoplasmic stress response protease HtrA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and a leading cause of preventable blindness. HtrA is a virulence and stress response periplasmic serine protease and molecular chaperone found in many bacteria. Recombinant purified C. trachomatis HtrA has been previously shown to have both activities. This investigation examined the physiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA. Results The Chlamydia trachomatis htrA gene complemented the lethal high temperature phenotype of Escherichia coli htrA- (>42°C. HtrA levels were detected to increase by western blot and immunofluorescence during Chlamydia heat shock experiments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a likely periplasmic localisation of HtrA. During penicillin induced persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis, HtrA levels (as a ratio of LPS were initially less than control acute cultures (20 h post infection but increased to more than acute cultures at 44 h post infection. This was unlike IFN-γ persistence where lower levels of HtrA were observed, suggesting Chlamydia trachomatis IFN-γ persistence does not involve a broad stress response. Conclusion The heterologous heat shock protection for Escherichia coli, and increased HtrA during cell wall disruption via penicillin and heat shock, indicates an important role for HtrA during high protein stress conditions for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  16. Histone methylation by NUE, a novel nuclear effector of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E Pennini

    Full Text Available Sequence analysis of the genome of the strict intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis revealed the presence of a SET domain containing protein, proteins that primarily function as histone methyltransferases. In these studies, we demonstrated secretion of this protein via a type III secretion mechanism. During infection, the protein is translocated to the host cell nucleus and associates with chromatin. We therefore named the protein nuclear effector (NUE. Expression of NUE in mammalian cells by transfection reconstituted nuclear targeting and chromatin association. In vitro methylation assays confirmed NUE is a histone methyltransferase that targets histones H2B, H3 and H4 and itself (automethylation. Mutants deficient in automethylation demonstrated diminished activity towards histones suggesting automethylation functions to enhance enzymatic activity. Thus, NUE is secreted by Chlamydia, translocates to the host cell nucleus and has enzymatic activity towards eukaryotic substrates. This work is the first description of a bacterial effector that directly targets mammalian histones.

  17. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  18. STIM1 Is a Novel Component of ER-Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane Contact Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Agaisse

    Full Text Available Productive developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the interaction of the replicative vacuole, named the inclusion, with cellular organelles. We have recently reported the formation of ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs, where the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is in apposition to the inclusion membrane. These platforms contain the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane protein IncD, the mammalian ceramide transfer protein CERT and the ER resident proteins VAPA/B and were proposed to play a role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids to the inclusion. Here, we identify STIM1 as a novel component of ER-Inclusion MCSs. STIM1, an ER calcium (Ca2+ sensor that relocate to ER-Plasma Membrane (PM MCSs upon Ca2+ store depletion, associated with C. trachomatis inclusion. STIM1, but not the general ER markers Rtn3C and Sec61ß, was enriched at the inclusion membrane. Ultra-structural studies demonstrated that STIM1 localized to ER-Inclusion MCSs. Time-course experiments showed that STIM1, CERT and VAPB co-localized throughout the developmental cycle. By contrast, Orai1, the PM Ca2+ channel that interacts with STIM1 at ER-PM MCSs, did not associate with C. trachomatis inclusion. Upon ER Ca2+ store depletion, a pool of STIM1 relocated to ER-PM MCSs, while the existing ER-Inclusion MCSs remained enriched in STIM1. Finally, we have identified the CAD domain, which mediates STIM1-Orai1 interaction, as the minimal domain required for STIM1 enrichment at ER-Inclusion MCSs. Altogether this study identifies STIM1 as a novel component of ER-C. trachomatis inclusion MCSs. We discuss the potential role(s of STIM1 during the infection process.

  19. Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in registered prostitutes of Durango City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among registered prostitutes of Durango City and to establish whether there is a correlation between epidemiological factors and infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred-and-forty-seven registered prostitutes of Durango city were studied. Endocervical samples and epidemiological data were obtained. C. trachomatis antigen was detected with the Chlamydiazyme test (Abbott Laboratories, USA. RESULTS: Forty-one (16.6% out of 247 prostitutes were positive to C. trachomatis. Thirty-seven out of the 41 positive women had had sexual activity on several States of Mexico (95.1%, as compared to only 109 out of 206 negative women (53.0% (p<.0001. Prostitutes positive to C. trachomatis (39/41, 95.1% were more likely to belong to low socioeconomic level than negatives (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 16.6%. C. trachomatis infection was associated with sexual activity in multiple States of Mexico, and had a tendency to be associated with low socioeconomic level.

  20. Membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH are major constituents of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Per H; Christiansen, Gunna; Roepstorff, P;

    2000-01-01

    The outer membrane complex of Chlamydia is involved in the initial adherence and ingestion of Chlamydia by the host cell. In order to identify novel proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. By....... By silver staining of the protein profile, a major protein doublet of 100-110 kDa was detected. In-gel tryptic digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identified these proteins as the putative outer membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH....

  1. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...... in women applying for termination of pregnancy on account of the rapid results. Tetracyclines and erythromycin may be employed for treatment of demonstrated Chlamydia infection. Completion of treatment prior to abortion is probably not necessary. The sexual partners should be treated....

  2. Overestimation of complication rates in evaluations of Chlamydia trachomatis screening programmes--implications for cost-effectiveness analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkengoed, van IG; Morre, S.A.; Brule, van den AJ; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Boeke, AJ

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cost-effectiveness analyses of screening programmes for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection suggest that screening at low prevalences in the population is cost-effective. However, the decision models in these studies are based on assumptions about the risk of complications, whic

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis and invasive cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.S.; Bosetti, C; Munoz, N.; Herrero, R; Bosch, F.X.; Eluf-Neto, J; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ; Franceschi, S; Peeling, RW

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection is consistently associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) after accounting for the strong effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a case-control study of 1,238 cases of ICC and 1,100 control women from 7 countr

  4. Construction of physical and genetic maps of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    We constructed the physical map of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by using three restriction endonucleases, NotI (GC[GGCCGC), SgrAI (C(A/G)[CCGG(T/G)G), and Sse8387I (CCTGCA[GG), and we analyzed the fragments by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A total of 25 restriction endonuclease sites and 13...

  5. Characterization and identification of early proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, PM;

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of early proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. By pulse-label experiments, the synthesis of seven proteins was observed at 2 to 8 h postinfection before the major outer membrane protein was detected at 8 to 10 h after...

  6. Binding of Galanthus nivalis lectin to Chlamydia trachomatis and inhibition of in vitro infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, K; Beillevaire, D; Mahmoud, E; Hammar, L; Mårdh, P A; Fröman, G

    1995-10-01

    A glycoprotein present in Chlamydia trachomatis, serotype L1, elementary bodies (EBs) was earlier found to bind the lectin from Galanthus nivalis (GNA). In the present paper we investigate the interaction of GNA with chlamydial EBs and its effect on in vitro infectivity. The binding affinity was studied with 125I-GNA lectin. Within 15 min about 80% maximal binding was obtained. The chlamydia-GNA interaction was inhibited by alpha-methylmannoside, causing a decrease of about 50% at 1 mM. Curve fit analyses indicated two types of binding sites for GNA on the EBs. The affinity to these differed by a factor of 15. The influence of the lectin on the ability of C. trachomatis to infect McCoy cells was also investigated. There was a GNA-dependent inhibition with a 50% reduction in the number of intracellular inclusions at 0.2 microM of the lectin. The findings indicate the presence of terminal mannose structures on the chlamydial surface at or in the proximity of the cell-binding domains. Mannose-binding proteins of eukaryotic cells could be important for the initial uptake of EBs.

  7. Detecção do DNA de Chlamydia trachomatis em espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Navarrete Fernandez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis é a bactéria responsável pela doença sexualmente transmissível mais prevalente no mundo. A maioria das infecções em homens e mulheres é assintomática e, quando não diagnosticada e tratada, pode causar artrite e complicações relacionadas ao aparelho reprodutor feminino. OBJETIVO: pesquisar o DNA de C. trachomatis no líquido sinovial e urina de pacientes com espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide (AR, avaliar a presença de anticorpos séricos IgG e IgM anti-C. trachomatis nesses dois grupos de doenças e identificar o antígeno HLA-B27 em pacientes com espondiloartropatias. MÉTODOS: a população do estudo consistiu em 15 pacientes com espondiloartropatias: nove com espondiloartropatia indiferenciada (EI e seis com artrite reativa (ARe (grupo I e 15 pacientes com AR (grupo II. O DNA clamidial foi pesquisado em amostras de líquido sinovial e urina de todos os pacientes, empregando-se a PCR (Amplicor Roche, Suíça. Os anticorpos IgG e IgM anticlamidiais foram quantificados por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI, enquanto o HLA-B27 foi tipado em 15 pacientes do grupo I por citometria de fluxo. RESULTADOS: o DNA da C. trachomatis foi evidenciado apenas em uma amostra de líquido sinovial do grupo I (6,7%, sendo o paciente portador de ARe. Em dois pacientes com AR, o DNA clamidial foi identificado na urina (13,3%. Os anticorpos IgG anticlamidiais estavam presentes em oito pacientes da população estudada, três do grupo I (20% e cinco do grupo II (33,3%. O maior título desse anticorpo (1/256 associou-se com a presença do DNA clamidial na urina de um paciente do grupo II. O anticorpo IgM não foi detectado em nenhuma amostra dos dois grupos. O antígeno HLA-B27 foi positivo em quatro indivíduos do grupo II (26,7% e sua presença relacionou-se com sacroileíte. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados deste estudo indicam que em pacientes com diagnóstico de espondiloartropatias e artrite reumatóide, com quadro articular

  8. Reassessing the role of the secreted protease CPAF in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through genetic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, Emily A; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe Dan; Saka, Hector A; Nguyen, Bidong D; Bastidas, Robert J; McCafferty, Dewey G; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2014-08-01

    The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of postlysis degradation. Here, we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858) and a third strain containing a mutation in type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S(-) or CPAF(-) C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NFκB-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein lamin-associated protein-1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection

  9. Reporting detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in tissues of neonatal death cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez Trejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine whether C. trachomatis was present in neonates with infection, but without an isolated pathogen, who died during the first week of life. METHODS: early neonatal death cases whose causes of death had been previously adjudicated by the institutional mortality committee were randomly selected. End-point and real-time polymerase chain reaction of the C. trachomatis omp1 gene was used to blindly identify the presence of chlamydial DNA in the paraffinized samples of five organs (from authorized autopsies of each of the dead neonates. Additionally, differential diagnoses were conducted by amplifying a fragment of the 16S rRNA of Mycoplasma spp. RESULTS: in five cases (35.7%, C. trachomatis DNA was found in one or more organs. Severe neonatal infection was present in three cases; one of them corresponded to genotype D of C. trachomatis. Interestingly, another case fulfilled the same criteria but had a positive polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma hominis, a pathogen known to produce sepsis in newborns. CONCLUSION: the use of molecular biology techniques in these cases of early infant mortality demonstrated that C. trachomatis could play a role in the development of severe infection and in early neonatal death, similarly to that observed with Mycoplasma hominis. Further study is required to determine the pathogenesis of this perinatal infection.

  10. Individual and population level effects of partner notification for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Althaus

    Full Text Available Partner notification (PN or contact tracing is an important aspect of treating bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. It facilitates the identification of new infected cases that can be treated through individual case management. PN also acts indirectly by limiting onward transmission in the general population. However, the impact of PN, both at the level of individuals and the population, remains unclear. Since it is difficult to study the effects of PN empirically, mathematical and computational models are useful tools for investigating its potential as a public health intervention. To this end, we developed an individual-based modeling framework called Rstisim. It allows the implementation of different models of STI transmission with various levels of complexity and the reconstruction of the complete dynamic sexual partnership network over any time period. A key feature of this framework is that we can trace an individual's partnership history in detail and investigate the outcome of different PN strategies for C. trachomatis. For individual case management, the results suggest that notifying three or more partners from the preceding 18 months yields substantial numbers of new cases. In contrast, the successful treatment of current partners is most important for preventing re-infection of index cases and reducing further transmission of C. trachomatis at the population level. The findings of this study demonstrate the difference between individual and population level outcomes of public health interventions for STIs.

  11. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra spp. selectively inhibit the growth of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena; Uvell, Hanna; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Elofsson, Mikael; Vuorela, Pia Maarit

    2015-10-01

    Lignans from Schisandra chinensis berries show various pharmacological activities, of which their antioxidative and cytoprotective properties are among the most studied ones. Here, the first report on antibacterial properties of six dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans found in Schisandra spp. is presented. The activity was shown on two related intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis upon their infection in human epithelial cells. All six lignans inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation and infectious progeny production. Schisandrin B inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation even when administered 8 h post infection, indicating a target that occurs relatively late within the infection cycle. Upon infection, lignan-pretreated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies had impaired inclusion formation capacity. The presence and substitution pattern of methylenedioxy, methoxy and hydroxyl groups of the lignans had a profound impact on the antichlamydial activity. In addition our data suggest that the antichlamydial activity is not caused only by the antioxidative properties of the lignans. None of the compounds showed inhibition on seven other bacteria, suggesting a degree of selectivity of the antibacterial effect. Taken together, the data presented support a role of the studied lignans as interesting antichlamydial lead compounds.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available. PMID:25483545

  13. Expression and Purification of the Major Outer Membrane Protein of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Prokaryotic Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠玉; 吴移谋; 陈超群; 万艳平; 朱翠明

    2004-01-01

    To clone and construct the recombinant plasmid containing the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene of Chlamydia trachomatis ( C.trachomatis ) and to express the fusion protein in E. coli BL21, the MOMP gene was amphfied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from genome of C. trachomatis serovar D. The fragment was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-22b( + ) after digestion with BamH Ⅰ and Not Ⅰ and transformed into E. coli XL1-Blue. Recombinants were selected by enzyme digestion and sequencing and the recombinant plasmid with MOMP gene was then transformed into E. coli BL21 with IPTG to express the target gene. The expression recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, and identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. It was found that a 1.2 kb MOMP gene was isolated. The DNA sequence of MOMP was found to be just the same as the sequence published by GenBank. A recombinant plasmid containing MOMP gene was constructed to express the fusion proteins in E.coli. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the relative molecular weight of the recombinant protein was about 47 kDa that was consistent with the theoretical predicted value, and the specificity of the expressed protein was conformed by Western blot. It concluded that the MOMP gene could be expressed in the prokaryotic system, by which it provided the foundation for the future studies on the biological activities of C. trachomatis and for the development of vaccine against this pathogen.

  14. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing: Our Evaluation Suggests that CDC-Recommended Approaches for Confirmatory Testing Are Ill-Advised

    OpenAIRE

    Schachter, Julius; Chow, Joan M.; Howard, Holly; Bolan, Gail; Moncada, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated three CDC-suggested approaches for confirming positive nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for Chlamydia trachomatis: (i) repeat the original test on the original specimen, (ii) retest the original specimen with a different test, and (iii) perform a different test on a duplicate specimen. For approach 1, specimens (genital swabs or first-catch urine [FCU]) initially positive by the Abbott LCx Probe System Chlamydia trachomatis Assay (LCx; Abbott Laboratories), the APTIMA Com...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis co-opts GBF1 and CERT to acquire host sphingomyelin for distinct roles during intracellular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherilyn A Elwell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. [corrected]. The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a membrane-bound inclusion that acquires host sphingomyelin (SM, a process that is essential for replication as well as inclusion biogenesis. Previous studies demonstrate that SM is acquired by a Brefeldin A (BFA-sensitive vesicular trafficking pathway, although paradoxically, this pathway is dispensable for bacterial replication. This finding suggests that other lipid transport mechanisms are involved in the acquisition of host SM. In this work, we interrogated the role of specific components of BFA-sensitive and BFA-insensitive lipid trafficking pathways to define their contribution in SM acquisition during infection. We found that C. trachomatis hijacks components of both vesicular and non-vesicular lipid trafficking pathways for SM acquisition but that the SM obtained from these separate pathways is being utilized by the pathogen in different ways. We show that C. trachomatis selectively co-opts only one of the three known BFA targets, GBF1, a regulator of Arf1-dependent vesicular trafficking within the early secretory pathway for vesicle-mediated SM acquisition. The Arf1/GBF1-dependent pathway of SM acquisition is essential for inclusion membrane growth and stability but is not required for bacterial replication. In contrast, we show that C. trachomatis co-opts CERT, a lipid transfer protein that is a key component in non-vesicular ER to trans-Golgi trafficking of ceramide (the precursor for SM, for C. trachomatis replication. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis recruits CERT, its ER binding partner, VAP-A, and SM synthases, SMS1 and SMS2, to the inclusion and propose that these proteins establish an on-site SM biosynthetic

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG seropositivity is associated with lower natural conception rates in ovulatory subfertile women without visible tubal pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F.P.J. Coppus; J.A. Land; B.C. Opmeer; P. Steures; M.J.C. Eijkemans; P.G.A. Hompes; P.M.M. Bossuyt; F. van der Veen; B.W.J. Mol; J.W. van der Steeg

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relation between Chlamydia trachomatis infection and subsequent tubal damage is widely recognized. As such, C. trachomatis antibody (CAT) testing can be used to triage women for immediate tubal testing with hysterosalpingography (HSG) or laparoscopy. However, once invasive tubal test

  17. Use of pooled urine samples and automated DNA isolation to achieve improved sensitivity and cost-effectiveness of large-scale testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rours, G.I.J.G.; Verkooyen, R.P.; Willemse, H.F.M.; Zwaan, E.A. van der; Belkum, A. van; Groot, R. de; Verbrugh, H.A.; Ossewaarde, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The success of large-scale screening for Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the availability of noninvasive samples, low costs, and high-quality testing. To evaluate C. trachomatis testing with pregnant women, first-void urine specimens from 750 consecutive asymptomatic pregnant women from the Rotterd

  18. Use of pooled urine samples and automated DNA isolation to achieve improved sensitivity and cost-effectiveness of large-scale testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); H.F. Willemse; E.A.E. van der Zwaan (Elizabeth); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); R. de Groot (Ronald); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.M. Ossewaarde (Jacobus)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe success of large-scale screening for Chlamydia trachomatis depends on the availability of noninvasive samples, low costs, and high-quality testing. To evaluate C. trachomatis testing with pregnant women, first-void urine specimens from 750 consecutive asymptomatic pregnant women from

  19. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Andrea L Lucas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB into the reticulate body (RB. The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE, syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical towards understanding the molecular signals involved in

  20. Optimal Method of Collection of First-Void Urine for Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Men▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski, Craig A.; John A White; Michel, Claude-Edouard C; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Barber, Penelope J.; Goh, Beng T; Lee, Helen H.

    2008-01-01

    First-void urine (FVU) is the preferred specimen for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men. We have developed FirstBurst, a urine collection device that collects the first 4 to 5 ml of FVU and yields a specimen with a sixfold higher C. trachomatis organism load than the regular urine cup by quantitative PCR (32,533 versus 5,271 plasmids/ml; P < 0.0001). Consequently, the use of FirstBurst to collect a urine sample improved the sensitivity of a rapid test for Chlam...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of screening women at moderate risk for genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleman, M D; Jones, R B

    1988-07-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of screening women at moderate (prevalence, 7.9%) risk for urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis. The characteristics of culture and direct antigen tests were based on published values. Those of serology were based on a comparative study in 434 college women. Three serological tests were evaluated: microimmunofluorescence, an indirect fluorescent antibody assay, and an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Their sensitivities and specificities were 97% and 64%, 87% and 64%, and 84% and 51%, respectively, compared with culture. Screening all patients with a direct antigen test costing less than $12 was more cost-effective than neither testing nor treating patients, although only 53% of patients with positive test results would actually be infected. The use of culture alone or as a confirmatory test was less cost-effective but had high positive predictive values. Seropositivity was not highly predictive of active infection. Chlamydial screening can be cost-effective in moderate-risk women. PMID:3133496

  2. TNF and PGE2 in human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

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    E. Manor

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin-1 (IL-1 alpha in medium from monocyte derived macrophages (MdM infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (L2/434/Bu or K biovars. TNF and PGE2 were found in both cases while IL-1 alpha was not detected. Both TNF and PGE2 levels were higher in the medium of the MdM infected with K biovars. TNF reached maximum levels 24 h postinfection, and then declined, while PGE2 levels increased continuously during the infection time up to 96 h post-infection. Addition of dexamethasone inhibited production of TNF and PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production by indomethacin resulted in increased production of TNF, while addition of PGE2 caused partial inhibition of TNF production from infected MdM.

  3. Inhibition of Urogenital Chlamydia Trachomatis in Vitro by 12 Diuretic Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianjun(李建军); TU Yuying(涂裕英); TONG Juzhen(佟菊贞); WANG Peitu(汪培土)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To detect the inhibition of urogenital chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by 12 traditional Chinese medicines in vitro.Methods: The inhibition of CT isolates by these medicines was detected by micro-culture technique with McCoy cells in vitro.Results: All the diuretic traditional Chinese medicines inhibited urogenital CT. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.122 mg ml-1 to 62.5 mg ml-1. Diathus superbus L., Poria cocos (Shcw.) Woft,Polyporus umbellatus (Pets.) Fries, and Artemisia capillaries Thunb showed stronger inhibition than the other eight traditional Chinese medicines. The numbers and sizes of inclusions bodies reduced gradually and disappeared finally with the increase of the concentrations.Conclusion: All the 12 diuretic traditional Chinese medicines inhibited urogenital CT.

  4. Nonhuman Primate Models Used to Study Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Jason D. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID is a global health concern that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. Throughout history animals have been used for anatomical studies and later as models of human disease. In particular, nonhuman primates (NHPs have permitted investigations of human disease in a biologically, physiologically, and anatomically similar system. The use of NHPs as human PID models has led to a greater understanding of the primary microorganisms that cause disease (e.g., Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorroheae, the pathogenesis of infection and its complications, and the treatment of people with PID. This paper explores historical and contemporary aspects of NHP modeling of chlamydial PID, with an emphasis on advantages and limitations of this approach and future directions for this research.

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in parturient women in Gipuzkoa, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Luis; Lekuona, Arantza; Cilla, Gustavo; Lasa, Izaskun; Martinez-Gallardo, Laura-Pilar; Korta, Javier; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Southern Europe is poorly understood and its identification is essential for the design of appropriate prevention policies. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in 2011-2014 was determined through polymerase chain reaction in urine samples from 11,687 unselected parturient women from the Basque Country, Spain (San Sebastián area). The overall age-adjusted prevalence was 1.0 % (95 % CI 0.8-1.2). The prevalence of infection in women younger than 25 years was 6.4 % and decreased substantially with increasing age: 2.0 % in 25-29 year-olds and 0.5 % in older women (P origin (1.9 %, 95 % CI 1.3-2.5) than in Spanish parturients (0.8 %, 95 % CI 0.6-1.0), (P < 0.001). The results of this study support the need to screen young women as part of antenatal care in Spain. PMID:27247863

  6. Optimal Method of Collection of First-Void Urine for Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Men▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Craig A.; White, John A.; Michel, Claude-Edouard C.; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V.; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Barber, Penelope J.; Goh, Beng T.; Lee, Helen H.

    2008-01-01

    First-void urine (FVU) is the preferred specimen for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men. We have developed FirstBurst, a urine collection device that collects the first 4 to 5 ml of FVU and yields a specimen with a sixfold higher C. trachomatis organism load than the regular urine cup by quantitative PCR (32,533 versus 5,271 plasmids/ml; P < 0.0001). Consequently, the use of FirstBurst to collect a urine sample improved the sensitivity of a rapid test for Chlamydia over testing of samples collected with a urine cup (82 versus 47% sensitivity using PCR as a reference; P < 0.0015). PMID:18234860

  7. Elongation factor Ts of Chlamydia trachomatis: structure of the gene and properties of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Tao, J; Zhou, M; Meng, Q; Zhang, L; Shen, L; Klein, R; Miller, D L

    1997-08-01

    A putative structural gene cluster containing four open reading frames (ORFs) located downstream of the omp1 gene of Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) was cloned and sequenced. A GenBank survey indicated that the identified cluster is similar to the rpsB-tsf-pyrH(smbA)-frr region of Escherichia coli. The second ORF was 846 bp encoding a 282-amino-acid polypeptide with a calculated M(r) 30,824. Alignment of this deduced protein sequence and E. coli elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts, product of tsf) demonstrated 34% identity and an additional 14% similarity. The putative chlamydial tsf gene was expressed in E. coli as a nonfusion protein and as a 6x His-tagged fusion protein. By SDS-PAGE analysis, the molecular weights of the nonfusion recombinant protein and a protein of chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs), which was recognized by monoclonal antibodies derived from the nonfusion recombinant protein, are 34 kDa. The purified recombinant 6x His-tagged fusion protein increased the rate of GDP exchange with both Chlamydia and E. coli elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). These data show that the second gene of the identified cluster is tsf. Unlike EF-Ts from any other species, its activity was comparable to that of E. coli EF-Ts in exchange reaction with E. coli EF-Tu. PMID:9244380

  8. DXD Motif-Dependent and -Independent Effects of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin CT166

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    Miriam Bothe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5 antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif is still capable of inhibiting cell migration, suggesting that CT166 with the mutated DXD motif cannot be regarded as inactive in any case. Taken together, CT166 affects various fundamental cellular processes, strongly suggesting its importance for the intracellular survival of chlamydia.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis: milestones in clinical and microbiological diagnostics in the last hundred years: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Irén

    2007-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis an obligate intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium is the causative agent of several acute or chronic, local and systemic human diseases such as trachoma, oculogenital and neonatal infections. It was discovered in 1907 by Halberstaedter and von Prowazek who observed it in conjunctival scrapings from an experimentally infected orangutan. In the last hundred years the detection and study of the intracellular pathogens, including chlamydiae, passed through an enormous evolution. This memorial review is dedicated to these important research and diagnostic discoveries and to the scientists who significantly contributed to this evolution starting from the application of simple light microscopy through the cell culture technique, antibiotic susceptibility, antigen and antibody detection, serotyping, to the real-time nucleic acid amplification and restriction fragment lengths polymorphism analysis. Although the majority of these old and new excellent diagnostic methods have been introduced into the rutine practice, the trachoma has remained one of the leading causes of blindness, and oculogenital chlamydial infections still are the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial diseases, furthermore lymphogranuloma venereum is a disease emerging in the developed countries at the beginning of the 21 st century.

  10. Performance of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gaydos, C A; Cartwright, C P; Colaninno, P.; Welsch, J.; Holden, J; Ho, S. Y.; Webb, E. M.; Anderson, C.; Bertuzis, R.; Zhang, L.; Miller, T; Leckie, G.; Abravaya, K.; Robinson, J.

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter clinical study was conducted to evaluate the performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay, a multiplex real-time PCR assay, for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The specimens were collected from a total of 3,832 male and female subjects at 16 geographically diverse sites. Specimens included male and female urine samples, male urethral swabs, female endocervical swabs, and self-collected and clinician-collected vaginal s...

  11. Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kun; Qiu, Fasheng; Chen, Guantao

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificit...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  13. Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México

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    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (p<0.0001. El nivel socioeconómico bajo fue más frecuentemente observado en prostitutas C. trachomatis positivas (39/41, 95.1% que en las negativas (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONES: Encontramos una prevalencia de infección por C. trachomatis de 16.6%, la cual se asoció a una actividad sexual de las prostitutas en diversas entidades federativas, y se pudo observar que el padecimiento tiende a presentarse más frecuentemente en mujeres de un nivel socioeconómico bajo.

  14. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction in endocervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenab, Anahita; Roghanian, Rasoul; Golbang, Naser; Golbang, Pouran; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

    2010-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the major cause of sexually transmitted disease in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the best method of DNA extraction for detecting C. trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in sexually active women (n = 80) attending Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women, 22 of whom were asymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Three different DNA extraction methods were used in this study (phenol-chlorophorm, proteinase K, and boiling). DNA yield was evaluated by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR. The internal control was assayed by beta-globin primers (PCO4, GH20). The DNA cryptic plasmid was selected as the target for C. trachomatis and samples were examined by PCR using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. It was shown that DNA extraction by boiling was the most sensitive with the highest yield of DNA. Of the 80 samples, 17 (21.25%) showed positivity for C. trachomatis by PCR. The highest rate of C. trachomatis infection was found in the group aged between 35 and 45 years old and those who used withdrawal or an intrauterine device as methods of contraception. It was demonstrated that DNA extraction by boiling was the least expensive and a very rapid method that gave the highest DNA yield. The infection rate in the sexually active women, including symptomatic and asymptomatic, was 21.25%, with a presumably high prevalence compared with other studies done in this field.

  15. Human female genital tract infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis elicits robust Type 2 immunity.

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    Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel

    Full Text Available While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation by endometrial CD4(+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3(+ CD4(+ and CD3(+ CD4(- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures.

  16. Development of a transformation system for Chlamydia trachomatis: restoration of glycogen biosynthesis by acquisition of a plasmid shuttle vector.

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    Yibing Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis remains one of the few major human pathogens for which there is no transformation system. C. trachomatis has a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle. The extracellular infectious elementary body (EB is an infectious, electron-dense structure that, following host cell infection, differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB. Host cells infected by C. trachomatis that are treated with penicillin are not lysed because this antibiotic prevents the maturation of RBs into EBs. Instead the RBs fail to divide although DNA replication continues. We have exploited these observations to develop a transformation protocol based on expression of β-lactamase that utilizes rescue from the penicillin-induced phenotype. We constructed a vector which carries both the chlamydial endogenous plasmid and an E.coli plasmid origin of replication so that it can shuttle between these two bacterial recipients. The vector, when introduced into C. trachomatis L2 under selection conditions, cures the endogenous chlamydial plasmid. We have shown that foreign promoters operate in vivo in C. trachomatis and that active β-lactamase and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase are expressed. To demonstrate the technology we have isolated chlamydial transformants that express the green fluorescent protein (GFP. As proof of principle, we have shown that manipulation of chlamydial biochemistry is possible by transformation of a plasmid-free C. trachomatis recipient strain. The acquisition of the plasmid restores the ability of the plasmid-free C. trachomatis to synthesise and accumulate glycogen within inclusions. These findings pave the way for a comprehensive genetic study on chlamydial gene function that has hitherto not been possible. Application of this technology avoids the use of therapeutic antibiotics and therefore the procedures do not require high level containment and will allow the analysis of genome

  17. The role of Surinamese migrants in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis between Paramaribo, Suriname and Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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    Reinier J M Bom

    Full Text Available The large Surinamese migrant population in the Netherlands is a major risk group for urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Suriname, a former Dutch colony, also has a high prevalence of C. trachomatis. Surinamese migrants travel extensively between the Netherlands and Suriname. Our objective was to assess whether the Surinamese migrants in the Netherlands form a bridge population facilitating transmission of C. trachomatis between Suriname and the Netherlands. If so, joint prevention campaigns involving both countries might be required. Between March 2008 and July 2010, participants were recruited at clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants were grouped as native Surinamese, native Dutch, Surinamese migrant, Dutch migrant, or Other, based on country of residence and country of birth of the participant and of their parents. Risk behavior, such as sexual mixing between ethnic groups, was recorded and C. trachomatis positive samples were typed through multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A minimum spanning tree of samples from 426 participants showed four MLST clusters. The MLST strain distribution of Surinamese migrants differed significantly from both the native Surinamese and Dutch populations, but was not an intermediate state between these two populations. Sexual mixing between the Surinamese migrants and the Dutch and Surinamese natives occurred frequently. Yet, the MLST cluster distribution did not differ significantly between participants who mixed and those who did not. Sexual mixing occurred between Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam and the native populations of Suriname and the Netherlands. These migrants, however, did not seem to form an effective bridge population for C. trachomatis transmission between the native populations. Although our data do not seem to justify the need for joint campaigns to reduce the transmission of C. trachomatis strains between both countries, intensified preventive

  18. Nationwide surveillance of the antimicrobial susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis from male urethritis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Hayami, Hiroshi; Uehara, Shinya; Yamamoto, Shingo; Minamitani, Shinichi; Kadota, Junichi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Masumori, Naoya; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Wada, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Eto, Masatoshi; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Ito, Kenji; Hosobe, Takahide; Hirayama, Hideo; Narita, Harunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Sumii, Toru; Kawai, Shuichi; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Kawano, Hiromi; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawahara, Motoshi; Takayama, Kazuo; Ito, Masayasu; Yoshioka, Masaru; Kano, Motonori; Konishi, Takatoshi; Kadena, Hitoshi; Nishi, Shohei; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Maeda, Shinichi; Horie, Masanobu; Ihara, Hideari; Matsumura, Masaru; Shirane, Takeshi; Takeyama, Koh; Akiyama, Kikuo; Takahashi, Koichi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Inatomi, Hisato; Yoh, Mutsumasa

    2016-09-01

    Genital chlamydial infection is a principal sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Chlamydia trachomatis can cause male urethritis, acute epididymitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease as sexually transmitted infections. Fortunately, homotypic resistant C. trachomatis strains have not been isolated to date; however, several studies have reported the isolation of heterotypic resistant strains from patients. In this surveillance study, clinical urethral discharge specimens were collected from patients with urethritis in 51 hospitals and clinics in 2009 and 38 in 2012. Based on serial cultures, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) could be determined for 19 isolates in 2009 and 39 in 2012. In 2009 and 2012, the MICs (MIC90) of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, sitafloxacin, doxycycline, minocycline, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml and 0.5 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.063 μg/ml and 0.063 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml and 0.125 μg/ml, 0.016 μg/ml and 0.016 μg/ml, and 0.063 μg/ml and 0.063 μg/ml, respectively. In summary, this surveillance project did not identify any resistant strain against fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, or macrolide agents in Japan. PMID:27452428

  19. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

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    Ashok eAiyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium’s capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  1. Penicillin induced persistence in Chlamydia trachomatis: high quality time lapse video analysis of the developmental cycle.

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    Rachel J Skilton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen with a unique obligate intracellular developmental cycle that takes place inside a modified cytoplasmic structure known as an inclusion. Following entry into a cell, the infectious elementary body (EB differentiates into a non-infectious replicative form known as a reticulate body (RB. RBs divide by binary fission and at the end of the cycle they redifferentiate into EBs. Treatment of C.trachomatis with penicillin prevents maturation of RBs which survive and enlarge to become aberrant RBs within the inclusion in a non-infective persistent state. Persistently infected individuals may be a reservoir for chlamydial infection. The C.trachomatis genome encodes the enzymes for peptidoglycan (PG biosynthesis but a PG sacculus has never been detected. This coupled to the action of penicillin is known as the chlamydial anomaly. We have applied video microscopy and quantitative DNA assays to the chlamydial developmental cycle to assess the effects of penicillin treatment and establish a framework for investigating penicillin induced chlamydial persistence. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Addition of penicillin at the time of cell infection does not prevent uptake and the establishment of an inclusion. EB to RB transition occurs but bacterial cytokinesis is arrested by the second binary fission. RBs continue to enlarge but not divide in the presence of penicillin. The normal developmental cycle can be recovered by the removal of penicillin although the large, aberrant RBs do not revert to the normal smaller size but remain present to the completion of the developmental cycle. Chromosomal and plasmid DNA replication is unaffected by the addition of penicillin but the arrest of bacterial cytokinesis under these conditions results in RBs accumulating multiple copies of the genome. CONCLUSIONS: We have applied video time lapse microscopy to the study of the chlamydial developmental cycle. Linked with accurate

  2. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Amedee, Angela M; Albritton, Hannah L; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L; Schust, Danny J; Quayle, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition.

  4. A Systematic Review of Point of Care Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C.; Joseph Davey, Dvora; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC) diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. PMID:27313440

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis CT771 (nudH) is an asymmetric Ap4A hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Michael L.; Lovell, Scott; Sinclair, Amy N.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric diadenosine 5′,5′″-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases are members of the Nudix superfamily that asymmetrically cleave the metabolite Ap4A into ATP and AMP while facilitating homeostasis. The obligate intracellular mammalian pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis possesses a single Nudix family protein, CT771. As pathogens that rely on a host for replication and dissemination typically have one or zero Nudix family proteins, this suggests that CT771 could be critical for chlamydial biology and pathogenesis. We identified orthologs to CT771 within environmental Chlamydiales that share active site residues suggesting a common function. Crystal structures of both apo- and ligand-bound CT771 were determined to 2.6 Å and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively. The structure of CT771 shows a αβα-sandwich motif with many conserved elements lining the putative Nudix active site. Numerous aspects of the ligand-bound CT771 structure mirror those observed in the ligand-bound structure of the Ap4A hydrolase from Caenorhabditis elegans. These structures represent only the second Ap4A hydrolase enzyme member determined from eubacteria and suggest that mammalian and bacterial Ap4A hydrolases might be more similar than previously thought. The aforementioned structural similarities, in tandem with molecular docking, guided the enzymatic characterization of CT771. Together, these studies provide the molecular details for substrate binding and specificity, supporting the analysis that CT771 is an Ap4A hydrolase (nudH). PMID:24354275

  6. VACCINES. A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two waves of protective memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Georg; Olive, Andrew; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Gondek, David; Alvarez, David; Basto, Pamela A; Perro, Mario; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Shi, Jinjun; Yethon, Jeremy A; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Starnbach, Michael N; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-06-19

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection induces protective immunity that depends on interferon-γ-producing CD4 T cells. By contrast, we report that mucosal exposure to ultraviolet light (UV)-inactivated Ct (UV-Ct) generated regulatory T cells that exacerbated subsequent Ct infection. We show that mucosal immunization with UV-Ct complexed with charge-switching synthetic adjuvant particles (cSAPs) elicited long-lived protection in conventional and humanized mice. UV-Ct-cSAP targeted immunogenic uterine CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs), whereas UV-Ct accumulated in tolerogenic CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs. Regardless of vaccination route, UV-Ct-cSAP induced systemic memory T cells, but only mucosal vaccination induced effector T cells that rapidly seeded uterine mucosa with resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells). Optimal Ct clearance required both T(RM) seeding and subsequent infection-induced recruitment of circulating memory T cells. Thus, UV-Ct-cSAP vaccination generated two synergistic memory T cell subsets with distinct migratory properties. PMID:26089520

  7. IFN-gamma-inducible Irga6 mediates host resistance against Chlamydia trachomatis via autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir A Al-Zeer

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infection of the host cell induces Gamma interferon (IFNgamma, a central immunoprotector for humans and mice. The primary defense against Chlamydia infection in the mouse involves the IFNgamma-inducible family of IRG proteins; however, the precise mechanisms mediating the pathogen's elimination are unknown. In this study, we identify Irga6 as an important resistance factor against C. trachomatis, but not C. muridarum, infection in IFNgamma-stimulated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. We show that Irga6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 accumulate at bacterial inclusions in MEFs upon stimulation with IFNgamma, whereas Irgb6 colocalized in the presence or absence of the cytokine. This accumulation triggers a rerouting of bacterial inclusions to autophagosomes that subsequently fuse to lysosomes for elimination. Autophagy-deficient Atg5-/- MEFs and lysosomal acidification impaired cells surrender to infection. Irgm2, Irgm3 and Irgd still localize to inclusions in IFNgamma-induced Atg5-/- cells, but Irga6 localization is disrupted indicating its pivotal role in pathogen resistance. Irga6-deficient (Irga6-/- MEFs, in which chlamydial growth is enhanced, do not respond to IFNgamma even though Irgb6, Irgd, Irgm2 and Irgm3 still localize to inclusions. Taken together, we identify Irga6 as a necessary factor in conferring host resistance by remodelling a classically nonfusogenic intracellular pathogen to stimulate fusion with autophagosomes, thereby rerouting the intruder to the lysosomal compartment for destruction.

  8. Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in non-urban pregnant women in Vellore, S. India.

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    Navjyot K Vidwan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. METHODS: Pregnant women (≥28 weeks gestation in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. RESULTS: Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67% endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18-39 yrs and 22% (95% CI: 19.7-24.4% were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0-0.38% true positive CT infection using NAAT. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.

  9. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

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    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ≥ 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.

  10. A Systematic Review of Point of Care Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst de Cortina, Sasha; Bristow, Claire C; Joseph Davey, Dvora; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC) diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. PMID:27313440

  11. Effect of endocervical specimen quality on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and on the incidence of false-positive results with the Chlamydiazyme method.

    OpenAIRE

    Kellogg, J A; Seiple, J W; Murray, C L; Levisky, J S

    1990-01-01

    Duplicate endocervical swabs were collected from 1,675 patients to assess the effects of variations in specimen quality on Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories) detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and the incidence of false-positive results. One swab (at random) from each patient was tested for C. trachomatis antigen by using the standard Chlamydiazyme procedure. A 200-microliter volume of 0.9% saline was added to the other swab from each patient. After vortexing, 20 microliters was smeared on a...

  12. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine samples by nucleic acid tests: comparison with culture and enzyme immunoassay of genital swab specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Schepetiuk, S.; Kok, T.; Martin, L; Waddell, R; Higgins, G

    1997-01-01

    Two commercially available nucleic acid-based tests, ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott Laboratories) and PCR (Roche Diagnostics), for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male and female urine samples were compared with culture and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Microtrak; Syva) for C. trachomatis detection in genital samples. The samples were collected from 1,005 patients who attended a sexually transmitted disease clinic. In this study population, the prevalence of the infection was 4%. Sp...

  13. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en usuarias de dos clínicas de planificación familiar Chlamydia trachomatis infection in users of two family planning clinics

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    Thelma Canto-de Cetina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres que acuden a dos clínicas de planificación familiar. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en 1 100 mujeres sexualmente activas, aparentemente sanas, de Mérida, Yucatán, México, quienes acudieron a dos clínicas de planificación familiar en el periodo comprendido de enero a diciembre de 1998. Las mujeres incluidas en el estudio tuvieron entre 15 y 45 años de edad, y habían estado libres de tratamiento antibacteriano al menos durante el mes previo a su inclusión. Se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La detección de bacterias fue realizada por el método inmunoenzimático de marca Wellcozyme. Los datos fueron procesados en el programa EPI Info. Como métodos estadísticos se utilizaron la prueba de Z, ji cuadrada y como medida de asociación, la razón de prevalencias. RESULTADOS: Setenta y cuatro mujeres (6.7 % fueron positivas a infección por Chlamydia trachomatis. Cerca de 50% de las mujeres estuvo asintomática. No se encontró diferencia estadística entre la proporción de mujeres con y sin Chlamydia que tuvieron síntomas vulvovaginales; por el contrario, los cambios relacionados con cervicitis fueron más frecuentes en las pacientes infectadas. C trachomatis fue más frecuente en usuarias de anticonceptivos orales (8.3% comparadas con mujeres que no tenían método anticonceptivo (5.4%. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio confirman la alta prevalencia de infecciones asintomáticas y pone énfasis en la importancia de un diagnóstico oportuno para evitar secuelas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending two family planning clinics in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From January to December 1998, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 100 sexually active women between 15 and 45 years of age. Study subjects had not received

  14. Co-evolution of genomes and plasmids within Chlamydia trachomatis and the emergence in Sweden of a new variant strain

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    Skilton Rachel J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections globally and the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developing world. There are two biovariants of C. trachomatis: 'trachoma', causing ocular and genital tract infections, and the invasive 'lymphogranuloma venereum' strains. Recently, a new variant of the genital tract C. trachomatis emerged in Sweden. This variant escaped routine diagnostic tests because it carries a plasmid with a deletion. Failure to detect this strain has meant it has spread rapidly across the country provoking a worldwide alert. In addition to being a key diagnostic target, the plasmid has been linked to chlamydial virulence. Analysis of chlamydial plasmids and their cognate chromosomes was undertaken to provide insights into the evolutionary relationship between chromosome and plasmid. This is essential knowledge if the plasmid is to be continued to be relied on as a key diagnostic marker, and for an understanding of the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results The genomes of two new C. trachomatis strains were sequenced, together with plasmids from six C. trachomatis isolates, including the new variant strain from Sweden. The plasmid from the new Swedish variant has a 377 bp deletion in the first predicted coding sequence, abolishing the site used for PCR detection, resulting in negative diagnosis. In addition, the variant plasmid has a 44 bp duplication downstream of the deletion. The region containing the second predicted coding sequence is the most highly conserved region of the plasmids investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the plasmids and chromosomes are fully congruent. Moreover this analysis also shows that ocular and genital strains diverged from a common C. trachomatis progenitor. Conclusion The evolutionary pathways of the chlamydial genome and plasmid imply that inheritance of the plasmid is tightly linked with its cognate chromosome. These data

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis Scavenges Host Fatty Acids for Phospholipid Synthesis via an Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiangwei; Dodson, V Joshua; Frank, Matthew W; Rock, Charles O

    2015-09-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Chlamydia trachomatis has a reduced genome but relies on de novo fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis to produce its membrane phospholipids. Lipidomic analyses showed that 8% of the phospholipid molecular species synthesized by C. trachomatis contained oleic acid, an abundant host fatty acid that cannot be made by the bacterium. Mass tracing experiments showed that isotopically labeled palmitic, myristic, and lauric acids added to the medium were incorporated into C. trachomatis-derived phospholipid molecular species. HeLa cells did not elongate lauric acid, but infected HeLa cell cultures elongated laurate to myristate and palmitate. The elongated fatty acids were incorporated exclusively into C. trachomatis-produced phospholipid molecular species. C. trachomatis has adjacent genes encoding the separate domains of the bifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetase/2-acylglycerolphosphoethanolamine acyltransferase gene (aas) of Escherichia coli. The CT775 gene encodes an acyltransferase (LpaT) that selectively transfers fatty acids from acyl-ACP to the 1-position of 2-acyl-glycerophospholipids. The CT776 gene encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AasC) with a substrate preference for palmitic compared with oleic acid in vitro. Exogenous fatty acids were elongated and incorporated into phospholipids by Escherichia coli-expressing AasC, illustrating its function as an acyl-ACP synthetase in vivo. These data point to an AasC-dependent pathway in C. trachomatis that selectively scavenges host saturated fatty acids to be used for the de novo synthesis of its membrane constituents. PMID:26195634

  16. Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Chlamydia trachomatis y anti-Neisseria gonorrhoeae en grupos de individuos de la población mexicana Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Mexican populations

    OpenAIRE

    María del Carmen Cravioto; Oscar Matamoros; Yvonne Villalobos-Zapata; Oscar Peña; Enrique García-Lara; Maribel Martínez; Julio Castelo; José Sifuentes-Osornio

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) y Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) en grupos de individuos con diferente riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal multicéntrico efectuado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, de la Ciudad de México, de enero de 1992 a diciembre de 1993, en el que se estudiaron 945 individuos en edad reproductiva, 585 mujeres y 360 hombres. Según su riesgo p...

  17. Intramuscular priming and intranasal boosting induce strong genital immunity through secretory IgA in minipigs infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eLorenzen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. Intramuscular priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated IFN-ɣ and IL-17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC, we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggest that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general.

  18. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  19. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mother and child; the importance of a complete history and efficient interdisciplinary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, Jolanda C; Kleinhout, Mirjam Y

    2016-01-01

    General practitioners and paediatricians are frequently confronted with coughing infants. The age of the infant, the history of both mother and child, as well as the current maternal condition may provide important diagnostic information. A 4-week-old male infant was referred to the paediatrician with a persistent cough. He was admitted to hospital with dyspnoea and need for supplemental oxygen. Meanwhile, his mother was admitted with unexplained abdominal pain and elevated laboratory inflammation markers. Her history revealed an ectopic pregnancy. The infant's condition, for which the initial differential diagnosis was viral bronchiolitis or whooping cough, deteriorated. His medical history revealed a purulent conjunctivitis. Chlamydia trachomatis PCR turned out to be positive in both mother and child. C. trachomatis pneumonia is a common, yet often overlooked cause of cough in infants. This clinical lesson emphasises the importance of a complete history and efficient communication between medical specialists.

  20. Endogenous Processing and Presentation of T-cell Epitopes from Chlamydia trachomatis with Relevance in HLA-B27-associated Reactive Arthritis*

    OpenAIRE

    Cragnolini, Juan J.; García-Medel, Noel; López de Castro, José A.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis triggers reactive arthritis, a spondyloarthropathy linked to the human major histocompatibility complex molecule HLA-B27, through an unknown mechanism that might involve molecular mimicry between chlamydial and self-derived HLA-B27 ligands. Chlamydia-specific CD8+ T-cells are found in reactive arthritis patients, but the immunogenic epitopes are unknown. A previous screening of the chlamydial genome for putative HLA-B27 ligands predicted multiple peptides that were recog...

  1. Route of Infection That Induces a High Intensity of Gamma Interferon-Secreting T Cells in the Genital Tract Produces Optimal Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Uriri, Ijindah M.; Kumar, Shantha N.; Ananaba, Godwin A.; Ojior, Omegbhai O.; Momodu, Inua A.; Candal, Debra H.; Black, Carolyn M.

    1998-01-01

    The induction of local T helper type 1 (Th1)-mediated cellular immunity is crucial for resistance of mice to genital infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. We tested the hypothesis that the route of immunization that elicits relatively high numbers of chlamydia-specific, gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting T lymphocytes (ISTLs) in the genital tract would induce optimal protective immunity against reinfection. Female BALB/c mice were infected intravaginally (i....

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis interrupts an exocytic pathway to acquire endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin in transit from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Hackstadt, T; Rockey, D D; Heinzen, R A; Scidmore, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis acquires C6-NBD-sphingomyelin endogenously synthesized from C6-NBD-ceramide and transported to the vesicle (inclusion) in which they multiply. Here we explore the mechanisms of this unusual trafficking and further characterize the association of the chlamydial inclusion with the Golgi apparatus. Endocytosed chlamydiae are trafficked to the Golgi region and begin to acquire sphingolipids from the host within a few hours following infection. The transport of NBD-sphingolip...

  3. An iterative strategy combining biophysical criteria and duration hidden Markov models for structural predictions of Chlamydia trachomatis σ66 promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojcius David M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoter identification is a first step in the quest to explain gene regulation in bacteria. It has been demonstrated that the initiation of bacterial transcription depends upon the stability and topology of DNA in the promoter region as well as the binding affinity between the RNA polymerase σ-factor and promoter. However, promoter prediction algorithms to date have not explicitly used an ensemble of these factors as predictors. In addition, most promoter models have been trained on data from Escherichia coli. Although it has been shown that transcriptional mechanisms are similar among various bacteria, it is quite possible that the differences between Escherichia coli and Chlamydia trachomatis are large enough to recommend an organism-specific modeling effort. Results Here we present an iterative stochastic model building procedure that combines such biophysical metrics as DNA stability, curvature, twist and stress-induced DNA duplex destabilization along with duration hidden Markov model parameters to model Chlamydia trachomatis σ66 promoters from 29 experimentally verified sequences. Initially, iterative duration hidden Markov modeling of the training set sequences provides a scoring algorithm for Chlamydia trachomatis RNA polymerase σ66/DNA binding. Subsequently, an iterative application of Stepwise Binary Logistic Regression selects multiple promoter predictors and deletes/replaces training set sequences to determine an optimal training set. The resulting model predicts the final training set with a high degree of accuracy and provides insights into the structure of the promoter region. Model based genome-wide predictions are provided so that optimal promoter candidates can be experimentally evaluated, and refined models developed. Co-predictions with three other algorithms are also supplied to enhance reliability. Conclusion This strategy and resulting model support the conjecture that DNA biophysical properties

  4. The Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection and Pregnancy%沙眼衣原体感染与妊娠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐茜; 岳天孚

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is currently the most common sex transmitted disease pathogen world-widely , which is an important reason of lower genital tract infection as well. However ,the Chlamydia trachomatis infection is always asymptomatic and the clinicians did not pay adequate attention on it. Also it needs advanced lab equipments and techniques in detecting and screening the population with high risks and the follow-up and treatment is also lack of attention. Women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis suffer from the damages of the pathogen itself and the immune reactions it caused ,such as miscarriage,fetal growth restriction,fetal distress,pre-rupture of membrane,preterm labour,low body weight neonate,still birth, intra-uterine infection,infection of neonate and the puerperal infection and post partum haemorrage. So purposeful screening and treatment towards Chlamydia trachomatis infection are important to reduce the complications of both maternal and fetal.%沙眼衣原体是目前感染率最高的性传播性疾病病原体,为引起妊娠期下生殖道感染的重要病原体。因其感染常呈亚临床状态,实验室检测对设备及技术要求高,临床医师相关知识欠缺,以及缺乏充足条件筛选高危人群并进行追踪治疗性伴侣,其潜在危害十分重大。妊娠期沙眼衣原体感染对妊娠有诸多不良影响:病原体本身造成的损伤机制及其引发的免疫反应是造成流产、胎儿生长受限、胎儿窘迫、胎膜早破、早产、低出生体质量儿、死胎、宫内感染、新生儿感染、产褥期感染和产后出血的原因之一。因此,有针对性地及时检查和治疗沙眼衣原体感染是降低母婴病率,提高围生期保健质量的重要举措。

  5. Inverse relationship between microRNA-155 and -184 expression with increasing conjunctival inflammation during ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick, T; Last, AR; Burr, SE; Roberts, CH; Nabicassa, M; Cassama, E; Bailey, RL; Mabey, DC; Burton, MJ; Holland, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma, a preventable blinding eye disease, is initiated by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). We previously showed that microRNAs (miR) -147b and miR-1285 were up-regulated in inflammatory trachomatous scarring. During the initial stage of disease, follicular trachoma with current Ct infection, the differential expression of miR has not yet been investigated. Methods Conjunctival samples were collected from 163 children aged 1–9 years old living in a trachoma-ende...

  6. Molecular characteristics of the ompA gene of serotype B Chlamydia trachomatis in Qinghai Tibetan primary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Zhang, Shaoya; Liang, Qingfeng; Wang, Mei; Hu, Ailian; Li, Xiuyuan; Yang, Benshan; Zhang, Mingxin; Wang, Ningli; Lu, Xinxin

    2016-06-01

    To study the molecular characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA) of C. trachomatis from primary school students with trachoma residing in the Qinghai Tibetan area was sequenced and compared with the same serotype in GenBank. In Jianshetang Primary School and Galeng Central Primary School in the Galeng Tibetan Township of Qinghai Haidong Sala Autonomous County, scraped samples were collected from the upper tarsal conjunctiva and lower conjunctival sac of both eyes of 45 students with trachoma, stored at 4°C, and transported to Beijing Tongren Hospital by air within 24 h. The samples were screened for C. trachomatis by real-time PCR. The ompA gene from the C. trachomatis-positive samples was amplified by nested PCR. The serotype was confirmed by National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) BLAST search and homology analysis. The entire ompA gene sequence was compared with the corresponding gene sequences of serotype B strains available in GenBank. Of the 45 students aged 6-13 years with trachoma, 26 C. trachomatis-positive students were identified by the initial real-time PCR screening (average age, (9.09±1.63) years; sex ratio, 1.0), accounting for 57.78% (26/45). The cycle threshold values for real-time PCR were 16.79-37.77. Half (13/26) of C. trachomatis-positive students had a bacterial copy number of >10(5). The compliance rate of the ompA gene sequences with the C. trachomatis serotype B strains in GenBank was up to 99%. Two novel genetic mutations were found when the ompA gene was compared with those of the 11 serotype B strains in GenBank. The two non-synonymous mutations were located at (i) position 271 in the second constant domain, an adenine (A) to guanine (G) substitution (ACT→GCT), changing the amino acid at position 91 from threonine to alanine (Thr→Ala) in all 26 strains; and (ii) position 887 in the fourth variable domain, a cytosine (C) to thymine (T) substitution (GCA→GTA), changing the

  7. The role of Chlamydia Trachomatis in renal tissue in the pathogenesis IGA-nephropathy related to age

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    I. A. Rakityanskaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IgA-nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world and therefore the mechanisms of this isease are actively explored. In our study, an analysis of renal biopsy issue from 117 patients IgA-nephropathy in the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen related to age (before and after 60 years. It was shown that the presence of C. trachomatis in the glomerular zone influence on the severity of segmental sclerosis (p <0.05, and its presence in the interstitium affect on the size of the glomeruli (p <0.02 and severity of degeneration of epithelial tubules (p <0.02 regardless of patient age. It was shown the effect of C. trachomatis on the expression of local immune response of kidney tissue. In patients under 60 years: C. trachomatis in the glomeruli affects the number of cells of the phenotype CD25 (p = 0,04 and CD19 / κ (p = 0,034 in the glomerular infiltration and the presence of antigen in the interstitium affect the expression of CD95 (APO-1/Fas (p = 0,038 by mononuclear cells infiltration and formation of deposits S5b-C9 (p = 0,042 in the interstitial space. In patients older than 60 years of presence C. trachomatis in the glomerular zone impacts on the expression of TNF-α (p = 0,039 in the glomeruli, the presence of antigen in interstitium affect the number of cells CD71 (p = 0,025 in the interstitial infiltrate. Based on these results, we concluded that the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen has an impact on the development and course of the disease and is the etiologic agent in patients with IgA-nephropathy, regardless of age.

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Low- and High-Risk Filipino Women and Performance of Chlamydia Rapid Tests in Resource-Limited Settings▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Francis; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Michel, Claude-Edouard E.; Buttress, Nigel D.; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V.; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Villaruel, M. Odeta; Canong, Lorna; Celis, Rey L.; Lee, Helen H.

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was determined with a PCR-based test of women from low- and high-risk populations in Iloilo City, Philippines, between August 2002 and March 2006. Two rapid tests for C. trachomatis, Clearview Chlamydia MF and the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT), were also evaluated in these resource-limited settings. Specimens were obtained from female sex workers (FSWs; n = 1,484) attending a social hygiene clinic (SHC) and from women (n = 838) attending an obstetrics-gynecology (OB-GYN) clinic. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the rapid tests were determined, with PCR as the gold standard. The PCR positivity rate for SHC participants (72% asymptomatic) ranged from 17.9 to 32.0% during the study period. Compared with those of PCR, the sensitivities and specificities of the Clearview test were 53.5 and 99.1%, respectively, with endocervical swab specimens (CS; n = 822) from the FSWs and 31.1 and 95.2%, respectively, with vaginal swab specimens (VS; n = 333) from these women. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the CRT with VS from the FSWs were 71.0, 99.0, 97.1, and 87.9%, respectively. At the OB-GYN site, the PCR positivity rate with VS was 6.3%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the CRT with these specimens were 86.8, 99.6, 93.9, and 99.1%, respectively. The performance of the Clearview test at the SHC was thus markedly lower with VS than with CS, whereas the CRT performed well with VS from both populations. PMID:17942659

  9. Active trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in two Gambian regions: on course for elimination by 2020?

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    Emma M Harding-Esch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma has been endemic in The Gambia for decades. National trachoma control activities have been in place since the mid-1980's, but with no mass antibiotic treatment campaign. We aimed to assess the prevalence of active trachoma and of actual ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the two Gambian regions that had had the highest prevalence of trachoma in the last national survey in 1996 prior to planned national mass antibiotic treatment distribution in 2006. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two stage random sampling survey in 61 randomly selected Enumeration Areas (EAs in North Bank Region (NBR and Lower River Region (LRR. Fifty randomly selected children aged under 10 years were examined per EA for clinical signs of trachoma. In LRR, swabs were taken to test for ocular C. trachomatis infection. Unadjusted prevalences of active trachoma were calculated, as would be done in a trachoma control programme. The prevalence of trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF in the 2777 children aged 1-9 years was 12.3% (95% CI 8.8%-17.0% in LRR and 10.0% (95% CI 7.7%-13.0% in NBR, with significant variation within divisions (p<0.01, and a design effect of 3.474. Infection with C. trachomatis was found in only 0.3% (3/940 of children in LRR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows a large discrepancy between the prevalence of trachoma clinical signs and ocular C. trachomatis infection in two Gambian regions. Assessment of trachoma based on clinical signs alone may lead to unnecessary treatment, since the prevalence of active trachoma remains high but C. trachomatis infection has all but disappeared. Assuming that repeated infection is required for progression to blinding sequelae, blinding trachoma is on course for elimination by 2020 in The Gambia.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in undocumented migrants undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

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    Irion Olivier

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI is the most frequent sexual transmitted disease (STI in Switzerland but its prevalence in undocumented migrants is unknown. We aimed to compare CTI prevalence among undocumented migrants undergoing termination of pregnancy (ToP to the prevalence among women with residency permit. Methods This prospective cohort study included all pregnant, undocumented women presenting from March 2005 to October 2006 to the University hospital for ToP. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit coming to the same hospital during the same time period for ToP Results One hundred seventy five undocumented women and 208 women with residency permit (controls were included in the study. Mean ages were 28.0 y (SD 5.5 and 28.2 y (SD 7.5, respectively (p = 0.77. Undocumented women came primarily from Latin-America (78%. Frequently, they lacked contraception (23%, controls 15%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.04;2.9. Thirteen percent of undocumented migrants were found to have CTI (compared to 4.4% of controls; OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4;7.3. Conclusion This population of undocumented, pregnant migrants consisted primarily of young, Latino-American women. Compared to control women, undocumented migrants showed higher prevalence rates of genital CTI, which indicates that health professionals should consider systematic screening for STI in this population. There is a need to design programs providing better access to treatment and education and to increase migrants' awareness of the importance of contraception and transmission of STI.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappello

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60 and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  12. Retesting for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among visitors of a sexually transmitted infections clinic : randomized intervention trial of home- versus clinic-based recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotz, Hannelore M.; Wolfers, Mireille E. G.; Luijendijk, Ad; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4-5 months. Interventions were either home-based sampling by mailed test-kit, o

  13. Retesting for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among visitors of a sexually transmitted infections clinic: Randomized intervention trial of home- versus clinic-based recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Götz (Hannelore); M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); A. Luijendijk (Ad); I.V.F. van den Broek (Ingrid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4-5 months. Interventions were either home-based sampling by mailed

  14. Efficacy of latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass antibiotic treatment: a cluster-randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Stoller, Nicole E.; Gebre, Teshome; Ayele, Berhan; Zerihun, Mulat; Assefa, Yared; Habte, Dereje; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Porco, Travis C.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; House, Jenafir I.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Thomas M Lietman; Emerson, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends environmental improvements such as latrine construction in the integrated trachoma control strategy, SAFE. We report a cluster-randomized trial assessing the effect of intensive latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass treatment with antibiotics.

  15. Improved performance of PACE 2 with modified collection system in combination with probe competition assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral specimens from males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); E. Stolz (Ernst)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe Gen-Probe PACE 2 assay (GP) in combination with a modified collection system was compared with cell culture (CC) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral specimens from males. Analysis of discordant results was performed by PCR. The modific

  16. Design of the FemCure study : prospective multicentre study on the transmission of genital and extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women receiving routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H.T.M.; Wolffs, Petra F G; Eppings, Lisanne; Götz, Hannelore M; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Janssen, Kevin; Lucchesi, Mayk; Heijman, Titia; van Benthem, Birgit H; van Bergen, Jan E; Morre, Servaas A; Herbergs, Jos; Kok, Gerjo; Steenbakkers, Mieke; Hogewoning, Arjan A; de Vries, Henry J; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In women, anorectal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are about as common as genital CT, yet the anorectal site remains largely untested in routine care. Anorectal CT frequently co-occurs with genital CT and may thus often be treated co-incidentally. Nevertheless, post-treatment

  17. Novel cost-effective quality control approach for the Cepheid Xpert CT/NG assay for the detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Maurice; Jiang, Boran; Ng, Siew Yong Lily; Tan, Thean Yen

    2016-06-01

    The Xpert CT/NG is a rapid assay for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. QC materials must be formulated to emulate human specimens, and are prohibitively expensive. A creative, cost-effective QC approach is proposed. The acceptable sample types for the Xpert CT/NG assay were extended to include eye swabs. PMID:27091503

  18. Opportunistische screening op genitale infecties met Chlamydia trachomatis onder de seksueel actieve bevolking in Amsterdam. II. Kosteneffectiviteitsanalyse van screening bij vrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Welte, R; van den Hoek, J A; van Doornum, G J; Coutinho, R A; Jager, J C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening of young women visiting general practitioners. DESIGN: Economic model analysis. METHODS: Data on the health care needs for CT complications were derived from various sources; costing was done using estimated cost p

  19. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine: results of the first international collaborative quality control study among 96 laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); G.T. Noordhoek; P.E. Klapper; J. Reid; J. Schirm; G.M. Cleator; M. Ieven; G. Hoddevik

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples, includ

  20. CHLAMYDIA-TRACHOMATIS INFECTION IN A HIGH-RISK POPULATION - COMPARISON OF POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION AND CELL-CULTURE FOR DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOGELS, WHM; VADER, PCV; SCHRODER, FP

    1993-01-01

    A study to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with the cell culture method in diagnosing urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections was performed. From 497 patients (212 women, 285 men) attending an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases, a total of 814 samples (female pa

  1. Quantitative monitoring of the Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle using GFP-expressing bacteria, microscopy and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Vromman

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria. These pathogens develop inside host cells through a biphasic cycle alternating between two morphologically distinct forms, the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. Recently, C. trachomatis strains stably expressing fluorescent proteins were obtained. The fluorochromes are expressed during the intracellular growth of the microbe, allowing bacterial visualization by fluorescence microscopy. Whether they are also present in the infectious form, the elementary body, to a detectable level has not been studied. Here, we show that a C. trachomatis strain transformed with a plasmid expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP accumulates sufficient quantities of the probe in elementary bodies for detection by microscopy and flow cytometry. Adhesion of single bacteria was detected. The precise kinetics of bacterial entry were determined by microscopy using automated procedures. We show that during the intracellular replication phase, GFP is a convenient read-out for bacterial growth with several advantages over current methods. In particular, infection rates within a non-homogenous cell population are easily quantified. Finally, in spite of their small size, individual elementary bodies are detected by flow cytometers, allowing for direct enumeration of a bacterial preparation. In conclusion, GFP-expressing chlamydiae are suitable to monitor, in a quantitative manner, progression throughout the developmental cycle. This will facilitate the identification of the developmental steps targeted by anti-chlamydial drugs or host factors.

  2. The CD14 functional gene polymorphism -260 C>T is not involved in either the susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection or the development of tubal pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleijster Jolein

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional polymorphism -260 C>T in the LPS sensing TLR4 co-receptor CD14 gene enhances the transcriptional activity and results in a higher CD14 receptor density. Individuals carrying the T/T genotype also have significantly higher serum levels of soluble CD14. The T allele of this polymorphism has recently been linked to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. We investigated the role of the CD14 -260 C>T polymorphism in the susceptibility to and severity (defined as subfertility and/or tubal pathology of C. trachomatis infection in Dutch Caucasian women. Methods The different CD14 -260 C>T genotypes were assessed by PCR-based RFLP analysis in three cohorts: 1 A cohort (n = 576 of women attending a STD clinic, 2 a cohort (n = 253 of women with subfertility, and 3 an ethnically matched control cohort (n = 170. The following variables were used in the analysis: In cohort 1 the CT-DNA status, CT IgG serology status, self-reported symptoms and in cohort 2, the CT IgG serology status and the tubal status at laparoscopy. Results In the control cohort the CC, CT and TT genotype distribution was: 28.2%, 48.2%, and 23.5% respectively. No differences were found in the overall prevalence of CD14 -260 genotypes (28.1%, 50.7%, and 21.2% in cohort 1 when compared to the control cohort. Also no differences were observed in women with or without CT-DNA, with or without serological CT responses, with or without symptoms, or in combinations of these three variables. In subfertile women with tubal pathology (cohort 2, n = 50 the genotype distribution was 28.0%, 48.0%, and 24.0% and in subfertile women without tubal pathology (n = 203, 27.6%, 49.3% and 23.2%. The genotype distribution was unchanged when CT IgG status was introduced in the analyses. Conclusion The CD14 -260 C>T genotype distributions were identical in all three cohorts, showing that this polymorphism is not involved in the susceptibility to or severity of sequelae of C. trachomatis

  3. Proof of concept: A bioinformatic and serological screening method for identifying new peptide antigens for Chlamydia trachomatis related sequelae in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Scott H; Patel, Pooja; Debattista, Joseph; Armitage, Charles W; Cunningham, Kelly; Timms, Peter; Allan, John; Mittal, Aruna; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new peptide antigens from Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis in a proof of concept approach which could be used to develop an epitope-based serological diagnostic for C. trachomatis related infertility in women. A bioinformatics analysis was conducted examining several immunodominant proteins from C. trachomatis to identify predicted immunoglobulin epitopes unique to C. trachomatis. A peptide array of these epitopes was screened against participant sera. The participants (all female) were categorized into the following cohorts based on their infection and gynecological history; acute (single treated infection with C. trachomatis), multiple (more than one C. trachomatis infection, all treated), sequelae (PID or tubal infertility with a history of C. trachomatis infection), and infertile (no history of C. trachomatis infection and no detected tubal damage). The bioinformatics strategy identified several promising epitopes. Participants who reacted positively in the peptide 11 ELISA were found to have an increased likelihood of being in the sequelae cohort compared to the infertile cohort with an odds ratio of 16.3 (95% c.i. 1.65-160), with 95% specificity and 46% sensitivity (0.19-0.74). The peptide 11 ELISA has the potential to be further developed as a screening tool for use during the early IVF work up and provides proof of concept that there may be further peptide antigens which could be identified using bioinformatics and screening approaches. PMID:24600556

  4. Proof of concept: A bioinformatic and serological screening method for identifying new peptide antigens for Chlamydia trachomatis related sequelae in women☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Scott H.; Patel, Pooja; Debattista, Joseph; Armitage, Charles W.; Cunningham, Kelly; Timms, Peter; Allan, John; Mittal, Aruna; Huston, Wilhelmina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new peptide antigens from Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis in a proof of concept approach which could be used to develop an epitope-based serological diagnostic for C. trachomatis related infertility in women. A bioinformatics analysis was conducted examining several immunodominant proteins from C. trachomatis to identify predicted immunoglobulin epitopes unique to C. trachomatis. A peptide array of these epitopes was screened against participant sera. The participants (all female) were categorized into the following cohorts based on their infection and gynecological history; acute (single treated infection with C. trachomatis), multiple (more than one C. trachomatis infection, all treated), sequelae (PID or tubal infertility with a history of C. trachomatis infection), and infertile (no history of C. trachomatis infection and no detected tubal damage). The bioinformatics strategy identified several promising epitopes. Participants who reacted positively in the peptide 11 ELISA were found to have an increased likelihood of being in the sequelae cohort compared to the infertile cohort with an odds ratio of 16.3 (95% c.i. 1.65–160), with 95% specificity and 46% sensitivity (0.19–0.74). The peptide 11 ELISA has the potential to be further developed as a screening tool for use during the early IVF work up and provides proof of concept that there may be further peptide antigens which could be identified using bioinformatics and screening approaches. PMID:24600556

  5. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response. PMID:27606424

  6. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ronzone

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  7. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in McCoy and HeLa-229 cells: an alternative staining technique using toluidine blue.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, N R; Hillary, I B

    1984-01-01

    Toluidine blue staining was used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in both McCoy and HeLa-229 cells from clinical specimens. This method was more sensitive than iodine staining for detecting C trachomatis inclusions in both McCoy and HeLa-229 cells and also more sensitive than Giemsa staining for detecting chlamydial inclusions in HeLa-229 cells. While its sensitivity for detection of chlamydial inclusions in McCoy cells is equal to that of Giemsa staining, toluidine blue staining is...

  8. Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Qiu, Fasheng; Chen, Guantao

    2013-12-20

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificity), as well as budget limits as inputs. Its output suggests optimal screening and treatment strategies for selected at-risk groups, commensurate with the clinic's budget allocation. Development of this tool illustrates how a clinical informatics application based on rigorous mathematics might have a significant impact on real-world clinical issues. PMID:24564848

  9. Comparative proteome analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A, D and L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Gevaert, Kris; Demol, Hans;

    2002-01-01

    chlamydial diseases, was investigated using a proteomics approach. Based on silver stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), gels with purified elementary bodies (EB) and auto-radiography of gels with 35S-labeled C. trachomatis proteins up to 700 protein spots were detectable....... trachomatis D genome and the 7.5 kb C. trachomatis plasmid. Important findings include identification of proteins from the type III secretion apparatus, enzymes from the central metabolism and confirmation of expression of 25 hypothetical ORFs and five polymorphic membrane proteins. Comparison of serovars...... generated novel data on genetic variability as indicated by electrophoretic variation and potentially important examples of serovar specific differences in protein abundance. The availability of the complete genome made it feasible to map and to identify proteins of C. trachomatis on a large scale...

  10. Pmp-like proteins Pls1 and Pls2 are secreted into the lumen of the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Ine; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2008-09-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis secretes effector proteins across the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole (inclusion) to modulate host cellular functions. In an immunological screen for secreted chlamydial proteins, we identified CT049 and CT050 as potential inclusion membrane-associated proteins. These acidic, nonglobular proteins are paralogously related to the passenger domain of the polymorphic membrane protein PmpC and, like other Pmp proteins, are highly polymorphic among C. trachomatis ocular and urogenital strains. We generated antibodies to these Pmp-like secreted (Pls) proteins and determined by immunofluorescence microscopy that Pls1 (CT049) and Pls2 (CT050) localized to globular structures within the inclusion lumen and at the inclusion membrane. Fractionation of membranes and cytoplasmic components from infected cells by differential and density gradient centrifugation further indicated that Pls1 and Pls2 associated with membranes distinct from the bulk of bacterial and inclusion membranes. The accumulation of Pls1 and, to a lesser extent, Pls2 in the inclusion lumen was insensitive to the type III secretion inhibitor C1, suggesting that this translocation system is not essential for Pls protein secretion. In contrast, Pls secretion and stability were sensitive to low levels of beta-lactam antibiotics, suggesting that a functional cell wall is required for Pls secretion from the bacterial cell. Finally, we tested the requirement for these proteins in Chlamydia infection by microinjecting anti-Pls1 and anti-Pls2 antibodies into infected cells. Coinjection of anti-Pls1 and -Pls2 antibodies partially inhibited expansion of the inclusion. Because Pls proteins lack classical sec-dependent secretion signals, we propose that Pls proteins are secreted into the inclusion lumen by a novel mechanism to regulate events important for chlamydial replication and inclusion expansion.

  11. Association of human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infections on the risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, André LP; Malaguti, Natália; Souza, Raquel P; Uchimura, Nelson S; Ferreira, Érika C; Pereira, Monalisa W; Carvalho, Maria DB; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia EL

    2016-01-01

    The link between high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the risk of developing cervical cancer still unclear. Thus, in this report we investigated the rates of co-infections between HPV and other important non-HPV STDs in different cervical findings using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to simultaneously detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum. A total of 838 women aged 18 to 68 years were screened using Papanicolaou smears for cervical abnormalities, HPV and non-HPV STDs using PCR and M-PCR methods. A total of 614 (73.3%) of the women had normal cytology (NILM) and 224 (26.7%) women exhibited abnormal cytology (≥ ASC-US). HPV-DNA prevalence was 33.9%, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype in women with NILM and ≥ ASC-US cytology. Non-HPV STDs were detected in 30.4% women and T. vaginalis was the most prevalent one (11.6%). A higher increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL occurred in co-infections of HR-HPV with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with HSV-2 exhibited a similar increased risk but only with ≥ ASC-US. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with T. vaginalis demonstrated a similar increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL. We found that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were the primary pathogens associated with HR-HPV for the increased risk for all grades of cervical abnormalities but mainly for HSIL, suggesting a possible synergistic action in cervical lesions progression. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some non-HPV STDs might play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. These data improve our understanding of the etiology of SCC and may also be useful for disease prevention. PMID:27429850

  12. Association of human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infections on the risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, André Lp; Malaguti, Natália; Souza, Raquel P; Uchimura, Nelson S; Ferreira, Érika C; Pereira, Monalisa W; Carvalho, Maria Db; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia El

    2016-01-01

    The link between high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the risk of developing cervical cancer still unclear. Thus, in this report we investigated the rates of co-infections between HPV and other important non-HPV STDs in different cervical findings using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to simultaneously detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum. A total of 838 women aged 18 to 68 years were screened using Papanicolaou smears for cervical abnormalities, HPV and non-HPV STDs using PCR and M-PCR methods. A total of 614 (73.3%) of the women had normal cytology (NILM) and 224 (26.7%) women exhibited abnormal cytology (≥ ASC-US). HPV-DNA prevalence was 33.9%, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype in women with NILM and ≥ ASC-US cytology. Non-HPV STDs were detected in 30.4% women and T. vaginalis was the most prevalent one (11.6%). A higher increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL occurred in co-infections of HR-HPV with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with HSV-2 exhibited a similar increased risk but only with ≥ ASC-US. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with T. vaginalis demonstrated a similar increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL. We found that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were the primary pathogens associated with HR-HPV for the increased risk for all grades of cervical abnormalities but mainly for HSIL, suggesting a possible synergistic action in cervical lesions progression. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some non-HPV STDs might play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. These data improve our understanding of the etiology of SCC and may also be useful for disease prevention. PMID:27429850

  13. A characteristic of polymorphic membrane protein F of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Junji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Kumagai, Shouta; Shimoda, Tomoko; Abe, Kiyotaka; Minami, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    Although sexually transmitted disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis occurs similarly in both men and women, the female urogenital tract differs from that of males anatomically and physiologically, possibly leading to specific polymorphisms of the bacterial surface molecules. In the present study, we therefore characterized polymorphic features in a high-definition phylogenetic marker, polymorphic outer membrane protein (Pmp) F of C. trachomatis strains isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan (Category: Japan-males, n = 12), when compared with those isolated from female cervical ducts in Japan (Category: Japan-females, n = 11), female cervical ducts in the other country (Category: Ref-females, n = 12) or homosexual male rectums in the other country (Category: Ref-males, n = 7), by general bioinformatics analysis tool with MAFFT software. As a result, phylogenetic reconstruction of the PmpF amino acid sequences showing three distinct clusters revealed that the Japan-males were limited into cluster 1 and 2, although there were only four clusters even though including an outgroup. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic distance values of PmpF passenger domain without hinge region, but not its full-length sequence, showed that the Japan-males were more stable and displayed less diversity when compared with the other categories, supported by the sequence conservation features. Thus, PmpF passenger domain is a useful phylogenetic maker, and the phylogenic features indicate that C. trachomatis strains isolated from male urogenital tracts in Japan may be unique, suggesting an adaptation depending on selective pressure, such as the presence or absence of microbial flora, furthermore possibly connecting to sexual differentiation.

  14. Unique residues involved in activation of the multitasking protease/chaperone HtrA from Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina M Huston

    Full Text Available DegP, a member of the HtrA family of proteins, conducts critical bacterial protein quality control by both chaperone and proteolysis activities. The regulatory mechanisms controlling these two distinct activities, however, are unknown. DegP activation is known to involve a unique mechanism of allosteric binding, conformational changes and oligomer formation. We have uncovered a novel role for the residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation specifically for chaperone substrates of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA (DegP homolog. We have demonstrated that CtHtrA proteolysis could be activated by allosteric binding and oligomer formation. The PDZ1 activator cleft was required for the activation and oligomer formation. However, unique to CtHtrA was the critical role for residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation when the activator was an in vitro chaperone substrate. Furthermore, a potential in vivo chaperone substrate, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP from Chlamydia, was able to activate CtHtrA and induce oligomer formation. Therefore, we have revealed novel residues involved in the activation of CtHtrA which are likely to have important in vivo implications for outer membrane protein assembly.

  15. Reliability of Nucleic Acid Amplification Methods for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine: Results of the First International Collaborative Quality Control Study among 96 Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Verkooyen, Roel; Noordhoek, G T; Klapper, P.E.; Reid, J.; Schirm, J.; Cleator, G. M.; Ieven, M.; Hoddevik, G.

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples, including three negative, two strongly positive, and five weakly positive samples. Ninety-six laboratories in 22 countries participated with a total of 102 data sets. Of 204 strongly positive samples 199 (97.5%) were corr...

  16. Expression, processing, and localization of PmpD of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey O Kiselev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While families of polymorphic membrane protein (pmp genes have been identified in several Chlamydia species, their function remains mostly unknown. These proteins are of great interest, however, because of their location in the outer membrane and possible role in chlamydial virulence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We analyzed the relative transcription of the pmpD gene, a member of the pmp gene family in C. trachomatis serovar L2, and its protein product translation and processing during the chlamydial developmental cycle. By real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the pmpD gene was found to be upregulated at 16 to 24 four hours after infection. Using polyclonal antibodies generated against the predicted passenger domain of PmpD, we demonstrated that it is initially localized on the surface of reticulate bodies, followed by its secretion outside Chlamydia starting at 24 hours after infection. In elementary bodies, we found a approximately 157 kDa PmpD only inside the cell. Both events, the upregulation of pmpD gene transcription and PmpD protein processing and secretion, are coincidental with the period of replication and differentiation of RBs into EBs. We also demonstrated that, in the presence of penicillin, the cleavage and secretion of the putative passenger domain was suppressed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are in agreement with the general concept that PmpD is an autotransporter protein which is post-translationally processed and secreted in the form of the putative passenger domain outside Chlamydia at mid- to- late point after infection, coinciding with the development of RBs into EBs.

  17. Characterization of two conformational epitopes of the Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 DnaK immunogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Mygind, P; Holm, A;

    1996-01-01

    this protein. By use of recombinant DNA techniques, we located the epitopes for two MAbs in the C-terminal variable part. Although the antibodies reacted in an immunoblot assay, it was not possible to map the epitopes completely by use of 16-mer synthetic peptides displaced by one amino acid corresponding...... to the C-terminal part of C. trachomatis DnaK. To determine the limits of the epitopes, C. trachomatis DnaK and glutatione S-transferase fusion proteins were constructed and affinity purified. The purified DnaK fusion proteins were used for a fluid-phase inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... with the two antibodies. The epitopes were found not to overlap. To obtain DnaK fragments recognized by the antibodies with the same affinity as native C. trachomatis DnaK, it was necessary to express, respectively, regions of 127 and 77 amino acids. The MAbs described in this study thus recognized...

  18. Biodegradable PLGA85/15 nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP-187 peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine has been a formidable task partly because of an ineffective delivery system. Our laboratory has generated a recombinant peptide of C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) (rMOMP-187) and demonstrated that it induced at 20 μg ml−1 maximal interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12p40 Th1 cytokines in mouse J774 macrophages. In a continuous pursuit of a C. trachomatis effective vaccine-delivery system, we encapsulated rMOMP-187 in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 85:15 PLA/PGA ratio) to serve as a nanovaccine candidate. Physiochemical characterizations were assessed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Zetasizer, Zeta potential, transmission electron microcopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated rMOMP-187 was small (∼200 nm) with an apparently smooth uniform oval structure, thermally stable (54 °C), negatively charged ( − 27.00 mV) and exhibited minimal toxicity at concentrations −1 to eukaryotic cells (>95% viable cells) over a 24–72 h period. We achieved a high encapsulation efficiency of rMOMP-187 (∼98%) in PLGA, a loading peptide capacity of 2.7% and a slow release of the encapsulated peptide. Stimulation of J774 macrophages with a concentration as low as 1 μg ml −1 of encapsulated rMOMP-187 evoked high production levels of the Th1 cytokines IL-6 (874 pg ml−1) and IL-12p40 (674 pg ml−1) as well as nitric oxide (8 μM) at 24 h post-stimulation, and in a dose-response and time-kinetics manner. Our data indicate the successful encapsulation and characterization of rMOMP-187 in PLGA and, more importantly, that PLGA enhanced the capacity of the peptide to induce Th1 cytokines and NO in vitro. These findings make this nanovaccine an attractive candidate in pursuit of an efficacious vaccine against C. trachomatis. (paper)

  19. Biodegradable PLGA85/15 nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP-187 peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Murtada A.; Singh, Shree R.; Dennis, Vida A.

    2012-08-01

    Development of a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine has been a formidable task partly because of an ineffective delivery system. Our laboratory has generated a recombinant peptide of C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) (rMOMP-187) and demonstrated that it induced at 20 μg ml-1 maximal interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12p40 Th1 cytokines in mouse J774 macrophages. In a continuous pursuit of a C. trachomatis effective vaccine-delivery system, we encapsulated rMOMP-187 in poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA, 85:15 PLA/PGA ratio) to serve as a nanovaccine candidate. Physiochemical characterizations were assessed by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Zetasizer, Zeta potential, transmission electron microcopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated rMOMP-187 was small (˜200 nm) with an apparently smooth uniform oval structure, thermally stable (54 °C), negatively charged ( - 27.00 mV) and exhibited minimal toxicity at concentrations 95% viable cells) over a 24-72 h period. We achieved a high encapsulation efficiency of rMOMP-187 (˜98%) in PLGA, a loading peptide capacity of 2.7% and a slow release of the encapsulated peptide. Stimulation of J774 macrophages with a concentration as low as 1 μg ml -1 of encapsulated rMOMP-187 evoked high production levels of the Th1 cytokines IL-6 (874 pg ml-1) and IL-12p40 (674 pg ml-1) as well as nitric oxide (8 μM) at 24 h post-stimulation, and in a dose-response and time-kinetics manner. Our data indicate the successful encapsulation and characterization of rMOMP-187 in PLGA and, more importantly, that PLGA enhanced the capacity of the peptide to induce Th1 cytokines and NO in vitro. These findings make this nanovaccine an attractive candidate in pursuit of an efficacious vaccine against C. trachomatis.

  20. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pulido

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades asociadas a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y la vaginosis bacteriana son de importancia en la población sexual mente activa, por lo que amerita estudiarlas. Con la finalidad de conocer su frecuencia en Cartagena se estudiaron, entre 1988 y 1990, 431 mujeres que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Universitario de Cartagena o al Centro Venereológico de la misma ciudad (167 pacientes en el primero y 264 en el segundo; su edad promedio era 28 años. Utilizando el inmunoensayo enzimático en fase sólida (ELISA se buscó la C. trachomatis y se hallaron frecuencias de infección de 5.4 y 17.4% en el primero y el segundo grupos, respectivamente; tal diferencia fue significativa (p < 0.005. Mediante exámenes directos y cultivos se demostraron las siguientes frecuencias de infección en las pacientes de consulta ginecológica y en las del Centro Venereológico, en su orden: Gardenerella vaginalis en 33.5% y 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en 0.6 y 2.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis en 5.4 y 4.5%, Candida spp. en 13.2 y 10.2%. No hubo entre estas tasas diferencias significativas. Se observó relación entre la positividad para C. trachomatis y las entidades usualmente asociadas con ella: en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico la frecuencia de cervicitis fue 39% en las infectadas por C. trachomatis y 11.5% en las no Infectadas (p < 0.01; en las de la consulta ginecológica hubo Enfermedad Pélvica inflamatoria en 4 de las 9 Infectadas (44.4% y en sólo 11 de las 158 no infectadas (7% (Prueba de Fisher p = 0.004. El uso de anticonceptivos orales tuvo asociación significativa (p < 0.01 con la infección por Chlamydia en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico pero no en las de la consulta ginecológica; en efecto: 28.8% de las mujeres del Centro que utilizaban estos anticonceptivos y ninguna de las que no recurran a ellos resultaron positivas para esta bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis fue la bacteria más frecuentemente

  1. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.;

    2006-01-01

    background. To study a relationship between interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter -1082 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response during C trachomatis infection in vitro, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine (IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5) secretion were analysed in subjects with different...

  2. Prevalência de anticorpos para chlamydia trachomatis em grupos populacionais do Brasil, Inglaterra e Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de anticorpos IgG, grupo-específico para Chlamydia, em populações do Brasil, Inglaterra e Portugal foi determinada através do teste de imunofluorescência indireta, tendo-se como antígeno a cepa SA2 (f. Foram considerados positivos os soros com títulos de IgG >1:32. Dentre as populações brasileiras, a prevalência de anticorpos para Chlamydia foi maior em Serra Norte (76,2%, p < 0,01 do que nas das populações de Belém (53,6% e dos Índios Xicrins (51,3%. Entre os pacientes do Departamento de Medicina Genito-Urinária do University College Hospital (UCH e do quadro do mesmo Hospital, a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia foi de 62% e 53,1%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-Chlamydia foram detectados em 54% e 66% na Inglaterra e em 56% e 68% em Portugal, nas pacientes do sexo feminino que freqüentavam Clínicas de Pré-Natal e de Infertilidade, respectivamente, Os resultados encontrados mostram uma alta exposição das populações testadas, à Chlamydia, principalmente do grupo de baixo nível sócio-econômico de Serra Norte, Brasil. A evidência de infecção por Chlamydia é da mesma ordem, tanto no Brasil, quanto na Inglaterra e Portugal.

  3. Mixture-of-exponentials models to explain heterogeneity in studies of the duration of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Malcolm J; Ades, A E; Angelis, Daniela De; Welton, Nicky J; Macleod, John; Soldan, Kate; Turner, Katy; Simms, Ian; Horner, Paddy J

    2013-04-30

    Published studies of the duration of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women have produced diverse estimates, and most reviewers have not attempted an evidence synthesis. We review the designs of duration studies, distinguishing between the incident cases presenting soon after infection in clinic-based studies and prevalent cases ascertained in population screening studies. We combine evidence from all studies under fixed-effect (single clearance rate), random-effect (study-specific clearance rate), and mixture-of-exponentials models, in which there are either two or three classes of infection that clear at different rates. We can identify classes as 'passive' infection and fast-clearing and slow-clearing infections. We estimate models by Bayesian MCMC and compared them using posterior mean residual deviance and the deviance information criterion. The single fixed-effect clearance rate model fitted very poorly. The random-effect model was adequate but inferior to the two-class and three-class mixture of exponentials. According to the two-class model, the proportion in the first class was 23% (95% CI: 16-31%), and the mean duration of C. trachomatis infection is 1.36 years (95% CI: 1.13-1.63 years). With the three-rate model, duration was similar, but identification of the proportions in each class (19%, 31%, and 49%) was poor. Although the random-effect model was descriptively adequate, the extreme degree of between-study variation in the clearance rate it predicted lacked biological plausibility. Differences in study recruitment and sampling mechanisms, acting through a mixture-of-exponentials model, better explains the apparent heterogeneity in duration. PMID:22949217

  4. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you may not notice them until several weeks after you get chlamydia. Signs and symptoms may include: Bleeding ... you may not notice them until several weeks after you get chlamydia. Signs and symptoms may include: Bleeding ...

  5. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Casper L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72% involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%, while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83% and oropharyngeal infection (100% would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline

  6. Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Chlamydia trachomatis y anti-Neisseria gonorrhoeae en grupos de individuos de la población mexicana Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Mexican populations

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    María del Carmen Cravioto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT y Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG en grupos de individuos con diferente riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal multicéntrico efectuado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, de la Ciudad de México, de enero de 1992 a diciembre de 1993, en el que se estudiaron 945 individuos en edad reproductiva, 585 mujeres y 360 hombres. Según su riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual se clasificaron en grupos de alto y bajo riesgo. Los de alto riesgo incluyeron mujeres infértiles con daño tubario, mujeres con embarazo ectópico o aborto, hombres infértiles, pacientes con VIH/SIDA, hombres homo o bisexuales y trabajadoras del sexo comercial (TSC. Los de bajo riesgo: mujeres primigestas, hombres fértiles y mujeres infértiles sin daño tubario. Se determinó en duplicado IgG e IgA anti-NG y anti-CT en suero, por análisis inmunoenzimático, utilizando como antígeno el pili de NG y la fracción L1 de CT. Se calcularon porcentajes. RESULTADOS: En mujeres la prevalencia para NG fue IgG 13.7% e IgA 14.3%, y para CT fue IgG 11.4% e IgA 4.4%. En hombres, NG 3.3% y 13.3%, respectivamente, y para CT 7.2% y 5.5%, respectivamente. En TSC se encontró NG en 31.2 % y 28.4%, respectivamente, y para CT 25.0% y 5.7%, respectivamente. En mujeres con infertilidad por daño tubario, NG 5.6% y 9.8%, respectivamente, y CT 8.4% y 1.4%, respectivamente. En 110 primigestas jóvenes, NG 4.5% y 10.0%, respectivamente, y CT 3.6% y 9.1%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Estos datos confirman la prevalencia elevada de Neisseria gonorrhoeae y Chlamydia trachomatis en trabajadoras del sexo comercial y en hombres homo/bisexuales, pero no en otros grupos de alto riesgo como las mujeres infértiles, con aborto o embarazo ectópico.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  7. Advances in epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection%泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染的流行病学进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑冰洁; 尹跃平

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is a common pathogen spread through sexual and mother-tochild transmission. There has been a year-by-year increase in the infection rate of CT and incidence rate of CTrelated diseases. The prevalence trend and genotype distribution of CT vary with areas and populations at home and abroad. CT can cause various urogenital tract diseases. Young women, people with multiple sexual partners and homosexual men all belong to populations at a high risk for CT infection. This article describes recent epidemiology of genital CT infection so as to provide a reference for further researches in and prevention of CT infection.%沙眼衣原体是一种常见的性传播疾病病原体,可通过性传播和垂直传播.泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染率和发病率逐年增加,且在国内外不同地区和人群中的流行趋势及基因型分布有所不同.沙眼衣原体能导致多种泌尿生殖系统疾病,年轻女性、多性伴者、男同性恋者均是沙眼衣原体感染的高危人群.概述近年来泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染流行病学研究,为进一步的研究和预防提供参考.

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in the Colombo district, Sri Lanka

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    Gunasekera Henadira Appuhamilage Kamani Mangalika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Sri Lanka little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection. Objective was to determine the prevalence of CT in female patients attending sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in the Colombo district. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for the prevalence of CT in all female patients (n = 168 more than 18 years of age, attending two STD clinics in the Colombo district from January to May 2012. Endocervical swabs were collected and tested for CT using the Amplicor CT/NG polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: Prevalence of CT in females attending the STD clinics in the Colombo district was 8.3%. Mean age of those infected with CT was 32.9 years (SD ± 8.2. Majority of females with CT infections were Sinhalese and married. There was no significant association with age, ethnicity or being married or not. Females who did not attend school, or had their education only up to Grade 5 were significantly found to have six times the risk of having CT infection (95% CI = 1.8-22.6. A significant association was found with number of sexual partners but not with commercial sex work or past history of STD. Conclusions: Prevalence of CT was moderately high in this population.

  9. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigal, Karnika; Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama

    2016-01-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164) were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines. PMID:27166039

  10. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

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    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  11. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Davood; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  12. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16–80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15–30 (group I, 31–40 (group II, and ≥41 years old (group III. A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs, their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  13. Exploring Short-Term Responses to Changes in the Control Strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis

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    James Clarke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  14. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  15. Use of a urine enzyme immunoassay as a diagnostic tool for Chlamydia trachomatis urethritis in men.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwebke, J. R.; Clark, A M; Pettinger, M. B.; Nsubga, P; Stamm, W E

    1991-01-01

    We collected first-voided urine specimens from 659 males attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and performed both enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for detection of chlamydial antigen and leukocyte esterase testing on these urine samples. The overall prevalence of chlamydial urethritis in the study population as determined by culture of urethral swabs was 11%. However, 46% of all men in the study had no symptoms of urethritis. Compared with urethral cultures for chlamydiae, the urine EIA had...

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP nanoparticles in mouse macrophages infected with live Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Yilma AN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abebayehu N Yilma, Shree R Singh, Saurabh Dixit, Vida A DennisCenter for Nanobiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a very common sexually transmissible infection in both developing and developed countries. A hallmark of C. trachomatis infection is the induction of severe inflammatory responses which play critical roles in its pathogenesis. Antibiotics are the only treatment option currently available for controlling C. trachomatis infection; however, they are efficacious only when administered early after an infection. The objectives of this study are to explore alternative strategies in the control and regulation of inflammatory responses triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. We employed silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP nanoparticles, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, as our target and the in vitro mouse J774 macrophage model of C. trachomatis infection. Our hypothesis is that small sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles will control inflammatory mediators triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. Cytotoxicity studies using Ag-PVP nanoparticles of 10, 20, and 80 nm sizes revealed >80% macrophage viability up to a concentration of 6.25 µg/mL, with the 10 nm size being the least toxic. All sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, especially the 10 nm size, reduced the levels of the prototypic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin (IL-6, as elicited from C. trachomatis infected macrophages. Additionally, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm selectively inhibited a broad spectrum of other cytokines and chemokines produced by infected macrophages. Of significance, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm caused perturbations in a variety of upstream (toll like receptor 2 [TLR2], nucleotide-binding oligomerization-protein 2 [NOD2], cluster of differentiation [CD]40, CD80, and CD86 and downstream (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 [IRAK3] and matrix

  17. [A microbiological study of swabs taken laparoscopically in cases of salpingitis and tubal sterility. Research for Chlamydia trachomatis and for mycoplasmas (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Suchet, J; Catalan, F; Loffredo, V; Serfaty, D; Piboulet, A; Perol, Y; Sanson, M J; Debache, C; Pigeau, F; Coppin, R; de Brux, J; Paynard, T

    1980-01-01

    Research was made for chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum in the peritoneum and the tubes of 99 women divided into 4 groups: 17 of them were being investigated because of acute salpingitis (Group A), 17 were being investigated for tubal sterility with chronic inflammation diagnosed laparoscopically (Group B), 29 were being investigated for tubal sterility without any laparoscopic evidence of inflammation (Group C) and 36 women had absolutely normal pelves and were being investigated for sterility. These were the control group (D). Swabs were also taken from the lower genital tracts as well as serological tests for chlamydia trachomatis and cytological samplings of the fluid from the Pouch of Douglas and the histology of the tubes. In the 17 women who had acute salpingitis the swabs 4 cases of C.T. and 4 of U.U. In the 46 women who had tubal sterility the laparoscopic swabs showed cases of C.T. and 7 of U.U. The swabs were most often positive in Group B. This group is characterised by a special appearence of the inflammation, with fluid present and viscous adhesions as well as peritoneal inflammatory cysts. These altogether help to make a presumptive diagnosis of C.T. infection on laparoscopy. In the control group of 36 cases there was no sign of C.T. in any case, although 2 swabs from the peritoneum showed U.U. So there is a statistically significant difference between the groups that were suspicious and the control group whether the results were obtained by cultures or by serological diagnosis. On the other hand there is no definitive difference as far as U.U. is concerned. These observations, which are similar to those published by other authors, lead us to think that micro-organisms and especially chlamydia trachomatis could be the bacteriological agent responsible for chronic inflammatory states found so frequently in women with tubal sterility. PMID:6450231

  18. In vitro activity of nonoxynol 9 on HeLa 229 cells and primary monkey cervical epithelial cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, D L; Wang, S. K.; Kuo, C C

    1992-01-01

    Nonoxynol 9 (non-9) is the active ingredient in a wide variety of vaginal contraceptive preparations. The manufacturer recommendation for optimal contraceptive practice is repeated application every 6 h. We studied the in vitro activity of non-9 against Chlamydia trachomatis (E/UW-5/Cx) and its toxicity against HeLa 229 cells and monkey cervical epithelial cells. With a contact time of 6 h, non-9 was toxic to HeLa cells at concentrations of 50 micrograms/ml or greater and to monkey cervical c...

  19. Gene knockout mice establish a primary protective role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted responses in Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, R P; Feilzer, K; Tumas, D B

    1995-01-01

    Mice with disrupted beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m-/-), I-A (class II-/-), or CD4 (CD4-/-) genes were examined for their capacity to resolve Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection. C57BL/6 and beta 2m-/- mice resolved infection similarly and were culture negative by 4 to 5 weeks following infection. Conversely, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-/- mice failed to resolve infection, and CD4-/- mice showed a significant delay (2 weeks). Secondary challenge of C57BL/6, beta 2m...

  20. Evaluation of Three Automated Nucleic Acid Amplification Systems for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in First-Void Urine Specimens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Levett, P N; Brandt, K.; Olenius, K.; Brown, C.; Montgomery, K.; Horsman, G. B.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 500 first-void urine specimens were tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae nucleic acids using ProbeTec ET reagents on a Viper platform (BD Diagnostics, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada), Aptima Combo 2 reagents on a Tigris platform (Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, CA), and Abbott RealTime CT/NG reagents on an m2000 platform (Abbott Molecular Diagnostics, Des Plaines, IL). The performance of the three assays for detection of N. gonorrhoeae was comparable...

  1. Partner's Sexual Behaviora are an Important Risk Factor for Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among STD Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yunhua(邓云华); CHEN Xingping(陈兴平); ZHOU Liyi(周礼义); CHEN Yinling(陈映玲); WAN Mufen(万沐芬)

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Risk factors for genitourinary Chlamydiatrachomatis (Ct) infection were investigated using an STDrelative risk factor questionnaire among 176 patients and theirregular sexual partners. Twenty-four independent variableswere selected for analysis, nine of which were confirmed asfactors associated with C. trachomatis. Four of the nine factorswere significantly correlated to infection using a multifactorialunconditional logistic regression model which included: levelof education ( odds ratios [ORs]: 2.144 for below junior middleschool ), number of sexual partners ( ORs: 4.503 for ≥5 ),number of regular partner's sexual partner ( ORs: 16.333 for≥5 ), STD history of regular partner ( ORs: 18.417 for theirSTD history ). These data demonstrate that regular partner'ssexual behaviors are also an important risk factor for Ctinfection among STD clinic clients.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis: um importante agente de infecções respiratórias em lactentes de famílias de baixa renda

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    Edna Lucia Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de infecção do trato respiratório inferior (ITRI por Chlamydia trachomatis em lactentes internados e descrever as características clínicas, laboratoriais e radiológicas da doença. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo do tipo corte transversal, realizado durante um período de 12 meses. Foram incluídos todos os lactentes de até 6 meses internados consecutivamente no Centro Pediátrico Professor Hosannah de Oliveira da Universidade Federal da Bahia, em Salvador, BA, com diagnóstico clínico ou clínico-radiológico de ITRI. O diagnóstico de infecção por C. trachomatis foi realizado através da pesquisa de anticorpos da classe IgM, utilizando-se o ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA. A prevalência de ITRI por C. trachomatis foi determinada, e foram calculadas as razões de prevalência para essa infecção e variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Cento e cinquenta e um lactentes realizaram sorologia para C. trachomatis, das quais 15 (9,9% foram positivas. A infecção por C. trachomatis ocorreu unicamente entre os menores de 5 meses, principalmente naqueles menores de 2 meses. Três crianças com infecção por C. trachomatis nasceram de parto cesáreo. Conjuntivite e eosinofilia ocorreram em 33,3% dos casos. As radiografias de tórax se mostraram alteradas em 92% dos casos. Demonstrou-se associação da infecção por C. trachomatis com duração de internação superior a 15 dias (p = 0,0398 e com oxigenoterapia (p = 0,0484. CONCLUSÕES: Houve alta prevalência de ITRI por C. trachomatis na população estudada. A infecção por esta bactéria foi associada a uma forma mais grave da doença, demonstrando a importância de se investigar essa infecção na gestante de forma a evitar o adoecimento de recém-nascidos.

  3. Application of β-lactamase reporter fusions as an indicator of effector protein secretion during infections with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Konrad E Mueller

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. utilize multiple secretion systems, including the type III secretion system (T3SS, to deploy host-interactive effector proteins into infected host cells. Elucidation of secreted proteins has traditionally required ectopic expression in a surrogate T3SS followed by immunolocalization of endogenous candidate effectors to confirm secretion by chlamydiae. The ability to transform Chlamydia and achieve stable expression of recombinant gene products has enabled a more direct assessment of secretion. We adapted TEM-1 β-lactamase as a reporter system for assessment of chlamydial protein secretion. We provide evidence that this system facilitates visualization of secretion in the context of infection. Specifically, our findings provide definitive evidence that C. trachomatis CT695 is secreted during infection. Follow-up indirect immunofluorescence studies confirmed CT695 secretion and indicate that this effector can be secreted at multiple points during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results indicate that the BlaM-fusion reporter assay will allow efficacious identification of novel secreted proteins. Moreover, this approach can easily be adapted to enable more sophisticated studies of the secretion process in Chlamydia.

  4. Inhibitory effects of 405 nm irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis growth and characterization of the ensuing inflammatory response in HeLa cells

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    Wasson Cassandra J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium that resides in the conjunctival and reproductive tract mucosae and is responsible for an array of acute and chronic diseases. A percentage of these infections persist even after use of antibiotics, suggesting the need for alternative treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated anti-bacterial effects using different wavelengths of visible light at varying energy densities, though only against extracellular bacteria. We investigated the effects of visible light (405 and 670 nm irradiation via light emitting diode (LEDs on chlamydial growth in endocervical epithelial cells, HeLa, during active and penicillin-induced persistent infections. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of this photo treatment on the ensuing secretion of IL-6 and CCL2, two pro-inflammatory cytokines that have previously been identified as immunopathologic components associated with trichiasis in vivo. Results C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells were treated with 405 or 670 nm irradiation at varying energy densities (0 – 20 J/cm2. Bacterial growth was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analyzing the 16S: GAPDH ratio, while cell-free supernatants were examined for IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2 production. Our results demonstrated a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on chlamydial growth during both active and persistent infections following 405 nm irradiation. Diminished bacterial load corresponded to lower IL-6 concentrations, but was not related to CCL2 levels. In vitro modeling of a persistent C. trachomatis infection induced by penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated IL-6 levels compared to C. trachomatis infection alone, though 405 nm irradiation had a minimal effect on this production. Conclusion Together these results identify novel inhibitory effects of 405 nm violet light on the bacterial growth of intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis in

  5. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV distribution and sexual behaviors across gender and age group in an African setting.

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    Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to (1 describe the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases across gender and age groups in Libreville (Gabon; (2 examine Gabonese Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs-related risk behaviour. METHODS: The sampled population was people attending the "Laboratoire National de Santé Plublique". Between 2007 and 2011, 14 667 and 9 542 people respectively, were tested for CT and HIV infections. 1 854 of them were tested for both infections. We calculated CT and HIV rates across gender and age groups. Also analysed was the groups' contribution to the general CT and HIV epidemiology. STIs-related risk behaviours were assessed in 224 men and 795 women (between July 2011 and March 2013 who agreed and answered a questionnaire including questions on their marital status, number of sex partners, sexual practices, history of STIs, sex frequency and condom use. RESULTS: Data showed a 24% dropped in the CT infection rate between 2007 and 2010, followed by a 14% increase in 2011. The HIV infection rates for the same period were between 15% and 16%. The risk of a CT-positive subject getting HIV is about 0.71 times the risk of a CT-negative subject. Young adult aged between 18 and 35 years old represented 65.2% of people who had STIs. 80% of women and 66% of men confessed to an inconsistent use of condoms. 11.6% of women and 48% of men declared having multiple sex partners. 61% of questioned women and 67% of men declared knowing their HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: In this Gabonese setting, the population-aged from 18 to 35 years is the most affected by STIs. Other matters of concern are the inconsistent use of protection and sex with non-spousal or non-life partners.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women with HIV in São Paulo

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    Valdir Monteiro Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection among women with HIV in São Paulo. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included women with HIV who were receiving care from sixteen public health services in São Paulo (October 2013 to March 2014. All participants answered a questionnaire regarding their sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. A urine sample was tested for CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG using the polymerase chain reaction. The chi-square test and a logistic regression model were used to test the associations with CT or NG infections. RESULTS: We evaluated 853 women and ultimately included 836 (98% women. The mean age was 40.5 ± 0.34 years, and the prevalences of CT and NG infections were 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively. CT infection was associated with CD4+ T-cell counts of <350 cells/mm3 [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj: 24.5], age of 18-25 years (ORadj: 23.2, the non-use of condoms during the last 6 months (ORadj: 10.2, a self-reported history of a sexually transmitted infection (ORadj: 9.4, and having two or more sexual partners during the last year (ORadj: 6.1. CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed a low prevalence of CT infection among women with HIV, younger age was associated with a high risk of infection. Therefore, it may be appropriate to include screening for CT as part of the routine care for this population.

  8. Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection – a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway

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    Gravningen Kirsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%. Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0. Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3, and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7 increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42 decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0 increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6, and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8. Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia

  9. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmacy-based screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis in a high-risk health centre population in Amsterdam using mailed home-collected urine samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, JEAM; Postma, MJ; Peerbooms, PGH; Spangenberg, AC; Tjen-A-Tak, J; Bindels, PJE

    2004-01-01

    In order to increase case-detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in a multicultural, low-income and high-CT-prevalence neighbourhood, a novel approach was piloted in collaboration with the pharmacy of the health centre. During a two-year period, women aged 15-29 years who collected their contracept

  10. Performance of cobas® 4800 and m2000 real-time™ assays for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in rectal and self-collected vaginal specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Tanja H; Rossen, John W; Beerens, Antoine M; Poort, Linda; Morré, Servaas A; Ritmeester, Wilma S; van Kruchten, Harry E; van de Pas, Masja M; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2013-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter trial was designed to compare the performance characteristics of the cobas® 4800 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN, USA) and m2000 real-time™ (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL, USA) assays for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)

  11. Comparative evaluation of Roche Aurora FLOW, Becton and Dickinson Viper system, and Dynex DS2 for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis in various clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Costa, Sandra; Veenings, Sanne; Tuin, Hellen; van Loon, Linda; Bliekendaal, Harry

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a high-throughput system, Aurora FLOW, for the simultaneous detection of 3 clinically relevant pathogens of sexually transmitted infections. Comparative evaluation with other systems revealed an overall concordance of 97.9% for Chlamydia trachomatis and comparable performance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis.

  12. 沙眼衣原体对喹诺酮类耐药机制的进展%Update on the mechanism of Chlamydia trachomatis resistance to quinolones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓静; 刘全忠

    2009-01-01

    Quinolones are commonly used to treat Chlamydiatra chomatis inection in clinic at present.However,the resistance of Chlamydia trachomatis to quinolones has been increasingly reported.It has becn shown that the resistance is related to point mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determinning region of DNA gyrase gene and topoisomerase IV subunit genes.These mutations are located most commonly at Ser-83,less frequently at Asp-87.There are also some other mechanisms underlying the resistance.Further studies are needed for the elucidation of exact mechanism of Chlamydia trachomatis resistance to quinolones.%喹诺酮类药物目前在临床上常用于治疗沙眼衣原体感染,但近年来有关沙眼衣原体对其耐药的报道不断出现.研究发现,喹诺酮类耐药的产生与DNA回旋酶和拓扑异构酶Ⅳ亚单位基因的喹诺酮耐药决定区域的点突变有关.最常见的突变位于Ser-83,少数情况下位于Asp-87,还有一些其他可能的耐药机制.沙眼衣原体对喹诺酮类耐药的确切机制尚待进一步研究.

  13. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with new or multiple sexual partners, particularly if protection with condoms is inconsistent. Re-infection of chlamydia happens easily if a sex partner is not treated. Signs and ... with oral antibiotics (usually azithromycin or doxycycline). All sexual partners ...

  14. 新生儿衣原体肺炎24例临床分析%Retrospective clinical analysis of neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in 24 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟倩; 曹云; 蒋思远; 陈超; 帕米尔

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析24例新生儿沙眼衣原体肺炎患儿相关临床资料,提高对新生儿沙眼衣原体肺炎的认识.方法应用实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测2005年6月至2011年10月因肺炎收治复旦大学附属儿科医院新生儿科患儿呼吸道标本中的DNA,回顾性分析24例惠儿的病史特点、临床表现、实验室检查、影像学特点、治疗及转归情况.结果 新生儿沙眼衣原体肺炎主要表现为阵发性咳嗽、无热或低热、外周血嗜酸性粒细胞计数增高及X线胸片双肺广泛间质和(或)肺泡浸润,予红霉素或阿奇霉素治疗,均好转或治愈.初始误诊为肺结核5例,误诊率20.8%.结论 新生儿衣原体肺炎无特异的临床及影像学表现,尤其是X线胸片易误诊为肺结核,应尽早行病原学检查,有利于及时诊治,减少并发症,红霉素或阿奇霉素是治疗衣原体肺炎有效的首选抗生素.%Objective To analyze clinical features of neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia to improve clinical management. Methods The data of 24 confirmed Chlamydia trachomatis cases were retrospectively reviewed, including epidemiological data, clinical manifestations, laboratory features, imaging, treatment and prognosis. Real-time poly-merase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA of deep respiratory samples of hospitalized children with pneumonia in Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, from June 2005 to October 2011. Results The main clinical features were: paroxysmal cough, afebrile, and increased peripheral blood eosinophil count. Chest X-ray features were extensive infiltrates of interstitial lung and (or) alveolar! After being confirmed, the patients were treated with erythromycin or azithromycin. All the patients were cured or improved. Initially ,20.8%(5/24)of the patients were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Conclusion Neonatal Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia has no specific clinical and imaging

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Immune Evasion via Downregulation of MHC Class I Surface Expression Involves Direct and Indirect Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ibana, Joyce A.; Schust, Danny J.; Jun Sugimoto; Takeshi Nagamatsu; Greene, Sheila J.; Alison J. Quayle

    2011-01-01

    Genital C. trachomatis infections typically last for many months in women. This has been attributed to several strategies by which C. trachomatis evades immune detection, including well-described methods by which C. trachomatis decreases the cell surface expression of the antigen presenting molecules major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, MHC class II, and CD1d in infected genital epithelial cells. We have harnessed new methods that allow for separate evaluation of infected and uni...

  17. The DUF582 Proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis Bind to Components of the ESCRT Machinery, Which Is Dispensable for Bacterial Growth In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromman, François; Perrinet, Stéphanie; Gehre, Lena; Subtil, Agathe

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram negative bacteria that develop exclusively inside eukaryotic host cells, within a membrane-bounded compartment. Members of the family Chlamydiaceae, such as Chlamydia trachomatis, are pathogenic species infecting vertebrates. They have a very reduced genome and exploit the capacities of their host for their own development, mainly through the secretion of proteins tailored to interfere with eukaryotic processes, called effector proteins. All Chlamydiaceae possess genes coding for four to five effectors that share a domain of unknown function (DUF582). Here we show that four of these effectors, which represent the conserved set in all Chlamydiaceae, accumulate in the infectious form of C. trachomatis, and are therefore likely involved in an early step of the developmental cycle. The fifth member of the family, CT621, is specific to C. trachomatis, and is secreted during the growth phase. Using a two-hybrid screen in yeast we identified an interaction between the host protein Hrs and the DUF582, which we confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations in co-transfected mammalian cells. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that a second domain of one of the DUF582 proteins, CT619, binds the host protein Tsg101. Hrs and Tsg101 are both implicated in a well conserved machinery of the eukaryotic cell called the ESCRT machinery, which is involved in several cellular processes requiring membrane constriction. Using RNA interference targeting proteins implicated at different stages of ESCRT-driven processes, or inhibition by expression of a dominant negative mutant of VPS4, we demonstrated that this machinery was dispensable for bacterial entry, multiplication and differentiation into infectious progeny, and for uptake of glycogen into the parasitophorous vacuole. In light of these observations we discuss how the DUF582 proteins might target the ESCRT machinery during infection. PMID:27774439

  18. Actin re-organization induced by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D--evidence for a critical role of the effector protein CT166 targeting Rac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Thalmann

    Full Text Available The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes infections of urogenital tract, eyes or lungs. Alignment reveals homology of CT166, a putative effector protein of urogenital C. trachomatis serovars, with the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs. CGTs contain an essential DXD-motif and mono-glucosylate GTP-binding proteins of the Rho/Ras families, the master regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. CT166 is preformed in elementary bodies of C. trachomatis D and is detected in the host-cell shortly after infection. Infection with high MOI of C. trachomatis serovar D containing the CT166 ORF induces actin re-organization resulting in cell rounding and a decreased cell diameter. A comparable phenotype was observed in HeLa cells treated with the Rho-GTPase-glucosylating Toxin B from Clostridium difficile (TcdB or HeLa cells ectopically expressing CT166. CT166 with a mutated DXD-motif (CT166-mut exhibited almost unchanged actin dynamics, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosyltransferase motif of CT166. The cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1 from E. coli deamidates and thereby activates Rho-GTPases and transiently protects them against TcdB-induced glucosylation. CNF1-treated cells were found to be protected from TcdB- and CT166-induced actin re-organization. CNF1 treatment as well as ectopic expression of non-glucosylable Rac1-G12V, but not RhoA-G14A, reverted CT166-induced actin re-organization, suggesting that CT166-induced actin re-organization depends on the glucosylation of Rac1. In accordance, over-expression of CT166-mut diminished TcdB induced cell rounding, suggesting shared substrates. Cell rounding induced by high MOI infection with C. trachomatis D was reduced in cells expressing CT166-mut or Rac1-G12V, and in CNF1 treated cells. These observations indicate that the cytopathic effect of C. trachomatis D is mediated by CT166 induced Rac1 glucosylation

  19. Should screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in HIV-men who have sex with men be recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pérez-Hernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STI like Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG have been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition (1. It has been also described as a high prevalence of asymptomatic CT and NG infections in men who have sex with men (MSM (2. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of CT and/or NG infections in asymptomatic HIV-MSM and the related factors. Materials and Methods: Prospective study of a cohort of asymptomatic HIV-MSM with follow-up in Malaga (southern Spain during October 2012–May 2014. Patients with an opportunistic event or who received active antibiotic therapy for CT and/or NG in the previous month were excluded. All of them completed a questionnaire about sexual behaviour, barrier methods and recreational drugs use. Demographical, epidemiological, clinical, analytical and therapeutic data were also collected. Pharyngeal and rectal swabs, and urine samples were collected to be tested for CT and NG by nucleic acid amplification test (c4800 CT/NG. Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany (3. Statistics analysis: SPSS 17.0. Results: 255 patients were asked to participate and 248 of them accepted. Median age was 37.7 (30.6–46.3 years, median time since HIV diagnosis was 47.7 (10.5–104.1 months, and median CD4 cells count was 607 (440–824 cell/µL. There were 195 (78.6% patients on antiretroviral therapy; 81.5% of them had undetectable viral load. 80.5% of the patients had a past history of STI. Infection by CT and/or NG was diagnosed in 24 (9.7% patients. Overall four urine samples, two pharyngeal, and 15 rectal ones were positive for CT, and five pharyngeal and five rectal swabs were positive for NG. Two patients were co-infected by CT and NG: one with CT in urine and both in rectum, another with CT in urine and rectum and NG in pharynx. One patient presented CT in pharynx and rectum, and two patients NG in pharynx and rectum. Positive CT and/or NG tests were

  20. Diagnóstico laboratorial da infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis: vantagens e desvantagens das técnicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seadi Claudete Farina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é revisar e comentar as vantagens e desvantagens dos diferentes tipos de testes de detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis na rotina de laboratórios clínicos, com ênfase nas técnicas de amplificação. A Chlamydia trachomatis é considerada a bactéria sexualmente transmissível mais freqüente em países desenvolvidos e de grande impacto no sistema reprodutivo das mulheres. É o agente causador de doenças do trato urogenital, linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV, tracoma, conjuntivite de inclusão e pneumonia no recém-nascido. Um dos fatores de risco para a infecção é a prática sexual entre adolescentes. A recorrência das infecções é comum. Episódios sucessivos de infecção aumentam o risco de desenvolver seqüelas e a chance de contrair a infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O diagnóstico da infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis ainda é crítico, devido à freqüência de infecções assintomáticas. As técnicas de amplificação de ácidos nucléicos permitem utilizar urina para a detecção da clamídia, simplificando a coleta. Apresentam maior sensibilidade do que a cultura e do que os testes mais utilizados, como a imunofluorescência direta e o enzimaimunoensaio. A cultura celular, utilizada como padrão- ouro, tem especificidade de 100% e sensibilidade de 70% a 85%. De acordo com o Centers for Disease Control (CDC, um diagnóstico é considerado definitivo quando positivo em cultura ou em pelo menos dois testes não-culturais distintos. Os testes de amplificação são mais dispendiosos do que os demais testes não-culturais, mas de menor custo que a cultura.

  1. Retrospective analysis on the recurrent vaginitis combined with mycoplasma and chlamydia trachomatis infection%复发性阴道炎合并支原体及衣原体感染的回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石翠华

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨复发性阴道炎合并支原体、衣原体感染的诊断和治疗方法.方法 用PCR法对820例复发性阴道炎进行支原体和衣原体进行检测及药敏试验观察抗菌药物的敏感性.结果 复发性阴道炎合并支原体衣原体感染的发病率高.本院常用中敏药物克拉霉素.结论 为控制复发性阴道炎的复发,应把支原体衣原体感染作为常规检查,并根据药敏试验进行治疗.%Objective To discuss the morbidity and treatment method of the recurrent vaginitis combined with mycoplasma and chlamydia tracho-matis. Methods To statistical 820 cases of outpatients with recurrent vaginitis chlamydia and mycoplasma infection by the application of PCR and the treatment after the drug sensitivity test. Results The incidence and rate of missed diagnosis of the recurrent vaginitis combined with mycoplasma and chlamydia trachomatis infection are high. Conclusion For control the recurrence of the recurrent vaginal, we should test mycoplasma and chlamydia trachomatis routinely. Then to give the patients rational drug according to drug sensitive test result.

  2. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Vandahl, Brian; Larsen, Martin Røssel;

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...... fragments of CPAF exist in C. pneumoniae as well as in C. trachomatis....

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis among outpatients in central Greece: absence of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M over a 4-year period study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ikonomidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 men and women attending local urologists and gynaecologists in the state of Thessaly, central Greece, were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis DNA. Investigation of the tet(M gene, which confers tetracycline resistance in these genera, was also performed. Low incidence of C. trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp. as well as high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp., especially among women, were found. The tet(M gene was absent in all cases, notably in a region where doxycycline administration remains the first therapeutic option unless special medical conditions direct otherwise.

  4. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...... segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced...... bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence...

  5. The World Health Organization Recommendations for Trachoma Surveillance, Experience in Nepal and Added Benefit of Testing for Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 Protein: NESTS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Andrea I.; Sharma, Shekhar; Crowley, Kathryn; Dize, Laura; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Mishra, Sailesh K.; Rotondo, Lisa A.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; West, Sheila K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) now requires a second surveillance survey for trachoma after an impact assessment has found follicular trachoma (TF) <5% to determine if re-emergence has occurred. Using new WHO guidelines, we undertook surveillance surveys, and determined the prevalence of infection and antibody positivity, in two districts in Nepal. Methods 20 clusters were randomly selected within each district, 15 were randomly selected for antibody testing. In each cluster, we randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 years and 100 adults ≥15 years. TF and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) were evaluated. Conjunctival swabs to test for chlamydial infection using GenXpert platform were obtained, and dried blood spots were collected to test for antibodies to Chlamydia Trachomatis pgp3 using the Luminex platform. Findings 3 cases of TF were found in the two districts, and one case of infection. Pgp3 antibody positivity was 2·4% (95% confidence interval: 1·4%, 3·7%), and did not increase with age (P = 0.24). No clustering of antibody positivity within communities was found. TT prevalence was <1/1,000 population. Interpretation The surveillance surveys, as proposed by WHO, showed no evidence for re-emergence of trachoma in two districts of Nepal. The low level and no significant increase by age in seroprevalence of antibodies to C trachomatis pgp3 antigen deserve further investigation as a marker of interruption of transmission. PMID:27654497

  6. 沙眼衣原体诊断技术研究进展%Progress in diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜慧芬; 周林福; 潘建平

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct)is a special kind of pathogens.It contains a cell wall similar to Gram-negative bacteria and two types of nucleic acid,DNA and RNA.Ct is strictly parasitic in host cells.Ct is a prokaryote organism,which can go through filters and reproducices by splitting into two.The life cycle of Ct consists of two stages,elementary body and reticulate body.Elementary body exists outside of the cell and is highly contagious.Initial body exists in the cell and is non-infectious,and reproduable.It can cause many genitourinary tract-related diseases,such as non-gonococcal urethritis.In recent years,its prevalence and dangers is far more than that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other sexually transmitted diseases.Ct can invade the conjunctiva and cornen of human eyes and cause trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis,which is the leading cause of blindness worldwide[1].About 80% of infected women have no clinical symptoms.The typical feature of Ct infection is its tendency of persistence and recurrence,resulting in pathological changes and complex complication.Hence,early,simple,rapid and specific detection methods are needed.The methods will be important to the clinical diagnosis,early treatment,and prevention of the disease.Currently,the methods to diagnose Ct are include all culture,approaches of immunology and molecular biology. In this paper,we review the diagnostic techniques of Ct related diseases.%沙眼衣原体(Ct)是一种特殊的病原体,具有与革兰氏阴性细菌相似的细胞壁,含有DNA和RNA两种类型的核酸,严格寄生于宿主细胞内,沙眼衣原体是一种能够通过滤器,以二分裂方式繁殖的原核细胞型微生物.它具有两种形态:在细胞外具有高度传染性的为原体;在细胞内进行复制、无传染性的为始体.它可以引起非淋球菌尿道炎等许多泌尿生殖道相关疾病,近年来其感染率和危害性已超过淋病奈瑟菌而居性传播疾病之首,眼部衣原体侵入人体眼

  7. Evaluation des Festphasen-Immunoassay Chlamy-Check-1 zum Nachweis einer Chlamydien-Infektion der Endozervix im Vergleich zum Immunfluoreszenz-Test Syva MicroTrak®-Chlamydia trachomatis Direktnachweis

    OpenAIRE

    Düweling, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Die Eignung des Chlamy-Check-1 Festphasen-Immunoassay zum Nachweis einer Chlamydien-Infektion der Endozervix im Vergleich zum Immunfluoreszenz-Test Syva MicroTrak® Chlamydia trachomatis Direktnachweis war in einer prospektiven Studie zu evaluieren. Außerdem wurde die Prävalenz von urogenitalen Chlamydien-Infektionen in verschiedenen Patientinnengruppen ermittelt. Bei 520 Frauen wurden jeweils 2 Endozervixabstriche in randomisierter Reihenfolge abgenommen und mit beiden Antigentest...

  8. 沙眼衣原体及支原体与女性泌尿生殖系统感染的研究进展%The Female Genital-urinary System Infection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 刘辉

    2009-01-01

    支原体和衣原体感粢泌尿生殖系统常无症状或症状很轻,不被重视,这可导致严重并发症及传播扩散,本文针对沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,CT)和支原体引起生殖泌尿系统感粢的研究进展进行了综述.

  9. Age and sex correlation of Chlamydia trachomatis infections evaluated by the culture technique and by an enzyme immunosorbent assay, IDEIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend;

    1990-01-01

    tested by the tissue-culture technique, and the results were confirmed by the IDEIA (Boots-Celltech) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (EIA) for detection of C. trachomatis. The original smear was used for both culture and EIA. The EIA test was evaluated to have a sensitivity of 90...

  10. The Swedish new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCT) remains undetected by many European laboratories as revealed in the recent PCR/NAT ring trial organised by INSTAND e.V., Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischl, U; Straube, E; Unemo, M

    2009-01-01

    The May 2009 round of INSTAND's ring trial "Chlamydia trachomatis detection PCR/NAT" included a sample with high amount of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis (nvCT). A spectrum of at least 12 different commercial diagnostic nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and many different in house NAATs were applied by the 128 participating laboratories which reported 152 results. Approximately 80% of the results correctly reported the presence of C. trachomatis in the nvCT specimen. The nvCT sample was mainly missed, as expected, by participants using the Roche COBAS Amplicor CT/NG (15.5% of reported results) but also by several participants using in house NAATs. The trend towards using nvCT-detecting NAATs is obvious and in addition to the new dual-target NAATs from Roche and Abbott, and BD ProbeTec ET, also a number of new CE mark-certified commercial tests from smaller diagnostic companies as well as many different in house NAATs were used. Laboratories using commercial or in house NAATs that do not detect the nvCT are encouraged to carefully monitor their C. trachomatis incidence, participate in appropriate external quality assurance and controls schemes, and consider altering their testing system. The reliable detection of low amounts of the wildtype C. trachomatis strain in other samples of the ring trial set indicates a good diagnostic performance of all applied commercial NAATs while also detecting the nvCT strain. PMID:19679035

  11. Improving the Detection Rate of Chlamydia Trachomatis Cell Culture by Increasing Passages%增加传代次数对沙眼衣原体细胞培养阳性率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽丽; 江勇; 杨丽娜; 杨晓静; 刘原君; 王梅; 尤聪; 刘全忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索改进细胞培养对泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体临床株检测的敏感性.方法 培养McCoy细胞至孔板中,置于37℃,5% CO2温箱中孵育,18~ 24h后生长至致密单层后,接种沙眼衣原体标准株和临床株,培养48 ~72h后,用卢戈氏碘液染色鉴定培养结果,凡是培养阴性的标本继续传代培养至五代.为评估多次传代后培养法的敏感性,选用沙眼衣原体内源性质粒基因片段为引物,PCR扩增检测沙眼衣原体.结果 428例样本经5次传代培养,共检测出149例沙眼衣原体阳性标本,阳性率为34.81%.以细胞培养共检出的149例阳性标本为基准:初次培养(原代)阳性仅24株,漏检率为83.89%;按常规的沙眼衣原体细胞培养判定标准盲传1次后(二代),阳性株虽增加至91株,漏检率仍有38.93%.传代2次后(三代),阳性株增加至145株,漏检率降至2.68%.PCR扩增检测除了35例培养法检测阴性而PCR法检测为阳性的标本外,余与细胞培养法完全一致.以PCR为参比,多次传代后的细胞培养敏感性达80.98%.结论 增加传代次数培养可以提高细胞培养法的敏感性.%Objective To improve the sensitivity of Chlamydia trachomatis cell culture.Methods After 18 ~ 24h,McCoy cell cultured monolayer in the six well trays at 37℃ and in CO2 of 5%,the standard strain and wild strain of Chlamydia trachomatis were inoculated and cultured for 48 ~ 72h.The existence of Chlamydia trachomatis was identified by Logus iodine dying which the culture-negative strains cultured from the five passages.PCR has been taken as a reference.Results We believed clinical sample was confirmed to be Chlamydia trachomatis negetive after second blind cell culture passage.But in our study,the detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis can be significantly increased by culturing multiple passage,149 positive samples were detected in 428 cases.The positive rate of the initial culture (primary generations) was 5.61

  12. Antibody signature of spontaneous clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis ocular infection and partial resistance against re-challenge in a nonhuman primate trachoma model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo Kari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of trachoma the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Here, we investigate whether protracted clearance of a primary infection in nonhuman primates is attributable to antigenic variation or related to the maturation of the anti-chlamydial humoral immune response specific to chlamydial antigens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genomic sequencing of organisms isolated throughout the protracted primary infection revealed that antigenic variation was not related to the inability of monkeys to efficiently resolve their infection. To explore the maturation of the humoral immune response as a possible reason for delayed clearance, sera were analyzed by radioimmunoprecipitation using intrinsically radio-labeled antigens prepared under non-denaturing conditions. Antibody recognition was restricted to the antigenically variable major outer membrane protein (MOMP and a few antigenically conserved antigens. Recognition of MOMP occurred early post-infection and correlated with reduction in infectious ocular burdens but not with infection eradication. In contrast, antibody recognition of conserved antigens, identified as PmpD, Hsp60, CPAF and Pgp3, appeared late and correlated with infection eradication. Partial immunity to re-challenge was associated with a discernible antibody recall response against all antigens. Antibody recognition of PmpD and CPAF was destroyed by heat treatment while MOMP and Pgp3 were partially affected, indicating that antibody specific to conformational epitopes on these proteins may be important to protective immunity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that delayed clearance of chlamydial infection in NHP is not the result of antigenic variation but rather a consequence of the gradual maturation of the C. trachomatis antigen-specific humoral immune response. However, we cannot conclude that antibodies specific for these proteins play the primary role

  13. Advances in the research of adjuvants for Chlamydia trachomatis vaccines%沙眼衣原体疫苗佐剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚福娟; 陈莉莉

    2013-01-01

    沙眼衣原体是感染性致盲和细菌性性传播疾病的主要病原体.接种疫苗是预防和控制沙眼衣原体感染最经济有效的途径.蛋白或多肽疫苗、DNA疫苗和树突状细胞疫苗是具有应用前景的三类沙眼衣原体疫苗.与传统灭活疫苗相比,这三类疫苗往往存在免疫原性弱等缺陷,急需发展新型免疫佐剂来增强其免疫效果,此文对这三类沙眼衣原体疫苗佐剂的研究进展作一综述.%Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the main pathogen of infectious blindness and bacterial sexually transmitted diseases.Vaccination is the most economical and effective way to control Ct infections.There are three types of Ct vaccines with strong application prospects,including protein or polypeptide vaccine,DNA vaccine and dendritic cell vaccine.The immunogenicity of the three types of vaccines is weaker than that of the traditional inactivated vaccines,and development of effective immunologic adjuvants is urgently needed to enhance immune effects.This article reviews the research progress of adjuvants for these three types of vaccines.

  14. Influence of storage time on DNA of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae for accurate detection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Rong, C Z; Zhao, J Y; Lao, X J; Xie, L; Li, S; Qin, X

    2016-01-01

    The shipment and storage conditions of clinical samples pose a major challenge to the detection accuracy of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) when using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of storage time at 4°C on the DNA of these pathogens and its effect on their detection by qRT-PCR. CT, NG, and UU positive genital swabs from 70 patients were collected, and DNA of all samples were extracted and divided into eight aliquots. One aliquot was immediately analyzed with qRT-PCR to assess the initial pathogen load, whereas the remaining samples were stored at 4°C and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. No significant differences in CT, NG, and UU DNA loads were observed between baseline (day 0) and the subsequent time points (days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28) in any of the 70 samples. Although a slight increase in DNA levels was observed at day 28 compared to day 0, paired sample t-test results revealed no significant differences between the mean DNA levels at different time points following storage at 4°C (all P>0.05). Overall, the CT, UU, and NG DNA loads from all genital swab samples were stable at 4°C over a 28-day period. PMID:27580005

  15. A Web—Based Respondent Driven Sampling Pilot Targeting Young People at Risk for Chlamydia Trachomatis in Social and Sexual Networks with Testing: A Use Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Theunissen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. Methods: Two STI clinic nurses encouraged 37 CT positive heterosexual young people (aged 16–25 years, called index clients, to recruit peers from their social and sexual networks using the web-based screening strategy. Eligible peers (young, living in the study area could request a home-based CT test and recruit other peers. Results: Twelve (40% index clients recruited 35 peers. Two of these peers recruited other peers (n = 7. In total, 35 recruited peers were eligible for participation; ten of them (29% requested a test and eight tested. Seven tested for the first time and one (13% was positive. Most peers were female friends (80%. Nurses were positive about using the strategy. Conclusions: The screening strategy is feasible for targeting the hidden social network. However, uptake among men and recruitment of sex-partners is low and RDS stopped early. Future studies are needed to explore the sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and impact of strategies that target people at risk who are not effectively reached by regular health care.

  16. Evaluation of an Automated Liquid-Handling System (Tecan Genesis RSP 100) in the Abbott LCx Assay for Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Kevan L.; Cartwright, Charles P.

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of automating the specimen-pipetting component of sample preparation in the LCx Chlamydia assay (LCx-CT assay; Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Ill.) by using a commercially available liquid-handling system (Tecan Genesis RSP100; Tecan Inc., Research Triangle Park, N.C.). The Tecan instrument proved to be comparable in both precision and accuracy to a manual multipipettor (Eppendorf model 4850; Eppendorf Scientific, Westbury, N.Y.). The Tecan instru...

  17. Comparison of the Abbott m2000 RealTime CT Assay and the Cepheid GeneXpert CT/NG Assay to the Roche Amplicor CT Assay for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Ocular Samples from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Dize, Laura; West, Sheila; Williams, James A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2013-01-01

    The GeneXpert CT/NG assay (GeneXpert) and the Abbott m2000 RealTime CT (m2000) assay were compared to Amplicor for detecting ocular Chlamydia trachomatis. Discordant specimens were tested by the Aptima CT assay. The m2000 assay sensitivity was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90% to 100%), and specificity was 98.46% (95% CI, 95.2% to 99.2%); GeneXpert sensitivity was 100% (95% CI, 90% to 100%), and specificity was 100% (95% CI, 98.1% to 100%). The m2000 and GeneXpert assays appear to perfo...

  18. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Dolz, G.; Á. Solórzano-Morales; Angelova, L.; C. Tien; L. Fonseca; M.C. Bonilla

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant pu...

  19. Surface expression, single-channel analysis and membrane topology of recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClafferty Heather

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial bacteria are obligate intracellular pathogens containing a cysteine-rich porin (Major Outer Membrane Protein, MOMP with important structural and, in many species, immunity-related roles. MOMP forms extensive disulphide bonds with other chlamydial proteins, and is difficult to purify. Leaderless, recombinant MOMPs expressed in E. coli have yet to be refolded from inclusion bodies, and although leadered MOMP can be expressed in E. coli cells, it often misfolds and aggregates. We aimed to improve the surface expression of correctly folded MOMP to investigate the membrane topology of the protein, and provide a system to display native and modified MOMP epitopes. Results C. trachomatis MOMP was expressed on the surface of E. coli cells (including "porin knockout" cells after optimizing leader sequence, temperature and medium composition, and the protein was functionally reconstituted at the single-channel level to confirm it was folded correctly. Recombinant MOMP formed oligomers even in the absence of its 9 cysteine residues, and the unmodified protein also formed inter- and intra-subunit disulphide bonds. Its topology was modeled as a (16-stranded β-barrel, and specific structural predictions were tested by removing each of the four putative surface-exposed loops corresponding to highly immunogenic variable sequence (VS domains, and one or two of the putative transmembrane strands. The deletion of predicted external loops did not prevent folding and incorporation of MOMP into the E. coli outer membrane, in contrast to the removal of predicted transmembrane strands. Conclusions C. trachomatis MOMP was functionally expressed on the surface of E. coli cells under newly optimized conditions. Tests of its predicted membrane topology were consistent with β-barrel oligomers in which major immunogenic regions are displayed on surface-exposed loops. Functional surface expression, coupled with improved understanding of MOMP

  20. Patogénesis de la enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria. Modelo animal con la biovariedad murina de Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona Velásquez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se inocularon hembras de ratones blancos suizo (Balb/c, entre 4 y 6 semanas con la serovariedad MoPn de Chlamydia trachomatis para producirles una salpingitis clamidial experimental. Directamente en la rama uterina izquierda se inyectaron 30 µl equivalente a 6 x 104 UFI. La misma cantidad se inyectó en la bursa del ovario del mismo lado, a través del tejido graso que se encuentra en este sitio. Se sacrificaron grupos de hembras a los 7 y 14 días después de la inoculación para buscar inflamación, hidrosálpinx y respuesta de anticuerpos tipo IgG e IgM. Otras hembras inoculadas se aparearon para observar la tasa de infertilidad bilateral que ocasionaba la infección. Un tercer grupo de animales se trató con tetraciclina, ibuprofén y prostaglandina E1. El tratamiento temprano, hacia el segundo día después de la inoculación, impidió la inflamación, la formación de hidrosálpinx y la infertilidad normal bilateral. Los agentes antiinflamatorios, usados solos, no tuvieron ningún efecto para prevenir la inflamación, ni aun en combinación con tetraciclina. Un cuarto grupo se trató con anticuerpos monoclonales dirigidos contra la subpoblación linfocítica L3T4 (equivalente en seres humanos a CD4. En los ratones con L3T4 se observó un agotamiento (depleción total de la población linfocítica L3T4 hacia el segundo día después de la inoculación. El agotamiento persistió por lo menos hasta el día 20, pero no alteró significativamente los porcentajes de células expresadas por Thy 1.2 (célula de antígeno T o Lyt2 (célula de antígeno T supresor/citotóxico, que equivale a los CD8 en el hombre. Se concluye que los continuos inóculos con Chlamydia, generan una respuesta inmune que termina con daño del tejido y conduce a la infertilidad.

  1. Can the Swedish new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCT) be detected by UK NEQAS participants from seventeen European countries and five additional countries/regions in 2009?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, M; Rossouw, A; James, V; Jenkins, C

    2009-05-14

    In 2006, a new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (nvCT) was reported in Sweden. The nvCT contains a deletion that includes the targets for the C. trachomatis genetic diagnostic single-target systems from Roche Diagnostics and Abbott Laboratories. Roche and Abbott have now developed certified dual-target assays that can detect the nvCT. This study examined the nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) currently used (in 2009) for C. trachomatis detection in laboratories from 17 European countries and five countries/regions outside Europe that are participating in the United Kingdom (UK) National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS). It further examined changes in these laboratories' testing strategy during the period from 2006 to 2009, and their performance regarding nvCT detection. A UK NEQAS blinded nvCT specimen was distributed to all 283 participating laboratories, which were asked to analyse the specimen according to their routine C. trachomatis diagnostic protocols for endocervical swabs. BD ProbeTec was the most commonly used NAAT, followed by Cobas Amplicor, Cobas TaqMan, and Aptima. From 2006 to 2009, the use of Cobas Amplicor, which does not detect the nvCT, decreased, but it was still used by 22% (n=57) of responding participants in 59% of the countries, 54 of these 57 used it as first assay. Virtually all of the other participants detected the nvCT correctly. Laboratories using commercial or in house NAATs that do not detect the nvCT are encouraged to carefully monitor their C. trachomatis incidence, participate in effective internal and external quality assurance and controls schemes, and to consider changing their testing system. PMID:19442398

  2. Efficacy of latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass antibiotic treatment: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Nicole E; Gebre, Teshome; Ayele, Berhan; Zerihun, Mulat; Assefa, Yared; Habte, Dereje; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Porco, Travis C; Keenan, Jeremy D; House, Jenafir I; Gaynor, Bruce D; Lietman, Thomas M; Emerson, Paul M

    2011-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends environmental improvements such as latrine construction in the integrated trachoma control strategy, SAFE. We report a cluster-randomized trial assessing the effect of intensive latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass treatment with antibiotics.Twenty-four communities in Goncha Seso Enesie woreda, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, were enumerated, and a random selection of 60 children aged 0- 9 years in each was monitored for clinical signs of trachoma and ocular chlamydial infection at baseline, 12 and 24 months. All community members were offered treatment with a single dose of oral azithromycin or topical tetracycline. After treatment, 12 subkebeles were randomized to receive intensive latrine promotion. Mean cluster ocular infection in the latrine and the non-latrine arms were reduced from 45.5% (95% CI 34.1-56.8%) and 43.0% (95% CI 31.1-54.8%) respectively at baseline to 14.6% (95% CI 7.4-21.8%) and 14.8% (95% CI 8.9-20.8%) respectively at 24 months (P=0.93). Clinical signs fell from 72.0% (95% CI 58.2-85.5%) and 61.3% (95% CI 44.0-78.5%) at baseline to 45.8% (36.0-55.6%) and 48.5% (34.0-62.9%) respectively at 24 months (P=0.69). At 24 months, estimated household latrine coverage and use were 80.8% and 61.7% respectively where there had been intensive latrine promotion and 30.0% and 25.0% respectively in the single treatment only arm. We were unable to detect a difference in the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in children due to latrine construction. PMID:21785663

  3. Recombinant polymorphic membrane protein D in combination with a novel, second-generation lipid adjuvant protects against intra-vaginal Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Wayne; Brown, Naj; Brzozowski, Andrzej M; Coler, Rhea; Reed, Steve; Carter, Darrick; Bland, Martin; Kaye, Paul M; Lacey, Charles J N

    2016-07-29

    The development of a chlamydial vaccine that elicits protective mucosal immunity is of paramount importance in combatting the global spread of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infections. While the identification and prioritization of chlamydial antigens is a crucial prerequisite for efficacious vaccine design, it is likely that novel adjuvant development and selection will also play a pivotal role in the translational potential of preclinical Ct vaccines. Although the molecular nature of the immuno-modulatory component is of primary importance, adjuvant formulation and delivery systems may also govern vaccine efficacy and potency. Our study provides the first preclinical evaluation of recombinant Ct polymorphic membrane protein D (rPmpD) in combination with three different formulations of a novel second-generation lipid adjuvant (SLA). SLA was rationally designed in silico by modification of glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA), a TLR4 agonistic precursor molecule currently in Phase II clinical development. We demonstrate robust protection against intra-vaginal Ct challenge in mice, evidenced by significantly enhanced resistance to infection and reduction in mean bacterial load. Strikingly, protection was found to correlate with the presence of robust anti-rPmpD serum and cervico-vaginal IgG titres, even in the absence of adjuvant-induced Th1-type cellular immune responses elicited by each SLA formulation, and we further show that anti-rPmpD antibodies recognize Ct EBs. These findings highlight the utility of SLA and rational molecular design of adjuvants in preclinical Ct vaccine development, but also suggest an important role for anti-rPmpD antibodies in protection against urogenital Ct infection. PMID:27389169

  4. Prevalência de Chlamydia trachomathis em amostras endocervicais de mulheres em São Paulo e Santa Catarina pela PCR Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical samples by PCR in São Paulo and Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Edgar Herkenhoff

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Nenhuma outra doença sexualmente transmissível (DST tem mostrado frequência tão elevada quanto a infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT. É frequente a detecção de mulheres portadoras de danos tubários causados por esse agente, determinando infertilidade permanente e as intervenções cirúrgicas não têm demonstrado sucesso em reparar esses danos. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR se mostrou mais sensível do que a cultura para a identificação de CT, principalmente em cervicite clamidiana nas mulheres. A PCR promove a detecção de sequências específicas de nucleotídeos para a CT. OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência de infecções causadas pela CT em mulheres nos estados de São Paulo e Santa Catarina utilizando amostras endocervicais. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS Utilizaram-se para o presente trabalho amostras enviadas pelos laboratórios conveniados ao Genolab, pertencentes aos estados de São Paulo e de Santa Catarina. Foram consultados os resultados dos laudos de exames para CT oriundos do banco de dados do Genolab no ano de 2010. Para a obtenção e o isolamento do ácido desoxirribonucleico (DNA, utilizou-se a técnica de fenol-clorofórmio e para a amplificação do material genético, a técnica de PCR. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se uma amostra de 287 indivíduos, e desse total 56,45% das mulheres eram positivas. A amostra que obteve o maior número de positivos foi o swab endocervical, com 75%. CONCLUSÃO: As amostras biológicas provenientes do endocérvix apresentaram detecção eficiente da CT na população feminina. A alta prevalência salienta a importância no emprego do diagnóstico molecular, principalmente por este trabalho apontar esse aspecto.INTRODUCTION: No other sexually transmitted disease (STD has been as frequent as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection. Tubal damage caused by this agent has been frequently detected among women. This infection causes permanent infertility. Furthermore, surgical

  5. 不孕不育患者沙眼衣原体感染状况分析%The Infection Situation of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Patients with Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文喻; 赵长安; 周才; 赖卫明; 穆小萍; 陈泽城

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the prevalence of Chlamy trachomatis(CT) infection in patients with infertility from Guangdong province. Methods: 937 secretion specimens of genital duct were collected from patients with infertility, including primary infertility, secondary infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion cases; 879 secretion specimens of genital duct from fertile persons were collected as contraband using colloidal gold immuno-precipitation to assay CT antigens in specimens. Results:The Chlamydia trachomatis infection rates of infertility group was 14.94% and significantly higher than normal fertility group (2.62%); and the CT infection rate of infertile women(17.62%) was also significantly higher than infertile men(10.93%). The CT-positive rates of women with primary infertility, secondary infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion were 16.24%, 19.12% and 16.67%, no statistical significance distinguish in the three groups ; The CT-positive rates of male patients with primary infertility and secondary infertility were 10.06%, 11.65%, there is no statistical significance distinguish between the two groups.Conclusion:CT infection is an important cause of male infertility, female infertility, and spontaneous abortion in Guangdong province.%目的:研究广东地区不孕不育患者沙眼衣原体(CT) 的感染状况.方法:收集937 例不孕不育患者(包括原发不孕不育、继发不孕不育和自然流产病例)的生殖道分泌物标本以及879 例正常生育者生殖道分泌物标本,并用胶体金免疫沉析法检测CT 抗原.结果:不孕不育组CT 感染率为14.94%,显著高于对照组(2.62%);不孕不育女性CT 感染率为17.62%,显著高于不育男性的CT 感染率(10.93%).女性原发性不孕、继发性不孕及反复自然流产的CT 阳性率分别为16.24% 、19.12% 、16.67%,三组CT 阳性率无统计学意义;男性原发性不育组、继发性不育组的CT 阳性率分别为10.06% 、11.65%,差异也

  6. Early- and late-onset pelvic inflammatory disease among women with cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection at the time of induced abortion--a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I; Hoff, G;

    1994-01-01

    /or late PID, if observed for 24 months. This cumulative risk was significantly reduced to 8% if the C. trachomatis infection was treated at the time of the abortion. Screening for and treatment of C. trachomatis is warranted, especially in women

  7. Evidence That the [beta] Subunit of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase Is Active with the Manganese Ion of Its Manganese(IV)/Iron(III) Cofactor in Site 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassama, Laura M.K.; Boal, Amie K.; Krebs, Carsten; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Bollinger, Jr., J. Martin (NWU); (Penn)

    2014-10-02

    The reaction of a class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) begins when a cofactor in the {beta} subunit oxidizes a cysteine residue {approx}35 {angstrom} away in the {alpha} subunit, generating a thiyl radical. In the class Ic enzyme from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), the cysteine oxidant is the Mn{sup IV} ion of a Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} cluster, which assembles in a reaction between O{sub 2} and the Mn{sup II}/Fe{sup II} complex of {beta}. The heterodinuclear nature of the cofactor raises the question of which site, 1 or 2, contains the Mn{sup IV} ion. Because site 1 is closer to the conserved location of the cysteine-oxidizing tyrosyl radical of class Ia and Ib RNRs, we suggested that the Mn{sup IV} ion most likely resides in this site (i.e., {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}), but a subsequent computational study favored its occupation of site 2 ({sup 1}Fe{sup III}/{sup 2}Mn{sup IV}). In this work, we have sought to resolve the location of the Mn{sup IV} ion in Ct RNR-{beta} by correlating X-ray crystallographic anomalous scattering intensities with catalytic activity for samples of the protein reconstituted in vitro by two different procedures. In samples containing primarily Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} clusters, Mn preferentially occupies site 1, but some anomalous scattering from site 2 is observed, implying that both {sup 1}Mn{sup II}/{sup 2}Fe{sup II} and {sup 1}Fe{sup II}/{sup 2}Mn{sup II} complexes are competent to react with O{sub 2} to produce the corresponding oxidized states. However, with diminished Mn{sup II} loading in the reconstitution, there is no evidence for Mn occupancy of site 2, and the greater activity of these 'low-Mn' samples on a per-Mn basis implies that the {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}-{beta} is at least the more active of the two oxidized forms and may be the only active form.

  8. Costs of testing for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection compared to mass drug administration for trachoma in the Gambia: application of results from the PRET study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Harding-Esch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA treatment of active trachoma with antibiotic is recommended to be initiated in any district where the prevalence of trachoma inflammation, follicular (TF is ≥ 10% in children aged 1-9 years, and then to continue for at least three annual rounds before resurvey. In The Gambia the PRET study found that discontinuing MDA based on testing a sample of children for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct infection after one MDA round had similar effects to continuing MDA for three rounds. Moreover, one round of MDA reduced disease below the 5% TF threshold. We compared the costs of examining a sample of children for TF, and of testing them for Ct, with those of MDA rounds.The implementation unit in PRET The Gambia was a census enumeration area (EA of 600-800 people. Personnel, fuel, equipment, consumables, data entry and supervision costs were collected for census and treatment of a sample of EAs and for the examination, sampling and testing for Ct infection of 100 individuals within them. Programme costs and resource savings from testing and treatment strategies were inferred for the 102 EAs in the study area, and compared.Census costs were $103.24 per EA plus initial costs of $108.79. MDA with donated azithromycin cost $227.23 per EA. The mean cost of examining and testing 100 children was $796.90 per EA, with Ct testing kits costing $4.80 per result. A strategy of testing each EA for infection is more expensive than two annual rounds of MDA unless the kit cost is less than $1.38 per result. However stopping or deciding not to initiate treatment in the study area based on testing a sample of EAs for Ct infection (or examining children in a sample of EAs creates savings relative to further unnecessary treatments.Resources may be saved by using tests for chlamydial infection or clinical examination to determine that initial or subsequent rounds of MDA for trachoma are unnecessary.

  9. 沙眼衣原体D型生殖道感染小鼠动物模型的建立及评价%Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D genital tract infected mice model: establishment and evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春雪; 吴移谋; 彭波; 胡四海; 李忠玉; 陈丽丽; 钟光明

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,Ct)D型感染小鼠生殖道动物模型,为研究人类生殖道Ct感染的病理变化和致病机制提供实验基础.方法 分离20个临床株,经阴道接种C3H/HeJ小鼠,得到清除时间明显延长的临床株(UT0603).应用该临床株建立Ct D型感染模型,免疫荧光检测阴道脱落上皮细胞中衣原体的含量;原位组织免疫荧光检测上生殖道的衣原体感染定植情况;分离生殖道组织,肉眼观察并进行病理学评分.结果 Ct 临床株感染小鼠下生殖道其排菌量及排菌周期明显延长,可见衣原体有上行感染和定植,并能引发类似人类生殖道感染的病理变化.结论 成功建立了Ct D型生殖道感染动物模型.%Objective To construct a mouse model for studying pathophysiology and mechanism of human Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection.Methods Innate immunity-deficient C3H/HeJ female mice were infected intravaginally with human C.trachomatis serovar D urogenital isolates for screening the highest violent clinical strain.The clinical strain UT0603 as well as standard strain D/UW-3/CX were then used to reinfect na(i)ve mice,the lower genital tract shedding were monitored by swabbing every 3-7 day over the entire infection period by culture.Some mice were sacrificed at early infection stage to detection of in site Chlamydia growth by immunofluorescence assay,then all the mice were sacrificed at later infection stage to evaluate upper genital tract gross pathology and histopathological characterization.ResuIts In the lower genital tract,Chlamydia shedding time course were significantly prolonged in clinical strain infected mice.Chlamydia not only growth in the lower genital tract,the live organism also ascending and growth in the upper genital tissue.The gross appearance under naked eyes and dilation and inflammation scores under microscope all showed that the genital tract pathology from the clinical strain infected mice were

  10. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for laboratory-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae , 2014. MMWR 2014;63(No. RR-2):1 - 24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(RR-12):1- ...

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Adolescents and Adults: Summary of Evidence Reviewed for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, William M

    2015-12-15

    In preparation for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines, the CDC convened an advisory group in 2013 to examine recent abstracts and published literature addressing the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of STDs. This article summarizes the key questions, evidence, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in adolescents and adults that were considered in development of the 2015 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines. The evidence reviewed primarily focused on CT infection risk factors in women, clinical significance of oropharyngeal CT detection, acceptability and performance of CT testing on self-collected specimens in men, performance of CT point-of-care tests, efficacy of recommended and investigational CT infection treatments, and timing of test of cure following CT infection treatment in pregnant women.

  12. 继发不孕沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体的检测与治疗%Inspect and Therapy of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Ureaplasna Urealyticam in Secondary Infertile Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌小卫; 尹玉竹; 滕奔琦; 李小毛; 范建辉

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the infection and therapy of Chlamydia Trachomatis(CT) and Ureaplasna Urealyticam(UU) in secondary infertile patients. Methods Cervical discharge of secondary infertile patients was detected for CT and UUby the techonology of Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR). Results The positive rate of CT and UU were 42.3 % and 35.9%respectively in infertile group,which were higher than those in control group (P< 0.05) .Higher salpingemphraxis rate occurredin infertile cases with the history of intrauterine operation ( P < 0.025). Compared with cases with unobstructed fallopian tube,salpingemphraxis patients had higher positive rate of CT or UU ( P < 0.05). After systemic therapy, 36 cases (46.2 % ) werepregnant. Conclusions It is suggesive that secondary infertility is related to salpingemphraxis resulting from genital CT and UUinfection,and timely therapy can improve the prognosis of secondary infertility.

  13. Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men attending STD clinics in Brazil Prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis em homens atendidos em clínicas de DST no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Joaquim Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections and identify demographic, behavioral and clinical factors correlated withsuch infections in men attending six sexually transmitted disease clinics in Brazil. METHODS: Multicentric, cross-sectional study performed among men attending STD clinics in Brazil. The study included STD clinics in six cities distributed throughout the five geographic regions of Brazil in 2005. Patients provided 20 ml of first catch urine for testing for NG and CT by DNA-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 767 (92.9% men were included in the study. The mean age was 26.5 (SD 8.3 years-old. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 13.1% (95%CI 10.7%-15.5% and gonorrhea was 18.4% (95%CI 15.7%-21.1%. Coinfection prevalence was 4.4% (95%CI 2.95%-5.85% in men who sought attendance in STI clinics. Factors identified as associated with C. trachomatis were younger age (15-24 [OR=1.4 (95%CI 1.01-1.91], present urethral discharge [OR=4.8 (95%CI 1.52-15.05], genital warts [OR=3.0 (95%CI 1.49-5.92] and previous history of urethral discharge [OR=2.4 (95%CI 1.11-5.18]. Variables associated with gonorrhea were younger age (15 to 24 [OR=1.5 (95%CI 1.09-2.05], presence of urethral discharge [OR=9.9 (95%CI 5.53-17.79], genital warts [OR=18.3 (95%CI 8.03-41.60] and ulcer present upon clinical examination [OR=4.9 (95%CI 1.06-22.73]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have important implications for education and prevention actions directed toward men at risk of HIV/STD. A venue-based approach to offer routine screening for young men in STD clinics should be stimulated.INTRODUÇÃO: Nosso objetivo foi acessar a prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e Chlamydia trachomatis e identificar fatores demográficos, comportamentais e clínicos correlacionados a essas infecções em homens atendidos em clínicas de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo multicêntrico, transversal

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis-specific antibodies in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease: comparison with isolation in tissue culture or detection with polymerase chain reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Theunissen, J J; Minderhoud-Bassie, W; Wagenvoort, J H; Stolz, E; Michel, M F; Huikeshoven, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The detection of acute phase antibodies against C trachomatis and its comparison with tissue culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on samples of cervix and urethra obtained from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). METHODS--In the academic hospital Dijkzigt, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, prospective investigations were performed on 49 consecutive patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of PID. Infections with C trachomatis were traced using tissue culture, PCR ...

  15. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  16. External quality assessment for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in Guangdong Province%广东省沙眼衣原体抗原检测的室间质量评价结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛耀华; 郑和平; 黄进梅; 吴兴中; 李美玲; 曾维英

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of labotratory test on Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) antigen in sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Guangdong Province. Methods External qual-ity assessment (EQA) had been performed annually. The detected samples were 57,475 and 675 cases respectively in 2004,2005 and 2006. Each participants of the EQA scheme should report their results, the methodological procedure, kits and instruments used. All data were statistically analyzed by Guang-dong Provincial Centre for Dermatosis and STD Control and Prevention. Results Totally 19 laborato-ries were enrolled in EQA in 2004; 71 laboratories in 2005 and 135 laboratories in 2006. The total co-incidence rate was 75.4 %,93.5 % and 91.0% respectively in 2004,2005 and 2006. There was statisti-cal difference between 2004 and 2006 in coincidence of CT detection. The laboratories using foreign kits for detection of CT were 100% in 2004,98. 4% in 2005,and 81.7% in 2006. The total coincidence rate of foreign kits was significantly higher than that of domestic kits in detection of CT. Enzyme-linked im-munosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatography were the main methods in the panels. The percents were 94.7% ,98. 5% ,and 98. 6% in 2004,2005 and 2006. Conclusion EQA enables unbiased monitoring of the performance of laboratories in detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, such as specimen handling,result reporting, and regents choice. EQA helps laboratories to improve detection ability of Chlamydia trachomatis.%目的 评价广东省性病实验室检测沙眼衣原体抗原的能力.方法 每年进行一次室间质量评价.2004年发放衣原体标本57份,2005年475份,2006年675份.要求各性病实验室按照常规方法 ,在规定的时间内检测并回报结果 、所用检测方法 、试剂和仪器资料.广东省皮肤性病防治中心对各实验室的结果 进行统计分析.结果 2004年19家实验室参加质量评价,总符合率为75.4%;2005年71家,总符合率为93

  17. Genetic transformation of a clinical (genital tract, plasmid-free isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: engineering the plasmid as a cloning vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    Full Text Available Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle" that it is possible to "knock out" selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP- was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without

  18. Comparing of moxifloxacin and azythromycin against urogenital chlamydia trachomatis%莫西沙星与阿奇霉素治疗泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展小飞; 王树椿; 陈昭; 刘全忠

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较莫西沙星与阿奇霉素两种抗生素治疗泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染的疗效.方法:收集1 671例确诊为泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染并服用莫西沙星或阿奇霉素治疗的患者的临床资料,对两种药物的治愈率进行统计分析.结果:(1)两种药物的病原学治愈率分别是:莫西沙星为83.61%,阿奇霉素为73.28%,但两种抗生素病原学治愈率均有逐年递减的趋势(均P>0.05).(2)临床学治愈率分别是:莫西沙星为74.88%,阿奇霉素为88.91%.结论:莫西沙星的病原学治愈率高于阿奇霉素,而阿奇霉素的临床学治愈率好于莫西沙星.%Objective: To compare the effects of moxifloxacin and azythromycin in treating with urogenital chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The data of 1 671 patients who were insured to have got urogenital chlamydia trachomatis infection and treated with moxifloxacin or azythromycin were collected and the effects of the two antibiotics were analyzed with descriptive epidemiological method. Results: The etiology cure rate of moxifloxacin was 83.61%, that of azythromycin was 73.28%. What's more, their effects decreased year by year. The clinical cure rate of moxifloxacin was 74.88%, that of azythromycin was 88.91%. Conclusion: The etiology cure rate of moxifloxacin is higher than that of azythromycin, but the clinical cure rate of moxifloxacin is lower than that of azythromycin.

  19. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dolz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae and pigeons (Columbiformes, the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  20. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  1. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons. PMID:26623327

  2. Evaluation of the Bio-Rad Dx CT/NG/MG® assay for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursi, D; Crucitti, T; Smet, H; Ieven, M

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Bio-Rad real-time Dx CT/NG/MG® assay for detection of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and M. genitalium on a collection of 441 urine samples from sexually transmitted infections, or travellers consultations and from anonymous sperm donors that were previously analysed with the Abbott RealTime CT/NG assay. Samples positive for C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae with the Abbott assay had all previously been confirmed with an in-house real-time PCR assay. Samples positive for M. genitalium with the Bio-Rad assay were subsequently analysed by an in-house real-time PCR. On a total of 441 urines, 104 samples were positive for C. trachomatis, 12 were positive for N. gonorrhoeae and seven were positive for M. genitalium. After retesting of discrepant results, the test results were completely concordant, resulting in a calculated sensitivity and specificity of the Bio-Rad assay of 98.1 % and 100 % for C. trachomatis and of 91.7 % and 100 % for N. gonorrhoeae. Results for M. genitalium with the Bio-Rad assay were also concordant with the results of an in house PCR. We also evaluated the performance of automated nucleic acid extractions of urine samples with the NucliSENS easyMAG (bioMérieux) compared to the manual DNA extraction prescribed by the insert of the kit. The easyMAG extraction gave lower Ct values, relieved inhibition and had a lower hands-on time. PMID:27116008

  3. Uptake and population-level impact of expedited partner therapy (EPT on Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: the Washington State community-level randomized trial of EPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Golden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedited partner therapy (EPT, the practice of treating the sex partners of persons with sexually transmitted infections without their medical evaluation, increases partner treatment and decreases gonorrhea and chlamydia reinfection rates. We conducted a stepped-wedge, community-level randomized trial to determine whether a public health intervention promoting EPT could increase its use and decrease chlamydia test positivity and gonorrhea incidence in women.The trial randomly assigned local health jurisdictions (LHJs in Washington State, US, into four study waves. Waves instituted the intervention in randomly assigned order at intervals of 6-8 mo. Of the state's 25 LHJs, 24 were eligible and 23 participated. Heterosexual individuals with gonorrhea or chlamydial infection were eligible for the intervention. The study made free patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT available to clinicians, and provided public health partner services based on clinician referral. The main study outcomes were chlamydia test positivity among women ages 14-25 y in 219 sentinel clinics, and incidence of reported gonorrhea in women, both measured at the community level. Receipt of PDPT from clinicians was evaluated among randomly selected patients. 23 and 22 LHJs provided data on gonorrhea and chlamydia outcomes, respectively. The intervention increased the percentage of persons receiving PDPT from clinicians (from 18% to 34%, p < 0.001 and the percentage receiving partner services (from 25% to 45%, p < 0.001. Chlamydia test positivity and gonorrhea incidence in women decreased over the study period, from 8.2% to 6.5% and from 59.6 to 26.4 per 100,000, respectively. After adjusting for temporal trends, the intervention was associated with an approximately 10% reduction in both chlamydia positivity and gonorrhea incidence, though the confidence bounds on these outcomes both crossed one (chlamydia positivity prevalence ratio = 0.89, 95% CI 0.77-1.04, p = 0.15; gonorrhea

  4. 淋球菌、沙眼衣原体和解脲脲原体混合感染分析%Analysis of neisseria gonorrhoeae,chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasmas urealyticum mixed infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灿锋; 刘志伟; 郑定容

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖泌尿道解脲脲原体(ureaplasmas urealyticum,UU)、沙眼衣原体(chlamydia trachomatis,CT)和淋球菌(neisseria gonorrhoeae,NGH)的感染情况.方法:对来我院就诊的3 152例患者以聚合酶链反应(PCR)方法对上述3种病原体进行检测.结果:3种病原体检出率分别为NGH 43.15%、UU 32.16%、CT 13.85%.其中UU与NGH混合感染检出率为9.14%,NGH与CT混合感染检出率为2.15%,UU与CT混合感染检出率为10.81%,NGH、UU与CT混合感染检出率为0.结论:UU、NGH成为生殖泌尿道感染的主要病原体,且混合感染较严重,应引起人们的高度重视.

  5. 支原体属及沙眼衣原体感染与胚胎停止发育的临床观察%Clinical observation on correlation between cervical Mycoplasma, Chlamydia trachomatis infections and embryo to stop development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫立青

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨官颈支原体属、沙眼衣原体(Ct)与胚胎停止发育之间的关系以指导临床预防、治疗.方法 采用培养、鉴定、药敏一体化试剂盒及免疫层析法对82例胚胎停止发育患者(胎停育组)和同期82例正常妊娠者(正常组)的宫颈分泌物进行解脲脲支原体(Uu)、人支原体(Mh)及Ct的检测,比较两组Uu、Mh、Ct的阳性率,并对支原体属培养测定结果阳性者行药敏试验.结果 胎停育组阳性率Uu为73.17%、Mh为21.83%、Uu+ Mh为18.17%、Ct为28.05%;正常组阳性率Uu为43.90%、Mh为9.76%、Uu+Mh为3.66%、Ct12.10%,两组阳性率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01、P<0.05);两组Uu、Mh对克拉霉素、米诺环素、多西环素、阿奇霉素、罗红霉素、氧氟沙星的敏感率分别为96.6% 、61.6%、60.6%、53.3%、49.9%、31.9%.结论 官颈支原体属、Ct感染与胚胎停止发育密切相关,是导致胚胎停止发育的原因之一,支原体属药敏试验结果以克拉霉素为最敏感.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the correlation between the cervical Mycoplasma,Chlamydia trachomatis infections and embryo to stop growing so as to guide the clinical prevention and treatment.METHODS The culture,identification,susceptibility integration kit and immunochromatography were employed to detect the cervical secretions obtained from 82 cases of patients with the development of embryo terminating (the embryo stop growing group) and 82 cases of normal pregnant women (the control group) at the same period for the Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu),Mycoplasma hominis (Mh),and Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct).The positive rates of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma between the two groups were compared,and the drug susceptibility testing was performed for the subjects with Mycoplasma tested positive.RESULTS In the embryo stop growing group,the positive rate of the Uu was 73.17%,Mh 21.83%,Uu+Mh 18.17%,and Ct 2,8.05% ; in the control group

  6. Comparison of an rRNA‐based and DNA‐based nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in trachoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jon L; Schachter, Julius; Moncada, Jeanne; Habte, Dereje; Zerihun, Mulat; House, Jenafir I; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Hong, Kevin C; Maxey, Kathryn; Gaynor, Bruce D; Lietman, Thomas M

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim The World Health Organisation (WHO) hopes to achieve global elimination of trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, in part through mass antibiotic treatment. DNA‐based nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are currently used to evaluate the success of treatment programmes by measuring the prevalence of C trachomatis infection. Some believe that newer ribosomal RNA (rRNA)‐based tests may be much more sensitive since bacterial rRNA is present in amounts up to 10 000 times that of genomic DNA. Others believe that rRNA‐based tests are instead less sensitive but more specific, due to the presence of dead or subviable organisms that the test may not detect. This study compares an rRNA‐based test to a DNA‐based test for the detection of ocular C trachomatis infection in children living in trachoma‐endemic villages. Methods An rRNA‐based amplification test and DNA‐based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on swab specimens taken from the right upper tarsal conjunctiva of 56 children aged 0–10 years living in two villages in Amhara, Ethiopia. Results The rRNA‐based test detected ocular C trachomatis infection in 35 (63%) subjects compared with 22 (39%) detected by PCR (McNemar's test, p = 0.0002). The rRNA‐based test gave positive results for all subjects that were positive by PCR, and also detected infection in 13 (23%) additional subjects. Conclusion The rRNA‐based test appears to have significantly greater sensitivity than PCR for the detection of ocular chlamydial infection in children in trachoma‐endemic villages. Using the rRNA‐based test, we may be able to detect infection that was previously missed with PCR. Past studies using DNA‐based tests to assess prevalence of infectious trachoma following antibiotic treatment may have underestimated the true prevalence of infection. PMID:17050583

  7. The female lower genital tract is a privileged compartment with IL-10 producing dendritic cells and poor Th1 immunity following Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Marks

    Full Text Available While a primary genital tract infection with C. trachomatis stimulates partial-protection against re-infection, it may also result in severe inflammation and tissue destruction. Here we have dissected whether functional compartments exist in the genital tract that restrict Th1-mediated protective immunity. Apart from the Th1-subset, little is known about the role of other CD4(+ T cell subsets in response to a genital tract chlamydial infection. Therefore, we investigated CD4(+ T cell subset differentiation in the genital tract using RT-PCR for expression of critical transcription factors and cytokines in the upper (UGT and lower genital tract (LGT of female C57BL/6 mice in response to C. trachomatis serovar D infection. We found that the Th1 subset dominated the UGT, as IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA expression were high, while GATA-3 was low following genital infection with C. trachomatis serovar D. By contrast, IL-10 and GATA-3 mRNA dominated the LGT, suggesting the presence of Th2 cells. These functional compartments also attracted regulatory T cells (Tregs differently as increased FoxP3 mRNA expression was seen primarily in the UGT. Although IL-17A mRNA was somewhat up-regulated in the LGT, no significant change in RORγ-t mRNA expression was observed, suggesting no involvement of Th17 cells. The dichotomy between the LGT and UGT was maintained during infection by IL-10 because in IL-10-deficient mice the distinction between the two compartments was completely lost and a dramatic shift to the predominance of Th1 cells in the LGT occurred. Unexpectedly, the major source of IL-10 was CD11c(+ CD11b(+ DC, probably creating an anti-inflammatory privileged site in the LGT.

  8. Evaluation of an in silico predicted specific and immunogenic antigen from the OmcB protein for the serodiagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Jalel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The OmcB protein is one of the most immunogenic proteins in C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections. This protein is highly conserved leading to serum cross reactivity between the various chlamydial species. Since previous studies based on recombinant proteins failed to identify a species specific immune response against the OmcB protein, this study evaluated an in silico predicted specific and immunogenic antigen from the OmcB protein for the serodiagnosis of C. trachomatis infections. Results Using the ClustalW and Antigenic programs, we have selected two predicted specific and immunogenic regions in the OmcB protein: the N-terminal (Nt region containing three epitopes and the C-terminal (Ct region containing two epitopes with high scores. These regions were cloned into the PinPoint Xa-1 and pGEX-6P-1 expression vectors, incorporating a biotin purification tag and a glutathione-S-transferase tag, respectively. These regions were then expressed in E. coli. Only the pGEX-6P-1 has been found suitable for serological studies as its tag showed less cross reactivity with human sera and was retained for the evaluation of the selected antigens. Only the Ct region of the protein has been found to be well expressed in E. coli and was evaluated for its ability to be recognized by human sera. 384 sera were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis by our in house microimmunofluorescence (MIF and the developed ELISA test. Using the MIF as the reference method, the developed OmcB Ct ELISA has a high specificity (94.3% but a low sensitivity (23.9. Our results indicate that the use of the sequence alignment tool might be useful for identifying specific regions in an immunodominant antigen. However, the two epitopes, located in the selected Ct region, of the 24 predicted in the full length OmcB protein account for approximately 25% of the serological response detected by MIF, which limits the use of the developed ELISA

  9. Can We Use Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis as a Surveillance Tool for National Trachoma Control Programs? Results from a District Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz; Weaver, Jerusha; Mrango, Zakayo; Dize, Laura; Gaydos, Charlotte; Quinn, Thomas C.; Martin, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is targeted for elimination by 2020. World Health Organization advises districts to undertake surveillance when follicular trachoma (TF) hamlets in Kilosa district, Tanzania, and randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 per hamlet. The tarsal conjunctivae were graded for trachoma (TF), tested for C. trachomatis infection (Aptima Combo2 assay: Hologic, San Diego, CA), and a dried blood spot processed for antibodies to C. trachomatis pgp3 using a multiplex bead assay on a Luminex 100 platform. Principal findings The prevalence of trachoma (TF) was 0.4%, well below the hamlets, 22 had neither infection nor TF. Antibody positivity overall was low, 7.5% and increased with age from 5.2% in 1–3 year olds, to 9.3% in 7–9 year olds (p = 0.015). In 16 of the 30 hamlets, no children ages 1–3 years had antibodies to pgp3. Conclusions The antibody status of the 1–3 year olds indicates low cumulative exposure to infection during the surveillance period. Four years post MDA, there is no evidence for re-emergence of follicular trachoma. PMID:26771906

  10. 沙眼衣原体临床株对利福平的体外敏感性及rpoB基因耐药突变检测%In vitro activity of rifampin against and rpoB mutations in Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江勇; 杨丽娜; 刘原君; 侯淑萍; 齐蔓莉; 刘全忠

    2015-01-01

    目的 检测沙眼衣原体临床株对利福平的体外敏感性,探讨rpoB基因突变与临床耐药的关系.方法 采用微量细胞培养法确定利福平对52株沙眼衣原体临床株的最低抑菌浓度.扩增所有临床株以及标准株rpoB基因,然后进行单链构象多态性分析.并随机选取两株临床株进行测序.结果 52株临床菌株中未检出耐药株,利福平的最低抑菌浓度是0.004 ~ 0.030 mg/L.SSCP和测序均未发现rpoB耐药突变.结论 利福平治疗沙眼衣原体失败患者未检测到rpoB基因突变,利福平治疗失败与多种因素有关.%Objective To evaluate the susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates to rifampin, and assess the relationship between rpoB mutations and antibiotic resistance in them.Methods A microculture method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of rifampin in 52 Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates.The rpoB gene was amplified from all the clinical isolates and a standard strain of Chlamydia trachomatis followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP)analysis.Sequencing of PCR products was carried out for two clinical isolates.Results No rifampin-resistant strain was found among these clinical isolates.The MIC of rifampin varied from 0.004 to 0.030 mg/L Neither SSCP analysis nor sequencing showed rpoB mutations.Conclusions No rpoB mutations were found in Chlamydia trachomatis isolates from patients unresponsive to rifampin.The unresponsiveness to rifampin may be attributed to multiple factors.

  11. Identification of the base-pairing requirements for repression of hctA translation by the small RNA IhtA leads to the discovery of a new mRNA target in Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Grieshaber

    Full Text Available The non-coding small RNA, IhtA expressed by the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis modulates the translation of HctA, a key protein involved in replicative to infectious cell type differentiation. Using a combination of bioinformatics and mutagenesis we sought to identify the base pairing requirement for functional repression of HctA protein expression, with an eye to applying our findings towards the identification of additional targets. IhtA is predicted to fold into a three stem:loop structure. We found that loop 1 occludes the initiation codon of hctA, while loop 2 and 3 are not required for function. This 7 nucleotide region forms G/C rich interactions surrounding the AUG of hctA. Two additional genes in the chlamydial genome, CTL0322 and CTL0097, contained some elements of the hctA:IhtA recognition sequence. The mRNA of both CTL0322and CTL0097 interacted with IhtA in vitro as measured by biolayer interferometry. However, using a CheZ reporter expression system, IhtA only inhibited the translation of CTL0322. The proposed IhtA recognition site in the CTL0322 message contains significant G/C base pairing on either side of the initiation codon while CTL0097 only contains G/C base pairing 3' to the AUG initiation codon. These data suggest that as the functional interacting region is only 6-7nt in length that full translation repression is dependent on the degree of G/C base pairing. Additionally our results indicate that IhtA may regulate multiple mRNAs involved in the chlamydial infectious cycle.

  12. Identification of the Base-Pairing Requirements for Repression of hctA Translation by the Small RNA IhtA Leads to the Discovery of a New mRNA Target in Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshaber, Nicole A.; Tattersall, Jeremiah S.; Liguori, Johella; Lipat, Joseph N.; Runac, Justin; Grieshaber, Scott S.

    2015-01-01

    The non-coding small RNA, IhtA expressed by the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis modulates the translation of HctA, a key protein involved in replicative to infectious cell type differentiation. Using a combination of bioinformatics and mutagenesis we sought to identify the base pairing requirement for functional repression of HctA protein expression, with an eye to applying our findings towards the identification of additional targets. IhtA is predicted to fold into a three stem:loop structure. We found that loop 1 occludes the initiation codon of hctA, while loop 2 and 3 are not required for function. This 7 nucleotide region forms G/C rich interactions surrounding the AUG of hctA. Two additional genes in the chlamydial genome, CTL0322 and CTL0097, contained some elements of the hctA:IhtA recognition sequence. The mRNA of both CTL0322and CTL0097 interacted with IhtA in vitro as measured by biolayer interferometry. However, using a CheZ reporter expression system, IhtA only inhibited the translation of CTL0322. The proposed IhtA recognition site in the CTL0322 message contains significant G/C base pairing on either side of the initiation codon while CTL0097 only contains G/C base pairing 3’ to the AUG initiation codon. These data suggest that as the functional interacting region is only 6-7nt in length that full translation repression is dependent on the degree of G/C base pairing. Additionally our results indicate that IhtA may regulate multiple mRNAs involved in the chlamydial infectious cycle. PMID:25756658

  13. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis, but the signifi......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis...... infected individuals as compared withthe control group. Multivariate analysis taking multiple possible confounders into consideration will be performed. Results: Young Danes diagnosed with a C. trachomatis infection are more likely to have concurrent partnerships than individuals in the control group. - 1...

  14. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Chlamydia psittaci in Captive Psittacines from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sheleby-Elías

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from 117 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics (88 and from shelters/rescue centers of wildlife (29 were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in captive birds in Costa Rica. Samples were collected during 2009 from a total of 19 different species of parrots, with Ara macao (33, Amazona autumnalis (24, Amazona ochrocephala (21, and Ara ararauna (8 being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in four (3.4% birds using molecular detection (PCR. The positive samples belonged to birds presented at veterinary clinics; three of them were Ara macao and one Amazona ochrocephala. Three birds were adults; all positive birds showed no symptoms of illness and lived in homes with other birds, two in San José and two in Heredia. Sequencing was used to confirm the PCR positive results, showing that two samples of C. psittaci belonged to genotype A, representing the first report of the presence of this genotype in Costa Rica. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for people living or having contact with them and that there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

  15. MICA*A5.1与沙眼衣原体感染的相关性%Correlation between MICA*A5.1 allele and infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅冰; 杜昆; 霍治; 王芙艳; 马淑慧; 余平

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究MICA*A5.1基因与沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,Ct)感染的关系.方法 聚合酶链反应(PCR)-SSP检测样本中的MICA*A5.1基因,荧光定量.聚合酶链反应(FQ-PCR)检测Ct-DNA.结果 在122例不孕患者组中有33例Ct感染阳性,140例对照组中有16例Ct感染阳性,2组Ct感染率分别为27.1%和11.4%.经PCR-SSP方法检测,不孕患者组中MICA*A5.1基因阳性个体有35例,Ct感染阳性且同时MICA*A5.1基因阳性的个体有5例;对照组中MICA*A5.1基因阳性个体有43例,Ct感染阳性且同时MICA*A5.1基因阳性的个体有1例.MICA*A5.1基因阳性个体和MICA*A5.1基因阴性个体之问Ct感染率的差异具有统计学意义(不孕患者组P=0.046;对照组P=0.022;两组合并P=0.01).结论 不孕患者组Ct感染率要高于对照组;与MICA*A5.1基因阴性个体相比,MICA*A5.1基因阳性个体的Ct感染率较低.

  16. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum Transmission Between Regular Sexual Partners%沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体在固定性伴之间传播的临床流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全忠; 齐蔓莉; 缴稳苓; 田敬群; 傅志宜

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the transmission ratio and epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) between regular sexual partners.Methods: We collected secretion specimens of genitourinary tract from sexual partners who attended our clinic during the period from May 1, 1999 to May 31,2000 and then detected Ct and Uu in the specimens.Results: The inconsistent rate of Ct and Uu infected between sexual partners was 59.22% and 38.92%respectively. There were no correlations between patients' age and the inconsistent rate of Ct and Uu infected (P>0.05). The most common inconsistency between regular partners was seen in man with Ct infection while in female with Uu infection; and in man with concurrent infection of Ct while in female only with Uu; or in man with Ct infection while in female no Ct and Uu were detected.Conclusion: The sexual transmitting ability of Ct and Uu is not as active as we have expected.%目的 调查沙眼衣原体(Ct)和解脲支原体(Uu)在固定性伴之间的传播比率和流行病学状况.方法 1999年5月1日至2000年5月31日期间夫妻(性伴)双方均在我院性病门诊就诊的患者,取泌尿生殖道分泌物标本检测Ct和Uu.结果 固定性伴之间Ct和Uu感染的不一致率分别是59.22%和38.92%,患者的年龄与这两种病原体感染的不一致率均无明显相关性(P>0.05);固定性伴之间这两种病原体感染的不一致通常表现为:男性感染Ct/女性感染Uu、男性合并感染Ct和Uu/女性只感染Uu、男性感染Ct/女性未检出这两种病原体.结论 尽管一方感染了沙眼衣原体和/或解脲支原体,即使有性接触,另一方被感染的比率并不高,推测这两种病原体的性传播力并不强.

  17. Concurrent Infection of Mycoplasma or Chlamydia Trachomatis on Vulvovaginal Candidiasis%外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病伴发支原体及沙眼衣原体感染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英汉; 李东; 冯辉; 刘静

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infection of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC)with mycoplasma / chlamydia trachomatis(CT) was investigated,choosing 86 female patients with recurrent VVC(RVVC),219 female patients with simple VVC and 200 health examining females who underwent ureaplasma urealyticum(Uu),mycoplasma hominis(Mh)and CT detection. Candida in vaginal discharge from all women with VVC was identified by fungal culture. The rates of Uu positive,Mh positive and mixed positive in both RVVC group and simple VVC group were significantly higher than those in control group respectively(P 0. 05). The positive rate of Uu was sig-nificantly different between positive and negative fungal culture groups(P 0. 05). The infection rate of Uu in patients with VVC was signif-icantly higher than that in normal population,suggested that Candida mixed with infection of Uu would lead to the oc-currence of VVC,especial the recurrence of VVC.%为研究外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(Vulvovaginal Candidiasis,VVC)患者合并支原体和衣原体感染情况,对86例复发性 VVC(recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis,RVVC)患者、219例单纯性 VVC 患者以及健康妇女200例,分别进行解脲脲原体(Ureaplasma urealyticum,Uu)、人型支原体( mycoplasma hominis,Mh)和沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,CT)检测;所有 VVC 病例均进行真菌培养。RVVC 组和单纯 VVC 组与对照组之间 Uu、Mh 及 Uu 混合 Mh 阳性率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P 约0.05)。而三组之间 CT 和 CT 混合支原体阳性率比较,均无显著性差异(P 跃0.05)。真菌培养阳性组与阴性组之间,Uu 阳性率比较有显著性差异(P 约0.05),而CT 阳性率比较无显著性差异(P 跃0.05)。结果表明,VVC 患者合并 Uu 感染较正常人群明显增高,假丝酵母菌与 Uu 混合感染可能导致 VVC 的发生和复发。

  18. 低血清铁生殖道沙眼衣原体持续感染动物模型的研究%Construction of models for persistent genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in mice with low serum iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 刘原君; 姚卫锋; 盛彩虹; 朱辉; 李燕; 刘全忠

    2010-01-01

    Objective To construct a model for persistent genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in mice with low serum iron. Methods Iron deficiency was induced in female BALB/c mice by lowiron diet. Mice with or without iron-deficency were inoculated intravaginally with direct instillation of 50 μl of bacterial suspension containing 3.4344 × 107 IFU/ml of C. trachomatis serovar E elementary body 1 week after intramuscular injection of progesterone. Moxifloxacin and ferrous sulfate, alone or in combination were given to inoculated mice with iron deficiency daily for 1 week. Subsequently, vaginal discharge was obtained from mice and observed under an immunofluorescence microscope, and tissue specimens were resected from the uterus,uterine tube and ovary of mice and subjected to pathological examination at various time points. Results Compared with normal-iron mice, iron-deficient mice were infected with C. trachomatis for a longer duration (more than 18 weeks). After 18-week infection with C. trachomatis, there was an obvious chronic inflammation and lymphocytic infiltration in tissues specimens from the uterus,uterine tube and ovary of mice. Immunofluorescent examination of vaginal discharge for C. trachomatis turned negative in 60% of iron-deficient mice treated with both moxifloxacin and ferrous sulfate, but not in any of those receiving moxifloxacin or ferrous sulfate alone. Conclusion As animal models show, low serum iron may contribute to the persistent genital tract infection with C. trachomatis.%目的 创建低血清铁生殖道沙眼衣原体持续感染的动物模型.方法 用BALB/c雌性小鼠,通过缺铁饮食使其进入缺铁状态,小鼠阴道内注射衣原体标准株原体前1周肌内注射黄体酮,然后阴道内注射50μl浓度约为3.4344×107ifu/ml的E型沙眼衣原体标准株原体悬液.连续观察其阴道分泌物性状及免疫荧光镜检情况;并进行病理切片检测.进一步给予莫西沙星及铁剂干预,观察免

  19. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars;

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive...... after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...

  20. Establishment of a mouse model for genital tract infection with different serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis%不同血清型沙眼衣原体小鼠生殖道感染模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 周细玉; 郑和平; 薛耀华

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立不同血清型沙眼衣原体小鼠生殖道感染模型,为研究型别与毒力的关系奠定基础.方法 将6周龄BALB/c雌性小鼠分为4组,实验组经孕酮处理后接种4.0× 107沙眼衣原体,孕酮对照组接种McCoy细胞培养液,无孕酮对照组直接接种4.0×107沙眼衣原体,以及单纯小鼠的空白对照.分别于接种后4d起观察小鼠外阴变化,阴道分泌物细胞培养、直接免疫荧光法和实时荧光PCR检测沙眼衣原体.结果 实验组接种沙眼衣原体E、F、J和K型,4d后小鼠生殖道表现出轻微的感染迹象,7d后阴道分泌物培养、免疫荧光和PCR检测均检出沙眼衣原体,而对照组为阴性.感染持续时间以K型最长(21 d,1/11只阳性),其次为J型(17 d,1/11只阳性)、F型(14 d,5/11只阳性)和E型(14d,2/11只阳性).结论 适龄小鼠经孕酮处理后,接种一定量的沙眼衣原体,可建立不同血清型沙眼衣原体感染模型.%Objective To establish a mouse model for genital tract infection with different serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct),and to provide a basis for understanding the relationship between Ct serovars and virulence.Methods Six-week-old female BALB/c mice were divided into 4 groups:study group (pretreated with progesterone and inoculated with 4.0 × 107 inclusion-forming units (IFU) of Ct serovar E,F,J and K,respectively),progesterone-control group (pretreated with progesterone and inoculated with culture medium of McCoy cells),non progesterone-control group (inoculated with 4.0 × 107 IFU of Ct serovar F),blank control group receiving no treatment.At 4 and 7 days after the inoculation,the appearance of vulva was observed,vaginal swab specimens were obtained and subjected to cell culture,direct immunofluorescence assay and real-time fluorescence-based PCR for the detection of Ct.Results A slight inflammation of the genital tract was observed in the mice 4 days after the inoculation with Ct serovar E,F,J or K in the study group

  1. 淋病奈瑟菌、沙眼衣原体、解脲脲支原体感染与女性不孕症的关系%Relationship between infections of Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae,and Ureaplasma urealy ticum and infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭端亮; 李永文; 赵鹃; 张建英; 宋建

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究探讨女性淋病奈瑟菌、沙眼衣原体、解脲脲支原体感染与不孕症的关系,为临床诊断和治疗提供参考依据。方法对医院2010年4月-2014年4月诊治的80例女性不孕患者为不孕组和80例可疑性病女性患者为可疑组进行分析,同期选取80名已生育妇女为对照组,检测各组受试者淋病奈瑟菌、沙眼衣原体及解脲脲支原体感染情况,数据采用SPSS 20.0软件进行统计分析。结果不孕组患者中淋病奈瑟菌、沙眼衣原体及解脲脲支原体的感染率分别为30.42%、87.50%、90.00%,明显高于对照组的5.00%、12.50%、15.00%;且淋病奈瑟菌、沙眼衣原体及解脲脲支原体的感染率与宫颈糜烂程度呈正相关性。结论淋病奈瑟菌、沙眼衣原体及解脲脲支原体与女性不孕具有密切的相关性,须加强不孕患者上述项目的临床监测。%OBJECTIVE To investigate the relevance of infection of Chlamydia trachomatis , Neisseria gonorrhoe‐ae ,and Ureaplasma urealyticum and infertility so as to provide references for clinical diagnosis and treatments . METHODS Totally 80 cases of infertile patients and 80 cases of suspected sexually transmitted disease patients were enrolled in the present research in our hospital from Apr .2010 to Apr .2014 .Females who have bred chil‐dren (80 cases) in the same period were chosen as control group .The infection status of C .trachomatis ,N .gon‐orrhoeae ,and U .urealyticum were assayed by real time PCR .All data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 20 .0 . RESULTS The positive rates of C .trachomatis ,N .gonorrhoeae ,and U .urealyticum were higher in infertile pa‐tients ,respectively 30 .42% ,87 .50% and 90 .00% ,than the healthy subjects (5 .00% ,12 .50% and 15 .00% ) (P<0 .05) .The results also showed that the positive rate of C .trachomatis ,N .gonorrhoeae ,and U .urealytic‐um had a positive relationship with cervical erosion

  2. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Home For Patients Search FAQs Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and ... FAQ071, February 2016 PDF Format Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis Gynecologic Problems What are gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis? ...

  3. Why don’t young women go for Chlamydia testing? A qualitative study employing Goffman’s stigma framework

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; O'Connell, Emer; McGee, Hannah; O' Donovan, Diarmuid; Vaughan, Deirdre

    2010-01-01

    Many women who might be at risk of having the sexually transmitted infection(STI) Chlamydia trachomatis either delay going, or do not go, for testing. Weaimed to examine the factors that either prevent or discourage Irish young women from going for Chlamydia testing. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 women in the Republic of Ireland who were between 18 and 29 years of age. Accounts were analysed using Goffman’s stigma framework. Study respondents strongly associated Chlamydia and Chlam...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis protein CT009 is a structural and functional homolog to the key morphogenesis component RodZ and interacts with division septal plane localized MreB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemege, Kyle E.; Hickey, John M.; Barta, Michael L.; Wickstrum, Jason; Balwalli, Namita; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies herein expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis, and cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient E. coli. Cellular localization analysis of CT009 showed uniform membrane staining in Chlamydia. This was in contrast to the localization of MreB, which was restricted to predicted septal planes. MreB localization to septal planes provides direct experimental observation for the role of MreB in cell division and supports the hypothesis that it serves as a functional replacement for FtsZ in Chlamydia. PMID:25382739

  5. Is there a Relation between Chlamydia Infection and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick S. C.; Park, Ogyi; Matsumura, Shuji; Ansari, Aftab A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have failed to provide direct evidence of specific microbial chronic infection in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). However, a recent report suggests that there is a specific association of Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with PBC and that C. pneumoniae or similar antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. To determine if Chlamydia infection is associated with PBC, we applied a combination of immunological and molecular approaches to investigate (a) the serological reactivity against two common Chlamydia human pathogens, C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, by immunoblotting, (b) the presence of Chlamydia in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by PCR amplification of Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA and (c) the presence of Chlamydia proteins in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by immunohistochemical staining. By immunoblotting, C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae specific serological antibodies were found in 52/57 (91.2%) AMA positive PBC, 7/33 (21/2%) of AMA negative PBC, 1/25 (4%) PSC, 0/15 (0%) Sjorgen's syndrome and 0/20 (0%) systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 0/20 (0%) healthy volunteers at 1:200 sera dilution. PBC sera reacted to Chlamydia and E. coli lysates in western blots up to a maximum of 10-4 dilution. However, PCR amplification of the Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA gene was negative in 25/25 PBC livers but positive in 1/4 PSC liver, 3/6 in other liver disease controls and 1/4 normal liver samples. While two commercially available specific monoclonal antibodies stained positive controls (Chlamydia infected HEp-2 cells) they failed to detect Chlamydia antigens in PBC livers. The detection of Chlamydia specific antibodies but not Chlamydia rRNA gene and Chlamydia antigens in PBC suggests that Chlamydia infection is not involved in PBC. PMID:14768955

  6. Identification of two novel genes encoding 97- to 99-kilodalton outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae.Infect Immun. 1999 Jan;67(1):375-83

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, K; Madsen, AS; Mygind, P;

    1999-01-01

    of putative outer membrane proteins encoded by the Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis gene families. By use of a monospecific polyclonal antibody against purified recombinant Omp4, it was shown that without heating, the protein migrated at 65 to 75 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate...

  7. Analysis on Detection Results of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Urogenital Tract Specimens in Longgang District of Shenzhen from 2011 to 2012%2011-2012年深圳市龙岗区泌尿生殖道炎症标本中NG、CT和UU感染检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆岚; 万彦彬

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市龙岗区近2年皮肤性病科门诊泌尿生殖道炎症患者中淋球菌、沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染的检出情况,为泌尿生殖道感染的临床治疗提供依据. 方法 回顾性收集2011年1月-2012年12月期间1792份泌尿生殖道标本的实验室检测结果进行统计学描述与分析. 结果 1 792份标本中,共检出阳性标本357份(19.92%),以非淋菌性尿道炎为主;其中NG、CT和UU的阳性率分别为5.47%、3.96%和6.98%,2种及多种病原体混合感染阳性率为3.52%.不论男性还是女性,性活跃期患者性病病原体检出率均显著高于其他年龄人群(P<0.05);女性患者常见性病病原体总检出率(P<0.05)及NG检出率(P<0.01)显著高于男性患者. 结论 加强对性活跃期患者淋球菌、沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体的检测对泌尿生殖道感染防治可能有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the detection rates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG),Chlamydia trachomatis (CT),and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in dermatology outpatients with genitourinary tract infection (GTI) in Longgang district during 2011 and 2012,and to provide a basis for clinical treatment of GTI.Methods We retrospectively collected the laboratory test results of 1,792 urogenital specimens from January 2011 to December 2012 for statistical description and analysis.Results Among 1,792 specimens,357 (19.92 %) were detected as positive samples,most of which were non-gonococcal urethritis.The positive rates for NG,CT and UU were 5.47%,3.96% and 6.98%,respectively.The positive rate for combined infection of two or more pathogens was 3.52 %.As compared to other age groups,significantly higher detection rates of venereal pathogens were observed in sexually active male and female patients (P < 0.05).The detection rates of common sexually transmitted pathogens (P<0.05) and NG (P < 0.01) were both significantly higher in female patients than in male

  8. Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Chlamydia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui L(ü); Wei-Ming ZHAO; Yan ZHENG; Hong WANG; Mei QI; Xiu-Ping YU

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause ocular and sexually transmitted diseases, and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of codon usage may improve our understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of Chlamydia and allow reengineering of target genes to improve their expression for gene therapy. Here, we analyzed the codon usage of C. muridarum, C.trachomatis (here indicating biovar trachoma and LGV), C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the codon usage database and the CUSP (Create a codon usage table) program of EMBOSS (The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite). The results show that the four genomes have similar codon usage patterns,with a strong bias towards the codons with A and T at the third codon position. Compared with Homo sapiens, the four chlamydial species show discordant seven or eight preferred codons. The ENC (effective number of codons used in a gene)-plot reveals that the genetic heterogeneity in Chlamydia is constrained by the G+C content, while translational selection and gene length exert relatively weaker influences. Moreover,mutational pressure appears to be the major determinant of the codon usage variation among the chlamydial genes. In addition, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of E. coli, yeast,adenovirus and Homo sapiens. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between C. trachomatis and E. coli, 24 between C. trachomatis and adenovirus, 21 between C. trachomatis and Homo sapiens, but only six codons between C. trachomatis and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of chlamydial genes. Finally, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of six eukaryotes, eight prokaryotes and 23 viruses. There is a strong positive correlation between the differences in coding GC content and the variations in codon bias (r=0.905, P<0.001). We conclude that the variation of codon bias

  9. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better. PMID:23903989

  10. Ureaplasma urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatis infection status survey of female infertility patients in Weihai area%威海地区女性不孕患者解脲脲原体、沙眼衣原体感染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤冬静; 张文卿

    2014-01-01

    目的:调查威海地区女性不孕患者解脲脲原体(UU)、沙眼衣原体(CT)感染状况。方法:选取118例女性不孕症患者,应用实时荧光定量PCR(TaqMan PCR)技术对其宫颈分泌物进行UU-DNA、CT -DNA定量检测。结果:不孕症患者的UU和CT阳性检出率分别是75.4%(89/118)和44.1%(52/118);健康育龄期妇女对照组分别是26%(26/100)和15%(15/100)。不孕症患者UU、CT感染的阳性检出率明显高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:本地区女性不孕与UU、CT感染密切相关, UU、CT检测应成为不孕症的常规实验室诊断项目。%Objective:To survey infectious statu of ureaplasma urealyticum(UU) and chlamydia trachomatis(CT) of the female infertility patients in WeiHai area.Methods:118 female infertility patients were involved and 100 cases of healthy children bearing age women were taken as the control.Quantitative detection of UU DNA and CT DNA were performed with the method of real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (TaqMan PCR ).Results:The percentage of UU and CT infection in the infertility patients was 75.4% (89/118) and 44.1% (52/118) respectively ; while it was only 26% (26/100) and 15% (15/100) in the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusions:The female infertility in WeiHai area is closely related to the infection of UU and CT, the laboratory detection of UU and CT should be taken as routine tests for infertility cases.

  11. 2998例男性患者解脲脲原体、淋病奈瑟菌和沙眼衣原体感染调查分析%Analysis of infections caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in 2998 male patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖秀美; 高爽; 杨旭; 乔艳; 姚贝

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the infection status of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in male patients so as to provide laboratory basis for diagnosis and treatment.Methods A total of 2998 cases first catch urine specimens were collected from the male patients attending the outpatient department of our hospital from Apr 2013 to Apr 2015, then the simultaneous isothermal amplification assay was applied to detect the three species of pathogens, the age and diagnosis of patients were also analyzed.Results The positive rates of UU, CT and NG were 18.4%, 9.5% and 2.0% respectively. The main infectious type is the single UU infection (15.3%), then the single CT and the CT plus UU infection (6.0%, 2.9%). As positive rate of infection concerned, patients of less than 20 years old was the highest, that of patients of more than 50 years old was lower, but the size of samples was too small. The positive rate of CT in patients who got urethritis and just went for routine examination was higher; the prevalence of NG in patients with infertility was the highest. Conclusion CT, NG and UU are the important causes for male genitourinary tract infection, the detection of urine pathogens in young patients of less than 20 years old should be focused on because of the highest UU, NG and CT prevalence rate.%目的:检测我院门诊男性患者解脲脲原体(Ureaplasma urealyticum,UU)、淋病奈瑟菌(Neisseria gonorrhoeae,NG)、沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,CT)感染现状,为此类患者的临床诊治提供实验室依据。方法收集2013年4月至2015年4月我院门诊男性患者首段尿液标本2998份,采用实时荧光核酸恒温扩增技术检测标本中的CT、NG和UU,并对患者年龄和诊断进行分析。结果男性患者首段尿中UU、CT、NG阳性率依次降低,分别为18.4%,9.5%和2.0%,感染类型以单独UU为主,其次是单独CT和混合UU+CT,分别占15.3%、6.0%

  12. The Number, Organization, and Size of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Coding Sequences as well as the Most Conserved Pmp Protein Differ within and across Chlamydia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; Creasy, Heather Huot; Myers, Garry S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Variation is a central trait of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family. The number of pmp coding sequences differs between Chlamydia species, but it is unknown whether the number of pmp coding sequences is constant within a Chlamydia species. The level of conservation of the Pmp proteins has previously only been determined for Chlamydia trachomatis. As different Pmp proteins might be indispensible for the pathogenesis of different Chlamydia species, this study investigated the conservation of Pmp proteins both within and across C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci. The pmp coding sequences were annotated in 16 C. trachomatis, 6 C. pneumoniae, 2 C. abortus, and 16 C. psittaci genomes. The number and organization of polymorphic membrane coding sequences differed within and across the analyzed Chlamydia species. The length of coding sequences of pmpA,pmpB, and pmpH was conserved among all analyzed genomes, while the length of pmpE/F and pmpG, and remarkably also of the subtype pmpD, differed among the analyzed genomes. PmpD, PmpA, PmpH, and PmpA were the most conserved Pmp in C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci, respectively. PmpB was the most conserved Pmp across the 4 analyzed Chlamydia species.

  13. Chlamydia species-dependent differences in the growth requirement for lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    Full Text Available Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole that is in close apposition to lysosomes. Metabolically-labeled uninfected host cell proteins were provided as an exogenous nutrient source to chlamydiae-infected cells, and uptake and subsequent labeling of chlamydiae suggested lysosomal degradation as a source of amino acids for the pathogen. Indeed, Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H(+/ATPase that blocks lysosomal acidification and functions, impairs the growth of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, and these effects are especially profound in C. pneumoniae. BafA1 induced the marked accumulation of material within the lysosomal lumen, which was due to the inhibition of proteolytic activities, and this response inhibits chlamydiae rather than changes in lysosomal acidification per se, as cathepsin inhibitors also inhibit the growth of chlamydiae. Finally, the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, compromises the ability of lysosomal inhibitors to block chlamydial growth, suggesting chlamydiae directly access free amino acids in the host cytosol as a preferred source of these nutrients. Thus, chlamydiae co-opt the functions of lysosomes to acquire essential amino acids.

  14. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  15. Implementing chlamydia screening: what do women think? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairley Christopher K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection that can have serious consequences. It is universally agreed that screening for chlamydia infection should be offered to sexually active young women. We undertook a literature review to document the views, attitudes and opinions of women about being screened, tested and diagnosed with Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods Online databases (MEDLINE, Meditext, PsycINFO, Web of Science and reference lists searched up to August 2005. Search terms: chlamydia, attitude, attitude to health, interview, qualitative, women. Eligibility criteria: about chlamydia, included women, involved interviews/surveys/focus groups, looked at women's views/opinions/attitudes, published in English. Thematic analysis identified the main and recurrent themes emerging from the literature. We compared our thematic analysis with the Theory of Planned Behaviour to provide a model that could assist in planning chlamydia screening programs. Results From 561 identified articles, 25 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were reviewed. 22: USA, UK; 3: Holland, Sweden, Australia. Major themes identified: need for knowledge and information, choice and support; concerns about confidentiality, cost, fear, anxiety and stigma. Women are more likely to find chlamydia screening/testing acceptable if they think chlamydia is a serious, common condition which can cause infertility and if they understand that chlamydia infection can be asymptomatic. Women want a range of options for chlamydia testing including urine tests, self-administered swabs, pelvic exams and clinician-collected swabs, home-testing and community-based testing. Tests should be free, easy and quick. Women want support for dealing with the implications of a chlamydia diagnosis, they feel chlamydia diagnoses need to be normalised and destigmatised and they want assistance with partner notification. Women need to know that their confidentiality will be

  16. Commonly prescribed β-lactam antibiotics induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress in culture at physiologically relevant concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eKintner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease agent worldwide, enters a viable, non-dividing and non-infectious state (historically termed persistence and more recently referred to as the chlamydial stress response when exposed to penicillin G in culture. Notably, penicillin G-exposed chlamydiae can reenter the normal developmental cycle upon drug removal and are resistant to azithromycin-mediated killing. Because penicillin G is less frequently prescribed than other β-lactams, the clinical relevance of penicillin G-induced chlamydial persistence/stress has been questioned. The goal of this study was to determine whether more commonly used penicillins also induce C. trachomatis serovar E persistence/stress. All penicillins tested, as well as clavulanic acid, induced formation of aberrant, enlarged reticulate bodies (called aberrant bodies or AB characteristic of persistent/stressed chlamydiae. Exposure to the penicillins and clavulanic acid also reduced chlamydial infectivity by >95%. None of the drugs tested significantly reduced chlamydial unprocessed 16S rRNA or genomic DNA accumulation, indicating that the organisms were viable, though non-infectious. Finally, recovery assays demonstrated that chlamydiae rendered essentially non-infectious by exposure to ampicillin, amoxicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, penicillin V and clavulanic acid recovered infectivity after antibiotic removal. These data definitively demonstrate that several commonly used penicillins induce C. trachomatis persistence/stress at clinically relevant concentrations.

  17. 长期使用避孕药和宫内节育器妇女生殖道衣原体及人乳头瘤病毒检测%Assay of chlamydia trachomatis and human papillomavirus in genital tract of women long-term using oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉璘; 石慧; 孙志明; 潘丽; 李瑛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of the Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women long-term using combined oral contraceptives (OC) or intrauterine device (IUD), in order to guide quality of care in family planning. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for women who had long-term taken Combined Norethisterone, or Combined Norgestrel, or had worn the IUD for birth control. 226 women were divided into three groups: Norethisterone group, Norgestrel group and IUD group. Results The total detectable rate of CT was 21.24% in all subjects, the rates were 24.69% in the Norethisterone group, 20.45% in the Norgestrel group and 17.54% in the IUD group. The total detectable rate of HPV was 14.2% in all subjects, the rates were 11.11% in the Norethisterone, 20.45% in the Norgestrel group and 8.77% in the IUD group. The rates of CT and HPV in the two OC groups were higher than that in the IUD group, but had no significant difference (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in clinical symptoms among the three groups (P > 0.05). However, most of women with CT or HPV infections had no clinical symptoms. Conclusion Following up should be strengthened for women who use contraception method for long time. Reproductive health care services, including regular cervical smears, CT and HPV assay should be provided, especially for the long-term users of con -traception methods to improve their physical and mental health.%目的 了解长期使用口服避孕药(OC)及宫内节育器(IUD)避孕妇女生殖道衣原体(CT)及人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)感染的情况,指导计划生育优质服务.方法 采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测服用口服避孕药、使用宫内节育器5年以上的妇女226例宫颈分泌物中CT及HPV DNA.研究对象按避孕措施分成1号片组、复方18-甲组和宫内节育器组.结果 三组研究对象的CT总检出率为21.24%,1号片组为24.69%,复方18甲组为20.45%,IUD组为17

  18. Prevalence of specific IGM due to toxoplasma, rubella, CMV and c.trachomatis infections during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasodhara P

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and seventy five apparently normal asymptomatic pregnant women were studied prospectively and 247 women with different complications of pregnancy were screened at the time of delivery for infections like Chlamydia trachomatis, Toxoplasma, Rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV. One hundred and forty two women with normal outcome of pregnancy served as controls. Specific IgM due to these agents were determined in the sera using commercial diagnostic kits. Results of the study showed that chlamydial infection was the most prevalent (29.8% followed by Toxoplasmosis (13.1, Rubella (6.5% and CMV (5.8%. Adverse outcome was seen among those seropositive for Chlamydia, Toxoplasmosis and Rubella. CMV showed no association with adverse outcome of pregnancy. Since Chlamydia and Toxoplasmosis are amenable to treatment with antibiotics, screening for these infections and appropriate treatment would improve outcome of pregnancy.

  19. Power of Knowledge: Effect of Two Educational Interventions on Readiness for Chlamydia Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Rachel S; Golding, Jeremy; Giorgio, Margaret M; Blake, Diane R

    2016-07-01

    We compared (a) the effectiveness of print versus digital educational media for communicating information about Chlamydia trachomatis to adolescents and young adults and (b) the influence of media type on readiness for Chlamydia screening. Young men and women (n = 103), aged 15 to 24 years, were recruited from a youth center and university campus and randomized to receive the print or digital Chlamydia educational intervention. Participant mean knowledge score improved postintervention, but there was no association with type of intervention medium. Nearly two-thirds (61%) of sexually active participants endorsed an increased postintervention stage of readiness for screening; however, there was no association with type of intervention medium. Learning about Chlamydia infection may have positive effects on willingness to be screened. Further study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of educational interventions for increasing actual screening rates. PMID:26350429

  20. Characterization of Ancient Ferredoxins & Chlamydia Trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Hanne

    Part I Two evolutionary old ferredoxins were characterized. LCA Fd – a 55 AA ferredoxin – is believed to have function in the last common ancestor of life on Earth. An internal repeat in the sequence of LCA Fd was phylogenetically traced even further back in evolution resulting in a 23 AA peptide...

  1. Role and Importance of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Pregnant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Angelova Angelova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women and to determine the role of this infection in the fetus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the first phase of this study were reported 58 pregnant women with a positive test for active chlamydial infection by applying immunofluorescence. In the second phase of the study were reported pregnant with premature burst membranes (PBM, postnatal complications associated with chlamydial infection as puerperal endometritis, and newborns are monitored for low birth weight and growth retardation at birth. RESULTS: With a positive test are 58 patients in the first trimester or pregnancy registration in our consultation. After regimen with Sumamed (2 x 500 mg for three days and after 10 days again same scheme for them and their partner at the beginning of the third trimester, the PCR test was made again. Of these, 5 were positive again, participants are between 20 and 30 years old. With premature rupture of OM are 20 patients. There was no increased incidence of premature births. Infants born to infected mothers have a higher risk of developing respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. 3 of them have low for his age bodyweight. CONCLUSIONS: The scarcity of data on manifestations of chlamydial infection during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justifies this study. Early diagnosis for registration of pregnancy and timely treatment of chlamydial infection as well as scrutinising the infection during the third trimester of pregnancy can prevent infection of the newborn. Therefore, preventive examinations should be considered as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic chlamydial infection in the conduct of antenatal care.

  2. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K;

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...... patient sera, Omp2 was found to be a major immunogen of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections (P humoral immune responses were not confined to any particular region of the Omp2 protein, and no species-specific anti-Omp2 immunoglobulins were detected....

  3. Kinematics of Intracellular Chlamydiae Provide Evidence for Contact-Dependent Development▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David P.; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A.; Timms, Peter; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2009-01-01

    A crucial process of chlamydial development involves differentiation of the replicative reticulate body (RB) into the infectious elementary body (EB). We present experimental evidence to provide support for a contact-dependent hypothesis for explaining the trigger involved in differentiation. We recorded live-imaging of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected McCoy cells at key times during development and tracked the temporospatial trajectories of individual chlamydial particles. We found that moveme...

  4. 四川东北地区女性生殖道感染沙眼衣原体、淋球菌和解脲脲原体的结果分析%Analysis on detection results of Chlamydia trachomatis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in female genital tract in northeast Sichuan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许媛; 方莉; 赵维皎; 赵明才; 谢宁; 苏中龙; 廖涛; 黄义山

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the infection status and variation tendency of chlamydia trachomatis (CT) ,Neisseria gonorrhoe-ae(NG) and ureaplasma urealyticum(UU) in female genital tract in northeast Sichuan province during 2005 -2012 to provide the laboratory basis for their diagnosis and treatment Methods The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) was applied to detect the CT DNA ,NG DNA and UU DNA in 1 386 samples from female genital tract and the detection results were performed the statistical analysis .Results The total positive rate of these 3 kinds of pathogens was 62 .8% (871/1 386) .Among the simple in-fection ,UU had the highest positive rate(48 .0% ,665/1 386);the positive rates of CT and NG were only 2 .2% .In the mixed infec-tion ,the positive rate of CT + UU was highest(6 .5% ,90/1 386) ,while which of UU + NG ,CT + NG and CT+ NG+ UU was 2 .5% (35/1 386) ,0 .4% (5/1 386) and 1 .1% (15/1 386) respectively .In different age groups ,the positive rate in the age 20 years old groups were all more than 60% .The positive rate of the CT ,NG and UU pathogens in females was in continuous high level during 2005 -2012 ,and which totally showed an increasing tendency . Conclusion CT and UU are the main pathogens in female genital tract infection in this region ,and the positive rate of genital tract infection in females aged more than 20 years is higher ,the infection rate of these 3 kinds of pathogens demonstrates the increasing trend year by year ,so more attention should be paid to the detection of CT and UU in this group for guiding the clinicians to con-duct the diagnosis and treatment .%目的:分析川东北地区2005~2012年女性生殖道沙眼衣原体(CT)、淋球菌(NG)和解脲脲原体(UU)感染状况及变化趋势,为该类患者的诊断和治疗提供实验室依据。方法应用实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)技术对1386例女性生殖道标本进行CT、NG、UU病原体DNA检测,并对结果进行统计分析。结果3

  5. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom. PMID:25469538

  6. Pitfalls of Internet-accessible diagnostic tests: inadequate performance of a CE-marked Chlamydia test for home use

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Claude-Edouard C; Saison, Francis G; Joshi, Hrishikesh; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes M; Lee, Helen H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a CE (Conformitee Europeenne)-marked home test for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) that is available over the Internet. Methods: A total of 231 eligible women attending the Social Hygiene Clinic (SHC) or Obstetrics-Gynecology (OB-GYN) Clinic in Iloilo City, Philippines was recruited to an evaluation of the HandiLab-C Chlamydia home test (HandiLab-C). One vaginal swab was tested with HandiLab-C on-site and the second at Cambr...

  7. Seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia in North West zone of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agbonlahor DE; Okoror LE; Esumeh FI

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Chlamydia is made of organism responsible for respiratory as well as genital infections with very se-rious sequelae.In Nigeria there is paucity of information regards relative frequencies of Chlamydia infection of which this study reports in North West zone of Nigeria.Methods:Three hundred and thirty three (333)blood samples were collected from individuals attending various clinics in North West zone of Nigeria and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing antibody.Swabs collected from positive patients were re-tested using the Ro-manowsky-Giemsa staining technique.Statistical analysis were carried out in epi-info epidemiological software package.Results:From the total of 333 samples collected and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing anti-body (CCFA)only 287 (86%)were positive.The culture showed that 215 (75%)were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis while only 135 (47%)were positive for Chlamydia pneumoniae.Seventy-one (71)fe-males had symptomatic infection while 31 males were symptomatic.Of the 104 individuals who were asympto-matic 67 were females while 92 were males.Of the 31 symptomatic males were 22 positive to Chlamydia pneu-moniae and the symptoms being that of respiratory syndrome while 9 had difficulty urinating.All the symptom-atic women had symptoms resembling that of the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)and vaginal discharge. Age groups 31-35 had the highest positive samples while the extreme ages had the lowest number of positive in-dividuals and also the lowest number of samples.The number of samples as well as the positive results were validated using the epi-info statistical package version 3.4.1.There was no significant difference in the num-ber of samples from both males and females (χ2 =1.360,CI =99%).Conclusion:A high percentage of pos-itive result as validated by statistical analysis shows that Chlamydia infections are endemic in the population and efforts should be made to screen for the organism to avoid the "silent epidemics".

  8. Sex and sport: chlamydia screening in rural sporting clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Marcus Y

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, mainly affecting those aged 15 to 29 years. Testing rates are low in Australia and considerably lower in rural areas, with access and confidentiality of sexual health services being problematic in rural and regional areas. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of establishing a pilot chlamydia testing outreach program among 16–25 year old males and females in rural Victoria (Australia undertaken at local sporting clubs and to determine the prevalence of chlamydia and acceptability of the program in this population. Methods We aimed to recruit young people from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample, completed a brief questionnaire regarding risk taking behaviour and were then provided with condoms and health promotion materials about sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. Results A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female, 77% being sexually active. All provided a urine sample and completed the questionnaire. Participation rate on recruitment nights was over 95%. Overall chlamydia prevalence in those sexually active was 5.1% (95%CI: 3.4–7.3, 7.4% in females (95%CI: 3.5–13.6 and 4.5% in males (95%CI: 2.7–6.9. Conclusion Sporting clubs represent a feasible, acceptable and innovative community based setting to screen, treat and educate young people in a rural and regional setting, especially for males.

  9. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  10. MAPK/ERK和MAPK/P38信号通路的活化参与沙眼衣原体诱导前炎因子的产生%Activation of MAPK/ERK and MAPK/P38 is Essential for Proinflammatory Response by Chlamydia trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文; 陈凡; 余平; 钟光明

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydial infection in human urogenital tract induces inflammation and causes tissue damage and scarring. It is thought that cytokine production by the Chlamydia-infected cells plays a key role in chlamydial disease processes. Although many cytokines have been detected during chlamydial infection, little is known about the molecular mechanisms on how Chlamydia triggers and sustains the inflammatory cytokine cascades. In the current study, chlamydial infection of the human cervical epithelial cell line HeLa cells can induce the production of IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-6. Using inhibitors for probing intracellular kinase signaling pathways required for the Chlamydia-induced cytokines, it was found that the Chlamydia-activated MAPK / P38 pathway is required for the chlamydial induction of IL-1α and IL-6 while both the Chlamydia-activated MAPK/ERK and MAPK/P38 pathways contribute to the production of IL-8.%沙眼衣原体感染可导致沙眼、性传播性疾病、不孕症等疾病,主要病理表现是炎症反应引起的组织损伤和瘢痕.因此,沙眼衣原体诱导产生的炎症因子是导致疾病的关键,沙眼衣原体可直接感染内皮细胞产生各种前炎因子,但其机制目前还不清楚.通过ELISA和免疫印迹等方法,检测到沙眼衣原体感染HeLa229细胞可产生IL-8,IL-1α,IL-1β,IL-6等前炎因子,并且沙眼衣原体感染可以主要激活宿主细胞MAPK/ERK和MAPK/P38信号通路.抑制MAPK/ERK和MAPK/P38信号通路显示,两条通路在沙眼衣原体感染过程中参与调节不同的炎症因子产生.MAPK/P38信号通路的活化参与调控IL-1α,IL-6的产生,而IL-8则同时受MAPK/ERK和MAPK/P38两条通路的调控.

  11. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  12. Performance evaluation of a new rapid urine test for chlamydia in men: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadala, Elpidio-Cesar; Goh, Beng T; Magbanua, Jose-Paolo; Barber, Penelope; Swain, Alison; Alexander, Sarah; Laitila, Vivian; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Ison, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of a rapid test for chlamydia with first void male urine samples as a potential tool for diagnosis and screening of chlamydial infection in men. Design Evaluation of test performance in prospective cohort study. Settings A young people’s sexual health centre (site 1) and a genitourinary medicine clinic (site 2) in the United Kingdom. Participants 1211 men aged 16-73 attending either of the two sites. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test versus polymerase chain reaction assay. Relation between the visual signal of the Chlamydia Rapid Test and organism load. Results Detection rates for Chlamydia trachomatis infection with polymerase chain reaction were 4.4% (20/454) at site 1 and 11.9% (90/757) at site 2. Compared with polymerase chain reaction assay, the resolved sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test was 82.6% (90/109), 98.5% (1085/1102), 84.1% (90/107), and 98.3% (1085/1104), respectively. The organism load in first void urine samples that were positive for chlamydia ranged from 7.28×102 to 6.93×106 plasmids/ml and correlated significantly with the visual signal of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (r=0.7897, P<0.001). Conclusions The performance of the new Chlamydia Rapid Test with first void male urine samples indicates that it would be an effective diagnostic tool for chlamydial infection in men. The availability of test results within an hour allows for immediate treatment and contact tracing, potentially reducing the risks of persistent infection and onward transmission. The test could also provide a simple and reliable alternative to nucleic acid amplification assays for testing of male urine in chlamydial screening programmes in high prevalence settings. PMID:19638650

  13. Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and compound norethisterone enanthate on the susceptibility of BABL/c mice to lower reproductive tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis%醋酸甲羟孕酮和复方庚酸炔诺酮对 BALB/c小鼠下生殖道感染沙眼衣原体敏感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩燕; 郑冰洁; 尹跃平; 钟铭英; 于瑞星

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and compound norethisterone enanthate (CNE) on the susceptibility of BABL/c mice to lower reproductive tract infection with chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). Methods A total of 60 BALB/c mice were randomly and equally divided into 6 groups:MPA-pretreated control group and CNE-pretreated control group inoculated with MyCoy cell suspensions in the vagina on the 5th day after single treatment with MPA and CNE respectively, blank control group receiving no treatment, MPA-pretreated infected group and CNE-pretreated infected group inoculated with 1 × 107 inclusion-forming units(IFU)of Ct serovar E in the vagina on the 5th day after single treatment with MPA and CNE respectively, control infected group inoculated with the same quantity of IFU of Ct serovar E in the vagina but receiving no pretreatment. On day 4, 7 and 14 after inoculation, vaginal irrigation fluid was obtained from all the mice for cell culture of Ct. Three mice were randomly selected from each of these groups at the above three time points and sacrificed, and vaginal and uterine tissue specimens were obtained for hematoxylin-eosin(HE)staining and microscopic examination. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were conducted to compare infection rate among different groups. Results No growth of Ct was observed in the three control groups at the above time points. The culture-positive rate of Ct was 1/10 on day 4 but 0 on day 7 and 14 in both the CNE-pretreated infected group and control infected group, 7/10 on day 4, 2/7 on day 7 but 0 on day 14 in the MPA-pretreated infected group. Fisher's exact test revealed that the culture-positive rate of Ct was significantly higher in the MPA-pretreated infected group than in the control infected group and CNE-pretreated infected group on day 4 (both P =0.03), but similar among the three infected groups on day 7 (P = 0.23). Both the MPA-pretreated control group and infected group showed an increase

  14. Lipid rafts, caveolae, caveolin-1, and entry by Chlamydiae into host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth S; Webley, Wilmore C; Norkin, Leonard C

    2003-07-01

    Obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the genus Chlamydia are reported to enter host cells by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. C. trachomatis serovar K recently was shown to enter cells via caveolae-like lipid raft domains. We asked here how widespread raft-mediated entry might be among the Chlamydia. We show that C. pneumoniae, an important cause of respiratory infections in humans that additionally is associated with cardiovascular disease, and C. psittaci, an important pathogen in domestic mammals and birds that also infects humans, each enter host cells via cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains. Further, we show that C. trachomatis serovars E and F also use these domains to enter host cells. The involvement of these membrane domains in the entry of these organisms was indicated by the sensitivity of their entry to the raft-disrupting agents Nystatin and filipin, and by their intracellular association with caveolin-1, a 22-kDa protein associated with the formation of caveolae in rafts. In contrast, caveolin-marked lipid raft domains do not mediate entry of C. trachomatis serovars A, 36B, and C, nor of LGV serovar L2 and MoPn. Finally, we show that entry of each of these chlamydial strains is independent of cellular expression of caveolin-1. Thus, entry via the Nystatin and filipin-sensitive pathway is dependent on lipid rafts containing cholesterol, rather than invaginated caveolae per se.

  15. The Lignan-containing Extract of Schisandra chinensis Berries Inhibits the Growth of Chlamydia pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena L; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki J; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and selectivity of an extract of Schisandra chinensis berries against Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Among the ethnopharmacological uses of the extract from Schisandrae fructus are cough and pneumonia. Therefore we focused on respiratory pathogens. The extract completely inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae strain CV6 at 250 μg/mL concentration. The inhibition of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis growth was dose dependent and established with three different strains. The extract inhibited C. pneumoniae production of infectious progeny in a dose dependent manner. Chlamydia selectivity was elucidated with growth inhibition measurements of three other respiratory bacterial species. A pure compound found in Schisandra chinensis berries, schisandrin B at 20.0 μg/mL concentration inhibited the growth of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. The extract was found to be non-toxic to the human host cells. These findings highlight the potential of the extract from Schisandra chinensis berries as a source for antichlamydial compounds.

  16. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redmond, S; Woodhall, S; van den Broek, I;

    2015-01-01

    characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results: We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response......Background: Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods: We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU....../EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study...

  17. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Jun; Serradji, Nawal; Mouton, Ludovic; Redeker, Virginie; Cornu, David; El Hage Chahine, Jean-Michel; Verbeke, Philippe; Hémadi, Miryana

    2016-01-01

    Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes). In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0) x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies. PMID:26919720

  18. Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hai

    Full Text Available Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes. In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0 x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies.

  19. Delivery of chlamydia screening to young women requesting emergency hormonal contraception at pharmacies in Manchester, UK: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Karen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More women are requesting Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC at pharmacies where screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered. The objective of this study was to assess the uptake of free postal chlamydia screening by women under 25 years who requested EHC at pharmacies in Manchester, UK. Methods Six Primary Care Trusts (PCTs that had contracted with pharmacies to provide free EHC, requested the largest EHC providers (≥ 40 doses annually to also offer these clients a coded chlamydia home testing kit. Pharmacies kept records of the ages and numbers of women who accepted or refused chlamydia kits. Women sent urine samples directly to the laboratory for testing and positive cases were notified. Audit data on EHC coverage was obtained from PCTs to assess the proportion of clients eligible for screening and to verify the uptake rate. Results 33 pharmacies participated. Audit data for 131 pharmacy months indicated that only 24.8% (675/2718 of women provided EHC were also offered chlamydia screening. Based on tracking forms provided by pharmacies for the whole of the study, 1348/2904 EHC clients (46.4% who had been offered screening accepted a screening kit. 264 (17.6% of those who accepted a kit returned a sample, of whom 24 (9.1% were chlamydia-positive. There was an increase in chlamydia positivity with age (OR: 1.2 per year; 1.04 to 1.44; p = 0.015. Conclusion Chlamydia screening for EHC pharmacy clients is warranted but failure of pharmacists to target all EHC clients represented a missed opportunity for treating a well defined high-risk group.

  20. The lipid transfer protein CERT interacts with the Chlamydia inclusion protein IncD and participates to ER-Chlamydia inclusion membrane contact sites.

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    Isabelle Derré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens that reside in membrane bound compartment manipulate the host cell machinery to establish and maintain their intracellular niche. The hijacking of inter-organelle vesicular trafficking through the targeting of small GTPases or SNARE proteins has been well established. Here, we show that intracellular pathogens also establish direct membrane contact sites with organelles and exploit non-vesicular transport machinery. We identified the ER-to-Golgi ceramide transfer protein CERT as a host cell factor specifically recruited to the inclusion, a membrane-bound compartment harboring the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. We further showed that CERT recruitment to the inclusion correlated with the recruitment of VAPA/B-positive tubules in close proximity of the inclusion membrane, suggesting that ER-Inclusion membrane contact sites are formed upon C. trachomatis infection. Moreover, we identified the C. trachomatis effector protein IncD as a specific binding partner for CERT. Finally we showed that depletion of either CERT or the VAP proteins impaired bacterial development. We propose that the presence of IncD, CERT, VAPA/B, and potentially additional host and/or bacterial factors, at points of contact between the ER and the inclusion membrane provides a specialized metabolic and/or signaling microenvironment favorable to bacterial development.

  1. Analysis of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Expression in Cultured Cells Identifies PmpA and PmpH of Chlamydia psittaci as Candidate Factors in Pathogenesis and Immunity to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; De Vos, Winnok H.; Huot Creasy, Heather; Marques, Patricia X.; Ravel, Jacques; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bavoil, Patrik; Hsia, Ru-ching

    2016-01-01

    The polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) paralogous families of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus are putative targets for Chlamydia vaccine development. To determine whether this is also the case for Pmp family members of C. psittaci, we analyzed transcription levels, protein production and localization of several Pmps of C. psittaci. Pmp expression profiles were characterized using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence (IF) and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) under normal and stress conditions. We found that PmpA was highly produced in all inclusions as early as 12 hpi in all biological replicates. In addition, PmpA and PmpH appeared to be unusually accessible to antibody as determined by both immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy. Our results suggest an important role for these Pmps in the pathogenesis of C. psittaci, and make them promising candidates in vaccine development. PMID:27631978

  2. MRI as a Novel In Vivo Approach for Assessing Structural Changes of Chlamydia Pathology in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shubing; Meng, Xiangjun; Skinner, Julie M.; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Boddicker, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent of sexually transmitted diseases. While Chlamydia infection is a reportable event and screening has increased over time, enhanced surveillance has not resulted in a reduction in the rate of infections, and Chlamydia infections frequently recur. The development of a preventative vaccine for Chlamydia may be the only effective approach for reducing infection and the frequency of pathological outcomes. Current vaccine research efforts involve time consuming and/or invasive approaches for assessment of disease state, and MRI presents a clinically translatable method for assessing infection and related pathology both quickly and non-invasively. Longitudinal T2-weighted MRI was performed over 63 days on both control or Chlamydia muridarum challenged mice, either with or without elementary body (EB) immunization, and gross necropsy was performed on day 65. A scoring system was developed to assess the number of regions affected by Chlamydia pathology and was used to document pathology over time and at necropsy. The scoring system documented increasing incidence of pathology in the unimmunized and challenged mice (significantly greater compared to the control and EB immunized-challenged groups) by 21 days post-challenge. No differences between the unchallenged and EB immunized-challenged mice were observed. MRI scores at Day 63 were consistently higher than gross necropsy scores at Day 65, although two of the three groups of mice showed no significant differences between the two techniques. In this work we describe the application of MRI in mice for the potential evaluation of disease pathology and sequelae caused by C. muridarum infection and this technique’s potential for evaluation of vaccines for Chlamydia. PMID:27467585

  3. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens.

  4. Infecção por Chlamydia em pacientes com e sem lesões intra-epiteliais cervicais Chlamydia infection in patients with and without cervical intra-epithelial lesions

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    Micheline de Lucena Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a freqüência de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis em pacientes com e sem lesões intra-epiteliais cervicais atendidas em ambulatório especializado no Recife (2007, e sua associação com variáveis biológicas, demográficas, hábitos, características reprodutivas e clínico-ginecológicas. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo corte transversal, incluindo 70 mulheres (35 com alterações citológicas e 35 normais. Realizaram-se colposcopia, biópsia quando necessário e pesquisa para Chlamydia trachomatis por Imunofluorescência Direta. As variáveis analisadas foram idade, raça, procedência, escolaridade, estado civil, menarca, idade da primeira relação sexual, paridade, número de parceiros, corrimento, realização de citologia prévia, episódios de DST, eletrocauterização, método contraceptivo, antecedente familiar de câncer uterino, consumo alcoólico, tabagismo, drogas ilícitas e imunossupressoras, resultado da citologia e infecção cervical por Chlamydia trachomatis. Para determinação da força da associação, calculou-se a Razão de Prevalência (RP e o intervalo de confiança 95%, realizando-se análise multivariada para controle das variáveis potencialmente confundidoras. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis foi significativamente maior em pacientes com alterações citológicas (80% vs. 14,3%, com uma RP de 5,60 (IC 95% = 2,44 - 12,82. Analisando os fatores associados à infecção por Chlamydia , a única variável que persistiu significativamente associada após análise multivariada foi a história pregressa de DST (OR=63,47; IC 95% = 13,93 - 289,09. CONCLUSÃO: A presença da Chlamydia trachomatis está associada às alterações citológicas da cérvice uterina, e a história pregressa de DST deve ser valorizada no tratamento e seguimento clínico destas pacientes.OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients with

  5. The Correlation of Human Papilloma Virus with Chlamydia Trachomatis, Ureaplasma Urealyticum and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infection in Women%女性人乳头状瘤病毒与沙眼衣原体、解脲脲原体及淋病奈瑟氏菌感染的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向华国; 丘敏梅; 欧雪峰; 曾锦婷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation of HPV with CT,UU and NG infection in women.Methods A total of 517 outpatient women were checked for 23 types of HPV DNA by PCR-RDB.Of all,66 cases were positive and were divided into three groups as high risk HPV geotype,low risk HPV genotype and mixed HPV HPV genotype group.These 66 positive cases and 50 cases without HPV infection were detected by real-time quantitative PCR for CT,UU and NG.Results The positive rates of CT for high risk HPV genotype,low risk HPV genotype,mixed HPV genotype and negative HPV control group were 20.00%(8/40),10.00%(2/20),16.67%(1/6)and 4.00%(2/50)respectively.The positive rates of ureaplasma urealyticum for high risk HPV genotype,low risk HPV genotype,mixed HPV genotype and negative HPV control group were 62.50%(25/40),55.00%(11/20),100.00%(6/6)and 28.00%(14/50)respectively,there were significant differences between HPV infection group and negative HPV control group for CT,UU infection(P<0.05).The positive rates of NG for HPV infection group and negative HPV control group were 3.03%(2/66)and 4.00%(2/50)without significant differences(P>0.05).Conclusion HPV infection in women is related to CT,UU infection.However,there is no significant differences between HPV and NG infection.Several pathogens infection and synergy may accelerate the process of cervical lesions.Early detection and treatment are very important for prevention of cervical cancer.%目的 探讨女性生殖道人乳头瘤病毒-(HPV)感染与沙眼衣原体(CT)、解脲脲原体(UU)及淋病奈瑟氏菌(NG)感染之间的相关性.方法 采用PCR-反向点杂交基因分型技术对517例女性宫颈脱落细胞标本进行23种HPV亚型检测.对其中的66例HPV阳性标本分为高危型、低危型及混合感染组,同时随机选取50例HPV阴性组作为对照,利用实时荧光PCR同时检测上述病例的CT,UU及NG感染情况.结果 HPV高危型、低危型、混合感染及阴性对照

  6. O impacto da infecção por Chlamydia em populações indígenas da Amazônia brasileira Dissemination of Chlamydia infection among native Indian groups of the Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A disseminação das bactérias do gênero Chlamydia no Brasil, inclusive na região Amazônica, é pouco conhecida. Este estudo soroepidemiológico incluiu 2.086 amostras de soro de populações indígenas da Amazônia brasileira, empregando metodologia de triagem pela imunofluorescência indireta para pesquisa de anticorpos. Usou-se o sorotipo L2 da C. trachomatis como substrato; a seguir, para os quinze sorotipos de C. trachomatis e para a C. pneumoniae, discriminou-se a sororreatividade pela microimunofluorescência específica. A prevalência média de anticorpos para Chlamydia foi de 48,6%. Sua variação entre as comunidades indicou as que não tiveram contato com as bactérias e aquelas em que quase todos os testados tiveram. Por meio da titulação dos anticorpos IgG e a presença de IgM específica nas amostras com títulos altos viu-se que 6,1% dos infectados persistiam com a infecção, servindo de reservatórios à disseminação das espécies de Chlamydia. Pela resposta à C. trachomatis, evidenciou-se a circulação dos sorotipos A, B, Ba, D, E, G, H, I e L1. Ademais, constatou-se que há C. pneumoniae na região. As duas espécies causariam impacto significativo no hospedeiro humano.Knowledge is limited on the spread of bacteria from genus Chlamydia in Brazil. This study included a sero-epidemiological survey of 2,086 samples from native Indian populations of the Brazilian Amazon region. Sera were screened using indirect immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to C. trachomatis serotype L2, followed by microimmunofluorescence assay using fifteen C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae serotypes as antigen substrates. Antibody prevalence was 48.6%, but there was a large prevalence range among the groups, including those that had never been challenged with the bacteria, as well as those in which almost all individuals had been infected. Titration of IgG antibodies and detection of specific IgM in high-titer samples showed the

  7. RNAi screen in Drosophila cells reveals the involvement of the Tom complex in Chlamydia infection.

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    Isabelle Derré

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are intracellular obligate bacterial pathogens that infect a wide range of host cells. Here, we show that C. caviae enters, replicates, and performs a complete developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identified 54 factors that, when depleted, inhibit C. caviae infection. By testing the effect of each candidate's knock down on L. monocytogenes infection, we have identified 31 candidates presumably specific of C. caviae infection. We found factors expected to have an effect on Chlamydia infection, such as heparansulfate glycosaminoglycans and actin and microtubule remodeling factors. We also identified factors that were not previously described as involved in Chlamydia infection. For instance, we identified members of the Tim-Tom complex, a multiprotein complex involved in the recognition and import of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells. Finally, we confirmed that depletion of either Tom40 or Tom22 also reduced C. caviae infection in mammalian cells. However, C. trachomatis infection was not affected, suggesting that the mechanism involved is C. caviae specific.

  8. Tetracycline Selective Pressure and Homologous Recombination Shape the Evolution of Chlamydia suis: A Recently Identified Zoonotic Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Species closely related to the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) have recently been found to cause zoonotic infections, posing a public health threat especially in the case of tetracycline resistant Chlamydia suis (Cs) strains. These strains acquired a tet(C)-containing cassette via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Genomes of 11 Cs strains from various tissues were sequenced to reconstruct evolutionary pathway(s) for tet(C) HGT. Cs had the highest recombination rate of Chlamydia species studied to date. Admixture occurred among Cs strains and with Chlamydia muridarum but not with Ct Although in vitro tet(C) cassette exchange with Ct has been documented, in vivo evidence may require examining human samples from Ct and Cs co-infected sites. Molecular-clock dating indicated that ancestral clades of resistant Cs strains predated the 1947 discovery of tetracycline, which was subsequently used in animal feed. The cassette likely spread throughout Cs strains by homologous recombination after acquisition from an external source, and our analysis suggests Betaproteobacteria as the origin. Selective pressure from tetracycline may be responsible for recent bottlenecks in Cs populations. Since tetracycline is an important antibiotic for treating Ct, zoonotic infections at mutual sites of infection indicate the possibility for cassette transfer and major public health repercussions. PMID:27576537

  9. The intracellular bacteria Chlamydia hijack peroxisomes and utilize their enzymatic capacity to produce bacteria-specific phospholipids.

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    Gaelle Boncompain

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen responsible for loss of eyesight through trachoma and for millions of cases annually of sexually transmitted diseases. The bacteria develop within a membrane-bounded inclusion. They lack enzymes for several biosynthetic pathways, including those to make some phospholipids, and exploit their host to compensate. Three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that small organelles of the host, peroxisomes, are translocated into the Chlamydia inclusion and are found adjacent to the bacteria. In cells deficient for peroxisome biogenesis the bacteria are able to multiply and give rise to infectious progeny, demonstrating that peroxisomes are not essential for bacterial development in vitro. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics reveal the presence in C. trachomatis of plasmalogens, ether phospholipids whose synthesis begins in peroxisomes and have never been described in aerobic bacteria before. Some of the bacterial plasmalogens are novel structures containing bacteria-specific odd-chain fatty acids; they are not made in uninfected cells nor in peroxisome-deficient cells. Their biosynthesis is thus accomplished by the metabolic collaboration of peroxisomes and bacteria.

  10. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ+ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  11. Comparative analysis of Chlamydia psittaci genomes reveals the recent emergence of a pathogenic lineage with a broad host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Timothy D; Joseph, Sandeep J; Didelot, Xavier; Liang, Brooke; Patel, Lisa; Dean, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Interest in Chlamydia stems from its high degree of virulence as an intestinal and pulmonary pathogen across a broad range of animals, including humans. C. psittaci human pulmonary infections, referred to as psittacosis, can be life-threatening, which is why the organism was developed as a bioweapon in the 20th century and is listed as a CDC biothreat agent. One remarkable recent result from comparative genomics is the finding of frequent homologous recombination across the genome of the sexually transmitted and trachoma pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. We sought to determine if similar evolutionary dynamics occurred in C. psittaci. We analyzed 20 C. psittaci genomes from diverse strains representing the nine known serotypes of the organism as well as infections in a range of birds and mammals, including humans. Genome annotation revealed a core genome in all strains of 911 genes. Our analyses showed that C. psittaci has a history of frequently switching hosts and undergoing recombination more often than C. trachomatis. Evolutionary history reconstructions showed genome-wide homologous recombination and evidence of whole-plasmid exchange. Tracking the origins of recombinant segments revealed that some strains have imported DNA from as-yet-unsampled or -unsequenced C. psittaci lineages or other Chlamydiaceae species. Three ancestral populations of C. psittaci were predicted, explaining the current population structure. Molecular clock analysis found that certain strains are part of a clonal epidemic expansion likely introduced into North America by South American bird traders, suggesting that psittacosis is a recently emerged disease originating in New World parrots. PMID:23532978

  12. Cost-effectiveness of screening programs for Chlamydia trachomatis - A population-based dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Kretzschmar, M; Leidl, R; Van den Hoek, A; Jager, JC; Postma, MJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: Models commonly used for the economic assessment of chamydial screening programs do not consider population effects. Goal: To develop a novel dynamic approach for the economic evaluation of chlamydial prevention measures and to determine the cost-effectiveness of a general practitioner-b

  13. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhatla

    2013-01-01

    Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual/postcoital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent conventional Pap smear, Hybrid Capture 2® (HC2 testing for HPV and CT DNA and colposcopy, with directed biopsy of all lesions. Results: HPV DNA was positive in 108 (18.0% women, CT DNA in 29 (4.8% women. HPV/CT co-infection was observed in only four (0.7% women. Of the 127 (21.2% women with Pap >ASCUS, 60 (47.2% were HPV positive and four (3.1% were CT positive. Of the 41 women with CIN1 lesions, 11 (26.8% were HPV positive, while two were CT positive. Of the 46 women with CIN2+ on histopathology, 41 (89.1% were HPV positive, two (4.3% were CT positive and one was positive for both. The risk of CIN2+ disease was significantly increased (P35 yr, higher parity, use of oral contraceptives or smoking did not show any significant association with HPV or abnormal histopathology. Parity >5 was the only risk factor positivity associated with CT infection (P<0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that CT infection was not significantly associated with CIN, and most of its risk factors, including HPV infection, in symptomatic women. Longitudinal studies with carefully selected study sample would be able to answer these questions.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young adults - association with concurrent partnerships and short gap length between partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Larsen, Mette Bach;

    2015-01-01

    Seksuelt overførte infektioner (SOI) er stadig meget udbredt blandt unge i alderen 15-29 år. Mange af disse tilfælde kan formentlig relateres til seksuel risikoadfærd. Dette studie viser, at unge, der har haft overlappende seksuelle forhold eller korte perioder (<64 dage) mellem det afsluttede og...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation during uptake by HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Johnsen, H; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    inactive. Attachment of EBs to host cells is medicated by a heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycan. Following attachment, the EB is internalized within a membrane-bound vesicle, and during the first 8 h of infection the vesicles are transported to a perinuclear location where they aggregate and fuse...

  16. Diagnostic aspects of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Ulsen (Josina)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe sexually transmitted diseases (STOs) constitute a worldwide problem of major significance in terms of health. economic and social consequences. The most important STOs are Ihe bacterial infections syphilis (causative agent Treponema pal/idum sub·species pallidum), gonorrhoea (causati

  17. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, M. (Manuel); Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  18. Chlamydia control in Europe: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Low, N; S, Redmond; Alexander, K;

    Executive summary The literature reviews in this report bring together published evidence about the prevalence and reproductive tract complications of chlamydia infection, and about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening interventions. Population prevalence of chlamydia...... prevalence. Estimates of chlamydia positivity in surveys with low response rates should not be interpreted as estimates of population prevalence. Only two population-based surveys in EU/EEA Member States in this review had a response rate of >70%. The highest response rates were seen when specimens...

  19. Detection of T. vaginalis,M. hominis,M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum using Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Brunelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction. The sexually transmitted diseases include a large group of infections affecting both the sexes. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the Prato area during the period September 2010 – July 2011. Methods.We analysed different kind of samples (urine, endocervical swabs, urethral swabs, seminal fluids from hospitalized patients or referred to the Prato clinic subjects.The DNA was obtained using EZ1-DNA extraction kit and EZ1 instrument.The DNA was then amplified using the Seeplex STD6 kit (Seegene, Korea, identifying multiple pathogens simultaneously (T. vaginalis, M. hominis, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae e U. urealyticum. The revelation was performed by electrophoresis on microchip (instrument Multina, Shimadzu, Japan. Results. 1136 samples from Italian and foreign patients were examined: 876 were endocervical swabs (77%, 103 urethral swabs (9%, 103 seminal fluids (9%, and 54 urines (5%. The number of females was higher than males [894 (78.7% vs 242 (21.3%]; the mean age of females was 37.0±11.6 years, whereas that of males was 41.5 ±12.63 years.The prevalence of urogenital pathogens was: 15 positive samples for T. vaginalis (1.3%, 56 for M. hominis (4.9%, 13 for M. genitalium (1.1%, 28 for C. trachomatis (2.5%, 8 for N. gonorrhoeae (0.7% and 87 for U. urealyticum (7.7%.Among all positive, 25 subjects were positive for more than one pathogen and in particular: one was positive for the presence of 4 pathogens, five presented 3 pathogens simultaneously and the remaining nineteen for 2 pathogens. Conclusions. This study provides data on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the hospital of Prato.

  20. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation.

  1. The early gene product EUO is a transcriptional repressor that selectively regulates promoters of Chlamydia late genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Christopher J; Tan, Ming

    2012-06-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia has an unusual developmental cycle in which there is conversion between two forms that are specialized for either intracellular replication or propagation of the infection to a new host cell. Expression of late chlamydial genes is upregulated during conversion from the replicating to the infectious form, but the mechanism for this temporal regulation is unknown. We found that EUO, which is expressed from an early gene, binds to two sites upstream of the late operon omcAB, but only the downstream site was necessary for transcriptional repression. Using gel shift and in vitro transcription assays we showed that EUO specifically bound and repressed promoters of Chlamydia trachomatis late genes, but not early or mid genes. These findings support a role for EUO as a temporal repressor that negatively regulates late chlamydial genes and prevents their premature expression. The basis of this specificity is the ability of EUO to selectively bind promoter regions of late genes, which would prevent their transcription by RNA polymerase. Thus, we propose that EUO is a master regulator that prevents the terminal differentiation of the replicating form of chlamydiae into the infectious form until sufficient rounds of replication have occurred.

  2. Induction of partial immunity in both males and females is sufficient to protect females against sexual transmission of Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, C P; Armitage, C W; Kollipara, A; Andrew, D W; Trim, L; Plenderleith, M B; Beagley, K W

    2016-07-01

    Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis causes infertility, and because almost 90% of infections are asymptomatic, a vaccine is required for its eradication. Mathematical modeling studies have indicated that a vaccine eliciting partial protection (non-sterilizing) may prevent Chlamydia infection transmission, if administered to both sexes before an infection. However, reducing chlamydial inoculum transmitted by males and increasing infection resistance in females through vaccination to elicit sterilizing immunity has yet to be investigated experimentally. Here we show that a partially protective vaccine (chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and ISCOMATRIX (IMX) provided sterilizing immunity against sexual transmission between immunized mice. Immunizing male or female mice before an infection reduced chlamydial burden and disease development, but did not prevent infection. However, infection and inflammatory disease responsible for infertility were absent in 100% of immunized female mice challenged intravaginally with ejaculate collected from infected immunized males. In contrast to the sterilizing immunity generated following recovery from a previous chlamydial infection, protective immunity conferred by MOMP/IMX occurred independent of resident memory T cells. Our results demonstrate that vaccination of males or females can further protect the opposing sex, whereas vaccination of both sexes can synergize to elicit sterilizing immunity against Chlamydia sexual transmission. PMID:26647717

  3. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin A on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hanski

    Full Text Available Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Rationale, design, and results of the first screening round of a comprehensive, register-based, Chlamydia screening implementation programme in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koekenbier Rik H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing Chlamydia trachomatis screening in the Netherlands has been a point of debate for several years. The National Health Council advised against implementing nationwide screening until additional data collected from a pilot project in 2003 suggested that screening by risk profiles could be effective. A continuous increase in infections recorded in the national surveillance database affirmed the need for a more active approach. Here, we describe the rationale, design, and implementation of a Chlamydia screening demonstration programme. Methods A systematic, selective, internet-based Chlamydia screening programme started in April 2008. Letters are sent annually to all 16 to 29-year-old residents of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and selected municipalities of South Limburg. The letters invite sexually active persons to login to http://www.chlamydiatest.nl with a personal code and to request a test kit. In the lower prevalence area of South Limburg, test kits can only be requested if the internet-based risk assessment exceeds a predefined value. Results We sent invitations to 261,025 people in the first round. One-fifth of the invitees requested a test kit, of whom 80% sent in a sample for testing. The overall positivity rate was 4.2%. Conclusions This programme advances Chlamydia control activities in the Netherlands. Insight into the feasibility, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact of this large-scale screening programme will determine whether the programme will be implemented nationally.

  5. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, A G; Banner, Jytte; Birkelund, Svend;

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were exam...

  6. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  7. Characterizing the intracellular distribution of metabolites in intact Chlamydia-infected cells by Raman and two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaszák, Márta; Chang, Jiun Chiun; Leng, Weinan; Rupp, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Kelley, Anne Myers

    2013-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that proliferate only within infected cells. Currently, there are no known techniques or systems that can probe the spatial distribution of metabolites of interest within intact Chlamydia-infected cells. Here we investigate the ability of Raman microscopy to probe the chemical composition of different compartments (nucleus, inclusion, and cytoplasm) of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells. The overall intensity of the Raman spectrum is greatest in the inclusions and lowest in the cytoplasm in fixed cells. Difference spectra generated by normalizing to the intensity of the strong 1004 cm(-1) phenylalanine line show distinct differences among the three compartments. Most notably, the concentrations of adenine are greater in both the inclusions and the nucleus than in the cytoplasm, as seen by Raman microscopy. The source of the adenine was explored through a complementary approach, using two-photon microscopy imaging. Autofluorescence measurements of living, infected cells show that the adenine-containing molecules, NAD(P)H and FAD, are present mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that these molecules are not the source of the additional adenine signal in the nucleus and inclusions. Experiments of infected cells stained with a DNA-binding dye, Hoechst 33258, reveal that most of the DNA is present in the nucleus and the inclusions, suggesting that DNA/RNA is the main source of the additional Raman adenine signal in the nucleus and inclusions. Thus, Raman and two-photon microscopy are among the few non-invasive methods available to investigate cells infected with Chlamydia and, together, should also be useful for studying infection by other intracellular pathogens that survive within intracellular vacuoles.

  8. Study on the relationship between cervix diseases and the infection of human papillomvirus, chulamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus Ⅱ%人乳头瘤病毒、沙眼衣原体和单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型感染与宫颈疾病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 罗慧琴; 苗晋华

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)、沙眼衣原体(chlamydia trachomatis,CT)和单纯疱疹病毒Ⅱ型(herpes simplex virusⅡ,HSV-Ⅱ)感染与宫颈疾病的关系.方法 采用核酸分子快速杂交基因分型技术对598例宫颈脱落细胞进行HPV感染基因型分型测定,同时应用实时荧光定量PCR法(FQ-PCR)检测CT和HSV-Ⅱ两种病原体的感染情况.结果 HPV、CT和HSV-Ⅱ的阳性检出率分别为24.9%、9.2%和8.9%,且随着宫颈病变程度加重而逐渐增高,宫颈炎组和宫颈癌病变组三种病原体的感染率差异均有统计学意义.HPV感染以高危型为主(占77.9%),低危型为22.1%.HPV高危型和阴性组比较两种病毒的感染率有统计学差异(CT:x2=26.97,P<0.05;HSV-Ⅱ∶x2=65.93,P<0.05).各宫颈病变组均有多病毒混合感染情况出现,其中宫颈癌组混合感染率为22.2%.结论 HPV、CT和HSV-Ⅱ感染与宫颈癌的发生密切相关,多病原体混合感染会促进宫颈癌的发生.%Objective To investigate the relationship between cervix diseases and the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV),chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and herpes simplex virus Ⅱ (HSV Ⅱ).Methods DNA flow-through hybridization genotyping technique was used to detect HPV infection genotyping from 598 patients with cervix infection,and FQ-PCR was applied to determine the infection of CT and HSV Ⅱ.Results The positive rate of HPV,CT and HSV Ⅱ was 24.9%,9.2% and 8.9%,respectively.The positive rates of HPV,CT and HSV Ⅱ were gradually increased according to the severity of cervix diseases.The differences of infection rate were statistically significant between cervicitis group and cervical cancer lesions group.HR-HPV were detected in 77.9% of HPV positive samples,and the positive rate of LR-HPV was 22.1%.The positive rates of CT and HSV Ⅱ were significantly different among HR-HPV group and HPV negative group (CT:x2 =26.97,P < 0.05 ; HSV-Ⅱ:x2 =65.93,P <0

  9. Biology and intracellular life of chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranin Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. The developmental cycle of Chlamydiae is specific and different from other bacteria. The elementary body is the infectious form of the organism, responsible for attaching to the target host cell and promoting its entry. The reticulate body is the larger, metabolically active form of the organism, synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and proteins. The elementary body and reticulate body represent evolutionary adaptations to extracellular and intracellular environments. Intracellular persistence of Chlamydia. Predisposition of Chlamydia to persist within the host cell has been recognized as a major factor in the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease. The persistence implies a long-term association between chlamydiae and their host cell that may not manifest as clinically recognizable disease. The ability of chlamydia to remain within one morphological state for a long time in response to exogenous factors suggests an innate ability of these organisms to persist intracellulary in a unique developmental form. Chlamydiae induce interferon γ and exhibit growth inhibition in their presence. While the high levels of interferon γ completely restrict the development of chlamydia, its low levels induce the development of morphologically aberrant intracellular forms. The persistent forms contain reduced levels of major outer membrane protein but high levels of chlamydial heat shock protein. Conclusion. Immunopathogenesis of chlamydial infection is one of the main focal points of current research into Chlamydia. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent, usually asymptomatic and associated with serious sequelae. Screening programmes are the most important in the prevention of a long-term sequele.

  10. Uptake of biotin by Chlamydia Spp. through the use of a bacterial transporter (BioY and a host-cell transporter (SMVT.

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    Derek J Fisher

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals. Minor variations in metabolic capacity between species have been causally linked to host and tissue tropisms. Analysis of the highly conserved genomes of Chlamydia spp. reveals divergence in the metabolism of the essential vitamin biotin with genes for either synthesis (bioF_2ADB and/or transport (bioY. Streptavidin blotting confirmed the presence of a single biotinylated protein in Chlamydia. As a first step in unraveling the need for divergent biotin acquisition strategies, we examined BioY (CTL0613 from C. trachomatis 434/Bu which is annotated as an S component of the type II energy coupling-factor transporters (ECF. Type II ECFs are typically composed of a transport specific component (S and a chromosomally unlinked energy module (AT. Intriguingly, Chlamydia lack recognizable AT modules. Using (3H-biotin and recombinant E. coli expressing CTL0613, we demonstrated that biotin was transported with high affinity (a property of Type II ECFs previously shown to require an AT module and capacity (apparent K(m of 3.35 nM and V(max of 55.1 pmol×min(-1×mg(-1. Since Chlamydia reside in a host derived membrane vacuole, termed an inclusion, we also sought a mechanism for transport of biotin from the cell cytoplasm into the inclusion vacuole. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the mammalian sodium multivitamin transporter (SMVT, which transports lipoic acid, biotin, and pantothenic acid into cells, localizes to the inclusion. Since Chlamydia also are auxotrophic for lipoic and pantothenic acids, SMVT may be subverted by Chlamydia to move multiple essential compounds into the inclusion where BioY and another transporter(s would be present to facilitate transport into the bacterium. Collectively, our data validates the first BioY from a pathogenic organism and describes a two-step mechanism by which Chlamydia transport biotin

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  13. Risk of reproductive complications following chlamydia testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Frølund, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    individuals drawn from the population register (Danish Civil Registration System) who did not have a positive chlamydia test during this interval. The outcomes in the study were hospital episodes of health-care (inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department) with a diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease...... diagnosed chlamydia and episodes of hospital health care (inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department) for a reproductive complication. METHODS: We constructed and analysed a retrospective population-based cohort of women aged 15-44 years from administrative records in Denmark (1995-2012). We used a...... subset of the national Danish Chlamydia Study. The master dataset contains all residents of Denmark (including Greenland) who had a positive chlamydia test recorded by a public health microbiology laboratory from Jan 1, 1992, to Nov 2, 2011. Individuals were randomly matched (by age and sex) to four...

  14. Portal hypertension and an atypical reactive arthritis like presentation in a patient infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushumi Lodh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive arthritis (ReA is defined as a peripheral arthritis lasting longer than 1 month, associated with urethritis, cervicitis, or diarrhea. The reported annual incidence of ReA is approximately 30-40 cases per 100,000 adults, occurring commonly in the age group of 16 and 35 years. It is known to be associated with gastrointestinal infections with Shigella, Salmonella, and Campylobacter species and other microorganisms, as well as with genitourinary infections (especially with Chlamydia trachomatis. Case Report: This article reports the case of a 53-year-old, post-right total hip replacement, Indian man, with ReA, who presented with fever, respiratory distress, and abdominal discomfort. He complained of itching, tingling sensation, pain on urination, and retention of urine. He had right hip joint pain for 3 weeks, inability to move right leg since 10 days, and melena since 1 week. Laboratory tests revealed anemia, high liver and kidney function tests, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C reactive protein, procalcitonin and occult blood in stool. He tested positive for hepatitis C virus genotype 3. Gastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple apthoid ulcers at D2 and large gastric varix. Ultrasonography of whole abdomen revealed cholelithiasis and splenomegaly. Skin lesions and arthritis led to the diagnosis of associated ReA. The patient was managed conservatively and discharged in a stable condition. Conclusions: Our case is unlike classical ReA because the patient is older, HLA B27 negative, and without florid urethritis. Admitted for fever and lower urinary tract symptoms, along with respiratory distress, the primary objective of the emergency doctors was to prevent the patient from progressing to organ failure. The diagnosis of underlying atypical/incomplete ReA could easily have been missed without adequate awareness, dermatological consultation, and a skin biopsy.

  15. Chlamydia, physical characteristics and diagnostic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.H. Theunissen (Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe investigations described in this thesis had several alms. As discussed in the diagnostics section, the detection of antibodies directed against C. trachomatis using the MIF is not only laborious, but the interpretation of the results is also subjective. The main objection against usi

  16. Community risk factors for ocular Chlamydia infection in Niger: pre-treatment results from a cluster-randomized trachoma trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou Amza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma control programs utilize mass azithromycin distributions to treat ocular Chlamydia trachomatis as part of an effort to eliminate this disease world-wide. But it remains unclear what the community-level risk factors are for infection. METHODS: This cluster-randomized, controlled trial entered 48 randomly selected communities in a 2×2 factorial design evaluating the effect of different treatment frequencies and treatment coverage levels. A pretreatment census and examination established the prevalence of risk factors for clinical trachoma and ocular chlamydia infection including years of education of household head, distance to primary water source, presence of household latrine, and facial cleanliness (ocular discharge, nasal discharge, and presence of facial flies. Univariate and multivariate associations were tested using linear regression and Bayes model averaging. FINDINGS: There were a total of 24,536 participants (4,484 children aged 0-5 years in 6,235 households in the study. Before treatment in May to July 2010, the community-level prevalence of active trachoma (TF or TI utilizing the World Health Organization [WHO] grading system was 26.0% (95% CI: 21.9% to 30.0% and the mean community-level prevalence of chlamydia infection by Amplicor PCR was 20.7% (95% CI: 16.5% to 24.9% in children aged 0-5 years. Univariate analysis showed that nasal discharge (0.29, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.54; P = 0.03, presence of flies on the face (0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.64; P = 0.001, and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.07, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.13; P = 0.03 were independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. In multivariate analysis, facial flies (0.26, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.49; P = 0.03 and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.06, 95% CI: 0.008 to 0.11; P = 0.02 were associated risk factors for ocular chlamydial infection. INTERPRETATION: We have found that the presence

  17. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production from CD8+ T cells mediates oviduct pathological sequelae following primary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ashlesh K; Li, Weidang; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Kamalakaran, Sangamithra; Guentzel, M Neal; Seshu, J; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2011-07-01

    The immunopathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced oviduct pathological sequelae is not well understood. Mice genetically deficient in perforin (perforin(-/-) mice) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production (TNF-α(-/-) mice) displayed comparable vaginal chlamydial clearance rates but significantly reduced oviduct pathology (hydrosalpinx) compared to that of wild-type mice. Since both perforin and TNF-α are effector mechanisms of CD8(+) T cells, we evaluated the role of CD8(+) T cells during genital Chlamydia muridarum infection and oviduct sequelae. Following vaginal chlamydial challenge, (i) mice deficient in TAP I (and therefore the major histocompatibility complex [MHC] I pathway and CD8(+) T cells), (ii) wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells, and (iii) mice genetically deficient in CD8 (CD8(-/-) mice) all displayed similar levels of vaginal chlamydial clearance but significantly reduced hydrosalpinx, compared to those of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting a role for CD8(+) T cells in chlamydial pathogenesis. Repletion of CD8(-/-) mice with wild-type or perforin(-/-), but not TNF-α(-/-), CD8(+) T cells at the time of challenge restored hydrosalpinx to levels observed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells is important for pathogenesis. Additionally, repletion of TNF-α(-/-) mice with TNF-α(+/+) CD8(+) T cells significantly enhanced the incidence of hydrosalpinx and oviduct dilatation compared to those of TNF-α(-/-) mice but not to the levels found in wild-type mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells and non-CD8(+) cells cooperates to induce optimal oviduct pathology following genital chlamydial infection. These results provide compelling new evidence supporting the contribution of CD8(+) T cells and TNF-α production to Chlamydia-induced reproductive tract sequelae.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasmas and Chlamydiae in patients with genital tract infections in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meiling; Xie, Yanping; Zhang, Ruixia; Gao, Song; Xu, Guangmei; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Peipei; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuyan

    2016-08-01

    The infections of Mycoplasmas and Chlamydiae are still severe in patients with genital tract diseases and antimicrobial resistance for these organisms has been changing in recent years. In this study, we reported the prevalence status of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in 965 patients with genital tract infection in Shanghai from January 2011 to December 2014 and analyzed the antimicrobial resistance of U. urealyticum and M. hominis to 12 kinds of antimicrobial drugs by using commercial kits and SPSS13.0 software. Here, we found the infection of U. urealyticum was the most frequent among these three organisms. The total infection rate for containing any organisms of them was 49.5%, and it has been increasing in recent 4 years. Positive rate in female (53.3%) was higher than male's (34.8%), and the high risk population was 20-39 years old (56.7%). Besides, U. urealyticum and M. hominis displayed relative lower resistance rates to minocycline, doxycycline, josamycin and gatifloxacin (6.5%, 7.2%, 13.5% and 8.6%, respectively). However, for erythromycin, roxithromycin, thiamphenicol and clindamycin, the resistance rates were relatively high (41.9%, 47.2%, 62.3% and 74.9%, respectively). U. urealyticum and M. hominis displayed a declined trend of the antimicrobial resistance to 12 kinds of drugs detected in this study. In total, these preliminary data showed the prevalence of Mycoplasmas and Chlamydiae in patients and the antimicrobial resistance status of Mycoplasmas, which has use for reference on both prevention and treatment of diseases caused by them. PMID:27324895

  19. Translation inhibition of the developmental cycle protein HctA by the small RNA IhtA is conserved across Chlamydia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Tattersall

    Full Text Available The developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 is controlled in part by the small non-coding RNA (sRNA, IhtA. All Chlamydia alternate in a regulated fashion between the infectious elementary body (EB and the replicative reticulate body (RB which asynchronously re-differentiates back to the terminal EB form at the end of the cycle. The histone like protein HctA is central to RB:EB differentiation late in the cycle as it binds to and occludes the genome, thereby repressing transcription and translation. The sRNA IhtA is a critical component of this regulatory loop as it represses translation of hctA until late in infection at which point IhtA transcription decreases, allowing HctA expression to occur and RB to EB differentiation to proceed. It has been reported that IhtA is expressed during infection by the human pathogens C. trachomatis serovars L2, D and L2b and C. pneumoniae. We show in this work that IhtA is also expressed by the animal pathogens C. caviae and C. muridarum. Expression of HctA in E. coli is lethal and co-expression of IhtA relieves this phenotype. To determine if regulation of HctA by IhtA is a conserved mechanism across pathogenic chlamydial species, we cloned hctA and ihtA from C. trachomatis serovar D, C. muridarum, C. caviae and C. pneumoniae and assayed for rescue of growth repression in E. coli co-expression studies. In each case, co-expression of ihtA with the cognate hctA resulted in relief of growth repression. In addition, expression of each chlamydial species IhtA rescued the lethal phenotype of C. trachomatis serovar L2 HctA expression. As biolayer interferometry studies indicate that IhtA interacts directly with hctA message for all species tested, we predict that conserved sequences of IhtA are necessary for function and/or binding.

  20. Translation inhibition of the developmental cycle protein HctA by the small RNA IhtA is conserved across Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Jeremiah; Rao, Geeta Vittal; Runac, Justin; Hackstadt, Ted; Grieshaber, Scott S; Grieshaber, Nicole A

    2012-01-01

    The developmental cycle of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 is controlled in part by the small non-coding RNA (sRNA), IhtA. All Chlamydia alternate in a regulated fashion between the infectious elementary body (EB) and the replicative reticulate body (RB) which asynchronously re-differentiates back to the terminal EB form at the end of the cycle. The histone like protein HctA is central to RB:EB differentiation late in the cycle as it binds to and occludes the genome, thereby repressing transcription and translation. The sRNA IhtA is a critical component of this regulatory loop as it represses translation of hctA until late in infection at which point IhtA transcription decreases, allowing HctA expression to occur and RB to EB differentiation to proceed. It has been reported that IhtA is expressed during infection by the human pathogens C. trachomatis serovars L2, D and L2b and C. pneumoniae. We show in this work that IhtA is also expressed by the animal pathogens C. caviae and C. muridarum. Expression of HctA in E. coli is lethal and co-expression of IhtA relieves this phenotype. To determine if regulation of HctA by IhtA is a conserved mechanism across pathogenic chlamydial species, we cloned hctA and ihtA from C. trachomatis serovar D, C. muridarum, C. caviae and C. pneumoniae and assayed for rescue of growth repression in E. coli co-expression studies. In each case, co-expression of ihtA with the cognate hctA resulted in relief of growth repression. In addition, expression of each chlamydial species IhtA rescued the lethal phenotype of C. trachomatis serovar L2 HctA expression. As biolayer interferometry studies indicate that IhtA interacts directly with hctA message for all species tested, we predict that conserved sequences of IhtA are necessary for function and/or binding.

  1. Chlamydia screening strategies and outcomes in educational settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad Shahid; Bauer, Heidi M; Hocking, Jane S; Ali, Hammad; Wand, Handan; Walker, Jennifer; Douglas, Laura; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca J

    2014-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening programs have been established in educational settings in many countries during the past 2 decades. However, recent evidence suggests that high uptake of screening and management (treatment, partner notification, and retesting for reinfection) improves program effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review to understand the screening strategies, the extent of screening conducted, and uptake of management strategies in educational settings. Screening studies in educational settings were identified through a systematic search of published literature from 2005 to 2011. We identified 27 studies describing 30 screening programs in the United States/Canada (n = 10), Europe (n = 8), Australia/New Zealand (n = 5), and Asia (n = 4). Most studies targeted both male and female students (74%). Classroom-based strategies resulted in 21,117 testes overall (4 programs), followed by opportunistic screening during routine health examination (n = 13,470; 5 programs) and opportunistic screening at school-based health centers (n = 13,006; 5 programs). The overall median CT positivity was 4.7% (range, 1.3%-18.1%). Only 5 programs reported treatment rates (median, 100%; range, 86%-100%), 1 partner notification rate (71%), 1 retesting rate within a year of an initial CT diagnosis (47%), and 2 reported repeat positivity rates (21.1% and 26.3%). In conclusion, this systematic review shows that a variety of strategies have been used to screen large numbers of students in educational settings; however, only a few studies have reported CT management outcomes. PMID:24521724

  2. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniaeis a fastidious microorganism with a characteristic biphasic lifecycle causing a variety of human respiratory tract infections. There is limited knowledge about the molecular biology of C. pneumoniae, and only a few genes have been sequenced. The structure of the chlamydial...

  3. 妊娠期乳头瘤病毒感染合并细菌、衣原体性阴道炎研究%THE FREQUENCY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AND CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATISIN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小菊

    2011-01-01

    [目的]针对HPV感染的妊娠期妇女合并细菌、衣原体、念珠菌感染的发生率进行流行病学研究,并与非HPV感染的妊娠期妇女的阴道pH值进行对照以期为临床相关疾患的诊治提供参考.[方法]选取2009~2010年来我院就诊的26名确诊HPV感染的妊娠期患者作为实验组,再选取26例非HPV感染的妊娠期妇女作为对照组,分别检测细菌、衣原体、念珠菌和pH值.[结果]实验组pH值为4.4±0.4,对照组为4.3±0.4(P=0.23,差异无统计学意义).实验组细菌感染率为53.84%,沙眼衣原体感染率为34.61%,其发病率远高于对照组(细菌感染率为15.38%,沙眼衣原体感染率为7.69%);实验组(19.23%)和对照组间(23.07%)白色念珠菌感染率差异无统计学意义;与对照组相比,实验组合并感染细菌、念珠菌和沙眼衣原体患者阴道pH值均大于4.5.HPV感染妊娠妇女更易感染细菌和沙眼衣原体.[结论]沙眼衣原体和细菌易与HPV伴行感染妊娠期妇女阴道.%[Objective] The aim of this study was to verify the presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) , Candida sp, chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women with human papillomavirus. [Methods] Selected 26 pregnant women with human pa-pillomavirus infection as experiment group and 26 pregnant women without human papillomavirus infection as control group, determined the bacterium, chlamydia trachomatis, Candida sp and vaginal pH (VpH) in two groups. [ Results ] The vaginal pH in experiment group was 4.4±0.4, and 4.3±0.4 in control group (P = 0.23). The incidences of bacterial and chlamydia trachomatis infection were 53.84% and 34.61% in experiment group, which were higher than those in control group (15.38%, 7.69%). The incidence of Candida albicans in two groups were not different ( 19.32% , 23.07% ). Compared to the control group, the vaginal pH of pregnant women with bacterial, chlamydia trachomatis and Candida infection was above 4.5. [ Con-ClliSion] Chlamydia trachomatis

  4. "A friend to man, " Dr.Feifan Tang: a story of causative agent of trachoma, from "Tang's virus" to Chlamydia trachomatis, to "Phylum Chlamydiae"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangsheng Cheng; Ming Li; George F. Gao

    2011-01-01

    @@ "Dr.Feifan Tang (F.F.Tang) was indeed 'a friend to man' as our old English eighteenth-century phrase has it; he loved the Chinese people and was a doughty fighter in the fundamental field of preventive medicine.With all friends here, I salute his memory and I am sure he will never be forgotten in China." The famous British scientist Joseph Needham wrote this in 1979 in his letter to the then director of the National Vaccine & Serum Institute of China, when he received the obituary notice of Dr.F.F.Tang who had died in 1958.

  5. Evaluation design of a systematic, selective, internet-based, Chlamydia screening implementation in the Netherlands, 2008-2010: implications of first results for the analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koekenbier Rik H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A selective, systematic, Internet-based, Chlamydia Screening Implementation for 16 to 29-year-old residents started in three regions in the Netherlands in April 2008: in the cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam and a more rural region, South Limburg. This paper describes the evaluation design and discusses the implications of the findings from the first screening round for the analysis. The evaluation aims to determine the effects of screening on the population prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis after multiple screening rounds. Methods A phased implementation or 'stepped wedge design' was applied by grouping neighbourhoods (hereafter: clusters into three random, risk-stratified blocks (A, B and C to allow for impact analyses over time and comparison of prevalences before and after one or two screening rounds. Repeated simulation of pre- and postscreening Chlamydia prevalences was used to predict the minimum detectable decline in prevalence. Real participation and positivity rates per region, block, and risk stratum (high, medium, and low community risk from the 1st year of screening were used to substantiate predictions. Results The results of the 1st year show an overall participation rate of 16% of 261,025 invitees and a positivity rate of 4.2%, with significant differences between regions and blocks. Prediction by simulation methods adjusted with the first-round results indicate that the effect of screening (minimal detectable difference in prevalence may reach significance levels only if at least a 15% decrease in the Chlamydia positivity rate in the cities and a 25% decrease in the rural region after screening can be reached, and pre- and postscreening differences between blocks need to be larger. Conclusions With the current participation rates, the minimal detectable decline of Chlamydia prevalence may reach our defined significance levels at the regional level after the second screening round, but will probably not be

  6. Prevalence of C.Trachomatis Infection among Ahvaz Females with Vaginal Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Samarbaf-Zadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C. trachomatis is one of the most important agents of sexually transmitted diseases(STD. Untreated cases of vaginal infection with this bacterium may end up with infertility, scaring andectopic pregnancy. In most cases infection with C. trachomatis is silent (70-80% but when overtinfection occurs the symptoms include: cervicitis, urethritis, and endometritis.Since prevalence of C. trachomatis was not studied in our city, this project was performed to evaluatethe role of this bacterial agent in vaginosis.Material and Methods: Two hundred and two specimens from vaginal discharge of out-patientsreferring to gynecology ward of Ahvaz hospitals were collected and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR.Results: Out of 202 specimens, 33 (16.3% were positive for C. trachomatis.Conclusion: The findings of this study show a high prevalence of C. trachomatis which indicates thatspecial attention must be paid to detection and management of this infection.

  7. Identification of lectin-binding proteins in Chlamydia species.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, A F; Kuo, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Lectin-binding proteins of chlamydiae were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. All three Chlamydia species tested expressed two proteins when whole-elementary-body lysates were reacted with the biotinylated lectin Dolichos biflorus agglutinin. The protein with a molecular mass of 18 kilodaltons (kDa) responded strongly compared with a higher-molecular-mass protein that varied from 27 to 32 kDa with each chlamydia strain tested. Among six l...

  8. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend;

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were...... examined and the effect of autolysis and tetracycline treatment was evaluated. Furthermore, lung tissue from two patients who died of ornithosis was examined. Inclusions detected in lung sections showed a bright apple-green fluorescence, and had a characteristic and easily recognizable morphology...... on retrospective investigations in formalin-fixed tissues....

  9. Unique Residues Involved in Activation of the Multitasking Protease/Chaperone HtrA from Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Huston, Wilhelmina M.; Joel D. A. Tyndall; Lott, William B.; Stansfield, Scott H.; Timms, Peter

    2011-01-01

    DegP, a member of the HtrA family of proteins, conducts critical bacterial protein quality control by both chaperone and proteolysis activities. The regulatory mechanisms controlling these two distinct activities, however, are unknown. DegP activation is known to involve a unique mechanism of allosteric binding, conformational changes and oligomer formation. We have uncovered a novel role for the residues at the PDZ1:protease interface in oligomer formation specifically for chaperone substrat...

  10. Comparison of cytobrushes with swabs for recovery of endocervical cells and for Chlamydiazyme detection of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kellogg, J A; Seiple, J W; Klinedinst, J L; Levisky, J S

    1992-01-01

    Endocervical swab and cytobrush specimens from 1,301 symptomatic women were microscopically analyzed for adequacy and tested using Chlamydiazyme (CZ) (Abbott Laboratories). When the swab specimen was collected first, blocking antibody-confirmed CZ-positive results were obtained from 48 (8.0%) of 599 patients, 42 (87.5%) from swabs and 46 (95.8%) from cytobrushes (not significant). When the swab specimen was collected second, confirmed CZ-positive results were obtained from 46 (6.6%) of 702 pa...

  11. Risk factors for ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in children 6 months following mass treatment in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Cajas-Monson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world, and for endemic communities, mass treatment with azithromycin reduces the pool of infection. High coverage is essential, especially in children as they are the infectious reservoir. However, infection remains post-mass treatment. We sought to determine risk factors for infection in children post-mass treatment. METHODOLOGY: All children under 9 years in 4 villages in Tanzania were followed from baseline pre-mass treatment to six months post treatment. 1,991 children under nine years were enrolled in the longitudinal study and data on individual and household characteristics was collected at baseline. Clinical trachoma was determined by an ocular exam and infection detected by PCR of an eyelid swab. Azithromycin was offered and infection was reassessed at 6 months. A multilevel logistic regression model was used, accounting for household clustering of children for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline infection was 23.7% and at 6 months was 10.4%, despite 95% coverage. Infection at baseline was positively associated with infection at 6 months (OR = 3.31, 95%CI 2.40-4.56 and treatment had a protective effect (OR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.25-0.80. The age group 2-4 years had an increased risk of infection at 6 months. The household characteristics predictive of infection at 6 months were increasing number of children infected in the household at baseline and increasing number of untreated children in the household. CONCLUSIONS: While one round of mass treatment with high coverage did decrease infection by over 50%, it appears that it is not sufficient to eliminate infection. Findings that young children (ages 2-4 years and households with increasing numbers of infected and untreated children have a positive association with infection at 6 months suggest that such households could be targeted for more intensive follow up.

  12. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  13. Genotyping of Chlamydophila psittaci by Real-Time PCR and High-Resolution Melt Analysis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Stephanie L.; Wolff, Bernard J.; Thacker, W. Lanier; Ciembor, Paula G.; Gregory, Christopher R.; Everett, Karin D. E.; Ritchie, Branson W.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2008-01-01

    Human infection with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci can lead to psittacosis, a disease that occasionally results in severe pneumonia and other medical complications. C. psittaci is currently grouped into seven avian genotypes: A through F and E/B. Serological testing, outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis are currently used for distinguishing these genotypes. Although accurate, these methods are time-consuming and require mu...

  14. Modelling the healthcare costs of an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, E; Lamontagne, D; Johnston, A; Pimenta, J; Fenton, K; Edmunds, W.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the average cost per screening offer, cost per testing episode and cost per chlamydia positive episode for an opportunistic chlamydia screening programme (including partner management), and to explore the uncertainty of parameter assumptions, based on the costs to the healthcare system.

  15. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... that used in such immunogenicity test but not less than 2.5 ID50 per dose. Inactivated...

  16. Molecular characterization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in animals and humans from Argentina: Genetic characterization of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Mosmann, Jessica; Kiguen, Ana X; Venezuela, Fernando R; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2016-10-01

    In this study, genetic diversity of Chlamydia pneumoniae was investigated and the relationships between sequences amplified of different sources, clinical conditions and geographical regions of central Argentina were established. Samples amplified were similar to human C. pneumoniae patterns and show the high clonality of the population. PMID:27328126

  17. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  18. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

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    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  19. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Elorriaga Guadalupe de los A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se determinaron anticuerpos IgG e IgM contra C. psittaci, C. trachomatis y C. pneumoniae mediante microinmunofluorescencia, en suero de 70 pacientes con ECV hospitalizados en el CMNR, mayores de 30 años, de uno u otro sexo, y se compararon con 140 sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. Se utilizaron muestras aleatorias simples, con un tamaño poblacional de 110, una prevalencia de 50% y un nivel de confianza de 99%. Para establecer la diferencia entre las proporciones de los títulos se utilizó ji cuadrada y se calculó la razón de momios. Resultados. El 94.3% (66/70 de los pacientes presentó IgG en contra de C. pneumoniae vs 37% (52/140 de los individuos sanos (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Existe una fuerte asociación entre anticuerpos IgG hacia C. pneumoniae y ECV.

  20. Correlates of chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers: the untold story of Jiangsu, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG infections with their potential correlates. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted. METHODS: 185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou, aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG. RESULTS: Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified.

  1. A family outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K; Frew, C E; Carrington, D

    1992-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, a newly described Chlamydia species, has been shown to be a cause of acute respiratory tract infection in both adults and children, but its role in human infection is still under investigation. Here we present a family outbreak of C. pneumoniae infection where three members of a family presented with a 'flu-like illness' and acute upper respiratory tract infection which did not improve despite penicillin or septrin therapy. No history of exposure to birds, pets or animals was obtained. As C. pneumoniae isolation from respiratory secretions is not without difficulty, diagnosis usually relies currently on serum-based tests. In this study C. pneumoniae specific IgM determined by the micro-immunofluorescence test was detected in the three clinical cases. All three cases had an elevated complement-fixing antibody titre to Psittacosis-LGV antigen, which may have suggested psittacosis, if type-specific tests had not been performed. In addition, three other members of the family had C. pneumoniae-specific IgG antibody although specific IgM was absent. These three younger members of the family had been symptomatic in the month preceding symptoms in their older sibling and their parents. All the symptomatic members of the family made a complete recovery on tetracycline therapy. PMID:1522345

  2. C. trachomatis Pgp3 antibody prevalence in young women in England, 1993-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy Horner

    Full Text Available Seroepidemiology of chlamydia can offer study opportunities and insights into cumulative risk of exposure that may contribute to monitoring the frequency of, and control of, genital chlamydia-the most commonly diagnosed STI in England. We undertook retrospective anonymous population-based cross-sectional surveys using an indirect IgG ELISA for chlamydia Pgp3 antibody. Sera from 4,732 women aged 17-24 years were tested. Samples were taken at 3-yearly intervals between 1993 and 2002, a period during which other data suggest chlamydia transmission may have been increasing, and from each year between 2007 and 2010. Seroprevalence increased in 17-24 year olds over time between 1993 and 2002. Between 2007 and 2010, age-standardised seroprevalence among 17-24 year olds decreased from 20% (95% CI: 17-23 to 15% (95%CI 12-17 (p = 0.0001. The biggest drop was among 20 to 21 year olds, where seroprevalence decreased from 21% in 2007 to 9% in 2010 (p = 0.002. These seroprevalence data reflect some known features of the epidemiology of chlamydia infection, and show that exposure to antibody-inducing chlamydia infection has declined in recent years. This decline was concurrent with increasing rates of screening for asymptomatic chlamydia. Serology should be explored further as a tool for evaluation of chlamydia control, including chlamydia screening programmes.

  3. C. trachomatis Pgp3 antibody prevalence in young women in England, 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Paddy; Soldan, Kate; Vieira, Sueli M; Wills, Gillian S; Woodhall, Sarah C; Pebody, Richard; Nardone, Anthony; Stanford, Elaine; McClure, Myra O

    2013-01-01

    Seroepidemiology of chlamydia can offer study opportunities and insights into cumulative risk of exposure that may contribute to monitoring the frequency of, and control of, genital chlamydia-the most commonly diagnosed STI in England. We undertook retrospective anonymous population-based cross-sectional surveys using an indirect IgG ELISA for chlamydia Pgp3 antibody. Sera from 4,732 women aged 17-24 years were tested. Samples were taken at 3-yearly intervals between 1993 and 2002, a period during which other data suggest chlamydia transmission may have been increasing, and from each year between 2007 and 2010. Seroprevalence increased in 17-24 year olds over time between 1993 and 2002. Between 2007 and 2010, age-standardised seroprevalence among 17-24 year olds decreased from 20% (95% CI: 17-23) to 15% (95%CI 12-17) (p = 0.0001). The biggest drop was among 20 to 21 year olds, where seroprevalence decreased from 21% in 2007 to 9% in 2010 (p = 0.002). These seroprevalence data reflect some known features of the epidemiology of chlamydia infection, and show that exposure to antibody-inducing chlamydia infection has declined in recent years. This decline was concurrent with increasing rates of screening for asymptomatic chlamydia. Serology should be explored further as a tool for evaluation of chlamydia control, including chlamydia screening programmes. PMID:23991024

  4. The contribution of biomarkers of oxidative stress and female reproductive hormones in genital chlamydia infection to tubal factor infer-tility%生殖道衣原体感染所致的氧化应激中的生物标志物和女性性激素在管性不孕中所起的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文军; 陈丹妮

    2016-01-01

    目的:确定生殖道衣原体感染(GCI)所致氧化应激中的生物标志物和性激素在输卵管阻塞中的作用。方法前瞻性病例对照研究,纳入150例年龄配对的女性,分为三组:衣原体阳性的不孕女性(n =50);衣原体阳性的可孕女性(n =50)以及作为对照的衣原体阴性的可孕女性(n =50)。通过收集高位阴道拭子(HVS)和宫颈拭子(ECS)检测沙眼衣原体抗原;收集血清检测女性性激素[卵泡刺激素( FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P4)、催乳素(PRL)]以及检测氧化应激的生物标记物[总抗氧化能力(TAC)和8-羟基-2-脱氧鸟苷(8- OHdG)]。结果各组间患者的 FSH、PRL 和 E2水平均无显著差异( P >0.05)。在患有 GCI 的女性中,衣原体阳性的不孕女性较衣原体阳性的可孕女性 LH 和8- OHdG 水平显著升高( P <0.05);不孕的衣原体阳性女性较衣原体阴性的可孕女性,其 LH 和8-OHdG 水平升高而 TAC 水平降低。结论 DNA 氧化损伤和抗氧化能力减弱等机制可能与衣原体引起的输卵管损伤有关。%Objective The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of biomarkers of oxidative stress and female re-productive hormones in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods In this prospective case control study,150 age - matched women were grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women(n = 50),fertile Chlamydia positive women(n = 50)and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls(n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for testing Chlamydia trachomatis,Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum,Staphylococcus aureus,and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for testing Chlamydia trachomatis antibody,female repro-ductive hormones Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH),Luteinizing Hormone(LH),Oestradiol(E2),Progesterone(P4),Prolactin(PRL)〗, and testing biomarkers

  5. Failure to demonstrate Chlamydia pneumoniae in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Ostergård, L; Henneberg, E W;

    1998-01-01

    To investigate whether Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).......To investigate whether Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)....

  6. Mouse Study Offers Hope for Vaccine Against Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160004.html Mouse Study Offers Hope for Vaccine Against Chlamydia Bacteria's ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new Canadian study with mice suggests there is hope for a vaccine to ...

  7. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-19

    Dr. Kwame Owusu-Edusei discusses the importance of chlamydia vaccine development.  Created: 6/19/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/22/2015.

  8. Evaluation of Chlamydia Partner Notification Practices and Use of the “Let Them Know” Website by Family Planning Clinicians in Australia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Joanne M; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Jamil, Muhammad S; Harvey, Caroline; Bateson, Deborah; van Gemert, Caroline; Wand, Handan; Kaldor, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the most common reportable infection in many developed countries. Testing, treatment, and partner notification (PN) are key strategies for chlamydia control. In 2008 the Let Them Know (LTK) PN website was established, which provided means for people to send anonymous PN messages by text messaging (short message service, SMS), email, or letter. Objective We evaluated PN practices among Australian family planning clinicians following chlamydia diagnosis and assessed how often clinicians refer their patients to the LTK website. Methods A mixed methods approach included a Web-based cross-sectional survey of Australian family planning clinicians to examine PN attitudes and practices and focus groups to explore the context of LTK website use. Results Between May 2012 and June 2012, all clinicians from 29 different family planning services (n=212) were invited to complete the survey, and 164 participated (response rate=77.4%); of the clinicians, 96.3% (158/164) were females, 56.1% (92/164) nurses, and 43.9% (72/164) doctors. More than half (62.2%, 92/148) agreed that PN was primarily the client's responsibility; however, 93.2% (138/148) agreed it was the clinician's responsibility to support the client in informing their partners by providing information or access to resources. Almost half (49.4%, 76/154) of the clinicians said that they always or usually referred clients to the LTK website, with variation across clinics in Australian states and territories (0%-77%). Eleven focus groups among 70 clinicians at 11 family planning services found that the LTK website had been integrated into routine practice; that it was particularly useful for clients who found it difficult to contact partners; and that the LTK letters and fact sheets were useful. However, many clinicians were not aware of the website and noted a lack of internal clinic training about LTK. Conclusions The LTK website has become an important PN tool

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Atherosclerosis: The End?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Journal, Patrick et al (pages 298-300 report on the results of a pilot study testing the hypothesis that seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae together with a specific bacteriophage protein is associated with first-episode myocardial infarction or unstable angina. The study evolved from an earlier report suggesting that C pneumoniae with phage seropositivity was strongly associated with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The phage association suggested a potential explanation for some of the variability in previous studies exploring C pneumoniae as a cause for atherosclerosis (ie, only selected strains of C pneumoniae were pathogenic. Patrick et al found no significant association or trend, and the authors concluded that the negative findings in their pilot study did not support further studies to address this potential association.

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-associated erythema multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Imashuku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV infection and erythema multiforme (EM. More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00 in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years. It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

  11. C. trachomatis pgp3 Antibody Prevalence in Young Women in England, 1993–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sueli M.; Wills, Gillian S.; Woodhall, Sarah C.; Pebody, Richard; Nardone, Anthony; Stanford, Elaine; McClure, Myra O.

    2013-01-01

    Seroepidemiology of chlamydia can offer study opportunities and insights into cumulative risk of exposure that may contribute to monitoring the frequency of, and control of, genital chlamydia–the most commonly diagnosed STI in England. We undertook retrospective anonymous population-based cross-sectional surveys using an indirect IgG ELISA for chlamydia Pgp3 antibody. Sera from 4,732 women aged 17–24 years were tested. Samples were taken at 3-yearly intervals between 1993 and 2002, a period during which other data suggest chlamydia transmission may have been increasing, and from each year between 2007 and 2010. Seroprevalence increased in 17–24 year olds over time between 1993 and 2002. Between 2007 and 2010, age-standardised seroprevalence among 17–24 year olds decreased from 20% (95% CI: 17–23) to 15% (95%CI 12–17) (p = 0.0001). The biggest drop was among 20 to 21 year olds, where seroprevalence decreased from 21% in 2007 to 9% in 2010 (p = 0.002). These seroprevalence data reflect some known features of the epidemiology of chlamydia infection, and show that exposure to antibody-inducing chlamydia infection has declined in recent years. This decline was concurrent with increasing rates of screening for asymptomatic chlamydia. Serology should be explored further as a tool for evaluation of chlamydia control, including chlamydia screening programmes. PMID:23991024

  12. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  13. "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae" (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae), a novel chlamydia parasite of free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Daniele; Müller, Karl-Dieter; Wingender, Jost; Michel, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Vannella sp. isolated from waterweed Elodea sp. was found infected by a chlamydia-like organism. This organism behaves like a parasite, causing the death through burst of its host. Once the vannellae degenerated, the parasite was successfully kept in laboratory within a Saccamoeba sp. isolated from the same waterweed sample, which revealed in fine through electron microscopy to harbor two bacterial endosymbionts: the chlamydial parasite we introduce and another endosymbiont initially and naturally present in the host. Herein, we provide molecular-based identification of both the amoeba host and its two endosymbionts, with special focus on the chlamydia parasite. High sequence similarity values of the 18S rDNA permitted to assign the amoeba to the species Saccamoeba lacustris (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea). The bacterial endosymbiont naturally harbored by the host belonged to Sphingomonas koreensis (Alpha-Proteobacteria). The chlamydial parasite showed a strict specificity for Saccamoeba spp., being unable to infect a variety of other amoebae, including Acanthamoeba, and it was itself infected by a bacteriophage. Sequence similarity values of the 16S rDNA and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain is a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae, for which we propose the name "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae."

  14. Chlamydia Serine Protease Inhibitor, targeting HtrA, as a New Treatment for Koala Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amba; Fraser, Tamieka; Gillett, Amber; Tyndall, Joel D A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2016-01-01

    The koala, an iconic marsupial native to Australia, is a threatened species in many parts of the country. One major factor in the decline is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia. Current therapeutic strategies to treat chlamydiosis in the koala are limited. This study examines the effectiveness of an inhibitor, JO146, which targets the HtrA serine protease for treatment of C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae in vitro and ex vivo with the aim of developing a novel therapeutic for koala Chlamydia infections. Clinical isolates from koalas were examined for their susceptibility to JO146. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment with JO146 during the mid-replicative phase of C. pecorum or C. pneumoniae infections resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. Ex vivo primary koala tissue cultures were used to demonstrate the efficacy of JO146 and the non-toxic nature of this compound on peripheral blood mononuclear cells and primary cell lines established from koala tissues collected at necropsy. Our results suggest that inhibition of the serine protease HtrA could be a novel treatment strategy for chlamydiosis in koalas.

  15. C. trachomatis pgp3 Antibody Prevalence in Young Women in England, 1993–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Paddy Horner; Kate Soldan; Vieira, Sueli M.; Gillian S Wills; Woodhall, Sarah C.; Richard Pebody; Anthony Nardone; Elaine Stanford; McClure, Myra O.

    2013-01-01

    Seroepidemiology of chlamydia can offer study opportunities and insights into cumulative risk of exposure that may contribute to monitoring the frequency of, and control of, genital chlamydia-the most commonly diagnosed STI in England. We undertook retrospective anonymous population-based cross-sectional surveys using an indirect IgG ELISA for chlamydia Pgp3 antibody. Sera from 4,732 women aged 17-24 years were tested. Samples were taken at 3-yearly intervals between 1993 and 2002, a period d...

  16. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Harrell W Chesson; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia sc...

  17. Separate base usages of genes located on the leading and lagging strands in Chlamydia muridarum revealed by the Z curve method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiu-Juan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nucleotide compositional asymmetry between the leading and lagging strands in bacterial genomes has been the subject of intensive study in the past few years. It is interesting to mention that almost all bacterial genomes exhibit the same kind of base asymmetry. This work aims to investigate the strand biases in Chlamydia muridarum genome and show the potential of the Z curve method for quantitatively differentiating genes on the leading and lagging strands. Results The occurrence frequencies of bases of protein-coding genes in C. muridarum genome were analyzed by the Z curve method. It was found that genes located on the two strands of replication have distinct base usages in C. muridarum genome. According to their positions in the 9-D space spanned by the variables u1 – u9 of the Z curve method, K-means clustering algorithm can assign about 94% of genes to the correct strands, which is a few percent higher than those correctly classified by K-means based on the RSCU. The base usage and codon usage analyses show that genes on the leading strand have more G than C and more T than A, particularly at the third codon position. For genes on the lagging strand the biases is reverse. The y component of the Z curves for the complete chromosome sequences show that the excess of G over C and T over A are more remarkable in C. muridarum genome than in other bacterial genomes without separating base and/or codon usages. Furthermore, for the genomes of Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis, in which distinct base and/or codon usages have been observed, closer phylogenetic distance is found compared with other bacterial genomes. Conclusion The nature of the strand biases of base composition in C. muridarum is similar to that in most other bacterial genomes. However, the base composition asymmetry between the leading and lagging strands in C. muridarum is more significant than that in

  18. Chlamydia muridarum Infection Associated Host MicroRNAs in the Murine Genital Tract and Contribution to Generation of Host Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishein; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Haskins, William E.; Chambers, James P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Bakar, Sazaly Abu; Guentzel, M. Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection in humans and is associated with reproductive tract damage. However, little is known about the involvement and regulation of microRNAs (miRs) in genital CT. Methods We analyzed miRs in the genital tract (GT) following C. muridarum (murine strain of CT) challenge of wild type (WT), and CD4+ T cell deficient (CD4−/−) C57BL/6 mice at days 6 and 12 post challenge. Results At day 6, miRs significantly downregulated in the lower GT were miR-125b-5p, −16, −214, −23b, −135a, −182, −183, −30c, and −30e while −146 and −451 were significantly upregulated, profiles not exhibited at day 12 post bacterial challenge. Significant differences in miR-125b-5p (+5.06 fold change), −135a (+4.9), −183 (+7.9), and −182 (+3.2) were observed in C. muridarum infected CD4−/− compared to WT mice. In silico prediction and mass spectrometry revealed regulation of miR-135a and −182 and associated proteins i.e, Heat Shock Protein B1 and Alpha-2HS-Glycoprotein. Conclusion This study provides evidence on regulation of miRs following genital chlamydial infection suggesting a role in pathogenesis and host immunity. PMID:24976530

  19. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. PMID:26965241

  20. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infections in domestic ruminants in Mexico, determined by an indirect ELISA and isolation of Chlamydiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect ELISA was developed and standardized for detection of anti-Chlamydia-psittaci antibodies in domestic ruminants in Mexico. Two chlamydial antigens (Ags) were evaluated. The particulated Ag consisted of partially-purified infectious chlamydial elementary bodies. The soluble Ag was a heat-treated deoxicholate extract from L-cells infected with Chlamydia. The test standardization included the comparison of different substrates (OPD vs ABTS) and different washing solutions (1M NaC1 vs PBS), the OPD and the PBS giving higher specific absorbance (A) values. 395 sera from apparently healthy cows and 84 sera from cows that aborted were assayed with a HRP-antibovine IgG conjugate. 529 sera from apparently healthy sheep, 444 from apparently healthy goats, and 65 sera from goats experiencing an outbreak of abortions were tested with a HRP-antisheep IgG conjugate. All sera were screened with the particulated Ag, but only the sera from animals with a history of abortion and 245 sera from sheep were screened with the soluble Ag. No evidence was found to incriminate Chlamydia as a cause of abortion in the population studied, but a high prevalence of seropositive animals was found. The serological studies suggested a wide exposure of the populations assayed to Chlamydia psittaci perhaps due to the presence of animals bearing subclinical intestinal infections and shedding the organism in the feces. This hypothesis was confirmed by isolating chlamydiae in cell cultures and mice. Four (13.3%) out of 30 sheep were found infected by either procedure, 2 of them being also positive by ELISA. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Cretikos; Darren Mayne; Roderick Reynolds; Paula Spokes; Daniel Madeddu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Between 2005 and 2010, Australian notification rates for chlamydia infection increased by 64% from 203 to 333 per 100 000 population. Interpreting this trend is difficult without examining rates and local patterns of testing. We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2000 to 2010. Methods: We used testing data for NSW residents for Medicare Benefits Schedule items for chlamydia from ...

  2. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  3. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  4. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy. PMID:25945336

  5. The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.

  6. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival - who will pee and post?

    OpenAIRE

    Gold Judy; Sacks-Davis Rachel; Aitken Campbell K; Hellard Margaret E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. Methods We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a...

  7. "Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola", a novel Chlamydia-like agent of epitheliocystis in seven consecutive cohorts of farmed Australian barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C Stride

    Full Text Available Six consecutively hatched cohorts and one cohort of pre-hatch eggs of farmed barramundi (Lates calcarifer from south Australia were examined for Chlamydia-like organisms associated with epitheliocystis. To identify and characterise the bacteria, 59 gill samples and three pre-hatch egg samples were processed for histology, in situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplification, sequencing and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Cases of epitheliocystis were observed microscopically and characterised by membrane-enclosed basophilic cysts filled with a granular material that caused hypertrophy of the epithelial cells. In situ hybridisation with a Chlamydiales-specific probe lead to specific labelling of the epitheliocystis inclusions within the gill epithelium. Two distinct but closely related 16S rRNA chlamydial sequences were amplified from gill DNA across the seven cohorts, including from pre-hatch eggs. These genotype sequences were found to be novel, sharing 97.1 - 97.5% similarity to the next closest 16S rRNA sequence, Ca. Similichlamydia latridicola, from Australian striped trumpeter. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of these genotype sequences against representative members of the Chlamydiales order and against other epitheliocystis agents revealed these Chlamydia-like organisms to be novel and taxonomically placed them within the recently proposed genus Ca. Similichlamydia. Following Fredricks and Relman's molecular postulates and based on these observations, we propose the epitheliocystis agents of barramundi to be known as "Candidatus Similichlamydia laticola" (sp. nov..

  8. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridou, Maria; Vriend, Henrike J.; Lugner, Anna K.; Wallinga, Jacco; Fennema, Johannes S.; Prins, Jan M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Rijnders, Bart J.A.; Prins, Maria; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Veen, Maaike G.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van der Sande, Marianne A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV among MSM and

  9. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou (Maria); H.J. Vriend (Henrike); A.K. Lugnér (Anna); J. Wallinga (Jacco); J.S.A. Fennema (Johan); J.M. Prins (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart); M. Prins; H.J.C. de Vries (Henry); M.J. Postma (Maarten); M.G. van Veen (Maaike); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M.A.B. van der Sande (Marianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV a

  10. Vaccination of koalas with a recombinant Chlamydia pecorum major outer membrane protein induces antibodies of different specificity compared to those following a natural live infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Kollipara

    Full Text Available Chlamydial infection in koalas is common across the east coast of Australia and causes significant morbidity, infertility and mortality. An effective vaccine to prevent the adverse consequences of chlamydial infections in koalas (particularly blindness and infertility in females would provide an important management tool to prevent further population decline of this species. An important step towards developing a vaccine in koalas is to understand the host immune response to chlamydial infection. In this study, we used the Pepscan methodology to identify B cell epitopes across the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP of four C. pecorum strains/genotypes that are recognized, either following (a natural live infection or (b administration of a recombinant MOMP vaccine. Plasma antibodies from the koalas naturally infected with a C. pecorum G genotype strain recognised the epitopes located in the variable domain (VD four of MOMP G and also VD4 of MOMP H. By comparison, plasma antibodies from an animal infected with a C. pecorum F genotype strain recognised epitopes in VD1, 2 and 4 of MOMP F, but not from other genotype MOMPs. When Chlamydia-free koalas were immunised with recombinant MOMP protein they produced antibodies not only against epitopes in the VDs but also in conserved domains of MOMP. Naturally infected koalas immunised with recombinant MOMP protein also produced antibodies against epitopes in the conserved domains. This work paves the way for further refinement of a MOMP-based Chlamydia vaccine that will offer wide cross-protection against the variety of chlamydial infections circulating in wild koala populations.

  11. Social-, age- and gender differences in testing and positive rates for Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection – a register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John Sahl

    2014-01-01

    the association between age, gender, social status, and testing and positive rates is investigated in the age group 15-24 years. Design: Case-control study linked to data from Statistics Denmark. Methods: Data from the Department of Microbiology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen was used and included 21......,887 people tested by general practitioners (GPs) and 3,177 people tested at a venereological clinic (VC). The age range was 15-24 years in 2011. These data were linked with the parental educational status delivered by Statistics Denmark, which also delivered a matched control group. The data were analyzed...

  12. Mapping of Chlamydia trachomatis proteins by immobiline-polyacrylamide two-dimensional electrophoresis: spot identification by N-terminal sequencing and immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bini, L; Sanchez-Campillo, M; Santucci, A;

    1996-01-01

    reproducible and resolve ca. 600 spots. By using immunoblot analysis with specific antibodies and/or N-terminal amino acid sequencing, we established the map positions of a number of described chlamydial proteins, such as the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) the 60 kDa cystein-rich outer membrane protein...... parameters (Mr, pI and N-terminal sequence). This work provides a preliminary basis for a future and progressive compilation of a genome-linked database of chlamydial proteins....

  13. Cell Microculture and Identification of Chlamydia Trachomatis%沙眼衣原体微量细胞培养和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐蔓莉; 侯淑萍; 王红枫; 李燕; 刘全忠

    2005-01-01

    目的细胞培养沙眼衣原体,并应用四种方法对培养结果进行鉴定.方法将McCoy细胞在细胞培养板中培养至致密单层后,接种沙眼衣原体标准株和临床株,培养44~48 h后,用卢戈氏碘液染色、Giemsa染色、单克隆荧光抗体和内源性质粒扩增四种方法鉴定培养结果.结果四种鉴定方法结果均呈阳性,证实沙眼衣原体培养成功.结论沙眼衣原体培养的成功将为该病原体的致病机理、免疫机制、药物敏感性检测和保护性疫苗等方面的研究奠定基础.

  14. The Clinical Value of PCR in Mycoplasma or Chlamydia Infection%P CR检测衣原体及支原体感染的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小兰; 白帆; 何穗芬; 石紫筠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨聚合酶链反应( PCR)在衣原体感染、支原体感染中的临床应用价值。方法选自2013年8月至2014年12月入住我院,疑有非淋菌性尿道炎的患者160例作为研究对象,所有患者均接受PCR沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体检测,探讨PCR技术检测衣原体及支原体感染的临床意义。结果160例患者中,检测结果呈阳性者共计98例,其中,衣原体阳性患者62例,占63.27%;支原体阳性患者47例,占47.96%;衣原体+支原体皆呈阳性者11例,占11.22%;PCR检测的总符合率为78.75%;灵敏度和特异性分别为94.12%和61.33%。结论 PCR检测具有快速、灵敏等特点,积极开展聚合酶链反应技术进行衣原体、支原体检测,对非淋菌性尿道炎的早期诊断和促进康复具有重要意义。%Objective Investigate the clinical value of PCR in mycoplasma or chlamydia infection, and provide reference fpr clinical diagnosis. Methods 160 patients who were suspected with gonococcal or non-gonococcal urethritis were collected, all pa-tients underwent PCR detection of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticu; analyzed the Results and discussed the clinical value of PCR. Results The test results were positive in 98 cases in total, of which, 62 cases of chlamydia-positive patients, account-ing for 63. 27%;47 cases of mycoplasma-positive patients, accounting for 47. 96%;trachomatis+mycoplasma were both positive in 11 cases, accounting for 11. 22%;the coincidence rate of PCR were 78. 75%;sensitivity and specificity were 94. 12% and 61. 33%. Conclusion PCR assay has rapid, sensitive and other characteristics, the positive application of this technique in chlamydia and my-coplasma detection is very important in early diagnosis and promote rehabilitation of non-gonococcal urethritis.

  15. Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cretikos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Between 2005 and 2010, Australian notification rates for chlamydia infection increased by 64% from 203 to 333 per 100 000 population. Interpreting this trend is difficult without examining rates and local patterns of testing. We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW, Australia from 2000 to 2010. Methods: We used testing data for NSW residents for Medicare Benefits Schedule items for chlamydia from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2005 and 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2010. This data set excluded testing by public sector laboratories. We also obtained laboratory-confirmed genital chlamydia notifications in NSW residents for 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2010 and excluded notifications from public laboratories. We used negative binomial regression to assess trends in chlamydia notification rates by age and sex after adjusting for local government area (LGA-level Medicare-funded testing rates, socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Medicare provider density. Results: Testing-adjusted rates of chlamydia notifications declined by 5.2% per annum (rate ratio [RR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.93–0.96 for women overall, and 2.3% (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96–1.00 and 5.0% per annum (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93–0.98 for men in LGAs with moderate and high densities of Medicare providers, respectively. Notification rates remained stable for men in low Medicare provider density LGAs (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.96–1.07. Discussion: It is likely that increased testing for chlamydia has driven increases in chlamydia notification in NSW over the last decade. Notification data provide no evidence for a general increase in the prevalence of chlamydia in the NSW community for this period. Notification-based chlamydia surveillance should be routinely adjusted for local testing rates.

  16. Non-detection of Chlamydia species in carotid atheroma using generic primers by nested PCR in a population with a high prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford Kathleen B; Wyatt Dorothy E; O'Neill Hugh J; Duprex W; McCluggage W Glenn; Barros D'Sa Aires AB; Coyle Peter V; Ong Grace M; O'Loughlin Barney; McCaughey Conall

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background The association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with atherosclerosis is controversial. We investigated the presence of C. pneumoniae and other Chlamydia spp. in atheromatous carotid artery tissue. Methods Forty elective carotid endarterectomy patients were recruited (27 males, mean age 65 and 13 females mean age 68), 4 had bilateral carotid endarterectomies (n= 44 endarterectomy specimens). Control specimens were taken from macroscopically normal carotid artery adjacent to the ath...

  17. Primary cultures of female swine genital epithelial cells in vitro: a new approach for the study of hormonal modulation of Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Natalia V; Knight, Stephen T; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2003-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that female reproductive hormones influence chlamydial infection both in vivo and in vitro. Due to the reduced availability of human genital tissues for research purposes, an alternative hormone-responsive model system was sought to study chlamydial pathogenesis. Mature female swine eliminated from breeding programs were selected as the animals of choice because of the similarity of a sexually transmitted disease syndrome and sequelae in swine to a disease syndrome and sequelae found in humans, because of the near identity of a natural infectious chlamydial isolate from swine to Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D from humans, and because a pig's epithelial cell physiology and the mean length of its estrous cycle are similar to those in humans. Epithelial cells from the cervix, uterus, and horns of the uterus were isolated, cultivated in vitro in Dulbecco's minimum essential medium-Hanks' F-12 (DMEM-F-12) medium with and without exogenous hormone supplementation, and analyzed for Chlamydia suis S-45 infectivity. The distribution of chlamydial inclusions in swine epithelial cells was uneven and was influenced by the genital tract site and hormone status. This study confirmed that, like primary human endometrial epithelial cells, estrogen-dominant swine epithelial cells are more susceptible to chlamydial infection than are progesterone-dominant cells. Further, the more differentiated luminal epithelial cells were more susceptible to infection than were glandular epithelial cells. Interestingly, chlamydial growth in mature luminal epithelia was morphologically more active than in glandular epithelia, where persistent chlamydial forms predominated. Attempts to reprogram epithelial cell physiology and thereby susceptibility to chlamydial infection by reverse-stage, exogenous hormonal supplementation were unsuccessful. Freshly isolated primary pig epithelial cells frozen at -80 degrees C in DMEM-F-12 medium with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide for

  18. Bacterial vaginosis: a synthesis of the literature on etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with chlamydia and gonorrhea infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Christian T; Wurapa, Eyako; Sateren, Warren B; Morris, Sara; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Sanchez, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. Since the initial work of Leopoldo in 1953 and Gardner and Dukes in 1955, researchers have not been able to identify the causative etiologic agent of BV. There is increasing evidence, however, that BV occurs when Lactobacillus spp., the predominant species in healthy vaginal flora, are replaced by anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardenella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, M. mulieris, other anaerobic bacteria and/or Mycoplasma hominis. Worldwide, it estimated that 20-30 % of women of reproductive age attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics suffer from BV, and that its prevalence can be as high as 50-60 % in high-risk populations (e.g., those who practice commercial sex work (CSW). Epidemiological data show that women are more likely to report BV if they: 1) have had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners; 2) are unmarried; 3) have engaged in their first intercourse at a younger age; 4) have engaged in CSW, and 5) practice regular douching. In the past decade, several studies have provided evidence on the contribution of sexual activity to BV. However, it is difficult to state that BV is a STI without being able to identify the etiologic agent. BV has also emerged as a public health problem due to its association with other STIs, including: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). The most recent evidence on the association between BV and CT/NG infection comes from two secondary analyses of cohort data conducted among women attending STI clinics. Based on these studies, women with BV had a 1.8 and 1.9-fold increased risk for NG and CT infection, respectively. Taken together, BV is likely a risk factor or at least an important contributor to subsequent NG or CT infection in high-risk women. Additional research is required to determine whether this association is also present in

  19. Molecular Characterization of a Bacteriophage (Chp2) from Chlamydia psittaci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, B. L.; Everson, J. S.; Fane, B.; Giannikopoulou, P.; Vretou, E.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of the proteome of abortifacient Chlamydia psittaci isolates from sheep by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified a novel abundant protein with a molecular mass of 61.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.41. C-terminal sequence analysis of this protein yielded a short peptide sequence that had an identical match to the viral coat protein (VP1) of the avian chlamydiaphage Chp1. Electron microscope studies revealed the presence of a 25-nm-diameter bacteriophage (Chp2) with no...

  20. Molecular characterization of "Candidatus Similichlamydia latridicola" gen. nov., sp. nov. (Chlamydiales: "Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae"), a novel Chlamydia-like epitheliocystis agent in the striped trumpeter, Latris lineata (Forster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, M C; Polkinghorne, A; Miller, T L; Nowak, B F

    2013-08-01

    Histological analysis of gill samples taken from individuals of Latris lineata reared in aquaculture in Tasmania, Australia, and those sampled from the wild revealed the presence of epitheliocystis-like basophilic inclusions. Subsequent morphological, in situ hybridization, and molecular analyses were performed to confirm the presence of this disease and discovered a Chlamydia-like organism associated with this condition, and the criteria set by Fredericks and Relman's postulates were used to establish disease causation. Three distinct 16S rRNA genotypes were sequenced from 16 fish, and phylogenetic analyses of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA sequences generated for this bacterial agent indicated that they were nearly identical novel members of the order Chlamydiales. This new taxon formed a well-supported clade with "Candidatus Parilichlamydia carangidicola" from the yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi). On the basis of sequence divergence over the 16S rRNA region relative to all other members of the order Chlamydiales, a new genus and species are proposed here for the Chlamydia-like bacterium from L. lineata, i.e., "Candidatus Similichlamydia latridicola" gen. nov., sp. nov. PMID:23770893