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Sample records for chlamydia infections

  1. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman ... to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but ...

  2. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Cervicitis - chlamydia; STI - chlamydia; STD - chlamydia; Sexually transmitted - chlamydia; ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlamydial infections in adolescents and adults. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  3. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Arceo, J; Toca Porraz, L; Díaz Esponda, C; Nava Flores, J

    1993-11-01

    We studied 93 gynecological samples of uterine cervix of patients at Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia No. 3, Centro Médico La Raza, IMSS, Health Promotion and Family Medicine Unit No. 5 with monoclonal antibodies. We found Chlamydia trachomatis in 28.4% in women where the infection was suspected. We should think in infection by Chlamydia trachomatis in women with acute cervicitis, acute salpingitis, cervical abnormalities, and to run the specific tests for its detection.

  4. [Morphological semen changes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Z; Dziecielski, H; Swierczyński, W; Semmler, G

    1989-06-01

    Semen was examined in 150 men patients of the Andrology Clinic for demonstration of Chlamydia trachomatis and for analysis of the effect of this infection on semen quality depression. A correlation was noted between the degree of infection (large number of organisms per field of vision) and such changes as cryptozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia. Of interest was a high proportion of infection (56%) with Ch. trachomatis in this group.

  5. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia.

  6. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  7. [Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections and contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, T; Rullo, F; Smeraglia, R; Giorgio, A; Lettieri, G; Sannino, F; Martinelli, A

    1988-01-01

    330 women with a median age of 30.15 (+- 9.5) years sought gynecological consultation for advice on contraception and for cervical carcinoma screening. Anamnesis explored the presence of dysuria, dyspareunia, secretions, and pelvic pain, the number of partners, and type of contraceptive used. Endocervical samples were collected by means of tampon and the specimens were analyzed for 48 to 120 hours to find antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) by a solid phase immunoenzymatic test. Peripheral blood samples were also taken from all women to look for antibodies of C.T. and also the indirect immunoperoxidase test was used to search for specific antibodies of C.T. (IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG). The chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. None of the women who used oral hormonal contraceptives or condoms were infected (presence of antigens and positivity for IgM and/or IgE and/or IgA), however, 36 of 90 IUD users (40%) were infected, 18 of 132 women who used no contraceptives whatsoever (13.7%) were also infected. 91% of the subjects had a single partner. In view of these findings the use of the condom and oral contraceptives is recommended with proper instruction about their potential side effects.

  8. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

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    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  9. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

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    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  10. Infection of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium with Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Ernest Boiko

    Full Text Available Little is known about the susceptibility of posterior segment tissues, particularly the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE, to Chlamydia trachomatis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of infecting the hRPE with Chlamydia trachomatis, and to examine the infectivity of different Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for hRPE cells and the hRPE cell response to the infection.Cultured hRPE and McCoy cells were inoculated with eight Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar E clinical isolates at multiplicity of infection (MOI of 2.0 or 0.3. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis, samples were stained immunohistochemically with anti-major outer membrane protein antibodies at 24h, 48h, and 72h postinoculation (PI. The changes in the expression of signaling molecules and proteins of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix in hRPE cells were examined immunohistochemically.All eight clinical isolates demonstrated ability to infect hRPE cells. At equal MOI of 0.3, the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for RPE culture was found to be at least as high as that for McCoy cell culture. At 24h PI, the percentage of inclusion-containing cells varied from 1.5 ± 0.52 to 14.6 ± 3.3% in hRPE cell culture infected at MOI of 2.0 against 0.37 ± 0.34 to 8.9 ± 0.2% in McCoy cell culture infected at MOI of 0.3. Collagen type I, collagen type IV, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-8 expression at 48h PI were maximally increased, by 2.1-, 1.3-, 1.5-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the Chlamydia trachomatis-infected compared with control hRPE cell culture specimens (P < 0.05.This study, for the first time, proved the possibility of infecting hRPE cultured cells with Chlamydia trachomatis, which leads to proproliferative and proinflammatory changes in the expression of signaling molecules and extracellular matrix components.

  11. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Chlamydia English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department ...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and maternal outcomes in Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnancy is known to have grave impact on maternal and neonatal health, routine CT screening in pregnancy is not available in Ghana The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and adverse maternal outcomes of CT infection among pregnant women attending antennal clinic at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and thirty two (232) pregnant women screened for CT infection by PCR were pur...

  13. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

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    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immuno...

  15. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

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    A Ugboma Henry Arinze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of sexual behaviour was noted followed by collection of endocervical swab which was analysed with a Chlamydia Rapid Test Device. Data management was done by SPSS version 17.0 statistical package. Result: The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 30.2%. First coital exposure at14 years or less had the highest prevalence of the disease. Multiple sexual partners, tribe and inconsistent use of condom were significantly related with Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Conclusion: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is prevalent among female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in female genital tract infection

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    Badrinath S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty cases of female genital tract infection were investigated for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen. Endocervical swabs obtained were subjected to antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay. Rabbit antiserum to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide was used in a card test. Anti rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to alkaline phosphatase with a chromogenic substrate 5 bromo-4 chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and nitro blue tetrazolium were used for the enzymatic reaction. Chlamydial antigen could be detected in four out of thirty samples (13.3%. In contrast direct immunofluorescence detected 5 cases (16.6%. Although less sensitive, enzyme immunoassay can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in genital infections.

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed. PMID:22514397

  18. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

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    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  19. Is there a Relation between Chlamydia Infection and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?

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    Leung, Patrick S. C.; Park, Ogyi; Matsumura, Shuji; Ansari, Aftab A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have failed to provide direct evidence of specific microbial chronic infection in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). However, a recent report suggests that there is a specific association of Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with PBC and that C. pneumoniae or similar antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. To determine if Chlamydia infection is associated with PBC, we applied a combination of immunological and molecular approaches to investigate (a) the serological reactivity against two common Chlamydia human pathogens, C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, by immunoblotting, (b) the presence of Chlamydia in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by PCR amplification of Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA and (c) the presence of Chlamydia proteins in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by immunohistochemical staining. By immunoblotting, C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae specific serological antibodies were found in 52/57 (91.2%) AMA positive PBC, 7/33 (21/2%) of AMA negative PBC, 1/25 (4%) PSC, 0/15 (0%) Sjorgen's syndrome and 0/20 (0%) systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 0/20 (0%) healthy volunteers at 1:200 sera dilution. PBC sera reacted to Chlamydia and E. coli lysates in western blots up to a maximum of 10-4 dilution. However, PCR amplification of the Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA gene was negative in 25/25 PBC livers but positive in 1/4 PSC liver, 3/6 in other liver disease controls and 1/4 normal liver samples. While two commercially available specific monoclonal antibodies stained positive controls (Chlamydia infected HEp-2 cells) they failed to detect Chlamydia antigens in PBC livers. The detection of Chlamydia specific antibodies but not Chlamydia rRNA gene and Chlamydia antigens in PBC suggests that Chlamydia infection is not involved in PBC. PMID:14768955

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections during Pregnancy: Consequences for pregnancy outcome and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Chlamydia is responsible for a significant proportion of genitourinary tract infections in adult males and females, but like STIs in general, it is primarily a woman’s health care issue sin

  1. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

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    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  2. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  3. Correlation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with primary biliary cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ying Liu; An-Mei Deng; Jian Zhang; Ye Zhou; Ding-Kang Yao; Xiao-Qing Tu; Lie-Ying Fan; Ren-Qian Zhong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).METHODS: Cpn IgG and IgM were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 41 well-established PBC patients and two race-matched control groups (posthepatitis cirrhosis, n = 70; healthy controls, n = 57).RESULTS: The mean level and seroprevalence of Cpn IgG in PBC group and post-hepatitis cirrhosis (PHC) group were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (46.8±43.4 RU/mL, 49.5±45.2 RU/mL vs28.3±32.7 RU/mL;68.3%, 71.4%, 42.1%, respectively; P<0.05). There was a remarkably elevated seroprevalence of Cpn IgM in patients with PBC (22.0%) compared to the PHC and healthy control (HC) groups. For the PBC patients versus the HCs, the odds ratios (ORs) of the presence of Cpn IgG and IgM were 2.7 (95% CI 0.9-6.1) and 5.1 (95% CI 1.4-18.5), respectively. Though there was no correlation in the level of Cpn IgG with total IgG in sera of patients with PBC (r = -0.857, P = 0.344>0.05), Cpn IgM was related with the abnormally high concentrations of total IgM in PBC group.CONCLUSION: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae may be a triggering agent or even a causative agent in PBC, but suggest that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection probably contributes to the high level of IgM present in most patients with PBC.

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

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    Geisler, William M; Corey, Lawrence

    2002-03-27

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients; however, its role as a respiratory pathogen in immunocompromised hosts has been infrequently recognized. We describe C. pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infection in a 19-year-old male after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The patient developed fever on day +14, and a subsequent computed tomography scan of the chest revealed a right lateral pleural-based opacity, which was then resected during thoracoscopy. Diagnosis was made by culture and staining of the resected tissue with C. pneumoniae-specific monoclonal antibodies, and azithromycin was administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. pneumoniae respiratory infection after stem cell or marrow transplantation. C. pneumoniae often coexists with other etiologic agents of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Considering the infrequency of infections from this organism in this clinical setting, one must still rule out other more likely respiratory pathogens.

  5. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and occurrence of bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; ZHENG Wen; XIA Xi-rong; ZHANG Xi-long; TONG Mao-rong; FENG Gen-bao; ZHAO Bei-lei; HU Lan-ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. Pneumoniae) infection and asthma exacerbation. Methods: A prospective study of C. Pneumoniae infection was conducted in 75 patients with asthma and 63 patients with respiratory tract infection, and 100 blood donors served as controls.The presence of infection was convinced by the polymerase chain reaction and direct immunofluorescence assay for C. Pneumoniae DNA from throat swab specimens and micro-immunofluorescence testing for C. Pneumoniae-specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. Results: Prevalence of specific IgG in asthma patients (81.3%) was higher than that of the blood donors (68. 0%, P<0. 05) and was not significantly different from respiratory tract infection patients (68. 0%, P>0. 05). The acute C. Pneumoniae infection rate of symptomatic asthma patients (59.4%) was markedly higher than that of respiratory tract infection patients (34.9%, P<0. 05). The average titer of C. Pneumoniae IgG instead of IgA in asthma patients (48. 38±6. 94)was significantly higher than respiratory tract infection patients (24. 70±8. 77, P<0. 05). Other pathogens were identified in 12 of 21 (57. 1%) asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae. The symptoms of 7 asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae infection were improved through antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: The findings suggest a possible role of C. Pneumoniae infection in asthma.

  6. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze; Nwagwu Victor Onyebuchi; Jeremiah Isreal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics...

  7. Risk profile for Chlamydia infection in women from public health clinics in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Morse, D L; Lawrence, C E; Murphy, D; Hipp, S

    1993-02-01

    The prevalence of chlamydial infection and associated risk factors were studied in 1531 women from ten clinics in New York State excluding New York City. Overall Chlamydia infection rates were 13.6%; 17.6% in eight high risk family planning and STD clinics, and 5.7% in two low risk college and private clinics. Risk factors for Chlamydia infection included: age oral contraceptives (odds ratio 2.0), a history of having more than one sexual partner (odds ratio 1.7) and, in one clinic where data was available, inflammation on Papanicolaou smears (odds ratio 2.1). These data helped secure funding for Chlamydia preventive services and permitted development of a risk profile (score card) of Chlamydia for each age group. Use of such a score card can be most helpful in assigning which patients could benefit most from Chlamydia cultures, especially in those areas where testing is unavailable or too costly to screen all patients.

  8. Innate immune responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: role of TLRs, NLRs, and the inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-11-01

    Chlamydiae are important human pathogens that are responsible for a wide rage of diseases with a significant impact on public health. In this review article we highlight how recent studies have increased our knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogenesis and mechanisms of innate immunity directed host defense against C. pneumoniae infection.

  9. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  10. Association between chlamydia pneumoniae infection and carotid atherosclerotic plaques

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    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumonia infection and atherosclerosis. This study was designed to investigate the association between this organism and atherosclerotic plaque formation in right and left common carotid arteries (CCAs and extracranial portions of internal carotid arteries (ICAs.
    METHODS: Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae (IgA and IgG were measured and compared in 42 patients who had plaque in at least one CCA or ICA (detected by duplex ultrasound and 82 patients without any plaque in these arteries. Cp.IgG and Cp.IgA titers over 1.10 ISR were defined to be positive.
    RESULTS: We found that 6.1% of control subjects and 16.7% of cases were Cp.IgA seropositive. The difference between these two groups was prominent but was not statistically significant (P = 0.104. 4.2% of females without atherosclerotic plaque and 31.6% of females with plaque were Cp.IgA seropositive. This difference is statistically significant (P = 0.005. There was no significant difference in seropositivity of Cp.IgG between case and control subjects or in male and female groups with or without plaque.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cp.IgA is a predictor of atherosclerosis in women, but Cp.IgG has no predictive value for plaque formation in either gender.
    KEY WORDS: Atherosclerotic plaque, Chlamydia pneumoniae, serum antibody.

  11. [A child with iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Tsumura, N; Nagai, K; Yamada, T; Sakata, Y; Tominaga, K; Kato, H; Motohiro, T; Masunaga, N; Mochizuki, M

    1994-12-01

    A case of uncommon iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is reported. The patient was a 9-year-old boy who had suffered from cough, pharyngeal pain, and low grade fever. The symptoms persisted for more than 1 month in spite of an oral cephem antibiotic. Ophthalmalgia, congestion around the iris and cough had lasted with alleviation and exacerbation. A diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection was made by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and microimmunofluorescence test (MIF). The symptoms subsided with administration of clarithromycin (CAM: 300 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Because of the simultaneous alleviation of iritis, C. pneumoniae infection was considered to introduce the iritis. Much remains to be clarified about this pathogenesis of iritis and more detailed evaluations are required.

  12. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  13. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  14. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  15. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  16. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  17. Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Summary Integrated Report

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; O'Connell, Emer; Vaughan, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Coleman, Claire; Conroy, Ronán; Cormican, Martin; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Fleming, Catherine; McGee, Hannah; Murphy, Andrew; Ni Fhoghlu, Grainne; O'Neill, Ciaran; Gillespie, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most common curable, bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1, 2]. The number of cases notified in Ireland increased from 3,353 in 2005 to 5,781 in 2009 [3]. Notifications have increased since 2004 when legislation requiring laboratory notification came into effect. Chlamydia is usually a ‘silent’ asymptomatic infection, spread without the knowledge of those transmitting and contracting it: most cases remain undetected and...

  18. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (plactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (plactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis incidence and re-infection among young women--behavioural and microbiological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate rates of chlamydia incidence and re-infection and to investigate the dynamics of chlamydia organism load in prevalent, incident and re-infections among young Australian women. METHODS: 1,116 women aged 16 to 25 years were recruited from primary care clinics in Australia. Vaginal swabs were collected at 3 to 6 month intervals for chlamydia testing. Chlamydia organism load was measured by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: There were 47 incident cases of chlamydia diagnosed and 1,056.34 person years of follow up with a rate of 4.4 per 100 person years (95% CI: 3.3, 5.9. Incident infection was associated with being aged 16 to 20 years [RR = 3.7 (95%CI: 1.9, 7.1], being employed [RR = 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1, 4.9] and having two or more new sex partners [RR = 5.5 (95%CI: 2.6, 11.7]. Recent antibiotic use was associated with a reduced incidence [RR:0.1 (95%CI: 0.0, 0.5]. There were 14 re-infections with a rate of 22.3 per 100 person years (95%CI: 13.2, 37.6. The median time to re-infection was 4.6 months. Organism load was higher for prevalent than incident infections (p<0.01 and for prevalent than re-infections (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia is common among young women and a high proportion of women are re-infected within a short period of time, highlighting the need for effective partner treatment and repeat testing. The difference in organism load between prevalent and incident infections suggests prevalent infection may be more important for ongoing transmission of chlamydia.

  20. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

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    Jannie J van der Helm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention

  1. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  2. Improving the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) : a study using Chlamydia trachomatis as a model infection

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current preventive strategies sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising. This thesis presents a model with the aim of improving the prevention of STIs. Chlamydia being the most common STI in Sweden serves as a model infection. The presented model is based on five performed studies. First we evaluated the feasibility of taking a urine sample at home and sending it with mail for Chlamydia analysis. Postal screening was thereafter analyzed for cost effectiveness estimating th...

  3. Quantitative Detection of Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum by High-Sensitivity Real-Time PCR Reveals High Prevalence of Vaginal Infection in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    DeGraves, Fred J.; Gao, Dongya; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Schlapp, Tobias; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Bovine vaginal cytobrush specimens were analyzed for the presence of Chlamydia spp. by a high-sensitivity, high-specificity quantitative PCR. The 53% prevalence of low-level Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum genital infection detected in virgin heifers suggests predominantely extragenital transmission of Chlamydia in cattle and conforms to the high seroprevalence of anti-Chlamydia antibodies.

  4. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  5. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

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    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  6. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Taylor B; Gottlieb, Sami L; Darville, Toni

    2017-01-19

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally. Ascension of chlamydial infection to the female upper genital tract can cause acute pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Shortcomings of current chlamydia control strategies, especially for low- and middle-income countries, highlight the need for an effective vaccine. Evidence from animal models, human epidemiological studies, and early trachoma vaccine trials suggest that a C. trachomatis vaccine is feasible. Vaccine development for genital chlamydial infection has been in the preclinical phase of testing for many years, but the first Phase I trials of chlamydial vaccine candidates are underway, and scientific advances hold promise for additional candidates to enter clinical evaluation in the coming years. We describe the clinical and public health need for a C. trachomatis vaccine, provide an overview of Chlamydia vaccine development efforts, and summarize current vaccine candidates in the development pipeline.

  7. Comparative Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Iranian Women with Cervicitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    J Zaeimi Yazdi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI recognized throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among a randomized statistical group of women suffering from cervicitis in Tehran- Iran. During a 12- month- period, Jan 2003 to Jan 2004, 142 endocervical samples were taken from women suffering from cervicitis attending to Mirzakoochakkhan Women Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA and PCR techniques were used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical samples. Twenty two (15.5% [95% CI, 9.54-21.4] of 142 samples were diagnosed as Chlamydia positive according to PCR results, while DFA diagnosed 20 (14.1% positive cases [95% CI, 8.37-19.8]. No statistically significant difference was found between two diagnosis methods applied in this study. The prevalence was the highest (25% among women aged 25 to 29 yr and 35 to 39 yr. The x 2 test showed a significant relationship between positive test result and bearing a history of STI (P= 0. The results of this study showed high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women suffering from cervicitis and suggested that patients diagnosed with genital Chlamydia infection should be referred to the genitourinary medicine clinic for further STI screening and partner notification.

  8. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent Winding;

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...

  9. Quantitative Detection of Respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection by Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Kuoppa, Yvonne; Boman, Jens; Scott, Lena; Kumlin, Urban; Eriksson, Iréne; Allard, Annika

    2002-01-01

    Real-time PCR was evaluated as a quantitative diagnostic method for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection using different respiratory samples. Real-time PCR had efficiency equal to or better than that of nested touchdown PCR. This study confirmed sputum as the best sampling material to detect an ongoing C. pneumoniae infection.

  10. Chlamydia muridarum infection subverts dendritic cell function to promote Th2 immunity and airways hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiko, Gerard E; Phipps, Simon; Hickey, Danica K; Lam, Chuan En; Hansbro, Philip M; Foster, Paul S; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2008-02-15

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that Chlamydia infection can lead to exacerbation of asthma. However, the mechanism(s) whereby chlamydial infection, which normally elicits a strong Th type 1 (Th1) immune response, can exacerbate asthma, a disease characterized by dominant Th type 2 (Th2) immune responses, remains unclear. In the present study, we show that Chlamydia muridarum infection of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) modulates the phenotype, cytokine secretion profile, and Ag-presenting capability of these BMDC. Chlamydia-infected BMDC express lower levels of CD80 and increased CD86 compared with noninfected BMDC. When infected with Chlamydia, BMDC secrete increased TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-13. OVA peptide-pulsed infected BMDC induced significant proliferation of transgenic CD4(+) DO11.10 (D10) T cells, strongly inhibited IFN-gamma secretion by D10 cells, and promoted a Th2 phenotype. Intratracheal transfer of infected, but not control noninfected, OVA peptide-pulsed BMDC to naive BALB/c mice, which had been i.v. infused with naive D10 T cells, resulted in increased levels of IL-10 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Recipients of these infected BMDC showed significant increases in airways resistance and decreased airways compliance compared with mice that had received noninfected BMDC, indicative of the development of airways hyperreactivity. Collectively, these data suggest that Chlamydia infection of DCs allows the pathogen to deviate the induced immune response from a protective Th1 to a nonprotective Th2 response that could permit ongoing chronic infection. In the setting of allergic airways inflammation, this infection may then contribute to exacerbation of the asthmatic phenotype.

  11. Effect of the purinergic receptor P2X7 on Chlamydia infection in cervical epithelial cells and vaginally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darville, Toni; Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Cruz, Cristiane; Sater, Ali Abdul; Andrews, Charles W; Ojcius, David M

    2007-09-15

    Ligation of the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, with its agonist ATP has been previously shown to inhibit intracellular infection by chlamydiae and mycobacteria in macrophages. The effect of P2X7R on chlamydial infection had never been investigated in the preferred target cells of chlamydiae, cervical epithelial cells, nor in vaginally infected mice. In this study, we show that treatment of epithelial cells with P2X7R agonists inhibits partially Chlamydia infection in epithelial cells. Chelation of ATP with magnesium or pretreatment with a P2X7R antagonist blocks the inhibitory effects of ATP. Similarly to previous results obtained with macrophages, ATP-mediated inhibition of infection in epithelial cells requires activation of host-cell phospholipase D. Vaginal infection was also more efficient in P2X7R-deficient mice, which also displayed a higher level of acute inflammation in the endocervix, oviduct, and mesosalpingeal tissues than in infected wild-type mice. However, secretion of IL-1beta, which requires P2X7R ligation during infection by other pathogens, was decreased mildly and only at short times of infection. Taken together, these results suggest that P2X7R affects Chlamydia infection by directly inhibiting infection in epithelial cells, rather than through the ability of P2X7R to modulate IL-1beta secretion.

  12. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  13. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and men who have sex only with women (MSW, including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%, 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%, 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%, and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%, 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%, 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%, and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%, 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%, 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%, and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%. Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  14. [THE ROLE OF SYSTEM QUORUM SENSING UNDER CHRONIC UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is established that system quorum sensing (QS) assure social behavior of bacteria in regulation of genes of virulence and generalization of inflectional inflammatory process under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection. The techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry were applied to detect molecular markers of generalization of infectious process under urogenital chlamydiasis--activators of QS microbes (lactones, quinolones, furan ethers). The developed diagnostic gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry criteria of indexation of molecular markers under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection have high level of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of positive and negative result. The application of techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry permits enhancing effectiveness of diagnostic of chronic inflectional inflammatory diseases of urogenital system of chlamydia etiology with identification of prognostic criteria of generalization of infectious process and subsequent prescription of timely and appropriate therapy

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  16. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection.

  17. Detection of infections of the eye with Chlamydia trachomatis by the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Fan (Jun); W.Y. Zhang (Wen); Y.Y. Wu (Yu); X.Y. Jing (Xiou); E.C.J. Claas (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to test the diagnostic feasibility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in eye swabs from patients with conjunctivitis, and to establish the basic technique of the PCR for epidemiological survey. The resul

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: knowledge, test practices, and attitudes of Dutch midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the Netherlands, testing for C. trachomatis is based on risk assessment. We assessed midwives' knowledge, test practices, assessment of risk behavior, and attitudes regarding testing for C. trachomati

  19. Risk Factors for Incident and Redetected Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Elise; Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in women, including the role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: In this population-based, prospective cohort study conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark, 10,729 women aged 20 to 29 y...

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  2. Sexual behavior and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic students in Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Guillén-Grima, F; Prüfer-Krämer, L; Serrano-Monzo, I; Marin-Fernandez, B; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I; Krämer, A

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to assess patterns of sexual activity, preventive behaviors, contraceptive use, and the prevalence of chlamydia infection in student populations from two countries. 188 asymptomatic students of the University of Bielefeld, Germany and 590 students of the Navarra Public University, Spain were surveyed using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Urine samples were analyzed by ligase chain reaction technique for chlamydia infection. Compared to German students, Spanish students were less likely to have more than one sex partner within the last 12 months (OR: 0.62; CI: 0.46-0.83), to have sexual intercourse more than one time per week (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to use oral contraceptives (OR: 0.16; CI: 0.10-0.26). They reported a higher use of condoms (OR: 2.93; CI: 2.01-4.27) and were more likely to always use condoms with a new sex partner (OR: 2.47; CI: 1.72-3.53). The prevalence of chlamydia infection was considerably higher in German students (5.8% [corrected] in females; 2.2% in males) than in Spanish students, where no case was found. The higher frequency of sexual activity, a higher engagement in risk-taking sexual behavior and the lower use of barrier contraceptives may contribute to the higher prevalence of chlamydia infection in German students.

  3. RNAi screen in Drosophila cells reveals the involvement of the Tom complex in Chlamydia infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Derré

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are intracellular obligate bacterial pathogens that infect a wide range of host cells. Here, we show that C. caviae enters, replicates, and performs a complete developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identified 54 factors that, when depleted, inhibit C. caviae infection. By testing the effect of each candidate's knock down on L. monocytogenes infection, we have identified 31 candidates presumably specific of C. caviae infection. We found factors expected to have an effect on Chlamydia infection, such as heparansulfate glycosaminoglycans and actin and microtubule remodeling factors. We also identified factors that were not previously described as involved in Chlamydia infection. For instance, we identified members of the Tim-Tom complex, a multiprotein complex involved in the recognition and import of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells. Finally, we confirmed that depletion of either Tom40 or Tom22 also reduced C. caviae infection in mammalian cells. However, C. trachomatis infection was not affected, suggesting that the mechanism involved is C. caviae specific.

  4. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Cao, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Feng-Cai; Miao, Qiang; Liu, Zi-Li; Li, Bi-Feng; Lv, Rui-Qing; Du, Xiao-Peng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed globally, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. To date, there is limited information about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in dogs in the world. In the present study, a serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with dog chlamydiosis in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 591 dogs were sampled, antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.6%. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Gender and age of dogs were not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Type and geographical origin of dogs were considered as main risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection, stray dogs (31.37%) were more than 16 times (OR=16.167, 95% CI=6.283-41.599, Pcompared to the police dogs (7.62%), while pet dogs (14.41%) had a 3 times (OR=2.968, 95% CI=1.349-6.529, P=0.007) higher risk. Positive dogs were found in 5 districts of Yunnan Province with prevalence ranging from 2.56% to 31.67% except Diqing (0/56). Dogs in Kunming (20.21%) had a 9 times higher risk of being seropositive compared to dogs in Lijiang (2.56%) (OR=9.057, 95% CI=1.211-67.714, P=0.032), although no regional differences were found in other 4 administrative divisions compared to Lijiang (P>0.05). Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, with higher exposure risk in stray dogs and distinct geographical distribution. These findings suggest the potential importance of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing dog diseases.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  6. [Cervicitis--epidemiological and clinical risk for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, A; Stevenson, M

    1994-01-01

    Fifty volunteer, asymptomatic sexually active university female students were examined and inquired, in order to find risk factors predictive of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Epidemiologic and behavioral factors (age, number of sexual partners, oral contraceptives use and history of previous sexually transmitted diseases) were found to be similar among the studied group and published data for North American female college students, but barrier contraceptive methods use was found to be different. Twenty two per cent of the sample had clinical cervicitis, and 30% had subclinical. If the screening models proposed by different authors would have been applied, between a 32% and 72% of the sample would have been selectively for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is concluded that international sugerences about Chlamydia trachomatis screening should be adopted until national experiences are made.

  7. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (PChlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (PChlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  8. The Infection of Chlamydia Pneumonia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 许香广; 张国良; 方卫华

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between infection with chlamydia pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Serology of chlamydia pneumoniae specific IgG、IgM antibodies were measured by microimmunofluorescence test in groups of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and health control(HC). Results The total infection positive rates were 30.6% in HC group and 88.1% in AMI group, including the previous infection rates which were 30.6% and 71.4%, while the acute infection rates were 0% and 16.7%. The frequency of total infection, previous infection and acute infection was significantly higher in AMI group than in the HC group. Odds Ratio for the development of AMI were 16.82, 5.68, 14.2, respectively(95% CI 5.83 to 48.54,2.46 to 13.11, 1.68 to 119.97). Geometric mean IgG titre was significantly higher in patients with AMI compared with the HC group (P< 0.01). There is no IgM positive in HC group but there were two cases in AMI group. Conclusions The presence of high titers of immmunoglobulin G in AMI. Chlamydia pneumonia infection may be a risk factor for the AMI .

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe: legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeika, M; Hallen, A; Karabanov, L; Chudomirova, K; Gruber, F; Unzeitig, V; Poder, A; Deak, J; Jakobsone, I; Lapinskaite, G; Dajek, Z; Akovbian, V; Gomberg, M; Khryanin, A; Savitcheva, A; Takac, I; Glazkova, L; Vinograd, N; Nedeljkovic, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge concerning genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe is scarce. Data on the legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection have never been collected, summarised, and presented to the international scientific community. The aim of this study was to present the current situation on the main aspects of chlamydial infections in the countries of eastern Europe. Methods: Written questionnaires concerning legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection were distributed among national STI operating administrators as well as researchers who had presented papers at earlier meetings of European chlamydia or STI societies. Results: Most of the countries have not legalised reporting of chlamydial infections and in those who have done so, the quality of the reporting system is poor. Contact tracing is mostly done on a voluntary basis. Reported chlamydia incidence varies from 21 to 276 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most commonly used diagnostic test remains the direct immunofluorescence test; however, some tendencies towards nucleic acid amplification are in evidence. Diagnostic services are paid for by the patient himself, while treatment in many countries is partially or completely covered by public insurance. Conclusions: This is the first report summarising data concerning the situation on C trachomatis infections in eastern Europe. The reporting system and diagnosis of C trachomatis infections remain suboptimal, which allows neither control of the epidemiological situation nor optimal treatment of the patients. The most urgent work currently necessary is the education of professionals and the general population. PMID:12081171

  10. Unveiling New Molecular Factors Useful for Detection of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Rodriguez-Cerdeira; Elena Sanchez-Blanco; Alberto Molares-Vila; Alfonso Alba

    2012-01-01

    Background. Untreated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women can result in disease sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ultimately culminating in tubal occlusion and infertility. While nucleic acid amplification tests can effectively diagnose uncomplicated lower genital tract infections, they are not suitable for diagnosing upper genital tract pathological sequelae. Objective. The purpose of this paper was to provide a comprehensive review of new molecular factors associated...

  11. Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinghorn, G. R.; Waugh, M A

    1981-01-01

    One thousand eight non-pregnant women aged 16-34 years, presenting for the first time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for C trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral...

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with...

  13. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  14. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  15. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella; Yu, B. Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13–184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Conclusion Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women. PMID:28199392

  16. [Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1983-05-01

    1080 nonpregnant women ages 16-34 years, presenting for the 1st time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for Chlamydia trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptives (OCs). This was not because OC users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking OCs is greater. (author's)

  17. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in rural Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkrajai, P; Thongkrajai, E; Pengsaa, P; Pakarasang, M

    1999-03-01

    A cross sectional study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among different groups of rural women in the northeast Thailand. The presence of chlamydial antigens in endocervical swabs was detected by ELISA. The prevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis were 6.8% (31/485), 5.2% (24/466) and 6.7% (12/179) in women attending antenatal, postpartum and family planning clinics respectively. The average prevalences of C. trachomatis among hospital-based and community-based women were 6.1% (67/1,103) and 3.6% (15/411) respectively. In addition, the prevalences of some pathogens including Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum and Neisseria gonorrhoea among hospital-based and community-based women were 14.2, 2.8, 0.7, 0.2 and 10.9, 5.1, 2.7, 0.0% respectively. It was concluded that C. trachomatis was a problem of woman's reproductive health.

  18. Effects of population based screening for Chlamydia infections in the Netherlands limited by declining participation rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V Schmid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16-29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level

  19. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation.

  20. Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

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    Loza, O; Strathdee, S A; Martinez, G A; Lozada, R; Ojeda, V D; Staines-Orozco, H; Patterson, T L

    2010-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 13.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with chlamydia were younger age, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhoea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection were more closely associated with FSWs' drug use behaviours and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviours. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

  1. Public health policies and management strategies for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

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    Shaw K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Shaw1,2, David Coleman1, Maree O'Sullivan1, Nicola Stephens31Department of Health and Human Services, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; 2Health and Wellbeing Research Cluster, Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia; 3NSW Health, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmissible bacterial infection that is asymptomatic in the majority of infected individuals and is associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. The population prevalence of the infection appears to be increasing. C. trachomatis is of public health significance because of the impacts of untreated disease on reproductive outcomes, transmission of other sexually acquired infections, and the costs to health systems. At the individual level, C. trachomatis infection is readily treatable with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance appears to be increasing. At the population level, public health control of spread of infection is more problematic. Approaches to control include primary preventive activities, increased access to testing and treatment for people with or at risk of infection, partner notification and treatment, and screening either opportunistically or as part of an organized population screening program. A combination of all of the above approaches is likely to be required to have a significant effect on the burden of disease associated with genital chlamdyia infection and to reduce population prevalence. The development of a vaccine for genital chlamydia infection could significantly reduce the public health burden associated with infection; however a vaccine is not expected to be available in the near future.Keywords: chlamydia, public health, health policy, screening

  2. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Bhatla; Kriti Puri; Elizabeth Joseph; Alka Kriplani; Venkateswaran K. Iyer; Sreenivas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women. Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, inter...

  3. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection.

  4. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis.

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    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F

    2014-11-13

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53-MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen's anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection.

  5. 2015 UK national guideline for the management of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokolo, Nneka C; Dragovic, Bojana; Patel, Sheel; Tong, C Y William; Barker, Gary; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-03-01

    This guideline offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests, treatment regimens and health promotion principles needed for the effective management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. It covers the management of the initial presentation, as well the prevention of transmission and future infection. The guideline is aimed at individuals aged 16 years and older presenting to healthcare professionals working in departments offering Level 3 care in sexually transmitted infections management within the UK. However, the principles of the recommendations should be adopted across all levels, using local care pathways where appropriate.

  6. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

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    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  7. The Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women Attending Health Clinics in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran

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    Negin Hadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is a common cause of sexually transmitted infections (STI anda prevalent microorganism found in the vaginal discharge of sexually active women. The infection usuallyhas no symptoms; although it may cause chronic complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID,ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility and cervical cancer. This study was done, for thefirst time, in Shiraz (southern Iran to determine the prevalence of genital C.T in women.Materials and Methods: A total of 402 women who referred for routine pap smears to randomlyselected health centers in Shiraz were tested with the IMAGEN Chlamydia test, a directimmunofluorescence test for the detection of Chlamydia in human urogenital specimens. Theresults of this test were compared to the socio-demographic condition of each participant as well astheir sexually transmitted disease (STD symptoms, both present and past.Results: The prevalence rate of Chlamydia infection was 8% (32/402. No correlation was foundbetween this infection and age, marital age, number of children, education and occupational statusof the participants. On the other hand, the correlation between the presence of infection and apositive history of STD symptoms, both present and past was significant.Conclusion: Chlamydia infection is quite frequent in our society, where knowledge about STDinfections is scant. Considering the sequelae of this infection and the fact that this is a quiet disease,it seems rational to screen sexually active women and inform them more about this issue.

  8. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in untreated women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis: a structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, W L; Risser, J M H

    2007-11-01

    Because of the long-term consequences of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis screening depends in part on the incidence of PID in untreated, chlamydia-infected women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the original research assessing the incidence of PID following C. trachomatis infection. We conducted a thorough search of the literature and selected all available prospective cohort studies. Six studies had original data: the incidence of PID varied from 0% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] 0-12%) during one year of follow-up of 30 women to 30% (95% CI 12-54%) during 50 days of follow-up of 20 women. Studies that included asymptomatic women in other settings reported a lower incidence than those that evaluated women in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In conclusion, no study was of a size or quality to answer our research question definitively. Investigators and clinicians planning chlamydia-screening programmes need to be cognizant of the inconclusive incidence data.

  9. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

  10. Chlamydia pneumoniae replicates in Kupffer cells in mouse model of liver infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonella Marangoni; Manuela Donati; Francesca Cavrini; Rita Aldini; Silvia Accardo; Vittorio Sambri; Marco Montagnani; Roberto Cevenini

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To develop an animal model of liver infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pneumoniae) in intraperitoneally infected mice for studying the presence of chlamydiae in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes.METHODS: A total of 80 BALB/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with C. pneumoniae and sacrificed at various time points after infection. Chlamydiae were looked for in liver homogenates as well as in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes separated by liver perfusion with collagenase. C. pneumoniae was detected by both isolation in LLC-MK2 cells and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The releasing of TNFA-α by C. pneumoniae in vitro stimulated Kupffer cells was studied by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: C. pneumoniae isolation from liver homogenates reached a plateau on d 7 after infection when 6 of 10 animals were positive, then decreased, and became negative by d 20. C. pneumoniae isolation from separated Kupffer cells reached a plateau on d 7 when 5 of 10 animals were positive, and became negative by d 20.The detection of C. pneumoniae in separated Kupffer cells by FISH, confirmed the results obtained by culture.Isolated hepatocytes were always negative. Stimulation of Kupffer cells by alive C. pneumoniae elicited high TNF-α levels.CONCLUSION: A productive infection by C. pneumoniae may take place in Kupffer cells and C. pneumoniae induces a local pro-inflammatory activity. C. pneumoniae is therefore, able to act as antigenic stimulus when localized in the liver. One could speculate that C. pneumoniae infection, involving cells of the innate immunity such as Kupffer cells, could also trigger pathological immune reactions involving the liver, as observed in human patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

  11. [Male genito-urinary tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and seminal characteristics: use of minocycline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F; Gandini, L; Alfano, P; Anticoli-Borza, L; Basile, A; Fabbri, G; Lenzi, A

    1990-03-01

    The authors evaluated the activity of Minocycline in 30 male patients with urinary tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and alterations of the seminal parameters using three different dosage schedules (100 mg/day for 10 days, 200 mg/day for 10 days and 200 mg/day for 20 days). At baseline, at the end of therapy and one month after clinical and bacteriological parameters and seminal characteristics, including some sperm function tests (acridine orange test to study chromatin heterogeneity; triple staining technique, to study acrosome; swim-up technique, to study the sperm kinetics) were verified. The seminal characteristics were checked again three and six months after the end of the therapy. All the results show that Minocycline is an excellent drug for the treatment of urinary tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis both for its therapeutic efficacy and for the absence of side effects. Although 10 days cycles using 1 cap/day are sufficient to eliminate inflammation and infection, in order to obtain more valid results it is preferable to use the following dosage schedule: 200 mg/day of antibiotic (100 mg twice daily) for 10 days. The results of our trial show that in cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection associated with dispermia (reduced nemaspermic concentration, hypomotility, teratozoospermia, increased number of leucocytes), if the parameters of sperm function are within normal limits, the resolution of the infection is usually followed by a recovery of normozoospermia. Follow-up performed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment showed an increase in the number of spermatozoa, a percentage increase in their motility, mostly in the progressive motility, and a reduction of the atypical forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and maternal outcomes in Southern Ghana

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    Mate Siakwa

    2016-04-01

    Results: The prevalence of CT infection was 5.6% (112/2014. A history of STI/UTI (p<0.001 spontaneous abortion (p=0.02, preterm labour (p<0.001 and intrapartum or postpartum fever (p<0.001 were found to be associated with CT infection. However a history of Stillbirth, PID and having been treated for infertility were not associated with CT infection. Participants with CT infection were more likely to have PROM (p<0.001 and FSL (p<0.001 than those who were not infected. Parity and mode of delivery on the other hand were not associated with CT infection. Conclusions: To alleviate the adverse maternal outcomes, screening for CT infection in pregnancy should be offered routinely to pregnant women to promote early detection and treatment. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1108-1113

  13. Human female genital tract infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis elicits robust Type 2 immunity.

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    Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel

    Full Text Available While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation by endometrial CD4(+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3(+ CD4(+ and CD3(+ CD4(- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures.

  14. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821

  15. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines.

  16. TNF and PGE2 in human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

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    E. Manor

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin-1 (IL-1 alpha in medium from monocyte derived macrophages (MdM infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (L2/434/Bu or K biovars. TNF and PGE2 were found in both cases while IL-1 alpha was not detected. Both TNF and PGE2 levels were higher in the medium of the MdM infected with K biovars. TNF reached maximum levels 24 h postinfection, and then declined, while PGE2 levels increased continuously during the infection time up to 96 h post-infection. Addition of dexamethasone inhibited production of TNF and PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production by indomethacin resulted in increased production of TNF, while addition of PGE2 caused partial inhibition of TNF production from infected MdM.

  17. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

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    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  18. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

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    Jessica Campbell

    Full Text Available Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  19. Bioluminescence imaging of Chlamydia muridarum ascending infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jessica; Huang, Yumeng; Liu, Yuanjun; Schenken, Robert; Arulanandam, Bernard; Zhong, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity) correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae and mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with acute respiratory infection in general practices in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjhie, J.H.T.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Roosendaal, R.; Brule, A.J.C. van den; Bestebroer, T.M.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In this retrospective study Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in samples (n=457) from children presenting with acute respiratory infection to general practitioners during 1992-97. Samples were collected in autumn and winter, an

  1. Anal infections with concomitant Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quint, K.D.; Bom, R.J.M.; Quint, W.G.V.; Bruisten, S.M.; van der Loeff, M.F.S.; Morre, S.A.; de Vries, H.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) genotype L and is endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in western society. Genotype L infections need to be distinguished from non-LGV (genotypes A-K) Ct infections since they require prolonged anti

  2. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

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    Ashok eAiyar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium’s capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vellinga Akke; O'Donovan Diarmuid; Glacken Marita; Cormican Martin; Brennan Wendy; O'Connell Emer; Cahill Niall; Lysaght Fionnguala; O'Donnell Joan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting duri...

  4. High Rate of Partner Treatment Among Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Pregnant Women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh; Cabeza, Jeanne; Segura, Eddy; García, Patricia J; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    This was a substudy of 60 Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women from a larger study of pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Participants were encouraged to bring their partners in for concurrent patient-partner treatment. The alternative partner treatment was expedited partner therapy. Partner treatment uptake was 91.7%. Twenty-one partners (38.2%) received treatment through concurrent patient-partner treatment, and 34 (61.8%) through expedited partner therapy. Living with the partner was significantly associated with having the partner treated (P=0.0028).

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutel, Karinne; Merol, Jean-Claude; Prevost, Alain; Eb, Francois; Lefebvre, Jean-Francois; Coninx, Paul; Liautaud-Roger, Francoise

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of epidemiological data, an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and head and neck cancer might be suggested. The aim of the present study was to detect Cp-DNA within tumour tissue specimens by a two-step polymerase chain reaction. Investigation was planned on the Fleming's procedure for early termination when initial results were extreme. So, after ten consecutive patients, only one tumour contained Cp-DNA. Hence the prevalence could be regarded as inferior to 60% (2a=b=0.08), the threshold under which a direct role of Cp in head and neck cancer development does not seem to be likely.

  6. Efficacy of an Immune Modulator in Experimental Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine if vaginal application of the immune response modifier imiquimod (Aldara cream, 3M Pharmaceuticals, St Paul, Minn would alter the course and/or outcome of female genital tract infection with a human isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis in a murine model. Methods. Groups of CF-1 mice were treated with Aldara on three different schedules: (1 ongoing beginning 5 days prior to and continuing through day 5 of infection; (2 a single prophylactic dose 2 hours prior to infection; and (3 therapeutic from day 4 to day 14 of infection. Mice were infected vaginally with a serovar D strain of C trachomatis, and monitored by culture to determine the level of shedding and duration of infection. Results. We observed a significant reduction in both duration of infection and the level of shedding during the acute phase in mice treated on an ongoing basis commencing 5 days prior to infection. There was no effect with respect to the other regimens. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that ongoing Aldara treatment has efficacy and may enhance local innate immunity which reduces the duration of subsequent infection with human isolates of C trachomatis in a murine model of female genital tract infection.

  7. Inhibition of apoptosis in neuronal cells infected with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia pneumoniae

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    Albert Elizabeth V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydophila (Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular bacterium that has been identified within cells in areas of neuropathology found in Alzheimer disease (AD, including endothelia, glia, and neurons. Depending on the cell type of the host, infection by C. pneumoniae has been shown to influence apoptotic pathways in both pro- and anti-apoptotic fashions. We have hypothesized that persistent chlamydial infection of neurons may be an important mediator of the characteristic neuropathology observed in AD brains. Chronic and/or persistent infection of neuronal cells with C. pneumoniae in the AD brain may affect apoptosis in cells containing chlamydial inclusions. Results SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells were infected with the respiratory strain of C. pneumoniae, AR39 at an MOI of 1. Following infection, the cells were either untreated or treated with staurosporine and then examined for apoptosis by labeling for nuclear fragmentation, caspase activity, and membrane inversion as indicated by annexin V staining. C. pneumoniae infection was maintained through 10 days post-infection. At 3 and 10 days post-infection, the infected cell cultures appeared to inhibit or were resistant to the apoptotic process when induced by staurosporine. This inhibition was demonstrated quantitatively by nuclear profile counts and caspase 3/7 activity measurements. Conclusion These data suggest that C. pneumoniae can sustain a chronic infection in neuronal cells by interfering with apoptosis, which may contribute to chronic inflammation in the AD brain.

  8. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life.

  9. Use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cervical swab samples

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    Mania-Pramanik Jayanti

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction (PCR based method has been set up for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis infection in single cervical swab samples. A primer pair specific to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP gene common to all serotypes of C. trachomatis was used. This method was validated for its sensitivity as well as specificity. A minimum Ing of DNA could be used for detection of the infection. Specificity of the method was confirmed by carrying out a sample dilution curve. The cervical swab samples analysed in the present study were in coded form for validation of the PCR with an established commercial ELISA (Chlamydiazyme. Both the sensitivity and specificity of PCR was 100% when the ELISA results of these samples were decoded. Thus, this PCR technique could be used for better diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in comparison to the commercially available ELISA technique.

  10. Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1981-06-01

    One thousand eight non-pregnant women aged 16-34 years, presenting for the first time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for C trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptive agents. This was not because oral contraceptive users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking oral contraceptives is increased.

  11. A zebrafish model for Chlamydia infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Waddlia chondrophila

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    Alexander Fehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obligate intracellular chlamydial bacteria of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC superphylum are important pathogens of terrestrial and marine vertebrates, yet many features of their pathogenesis and host specificity are still unknown. This is particularly true for families such as the Waddliacea which, in addition to epithelia, cellular targets for nearly all Chlamydia, can infect and replicate in macrophages, an important arm of the innate immune system or in their free-living amoebal counterparts. An ideal pathogen model system should include both host and pathogen, which led us to develop the first larval zebrafish model for chlamydial infections with Waddlia chondrophila. By varying the means and sites of application, epithelial cells of the swimbladder, endothelial cells of the vasculature and phagocytosing cells of the innate immune system became preferred targets for infection in zebrafish larvae. Through the use of transgenic zebrafish, we could observe recruitment of neutrophils to the infection site and demonstrate for the first time that W. chondrophila is taken up and replicates in these phagocytic cells and not only in macrophages. Furthermore, we present evidence that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 mediated signalling plays a role in the innate immune reaction to W. chondrophila, eventually by Toll-like receptor (TLRs recognition. Infected larvae with depleted levels of MyD88 showed a higher infection load and a lower survival rate compared to control fish. This work presents a new and potentially powerful non-mammalian experimental model to study the pathology of chlamydial virulence in vivo and opens up new possibilities for investigation of other members of the PVC superphylum.

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.

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    Madhulika Jupelli

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5 CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs. Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Amedee, Angela M; Albritton, Hannah L; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L; Schust, Danny J; Quayle, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition.

  14. Temporal proteomic profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 human cervical epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Grace Min Yi; Lim, Hui Jing; Yeow, Tee Cian; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Gupta, Rishein; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Chang, Li-Yen; Wong, Won Fen

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading causative agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide which can lead to female pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. A greater understanding of host response during chlamydial infection is essential to design intervention technique to reduce the increasing incidence rate of genital chlamydial infection. In this study, we investigated proteome changes in epithelial cells during C. trachomatis infection by using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technique coupled with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ) analysis. C. trachomatis (serovar D, MOI 1)-infected HeLa-229 human cervical carcinoma epithelial cells (at 2, 4 and 8 h) showed profound modifications of proteome profile which involved 606 host proteins. MGST1, SUGP2 and ATXN10 were among the top in the list of the differentially upregulated protein. Through pathway analysis, we suggested the involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in host cells upon C. trachomatis infection. Network analysis underscored the participation of DNA repair mechanism during C. trachomatis infection. In summary, intense modifications of proteome profile in C. trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 cells indicate complex host-pathogen interactions at early phase of chlamydial infection.

  15. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

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    Canas Nuno

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis.

  16. Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the provinces of Novara and VCO: one year of observations

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    Stefano Andreoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the most common sexually transmitted diseases.The lack of growth of these microorganisms on common media and the roundabout research by immunofluorescence, has meant that, until now, these special-lived intracellular microorganisms have played a role probably underestimated in cases of infections affecting the sexual organs.The introduction of molecular biology has made possible their research in a much more simple, reliable and standardized methods. The study was carried out on endocervical samples, male urethral swabs and urine samples of men and women, determining the C. trachomatis DNA amplified using the BD ProbeTec ET system. This system uses technology SDA (Strand Displacement Amplification - Elongationcrowding of the blanks. The study was conducted from June 2008 to june 2009. Symptomatic and asyntptomatic patients residents in the provinces of Novara and the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola were considered. In this period 784 determinations were made in molecular biology. Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 26 cases equal to a percentage of 3.32%. While considering these preliminary data, however, we can estimate the rate of detection of C. trachomatis as a good starting point, because we have the impression that improved procedures particularly relate to the techniques for sampling and for storage and transport of the sample, can undoubtedly lead to much higher percentages.

  17. Binding of Galanthus nivalis lectin to Chlamydia trachomatis and inhibition of in vitro infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, K; Beillevaire, D; Mahmoud, E; Hammar, L; Mårdh, P A; Fröman, G

    1995-10-01

    A glycoprotein present in Chlamydia trachomatis, serotype L1, elementary bodies (EBs) was earlier found to bind the lectin from Galanthus nivalis (GNA). In the present paper we investigate the interaction of GNA with chlamydial EBs and its effect on in vitro infectivity. The binding affinity was studied with 125I-GNA lectin. Within 15 min about 80% maximal binding was obtained. The chlamydia-GNA interaction was inhibited by alpha-methylmannoside, causing a decrease of about 50% at 1 mM. Curve fit analyses indicated two types of binding sites for GNA on the EBs. The affinity to these differed by a factor of 15. The influence of the lectin on the ability of C. trachomatis to infect McCoy cells was also investigated. There was a GNA-dependent inhibition with a 50% reduction in the number of intracellular inclusions at 0.2 microM of the lectin. The findings indicate the presence of terminal mannose structures on the chlamydial surface at or in the proximity of the cell-binding domains. Mannose-binding proteins of eukaryotic cells could be important for the initial uptake of EBs.

  18. The risk of transmission of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is less than that of genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, E; Löwhagen, G B; Hallhagen, G; Johannisson, G; Ramstedt, K

    1980-01-01

    A total of 211 men with 237 female sexual partners and a total of 155 women with 156 male consorts were examined for genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The index patients had either single chlamydial or gonococcal infections or dual infections with both microorganisms. Analysis of recovery rates for groups of sexual consorts indicated that gonorrhea was contracted more frequently than chlamydial infection. Thus, when index patients had dual infections, 45% and 28% of their female and male consorts, respectively, had chlamydial infection, but 64% and 77%, respectively, had gonorrhea. When index patients had single infections with C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae, chlamydial infections were observed in consorts of 45% (women) and 28% (men), but gonococcal infections were observed in 80% (women) and 81% (men). Moreover, a significantly larger proportion of consorts of patients with chlamydial infection eluded infection than did partners of patients with gonorrhea. Women who used an intrauterine contraceptive device had chlamydial and gonococcal infections more often than those who used other forms of contraception, or no contraceptive.

  19. The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Anastario, Mike

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities.

  20. Outbreak of Pneumonia in the Setting of Fatal Pneumococcal Meningitis among US Army Trainees: Potential Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    physical stress may contribute to an increased risk for infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae ...Chlamydia pneumoniae , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Bordetella pertussis, and Legionella pneumophila[10] in addition to undergoing...postexposure chemoprophylaxis. Mil Med 2003;168:1-6 7. Balicer RD, Zarka S, Levine H, et al. Control of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 epidemic of

  1. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Atherosclerotic Lesion Development through Oxidative Stress: A Brief Overview

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    Rosa Sessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is known as a leading cause of respiratory tract infections and, in the last two decades, has been widely associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, and direct detection of the microorganism within atheroma. C. pneumoniae is presumed to play a role in atherosclerosis for its ability to disseminate via peripheral blood mononuclear cells, to replicate and persist within vascular cells, and for its pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects. Once inside the vascular tissue, C. pneumoniae infection has been shown to induce the production of reactive oxygen species in all the cells involved in atherosclerotic process such as macrophages, platelets, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize the data linking C. pneumoniae-induced oxidative stress to atherosclerotic lesion development.

  2. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  3. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections from Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Orellana-Peralta, Fiorella; Marcelo-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Verne, Eduardo; Esquivel-Vizcarra, Mónica; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Aguilar-Luis, Miguel Angel; Weilg, Pablo; Casabona-Oré, Verónica; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are atypical pathogens responsible for pneumonia and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in low income countries. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of this pathogens in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections. Methods A consecutive cross-sectional study was conducted in Lima, Peru from May 2009 to September 2010. A total of 675 children admitted with clinical diagnoses of acute respiratory infections were tested for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical symptoms were registered by the attending physician. Results Mycoplasma pneumonia was detected in 25.19% (170/675) of nasopharyngeal samples and Chlamydia pneumonia in 10.52% (71/675). The most common symptoms in patients with these atypical pathogens were rhinorrhea, cough and fever. A higher prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae cases were registered in summer, between December 2009 and March 2010. Conclusions Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumonia are a significant cause of morbidity in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Further studies should evaluate the use of reliable techniques such as PCR in Peru in order to avoid underdiagnoses of these atypical pathogens. PMID:28129377

  4. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better.

  5. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

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    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ≥ 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sample of northern Brazilian pregnant women: prevalence and prenatal importance

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    Ana Paula B. de Borborema-Alfaia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319. A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998. Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.

  7. Age and sex correlation of Chlamydia trachomatis infections evaluated by the culture technique and by an enzyme immunosorbent assay, IDEIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend

    1990-01-01

    A total number of 1358 patients were examined for genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis. 252 urethral smears from men and 1106 cervical smears from women were obtained. The average age of infected patients was 24.8 years (females 24.1, males 27.7). The overall prevalence was 10.6% (female.......8% and a specificity of 95.4% when using a cut-off level of 0.05 mean extinction values (MEV), as described by the manufacturer....

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women.

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    Edith Margarita Quinónez-Calvache

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC. Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females.C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study's follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables.Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61. Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%, greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%, followed by HPV-58 (17.81%. It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59-26.05 95%CI or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22-6.63 95%CI had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis.The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan David; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Sánchez, Ricardo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females. Methods C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study’s follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables. Results Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61). Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%), greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%), followed by HPV-58 (17.81%). It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59–26.05 95%CI) or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22–6.63 95%CI) had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis. Conclusions The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26807957

  10. Characterizing the intracellular distribution of metabolites in intact Chlamydia-infected cells by Raman and two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaszák, Márta; Chang, Jiun Chiun; Leng, Weinan; Rupp, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Kelley, Anne Myers

    2013-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that proliferate only within infected cells. Currently, there are no known techniques or systems that can probe the spatial distribution of metabolites of interest within intact Chlamydia-infected cells. Here we investigate the ability of Raman microscopy to probe the chemical composition of different compartments (nucleus, inclusion, and cytoplasm) of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells. The overall intensity of the Raman spectrum is greatest in the inclusions and lowest in the cytoplasm in fixed cells. Difference spectra generated by normalizing to the intensity of the strong 1004 cm(-1) phenylalanine line show distinct differences among the three compartments. Most notably, the concentrations of adenine are greater in both the inclusions and the nucleus than in the cytoplasm, as seen by Raman microscopy. The source of the adenine was explored through a complementary approach, using two-photon microscopy imaging. Autofluorescence measurements of living, infected cells show that the adenine-containing molecules, NAD(P)H and FAD, are present mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that these molecules are not the source of the additional adenine signal in the nucleus and inclusions. Experiments of infected cells stained with a DNA-binding dye, Hoechst 33258, reveal that most of the DNA is present in the nucleus and the inclusions, suggesting that DNA/RNA is the main source of the additional Raman adenine signal in the nucleus and inclusions. Thus, Raman and two-photon microscopy are among the few non-invasive methods available to investigate cells infected with Chlamydia and, together, should also be useful for studying infection by other intracellular pathogens that survive within intracellular vacuoles.

  11. Vidas CHL Assay in the Detection of Urogenital Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shujie(黄澍杰); CHENG Wenhai(程文海); WU Zhizhou(吴志周); KE Jianliang(柯建良); HUANG Donghui(黄东辉); XIE Lihao(谢礼豪); TAN Zhongkai(谭仲楷)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the Vidas Chlamydia (CHL) assayfor detecting C. Trachomatis with swabs and first catch urine(FCU) specimens from STD patients and high riskpopulations.Methods: A total of 383 patients were tested with tissueculture (TC), Vidas CHL and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)for C. trachomatis on male and female swabs, with Vidas CHLtesting male FCU specimens. CHL positive and equivocalresults were confirmed with a blocking assay (CHB). Truepositive were defined as either TC positive, or TC negtive butCHL and PCR positive. The performance of TC, CHL andPCR were evaluated according to this expanded goldstandard.Results: Compared with the expanded gold standard, 54 ofthe 232 male specimens were true positive results. For maleswabs, TC, CHL and PCR had sensitivities of 90.7%, 96.3%and 94.4%, and specificities of 100%, 98.3% and 97.2%,respectively. Differences were not statistically significant. Formale FCU specimens, CHL sensitivity and specificity were83.3% and 98.3%; there was little difference between theseresults and that of matched swabs. Compared with theexpanded gold standard, 28 of the 151 female swabs were truepositive; TC, CHL and PCR had sensitivities of 82.1%, 100%and 96.4%, and specificities of 100%, 98.4% and 97.6%,respectively. The difference was also not significant.Conclusions: Vidas CHL assay is very sensitive and specificfor C. trachomatis detection with swab specimens of male andfemale STD patients. For male FCU specimens, the assay alsohad high sensitivity and specificity. CHB may not be needed inthe routine detection of Chlamydia infections. Populationswith higher incidence of C.trachomatis infection.

  12. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections Adenovirus Bronchiolitis Campylobacter Infections Cat Scratch Disease Cellulitis Chickenpox Chlamydia Cold Sores Common Cold Coxsackievirus Infections Croup Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Dengue Fever Diphtheria E. Coli ...

  13. Improving the molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus infection with a species-specific duplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, Onya; Jaton, Katia; Branley, James; Vanrompay, Daisy; Erard, Veronique; Borel, Nicole; Longbottom, David; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are closely related intracellular bacteria exhibiting different tissue tropism that may cause severe but distinct infection in humans. C. psittaci causes psittacosis, a respiratory zoonotic infection transmitted by birds. C. abortus is an abortigenic agent in small ruminants, which can also colonize the human placenta and lead to foetal death and miscarriage. Infections caused by C. psittaci and C. abortus are underestimated mainly due to diagnosis difficulties resulting from their strict intracellular growth. We developed a duplex real-time PCR to detect and distinguish these two bacteria in clinical samples. The first PCR (PCR1) targeted a sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA operon allowing the detection of both C. psittaci and C. abortus. The second PCR (PCR2) targeted the coding DNA sequence CPSIT_0607 unique to C. psittaci. The two PCRs showed 100 % detection for ≥ 10 DNA copies per reaction (1000 copies ml(- 1)). Using a set of 120 samples, including bacterial reference strains, clinical specimens and infected cell culture material, we monitored 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the detection of C. psittaci and C. abortus for PCR1. When PCR1 was positive, PCR2 could discriminate C. psittaci from C. abortus with a positive predictive value of 100 % and a negative predictive value of 88 %. In conclusion, this new duplex PCR represents a low-cost and time-saving method with high-throughput potential, expected to improve the routine diagnosis of psittacosis and pregnancy complication in large-scale screening programs and also during outbreaks.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis as a probable cofactor in human papillomavirus infection in aboriginal women from northeastern Argentina

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    Gerardo Daniel Deluca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV are strongly associated with cervical cancer (CC, and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial infection (STBI worldwide, seems to be a risk factor for HPV infection and for CC. It is also known that both agents are more prevalent in vulnerable communities where lack of adequate primary health care is a cause for concern. The aim of this work was to determine the impact of CT and HPV infections in women belonging to an isolated aboriginal population (Pilaga community from a poor region in Northern Argentina (province of Formosa. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was performed in all sexually active Pilaga women, who attended a local community-based gynecological health screening project. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR method on a cervical brush specimen was used to detect both agents. Results: A total of 227 women (20% of the total female population of the Pilaga community were studied and the overall prevalence was 26.4% for CT, 46.7% for HPV and 16.3% for concurrent infection. CT infection was higher in HPV DNA positive (34.2% than in HPV DNA negative women (19%; OR: 2.22/95% CI = 1.16-4.28 / p = 0.009 and the most prevalent HPV types were HPV-16 (19.4%, 6 and 18 (5.3%, 58 (3.5% and 33 (3.1%. Conclusions: The prevalence of CT and HPV observed in Pilaga women are among the worst registered in Latin America. Also, data collected suggest that chlamydial infection may play an important role in the natural history of HPV infection. On this respect, we propose that the association between these two agents seems to be more related to a mutual potentiation than to the fact that they share a common route of transmission.

  15. Transformation of sexually transmitted infection-causing serovars of chlamydia trachomatis using Blasticidin for selection.

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    Honglei Ding

    Full Text Available Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using β-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the β-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis.

  16. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Cuba

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    Kouri Vivian

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence rates and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections in Cuban women, two different groups were selected. Group I consisted of 60 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 seropositive women from different regions of Cuba and group II of 60 randomly selected women HIV seronegative and apparently healthy. C. trachomatis was detected in cervical scrapes by mean of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for major out membrane protein. The overall prevalence rate of C. trachomatis in cervical scrapes determined by nested PCR was 10% in group I and the estimated prevalence was 6.6% for group II; 83.3% of HIV seropositive women with C. trachomatis infection reported history of pelvic inflammatory disease followed by cervicitis (50%. The control group C. trachomatis-infected women referred a history of cervicitis in 75% of cases. Other reports in the latter group included infertility and pelvic inflamatory disease in 50%. The present study is the first report of C. trachomatis prevalence in Cuba. It showed that there was not significantly difference in the prevalence rate of C. trachomatis between both groups.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis co-opts the FGF2 signaling pathway to enhance infection.

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    Jung Hwa Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular details of Chlamydia trachomatis binding, entry, and spread are incompletely understood, but heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs play a role in the initial binding steps. As cell surface HSPGs facilitate the interactions of many growth factors with their receptors, we investigated the role of HSPG-dependent growth factors in C. trachomatis infection. Here, we report a novel finding that Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2 is necessary and sufficient to enhance C. trachomatis binding to host cells in an HSPG-dependent manner. FGF2 binds directly to elementary bodies (EBs where it may function as a bridging molecule to facilitate interactions of EBs with the FGF receptor (FGFR on the cell surface. Upon EB binding, FGFR is activated locally and contributes to bacterial uptake into non-phagocytic cells. We further show that C. trachomatis infection stimulates fgf2 transcription and enhances production and release of FGF2 through a pathway that requires bacterial protein synthesis and activation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway but that is independent of FGFR activation. Intracellular replication of the bacteria results in host proteosome-mediated degradation of the high molecular weight (HMW isoforms of FGF2 and increased amounts of the low molecular weight (LMW isoforms, which are released upon host cell death. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo relevance of these findings by showing that conditioned medium from C. trachomatis infected cells is enriched for LMW FGF2, accounting for its ability to enhance C. trachomatis infectivity in additional rounds of infection. Together, these results demonstrate that C. trachomatis utilizes multiple mechanisms to co-opt the host cell FGF2 pathway to enhance bacterial infection and spread.

  18. Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in women undergoing laparoscopy: the role of peritoneal fluid sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Dragic; Patrizia Posteraro; Carla Marani; Maria Emanuela Natale; Alessia Vecchioni; Maurizio Sanguinetti; Chiara de Waure; Brunella Posteraro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim of this study was to assess the role of peritoneal fluid sampling for detection of bacterial infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) in women undergoing laparoscopic investigation. The potential link between microbiological positive result(s) and types of gynecological pathology was also evaluated. Materials and Methods. A large sample of women (n=1377) with their peritoneal fluids taken laparoscopically was...

  19. A meta-analysis of the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer risk

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    X Hua-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer risk was not clear with small number of cases in each study. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the correlation between pneumonia infection and lung cancer risk by pooling the open published papers. Materials and Methods: We searched the electronic databases of Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for publications related to the association between pneumonia infection and lung cancer risk. Odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI was used to assess the correlation. The data were pooled by Stata11.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA. Results: Thirteen publications, involving 2549 lung cancer patients and 2764 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the C. pneumoniae infection significant increased the risk of lung cancer OR = 2.07 (95% CI: 1.43–2.99 by random effect model. And for serum IgG, 12 publications reported the IgG positive rate in lung cancer patients and relative healthy controls. The pooled OR was 2.22 (95% CI: 1.41–3.50 by using the random effects model which indicated that the IgG positive rate was significantly higher in lung cancer patients than that of healthy controls. The sensitivity analysis indicated the pooled OR was not sensitive to a single study. However, Begger's funnel plot and Egger's line regression analysis indicated significant publications bias for this meta-analysis. Conclusions: According to the present published data, C. pneumoniae infection may increase the risk of lung cancer. However, for its significant publications and heterogeneity among the included studies, the conclusion should be interpreted cautiously.

  20. Development of a Novel PmpD-N ELISA for Chlamydia psittaci Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shan Shan; CHU Jun; ZHANG Qiang; SUN Wei; ZHANG Tian Yuan; HE Cheng

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveChlamydia psittaci is an avian respiratory pathogen and zoonotic agent.The wide prevalence ofC. psittaci poses a threat to the poultry industry and its employees. However, few commercial kits are available for detecting avian antibodies excluding the in-house ELISA kit. In this study, we developed a novel ELISA kit for detecting antibodies againstC. psittaci based on the N-terminal fragment of polymorphic outer membrane protein D (PmpD-N) as the coating antigen. Methods The antigen concentrations, primary antibody, and cut-off value were determined and optimized. The ELISA, designated PmpD-N ELISA, was assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and concordance using sera samples from 48 experimentally infected and 168 uninfected SPF chickens. Results The sensitivity and specificity of PmpD-N ELISA were 97.9%, 100%, respectively, while the concordance was 98.1% as compared to that of MOMP-ELISA. No cross-reaction with positive sera for other avian pathogens was found. Using PmpD-N ELISA, 799/836 clinical samples were positive, including 93.0% and 98.1% positivity in layers and broilers, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that indirect ELISA with PmpD-N as the antigen candidate is a promising approach for the surveillance ofC. psittaci infection.

  1. Exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and progression of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robman, Luba; Mahdi, Olaimatu; McCarty, Catherine; Dimitrov, Peter; Tikellis, Gabriella; McNeil, John; Byrne, Gerald; Taylor, Hugh; Guymer, Robyn

    2005-06-01

    Recent studies have found an association between exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To assess a potential risk of AMD progression posed by exposure to C. pneumoniae, the authors reexamined Australian residents in 2001-2002 who were aged 51-89 years with early AMD at baseline (1992-1995). Examination included macular photography and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine antibody titers to the elementary bodies from C. pneumoniae AR39. AMD progression was assessed quantitatively, using both coarse and fine progression steps following an international classification for AMD grading, and also qualitatively, by side-by-side comparison of baseline and follow-up macular photographs. Serologic data were available for 246 of 254 (97%) subjects. AMD progression was associated with a higher antibody titer. After adjustment for age, smoking, family history of AMD, history of cardiovascular diseases, and source study, the subjects in the upper tertiles of antibody titers were 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.92, 4.69), 2.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.24, 5.41), and 3.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.46, 6.37) times more at risk of progression than those in the lowest tertile, using three definitions of progression, respectively. The fact that seroreactivity to C. pneumoniae was independently associated with the risk of AMD progression suggests that C. pneumoniae infection may be an additional risk factor for AMD progression.

  2. Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in non-urban pregnant women in Vellore, S. India.

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    Navjyot K Vidwan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. METHODS: Pregnant women (≥28 weeks gestation in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. RESULTS: Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67% endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18-39 yrs and 22% (95% CI: 19.7-24.4% were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0-0.38% true positive CT infection using NAAT. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.

  3. Differences in Cell Activation by Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Human Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüll, M.; Kramp, J.; Petrov, T.; Klucken, A. C.; Hocke, A. C.; Walter, C.; Schmeck, B.; Seybold, J.; Maass, M.; Ludwig, S.; Kuipers, Jens G.; Suttorp, N.; Hippenstiel, S.

    2004-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies and demonstration of viable bacteria in atherosclerotic plaques have linked Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection to the development of chronic vascular lesions and coronary heart disease. In this study, we characterized C. pneumoniae-mediated effects on human endothelial cells and demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation and activation of the endothelial mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members extracellular receptor kinase (ERK1/2), p38-MAPK, and c-Jun-NH2 kinase (JNK). Subsequent interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression was dependent on p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 activation as demonstrated by preincubation of endothelial cells with specific inhibitors for the p38-MAPK (SB202190) or ERK (U0126) pathway. Inhibition of either MAPK had almost no effect on intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression. While Chlamydia trachomatis was also able to infect endothelial cells, it did not induce the expression of endothelial IL-8 or ICAM-1. These effects were specific for a direct stimulation with viable C. pneumoniae and independent of paracrine release of endothelial cell-derived mediators like platelet-activating factor, NO, prostaglandins, or leukotrienes. Thus, C. pneumoniae triggers an early signal transduction cascade in target cells that could lead to endothelial cell activation, inflammation, and thrombosis, which in turn may result in or promote atherosclerosis. PMID:15501794

  4. Community risk factors for ocular Chlamydia infection in Niger: pre-treatment results from a cluster-randomized trachoma trial.

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    Abdou Amza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma control programs utilize mass azithromycin distributions to treat ocular Chlamydia trachomatis as part of an effort to eliminate this disease world-wide. But it remains unclear what the community-level risk factors are for infection. METHODS: This cluster-randomized, controlled trial entered 48 randomly selected communities in a 2×2 factorial design evaluating the effect of different treatment frequencies and treatment coverage levels. A pretreatment census and examination established the prevalence of risk factors for clinical trachoma and ocular chlamydia infection including years of education of household head, distance to primary water source, presence of household latrine, and facial cleanliness (ocular discharge, nasal discharge, and presence of facial flies. Univariate and multivariate associations were tested using linear regression and Bayes model averaging. FINDINGS: There were a total of 24,536 participants (4,484 children aged 0-5 years in 6,235 households in the study. Before treatment in May to July 2010, the community-level prevalence of active trachoma (TF or TI utilizing the World Health Organization [WHO] grading system was 26.0% (95% CI: 21.9% to 30.0% and the mean community-level prevalence of chlamydia infection by Amplicor PCR was 20.7% (95% CI: 16.5% to 24.9% in children aged 0-5 years. Univariate analysis showed that nasal discharge (0.29, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.54; P = 0.03, presence of flies on the face (0.40, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.64; P = 0.001, and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.07, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.13; P = 0.03 were independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. In multivariate analysis, facial flies (0.26, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.49; P = 0.03 and years of formal education completed by the head of household (0.06, 95% CI: 0.008 to 0.11; P = 0.02 were associated risk factors for ocular chlamydial infection. INTERPRETATION: We have found that the presence

  5. Intranasal infection with Chlamydia abortus induces dose-dependent latency and abortion in sheep.

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    David Longbottom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3 were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×10(3, 5×10(5 and 5×10(7 inclusion forming units (IFU, respectively prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×10(6 IFU C. abortus (group 5. Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50-67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and

  6. Correlates of chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers: the untold story of Jiangsu, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG infections with their potential correlates. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted. METHODS: 185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou, aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG. RESULTS: Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven;

    2014-01-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in women with prevalent HPV infection and in a subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection. METHODS: Participants in this population-based cohort study underwent a structured interview, including history of CT infection, and subsequently cervical exfoliated......OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical...... cells were obtained for HPV DNA and CT DNA testing. Women with high-risk HPV DNA infection and no prevalent cervical disease constituted the overall study population (n=1390). A subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection (n=320) was also identified. All women were passively followed for development...

  8. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young

  9. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  10. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in the chicken industry and pathology of Chlamydia psittaci genotype B and D strains in specific pathogen free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Lagae, Stefanie; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-03-23

    Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French broiler farms were examined at slaughter. All French farms were culture positive while C. psittaci was cultured from the lungs of 80% of examined Belgian farms. C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens raised in Belgium and Northern France. We could proof Hill-Evans postulates for chicken-derived C. psittaci genotype B and D strains. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management of C. psittaci infections in chickens as chlamydiosis in broilers seems to be underdiagnosed and infections with highly virulent strains do occur.

  11. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-10-27

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cappello

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60 and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  13. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women and the use of oral contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voorst Vader, P C; Lier, J G; Posma, A L; Schröder, F P; Schirm, J; Kauer, F M

    1991-02-23

    We determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women who visited a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and the influence of the number of partners and the use of oral contraceptives (OC), with special attention to the recognition of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and to the results of therapy. Of 217 women, with a mean age of 26 years (range 14-56), who visited the STD clinic of the University Hospital of Groningen from July 1985 until November 1987, anamnestic data were collected as well as the results of swabs from cervix and urethra taken for culture and direct immunofluorescence test of C. trachomatis and for gonococcal culture. The influence of the number of partners (1 versus greater than 1) and OC on the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. PID was excluded in coöperation with the department of gynaecology. C. trachomatis-infected women were treated by doxycycline orally (day 1 2 x 100 mg, day 2-7 1 x 100 mg) according to the dosage scheme advised by the Dutch Health Council in 1986. A control culture was taken 2-3 weeks after treatment. C. trachomatis was detected in 72/217 (33%) women by culture and (or) direct IF test and in 22/41 (54%) women with gonorrhoea. In connection with the number of partners in the year preceding the examination, the following prevalences were found: 18/74 (24%) (1 partner), 43/108 (40%) (2-5 partners) and 10/27 (greater than 5 partners).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Oral contraceptives, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and pelvic inflammatory disease. A word of caution about protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, A E; Gove, S; Schachter, J; Sweet, R L

    1985-04-19

    Management of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and decisions about contraception are being influenced by reports that oral contraceptives decrease the risk of PID. To evaluate the validity of this association, we have examined published epidemiologic evidence and reviewed relevant information from other disciplines. Current information does not permit the generalization that oral contraceptives protect against all forms of PID. Most studies conducted (1) have been limited to hospitalized women, who represent less than 25% of all PID cases and are likely to have relatively severe forms of the disease, and (2) have failed to distinguish between gonococcal and nongonococcal PID. While oral contraceptives may provide some protection against gonococcal PID, no basis exists for assuming similar protection is provided against chlamydial PID. In fact, epidemiologic and biologic evidence suggests that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of nongonococcal PID, is enhanced by oral contraceptives. We judge the conclusion that oral contraceptives protect against all PID to be premature, and urge caution in its application in health policy and clinical decisions.

  15. Detection of Genitourinary Tract Chlamydia trachomatis Infection In Urine specimens by PCR Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪霞; 温泉; 夏迎华; 张林

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of the cervical/urethral swabs with voided urine specimens for the detection of genitourinary tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and determine whether urine specimens can replace the cervical/urethral swabs in detection of C. trachomatis. Methods: The matched cervical/urethral swabs and voided urine specimens were collected from 569 patients of STD clinics.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay specific for C. trachomatis plasmid DNA and rapid antigen testing (Clear view assay) was used to detect C. trachomatis. Standard criteria that defined """"true"""" positive included: 1) positive PCR results both in cervical/urethral swab and voided urine specimen or 2) positive voided urine results both by PCR assay and clear view test or 3)positive results in both PCR assay of cervical/urethral swab and clear view test of voided urine. For statistical analysis, the chi-square test was used. Results: The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with symptoms was 12.1% (28/231) in women and 10.4%(10/96) in men, with no significant difference between them (x2=0.21,P>0.05). The prevalence of C. trachomatis in patients with no symptoms was 11.0% (11/100) in women and 15.5% (22/142) in men, with a significant difference existing between them. (x2=4.0, P0.05) existed between PCR testing of swabs (sensitivity 87.3 %; specificity 99.2 %) and PCR testing of urine (sensitivity 88.7%; specificity 98.8%). As for clear view assay, sensitivity was 60.6% and specificity was 100%. Conclusions: PCR assay is superior to clear view in detecting C. trachomatis. Although both PCR testing of swabs and PCR testing of urine specimens both have high sensitivity and specificity, urine specimen testing is more cost-effective, practical and noninvasive. Thus urine specimens can take the place of the swabs in PCR testing for chlamydia.

  16. Evaluation of PCR, culture, and serology for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D. Willemse; S.C. Hiep-van Casteren; S.A. Joulandan; R.J. Snijder; H.P. van Helden; M.F. Peeters; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.M. van den Bosch (Jules)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe prospectively studied 156 patients with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission. Several respiratory specimens were obtained for the detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by cell culture and PCR. Three serum samples were obtained from

  17. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoting Ni; Siyuan Qin; Zhilong Lou; Hongrui Ning; Xiaolin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The...

  19. The Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection and Pregnancy%沙眼衣原体感染与妊娠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐茜; 岳天孚

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is currently the most common sex transmitted disease pathogen world-widely , which is an important reason of lower genital tract infection as well. However ,the Chlamydia trachomatis infection is always asymptomatic and the clinicians did not pay adequate attention on it. Also it needs advanced lab equipments and techniques in detecting and screening the population with high risks and the follow-up and treatment is also lack of attention. Women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis suffer from the damages of the pathogen itself and the immune reactions it caused ,such as miscarriage,fetal growth restriction,fetal distress,pre-rupture of membrane,preterm labour,low body weight neonate,still birth, intra-uterine infection,infection of neonate and the puerperal infection and post partum haemorrage. So purposeful screening and treatment towards Chlamydia trachomatis infection are important to reduce the complications of both maternal and fetal.%沙眼衣原体是目前感染率最高的性传播性疾病病原体,为引起妊娠期下生殖道感染的重要病原体。因其感染常呈亚临床状态,实验室检测对设备及技术要求高,临床医师相关知识欠缺,以及缺乏充足条件筛选高危人群并进行追踪治疗性伴侣,其潜在危害十分重大。妊娠期沙眼衣原体感染对妊娠有诸多不良影响:病原体本身造成的损伤机制及其引发的免疫反应是造成流产、胎儿生长受限、胎儿窘迫、胎膜早破、早产、低出生体质量儿、死胎、宫内感染、新生儿感染、产褥期感染和产后出血的原因之一。因此,有针对性地及时检查和治疗沙眼衣原体感染是降低母婴病率,提高围生期保健质量的重要举措。

  20. Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection – a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravningen Kirsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years. Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%. Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0. Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4, ≥2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3, and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7 increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42 decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0 increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6, and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8. Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia

  1. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ronzone

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  2. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection.

  3. A Co-infection Model System and the Use of Chimeric Proteins to Study Chlamydia Inclusion Proteins Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Derré, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. During its intracellular developmental cycle, Chlamydia resides in a membrane bound compartment called the inclusion. A subset of Type III secreted effectors, the inclusion membrane proteins (Inc), are inserted into the inclusion membrane. Inc proteins are strategically positioned to promote inclusion interaction with host factors and organelles, a process required for bacterial replication, but little is known about Inc proteins function or host interacting partners. Moreover, it is unclear whether each Inc protein has a distinct function or if a subset of Inc proteins interacts with one another to perform their function. Here, we used IncD as a model to investigate Inc/Inc interaction in the context of Inc protein expression in C. trachomatis. We developed a co-infection model system to display different tagged Inc proteins on the surface of the same inclusion. We also designed chimeric Inc proteins to delineate domains important for interaction. We showed that IncD can self-interact and that the full-length protein is required for dimerization and/or oligomerization. Altogether our approach can be generalized to any Inc protein and will help to characterize the molecular mechanisms by which Chlamydia Inc proteins interact with themselves and/or host factors, eventually leading to a better understanding of C. trachomatis interaction with the mammalian host. PMID:28352612

  4. B cells enhance antigen-specific CD4 T cell priming and prevent bacteria dissemination following Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    B cells can contribute to acquired immunity against intracellular bacteria, but do not usually participate in primary clearance. Here, we examined the endogenous CD4 T cell response to genital infection with Chlamydia muridarum using MHC class-II tetramers. Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells expanded rapidly and persisted as a stable memory pool for several months after infection. While most lymph node Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells expressed T-bet, a small percentage co-expressed Foxp3, and RORγt-expressing T cells were enriched within the reproductive tract. Local Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell priming was markedly reduced in mice lacking B cells, and bacteria were able to disseminate to the peritoneal cavity, initiating a cellular infiltrate and ascites. However, bacterial dissemination also coincided with elevated systemic Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell responses and resolution of primary infection. Together, these data reveal heterogeneity in pathogen-specific CD4 T cell responses within the genital tract and an unexpected requirement for B cells in regulating local T cell activation and bacterial dissemination during genital infection.

  5. Chlamydia infection in patients with and without cervical intra-epithelial lesions tested by real-time PCR vs. direct immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Micheline de Lucena; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério de; Albuquerque, Lúcia Cristina Bezerra de; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2008-08-01

    This study compares the detection rates of Chlamydia trachomatis by two techniques, direct immunofluorescence (IMF) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in patients with and without intra-epithelial cervical lesions (SIL) in Recife. We conducted a transversal study involving 35 women with SIL and 35 without SIL attended at Ambulatório Especializado da Mulher, Recife, Brazil. They were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis using two techniques, direct IMF or real time PCR. The rates of Chlamydia trachomatis detection were compared and the association with intra-epithelial cervical lesions was determined using the chi-square test at a 5% level of significance. Concordance between the tests was evaluated using kappa. The global prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 47.1% by direct IMF and 58.6% by real time PCR. A significant association was observed between Chlamydia diagnosis and presence of intra-epithelial cervical lesions, with about 80% positive results by direct IMF and 77.1% by real time PCR. However, the detected rate of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly greater in patients without intra-epithelial cervical lesions tested by real time PCR (40%) when compared to direct IMF (14.3%). The concordance between the tests was weak, with a kappa coefficient of 0.4. Both real time PCR and direct IMF detected elevated rates of Chlamydia infection in patients with intra-epithelial cervical lesions (80%) but the tests were discordant when patients without cervical lesions were tested, possibly because sensitivity of real time PCR is greater.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  7. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples...

  8. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1991-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples...

  9. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in blood samples as a diagnostic method for complicated and persistent forms of urogenital chlamydia infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanakhmedov E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal: the study of the effectiveness of the method for laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with chronic form of the disease. Material and methods. The presence of DNAof C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in either genital or extragenital (blood sites in eighth patients (four men and four women. Results. It is established that in biological material taken from extragenital (blood sites, C. trachomatis was detected in all patients examined (in 100% of cases, while in clinical samples obtained from genital sites, in seven patients only (87.5%. Conclusion. We found that specific chlamydial DNAcan be detected in extragenital (blood site, despite the negative reaction in the clinical material from the genital tract of patients with genital chlamydial infection.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates†

    OpenAIRE

    Bannantine, John P.; Walter E. Stamm; Suchland, Robert J.; Rockey, Daniel D.

    1998-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients and from experimentally infected monkeys both recognized C. trachomatis IncA.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening Men in Maricopa County Jails for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea to Avert Infections in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalappa, Chaitra; Huang, Ya-Lin A.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Taylor, Melanie; Gales, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections can lead to serious and costly sequelae in women, but sequelae in men are rare. In accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, female jail inmates in Maricopa County (Phoenix area), Arizona, are screened for these infections. Owing to lack of evidence of screening benefits in men, male inmates are tested and treated based on symptoms only. Methods We developed a probabilistic simulation model to simulate chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in Maricopa County jail male inmates and transmissions to female partners per year. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening as the cost per infection averted. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health and the Correctional Health Services. Results Compared with symptom-based testing and treating strategy, screening male arrestees of all ages and only those 35 years or younger yielded the following results: averted approximately 556 and 491 cases of infection in women at a cost of approximately US $1240 and $860 per case averted, respectively, if screened during physical examination (between days 8 and 14 from entry to jail), and averted approximately 1100 and 995 cases of infections averted at a cost of US $1030 and $710 per infection averted, respectively, if screened early, within 2 to 3 days from entry to jail. Conclusions Screening of male inmates incurs a modest cost per infection averted in women compared with symptom-based testing. Screening in correctional settings can be used by public health programs to reduce disease burden, sequelae, and associated costs. PMID:24275727

  12. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Patel Achchhe L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections in the developing world. Methods Prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women visiting gynaecology department of Hindu Rao hospital in Delhi, India was determined using Roche Amplicor Multi Well Plate kit (MWP as well as using in-house PCR assay. We used 593 endocervical swabs for clinical evaluation of the in-house developed assay against Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA; Group I n = 274 and Roche Amplicor MWP kit (Group II, n = 319 samples and determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV of the in-house developed assay. Results We detected 23.0% positive cases and there was a higher representation of women aged 18-33 in this group. An in-house PCR assay was developed and evaluated by targeting unique sequence within the gyrA gene of C. trachomatis. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed by using genomic DNA of human and other STI related microorganisms as template. Assay is highly sensitive and can detect as low as 10 fg of C. trachomatis DNA. The resolved sensitivity of in-house PCR was 94.5% compared with 88.0% of DFA assay. The high specificity (98.4% and sensitivity (97.1% of the in-house assay against Roche kit and availability of test results within 3 hours allowed for immediate treatment and reduced the risk of potential onward transmission. Conclusions The in-house PCR method is cost effective (~ 20.0% of Roche assay and hence could be a better alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis to facilitate

  13. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, A G; Banner, Jytte; Birkelund, Svend;

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were exam...

  14. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production from CD8+ T cells mediates oviduct pathological sequelae following primary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ashlesh K; Li, Weidang; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Kamalakaran, Sangamithra; Guentzel, M Neal; Seshu, J; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2011-07-01

    The immunopathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced oviduct pathological sequelae is not well understood. Mice genetically deficient in perforin (perforin(-/-) mice) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production (TNF-α(-/-) mice) displayed comparable vaginal chlamydial clearance rates but significantly reduced oviduct pathology (hydrosalpinx) compared to that of wild-type mice. Since both perforin and TNF-α are effector mechanisms of CD8(+) T cells, we evaluated the role of CD8(+) T cells during genital Chlamydia muridarum infection and oviduct sequelae. Following vaginal chlamydial challenge, (i) mice deficient in TAP I (and therefore the major histocompatibility complex [MHC] I pathway and CD8(+) T cells), (ii) wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells, and (iii) mice genetically deficient in CD8 (CD8(-/-) mice) all displayed similar levels of vaginal chlamydial clearance but significantly reduced hydrosalpinx, compared to those of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting a role for CD8(+) T cells in chlamydial pathogenesis. Repletion of CD8(-/-) mice with wild-type or perforin(-/-), but not TNF-α(-/-), CD8(+) T cells at the time of challenge restored hydrosalpinx to levels observed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells is important for pathogenesis. Additionally, repletion of TNF-α(-/-) mice with TNF-α(+/+) CD8(+) T cells significantly enhanced the incidence of hydrosalpinx and oviduct dilatation compared to those of TNF-α(-/-) mice but not to the levels found in wild-type mice, suggesting that TNF-α production from CD8(+) T cells and non-CD8(+) cells cooperates to induce optimal oviduct pathology following genital chlamydial infection. These results provide compelling new evidence supporting the contribution of CD8(+) T cells and TNF-α production to Chlamydia-induced reproductive tract sequelae.

  15. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant segme...... of the major outer membrane protein resulted in a protective and broadly neutralizing vaccine. Our findings emphasize the important role of antibodies in protection against Chlamydia trachomatis.......The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...... segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced...

  16. An atypical CD8 T-cell response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections includes T cells that produce interleukin-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S; Slaven, James E

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars D-K are intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate almost exclusively in human reproductive tract epithelium. In the C. muridarum mouse model for human Chlamydia genital tract infections CD4 T helper type 1 cell responses mediate protective immunity while CD8 T-cell responses have been associated with scarring and infertility. Scarring mediated by CD8 T cells requires production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); however, TNF-α is associated with protective immunity mediated by CD4 T cells. The latter result suggests that TNF-α in-and-of itself may not be the sole determining factor in immunopathology. CD8 T cells mediating immunopathology presumably do something in addition to producing TNF-α that is detrimental during resolution of genital tract infections. To investigate the mechanism underlying CD8 immunopathology we attempted to isolate Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones from mice that self-cleared genital tract infections. They could not be derived with antigen-pulsed irradiated naive splenocytes; instead derivation required use of irradiated immune splenocyte antigen-presenting cells. The Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones had relatively low cell surface CD8 levels and the majority were not restricted by MHC class Ia molecules. They did not express Plac8, and had varying abilities to terminate Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. Two of the five CD8 clones produced interleukin-13 (IL-13) in addition to IL-2, TNF-α, IL-10 and interferon-γ. IL-13-producing Chlamydia-specific CD8 T cells may contribute to immunopathology during C. muridarum genital tract infections based on known roles of TNF-α and IL-13 in scar formation.

  17. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in asthmatic and non-asthmatic military conscripts during a non-epidemic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, R; Bloigu, A; Paldanius, M; Peitso, A; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S; Harju, T; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P

    2008-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory tract infections were studied in 512 male military conscripts (123 asthmatic and 389 non-asthmatic) taking part in 180-day service between July 2004 and July 2005 in Kajaani, Finland. Respiratory tract infections requiring a medical consultation were analysed prospectively. At baseline, at end of service, and during each episode of respiratory infection, blood samples were obtained for measurement of C. pneumoniae antibodies. Data concerning the clinical features of each infection episode were collected. Serological evidence of acute C. pneumoniae infection was found in 34 of the 512 conscripts with antibody data available, including 9.8% of the asthmatic subjects and 5.7% of the non-asthmatic subjects (p 0.111). A serological diagnosis could be made for 25 clinical episodes in 24 conscripts. The spectrum of respiratory tract infections included 13 episodes of mild upper respiratory tract infection and seven episodes of sinusitis, with five episodes involving asthma exacerbation. Two of three pneumonias were primary infections. Primary infections were diagnosed in five subjects, and re-infection/reactivation in 19 subjects, with the latter comprising 12 non-asthmatic subjects and seven asthmatic subjects (p 0.180). Prolonged infections were present in six asthmatic subjects and one non-asthmatic subject (p 0.001). A wide variety of respiratory tract infections, ranging from common cold to pneumonia, were associated with serologically confirmed C. pneumoniae infections. Infections were often mild, with common cold and sinusitis being the most common manifestations. Acute, rapidly resolved C. pneumoniae infections were equally common among asthmatic subjects and non-asthmatic subjects, whereas prolonged infections were more common among subjects with asthma.

  18. [Evaluation of testicular biopsy as an aspect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (introductory report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Z; Swierczyński, W; Dziecielski, H; Semmler, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in biopsy testicular specimens. The indication to testicular biopsy was azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. The studied group comprised 12 patients in whose semen C. trachomatis was found. For the identification of the organism culture in chick embryo was used. In 2 preparations C. trachomatis was demonstrated in testicular biopsy.

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Crother

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate, but not a high dose (severe CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n. with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs.

  1. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in a previously unscreened population in Rome, Italy, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, V; Recine, N; Gallinelli, C; Nicosia, R; Lichtner, M; Degener, A M; Chiarini, F; Calzolari, E; Vullo, V

    2012-06-21

    As reliable data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy are lacking and as there is no Italian screening policy, epidemiological analyses are needed to optimise effective strategies for surveillance of the infection in the country. We collected data from 6,969 sexually active women aged 15 to 55 years who underwent testing for endocervical C. trachomatis infection at the Cervico-Vaginal Pathology Unit in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Sapienza University in Rome between 2000 and 2009. The mean prevalence of C. trachomatis endocervical infection during this period was 5.2%. Prevalence over time did not show a linear trend. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of infection with multiple lifetime sexual partners, younger age (oral contraceptives, and human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that T. vaginalis infection, age under 20 years and more than one lifetime sexual partner remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection in the final model. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in this study was high, even among women aged 25–39 years (5.1%): our data would suggest that a C. trachomatis screening policy in Italy is warranted, which could lead to a more extensive testing strategy.

  2. CHLAMYDIA-TRACHOMATIS INFECTION IN A HIGH-RISK POPULATION - COMPARISON OF POLYMERASE CHAIN-REACTION AND CELL-CULTURE FOR DIAGNOSIS AND FOLLOW-UP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VOGELS, WHM; VADER, PCV; SCHRODER, FP

    1993-01-01

    A study to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with the cell culture method in diagnosing urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections was performed. From 497 patients (212 women, 285 men) attending an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases, a total of 814 samples (female pa

  3. Cost effectiveness analysis of a population based screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women by means of home obtained urine specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, IGM; Postma, MJ; Morre, SA; van den Brule, AJC; Meijer, CJLM; Bouter, LM; Boeke, AJP

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a systematic screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia, trachomatis infections in a female inner city population. To determine the sensitivity of the cost effectiveness analysis to variation in the probability of developing sequelae. Methods: A

  4. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS UROGENITAL INFECTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study were 486 outpatients between the ages of 17 and 62, diagnosed with urethritis, epidydimitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. The following tests were used to make the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis: Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA, Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA, Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA amplification for Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma Genitalium and Ureaplasma Urealyiticum. Comparison PCR and EIA showed statistically significant difference between the positive results obtained by the two methods (p0,1. EIA is a method that gives a higher percentage of nonspecific positive reactions, while the results obtained from ELFA are much closer to the ones obtained by PCR. According to contemporary evidence based medicine, the developmet of unified standard methods for diagnosis and evaluation is of vital importance, not only for the patient and the treating physician but also concerns for the healthcare system, the general public and the pharmaceutical companies as well.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  6. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Federal Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    suspected outbreak of vaginal trichomoniasis among female inmates. Sex Trans Dis 1999; 335-338. 11. Fleming D, Wasserheit J. From epidemiological synergy...Morgan SC, Pinson GB. Validity of self-obtained vaginal specimen for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis . J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35:1618-1619. 6...Weisenfeld, HC, Lowry DLB, Phillips H. Self-collection of vaginal swabs for the detection of chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomoniasis : opportunity to

  7. Diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic males by testing urine by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Domeika, M; Bassiri, M; Mårdh, P A

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) (MikroTrak; Syva) was compared with PCR (Amplicor; Roche) for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine (FVU) from 184 men attending a skin and venereal disease clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 18.5%. Discrepant results between Syva EIA and Roche PCR were retested by using major outer membrane protein primer-based PCR. After retesting, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the positive and negative p...

  8. Infecção por Chlamydia em pacientes com e sem lesões intra-epiteliais cervicais Chlamydia infection in patients with and without cervical intra-epithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline de Lucena Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a freqüência de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis em pacientes com e sem lesões intra-epiteliais cervicais atendidas em ambulatório especializado no Recife (2007, e sua associação com variáveis biológicas, demográficas, hábitos, características reprodutivas e clínico-ginecológicas. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo do tipo corte transversal, incluindo 70 mulheres (35 com alterações citológicas e 35 normais. Realizaram-se colposcopia, biópsia quando necessário e pesquisa para Chlamydia trachomatis por Imunofluorescência Direta. As variáveis analisadas foram idade, raça, procedência, escolaridade, estado civil, menarca, idade da primeira relação sexual, paridade, número de parceiros, corrimento, realização de citologia prévia, episódios de DST, eletrocauterização, método contraceptivo, antecedente familiar de câncer uterino, consumo alcoólico, tabagismo, drogas ilícitas e imunossupressoras, resultado da citologia e infecção cervical por Chlamydia trachomatis. Para determinação da força da associação, calculou-se a Razão de Prevalência (RP e o intervalo de confiança 95%, realizando-se análise multivariada para controle das variáveis potencialmente confundidoras. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis foi significativamente maior em pacientes com alterações citológicas (80% vs. 14,3%, com uma RP de 5,60 (IC 95% = 2,44 - 12,82. Analisando os fatores associados à infecção por Chlamydia , a única variável que persistiu significativamente associada após análise multivariada foi a história pregressa de DST (OR=63,47; IC 95% = 13,93 - 289,09. CONCLUSÃO: A presença da Chlamydia trachomatis está associada às alterações citológicas da cérvice uterina, e a história pregressa de DST deve ser valorizada no tratamento e seguimento clínico destas pacientes.OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in patients with

  9. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Casper L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72% involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%, while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83% and oropharyngeal infection (100% would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline

  10. Neisseria gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Treponema pallidum infection in antenatal and gynecological patients at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Kubi, Kwasi Akyem; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Sakyi, Bright; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ofori-Adjei, David; Hagiwara, Toshikatsu

    2004-12-01

    Five hundred and seventeen women attending the gynecology and obstetrics clinics of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital were examined for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Vaginal swabs were examined for Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Gardnerella vaginalis infection. Endocervical swabs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis using a recently developed RNA detection kit. Strain typing was performed to identify serovars of C. trachomatis. Sera were analyzed for Treponema pallidum with a passive-particle agglutination assay kit. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhoea was 0.6%, C. trachomatis 3.0%, and T. pallidum 5.6%. Eight samples were PCR-positive for C. trachomatis. Five of these were serovar G, and the rest were serovar E. All cases of mixed infections occurred in pregnant women. In conclusion, a high transmissible risk of T. pallidum infection was observed among our study population and in particular among our pregnant women. The absence of association between the presenting symptoms, clinical findings, and specific pathogens has implications for the syndromic approach to STI case management. The low prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoea may be due to self medication and requires further research in primary health institutions in rural areas to compare rates.

  11. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en usuarias de dos clínicas de planificación familiar Chlamydia trachomatis infection in users of two family planning clinics

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    Thelma Canto-de Cetina

    2003-01-01

    antibiotic therapy for at least one month prior to their visit to the clinic. Endocervical samples were taken for bacterial detection with the enzymatic Wellcozyme immunoassay method. Data were analyzed using the Epi-Info program. Statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-squared test and prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Seventy four women were positive to Chlamydia trachomatis (6.7 %. Almost 50% of those women were asymptomatic. No statistically significant differences were found between the group with Chlamydia and the group without it who had vulvar-vaginal symptoms. Cervical changes were more frequent in infected women. More positive cases of Chlamydia infection were found in oral contraceptive users (8.3% than among non users (5.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Study results confirm the high prevalence of asymptomatic infections and emphasize the importance of timely diagnosis to avoid infection sequelae.

  12. Diagnóstico laboratorial da infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis: vantagens e desvantagens das técnicas Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection: advantages and disadvantages of the tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Farina Seadi

    2002-01-01

    reproductive female tract. It causes diseases on urogenital tract, venereal limphogranuloma, trachoma, conjunctivitis and newborn pnemonia. One of the main risks of infection is the sexual practice among adolescents. Repetitive episodes of infection raise the risk of developing sequel as well as the chance of getting the infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. Its hard to diagnose the infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis because most of times there are no symptoms. Nucleic acid amplification techniques allow us to use urine to detect chlamydia. It simplifies the sampling and offers greater accuracy than bacteria culture. It is even better than tests such as direct fluorescent antibodies and immunoassay. Cellular culture as reference techniques results in 100% of specificity and 70 to 85% of sensitivity. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC is considered definitive when positive culture or, at least, two non culture distint tests. Amplification tests are more expensive than other tests, but cheaper than culture.

  13. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benu Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Methods: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA and enzyme immunoassay (EIA Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200 infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200 by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200 by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200 by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C

  14. Investigation and application in infecting animal models of Chlamydia trachomatis%沙眼衣原体感染动物模型的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉(综述); 陈超群(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to severe pathologies following its infection in genital tract, which is a gram-neg-ative bacterium with obligate intracellular parasitism and an unique replication cycle. Seting up a suitable animal model will provide a supportive basis in investigation of Chlamydia trachomatis related pathogenic mechanism and vaccine develop-ment. Recently a number of animal models are used in resarch on Chlamydia trachomatis infection, such as the mouse, guinea pig and non-human primate animal and so on.%沙眼衣原体( Chlamydia trachomatis, Ct)是一种严格细胞内寄生且具有独特发育周期的革兰阴性菌,感染人类生殖道等部位后会引起严重病理损伤。关于Ct感染人类宿主细胞的具体致病机制及疫苗的研制还有待深入研究。动物模型在Ct的基础研究方面具有较高的科研应用价值。就常见的小鼠、豚鼠、灵长类等Ct感染动物模型及应用作一综述。

  15. Evaluation of a multisubunit recombinant polymorphic membrane protein and major outer membrane protein T cell vaccine against Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in three strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Brunham, Robert C

    2014-08-06

    An efficacious vaccine is needed to control Chlamydia trachomatis infection. In the murine model of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection, multifunctional mucosal CD4 T cells are the foundation for protective immunity, with antibody playing a secondary role. We previously identified four Chlamydia outer membrane proteins (PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH) as CD4 T cell vaccine candidates using a dendritic cell-based immunoproteomic approach. We also demonstrated that these four polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) individually conferred protection as measured by accelerated clearance of Chlamydia infection in the C57BL/6 murine genital tract model. The major outer membrane protein, MOMP is also a well-studied protective vaccine antigen in this system. In the current study, we tested immunogenicity and protection of a multisubunit recombinant protein vaccine consisting of the four Pmps (PmpEFGH) with or without the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) formulated with a Th1 polarizing adjuvant in C57BL/6, Balb/c and C3H mice. We found that C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with PmpEFGH+MOMP elicited more robust cellular immune responses than mice immunized with individual protein antigens. Pmps elicited more variable cellular immune responses than MOMP among the three strains of mice. The combination vaccine accelerated clearance in the three strains of mice although at different rates. We conclude that the recombinant outer membrane protein combination constitutes a promising first generation Chlamydia vaccine construct that should provide broad immunogenicity in an outbred population.

  16. 女性生殖道沙眼衣原体持续感染的现状%Persistent genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丹丹; 叶兴东; 任泽舫

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of genital Chlamydial trachomatis infection in populations. Young women are vulnerable to persistent genital chlamydial infection, which may lead to many serious complications (e.g., infertility). The severity of infection is determined by the virulence of Chlamydia trachomatis, environmental factors, and host susceptibility. The optimal serum marker for screening of persistent genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the combination of its IgG antibody and C-reactive protein, and IgG alone may only serve as the serum marker for previous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.%生殖道沙眼衣原体感染在人群中的发生率高,特别在年轻女性人群中,容易导致持续性的生殖道感染,进而引起一系列严重并发症(如不孕不育).感染的严重程度取决于沙眼衣原体本身的致病力大小、环境因素及宿主易感因素.筛检沙眼衣原体持续性感染的最佳血清学指标是其IgG和C反应蛋白(两者同时阳性),而IgG只能作为其既往感染的血清学指标.

  17. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in community-acquired pneumonia and exacerbations of COPD or asthma: therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, F; Paschetto, E; Mangiarotti, P; Crepaldi, M; Morosini, M; Bulgheroni, A; Fietta, A

    2004-02-01

    Rates of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections were determined in 115 adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), purulent exacerbations of COPD and acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, by means of serology and molecular methods. Results were compared with those obtained in a matched control group. Common respiratory pathogens were isolated by cultures in 22.5% and 22.2% of CAP and exacerbated COPD patients, respectively. Cultures from exacerbated asthma patients were always negative. Serological and molecular evidence of current C. pneumoniae infection was obtained in 10.0%, 8.9% and 3.3% of CAP, COPD and asthma cases. The corresponding rates of acute M. pneumoniae infection were 17.5%, 6.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Finally, no difference was found between typical and atypical pathogen rates. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae infections in guiding the choice of empirical antibacterial treatment for CAP and purulent exacerbations of COPD.

  18. Interferon-gamma gene polymorphism influences the frequency of a Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleutério, José; Teles, Rosiane A; Linhares, Iara M; Normand, Neil; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Cervicitis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis is frequent worldwide, but the factors determining susceptibility to infection remain incompletely determined. We evaluated whether a functional single nucleotide polymorphism at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma (rs2430561) influenced the likelihood of having a cervical C. trachomatis infection. This was a cross-sectional study of 142 sexually-active women attending a general gynaecology service on the outskirts of the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil between August 2011 and August 2012. Endocervical swabs were evaluated for C. trachomatis DNA using hybrid capture. DNA from buccal swabs was utilised for detection of the interferon gamma 874 T/A single nucleotide polymorphism by gene amplification, endonuclease digestion and gel electrophoresis. Nineteen women (13.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis in their cervix. Positivity was 21.7% in women with the A,A genotype versus 7.0% in women with one or two T alleles (p = 0.0227). The variant T allele frequency, associated with elevated interferon gamma production, was 36.2% in women who were negative for C. trachomatis as opposed to 18.4% in women who were positive for a cervical infection with this organism (p = 0.0415). Possession of the T allele at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma is associated with a reduced likelihood of a C. trachomatis cervical infection.

  19. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R.; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe−/− mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe−/− mice starting from 8 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of active myeloid Dendritic cells and plasmacytoid DCs which were co-localized with T-cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The serum levels of IFN-γ showed a Th1-like environment typical of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that one dose of Cp. could exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development, triggering innate immune cell accumulation early on that allowed the involvement of Th1-like cells in the exacerbation of the atherosclerotic plaque at later time points. PMID:25666507

  20. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women of Reproductive Age Attending the Gynecology Clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Amsalu, Anteneh; Shimelis, Techalew

    2016-01-01

    Background Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis(CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) world-wide, especially in developing nations where routine laboratory diagnosis is unavailable. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in Ethiopia where other STIs are prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT infection among women of reproductive age. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 consecutive women aged between 15–49 years at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from November 2014 to April 2015. Data on socio-demography and potential risk factors for genital infection were collected using structured questionnaires. Moreover, endocervical swabs were collected from all participants, screened for CT antigen using rapid immunochromatography assay, and cultured following the standard bacteriological method to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Result In this study, the overall prevalence of CT antigen and N. gonorrhoeae infection was 61(18.9%) and 1(0.31%), respectively. Women aged 15–24 years had the highest prevalence of CT infection (24.2%), followed by those aged 25–34 years (16.8%) and those aged 35–49 years (9.6%). CTinfection was associated with women who had unprotected sex within the last six months (aOR = 3.459; 95% CI = 1.459–8.222) and were sexually active for 6–10 years (aOR = 3.076; 95% CI = 1.152–8.209). None of the clinical symptoms and diagnoses was significantly associated with CT antigen positivity. Conclusions The high prevalence of genital CT infection in this study highlights the need for further large-scale studies on the general population. Thus, screening of women regardless of their symptoms should be in place. PMID:28006003

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women with HIV in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Monteiro Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection among women with HIV in São Paulo. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included women with HIV who were receiving care from sixteen public health services in São Paulo (October 2013 to March 2014. All participants answered a questionnaire regarding their sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. A urine sample was tested for CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG using the polymerase chain reaction. The chi-square test and a logistic regression model were used to test the associations with CT or NG infections. RESULTS: We evaluated 853 women and ultimately included 836 (98% women. The mean age was 40.5 ± 0.34 years, and the prevalences of CT and NG infections were 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively. CT infection was associated with CD4+ T-cell counts of <350 cells/mm3 [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj: 24.5], age of 18-25 years (ORadj: 23.2, the non-use of condoms during the last 6 months (ORadj: 10.2, a self-reported history of a sexually transmitted infection (ORadj: 9.4, and having two or more sexual partners during the last year (ORadj: 6.1. CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed a low prevalence of CT infection among women with HIV, younger age was associated with a high risk of infection. Therefore, it may be appropriate to include screening for CT as part of the routine care for this population.

  2. Correlation between Chlamydia trachomatis infection and tubal factor infertility%沙眼衣原体感染与输卵管性不孕的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小惠

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most important pathogens which could cause sexual transmitted diseases and many other diseases in genital system, such as urethritis, cervicitis, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, tuba] factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy. Chlamydia trachomatis will induce humoral immune response and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in human. To diagnose such chlamydia trachomatis infected diseases, the CT antibodies, cytokine genetic polymorphisms which are positive is the immunoreaction are studied. This paper reviews the advances in tubal factor infertility caused by chlamydia trachomatis.%沙眼衣原体是性传播疾病最主要的病原体之一,可使人体生殖道感染,引起女性尿道炎、宫颈炎、慢性盆腔炎、输卵管性不孕、异位妊娠等.沙眼衣原体感染人体后,宿主发生免疫反应,包括体液免疫和细胞免疫,产生一系列抗体,也有许多细胞因子参与其中,可以通过检测抗体与细胞因子及基因的多态性诊断沙眼衣原体感染性疾病.以下是对沙眼衣原体感染引起输卵管性不孕的阐述.

  3. Cell-to-cell contact of human monocytes with infected arterial smooth-muscle cells enhances growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakkainen, Mirja; Campbell, Lee Ann; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Richards, Theresa; Patton, Dorothy L; Kuo, Cho-Chou

    2003-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect arterial cells. It has been shown that coculture of human monocytes (U937) and endothelial cells promotes infection of C. pneumoniae in endothelial cells and that the enhancement was mediated by a soluble factor (insulin-like growth factor 2) secreted by monocytes. In this study, it is shown that coculture of monocytes with C. pneumoniae enhances infection of C. pneumoniae in arterial smooth-muscle cells 5.3-fold at a monocyte-to-smooth-muscle cell ratio of 5. However, unlike endothelial cells, no enhancement was observed if monocytes were placed in cell culture inserts or if conditioned medium from monocyte cultures was used, which suggests that cell-to-cell contact is critical. The addition of mannose 6-phosphate or octyl glucoside, a nonionic detergent containing a sugar group, to cocultures inhibited the enhancement. These findings suggest that the monocyte-smooth-muscle cell interaction may be mediated by mannose 6-phosphate receptors present on monocytes.

  4. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Davood; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  5. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mehrabani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16–80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15–30 (group I, 31–40 (group II, and ≥41 years old (group III. A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs, their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  6. Cost-benefit analysis of selective screening criteria for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending Colorado family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, J T; Henneberry, J F; Rickard, R S; Beebe, J L

    1992-01-01

    Women attending family planning clinics in Colorado during 1988 were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Chlamydiazyme, Abbott Laboratories; Abbott Park, IL). Cervical specimens from 11,793 women attending 22 family planning clinics were analyzed. Patient history and physical exams were used to assess risk factors for infection. A total of 913 individuals (7.7%) had positive culture results for C. trachomatis. Multivariate analysis showed that infection was significantly related to endocervical bleeding, cervical mucopurulent discharge, a new sexual partner in the last 3 months or multiple previous sexual partners (greater than 3) in the last year, pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, and age. Increased odd ratios were observed for the combination of endocervical bleeding and mucopurulent discharge and sexual history that included partners over the previous year as well as the most recent 3 months. A combination of these criteria was used to selectively screen women attending Colorado family planning clinics on an ongoing basis. A cost-benefit analysis employing a model reported previously showed a significant financial benefit associated with universal screening over either selective screening or no screening for C. trachomatis in this population.

  7. No evidence of parvovirus B19, Chlamydia pneumoniae or human herpes virus infection in temporal artery biopsies in patients with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tarp, B; Obel, N;

    2002-01-01

    conditions. DNA was extracted from frozen biopsies and PCR was used to amplify genes from Chlamydia pneumoniae, parvovirus B19 and each of the eight human herpes viruses: herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus and human herpes viruses HHV-6, -7 and -8......OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that infective agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), in particular Chlamydia pneumoniae and parvovirus B19. We investigated temporal arteries from patients with GCA for these infections as well as human herpes viruses...... using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Thirty temporal artery biopsies from 30 patients suspected of having GCA within a period of 1 yr were examined. Thirteen patients had classical GCA, two had biopsy-negative GCA, 10 patients had polymyalgia rheumatica and five patients had other...

  8. Active trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in two Gambian regions: on course for elimination by 2020?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Harding-Esch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma has been endemic in The Gambia for decades. National trachoma control activities have been in place since the mid-1980's, but with no mass antibiotic treatment campaign. We aimed to assess the prevalence of active trachoma and of actual ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the two Gambian regions that had had the highest prevalence of trachoma in the last national survey in 1996 prior to planned national mass antibiotic treatment distribution in 2006. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two stage random sampling survey in 61 randomly selected Enumeration Areas (EAs in North Bank Region (NBR and Lower River Region (LRR. Fifty randomly selected children aged under 10 years were examined per EA for clinical signs of trachoma. In LRR, swabs were taken to test for ocular C. trachomatis infection. Unadjusted prevalences of active trachoma were calculated, as would be done in a trachoma control programme. The prevalence of trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF in the 2777 children aged 1-9 years was 12.3% (95% CI 8.8%-17.0% in LRR and 10.0% (95% CI 7.7%-13.0% in NBR, with significant variation within divisions (p<0.01, and a design effect of 3.474. Infection with C. trachomatis was found in only 0.3% (3/940 of children in LRR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows a large discrepancy between the prevalence of trachoma clinical signs and ocular C. trachomatis infection in two Gambian regions. Assessment of trachoma based on clinical signs alone may lead to unnecessary treatment, since the prevalence of active trachoma remains high but C. trachomatis infection has all but disappeared. Assuming that repeated infection is required for progression to blinding sequelae, blinding trachoma is on course for elimination by 2020 in The Gambia.

  9. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a role for effective innate immune responses during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Crother

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs are known for their robust antiviral response and their pro-tolerance effects towards allergic diseases and tissue engraftments. However, little is known about the role pDCs may play during a bacterial infection, including pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP. In this study, we investigated the role of pDCs during pulmonary CP infection. Our results revealed that depletion of pDCs during acute CP infection in mice results in delayed and reduced lung inflammation, with an early delay in cellular recruitment and significant reduction in early cytokine production in the lungs. This was followed by impaired and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs which then resulted in a severe and prolonged chronic inflammation and iBALT like structures containing large numbers of B and T cells in these animals. We also observed that increasing the pDC numbers in the lung by FLT3L treatment experimentally results in greater lung inflammation during acute CP infection. In contrast to these results, restimulation of T-cells in the draining lymph nodes of pDC-depleted mice induced greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than we observed in control mice. These results suggest that pDCs in the lung may provide critical proinflammatory innate immune responses in response to CP infection, but are suppressive towards adaptive immune responses in the lymph node. Thus pDCs in the lung and the draining lymph node appear to have different roles and phenotypes during acute CP infection and may play a role in host immune responses.

  10. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a role for effective innate immune responses during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crother, Timothy R; Ma, Jun; Jupelli, Madhulika; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known for their robust antiviral response and their pro-tolerance effects towards allergic diseases and tissue engraftments. However, little is known about the role pDCs may play during a bacterial infection, including pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP). In this study, we investigated the role of pDCs during pulmonary CP infection. Our results revealed that depletion of pDCs during acute CP infection in mice results in delayed and reduced lung inflammation, with an early delay in cellular recruitment and significant reduction in early cytokine production in the lungs. This was followed by impaired and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs which then resulted in a severe and prolonged chronic inflammation and iBALT like structures containing large numbers of B and T cells in these animals. We also observed that increasing the pDC numbers in the lung by FLT3L treatment experimentally results in greater lung inflammation during acute CP infection. In contrast to these results, restimulation of T-cells in the draining lymph nodes of pDC-depleted mice induced greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than we observed in control mice. These results suggest that pDCs in the lung may provide critical proinflammatory innate immune responses in response to CP infection, but are suppressive towards adaptive immune responses in the lymph node. Thus pDCs in the lung and the draining lymph node appear to have different roles and phenotypes during acute CP infection and may play a role in host immune responses.

  11. Antigen specific immune response in Chlamydia muridarum genital infection is dependent on murine microRNAs-155 and -182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishein; Arkatkar, Tanvi; Keck, Jonathon; Koundinya, Gopala Krishna Lanka; Castillo, Kevin; Hobel, Sabrina; Chambers, James P; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Guentzel, M Neal; Aigner, Achim; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2016-10-04

    Anti-chlamydial immunity involves efficient presentation of antigens (Ag) to effector cells resulting in Ag-specific immune responses. There is limited information on inherent underlying mechanisms regulating these events. Previous studies from our laboratory have established that select microRNAs (miRs) function as molecular regulators of immunity in Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) genital infection. In this report, we investigated immune cell type-specific miRs, i.e. miR-155 and -182, and the role in Ag-specific immunity. We observed significant up-regulation of miR-155 in C57BL/6 bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC), and miR-182 in splenic Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells. Using mimics and inhibitors, we determined that miR-155 contributed to BMDC activation following Cm infection. Co-cultures of miR-155 over-expressed in BMDC and miR-182 over-expressed in Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, or miR-155-/- BMDC with miR-182 inhibitor treated Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells, resulted in IFN-γ production comparable to Ag-specific CD4+ T-cells isolated from Cm infected mice. Additionally, miR-182 was significantly up-regulated in intranasally vaccinated mice protected against Cm infection. In vivo depletion of miR-182 resulted in reduction in Ag-specific IFN-γ and genital pathology in Cm infected mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report an interaction of miR-155 (in Cm infected DC) and miR-182 (in CD4+ T-cell) resulting in Ag specific immune responses against genital Cm.

  12. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen Casper L; Mutsaers Johan; Ouburg Sander; Nijsten Noëmi; Verweij Stephan P; Peters Remco PH; van Leeuwen A Petra; Morré Servaas A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM) are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of ...

  13. Genital-tract infection and disease in nude and immunologically competent mice after inoculation of a human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A fast, human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was introduced into the uterus of progesterone-treated CBA mice and congenic CBA nude mice through the uterine wall or via the cervical canal. The numbers of inclusions produced by samples taken from the vagina of the nude mice were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those produced by samples from immunologically competent normal mice. However, the infection was self-limited, lasting about 60 days, and there was no statistical differenc...

  14. Evaluation of a Self-Administered Intravaginal Swab for PCR Detection of Genitourinary Tract Infections Including Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Trichomonas and Human Papillomavirus in Active Duty Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    and 65 women (8%) reported tubal ligation /hysterectomy. Of the 73 women with chiamydia diagnosed by EIA, 44 were treated at the day of their initial...discharge to detect increased numbers of polymorphonuclear cells is helpful to confirm a " syndromic diagnosis" that may be due to chlamydia, but...methods. Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent nonvi- branes, premature labor, low birth weight, and post -abortion ral sexually transmitted

  15. A Retrospective Review of Treatment Failures Using Azithromycin and Doxycycline in the Treatment of Rectal Chlamydia Infections in Women and Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Brandley, Judith; Dane, Marla; Plitt, Sabrina S; Smyczek, Petra; Read, Ron; Singh, Ameeta E

    2016-02-01

    We examined the prevalence of rectal chlamydia treatment failures in men who have sex with men and women attending Alberta sexually transmitted infection clinics. Among those completing a test of cure, there was no significant difference among patients treated initially with azithromycin (treatment failure, 39/460 [8.5%]; 95% confidence interval, 5.9%-11.0%) compared with patients treated with doxycycline (0/16; 95% confidence interval, 0%-0.2%; P = 0.63).

  16. A molecular survey of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in married women: a cross sectional study on 991 women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamani-Tabriz L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is a common and curable STI that may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. The few studies on C. trachomatis among Iranian women have had, for the most part, small sample sizes and are therefore unsuitable for epidemiological deductions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of urogenital C. trachomatis infections by PCR on urine samples of married women in their fertile years in order to determine the need for a C. trachomatis screening program for asymptomatic women in Iran."n"n Methods: This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was performed on 991 married women. The research material consisted of questionnaires and urine samples, which were transported daily to Avesina Research Institute, Tehran, Iran, to extract their DNA and prepare them for PCR tests. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS, version 13, and evaluated statistically by t-test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression, considering p<0.05 as significant."n"n Results: Of all the subjects, 127 (12.8% were positive by PCR for C. trachomatis. The mean age of the participants was 28.88± 6.19 years. Infection was more prevalent among those with

  17. Association of caveolin with Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions at early and late stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, L C; Wolfrom, S A; Stuart, E S

    2001-06-10

    The mechanism by which the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis enters eukaryotic cells is poorly understood. There are conflicting reports of entry occurring by clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. We report here that C. trachomatis serovar K enters HEp-2 and HeLa 229 epithelial cells and J-774A.1 mouse macrophage/monocyte cells via caveolin-containing sphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched raft microdomains in the host cell plasma membranes. First, filipin and nystatin, drugs that specifically disrupt raft function by cholesterol chelation, each impaired entry of C. trachomatis serovar K. In control experiments, filipin did not impair entry of the same organism by an antibody-mediated opsonic process, nor did it impair entry of BSA-coated microspheres. Second, the chlamydia-containing endocytic vesicles specifically reacted with antisera against the caveolae marker protein caveolin. These vesicles are known to become the inclusions in which parasite replication occurs. They avoid fusion with lysosomes and instead traffic to the Golgi region, where they intercept Golgi-derived vesicles that recycle sphingolipids and cholesterol to the plasma membrane. We also report that late-stage C. trachomatis inclusions continue to display high levels of caveolin, which they likely acquire from the exocytic Golgi vesicles. We suggest that the atypical raft-mediated entry process may have important consequences for the host-pathogen interaction well after entry has occurred. These consequences include enabling the chlamydial vesicle to avoid acidification and fusion with lysosomes, to traffic to the Golgi region, and to intercept sphingolipid-containing vesicles from the Golgi.

  18. Mannose-binding lectin 2 (Mbl2 gene polymorphisms are related to protein plasma levels, but not to heart disease and infection by Chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.F. Queiroz

    Full Text Available The presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon 1 of the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2 gene was evaluated in a sample of 159 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (71 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery and 300 control subjects to investigate a possible association between polymorphisms and heart disease with Chlamydia infection. The identification of the alleles B and D was performed using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and of the allele C was accomplished through PCR assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the three groups did not reveal any significant difference, even when related to previous Chlamydia infection. Variations in the MBL plasma levels were influenced by the presence of polymorphisms, being significantly higher in the group of cardiac patients, but without representing a risk for the disease. The results showed that despite MBL2 gene polymorphisms being associated with the protein plasma levels, the polymorphisms were not enough to predict the development of heart disease, regardless of infection with both species of Chlamydia.

  19. Mannose-binding lectin 2 (Mbl2) gene polymorphisms are related to protein plasma levels, but not to heart disease and infection by Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, M.A.F.; Gomes, S.T.M.; Almeida, N.C.C.; Souza, M.I.M.; Costa, S.R.C.F.; Hermes, R.B.; Lima, S.S.; Zaninotto, M.M.; Fossa, M.A.A.; Maneschy, M.A.; Martins-Feitosa, R.N.; Azevedo, V.N.; Machado, L.F.A.; Ishak, M.O.G.; Ishak, R.; Vallinoto, A.C.R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in exon 1 of the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene was evaluated in a sample of 159 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (71 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery and 300 control subjects) to investigate a possible association between polymorphisms and heart disease with Chlamydia infection. The identification of the alleles B and D was performed using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and of the allele C was accomplished through PCR assays followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme. The comparative analysis of allelic and genotypic frequencies between the three groups did not reveal any significant difference, even when related to previous Chlamydia infection. Variations in the MBL plasma levels were influenced by the presence of polymorphisms, being significantly higher in the group of cardiac patients, but without representing a risk for the disease. The results showed that despite MBL2 gene polymorphisms being associated with the protein plasma levels, the polymorphisms were not enough to predict the development of heart disease, regardless of infection with both species of Chlamydia. PMID:27982280

  20. Lactobacillus crispatus mediates anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 induction in response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Antonietta; Fiorentino, Margherita; Buommino, Elisabetta; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Losacco, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Nazario

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, a human pathogen, is a Gram-negative bacillus and a compulsory intracellular parasite. It is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in both industrialized and developing countries. In women, untreated genital infections can result in devastating consequences such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and even infertility. Lactobacillus crispatus is an important urogenital species that is routinely found in the vagina of healthy women. Lactobacilli are involved in the maintenance of the normal vaginal microbiota and their dominance in the vagina suggests that they play a crucial role in protecting the genitourinary tract against pathological conditions. Lactobacilli can act through the activation of the immune system, but C. trachomatis is able to effectively evade immune surveillance in some individuals. The aim of our study was to investigate the immunomodulatory efficacy of the potential probiotic strain L. crispatus in HeLa and J774 cells subjected to C. trachomatis infection by studying the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IL-10. Our results demonstrated, firstly, the lack of any cytotoxic effect on the epithelial cells and macrophages when treated with L. crispatus and its supernatant; in addition, L. crispatus and its supernatant inhibited C. trachomatis adhesion and infectivity in human epithelial cells and macrophages. Our study then showed that L. crispatus and its supernatant reduced IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α production in C. trachomatis-infected HeLa and J774 cells. In contrast, a significant upregulation of the IL-10 expression in HeLa and J774 cells by L. crispatus and supernatant was also demonstrated. Our data indicate that L. crispatus specifically enhances the production of the IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine in contrast to the inhibitory effect of L. crispatus on the pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections.

  2. Factores de riesgo y secuelas reproductivas asociados a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres infértiles Risk factors and reproductive sequelae associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra-Infante

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la información clínica y el estilo de vida sexual en dos grupos de mujeres con y sin infección por Chlamydia trachomatis que asisten a la clínica de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De febrero a noviembre de 1998, se realizó un estudio prospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico de infertilidad. En el estudio se incluyó a pacientes con diagnóstico de infertilidad, tratados en el Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia, de la Ciudad de México, durante 1988. Las muestras endocervicales de 309 mujeres, que incluyeron a 77 con infección y a 232 sin infección, fueron examinadas para Chlamydia trachomatis, usando inmunofluorescencia directa. Los cultivos vaginales fueron obtenidos antes de iniciar el tratamiento. También se investigó la presencia de otros agentes infecciosos de transmisión sexual y la información demográfica, de conducta sexual, histórica y clínica fue recopilada de cada paciente. Los datos clínicos y ginecológicos de ambos grupos fueron comparados por ji2. La magnitud de las asociaciones fueron establecidas por razón de momios en análisis bivariados. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para establecer los efectos confusores en relación con los factores analizados. Las diferencias fueron consideradas estadísticamente significativas si pOBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and sexual lifestyle characteristics associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women diagnosed with infertility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study subjects were women with an infertility diagnosis attending the infertility clinic at the National Institute of Perinatology. Endocervical specimens from 309 women were examined for Chlamydia trachomatis using the direct immunofluorescence method. Vaginal culture samples were taken before initiating treatment. The presence of other sexually-transmitted infections was also assessed. Demographic, sexual

  3. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32 %) chickens, 130 (38.92 %) ducks and 97 (31.09 %) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (Pcaged and free-range chickens was 7.54 % and 29.63 %, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (Pcaged and free-range ducks was 26.13 % and 45.29 %, respectively (Pbirds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent.

  4. Comparison of three methods of DNA extraction in endocervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenab, Anahita; Roghanian, Rasoul; Golbang, Naser; Golbang, Pouran; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

    2010-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the major cause of sexually transmitted disease in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the best method of DNA extraction for detecting C. trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in sexually active women (n = 80) attending Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women, 22 of whom were asymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Three different DNA extraction methods were used in this study (phenol-chlorophorm, proteinase K, and boiling). DNA yield was evaluated by spectrophotometry, agarose gel, and PCR. The internal control was assayed by beta-globin primers (PCO4, GH20). The DNA cryptic plasmid was selected as the target for C. trachomatis and samples were examined by PCR using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. It was shown that DNA extraction by boiling was the most sensitive with the highest yield of DNA. Of the 80 samples, 17 (21.25%) showed positivity for C. trachomatis by PCR. The highest rate of C. trachomatis infection was found in the group aged between 35 and 45 years old and those who used withdrawal or an intrauterine device as methods of contraception. It was demonstrated that DNA extraction by boiling was the least expensive and a very rapid method that gave the highest DNA yield. The infection rate in the sexually active women, including symptomatic and asymptomatic, was 21.25%, with a presumably high prevalence compared with other studies done in this field.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis enters a viable but non-cultivable (persistent) state within herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) co-infected host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Srilekha; Vanover, Jennifer; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Whittimore, Judy; Howett, Mary K; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Schoborg, Robert V

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that double infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Chlamydia trachomatis occurs in vivo. We hypothesized that co-infection would alter replication of these agents. To test this hypothesis, HeLa cells were infected with C. trachomatis serovar E, followed 24 h later by HSV-2 strain 333. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses indicated that, by 10 h after HSV addition, reticulate bodies (RBs) in co-infected cells were swollen, aberrantly shaped and electron-lucent. In infectious titre assays, HSV-2 co-infection abrogated production of infectious chlamydial progeny. Western blot analyses indicated that accumulation of chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) was decreased by HSV co-infection while accumulation of chlamydial heat-shock protein 60-1 (HSP60-1) was increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments indicated that chlamydial genome copy number was unaltered by HSV-2 superinfection. Semi-quantitative, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) experiments demonstrated that levels of chlamydial groEL, ftsK, ftsW, dnaA and unprocessed 16S rRNA transcripts were not changed by HSV-2 super-infection. These data indicate that HSV-2 superinfection drives chlamydia into a viable but non-cultivable state, which is the hallmark of persistence. Because chlamydial HSP60-1 has been associated with immunopathology in vivo, these results also suggest that disease severity might be increased in co-infected individuals.

  6. Penicillin kills Chlamydia following the fusion of bacteria with lysosomes and prevents genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an 'inclusion'. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFNγ or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. β-Lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications.

  7. Infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y papilomavirus en mujeres con alteraciones citohistológicas de cuello uterino Chlamydia trachomatis and papillomavirus infection in women with cytohistological abnormalities in uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo D. Deluca

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió mediante técnica de PCR la presencia de Chlamydia trachomatis y de papilomavirus humano (HPV en 189 mujeres sexualmente activas de entre 15 y 58 años de edad, con alteraciones citológicas del epitelio cérvico-uterino, provenientes de una región con alta incidencia de cáncer de cuello uterino de Argentina, y se analizaron los factores de riesgo. La prevalencia global por C. trachomatis fue de 24.9%; observándose una diferencia significativa de la prevalencia entre las mujeres de bajo nivel socio-económico (32.9% y las de nivel medio o alto (17.7%. En cuanto a la infección por HPV, la prevalencia fue de 52.9% y se pudo observar que las mujeres infectadas con C. trachomatis presentan un mayor riesgo de infección por este virus que las no infectadas (OR=2.27 / IC 95%=1.10-4.73 con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p=0.016.The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and human papillomavirus (HPV was evaluated by PCR technique in 189 sexually active women, between 15 and 58 years old, with cytological abnormalities in their uterine cervical epithelium and belonging to a region of Argentina with high incidence of cervical cancer. Risk factors in relation to chlamydial infection were also analyzed. Total prevalence for C. trachomatis infection was 24.9%, but there was a significant difference between prevalence in low socio-economical level (32.9% and high or medium socio-economical level (17.7%. Total prevalence for DNA of HPV was 52.9%, but women infected with C. trachomatis showed a higher risk for viral infection than non-infected ones (OR=2.27 / CI 95%=1.10-4.73, with statistical significant difference (p=0.016.

  8. Mast cells play an important role in chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection by facilitating immune cell recruitment into the airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-04-15

    Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and they play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during C. pneumoniae infection. We infected C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and mast cell-deficient mice (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) [Wsh]) with C. pneumoniae. Wsh mice showed improved survival compared with WT mice, with fewer cells in Wsh bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT mice. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BALF cells and bacterial burden similar to the levels seen in Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BALF cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation, whereas Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of matrix metalloprotease-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during C. pneumoniae infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for C. pneumoniae.

  9. Association of carotid plaque Lp-PLA(2 with macrophages and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection among patients at risk for stroke.

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    Berna Atik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the burden of Chlamydia pneumoniae in carotid plaques was significantly associated with plaque interleukin (IL-6, and serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP, suggesting that infected plaques contribute to systemic inflammatory markers in patients with stroke risk. Since lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA(2 mediates inflammation in atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that serum Lp-PLA(2 mass and activity levels and plaque Lp-PLA(2 may be influenced by plaque C. pneumoniae infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty-two patients underwent elective carotid endarterectomy. Tissue obtained at surgery was stained by immunohistochemistry for Lp-PLA(2 grade, macrophages, IL-6, C. pneumoniae and CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Serum Lp-PLA(2 activity and mass were measured using the colorimetric activity method (CAM and ELISA, respectively. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by HPLC. Eleven (26.2% patients were symptomatic with transient ischemic attacks. There was no correlation between patient risk factors (smoking, coronary artery disease, elevated cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, hypertension and family history of genetic disorders for atherosclerosis and serum levels or plaque grade for Lp-PLA(2. Plaque Lp-PLA(2 correlated with serum homocysteine levels (p = 0.013, plaque macrophages (p<0.01, and plaque C. pneumoniae (p<0.001, which predominantly infected macrophages, co-localizing with Lp-PLA(2. CONCLUSIONS: The significant association of plaque Lp-PLA(2 with plaque macrophages and C. pneumoniae suggests an interactive role in accelerating inflammation in atherosclerosis. A possible mechanism for C. pneumoniae in the atherogenic process may involve infection of macrophages that induce Lp-PLA(2 production leading to upregulation of inflammatory mediators in plaque tissue. Additional in vitro and in vivo research will be needed to advance our understanding of specific C. pneumoniae and Lp-PLA(2

  10. Serosorting and recreational drug use are risk factors for diagnosis of genital infection with chlamydia and gonorrhoea among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: results from a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra; Moravan, Veronika; Raboud, Janet; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; Mazzulli, Tony; McGee, Frank; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea have been rising in urban centres in Canada, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Our objective was to identify behavioural risk factors for diagnosis with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population, with a focus on the HIV status of sexual partners. Methods The OHTN Cohort Study follows people in HIV care across Ontario. We restricted the analysis to 1997 MSM who completed questionnaires in 2010–2013 at one of seven clinics that submit all chlamydia and gonorrhoea tests to the provincial public health laboratory; we obtained test results via record linkage. We estimated cumulative incidences using Kaplan–Meier methods and identified risk factors for diagnosis of a composite outcome (chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection) using Cox regression. Results At follow-up, there were 74 new chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnoses with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%). Risk factors for chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnosis were: 5+ HIV-positive partners (HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.8; reference=none) and recreational drug use (HR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9). Conclusions Heightened risks with recreational drug use and multiple HIV-positive partners suggest that chlamydia/gonorrhoea may have achieved high prevalence in certain sexual networks among HIV-positive MSM. Interventions to promote safer sex and timely testing among MSM are needed. PMID:27154185

  11. Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in registered prostitutes of Durango City, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among registered prostitutes of Durango City and to establish whether there is a correlation between epidemiological factors and infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred-and-forty-seven registered prostitutes of Durango city were studied. Endocervical samples and epidemiological data were obtained. C. trachomatis antigen was detected with the Chlamydiazyme test (Abbott Laboratories, USA. RESULTS: Forty-one (16.6% out of 247 prostitutes were positive to C. trachomatis. Thirty-seven out of the 41 positive women had had sexual activity on several States of Mexico (95.1%, as compared to only 109 out of 206 negative women (53.0% (p<.0001. Prostitutes positive to C. trachomatis (39/41, 95.1% were more likely to belong to low socioeconomic level than negatives (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 16.6%. C. trachomatis infection was associated with sexual activity in multiple States of Mexico, and had a tendency to be associated with low socioeconomic level.

  12. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Vandahl, Brian; Larsen, Martin Røssel;

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D......-PAGE profiles of whole lysates of infected cells but absent from purified Chlamydia. CPAF was recently identified by Zhong and colleagues as a secreted protease which cleaves host cell transcription factors essential for MHC class I and II antigen presentation. The identification of CPAF in this paper verifies...

  13. Chlamydia control in Europe: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Low, N; S, Redmond; Alexander, K

    Executive summary The literature reviews in this report bring together published evidence about the prevalence and reproductive tract complications of chlamydia infection, and about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening interventions. Population prevalence of chlamydia...... prevalence. Estimates of chlamydia positivity in surveys with low response rates should not be interpreted as estimates of population prevalence. Only two population-based surveys in EU/EEA Member States in this review had a response rate of >70%. The highest response rates were seen when specimens...

  14. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections due to Chlamydia spp. and related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, Mario; Sanbonmatsu, Sara; Salinas, Jesús; Alonso, Roberto; Gutiérrez, José; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Until recently the number of completed genomes belonging to Chlamydia trachomatis was very low, despite its importance in Public Health. Now, there are currently sixty-six completed genomes of C.trachomatis sequenced in different parts of the world. This genomic revolution has helped in understanding its biology, as well as improved the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis, and the development of epidemiological tools, not only for in C.trachomatis, but also for related species such as C.pneumoniae and C.psittaci. The diagnosis based on cell culture, serology and microimmunofluorescence is gradually being replaced by molecular techniques based on PCR or real-time PCR. This is because these molecular tests do not have cross-reactions problems and the procedures are easily standardised between laboratories. Moreover, molecular epidemiology tools described recently, such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR), have increased our knowledge on local and global epidemiology. This article focuses on the impact of the genomics advances achieved over the last few years as applied to the diagnosis, epidemiology and biology of the family Chlamydiaceae family and related species.

  15. Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections in women undergoing laparoscopy: the role of peritoneal fluid sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dragic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aim of this study was to assess the role of peritoneal fluid sampling for detection of bacterial infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT in women undergoing laparoscopic investigation. The potential link between microbiological positive result(s and types of gynecological pathology was also evaluated. Materials and Methods. A large sample of women (n=1377 with their peritoneal fluids taken laparoscopically was studied. Data of microbiological and clinical/histopathological findings were entered into a database from a retrospective chart review. Culture and/or microscopy were used to detect NG or MT infection, whereas CT infection was detected using a PCR-based test. Results and Conclusions. Of all the patients (14 to 50 years aged, 463 (33.6% had endometriosis, 1179 (85.6% had a pathology/condition other than endometriosis, and 71 (5.2% had no pathology as histologically documented. None of the patients had peritoneal fluid samples positive for NG or MT. In contrast, 30 (2.2% of 1377 patients had peritoneal fluid samples positive for CT. Except for 3 women with no histopathological alteration, all the CT positive patients had either endometriosis (n=12 or non-endometriosis (n=13 pathology. Two remaining patients were diagnosed with both the pathologies. Accordingly, no significant association (OR was found between CT positivity and pathology [only endometriosis, 1.13 (95%CI, 0.30-4.20]; [only non-endometriosis, 0.53 (95%CI, 0.15-1.87]. While confirming the low positivity rate for the CT molecular detection, the present data indicate the need for prospective studies to firmly establish the clinical usefulness of peritoneal fluid diagnostic in gynecological settings.

  16. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelov, Vitaly; Gheit, Tarik; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Eklund, Carina; Tommasino, Massimo; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Background A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited. Methods A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls) were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG) assay. Results Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively. Conclusions A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection. Impact C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas. PMID:27227411

  17. Lack of Significant Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Cervical Adenocarcinoma Risk: Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available A role of Chlamydia trachomatis in HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis has been reported for cervical cancer but studies on cervical adenocarcinoma are limited.A total of 1,553 cervical smears taken up to 26 years before diagnosis in a large population-based nested case-control study of cervical adenocarcinoma (AC, 132 cases with matched controls, and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, 159 cases with matched controls were tested for C. trachomatis and HPV DNA by a type-specific PCR bead-based multiplex genotyping (TS-MPG assay.Only 1.7% of samples were positive for C. trachomatis, with no significant differences between AC/AIS cases and controls. HPV-positivity was detected in 49.3% of C. trachomatis-negative and 65.4% C. trachomatis-positive samples, respectively.A large prospective study did not find any risk for cervical adenocarcinoma and/or AIS conferred by C. trachomatis infection.C. trachomatis appears not to be involved in cervical adenocarcinomas.

  18. A pilot study for diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by polymerase chain reaction among symptomatic Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial etiology of sexually transmitted infection. Aim : A pilot study was designed using PCR for amplification and detection of a specific 517 bp sequence of the common endogenous plasmid of C. trachomatis from clinical swab specimens obtained from symptomatic female patients attending STD clinics of AIIMS and Regional STD Teaching, Training & Research Center, Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi. Methods: 97 patients were recruited in the study, and endocervical swabs were collected following standard procedures. The samples were analyzed by PCR and direct fluorescence antibody (DFA for detection of C. trachomatis, and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PCR were calculated taking DFA as gold standard. Results: Out of 97 samples tested, 9 were positive for C. trachomatis by PCR. 1 PCR positive patient was negative by DFA although a total of 11 patients were positive by DFA. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of PCR with reference to DFA was 72.73%, 98.84%, 88.89% and 96.59%, respectively. This PCR had high specificity and NPV for detection of C.trachomatis. Conclusions : In light of the introduction of enhanced syndromic approach, which involves the use of laboratory techniques (wherever possible to confirm clinical diagnosis, a diagnostic PCR with high specificity and NPV is particularly valuable for determination of etiological diagnosis and hence contribute to judicious use of antimicrobials in the community.

  19. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  20. Intramuscular priming and intranasal boosting induce strong genital immunity through secretory IgA in minipigs infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eLorenzen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. Intramuscular priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated IFN-ɣ and IL-17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC, we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggest that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general.

  1. Culture-independent genome sequencing of clinical samples reveals an unexpected heterogeneity of infections by Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains.

  2. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend;

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in a modest pro-inflammatory cytokine response and a decrease in T cell chemokine secretion in human polarized endocervical epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Lyndsey R; Lewis, Maria E; Greene, Sheila J; Foster, Timothy P; Quayle, Alison J

    2013-08-01

    The endocervical epithelium is a major reservoir for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, and genital infections are extended in their duration. Epithelial cells act as mucosal sentinels by secreting cytokines and chemokines in response to pathogen challenge and infection. We therefore determined the signature cytokine and chemokine response of primary-like endocervix-derived epithelial cells in response to a common genital serovar (D) of C. trachomatis. For these studies, we used a recently-established polarized, immortalized, endocervical epithelial cell model (polA2EN) that maintains, in vitro, the architectural and functional characteristics of endocervical epithelial cells in vivo including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PolA2EN cells were susceptible to C. trachomatis infection, and chlamydiae in these cells underwent a normal developmental cycle as determined by a one-step growth curve. IL1α protein levels were increased in both apical and basolateral secretions of C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells, but this response did not occur until 72h after infection. Furthermore, protein levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL6, TNFα and CXCL8 were not significantly different between C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells and mock infected cells at any time during the chlamydial developmental cycle up to 120h post-infection. Intriguingly, C. trachomatis infection resulted in a significant decrease in the constitutive secretion of T cell chemokines IP10 and RANTES, and this required a productive C. trachomatis infection. Examination of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed a high constitutive apical secretion of IL1ra from polA2EN cells that was not significantly modulated by C. trachomatis infection. IL-11 was induced by C. trachomatis, although only from the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that C. trachomatis can use evasion strategies to circumvent a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response. These evasion

  4. A new role of the complement system: C3 provides protection in a mouse model of lung infection with intracellular Chlamydia psittaci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Bode

    Full Text Available The complement system modulates the intensity of innate and specific immunity. While it protects against infections by extracellular bacteria its role in infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, such as the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia (C. psittaci, is still unknown. In the present study, knockout mice lacking C3 and thus all main complement effector functions were intranasally infected with C. psittaci strain DC15. Clinical parameters, lung histology, and cytokine levels were determined. A subset of infections was additionally performed with mice lacking C5 or C5a receptors. Complement activation occurred before symptoms of pneumonia appeared. Mice lacking C3 were ∼100 times more susceptible to the intracellular bacteria compared to wild-type mice, with all C3(-/- mice succumbing to infection after day 9. At a low infective dose, C3(-/- mice became severely ill after an even longer delay, the kinetics suggesting a so far unknown link of complement to the adaptive, protective immune response against chlamydiae. The lethal phenotype of C3(-/- mice is not based on differences in the anti-chlamydial IgG response (which is slightly delayed as demonstrated by serum transfer experiments. In addition, during the first week of infection, the absence of C3 was associated with partial protection characterized by reduced weight loss, better clinical score and lower bacterial burden, which might be explained by a different mechanism. Lack of complement functions downstream of C5 had little effect. This study demonstrates for the first time a strong and complex influence of complement effector functions, downstream of C3 and upstream of C5, on the outcome of an infection with intracellular bacteria, such as C. psittaci.

  5. Vaccination of koalas with a recombinant Chlamydia pecorum major outer membrane protein induces antibodies of different specificity compared to those following a natural live infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Avinash; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydial infection in koalas is common across the east coast of Australia and causes significant morbidity, infertility and mortality. An effective vaccine to prevent the adverse consequences of chlamydial infections in koalas (particularly blindness and infertility in females) would provide an important management tool to prevent further population decline of this species. An important step towards developing a vaccine in koalas is to understand the host immune response to chlamydial infection. In this study, we used the Pepscan methodology to identify B cell epitopes across the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) of four C. pecorum strains/genotypes that are recognized, either following (a) natural live infection or (b) administration of a recombinant MOMP vaccine. Plasma antibodies from the koalas naturally infected with a C. pecorum G genotype strain recognised the epitopes located in the variable domain (VD) four of MOMP G and also VD4 of MOMP H. By comparison, plasma antibodies from an animal infected with a C. pecorum F genotype strain recognised epitopes in VD1, 2 and 4 of MOMP F, but not from other genotype MOMPs. When Chlamydia-free koalas were immunised with recombinant MOMP protein they produced antibodies not only against epitopes in the VDs but also in conserved domains of MOMP. Naturally infected koalas immunised with recombinant MOMP protein also produced antibodies against epitopes in the conserved domains. This work paves the way for further refinement of a MOMP-based Chlamydia vaccine that will offer wide cross-protection against the variety of chlamydial infections circulating in wild koala populations.

  6. manClinical Study on Infection of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Patients with Inflammation of Urogenital Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG An(钟安); WANG Yuxia(王玉霞)

    2002-01-01

    Object: To investigate the relationship between chlamydiatrachomatis (CT) and urogenital infection.Method: Positive rate of CT in patients with inflammationof urogenital tract was significantly higher than those withoutinflammation (P<0.05).Result: There was statistical difference in the males nomatter they were patients with inflammation of urogenitaltract or not (P>0.05), while there was no statistical differencein females (P>0.05). The incidence of the infection was highamong those aging from 21-50 years old.Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of CT infectionwere obscure, so we should examine CT in patients who haveno symptoms, especially in females and those of high-riskpopulation.

  7. Diagnostic aspects of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Ulsen (Josina)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe sexually transmitted diseases (STOs) constitute a worldwide problem of major significance in terms of health. economic and social consequences. The most important STOs are Ihe bacterial infections syphilis (causative agent Treponema pal/idum sub·species pallidum), gonorrhoea (causati

  8. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhatla

    2013-01-01

    Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual/postcoital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent conventional Pap smear, Hybrid Capture 2® (HC2 testing for HPV and CT DNA and colposcopy, with directed biopsy of all lesions. Results: HPV DNA was positive in 108 (18.0% women, CT DNA in 29 (4.8% women. HPV/CT co-infection was observed in only four (0.7% women. Of the 127 (21.2% women with Pap >ASCUS, 60 (47.2% were HPV positive and four (3.1% were CT positive. Of the 41 women with CIN1 lesions, 11 (26.8% were HPV positive, while two were CT positive. Of the 46 women with CIN2+ on histopathology, 41 (89.1% were HPV positive, two (4.3% were CT positive and one was positive for both. The risk of CIN2+ disease was significantly increased (P35 yr, higher parity, use of oral contraceptives or smoking did not show any significant association with HPV or abnormal histopathology. Parity >5 was the only risk factor positivity associated with CT infection (P<0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that CT infection was not significantly associated with CIN, and most of its risk factors, including HPV infection, in symptomatic women. Longitudinal studies with carefully selected study sample would be able to answer these questions.

  9. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ+ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  10. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ⁺ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia.

  11. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-09-28

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

  12. Quantitative analysis of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and early intrauterine pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Shao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this data, non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle, women with normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP, and women with tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP after informed consent were included. The serum levels of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, epidermal growth factor, the Chlamydia (C. trachomatis IgG and HSP60 were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic discrimination of tubal EP and gestational age-matched IUP. Our data show that C. trachomatis infection is associated with IL-8 levels, which had excellent discriminative validity in positively identifying tubal EP (concomitant with C. trachomatis infection from IUP and non-pregnant conditions regardless of C. trachomatis infection.

  13. Advances in sampling and screening for chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Jane S; Guy, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-03-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world, with diagnosis rates continuing to increase each year. As chlamydia is largely asymptomatic, screening and treatment is the main way to detect cases and reduce transmission. Recent advances in self-collected specimens and laboratory tests has made chlamydia screening easier to implement as well as possible in nonclinical settings. This review will discuss new approaches to specimen collection and how these have expanded opportunities for reaching target populations for chlamydia screening. Furthermore, it will discuss how advanced molecular microbiological methods can be used with self-collected specimens to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of chlamydia and the dynamics of transmission.

  14. Partner's Sexual Behaviora are an Important Risk Factor for Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among STD Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yunhua(邓云华); CHEN Xingping(陈兴平); ZHOU Liyi(周礼义); CHEN Yinling(陈映玲); WAN Mufen(万沐芬)

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Risk factors for genitourinary Chlamydiatrachomatis (Ct) infection were investigated using an STDrelative risk factor questionnaire among 176 patients and theirregular sexual partners. Twenty-four independent variableswere selected for analysis, nine of which were confirmed asfactors associated with C. trachomatis. Four of the nine factorswere significantly correlated to infection using a multifactorialunconditional logistic regression model which included: levelof education ( odds ratios [ORs]: 2.144 for below junior middleschool ), number of sexual partners ( ORs: 4.503 for ≥5 ),number of regular partner's sexual partner ( ORs: 16.333 for≥5 ), STD history of regular partner ( ORs: 18.417 for theirSTD history ). These data demonstrate that regular partner'ssexual behaviors are also an important risk factor for Ctinfection among STD clinic clients.

  15. Determination of Asymptomatic Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections by Omp1 Gene Based -PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Nazer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this research was to determine the prevalenceof genital C. trachomatis infection in asymptomatic women by using highlysensitive nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR in urine sample.Materials and Methods: One hundred-forty asymptomatic women wererandomly selected from those who attended gynecology out patient departmentof Hazraat e Rasool Hospital in Tehran. First catch urine specimen were collectedfrom all the participants. DNA extraction was performed by means of HighPure PCR Template Preparation Kit (HPPTP according to the manufacture’sinstructions. Extracted DNA was tested by omp1 gene based nested-PCR,using sets of primers to amplify C. trachomatis omp1 gene. Visualizationof a 1027 bp fragment from omp1 gene in agarose gel electrophoresis wasconsidered as a positive result.Results: In total, 140 urines were tested for determination of C. trachomatisinfection. C. trachomatis omp-1 was detected in 22.1% of cases (31/140. Theoverall prevalence rates of C. trachomatis in the urine sample as determined byomp1 based nested-PCR were 4.3% in group I (age, 44 years. The highest prevalence of C. trachomatis infection (12.1% wasseen in women aged 25-34 years. This finding was not statistically significant(p=0.710. Also, there was not relation between C. trachomatis infection andsome probable risk factors such as young age (<25 years, STD history andmissing use of barrier contraceptive in this study.Conclusion: The prevalence of C.trachomatis infection in the women notseeking health care warrants more comprehensive study using high sensitiveomp1 based nested- PCR to identify and treat a large number of infectedwomen in Iran.

  16. Novel sequence types of Chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelocnik, Martina; Self, Rachel; Timms, Peter; Borel, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ibex (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and birds. This identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. To begin to address this question, we employed a C. pecorum species-specific multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to characterize a small collection of C. pecorum-positive samples from wild, free-range ibex, a chamois, and a red deer from Grison, Switzerland, a canton where domesticated and wild ruminants graze in close proximity during the summer. Screening by PCR confirmed low to moderate levels of Chlamydia pecorum DNA in the eyes of healthy ibex (n = 4) and in the deer fecal sample (n = 1). The MLST analysis revealed three novel sequence types (STs; 88, 90, and 89) in these samples. On phylogenetic analysis, the ibex and deer sequences clustered by host species in their own well-supported clades and away from C. pecorum STs found in other hosts. Even though the analyzed sample size was small, the identification of unique C. pecorum STs infecting free-ranging Alpine ibex and red deer provides useful information for further C. pecorum epidemiologic studies.

  17. Prevalence of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis in acute mucopurulent cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujević, Boris; Habek, Jasna Cerkez; Habek, Dubravko

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of N. gonorrhoae (NG) and/or C. trachomatis (CT) in acute mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC). The study included 617 non-pregnant women with MPC, who had not been receiving any antimicrobial treatment. The average age of patients was 22.2 years. There were no statistically significant differences according to place of residence, education, and marital status. Samples for laboratory analysis were collected using a routine procedure; NG was identified using the cytochrome oxidase test and Gram staining. CT was isolated on McCoy cell culture and stained with Lugol solution. NG was isolated in three women (0.8%) and CT in 58 women (9.4%). Fifty-six of the CT-positive patients were nullipara and only two were unipara. All NG-positive patients were also nullipara. The mean number of sexual partners was 2.2 in all study subjects, 2.4 in CT-positive subjects, and 2.9 in NG-positive subjects. Vaginal discharge purity according to Schröder was significantly deteriorated in CT-positive patients (p=0.011). When asked about the use of contraceptives, as many as 32.7% patients answered that they did not use any protection, 39% women used the rhythm method and coitus interruptus, 20% were taking oral contraceptives, 6.1% used mechanical devices, and 1.9% used chemical protection. Previous acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases correlated with MPC (p>0.01). Our statistical analysis suggests that chlamydial infection significantly reduces the purity of vaginal discharge, which is more pronounced in nulliparae. Pap smear was not specific enough to demonstrate chlamydial infection. In view of the MPC findings, the prevalence of CT and NG infection is low.

  18. The use of intrauterine contraceptive devices, pelvic inflammatory disease, and Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, D A

    1988-04-01

    With the same epidemiologic approach taken in a recent study that suggested that oral contraceptive use may not protect against chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease, the risks of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease were evaluated for intrauterine contraceptive device users. Compared with women using no method of contraception, intrauterine contraceptive device users were not found to be at any higher risk of cervical chlamydial infection. Whether this places intrauterine contraceptive device users at no increased risk of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease cannot be ascertained from the available data. Further research is needed before any conclusions can be made regarding the risks of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease to users of intrauterine contraceptive devices, oral contraceptives, and other contraceptive methods.

  19. Berberine inhibits Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration through downregulating MMP3 and MMP9 via PI3K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lu; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Beibei; Wei, Junyan; Liu, Jingya; Zhang, Lijun

    2015-05-15

    The mechanisms by which Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promote vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration required in the development of atherosclerosis have not yet been fully clarified. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have important roles in VSMC migration. However, it is still unknown whether MMPs are involved in C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration. In addition, whether berberine can exert its inhibitory effects on the infection-induced VSMC migration also remains unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of berberine on C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration and explored the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Herein, we found that C. pneumoniae infection could induce VSMC migration through Matrigel-coated membrane (Pberberine significantly attenuated C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration (Pberberine suppressed the protein expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 caused by C. pneumoniae infection in a dose-dependent manner (Pberberine (Pberberine inhibits C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration by downregulating the expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 via PI3K.

  20. Caspase-1 dependent IL-1β secretion is critical for host defense in a mouse model of Chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Chiba, Norika; Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is an important human pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and is associated with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Caspase-1 is a key component of the 'inflammasome', and is required to cleave pro-IL-1β to bioactive IL-1β. Here we demonstrate for the first time a critical requirement for IL-1β in response to CP infection. Caspase-1⁻/⁻ mice exhibit delayed cytokine production, defective clearance of pulmonary bacteria and higher mortality in response to CP infection. Alveolar macrophages harbored increased bacterial numbers due to reduced iNOS levels in Caspase-1⁻/⁻ mice. Pharmacological blockade of the IL-1 receptor in CP infected wild-type mice phenocopies Caspase-1-deficient mice, and administration of recombinant IL-1β rescues CP infected Caspase-1⁻/⁻ mice from mortality, indicating that IL-1β secretion is crucial for host immune defense against CP lung infection. In vitro investigation reveals that CP-induced IL-1β secretion by macrophages requires TLR2/MyD88 and NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 signaling. Entry into the cell by CP and new protein synthesis by CP are required for inflammasome activation. Neither ROS nor cathepsin was required for CP infection induced inflammasome activation. Interestingly, Caspase-1 activation during CP infection occurs with mitochondrial dysfunction indicating a possible mechanism involving the mitochondria for CP-induced inflammasome activation.

  1. Caspase-1 dependent IL-1β secretion is critical for host defense in a mouse model of Chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Shimada

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP is an important human pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and is associated with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Caspase-1 is a key component of the 'inflammasome', and is required to cleave pro-IL-1β to bioactive IL-1β. Here we demonstrate for the first time a critical requirement for IL-1β in response to CP infection. Caspase-1⁻/⁻ mice exhibit delayed cytokine production, defective clearance of pulmonary bacteria and higher mortality in response to CP infection. Alveolar macrophages harbored increased bacterial numbers due to reduced iNOS levels in Caspase-1⁻/⁻ mice. Pharmacological blockade of the IL-1 receptor in CP infected wild-type mice phenocopies Caspase-1-deficient mice, and administration of recombinant IL-1β rescues CP infected Caspase-1⁻/⁻ mice from mortality, indicating that IL-1β secretion is crucial for host immune defense against CP lung infection. In vitro investigation reveals that CP-induced IL-1β secretion by macrophages requires TLR2/MyD88 and NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 signaling. Entry into the cell by CP and new protein synthesis by CP are required for inflammasome activation. Neither ROS nor cathepsin was required for CP infection induced inflammasome activation. Interestingly, Caspase-1 activation during CP infection occurs with mitochondrial dysfunction indicating a possible mechanism involving the mitochondria for CP-induced inflammasome activation.

  2. Immune Response in Male Guinea Pigs Infected with the Guinea Pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis Agent of Chlamydia Psittaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    developed areas of Africa and the Middle East and is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. It is estimated that trachoma afflicts about...obstruction (29). This type of immunopathology can ultimately result in ectopic pregnancy or infertility (7). The pathology associated with chlamydial...Sex. Transm. Dis. 8:203-209. 42. Randall, T. 1993. New tools ready for chlamydiae diagnosis, treatment, but teens need education most. JAMA. 269

  3. Conservation of extrusion as an exit mechanism for Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuck, Meghan; Sherrid, Ashley; Suchland, Robert; Ellis, Tisha; Hybiske, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed. The key parameters investigated in this study were: (i) the conservation of extrusion across the Chlamydia genus, (ii) the functional requirement for candidate Chlamydia genes in extrusion formation i.e. IncA and CT228 and (iii) extrusion-mediated uptake, and consequent survival of Chlamydia inside macrophages. Inclusion morphology was characterized by live fluorescence microscopy, using an inverted GFP strategy, at early and mid-stages of infection. Enriched extrusions were used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages, and bacterial viability was measured following macrophage engulfment. Our results demonstrate that extrusion is highly conserved across chlamydiae, including ocular, STD and LGV biovars and divergent Chlamydia species. Consequently, this exit mechanism for Chlamydia may fulfill common advantages important for pathogenesis.

  4. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  5. The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean W Andrew

    Full Text Available IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii the development of oviduct pathology and (iii the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/- to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated

  6. Biology and intracellular life of chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranin Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. The developmental cycle of Chlamydiae is specific and different from other bacteria. The elementary body is the infectious form of the organism, responsible for attaching to the target host cell and promoting its entry. The reticulate body is the larger, metabolically active form of the organism, synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and proteins. The elementary body and reticulate body represent evolutionary adaptations to extracellular and intracellular environments. Intracellular persistence of Chlamydia. Predisposition of Chlamydia to persist within the host cell has been recognized as a major factor in the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease. The persistence implies a long-term association between chlamydiae and their host cell that may not manifest as clinically recognizable disease. The ability of chlamydia to remain within one morphological state for a long time in response to exogenous factors suggests an innate ability of these organisms to persist intracellulary in a unique developmental form. Chlamydiae induce interferon γ and exhibit growth inhibition in their presence. While the high levels of interferon γ completely restrict the development of chlamydia, its low levels induce the development of morphologically aberrant intracellular forms. The persistent forms contain reduced levels of major outer membrane protein but high levels of chlamydial heat shock protein. Conclusion. Immunopathogenesis of chlamydial infection is one of the main focal points of current research into Chlamydia. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent, usually asymptomatic and associated with serious sequelae. Screening programmes are the most important in the prevention of a long-term sequele.

  7. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridou, Maria; Vriend, Henrike J.; Lugner, Anna K.; Wallinga, Jacco; Fennema, Johannes S.; Prins, Jan M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Rijnders, Bart J.A.; Prins, Maria; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Veen, Maaike G.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van der Sande, Marianne A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV among MSM and

  8. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou (Maria); H.J. Vriend (Henrike); A.K. Lugnér (Anna); J. Wallinga (Jacco); J.S.A. Fennema (Johan); J.M. Prins (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart); M. Prins (Mariia); H.J.C. de Vries (Henry); M.J. Postma (Maarten); M.G. van Veen (Maaike); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M.A.B. van der Sande (Marianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV a

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in patients with respiratory tract infection%应用PCR对呼吸道感染患者咽拭子样本肺炎衣原体DNA的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋毅; 齐海宇; 郑晓燕; 王婧; 肖红丽; 阴赪宏; 万康林

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解呼吸道感染患者肺炎衣原体感染状况,为临床诊断和治疗提供依据.方法 采集2006年1月在北京友谊医院发热门诊就诊的呼吸道患者的咽拭子样本88例,用肺炎衣原体种特异性引物对其进行PCR检测,阳性产物经基因测序,结果采用SPSS 10.0软件包进行数据统计分析,计数资料比较用x2检验.结果88例呼吸道感染患者的咽拭子样本中阳性者为28例,阳性率为31.82%.男性和女性阳性率差异无统计学意义.不同司年龄组阳性率差异无统计学意义.结论 在有呼吸道症状的病例中,肺炎衣原体感染率较高,应对肺炎衣原体感染加以重视.PCR法是一简便、敏感和特异的诊断方法,值得在临床上进行应用和推广.%Objective To investigate Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in patients with respiratory tract infection and provide information for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods A total of 88 throat swabs were collected from patients with respiratory tract infection accompanied by fever in Januar-y, 2006. The method of PCR was used to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae in the specimens of throat swabs. PCR products were sequenced for further identification. The software of SPSS was used for data analysis. Results The positive rate of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was 31. 82% (28/88) with the PCR primer of CpnA-CpnB. There were no differences in positive rates between men and women or among different age groups. Conclusion Chlamydia pneumoniae is the main cause of respiratory tract infection. PCR is a simple, specific and sensitive method for laboratory testing.

  10. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  11. C3H Male Mice with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Cannot Clear a Urethral Infection with a Human Serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of an infection of the male genitourinary tract of mice with a human serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis has not been characterized. To establish a new model, we inoculated C3H/HeN (H-2k) mice in the meatus urethra with C. trachomatis serovar D. To determine the 50% infectious dose (ID50), male mice were inoculated with doses ranging from 102 to 106 inclusion-forming units (IFU). The mice were euthanized 10 days post infection (p.i.), and the urethra, bladder, epididimydes, and testes were cultured for Chlamydia. Positive cultures were obtained from the urethra, urinary bladder, and epididimydes, and the ID50 was determined to be 5 × 104 IFU/mouse. Subsequently, to characterize the course of the infection, wild-type (WT) and C3H animals with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID animals) were inoculated with 106 IFU/mouse (20 times the ID50). In the WT mice, the infection peaked in the second week, and by 42 days p.i., it was cleared. In contrast, most of the SCID mice continued to have positive cultures at 60 days p.i. C. trachomatis-specific antibodies were first detected in WT animals' sera at 21 days p.i. and increased until 42 days p.i. The immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) titers were 32-fold higher than those of IgG1, indicative of a Th1-biased immune response. A lymphoproliferative assay using splenocytes showed a significant cell-mediated immune response in the WT mice. As expected, no humoral or cell-mediated immune responses were observed in the SCID animals. In conclusion, inoculation of WT male mice in the meatus urethra with a human serovar of C. trachomatis resulted in a limited infection mainly localized to the lower genitourinary tract. On the other hand, SCID animals could not clear the infection, suggesting that in male mice, the adaptive immune response is necessary to control an infection with a C. trachomatis human serovar. PMID:19805533

  12. Host inflammatory response and development of complications of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in CCR5-deficient mice and subfertile women with the CCR5delta32 gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Erika L; Ouburg, Sander; Igietseme, Joseph U; Morré, Servaas A; Okwandu, Edith; Eko, Francis O; Ifere, Godwin; Belay, Tesfaye; He, Qing; Lyn, Deborah; Nwankwo, Gift; Lillard, James W; Black, Carolyn M; Ananaba, Godwin A

    2005-08-01

    T cell immunity protects against diseases caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Incidentally, host inflammatory response that includes T cells appears to also contribute to the pathogenesis of chlamydial diseases such as trachoma and tubal factor infertility (TFI). Therefore, designing effective prevention strategies requires a delineation of immune processes responsible for pathology and those mediating immunity, and identification of the immunogenetic factors predisposing to complication development. The chemokine receptor CCR5 is crucial for T cell activation and function since its deficiency causes suppression of T cell response. We investigated the hypothesis that the clearance of genital chlamydial infection in CCR5-deficient mice could be delayed in the short term; however, a beneficial effect could include protection against inflammation-related complications such as TFI. In a translational study in humans, we investigated the effect of a functional 32 bp deletion in the CCR5 gene on the risk of developing tubal pathology in Dutch Caucasian women with immunologic evidence [i.e., immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses] of chlamydial infection. When genitally-infected wild-type (WT) and CCR5 knockout (CCR5KO) mice were evaluated for microbiologic shedding of chlamydiae, there was a greater intensity of infection and delayed resolution in the knockout mice. However, compared to WT mice, the fertility of infected CCR5KO mice (measured by pregnancy rate) was only mildly affected in the short term and unaffected in the long term (70% vs 30% reduction in the short term, and 50 vs 0% in the long term, respectively). Immunobiologic analysis revealed that the diminished capacity of CCR5KO to control acute chlamydial infection correlated with the relatively low chemokine [interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and regulated upon activation normal cell expressed and secreted (RANTES)] and cytokine (mainly interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis

  13. Retrospective analysis on the recurrent vaginitis combined with mycoplasma and chlamydia trachomatis infection%复发性阴道炎合并支原体及衣原体感染的回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石翠华

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨复发性阴道炎合并支原体、衣原体感染的诊断和治疗方法.方法 用PCR法对820例复发性阴道炎进行支原体和衣原体进行检测及药敏试验观察抗菌药物的敏感性.结果 复发性阴道炎合并支原体衣原体感染的发病率高.本院常用中敏药物克拉霉素.结论 为控制复发性阴道炎的复发,应把支原体衣原体感染作为常规检查,并根据药敏试验进行治疗.%Objective To discuss the morbidity and treatment method of the recurrent vaginitis combined with mycoplasma and chlamydia tracho-matis. Methods To statistical 820 cases of outpatients with recurrent vaginitis chlamydia and mycoplasma infection by the application of PCR and the treatment after the drug sensitivity test. Results The incidence and rate of missed diagnosis of the recurrent vaginitis combined with mycoplasma and chlamydia trachomatis infection are high. Conclusion For control the recurrence of the recurrent vaginal, we should test mycoplasma and chlamydia trachomatis routinely. Then to give the patients rational drug according to drug sensitive test result.

  14. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin;

    2016-01-01

    in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against......Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig...... animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1...

  15. Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection and upper genital tract pathological changes by vaccine-promoted neutralizing antibodies directed to the VD4 of the major outer membrane protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja W.; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant...... segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced...... bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serumand T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4+ T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence...

  16. Oral azithromycin in extended dosage schedule for chronic, subclinical Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease: a probable cure in sight? Results of a controlled preliminary trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaideep DograPoly Clinic, Central Government Health Scheme, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: Two mega trials have raised the question as to whether the hypothesis that infection plays a role in atherosclerosis is still relevant. This controlled preliminary trial investigated an extended dose of azithromycin in the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease (CAD.Patients and methods: Forty patients with documentary evidence of CAD were screened for immunoglobulin G titers against C. pneumoniae and grouped into either the study group (patients with positive titer, n = 32 or control group (patients with negative titer, n = 8. Cases who met inclusion criteria could not have had coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention in the preceding 6 months. Informed consent was obtained from every patient. Baseline blood samples were analyzed for red blood cell indices, serum creatinine, and liver function tests, and repeated every 2 months. A primary event was defined as the first occurrence of death by any cause, recurrent myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for angina. Patients in the study group received 500 mg of oral azithromycin once daily for 5 days, which was then repeated after a gap of 10 days (total of 24 courses in the 1-year trial period. The control group did not have azithromycin added to their standard CAD treatment.Results: In the study group, 30 patients completed the trial. Two patients had to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in the initial first quarter of the 1-year trial period. In the control group, one patient died during the trial, one had to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and one had percutaneous coronary intervention.Conclusion: The patients tolerated the therapy well and there was a positive correlation between azithromycin and secondary prevention of CAD.Keywords: azithromycin, Chlamydia pneumoniae

  17. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model...... with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high...

  18. Dendritic cell function and pathogen-specific T cell immunity are inhibited in mice administered levonorgestrel prior to intranasal Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe Calla, Nirk E.; Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Mei, Ao; Fan, Shumin; Gilmore, Jocelyn R.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The growing popularity of levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing intra-uterine systems for long-acting reversible contraception provides strong impetus to define immunomodulatory properties of this exogenous progestin. In initial in vitro studies herein, we found LNG significantly impaired activation of human dendritic cell (DCs) and their capacity to promote allogeneic T cell proliferation. In follow-up studies in a murine model of intranasal Chlamydia trachomatis infection, we analogously found that LNG treatment prior to infection dramatically reduced CD40 expression in DCs isolated from draining lymph nodes at 2 days post infection (dpi). At 12 dpi, we also detected significantly fewer CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the lungs of LNG-treated mice. This inhibition of DC activation and T cell expansion in LNG-treated mice also delayed chlamydial clearance and the resolution of pulmonary inflammation. Conversely, administering agonist anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody to LNG-treated mice at 1 dpi restored lung T cell numbers and chlamydial burden at 12 dpi to levels seen in infected controls. Together, these studies reveal that LNG suppresses DC activation and function, and inhibits formation of pathogen-specific T cell immunity. They also highlight the need for studies that define in vivo effects of LNG use on human host response to microbial pathogens. PMID:27892938

  19. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-03

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala.

  20. Infection of epithelial cells with Chlamydia trachomatis inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis at the level of receptor internalization while leaving non-apoptotic TNF-signalling intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguia Kontchou, Collins; Tzivelekidis, Tina; Gentle, Ian E; Häcker, Georg

    2016-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of medical importance. C. trachomatis develops inside a membranous vacuole in the cytosol of epithelial cells but manipulates the host cell in numerous ways. One prominent effect of chlamydial infection is the inhibition of apoptosis in the host cell, but molecular aspects of this inhibition are unclear. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine with important roles in immunity, which is produced by immune cells in chlamydial infection and which can have pro-apoptotic and non-apoptotic signalling activity. We here analysed the signalling through TNF in cells infected with C. trachomatis. The pro-apoptotic signal of TNF involves the activation of caspase-8 and is controlled by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. We found that in C. trachomatis-infected cells, TNF-induced apoptosis was blocked upstream of caspase-8 activation even when inhibitor of apoptosis proteins were inhibited or the inhibitor of caspase-8 activation, cFLIP, was targeted by RNAi. However, when caspase-8 was directly activated by experimental over-expression of its upstream adapter Fas-associated protein with death domain, C. trachomatis was unable to inhibit apoptosis. Non-apoptotic TNF-signalling, particularly the activation of NF-κB, initiates at the plasma membrane, while the activation of caspase-8 and pro-apoptotic signalling occur subsequently to internalization of TNF receptor and the formation of a cytosolic signalling complex. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, NF-κB activation through TNF was unaffected, while the internalization of the TNF-TNF-receptor complex was blocked, explaining the lack of caspase-8 activation. These results identify a dichotomy of TNF signalling in C. trachomatis-infected cells: Apoptosis is blocked at the internalization of the TNF receptor, but non-apoptotic signalling through this receptor remains intact, permitting a response to this cytokine at sites of infection.

  1. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Pulido

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades asociadas a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y la vaginosis bacteriana son de importancia en la población sexual mente activa, por lo que amerita estudiarlas. Con la finalidad de conocer su frecuencia en Cartagena se estudiaron, entre 1988 y 1990, 431 mujeres que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Universitario de Cartagena o al Centro Venereológico de la misma ciudad (167 pacientes en el primero y 264 en el segundo; su edad promedio era 28 años. Utilizando el inmunoensayo enzimático en fase sólida (ELISA se buscó la C. trachomatis y se hallaron frecuencias de infección de 5.4 y 17.4% en el primero y el segundo grupos, respectivamente; tal diferencia fue significativa (p < 0.005. Mediante exámenes directos y cultivos se demostraron las siguientes frecuencias de infección en las pacientes de consulta ginecológica y en las del Centro Venereológico, en su orden: Gardenerella vaginalis en 33.5% y 39%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae en 0.6 y 2.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis en 5.4 y 4.5%, Candida spp. en 13.2 y 10.2%. No hubo entre estas tasas diferencias significativas. Se observó relación entre la positividad para C. trachomatis y las entidades usualmente asociadas con ella: en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico la frecuencia de cervicitis fue 39% en las infectadas por C. trachomatis y 11.5% en las no Infectadas (p < 0.01; en las de la consulta ginecológica hubo Enfermedad Pélvica inflamatoria en 4 de las 9 Infectadas (44.4% y en sólo 11 de las 158 no infectadas (7% (Prueba de Fisher p = 0.004. El uso de anticonceptivos orales tuvo asociación significativa (p < 0.01 con la infección por Chlamydia en las pacientes del Centro Venereológico pero no en las de la consulta ginecológica; en efecto: 28.8% de las mujeres del Centro que utilizaban estos anticonceptivos y ninguna de las que no recurran a ellos resultaron positivas para esta bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis fue la bacteria más frecuentemente

  2. The relationship between the infections of urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics and missed abortion%生殖道支原体和沙眼衣原体感染与稽留流产的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the infections of urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics and the oc-curence of the missed abortion . Method The cervical secretion was cultivated to detect the urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics in 252 miss abortion patients,another 255 normal abortion women were servedas controls. Results The positive rates of urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics was higher than the rates of the controls. Conclusion Urealyticum and chlamydia trachomatics in the genital duct are compact associated with missed abortion and are one of the causes of missed abortion in pregnant women.%目的:探讨生殖道支原体( Mu、UU)、沙眼衣原体感染与稽留流产的相关性。方法:采用培养法分别对252例稽留流产(研究组)与255例早孕人流妇女(对照组)进行宫颈分泌物培养。结果:稽留流产组生殖道支原体、衣原体阳性检出率均高于人工流产组( P<0.01)。结论:支原体、衣原体感染与稽留流产有着密切关系,是导致稽留流产综合原因之一。

  3. Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Morré, S.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hutton, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care professionals,

  4. Risk factors for active trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in treatment-naive trachoma-hyperendemic communities of the Bijagos Archipelago, Guinea Bissau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Last

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is hyperendemic on the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea Bissau. An understanding of the risk factors associated with active trachoma and infection on these remote and isolated islands, which are atypical of trachoma-endemic environments described elsewhere, is crucial to the implementation of trachoma elimination strategies.A cross-sectional population-based trachoma prevalence survey was conducted on four islands. We conducted a questionnaire-based risk factor survey, examined participants for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO simplified grading system and collected conjunctival swab samples for 1507 participants from 293 randomly selected households. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs was tested using the Roche Amplicor CT/NG PCR assay. The prevalence of active (follicular and/or inflammatory trachoma was 11% (167/1508 overall and 22% (136/618 in 1-9 year olds. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 18% overall and 25% in 1-9 year olds. There were strong independent associations of active trachoma with ocular and nasal discharge, C. trachomatis infection, young age, male gender and type of household water source. C. trachomatis infection was independently associated with young age, ocular discharge, type of household water source and the presence of flies around a latrine.In this remote island environment, household-level risk factors relating to fly populations, hygiene behaviours and water usage are likely to be important in the transmission of ocular C. trachomatis infection and the prevalence of active trachoma. This may be important in the implementation of environmental measures in trachoma control.

  5. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mother and child; the importance of a complete history and efficient interdisciplinary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, Jolanda C; Kleinhout, Mirjam Y

    2016-01-01

    General practitioners and paediatricians are frequently confronted with coughing infants. The age of the infant, the history of both mother and child, as well as the current maternal condition may provide important diagnostic information. A 4-week-old male infant was referred to the paediatrician with a persistent cough. He was admitted to hospital with dyspnoea and need for supplemental oxygen. Meanwhile, his mother was admitted with unexplained abdominal pain and elevated laboratory inflammation markers. Her history revealed an ectopic pregnancy. The infant's condition, for which the initial differential diagnosis was viral bronchiolitis or whooping cough, deteriorated. His medical history revealed a purulent conjunctivitis. Chlamydia trachomatis PCR turned out to be positive in both mother and child. C. trachomatis pneumonia is a common, yet often overlooked cause of cough in infants. This clinical lesson emphasises the importance of a complete history and efficient communication between medical specialists.

  6. Identification of two novel genes encoding 97- to 99-kilodalton outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae.Infect Immun. 1999 Jan;67(1):375-83

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, K; Madsen, AS; Mygind, P

    1999-01-01

    of putative outer membrane proteins encoded by the Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis gene families. By use of a monospecific polyclonal antibody against purified recombinant Omp4, it was shown that without heating, the protein migrated at 65 to 75 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel...

  7. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015

  8. 肺炎衣原体感染与阿尔茨海默病的关系%Association between Chlamydia pneumonia infection and Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新玲; 刘雪晴; 杨杰民

    2013-01-01

    阿尔茨海默病(AD)是老年痴呆最常见病因,习惯上分为早发家族性AD(FAD)和迟发性AD(LOAD).近年来炎症作为LOAD发病因素备受关注,多种研究表明肺炎衣原体(Cpn)感染与LOAD相关.本文介绍了Cpn感染参与LOAD的组织病理学依据、动物模型研究及临床干预实验研究,并探讨Cpn感染导致LOAD可能的发病机制.%Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, whereby it is customary to distinguish between early familial FAD and late-onset AD (LOAD). The importance of inflammation in the pathogenesis of LOAD is increasingly being recognized and many studies show that Chlamydia pneumonia (Cpn) has been implicated in LOAD pathogenesis. This review focuses specifically on infection with Cpn in LOAD including the histopathological basis, animal model research and antibiotic treatment studies, and how the infection may function as a "trigger or initiator" in the pathogenesis of LOAD.

  9. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects of silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP nanoparticles in mouse macrophages infected with live Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilma AN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abebayehu N Yilma, Shree R Singh, Saurabh Dixit, Vida A DennisCenter for Nanobiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a very common sexually transmissible infection in both developing and developed countries. A hallmark of C. trachomatis infection is the induction of severe inflammatory responses which play critical roles in its pathogenesis. Antibiotics are the only treatment option currently available for controlling C. trachomatis infection; however, they are efficacious only when administered early after an infection. The objectives of this study are to explore alternative strategies in the control and regulation of inflammatory responses triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. We employed silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP nanoparticles, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, as our target and the in vitro mouse J774 macrophage model of C. trachomatis infection. Our hypothesis is that small sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles will control inflammatory mediators triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. Cytotoxicity studies using Ag-PVP nanoparticles of 10, 20, and 80 nm sizes revealed >80% macrophage viability up to a concentration of 6.25 µg/mL, with the 10 nm size being the least toxic. All sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, especially the 10 nm size, reduced the levels of the prototypic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin (IL-6, as elicited from C. trachomatis infected macrophages. Additionally, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm selectively inhibited a broad spectrum of other cytokines and chemokines produced by infected macrophages. Of significance, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm caused perturbations in a variety of upstream (toll like receptor 2 [TLR2], nucleotide-binding oligomerization-protein 2 [NOD2], cluster of differentiation [CD]40, CD80, and CD86 and downstream (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 [IRAK3] and matrix

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles in mouse macrophages infected with live Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilma, Abebayehu N; Singh, Shree R; Dixit, Saurabh; Dennis, Vida A

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a very common sexually transmissible infection in both developing and developed countries. A hallmark of C. trachomatis infection is the induction of severe inflammatory responses which play critical roles in its pathogenesis. Antibiotics are the only treatment option currently available for controlling C. trachomatis infection; however, they are efficacious only when administered early after an infection. The objectives of this study are to explore alternative strategies in the control and regulation of inflammatory responses triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. We employed silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, as our target and the in vitro mouse J774 macrophage model of C. trachomatis infection. Our hypothesis is that small sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles will control inflammatory mediators triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. Cytotoxicity studies using Ag-PVP nanoparticles of 10, 20, and 80 nm sizes revealed >80% macrophage viability up to a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL, with the 10 nm size being the least toxic. All sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, especially the 10 nm size, reduced the levels of the prototypic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6, as elicited from C. trachomatis infected macrophages. Additionally, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) selectively inhibited a broad spectrum of other cytokines and chemokines produced by infected macrophages. Of significance, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) caused perturbations in a variety of upstream (toll like receptor 2 [TLR2], nucleotide-binding oligomerization-protein 2 [NOD2], cluster of differentiation [CD]40, CD80, and CD86) and downstream (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 [IRAK3] and matrix metallopeptidase 9 [MMP9]) inflammatory signaling pathways by downregulating their messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcript expressions as induced by C. trachomatis in macrophages

  12. Identification of concomitant infection with Chlamydia trachomatis IncA-negative mutant and wild-type strains by genomic, transcriptional, and biological characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchland, Robert J; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Xia, Minsheng; Bhatia, Ajay; Chu, Hencelyn G; Rockey, Daniel D; Stamm, Walter E

    2008-12-01

    Clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis that lack IncA on their inclusion membrane form nonfusogenic inclusions and have been associated with milder, subclinical infections in patients. The molecular events associated with the generation of IncA-negative strains and their roles in chlamydial sexually transmitted infections are not clear. We explored the biology of the IncA-negative strains by analyzing their genomic structure, transcription, and growth characteristics in vitro and in vivo in comparison with IncA-positive C. trachomatis strains. Three clinical samples were identified that contained a mixture of IncA-positive and -negative same-serovar C. trachomatis populations, and two more such pairs were found in serial isolates from persistently infected individuals. Genomic sequence analysis of individual strains from each of two serovar-matched pairs showed that these pairs were very similar genetically. In contrast, the genome sequence of an unmatched IncA-negative strain contained over 5,000 nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the genome sequence of a serovar-matched but otherwise unlinked strain. Transcriptional analysis, in vitro culture kinetics, and animal modeling demonstrated that IncA-negative strains isolated in the presence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain are phenotypically more similar to the wild-type strain than are IncA-negative strains isolated in the absence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain. These studies support a model suggesting that a change from an IncA-positive strain to the previously described IncA-negative phenotype may involve multiple steps, the first of which involves a translational inactivation of incA, associated with subsequent unidentified steps that lead to the observed decrease in transcript level, differences in growth rate, and differences in mouse infectivity.

  13. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 regulate the frequency of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T-cells during pulmonary infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Wantia

    Full Text Available TLR2 and TLR4 are crucial for recognition of Chlamydia pneumoniae in vivo, since infected TLR2/4 double-deficient mice are unable to control the infection as evidenced by severe loss of body weight and progressive lethal pneumonia. Unexpectedly, these mice display higher pulmonary levels of the protective cytokine IFNγ than wild type mice. We show here, that antigen-specific CD4(+ T-cells are responsible for the observed IFNγ-secretion in vivo and their frequency is higher in TLR2/4 double-deficient than in wild type mice. The capacity of TLR2/4 double-deficient dendritic cells to re-stimulate CD4(+ T-cells did not differ from wild type dendritic cells. However, the frequency of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ T-cells was considerably higher in wild type compared to TLR2/4 double-deficient mice and was inversely related to the number of IFNγ-secreting CD4(+ effector T-cells. Despite increased IFNγ-levels, at least one IFNγ-mediated response, protective NO-secretion, could not be induced in the absence of TLR2 and 4. In summary, CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T-cells fail to expand in the absence of TLR2 and TLR4 during pulmonary infection with C. pneumoniae, which in turn enhances the frequency of CD4(+IFNγ(+ effector T-cells. Failure of IFNγ to induce NO in TLR2/4 double-deficient cells represents one possible mechanism why TLR2/4 double-deficient mice are unable to control pneumonia caused by C. pneumoniae and succumb to the infection.

  14. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  15. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  16. Enrofloxacin and macrolides alone or in combination with rifampicin as antimicrobial treatment in a bovine model of acute Chlamydia psittaci infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Prohl

    Full Text Available Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6-8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i rifampicin, (ii enrofloxacin, (iii enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv azithromycin, (v azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi erythromycin, and (vii erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi, when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e., cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP, clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks.

  17. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  18. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodriguez-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  19. Risk factors for ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in children 6 months following mass treatment in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Cajas-Monson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world, and for endemic communities, mass treatment with azithromycin reduces the pool of infection. High coverage is essential, especially in children as they are the infectious reservoir. However, infection remains post-mass treatment. We sought to determine risk factors for infection in children post-mass treatment. METHODOLOGY: All children under 9 years in 4 villages in Tanzania were followed from baseline pre-mass treatment to six months post treatment. 1,991 children under nine years were enrolled in the longitudinal study and data on individual and household characteristics was collected at baseline. Clinical trachoma was determined by an ocular exam and infection detected by PCR of an eyelid swab. Azithromycin was offered and infection was reassessed at 6 months. A multilevel logistic regression model was used, accounting for household clustering of children for analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline infection was 23.7% and at 6 months was 10.4%, despite 95% coverage. Infection at baseline was positively associated with infection at 6 months (OR = 3.31, 95%CI 2.40-4.56 and treatment had a protective effect (OR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.25-0.80. The age group 2-4 years had an increased risk of infection at 6 months. The household characteristics predictive of infection at 6 months were increasing number of children infected in the household at baseline and increasing number of untreated children in the household. CONCLUSIONS: While one round of mass treatment with high coverage did decrease infection by over 50%, it appears that it is not sufficient to eliminate infection. Findings that young children (ages 2-4 years and households with increasing numbers of infected and untreated children have a positive association with infection at 6 months suggest that such households could be targeted for more intensive follow up.

  20. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者肺炎衣原体 感染的研究%Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段争; 刘树卿; 王保法; 石玉珍; 关继涛; 王菡侨; 王玉娥

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of chlamydia pneumoniae infection with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Methods 61 patients with acute exacerbations of COPD,35 patients with stable COPD and 26 healthy subjects were selected. Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific serum IgG,IgA,IgM antibodies were measured by microimmunofluorescence method. Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in sputum were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction. Results The prevalence of acute chlamydia pneumoniae infection in COPD patients with acute exacerbation was significantly higher (31.1%) than that in patients with stable COPD (P<0.05) and in healthy subjects(P<0.01).The prevalences of chronic chlamydia pneumoniae infection in COPD patients with acute exacerbations(21.3%) and stable COPD patients (31.4%) were higer than that in healthy subjects (P<0.05) The level of geometric mean titer of the serum IgA antibodies was the highest in COPD patients with acute exacerbations (20.5),intermediately elevated in stable COPD patients (10.8) and lowest in healthy subjects(3.6). Conclusion Acute chlamydia pneumoniae infection is a rather frequent event in acute excerbation of COPD,and chronic chlamydia pneumoniae infection may be involved in pathogenesis of COPD.%目的探讨肺炎衣原体感染与慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)的相关性。方法选择61例COPD急性加重期患者,35例COPD稳定期患者,26名正常对照者,采用微量免疫荧光法测定血清肺炎衣原体特异性抗体IgA,IgM,IgG,套式聚合酶链反应检测痰中的肺炎衣原体DNA。结果 COPD急性加重期患者的急性肺炎衣原体的感染率为31.1%,明显高于COPD稳定期和对照组(P<0.05)。COPD急性加重期组和稳定期组的慢性肺炎衣原体感染率分别为21.3%和31.4%,明显高于对照组(P均<0.05),同时IgA的几何平均滴度在COPD急性加重期组中最高(20.5),COPD稳定期组中次之(10.8),对照组最低(3.6),

  1. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women: relationship to history, contraception, and cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontis, J; Vavilis, D; Panidis, D; Theodoridis, T; Konstantinidis, T; Sidiropoulou, A

    1994-12-01

    The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was examined in 400 endocervical samples collected from an equal number of asymptomatic sexually active women. The overall prevalence was found to be 4%, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chlamydia infection was correlated with younger age (5.8%, p 0.05), condom (0%, p Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with younger age, intense sexual life, and use of oral contraceptives. Given that the majority of infected women revealed cervical pathology, the detection of chlamydia in the high-risk female population with cervical changes seems to be essential.

  2. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniaeis a fastidious microorganism with a characteristic biphasic lifecycle causing a variety of human respiratory tract infections. There is limited knowledge about the molecular biology of C. pneumoniae, and only a few genes have been sequenced. The structure of the chlamydial...

  3. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikhande, S N; Joshi, S G; Zodpey, S P; Saoji, A M

    1995-04-01

    The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and some epidemiologic factors associated with it were studied in 273 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients attending Gynaecologic clinic, Government Medical College, Nagpur. For detection of chlamydial antigen Pharmacia Diagnostics Chlamydia EIA test was used. This study revealed an overall positivity rate of 33% for C. trachomatis infection in PID patients. Of the hypothesised risk factors low socioeconomic status, history of sexual contacts with multiple partners and use of intrauterine devices (IUD) were significantly associated with C. trachomatis infections. However, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and increasing age were found to be protective factors for C. trachomatis infection. Thus considering the significant contribution of C. trachomatis in etiology of PID and its independent association with some epidemiologic risk factors, extensive epidemiologic measures are recommended for prevention of these infections.

  5. Costs of testing for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection compared to mass drug administration for trachoma in the Gambia: application of results from the PRET study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Harding-Esch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA treatment of active trachoma with antibiotic is recommended to be initiated in any district where the prevalence of trachoma inflammation, follicular (TF is ≥ 10% in children aged 1-9 years, and then to continue for at least three annual rounds before resurvey. In The Gambia the PRET study found that discontinuing MDA based on testing a sample of children for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct infection after one MDA round had similar effects to continuing MDA for three rounds. Moreover, one round of MDA reduced disease below the 5% TF threshold. We compared the costs of examining a sample of children for TF, and of testing them for Ct, with those of MDA rounds.The implementation unit in PRET The Gambia was a census enumeration area (EA of 600-800 people. Personnel, fuel, equipment, consumables, data entry and supervision costs were collected for census and treatment of a sample of EAs and for the examination, sampling and testing for Ct infection of 100 individuals within them. Programme costs and resource savings from testing and treatment strategies were inferred for the 102 EAs in the study area, and compared.Census costs were $103.24 per EA plus initial costs of $108.79. MDA with donated azithromycin cost $227.23 per EA. The mean cost of examining and testing 100 children was $796.90 per EA, with Ct testing kits costing $4.80 per result. A strategy of testing each EA for infection is more expensive than two annual rounds of MDA unless the kit cost is less than $1.38 per result. However stopping or deciding not to initiate treatment in the study area based on testing a sample of EAs for Ct infection (or examining children in a sample of EAs creates savings relative to further unnecessary treatments.Resources may be saved by using tests for chlamydial infection or clinical examination to determine that initial or subsequent rounds of MDA for trachoma are unnecessary.

  6. Protection against Chlamydia promoted by a subunit vaccine (CTH1 compared with a primary intranasal infection in a mouse genital challenge model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Weinreich Olsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chlamydial proteins CT443 (OmcB and CT521 (rl16 have previously been identified as human B and/or T cell targets during a chlamydial infection in humans. Here we compare the protective effector mechanism promoted by a fusion protein composed of CT521 and CT443 (CTH1 with a primary intranasal Chlamydia muridarum infection known to provide high levels of protection against a genital chlamydial challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The fusion protein CTH1, adjuvanted with a strong Th1 inducing cationic adjuvant (CAF01, significantly reduced the bacterial shedding compared to a control group in both a C. trachomatis Serovar D and C. muridarum challenge model. The CTH1/CAF01 vaccine was found to induce polyfunctional T cells consisting of TNFalpha/IL-2 and TNFalpha/IL-2/IFN-gamma positive cells and high titers of CTH1 specific IgG2a and IgG1. By depletion experiments the protection in the C. muridarum challenge model was demonstrated to be mediated solely by CD4(+ T cells. In comparison, an intranasal infection with C. muridarum induced a T cell response that consisted predominantly of TNFalpha/IFN-gamma co-expressing effector CD4(+ T cells and an antibody response consisting of C. muridarum specific IgG1, IgG2a but also IgA. This response was associated with a high level of protection against challenge-a protection that was only partially dependent on CD4(+ T cells. Furthermore, whereas the antibody response induced by intranasal infection was strongly reactive against the native antigens displayed in the chlamydial elementary body, only low levels of antibodies against this preparation were found after CTH1/CAF01 immunization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that CTH1 vaccination promotes a CD4(+ T cell dependent protective response but compared with intranasal C. muridarum infection lacks a CD4 independent protective mechanism for complete protection.

  7. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macer, Matthew; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures. PMID:27747116

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Land, Jolande A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Morré, Servaas A; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antib

  9. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: A cross-national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, I; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, B

    2015-01-01

    indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44......%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention...... activities and case management guidelines addressing partner management, compared with 44% (11/25) of countries in 2007. Conclusion: Overall, chlamydia control activities in EU/EEA countries strengthened between 2007 and 2012. Several countries still need to develop essential chlamydia control activities...

  10. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-08

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered.

  11. Association of human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infections on the risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, André LP; Malaguti, Natália; Souza, Raquel P; Uchimura, Nelson S; Ferreira, Érika C; Pereira, Monalisa W; Carvalho, Maria DB; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia EL

    2016-01-01

    The link between high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the risk of developing cervical cancer still unclear. Thus, in this report we investigated the rates of co-infections between HPV and other important non-HPV STDs in different cervical findings using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to simultaneously detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum. A total of 838 women aged 18 to 68 years were screened using Papanicolaou smears for cervical abnormalities, HPV and non-HPV STDs using PCR and M-PCR methods. A total of 614 (73.3%) of the women had normal cytology (NILM) and 224 (26.7%) women exhibited abnormal cytology (≥ ASC-US). HPV-DNA prevalence was 33.9%, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype in women with NILM and ≥ ASC-US cytology. Non-HPV STDs were detected in 30.4% women and T. vaginalis was the most prevalent one (11.6%). A higher increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL occurred in co-infections of HR-HPV with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with HSV-2 exhibited a similar increased risk but only with ≥ ASC-US. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with T. vaginalis demonstrated a similar increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL. We found that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were the primary pathogens associated with HR-HPV for the increased risk for all grades of cervical abnormalities but mainly for HSIL, suggesting a possible synergistic action in cervical lesions progression. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some non-HPV STDs might play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. These data improve our understanding of the etiology of SCC and may also be useful for disease prevention. PMID:27429850

  12. Association of human papillomavirus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infections on the risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, André Lp; Malaguti, Natália; Souza, Raquel P; Uchimura, Nelson S; Ferreira, Érika C; Pereira, Monalisa W; Carvalho, Maria Db; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia El

    2016-01-01

    The link between high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the risk of developing cervical cancer still unclear. Thus, in this report we investigated the rates of co-infections between HPV and other important non-HPV STDs in different cervical findings using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to simultaneously detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV-1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum. A total of 838 women aged 18 to 68 years were screened using Papanicolaou smears for cervical abnormalities, HPV and non-HPV STDs using PCR and M-PCR methods. A total of 614 (73.3%) of the women had normal cytology (NILM) and 224 (26.7%) women exhibited abnormal cytology (≥ ASC-US). HPV-DNA prevalence was 33.9%, and HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype in women with NILM and ≥ ASC-US cytology. Non-HPV STDs were detected in 30.4% women and T. vaginalis was the most prevalent one (11.6%). A higher increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL occurred in co-infections of HR-HPV with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with HSV-2 exhibited a similar increased risk but only with ≥ ASC-US. Co-infections of HPV-DNA and HR-HPV with T. vaginalis demonstrated a similar increased risk of ≥ ASC-US and HSIL. We found that C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were the primary pathogens associated with HR-HPV for the increased risk for all grades of cervical abnormalities but mainly for HSIL, suggesting a possible synergistic action in cervical lesions progression. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that some non-HPV STDs might play a role as co-factors in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. These data improve our understanding of the etiology of SCC and may also be useful for disease prevention.

  13. Infección genital por Chlamydia trachomatis y otros microorganismos en dos grupos de mujeres en Cartagena Frequency of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis and other microorganisms in two groups of women in Cartagena, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Pulido; Armando Flecha; Ivonne Correa; Gregorio Young; Delfina Urbina

    1992-01-01

    Las enfermedades asociadas a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis y la vaginosis bacteriana son de importancia en la población sexual mente activa, por lo que amerita estudiarlas. Con la finalidad de conocer su frecuencia en Cartagena se estudiaron, entre 1988 y 1990, 431 mujeres que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del Hospital Universitario de Cartagena o al Centro Venereológico de la misma ciudad (167 pacientes en el primero y 264 en el segundo); su edad promedio era 28 años. Utiliza...

  14. Factores de riesgo y secuelas reproductivas asociados a la infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en mujeres infértiles Risk factors and reproductive sequelae associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar la información clínica y el estilo de vida sexual en dos grupos de mujeres con y sin infección por Chlamydia trachomatis que asisten a la clínica de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, de la Ciudad de México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: De febrero a noviembre de 1998, se realizó un estudio prospectivo en pacientes con diagnóstico de infertilidad. En el estudio se incluyó a pacientes con diagnóstico de infertilidad, tratados en el Instituto Nacional de Perinatologi...

  15. Diagnosis and Management of Uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Adolescents and Adults: Summary of Evidence Reviewed for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, William M

    2015-12-15

    In preparation for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines, the CDC convened an advisory group in 2013 to examine recent abstracts and published literature addressing the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of STDs. This article summarizes the key questions, evidence, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in adolescents and adults that were considered in development of the 2015 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines. The evidence reviewed primarily focused on CT infection risk factors in women, clinical significance of oropharyngeal CT detection, acceptability and performance of CT testing on self-collected specimens in men, performance of CT point-of-care tests, efficacy of recommended and investigational CT infection treatments, and timing of test of cure following CT infection treatment in pregnant women.

  16. STUDIES ON LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION%沙眼衣原体感染实验室诊断研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎玲; 李丹; 冯树异; 周劲松; 王双元

    2001-01-01

    Aim To study on several methods for diagnostic value of chlamydiainfection of urogenital tract.Methods We examined 81 specimens from female outpatient by using glycogen assay,PCR,clearview and cell culture.Results Compared with cell culture the sensitivity and specificity were as follows:glycogen assay,87.5%,98.6%;PCR,100%,98.6%;clearview,75.0%,100%.Conclusions Studied four methods,all can be used to diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the glycogen assay is considered as a fast,easy and economical method.%目的 探讨几种检测泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染方法的临床诊断价值。方法 用细胞培养法、糖原试验、PCR和透明窗试验分别对81例STD门诊女性患者宫颈分泌物标本进行平行检测。结果 以细胞培养作参比,糖原试验的敏感性为87.5%,特异性为98.6%;PCR敏感性为100%,特异性为98.6%;透明窗试验敏感性为75.0%,特异性100%。结论 四种检测方法均可应用于沙眼衣原体感染的诊断,且糖原试验是一种快速、易行、经济的方法。

  17. Innate immunity in ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection: contribution of IL8 and CSF2 gene variants to risk of trachomatous scarring in Gambians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joof Hassan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trachoma, a chronic keratoconjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the world's commonest infectious cause of blindness. Blindness is due to progressive scarring of the conjunctiva (trachomatous scarring leading to in-turning of eyelashes (trichiasis and corneal opacification. We evaluated the contribution of genetic variation across the chemokine and cytokine clusters in chromosomes 4q and 5q31 respectively to risk of scarring trachoma and trichiasis in a large case-control association study in a Gambian population. Methods Linkage disequilibrium (LD mapping was used to investigate risk effects across the 4q and 5q31 cytokine clusters in relation to the risk of scarring sequelae of ocular Ct infection. Disease association and epistatic effects were assessed in a population based study of 651 case-control pairs by conditional logistic regression (CLR analyses. Results LD mapping suggested that genetic effects on risk within these regions mapped to the pro-inflammatory innate immune genes interleukin 8 (IL8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor (CSF2 loci. The IL8-251 rare allele (IL8-251 TT was associated with protection from scarring trachoma (OR = 0.29 p = 0.027. The intronic CSF2_27348 A allele in chromosome 5q31 was associated with dose dependent protection from trichiasis, with each copy of the allele reducing risk by 37% (p = 0.005. There was evidence of epistasis, with effects at IL8 and CSF2 loci interacting with those previously reported at the MMP9 locus, a gene acting downstream to IL8 and CSF2 in the inflammatory cascade. Conclusion innate immune response SNP-haplotypes are linked to ocular Ct sequelae. This work illustrates the first example of epistatic effects of two genes on trachoma.

  18. The CD14 functional gene polymorphism -260 C>T is not involved in either the susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection or the development of tubal pathology

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    Pleijster Jolein

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The functional polymorphism -260 C>T in the LPS sensing TLR4 co-receptor CD14 gene enhances the transcriptional activity and results in a higher CD14 receptor density. Individuals carrying the T/T genotype also have significantly higher serum levels of soluble CD14. The T allele of this polymorphism has recently been linked to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. We investigated the role of the CD14 -260 C>T polymorphism in the susceptibility to and severity (defined as subfertility and/or tubal pathology of C. trachomatis infection in Dutch Caucasian women. Methods The different CD14 -260 C>T genotypes were assessed by PCR-based RFLP analysis in three cohorts: 1 A cohort (n = 576 of women attending a STD clinic, 2 a cohort (n = 253 of women with subfertility, and 3 an ethnically matched control cohort (n = 170. The following variables were used in the analysis: In cohort 1 the CT-DNA status, CT IgG serology status, self-reported symptoms and in cohort 2, the CT IgG serology status and the tubal status at laparoscopy. Results In the control cohort the CC, CT and TT genotype distribution was: 28.2%, 48.2%, and 23.5% respectively. No differences were found in the overall prevalence of CD14 -260 genotypes (28.1%, 50.7%, and 21.2% in cohort 1 when compared to the control cohort. Also no differences were observed in women with or without CT-DNA, with or without serological CT responses, with or without symptoms, or in combinations of these three variables. In subfertile women with tubal pathology (cohort 2, n = 50 the genotype distribution was 28.0%, 48.0%, and 24.0% and in subfertile women without tubal pathology (n = 203, 27.6%, 49.3% and 23.2%. The genotype distribution was unchanged when CT IgG status was introduced in the analyses. Conclusion The CD14 -260 C>T genotype distributions were identical in all three cohorts, showing that this polymorphism is not involved in the susceptibility to or severity of sequelae of C. trachomatis

  19. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb). How is ... pain, inability to get pregnant, and potentially deadly ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus). Men rarely have health ...

  20. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

    2010-09-01

    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure.

  1. 性病门诊患者沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体检测结果分析%Analysis on Infection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Out Patients with Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹伟文; 罗军; 阎燕; 余克花; 宋矿余; 李玉虎

    2002-01-01

    Objective To find out the characteristics of infection of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in out patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Methods Antigen of CT was detected by Clearview Chlamydia fast method( C - C); UU were examined by culture. Results 177 (25.6%) of total 692 cases were CT antigen positive,and 269(38.9% ) were UU positive,respectively. The female positive rate of CT was 30.9%(101/327),and the male one 20.8 % (76/365), (X2 = 9.2, P < 0.01 ). The female positive rate of UU was 48.0% (157/327), the male one 30.7%(112/365),(X2=21.8,P<0.01).6.1% among the patients were mixed infection. Conclusion Infection of UU was higher than that of CT in out patients with sexually transmitted diseases. Both CT and UU positive rates of female were higher than those of male.

  2. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  3. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening. Moving toward implementation of chlamydia hedis 2000 measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh; Grimley; Heudebert

    2000-05-01

    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents preliminary findings from the Birmingham project of this multicenter study.Methods: In partnerships with two HMOs, series of outreach methods were used in a stepwise fashion to determine potential barriers and enabling factors for the implementation of chlamydia HEDIS measure in a conservative social environment. Mail outreach was sequentially combined with newspaper, TV, radio advertisements and poster displays. Both qualitative and quantitative impact of the outreach efforts were measured across the timeline. The measures included reporting for chlamydia screening (urine LCR) and infection rate, monitoring chlamydia hotline and staffed phoneline use, and assessment of untoward effects and cost-analysis of the chlamydia outreach campaign.Results: The key findings are: the benefit of chlamydia screening is not understood by general public, letters send by Health Plans to their members are not read by many subscribers, and there are wide gaps between adolescents and their parents, in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs in regard to obtaining information and accessing the screening services (teens prefer hotline, brochure in an envelop addressed to teens, incentives for reporting to the clinic for screening, vs. parents prefer staffed phone consults, "exposed" brochure addressed to parents, and no incentives). A month of sustained and repeat multi-media campaign resulted in 330 hotline calls, 83 phone calls and only 17 subjects being tested (3 were positive) though many more intended to come. Cumulative effects and cost of various outreach efforts are being monitored

  4. Study on Drug Resistance and Relative Mechanisms of Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯淑萍; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Chlamydia Trachomatis (C.T.) is one of the most common pathogens of human sexually transmitted diseases. Treatment of C.T. infection primarily depends on Tetracyclines, Macrolides and Quinolones, but with the wide use of antibiotics an increasing number of drug-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis cases have been reported. This review summarizes the resistant conditions and the possible resistance mechanisms of C.T..

  5. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) and Hoopoe (Upupa epops) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Osman, Kamelia M; Nashwa A. Ezzeldeen; Hadia A. Ali; Eman R. Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe) in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results...

  6. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  7. Retesting for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among visitors of a sexually transmitted infections clinic: Randomized intervention trial of home- versus clinic-based recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Götz (Hannelore); M.E.G. Wolfers (Mireille); A. Luijendijk (Ad); I.V.F. van den Broek (Ingrid)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4-5 months. Interventions were either home-based sampling by mailed

  8. Retesting for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among visitors of a sexually transmitted infections clinic : randomized intervention trial of home- versus clinic-based recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gotz, Hannelore M.; Wolfers, Mireille E. G.; Luijendijk, Ad; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4-5 months. Interventions were either home-based sampling by mailed test-kit, o

  9. Detection of bacterial antigens and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in the central nervous system of BALB/c mice following intranasal infection with a laboratory isolate of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Scott Little

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathology consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD has previously been documented following intranasal infection of normal wild-type mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn isolated from an AD brain (96-41. In the current study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with a laboratory strain of Cpn, AR-39, and brain and olfactory bulbs were obtained at 1-4 months post-infection (pi. Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. Chlamydia-specific immunolabeling was identified in olfactory bulb tissues and in cerebrum of AR-39 infected mice. The Cpn specific labeling was most prominent at 1 month pi and the greatest burden of amyloid deposition was noted at 2 months pi, whereas both decreased at 3 and 4 months. Viable Cpn was recovered from olfactory bulbs of 3 of 3 experimentally infected mice at 1 and 3 months pi, and in 2 of 3 mice at 4 months pi. In contrast, in cortical tissues of infected mice at 1 and 4 months pi no viable organism was obtained. At 3 months pi, only 1 of 3 mice had a measurable burden of viable Cpn from the cortical tissues. Mock-infected mice (0 of 3 had no detectable Cpn in either olfactory bulbs or cortical tissues. These data indicate that the AR-39 isolate of Cpn establishes a limited infection predominantly in the olfactory bulbs of BALB/c mice. Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. Our data suggest that infection with the AR-39 laboratory isolate of Cpn results in a different course of amyloid beta deposition and ultimate resolution than that observed following infection with the human AD-brain Cpn isolate, 96-41. These data further support that there may be differences, possibly in virulence factors, between Cpn isolates in the generation of sustainable AD pathology.

  10. Chlamydia pecorum is the endemic intestinal species in cattle while C. gallinacea, C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae associate with sporadic systemic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Guo, Weina; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Sachse, Konrad; Yang, Yi; Lu, Guangwu; Zhang, Jilei; Luan, Lu; You, Jinfeng; Huang, Ke; Qiu, Haixiang; Wang, Yaoyao; Li, Min; Yang, Zhangping; Wang, Chengming

    2016-09-25

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of bovine Chlamydia spp. in cattle, whole blood from dairy and beef cattle in 11 provinces of China (n=2003) and vaginal swabs, whole blood samples, feces, milk samples from cows in a Yangzhou dairy farm (n=108) were examined using genus- and species-specific PCRs. In cattle from 11 provinces, 2.4% (48/2003) of whole-blood samples were positive for Chlamydia spp., and four Chlamydia species (C. pneumoniae, 41.7%, 20/48; C. psittaci, 22.9%, 11/48; C. gallinacea, 20.8%, 10/48; C. pecorum, 6.3%, 3/48) were identified. In a further study on a Yangzhou dairy farm, 64.8% (70/108) of the cows were positive for Chlamydia spp. C. pecorum was the intestinal endemic species (51/51, 100%), and C. gallinacea was the most frequent species in vaginal swabs (24/27, 88.9%), whole blood buffy coats (5/8, 62.5%) and milk (4/6, 66.7%). C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae were infrequently detected. DNA sequencing of the ompA gene demonstrated the presence of multiple in-herd C. pecorum serovars and single C. gallinacea and C. psittaci serovars which were identical with those of poultry from Yangzhou. This is the first report of C. gallinacea and C. pneumoniae in cattle. Further study is required to address the transmission of Chlamydia spp., in particular of C. gallinacea and C. pneumoniae from their natural hosts, and their potential pathogenic effect on health and production of cattle.

  11. 妊娠期乳头瘤病毒感染合并细菌、衣原体性阴道炎研究%THE FREQUENCY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS AND CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATISIN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小菊

    2011-01-01

    [目的]针对HPV感染的妊娠期妇女合并细菌、衣原体、念珠菌感染的发生率进行流行病学研究,并与非HPV感染的妊娠期妇女的阴道pH值进行对照以期为临床相关疾患的诊治提供参考.[方法]选取2009~2010年来我院就诊的26名确诊HPV感染的妊娠期患者作为实验组,再选取26例非HPV感染的妊娠期妇女作为对照组,分别检测细菌、衣原体、念珠菌和pH值.[结果]实验组pH值为4.4±0.4,对照组为4.3±0.4(P=0.23,差异无统计学意义).实验组细菌感染率为53.84%,沙眼衣原体感染率为34.61%,其发病率远高于对照组(细菌感染率为15.38%,沙眼衣原体感染率为7.69%);实验组(19.23%)和对照组间(23.07%)白色念珠菌感染率差异无统计学意义;与对照组相比,实验组合并感染细菌、念珠菌和沙眼衣原体患者阴道pH值均大于4.5.HPV感染妊娠妇女更易感染细菌和沙眼衣原体.[结论]沙眼衣原体和细菌易与HPV伴行感染妊娠期妇女阴道.%[Objective] The aim of this study was to verify the presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) , Candida sp, chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women with human papillomavirus. [Methods] Selected 26 pregnant women with human pa-pillomavirus infection as experiment group and 26 pregnant women without human papillomavirus infection as control group, determined the bacterium, chlamydia trachomatis, Candida sp and vaginal pH (VpH) in two groups. [ Results ] The vaginal pH in experiment group was 4.4±0.4, and 4.3±0.4 in control group (P = 0.23). The incidences of bacterial and chlamydia trachomatis infection were 53.84% and 34.61% in experiment group, which were higher than those in control group (15.38%, 7.69%). The incidence of Candida albicans in two groups were not different ( 19.32% , 23.07% ). Compared to the control group, the vaginal pH of pregnant women with bacterial, chlamydia trachomatis and Candida infection was above 4.5. [ Con-ClliSion] Chlamydia trachomatis

  12. Characterization of the activity and expression of arginine decarboxylase in human and animal Chlamydia pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliven, Kimberly A; Fisher, Derek J; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2012-12-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional arginine decarboxylase (ArgDC), AaxB, that activates upon self-cleavage and converts l-arginine to agmatine. In contrast, most Chlamydia trachomatis serovars carry a missense or nonsense mutation in aaxB abrogating activity. The G115R missense mutation was not predicted to impact AaxB functionality, making it unclear whether AaxB variations in other Chlamydia species also result in enzyme inactivation. To address the impact of gene polymorphism on functionality, we investigated the activity and production of the Chlamydia AaxB variants. Because ArgDC plays a critical role in the Escherichia coli acid stress response, we studied the ability of these Chlamydia variants to complement an E. coli ArgDC mutant in an acid shock assay. Active AaxB was detected in four additional species: Chlamydia caviae, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia muridarum. Of the C. trachomatis serovars, only E appears to encode active enzyme. To determine when functional enzyme is present during the chlamydial developmental cycle, we utilized an anti-AaxB antibody to detect both uncleaved and cleaved enzyme throughout infection. Uncleaved enzyme production peaked around 20 h postinfection, with optimal cleavage around 44 h. While the role ArgDC plays in Chlamydia survival or virulence is unclear, our data suggest a niche-specific function.

  13. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  14. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M;

    1990-01-01

    Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0.......04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs...

  15. Prevalência da infecção por Chlamydia Trachomatis e Neisseria Gonorrhoea em mulheres jovens sexualmente ativas em uma cidade do Sul do Brasil Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoea infections in sexual actives young women at a Southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celi Passagnolo Sérgio Piazzetta

    2011-11-01

    gonorreia poderia ter sido maior na população estudada.PURPOSE: to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea in a sample of women from Curitiba. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study with a sample of sexually active non-pregnant women aged between 16 and 23 years-old, with an intact uterus, with up to four sexual partners, without evidence of fever or purulent cervicitis, submitted to pelvic examination and PCR-based urine- testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea. Exclusion criteria included: vaccination for HPV, vaccination history for the past 21 days, previous abnormal cytology, history of genital warts, splenectomy, immune disorders, and use of immunosuppressive drugs. An interview regarding sociodemographic and obstetric data and gynecological risk behavior for sexual transmitted diseases was applied. For statistical analysis, we used the c2 or Fisher’s exact test to assess the association between variables. RESULTS: the prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection in the study group was 10.7 and 1.5%, respectively, and the rate of coinfection was 0.9%. No correlation was found between the age range of the volunteers, the onset of sexual activity, the number of sexual partners and of new sexual partners in the last six months, and the presence of Chlamydia or gonorrhea. In women who had vaginal discharge or ectropion, the prevalence of Chlamydia infection was two times higher than in those without such signs. CONCLUSIONS: the results of this study were similar to national studies using PCR in urine samples for the detection of Chlamydia and gonorrhea in samples of non-pregnant women of the same age groups and with the same background. Since the volunteers with more than four sexual partners and those who had purulent endocervicitis were excluded, it is believed that the prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection could have been greater in this population.

  16. Modulation of cytokines and transcription factors (T-Bet and GATA3 in CD4 enriched cervical cells of Chlamydia trachomatis infected fertile and infertile women upon stimulation with chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins B and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salhan Sudha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydial Inclusion membrane proteins (Incs, are involved in biochemical interactions with host cells and infecting Chlamydiae. We have previously reported the role of two Chlamydia trachomatis (CT Incs, namely IncB and IncC in generating host immunity in CT infected women. Emerging data shows involvement of Inc stimulated CD4 positive T cells in aiding host immunity in infected fertile and infertile women through the secretion of interferon gamma. However the lack of data on the intra-cytokine interplay to these Incs in infected cell milieu prompted us to investigate further. Methods A total of 14 CT-positive fertile, 18 CT-positive infertile women and 25 uninfected controls were enrolled in this study. CD8 depleted, CD4 enriched cervical cells were isolated and upon stimulation with IncB and IncC, modulation of cytokines (Interleukin (IL-1 Beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, Interferon-gamma, IL-12, IL-23, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and T cell lineage regulating transcription factors T-Bet and GATA3 was determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Significant higher expression (P Conclusion Overall our data shows that CT IncB and IncC are able to upregulate expression of cytokines, namely interferon-gamma, IL-12, IL-23 and GM-CSF in CT-positive fertile women while expression of IL-1 Beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 were upregulated in CT-positive infertile women. Our study also suggests that Incs are able to modulate expression of T cell lineage determinants indicating their involvement in regulation of immune cells.

  17. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock proteins in women with tubal factor infertility are associated with prior infection by C. trachomatis but not by C. pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, K; Osser, S; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    proteins and to C. trachomatis but no independent influence of antibodies to C. pneumoniae. No interaction between C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae suggesting a synergistic effect was found although the heat shock proteins from these two organisms are immunologically similar. Antibodies to the chlamydial......The antibody response to heat shock proteins 60 and 10 were studied in 163 patients with tubal factor infertility and in 163 age-matched pregnant women. The associations of these antibodies with specific antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and to Chlamydia pneumoniae as well as with antibodies...... to the common chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen were studied. Patients with tubal factor infertility had significantly higher frequencies and titres of all antibodies except to C. pneumoniae. In a logistic regression model an association was found between the prevalence of antibodies to the heat shock...

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis in gynecologic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1978-12-01

    Symptoms suggestive of a lower genital tract infection (LGTI) are common complaints in women who consult gynecologists. Sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, are responsible for a substantial proportion of LGTI. This study was performed to establish the frequency of LGTI caused by C trachomatis in women attending a gynecologic outpatient clinic. Of 170 women with LGTI, 32.9% harbored one or more of these organisms: C trachomatis was found in 19.3%, N gonorrhoeae in 4.7%, and T vaginalis in 25.9%. The results of the isolation studies were correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. In women under 25 years of age, chlamydial cervicitis was found significantly more often in users of oral contraceptives than in nonusers. In women not taking such drugs, cervical erosion was found more often in Chlamydia-positive than Chlamydia-negative women. Since clinical examination failed to reveal any characteristic signs in cases of chlamydial infection, it was not possible to distinguish a chlamydial from a gonococcal infection. This study also reports the successful treatment of 15 women affected by chlamydial cervicitis with doxycycline or trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole.

  19. Evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Alexandra; Gomes, João P

    2014-04-01

    The Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular bacteria characterized by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. It encompasses the single genus Chlamydia, which involves nine species that affect a wide range of vertebral hosts, causing infections with serious impact on human health (mainly due to Chlamydia trachomatis infections) and on farming and veterinary industries. It is believed that Chlamydiales originated ∼700mya, whereas C. trachomatis likely split from the other Chlamydiaceae during the last 6mya. This corresponds to the emergence of modern human lineages, with the first descriptions of chlamydial infections as ancient as four millennia. Chlamydiaceae have undergone a massive genome reduction, on behalf of the deletional bias "use it or lose it", stabilizing at 1-1.2Mb and keeping a striking genome synteny. Their phylogeny reveals species segregation according to biological properties, with huge differences in terms of host range, tissue tropism, and disease outcomes. Genome differences rely on the occurrence of mutations in the >700 orthologous genes, as well as on events of recombination, gene loss, inversion, and paralogous expansion, affecting both a hypervariable region named the plasticity zone, and genes essentially encoding polymorphic and transmembrane head membrane proteins, type III secretion effectors and some metabolic pathways. Procedures for molecular typing are still not consensual but have allowed the knowledge of molecular epidemiology patterns for some species as well as the identification of outbreaks and emergence of successful clones for C. trachomatis. This manuscript intends to provide a comprehensive review on the evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

  20. Dual-color bioluminescent assay using infected HepG2 cells sheds new light on Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus effects on human cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Elisa; Donati, Manuela; Aldini, Rita; Cevenini, Luca; Mezzanotte, Laura; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Zvi, Ido Ben; Cevenini, Monica; Montagnani, Marco; Marangoni, Antonella; Roda, Aldo; Cevenini, Roberto

    2012-11-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are intracellular pathogens able to infect hepatocytes, causing an increase in serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels due to the production of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated whether these pathogens could interfere with cholesterol metabolism by affecting activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) promoter. CYP7A1 is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, which represents the main route of cholesterol catabolism. A straightforward dual-reporter bioluminescent assay was developed to simultaneously monitor CYP7A1 transcriptional regulation and cell viability in infected human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. C. pneumoniae and HCMV infection significantly decreased CYP7A1 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal inhibitions of 33±10% and 32±4%, respectively, at a multiplicity of infection of 1. To support in vitro experiments, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were also measured in Balb/c mice infected with C. pneumoniae. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides also increased in infected mice compared with controls. Although further investigation is required, this work presents the first experimental evidence that C. pneumoniae and HCMV inhibit CYP7A1 gene transcription in the cultured human hepatoblastoma cell line.

  1. Chlamydia species-dependent differences in the growth requirement for lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    Full Text Available Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole that is in close apposition to lysosomes. Metabolically-labeled uninfected host cell proteins were provided as an exogenous nutrient source to chlamydiae-infected cells, and uptake and subsequent labeling of chlamydiae suggested lysosomal degradation as a source of amino acids for the pathogen. Indeed, Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H(+/ATPase that blocks lysosomal acidification and functions, impairs the growth of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, and these effects are especially profound in C. pneumoniae. BafA1 induced the marked accumulation of material within the lysosomal lumen, which was due to the inhibition of proteolytic activities, and this response inhibits chlamydiae rather than changes in lysosomal acidification per se, as cathepsin inhibitors also inhibit the growth of chlamydiae. Finally, the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, compromises the ability of lysosomal inhibitors to block chlamydial growth, suggesting chlamydiae directly access free amino acids in the host cytosol as a preferred source of these nutrients. Thus, chlamydiae co-opt the functions of lysosomes to acquire essential amino acids.

  2. [Chlamydia trachomatis proteasome protein as one of the significant pathogenicity factors of exciter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D Iu; Zigangirova, N A

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related infections are a global problem. Such infections may lead to acute or chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dangerous and widespread pathogenicity factor that is not sensitive to conventional drugs and has no obvious symptoms. Protein CPAF is leading factor of pathogenesis. This protein inhibits the signaling pathways of host cell and supports long survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The goal of this work was to review general properties of the proteasome Chlamydia protein CPAF, its functions, and role in pathology. The role of protein CPAF in the anti-chlamydia immune reaction is discussed. The prospects of the development of promising anti-chlamydia vaccine, as well as new effective anti-chlamydia drugs are also discussed.

  3. 沙眼衣原体感染致输卵管性不孕的研究进展%Research Progeress of Tubal Factor Associated Infertility Induced by Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 徐营; 郭燕君

    2012-01-01

    沙眼衣原体是最常见的性传播疾病的病原体之一.女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染直接影响女性的生殖健康,并对优生优育构成危害,患者感染后常因无症状而未能及时接受治疗.持续性CT感染可引起输卵管损害,导致输卵管性不孕等严重后果.本文就沙眼衣原体的病原生物学特征,CT感染致输卵管性不孕不育的机制,女性生殖道CT感染症状、检测和治疗做一综述.%Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is one of the most common sexually transmitted disease pathogens. Female genital CT infection directly affects a woman's reproductive health, and poses a danger of eugenic and superior nurture.Patients often failed to accept timely treatment for asymptomatic after infection.Persistent CT infection can cause tubal damage, resulting in serious consequences such as tubal infertility. Pathogenic biology characteristics of CT, CT infection to tubal infertility sterility mechanism, signs of infection, detection and treatment of female genital tract CT were introduced in this paper.

  4. 都兰地区山羊衣原体血清学检测%Serological Detection of Chlamydia Infection in Goats in Dulan Area,Qinghai province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨浩德

    2004-01-01

    衣原体病是一种由鹦鹉热衣原体(Chlamydia psittaci)所引起的传染病,人感染能引起鹦鹉热和Reiter综合症两种疾病。为了摸清都兰地区放牧山羊中衣原体的感染状况,为防制该病提供依据,对179只放牧山羊进行了血清学调查,现将结果报告如下。

  5. 'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia' and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG genital infection in women are not well understood. Methods A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Results Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0 (n = 55 and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3 (n = 27. Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab (p Conclusions These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections.

  6. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  7. Detection of Chlamydia in the peripheral blood cells of normal donors using in vitro culture, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Chester

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct and Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp are medically significant infectious agents associated with various chronic human pathologies. Nevertheless, specific roles in disease progression or initiation are incompletely defined. Both pathogens infect established cell lines in vitro and polymerase chain reaction (PCR has detected Chlamydia DNA in various clinical specimens as well as in normal donor peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC. However, Chlamydia infection of other blood cell types, quantification of Chlamydia infected cells in peripheral blood and transmission of this infection in vitro have not been examined. Methods Cp specific titers were assessed for sera from 459 normal human donor blood (NBD samples. Isolated white blood cells (WBC were assayed by in vitro culture to evaluate infection transmission of blood cell borne chlamydiae. Smears of fresh blood samples (FB were dual immunostained for microscopic identification of Chlamydia-infected cell types and aliquots also assessed using Flow Cytometry (FC. Results ELISA demonstrated that 219 (47.7% of the NBD samples exhibit elevated anti-Cp antibody titers. Imunofluorescence microscopy of smears demonstrated 113 (24.6% of samples contained intracellular Chlamydia and monoclonals to specific CD markers showed that in vivo infection of neutrophil and eosinophil/basophil cells as well as monocytes occurs. In vitro culture established WBCs of 114 (24.8% of the NBD samples harbored infectious chlamydiae, clinically a potentially source of transmission, FC demonstrated both Chlamydia infected and uninfected cells can be readily identified and quantified. Conclusion NBD can harbor infected neutrophils, eosinophil/basophils and monocytes. The chlamydiae are infectious in vitro, and both total, and cell type specific Chlamydia carriage is quantifiable by FC.

  8. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  9. The proinflammatory cytokine response to Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies in human macrophages is partly mediated by a lipoprotein, the macrophage infectivity potentiator, through TLR2/TLR1/TLR6 and CD14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Sylvette; Neff, Laurence; Vuillet, Madeleine; Spenato, Ursula; Seya, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Misako; Gabay, Cem

    2008-01-15

    Chlamydiae components and signaling pathway(s) responsible for the production of proinflammatory cytokines by human monocytes/macrophages are not clearly identified. To this aim, Chlamydia trachomatis-inactivated elementary bodies (EB) as well as the following seven individual Ags were tested for their ability to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by human monocytes/macrophages and THP-1 cells: purified LPS, recombinant heat shock protein (rhsp)70, rhsp60, rhsp10, recombinant polypeptide encoded by open reading frame 3 of the plasmid (rpgp3), recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMip), and recombinant outer membrane protein 2 (rOmp2). Aside from EB, rMip displayed the highest ability to induce release of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8. rMip proinflammatory activity could not be attributed to Escherichia coli LPS contamination as determined by the Limulus Amoebocyte lysate assay, insensitivity to polymyxin B (50 microg/ml), and different serum requirement. We have recently demonstrated that Mip is a "classical" bacterial lipoprotein, exposed at the surface of EB. The proinflammatory activity of EB was significantly attenuated in the presence of polyclonal Ab to rMip. Native Mip was able to induce TNF-alpha and IL-8 secretion, whereas a nonlipidated C20A rMip variant was not. Proinflammatory activity of rMip was unaffected by heat or proteinase K treatments but was greatly reduced by treatment with lipases, supporting a role of lipid modification in this process. Stimulating pathways appeared to involve TLR2/TLR1/TLR6 with the help of CD14 but not TLR4. These data support a role of Mip lipoprotein in pathogenesis of C. trachomatis-induced inflammatory responses.

  10. Contemporary approaches to designing and evaluating vaccines against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Eko, Francis O; Black, Carolyn M

    2003-02-01

    The clinically relevant pathologic consequences of primary ocular, genital, or respiratory human infection by members of the genus Chlamydia are conjunctivitis, cervicitis, urethritis and sinusitis. The major complications and sometimes debilitating evolutionary outcomes of these infections include: trichiasis and cicatrizing trachoma, endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease and involuntary tubal factor infertility and bronchopulmonary pneumonia. These diseases, in addition to other chlamydia-associated chronic syndromes (e.g., artherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), pose serious public healthcare and huge budgetary concerns. The current medical opinion is that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is a sine qua non--to control the morbidity of chiamydial infection in the human population. The research goal for an efficacious human chlamydial vaccine has faced key challenges to define the elements of protective immunity to facilitate vaccine evaluation, the judicious selection of appropriate vaccine candidates that possess stable antigenic and immunologic properties and the development of effective delivery vehicles and adjuvants to boost immune effectors to achieve long-term protective immunity. Progress in the functional immunobiology of Chlamydia has established the essential immunologic paradigms for vaccine selection and evaluation, including the obligatory requirement for a vaccine to induce T-helper Type 1 immune response that controls chlamydiae. Recent advances in chlamydial genomics and proteomics should enhance the identification of likely chlamydial gene products that fulfill the antigenic requirements of putative vaccine candidates. Major inroads are however needed in the construction and development of novel and effective delivery systems, such as vectors and adjuvants. This review summarizes the status of contemporary chlamydial vaccine research and promising trends fueling the growing optimism for an efficacious vaccine. The

  11. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Harrell W Chesson; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia sc...

  13. Seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia in North West zone of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agbonlahor DE; Okoror LE; Esumeh FI

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Chlamydia is made of organism responsible for respiratory as well as genital infections with very se-rious sequelae.In Nigeria there is paucity of information regards relative frequencies of Chlamydia infection of which this study reports in North West zone of Nigeria.Methods:Three hundred and thirty three (333)blood samples were collected from individuals attending various clinics in North West zone of Nigeria and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing antibody.Swabs collected from positive patients were re-tested using the Ro-manowsky-Giemsa staining technique.Statistical analysis were carried out in epi-info epidemiological software package.Results:From the total of 333 samples collected and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing anti-body (CCFA)only 287 (86%)were positive.The culture showed that 215 (75%)were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis while only 135 (47%)were positive for Chlamydia pneumoniae.Seventy-one (71)fe-males had symptomatic infection while 31 males were symptomatic.Of the 104 individuals who were asympto-matic 67 were females while 92 were males.Of the 31 symptomatic males were 22 positive to Chlamydia pneu-moniae and the symptoms being that of respiratory syndrome while 9 had difficulty urinating.All the symptom-atic women had symptoms resembling that of the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)and vaginal discharge. Age groups 31-35 had the highest positive samples while the extreme ages had the lowest number of positive in-dividuals and also the lowest number of samples.The number of samples as well as the positive results were validated using the epi-info statistical package version 3.4.1.There was no significant difference in the num-ber of samples from both males and females (χ2 =1.360,CI =99%).Conclusion:A high percentage of pos-itive result as validated by statistical analysis shows that Chlamydia infections are endemic in the population and efforts should be made to screen for the organism to avoid the "silent epidemics".

  14. 儿童肺炎衣原体感染的临床研究%Clinical study on Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思睿; 赵凯妹; 付文永; 鲁继荣; 赵鑫

    1999-01-01

    目的:探索长春地区儿童肺炎衣原体(Chlamydia Pneumoniae,简称C@pn)感染的发病情况.方法:采用PCR方法对54例肺炎患者的鼻咽分泌物进行C@pn的检测.结果:C@pn阳性11例,阳性率20.3%.阳性患者中以干咳为主要表现,多伴有低热或中度热.同期采用儿外科术前病人20例做为对照,结果均阴性.结论:C@pn是我省儿童呼吸道感染的重要病原,PCR法是临床上检测C@pn敏感、特异、快速的方法.

  15. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers;

    2015-01-01

    predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system...... in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system......Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good...

  16. The Clinical Value of PCR in Mycoplasma or Chlamydia Infection%P CR检测衣原体及支原体感染的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小兰; 白帆; 何穗芬; 石紫筠

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨聚合酶链反应( PCR)在衣原体感染、支原体感染中的临床应用价值。方法选自2013年8月至2014年12月入住我院,疑有非淋菌性尿道炎的患者160例作为研究对象,所有患者均接受PCR沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体检测,探讨PCR技术检测衣原体及支原体感染的临床意义。结果160例患者中,检测结果呈阳性者共计98例,其中,衣原体阳性患者62例,占63.27%;支原体阳性患者47例,占47.96%;衣原体+支原体皆呈阳性者11例,占11.22%;PCR检测的总符合率为78.75%;灵敏度和特异性分别为94.12%和61.33%。结论 PCR检测具有快速、灵敏等特点,积极开展聚合酶链反应技术进行衣原体、支原体检测,对非淋菌性尿道炎的早期诊断和促进康复具有重要意义。%Objective Investigate the clinical value of PCR in mycoplasma or chlamydia infection, and provide reference fpr clinical diagnosis. Methods 160 patients who were suspected with gonococcal or non-gonococcal urethritis were collected, all pa-tients underwent PCR detection of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticu; analyzed the Results and discussed the clinical value of PCR. Results The test results were positive in 98 cases in total, of which, 62 cases of chlamydia-positive patients, account-ing for 63. 27%;47 cases of mycoplasma-positive patients, accounting for 47. 96%;trachomatis+mycoplasma were both positive in 11 cases, accounting for 11. 22%;the coincidence rate of PCR were 78. 75%;sensitivity and specificity were 94. 12% and 61. 33%. Conclusion PCR assay has rapid, sensitive and other characteristics, the positive application of this technique in chlamydia and my-coplasma detection is very important in early diagnosis and promote rehabilitation of non-gonococcal urethritis.

  17. Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners; A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T.R. Pereboom (Monique T.); E.R. Spelten (Evelien); J. Manniën (Judith); G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); S.A. Morré (Servaas A); F.G. Schellevis (François); E.K. Hutton (Eileen K)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care pr

  18. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...

  19. A comparative ultrastructural and molecular biological study on Chlamydia psittaci infection in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema versus lung tissue of patients with hamartochondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogilevski Grigori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiales are familiar causes of acute and chronic infections in humans and animals. Human pulmonary emphysema is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and a condition in which chronic inflammation manifested as bronchiolitis and intra-alveolar accumulation of macrophages is common. It is generally presumed to be of infectious origin. Previous investigations based on serology and immunohistochemistry indicated Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in cases of COPD. Furthermore, immunofluorescence with genus-specific antibodies and electron microscopy suggested involvement of chlamydial infection in most cases of pulmonary emphysema, but these findings could not be verified by PCR. Therefore, we examined the possibility of other chlamydial species being present in these patients. Methods Tissue samples from patients having undergone lung volume reduction surgery for advanced alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD, n = 6 or non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema (n = 34 or wedge resection for hamartochondroma (n = 14 were examined by transmission electron microscopy and PCR. Results In all cases of AATD and 79.4% of non-AATD, persistent chlamydial infection was detected by ultrastructural examination. Intra-alveolar accumulation of macrophages and acute as well as chronic bronchiolitis were seen in all positive cases. The presence of Chlamydia psittaci was demonstrated by PCR in lung tissue of 66.7% AATD vs. 29.0% non-AATD emphysema patients. Partial DNA sequencing of four positive samples confirmed the identity of the agent as Chlamydophila psittaci. In contrast, Chlamydophila pneumoniae was detected only in one AATD patient. Lung tissue of the control group of non-smokers with hamartochondroma was completely negative for chlamydial bodies by TEM or chlamydial DNA by PCR. Conclusions These data indicate a role of Chlamydophila psittaci in pulmonary emphysema by linking this chronic inflammatory process

  20. Comparison on Different Test Methods Applied in Female Genital Tract Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection%不同检验方法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小兰

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the quantitative analysis of fluorescent PCR assay and colloidal gold in the female genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis value in the diagnosis of infection.Methods:Gynecological hospital in July 2012 to June 2013 were treated 350 suspected female genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a clinical observation of the object,respecti vely,using fluorescence quantitative PCR assay and colloidal gold pathogens in these patients detection sensitivity of comparing two test methods in the female genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis infection,specificity,false-positive rate,false negative rate,the degree of diagnostic and You den index.Results:The sensitivity and colloidal gold fluorescence quantitative PCR assays were 90.91% and 52.41% (P0.05);false positive rate of 9.09% and were 1.84%(P0.05);diagnosis degree were 94.29% and 73.43% (P<0.01);Yourdon index were 0.89 and 0.50.Conclusion:The two methods have advantages and disadvantages;PCR detection method is applicable to large hospitals,colloidal gold method applied to the primary hospital.%目的:比较分析荧光PCR定量检测法与胶体金法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染诊断中的应用价值。方法:选取我院妇科2012年7月~2013年6月收治的350名疑为女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染患者作为临床观察对象,分别采用荧光PCR定量检测法与胶体金法对这些患者进行病原体检测,比较两种检验方法在女性生殖道沙眼衣原体感染中的灵敏度,特异性,假阳性率,假阴性率,诊断符合度与Youden指数。结果:荧光PCR定量检测法的与胶体金法的灵敏度分别为90.91%与52.41%(P<0.01);特异性分别为98.16%与97.55%(P>0.05);假阳性率分别为9.09%与1.84%(P<0.01);假阴性率分别为1.84%与2.45%(P>0.05);诊断符合度分别为94.29%与73.43%(P<0.01);Youden指数分别为0.89与0.50。结论:两种检测方法各有利弊,荧光PCR检测方法

  1. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats.

  2. Chlamydia screening and positivity in juvenile detention centers, United States, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Newman, Daniel; Collins, Dayne; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.9 million new chlamydia infections occur in the United States each year. Among women, chlamydia can lead to serious adverse outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Chlamydia prevalence is highest among females aged 15-19 years. Despite long-standing recommendations directed at young, sexually active females, screening remains sub-optimal. Juvenile detention centers (JDCs) are uniquely situated to screen and treat high-risk adolescents. From 2009-2011, performance measure data on chlamydia screening coverage (proportion of eligible females screened) and positivity (proportion of females tested who were positive) were available from 126 geographically-dispersed JDCs in the United States. These facilities reported screening 55.2% of females entering the facilities (149,923), with a facility-specific median of 66.4% (range: 0-100%). Almost half (44.4%) of facilities had screening coverage levels of 75-100%. This screening resulted in the detection of 12,305 chlamydial infections, for an overall positivity of 14.7% (facility-specific median = 14.9%, range: 0-36.9%). In linear regression analysis, chlamydia positivity was inversely associated with screening coverage: as coverage increased, positivity decreased. The burden of chlamydia in JDCs is substantial; facilities should continue to deliver recommended chlamydia screening and treatment to females and identify mechanisms to increase coverage.

  3. Comparing two definitions of ethnicity for identifying young persons at risk for chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, A; Koedijk, F D H; Op De Coul, E L M; Götz, H M; van der Sande, M A B; Van Den Broek, I V F

    2012-05-01

    Ethnic disparities in chlamydia infections in The Netherlands were assessed, in order to compare two definitions of ethnicity: ethnicity based on country of birth and self-defined ethnicity. Chlamydia positivity in persons aged 16-29 years was investigated using data from the first round of the Chlamydia Screening Implementation (CSI, 2008-2009) and surveillance data from STI centres (2009). Logistic regression modelling showed that being an immigrant was associated with chlamydia positivity in both CSI [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0-2·6] and STI centres (aOR 1·4, 95% CI 1·3-1·5). In both settings, 60% of immigrants defined themselves as Dutch. Despite the difference, classification by self-defined ethnicity resulted in similar associations between (non-Dutch) ethnicity and chlamydia positivity. However, ethnicity based on country of birth explained variation in chlamydia positivity better, and is objective and constant over time and therefore more useful for identifying young persons at higher risk for chlamydia infection.

  4. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens.

  5. The contribution of biomarkers of oxidative stress and female reproductive hormones in genital chlamydia infection to tubal factor infer-tility%生殖道衣原体感染所致的氧化应激中的生物标志物和女性性激素在管性不孕中所起的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑文军; 陈丹妮

    2016-01-01

    目的:确定生殖道衣原体感染(GCI)所致氧化应激中的生物标志物和性激素在输卵管阻塞中的作用。方法前瞻性病例对照研究,纳入150例年龄配对的女性,分为三组:衣原体阳性的不孕女性(n =50);衣原体阳性的可孕女性(n =50)以及作为对照的衣原体阴性的可孕女性(n =50)。通过收集高位阴道拭子(HVS)和宫颈拭子(ECS)检测沙眼衣原体抗原;收集血清检测女性性激素[卵泡刺激素( FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P4)、催乳素(PRL)]以及检测氧化应激的生物标记物[总抗氧化能力(TAC)和8-羟基-2-脱氧鸟苷(8- OHdG)]。结果各组间患者的 FSH、PRL 和 E2水平均无显著差异( P >0.05)。在患有 GCI 的女性中,衣原体阳性的不孕女性较衣原体阳性的可孕女性 LH 和8- OHdG 水平显著升高( P <0.05);不孕的衣原体阳性女性较衣原体阴性的可孕女性,其 LH 和8-OHdG 水平升高而 TAC 水平降低。结论 DNA 氧化损伤和抗氧化能力减弱等机制可能与衣原体引起的输卵管损伤有关。%Objective The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of biomarkers of oxidative stress and female re-productive hormones in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods In this prospective case control study,150 age - matched women were grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women(n = 50),fertile Chlamydia positive women(n = 50)and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls(n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for testing Chlamydia trachomatis,Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum,Staphylococcus aureus,and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for testing Chlamydia trachomatis antibody,female repro-ductive hormones Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH),Luteinizing Hormone(LH),Oestradiol(E2),Progesterone(P4),Prolactin(PRL)〗, and testing biomarkers

  6. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  7. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  8. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

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    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  9. Localization of Chlamydia protease CT841 in infected cells and the antigenicity analysis of the protein%沙眼衣原体蛋白水解酶CT841在感染细胞中的定位及抗原性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春雪; 曾浩; 吴移谋; 彭波; 胡四海; 蔡恒玲; 李忠玉; 钟光明

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to localize protease CT841 in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells and investigate the antigenicity of the protein. Firstly, Chlamydia trachomatis CT841 gene was amplified by PCR and insert into pGEX-6p vector, and then the constructed vector was transformed into E. Coli XLl Blue and induced by IPTG. After purified with Clutathione Sepharose 4B beads, the CT841 fusion protein was used to immunize mice to produce polyclone antibody, which were subsequently used to localize the endogenous CT841 protein by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). At same time, ELISA was used to determine the reactivity of CT841 with sera samples collected from chlamydia infected patients, nonhuman primates or mice. These methods illustrated that the cellular distribution pattern of the protease CT841 is similar to that of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was highly recognized by chlamydia infected antisera. All results indicated that protease CT841 is localized on the bacterial organism in C. Trachomatis -infected cells and it is an immunodominant antigen of chlamydia.%目的 分析沙眼衣原体蛋白水解酶CT841在感染细胞中的定位并探讨其抗原性.方法 利用PCR技术获得衣原体CT841基因,将基因序列克隆到载体pGEX6p,转化大肠杆菌XL1-blue,IPTG诱导表达融合蛋白GST-CT841.融合蛋白经纯化后免疫小鼠制备特异性抗体,间接免疫荧光法分析CT841在感染细胞中的分布特征;ELISA法分析CT841的抗原性.结果 CT841原核表达重组体成功构建;CT841在感染细胞的表达模式与主要外膜蛋白MOMP相似,而与衣原体蛋白酶样活性因子CPAF及包涵体膜蛋白IncA的分布模式不同;CT841与衣原体感染患者、猴、鼠血清均发生强烈的免疫反应.结论 沙眼衣原体蛋白酶CT841是定位于衣原体菌体上的免疫优势抗原.

  10. Risk of reproductive complications following chlamydia testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Frølund, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty in the risk of reproductive complications (pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal factor infertility) following chlamydia infection and repeat infection hampers the design of evidence-based chlamydia control programmes. We estimate the association between......, ectopic pregnancy, or tubal factor infertility. FINDINGS: The 516 720 women (103 344 positive, 182 879 negative, 230 497 never-tested) had a mean follow-up of 7·96 years. Compared with women with only negative tests, the risk of each complication was 30% higher in women with one or more positive tests...... (pelvic inflammatory disease, adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1·50 [95% CI 1·43-1·57]; ectopic pregnancy, AHR 1·31 [1·25-1·38]; tubal factor infertility, AHR 1·37 [1·24-1·52]) and 60% lower in women who were never-tested (pelvic inflammatory disease, AHR 0·33 [0·31-0·35]; ectopic pregnancy, AHR 0·42 [0...

  11. Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men attending STD clinics in Brazil Prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis em homens atendidos em clínicas de DST no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Joaquim Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections and identify demographic, behavioral and clinical factors correlated withsuch infections in men attending six sexually transmitted disease clinics in Brazil. METHODS: Multicentric, cross-sectional study performed among men attending STD clinics in Brazil. The study included STD clinics in six cities distributed throughout the five geographic regions of Brazil in 2005. Patients provided 20 ml of first catch urine for testing for NG and CT by DNA-PCR. RESULTS: A total of 767 (92.9% men were included in the study. The mean age was 26.5 (SD 8.3 years-old. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 13.1% (95%CI 10.7%-15.5% and gonorrhea was 18.4% (95%CI 15.7%-21.1%. Coinfection prevalence was 4.4% (95%CI 2.95%-5.85% in men who sought attendance in STI clinics. Factors identified as associated with C. trachomatis were younger age (15-24 [OR=1.4 (95%CI 1.01-1.91], present urethral discharge [OR=4.8 (95%CI 1.52-15.05], genital warts [OR=3.0 (95%CI 1.49-5.92] and previous history of urethral discharge [OR=2.4 (95%CI 1.11-5.18]. Variables associated with gonorrhea were younger age (15 to 24 [OR=1.5 (95%CI 1.09-2.05], presence of urethral discharge [OR=9.9 (95%CI 5.53-17.79], genital warts [OR=18.3 (95%CI 8.03-41.60] and ulcer present upon clinical examination [OR=4.9 (95%CI 1.06-22.73]. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have important implications for education and prevention actions directed toward men at risk of HIV/STD. A venue-based approach to offer routine screening for young men in STD clinics should be stimulated.INTRODUÇÃO: Nosso objetivo foi acessar a prevalência de Neisseria gonorrhoeae e Chlamydia trachomatis e identificar fatores demográficos, comportamentais e clínicos correlacionados a essas infecções em homens atendidos em clínicas de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo multicêntrico, transversal

  12. Analysis of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Expression in Cultured Cells Identifies PmpA and PmpH of Chlamydia psittaci as Candidate Factors in Pathogenesis and Immunity to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; De Vos, Winnok H.; Huot Creasy, Heather; Marques, Patricia X.; Ravel, Jacques; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bavoil, Patrik; Hsia, Ru-ching

    2016-01-01

    The polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) paralogous families of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus are putative targets for Chlamydia vaccine development. To determine whether this is also the case for Pmp family members of C. psittaci, we analyzed transcription levels, protein production and localization of several Pmps of C. psittaci. Pmp expression profiles were characterized using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence (IF) and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) under normal and stress conditions. We found that PmpA was highly produced in all inclusions as early as 12 hpi in all biological replicates. In addition, PmpA and PmpH appeared to be unusually accessible to antibody as determined by both immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy. Our results suggest an important role for these Pmps in the pathogenesis of C. psittaci, and make them promising candidates in vaccine development. PMID:27631978

  13. Recovery of an environmental Chlamydia strain from activated sludge by co-cultivation with Acanthamoeba sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingro, Astrid; Poppert, Sven; Heinz, Eva; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Essig, Andreas; Schweikert, Michael; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are a unique group of obligate intracellular bacteria comprising important pathogens of vertebrates as well as symbionts of free-living amoebae. Although there is ample molecular evidence for a huge diversity and wide distribution of chlamydiae in nature, environmental chlamydiae are currently represented by only few isolates. This paper reports the recovery of a novel environmental chlamydia strain from activated sludge by co-cultivation with Acanthamoeba sp. The recovered environmental chlamydia strain UV-7 showed the characteristic morphology of chlamydial developmental stages as revealed by electron microscopy and was identified as a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae (98.7 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Parachlamydia acanthamoebae). Infection studies suggested that Parachlamydia sp. UV-7 is not confined to amoeba hosts but is also able to invade mammalian cells. These findings outline a new straightforward approach to retrieving environmental chlamydiae from nature without prior, tedious isolation and cultivation of their natural host cells, and lend further support to suggested implications of environmental chlamydiae for public health.

  14. A review of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W;

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections. Its distribution is worldwide. Seroepidemiological studies have shown an association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, and the risk of acute myocardial infar...... individuals who are or are not infected with C. pneumoniae. The latter are needed in order to clarify the impact of the presence of C. pneumoniae and to avoid indiscriminate use of antimicrobials....... of viable organisms. However, the pathogenicity is unknown, and the significance of detecting the organism is unresolved. In two minor controlled clinical trials, patients with ischaemic heart disease were randomised into antibiotic-treated and placebo groups. Both trials showed a significant reduction...

  15. Anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis Load Is Similar in Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women Reporting Anal Sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève A F S van Liere

    Full Text Available Anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia is frequently diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM and in women, but it is unknown whether these infections are comparable in clinical impact and transmission potential. Quantifying bacterial load and identifying determinants associated with high bacterial load could provide more insight.We selected a convenience sample of MSM who reported anal sex (n = 90 and women with concurrent urogenital/anorectal chlamydia who reported anal sex (n = 51 or did not report anal sex (n = 61 from the South Limburg Public Health Service's STI unit. Bacterial load (Chlamydia/ml was quantified for all samples and log transformed for analyses. Samples with an unquantifiable human leukocyte antigen (n = 9 were excluded from analyses, as they were deemed inadequately sampled.The mean log anorectal chlamydia load (3.50 was similar for MSM and women who reported having anal sex (3.80, P = 0.21. The anorectal chlamydia load was significantly higher in these groups than in women who did not report having anal sex (2.76, P = 0.001. Detectable load values ranged from 1.81-6.32 chlamydia/ml for MSM, 1.74-7.33 chlamydia/ml for women who reported having anal sex and 1.84-6.31 chlamydia/ml for women who did not report having anal sex. Symptoms and several other determinants were not associated with anorectal chlamydia load.Women who did not report anal sex had lower anorectal loads, but they were within a similar range to the other two groups. Anorectal chlamydia load was comparable between MSM and women who reported anal sex, suggesting similar transmission potential.

  16. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  17. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Voigt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. RESULTS: A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  18. Concurrent Infection of Mycoplasma or Chlamydia Trachomatis on Vulvovaginal Candidiasis%外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病伴发支原体及沙眼衣原体感染的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英汉; 李东; 冯辉; 刘静

    2016-01-01

    Complicated infection of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC)with mycoplasma / chlamydia trachomatis(CT) was investigated,choosing 86 female patients with recurrent VVC(RVVC),219 female patients with simple VVC and 200 health examining females who underwent ureaplasma urealyticum(Uu),mycoplasma hominis(Mh)and CT detection. Candida in vaginal discharge from all women with VVC was identified by fungal culture. The rates of Uu positive,Mh positive and mixed positive in both RVVC group and simple VVC group were significantly higher than those in control group respectively(P 0. 05). The positive rate of Uu was sig-nificantly different between positive and negative fungal culture groups(P 0. 05). The infection rate of Uu in patients with VVC was signif-icantly higher than that in normal population,suggested that Candida mixed with infection of Uu would lead to the oc-currence of VVC,especial the recurrence of VVC.%为研究外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(Vulvovaginal Candidiasis,VVC)患者合并支原体和衣原体感染情况,对86例复发性 VVC(recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis,RVVC)患者、219例单纯性 VVC 患者以及健康妇女200例,分别进行解脲脲原体(Ureaplasma urealyticum,Uu)、人型支原体( mycoplasma hominis,Mh)和沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,CT)检测;所有 VVC 病例均进行真菌培养。RVVC 组和单纯 VVC 组与对照组之间 Uu、Mh 及 Uu 混合 Mh 阳性率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P 约0.05)。而三组之间 CT 和 CT 混合支原体阳性率比较,均无显著性差异(P 跃0.05)。真菌培养阳性组与阴性组之间,Uu 阳性率比较有显著性差异(P 约0.05),而CT 阳性率比较无显著性差异(P 跃0.05)。结果表明,VVC 患者合并 Uu 感染较正常人群明显增高,假丝酵母菌与 Uu 混合感染可能导致 VVC 的发生和复发。

  19. Uncivil engineers: Chlamydia, Salmonella and Shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Joe Dan; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2010-08-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. Like the enteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella, Chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at the bacterial attachment site, which culminates in the engulfment of the bacterium by plasma membrane extensions. Numerous Salmonella and Shigella effectors promote this remodeling by activating Rho GTPases and tyrosine kinase signaling cascades and by directly manipulating actin dynamics. Recent studies indicate that similar host-cell alterations occur during Chlamydia invasion, but few effectors are known. The identification of additional Chlamydia effectors and the elucidation of their modes of function are critical steps towards an understanding of how this clinically important pathogen breaches epithelial surfaces and causes infection.

  20. Causality of Chlamydiae in Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: a Plea for Increased Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-02-01

    Current molecular genetic understanding of the metabolically active persistent infection state of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae in the synovium in patients with arthritis and spondyloarthritis favors a causal relationship. Here, we examine how adequately the accepted criteria for that etiologic relationship are fulfilled, emphasizing the situation in which these microorganisms cannot be cultivated by standard or other means. We suggest that this unusual situation of causality by chlamydiae in rheumatic disease requires establishment of a consensus regarding microorganism-specific terminology as well as the development of new diagnostic and classification criteria. Recent studies demonstrate the value of molecular testing for diagnosis of reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondyloarthritis, and undifferentiated arthritis caused by C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae in clinical practice. Data regarding combination antibiotic therapy is consistent with the causative role of chlamydiae for these diseases. Observations of multiple intra-articular coinfections require more research to understand the implications and to respond to them.

  1. Emancipating Chlamydia: Advances in the Genetic Manipulation of a Recalcitrant Intracellular Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia species infect millions of individuals worldwide and are important etiological agents of sexually transmitted disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. Historically, the genetic intractability of this intracellular pathogen has hindered the molecular dissection of virulence factors contributing to its pathogenesis. The obligate intracellular life cycle of Chlamydia and restrictions on the use of antibiotics as selectable markers have impeded the development of molecular tools to genetically manipulate these pathogens. However, recent developments in the field have resulted in significant gains in our ability to alter the genome of Chlamydia, which will expedite the elucidation of virulence mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the challenges affecting the development of molecular genetic tools for Chlamydia and the work that laid the foundation for recent advancements in the genetic analysis of this recalcitrant pathogen.

  2. "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae" (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae), a novel chlamydia parasite of free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Daniele; Müller, Karl-Dieter; Wingender, Jost; Michel, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Vannella sp. isolated from waterweed Elodea sp. was found infected by a chlamydia-like organism. This organism behaves like a parasite, causing the death through burst of its host. Once the vannellae degenerated, the parasite was successfully kept in laboratory within a Saccamoeba sp. isolated from the same waterweed sample, which revealed in fine through electron microscopy to harbor two bacterial endosymbionts: the chlamydial parasite we introduce and another endosymbiont initially and naturally present in the host. Herein, we provide molecular-based identification of both the amoeba host and its two endosymbionts, with special focus on the chlamydia parasite. High sequence similarity values of the 18S rDNA permitted to assign the amoeba to the species Saccamoeba lacustris (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea). The bacterial endosymbiont naturally harbored by the host belonged to Sphingomonas koreensis (Alpha-Proteobacteria). The chlamydial parasite showed a strict specificity for Saccamoeba spp., being unable to infect a variety of other amoebae, including Acanthamoeba, and it was itself infected by a bacteriophage. Sequence similarity values of the 16S rDNA and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain is a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae, for which we propose the name "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae."

  3. 宁波地区呼吸道感染患儿肺炎衣原体检测及分析%Detection and analysis of respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in children of Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明雅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To understand the situation of children with respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infections in Ningbo.Methods:All of 984 blood samples from children with respiratory infections were collected from January 2011 to December 2011.Antibody of CP-IgG and IgM were detected by ELISA.Results:In 984 cases,the positive rates of CP-IgG and CP-IgM were 10.1% and 10.6% respectively,and highest in 5 ~ 14 years old age group among different age groups.Compared with the detection rate in all diseases,the positive rates of CP-IgG and CP-IgM in upper respiratory tract infection were both high.There were positive correlation between CP-IgM of lobar-pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia.The positive rate of winter and spring were higher than summer and autumn.Conclusion:Children with respiratory infections should be carried out antibody detection of CP-IgG and IgM.%目的:了解宁波地区呼吸道感染患儿肺炎衣原体感染情况.方法:收集2011年1月-至2011年12月住院患儿984例中呼吸道感染者血标本,用酶联免疫吸附试验检测血清CP-IgG和CP-IgM抗体.结果:984例中,CP-IgG阳性率为10.1%,CP-IgM阳性率为10.6%;各年龄组中,5岁~ 14岁组阳性率高于其他各组;将呼吸道感染患儿不同病种间作比较,上呼吸道感染组CP-IgG、CP-IgM阳性率均高;冬春季CP-IgM阳性率高于夏秋季.结论:呼吸道感染患儿应进行CP-IgG和CP-IgM抗体检测.

  4. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  5. Intracellular survival and persistence of Chlamydia muridarum is determined by macrophage polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gracey

    Full Text Available Macrophages can display a number of distinct phenotypes, known collectively as polarized macrophages. The best defined of these phenotypes are the classically-activated, interferon gamma (IFNγ/LPS induced (M1 and alternatively-activated, IL-4 induced (M2 macrophages. The goal of this study is to characterize macrophage-Chlamydia interactions in the context of macrophage polarization. Here we use Chlamydia muridarum and murine bone-marrow derived macrophages to show Chlamydia does not induce M2 polarization in macrophages as a survival strategy. Unexpectedly, the infection of macrophages was silent with no upregulation of M1 macrophage-associated genes. We further demonstrate that macrophages polarized prior to infection have a differential capacity to control Chlamydia. M1 macrophages harbor up to 40-fold lower inclusion forming units (IFU than non-polarized or M2 polarized macrophages. Gene expression analysis showed an increase in 16sRNA in M2 macrophages with no change in M1 macrophages. Suppressed Chlamydia growth in M1 macrophages correlated with the induction of a bacterial gene expression profile typical of persistence as evident by increased Euo expression and decreased Omp1 and Tal expression. Observations of permissive Chlamydia growth in non-polarized and M2 macrophages and persistence in M1 macrophages were supported through electron microscopy. This work supports the importance of IFNγ in the innate immune response to Chlamydia. However, demonstration that the M1 macrophages, despite an antimicrobial signature, fail to eliminate intracellular Chlamydia supports the notion that host-pathogen co-evolution has yielded a pathogen that can evade cellular defenses against this pathogen, and persist for prolonged periods of time in the host.

  6. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  7. Application of microimmunofluorescence test and PCR in the diagnosis of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections%微量免疫荧光试验和PCR在诊断肺炎衣原体急性感染中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建标; 蔡庆; 王颖; 赵建中; 端青; 纪树国; 朱美财

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of acute infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) in respiratory diseases. Methods Microimmunofluorescence test was used to detect IgG antibodies for Cpn in serum obtained from 93 inpatients and PCR was used to test Cpn in detection of Cpn DNA in throat specimens from 55 of the 99 patients. Results Acute Cpn infection was diagnosed in 35.5% of the respiratory diseases. Antibodies for Cpn (titer of ≥512) were present in 47.6% of the pneumonia group, which may suggest that during 1998 to 1999, Cpn caused an epidemic in Beijing. They were also present in 50% of asthma group, 50.0% of pulmonary heart disease group and 26.3% of lung cancer group. Only five patients (9.1%) were positive by PCR. There exists discrepancy between serological and PCR results. Conclusion Detection of IgG antibodies for Cpn conduces to diagnosis of acute Cpn infection and give advice for appropriate therapy.%目的 探讨肺炎衣原体(Cpn)急性感染在呼吸道疾病中的重要性。方法 用微量免疫荧光(MIF)试验检测了93例住院病人血清中Cpn抗体IgG,同时用PCR测定了其中55例病人咽试子标本中Cpn DNA。结果 35.5%呼吸道疾病存在Cpn急性感染。在肺炎组抗体(效价≥512)阳性率为47.6%,提示1998~1999年可能处在北京市Cpn流行期;在哮喘组的阳性率达到50%;在肺心病组和肺癌组的阳性率分别为50.0%和26.3%。PCR检测Cpn的阳性率仅为9.1%,MIF和PCR的检测结果存在差别。结论 检测Cpn抗体IgG有助于对Cpn急性感染进行诊断,从而指导临床用药。

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis screening in Dutch pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rours, G I J G; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar Anne; Ditkowsky, Jared; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Verkooyen, R P; de Groot, R.; Verbrugh, H A; Postma, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for women and their offspring. Chlamydial infections are largely asymptomatic. Hence, prevention is based on screening. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of C. trachomatis screening durin

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis screening in Dutch pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); Smith-Norowitz, T.A. (Tamar Anne); Ditkowsky, J. (Jared); M.R. Hammerschlag; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); de Groot, R.; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.J. Postma (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for women and their offspring. Chlamydial infections are largely asymptomatic. Hence, prevention is based on screening. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of C. trachomatis scr

  10. Immunoglobulin A antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J.S; Juul, Svend; Vammen, S

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between the progression of small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. METHODS: Patients from a hospital-based mass screening programme for AAA with annual follow-up (mean 2.7 years....... pneumoniae. Aneurysm progression correlated with evidence of chronic C. pneumoniae infection....

  11. The female lower genital tract is a privileged compartment with IL-10 producing dendritic cells and poor Th1 immunity following Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Marks

    Full Text Available While a primary genital tract infection with C. trachomatis stimulates partial-protection against re-infection, it may also result in severe inflammation and tissue destruction. Here we have dissected whether functional compartments exist in the genital tract that restrict Th1-mediated protective immunity. Apart from the Th1-subset, little is known about the role of other CD4(+ T cell subsets in response to a genital tract chlamydial infection. Therefore, we investigated CD4(+ T cell subset differentiation in the genital tract using RT-PCR for expression of critical transcription factors and cytokines in the upper (UGT and lower genital tract (LGT of female C57BL/6 mice in response to C. trachomatis serovar D infection. We found that the Th1 subset dominated the UGT, as IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA expression were high, while GATA-3 was low following genital infection with C. trachomatis serovar D. By contrast, IL-10 and GATA-3 mRNA dominated the LGT, suggesting the presence of Th2 cells. These functional compartments also attracted regulatory T cells (Tregs differently as increased FoxP3 mRNA expression was seen primarily in the UGT. Although IL-17A mRNA was somewhat up-regulated in the LGT, no significant change in RORγ-t mRNA expression was observed, suggesting no involvement of Th17 cells. The dichotomy between the LGT and UGT was maintained during infection by IL-10 because in IL-10-deficient mice the distinction between the two compartments was completely lost and a dramatic shift to the predominance of Th1 cells in the LGT occurred. Unexpectedly, the major source of IL-10 was CD11c(+ CD11b(+ DC, probably creating an anti-inflammatory privileged site in the LGT.

  12. Role of Chlamydia in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, M V; Kolkova, N I; Morgunova, E Yu; Pashko, Yu P; Zigangirova, N A; Zakharova, M N

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydia and antibodies to them were detected by serological, molecular biological, and culture methods in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the reference groups of subjects without neurological diseases. Correlations between the agent presence in the biological fluids of patients and clinical characteristics of the disease were analyzed. C. pneumoniae were more incident in the biological liquids of patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy volunteers. On the other hand, the incidence of the agent in the patients was not high and its presence did not correlate with the clinical manifestations. C. trachomatis was equally rare in the patients and volunteers. The studies indicated the existence of a group of patients infected by C. pneumoniae in the cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis, but the impact of this agent for the disease course remains unclear.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis: avances y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Ostos Ortiz, Olga Lucia; Sánchez, Ruth Mélida

    2003-01-01

    La Chlamydia es una bacteria Gram negativa, no móvil, de vida parasitaria intracelular obligada porque carece de habilidad para sintetizar ATP, son parásitos energéticos, no tienen vida libre y colonizan el citoplasma de las células susceptibles

  14. IL-17A is proatherogenic in high-fat diet-induced and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-accelerated atherosclerosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Zhang, Wenxuan; Huang, Ganghua; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2010-11-01

    The role of IL-17 in atherogenesis remains controversial. We previously reported that the TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway plays an important role in high-fat diet as well as Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection-mediated acceleration of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. In this study, we investigated the role of the IL-17A in high-fat diet (HFD)- and C. pneumoniae-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis. The aortic sinus plaque and aortic lesion size and lipid composition as well as macrophage accumulation in the lesions were significantly diminished in IL-17A(-/-) mice fed an HFD compared with wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 control mice. As expected, C. pneumoniae infection led to a significant increase in size and lipid content of the atherosclerotic lesions in WT mice. However, IL-17A(-/-) mice developed significantly less acceleration of lesion size following C. pneumoniae infection compared with WT control despite similar levels of blood cholesterol levels. Furthermore, C. pneumoniae infection in WT but not in IL-17A(-/-) mice was associated with significant increases in serum concentrations of IL-12p40, CCL2, IFN-γ, and numbers of macrophages in their plaques. Additionally, in vitro studies suggest that IL-17A activates vascular endothelial cells, which secrete cytokines that in turn enhance foam cell formation in macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-17A is proatherogenic and that it plays an important role in both diet-induced atherosclerotic lesion development, and C. pneumoniae infection-mediated acceleration of atherosclerotic lesions in the presence of HFD.

  15. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, T P; Miceli, M; Silverman, J A

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [35S]methionine and [35S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and...

  16. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, S

    1992-08-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial structure changes, they transform to reticulated bodies (RB) which become larger, metabolically active, and start to replicate. Fourtysix hrs post infection RB reorganizes to EB followed by burst of the inclusion. The structure of the EB outer membrane differs from the membrane of gram-negative bacteria since it is highly cross-linked by S-S bridges. There are, however, also similarities to gram-negative cell walls. The chlamydial major outer membrane protein, Omp1, forms pores and is closely associated with lipopolysaccharide, LPS. LPS, however, is more loosely associated with Omp1 than in other gram negative bacteria since incubation of EB with antibodies against LPS will liberate it from the chlamydial surface. Therefore the surface localized LPS may be important for chlamydial survival. OMP1 varies between the different serovar of C. trachomatis. Several very conserved regions are separated by variable domains. The variable domains are very antigenic and are localized at the surface of EB. After chlamydial internalization into the host cell transition to RB starts. Some of the early proteins are DnaK-like and groEL-like heat-shock proteins. The chlamydial DnaK-like protein is very antigenic. Patient serum samples will recognize the chlamydial DnaK-like protein. From the determined DNA sequence the amino acid sequence was determined. It was 57% homologous to the Eschrichia

  17. Chlamydia muridarum Alters the Immune Environment of the Murine Genital Tract to be More Permissive for Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a Novel Coinfection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    Figure 6) (62, 152, 169). In 1990, David Taylor-Robinson described long-term gonococcal colonization following treatment of germ-free mice with 17β...oviduct pathology in chlamydial genital tract infection. J Immunol 171:6187-97. 68. David , L. M., A. A. Wade, D. Natin, and K. W. Radcliffe. 1997...Dis 178:742-51. 123. Heine, H., S. Muller-Loennies, L. Brade , B. Lindner, and H. Brade . 2003. Endotoxic activity and chemical structure of

  18. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Frazer

    Full Text Available Loss of the conserved "cryptic" plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains.

  19. Performance of three microimmunofluorescence assays for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae immunoglobulin M, G, and A antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mette; Berthelsen, Lene; Lind, Inga

    2002-01-01

    Labsystems (LAB) and MRL Diagnostics (MRL) by investigation of sera from three groups of patients: group I, 83 sera from 28 patients with atypical pneumonia; group II, 37 sera from 16 patients with acute C. pneumoniae or Chlamydia psittaci respiratory tract infection confirmed by PCR or culture; group III......The microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test is considered the "gold standard" for laboratory diagnosis of acute and chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The performance of a MIF test based on C. pneumoniae antigen from Washington Research Foundation (WRF) was compared with those of assays from...

  20. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J J; Rettig, P J; Kaplan, D W

    1983-03-01

    The prevalence of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined in 125 girls receiving primary gynecologic care in a general adolescent clinic. C trachomatis was isolated in 8% of the patients using a microtiter tissue-culture method, and N gonorrhoeae was found in 12%. A significant association was found between the use of oral contraceptives and positive chlamydial cultures. Patients with Chlamydia-positive cultures were frequently asymptomatic and exhibited no positive findings on physical examination. Three of ten women with cervical chlamydial infection developed pelvic inflammatory disease. These results support the use of cervical screening for both of these pathogens in sexually active adolescents.

  1. Sensitivities of PCR, MicroTrak, ChlamydiaEIA, IDEIA, and PACE 2 for purified Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies in urine, peripheral blood, peripheral blood leukocytes, and synovial fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, J G; Scharmann, K; Wollenhaupt, J; Nettelnbreker, E; Hopf, S.; Zeidler, H

    1995-01-01

    Routine microbiological diagnosis of Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis is based mainly on the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis with urogenital swabs or in urine. Because chlamydial antigen, rRNA, and DNA are present in low quantities in the inflamed joint, highly sensitive assays are needed to detect C. trachomatis not only at the primary site of infection but also in peripheral blood and peripheral blood leukocytes, which are suspected carriers for dissemination, and in synovial fluid. ...

  2. Chlamydia in women: a case for more action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-19

    The 1985 Communicable Disease Surveillance Center figures for sexually transmitted diseases document over 14,000 confirmed cases of genital chlamydial infection in women. Yet, this figure seriously underestimates the size of the problem as many chlamydial infections are silent. The mainstay of diagnosis until recently has been isolation of C. trachomatis in cell culture, which is time consuming, technically demanding, expensive, and available in only a few centers. A firm diagnosis of chlamydial infection cannot be based on serology alone. Antibodies can be detected in 78-100% of womn with C. trachomatis in the cervix, but in those who are culture negative 31-87% also will have antibodies. More support is given to the diagnosis by demonstration of a rising titre of IgG antibody or by detection of IgM, but because of the late presentation of most women with chlamydia this is seldom possible. Newer tests include direct immunofluorescence statining of genital secretions which is rapid and simple. Results of this method compare favorably with those of cell culture, but screening large numbers of smears is expensive and tedious. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays also give good results. C trachomatis is a well known cause of cervicitis and salpingitis and is consequently a major factor in infertility. The frequency of chlamydial infection is influenced by sexual activity and promiscuity, but the effect of contraceptive choice is more difficult to determine. An IUD can provide a nidus for many infections, but the role of oral contraceptives (OCs) is more controversial. Instrumentation of the endocervical canal provides a route for introduction of infection, which is therefore a frequent and important complication of induced abortion. Westergaard et al. in a study of women having 1st trimester abortions found that 10% had symptomless cervical chlamydia; postabortal pelvic inflammatory disease developed in 28% of these patients by comparison with 10% in culture

  3. [MEDICAL AND SOCIAL STATE OF HEALTH IN FAMILIES WITH THE FOCUS OF RESPIRATORY CHLAMYDIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustina, T A; Markina, A N; Parilova, O V; Belova, E V; Kin, T I

    2015-01-01

    Medical and social state of health in family persons was assessed on the basis of a questionnaire. Developed by the author's questionnaire included two sections, reflecting the state of health, health risk factors and social characteristics of the family members of ENT patients. In the article there is presented an analysis of the medical and social state of 44 families of patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract associated with chlamydial infection. The comparison was performed with 43 families of ENT patients with unconfirmed respiratory chlamydia. Diagnosis of Chlamydia infection complex was carried out with the use of laboratory methods (direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, polymerase chain reaction). The health and social status of families with hearth respiratory chlamydia were shown to be significantly worse compared with families with the lack of the latter

  4. Evaluation of an in silico predicted specific and immunogenic antigen from the OmcB protein for the serodiagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargouri Jalel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The OmcB protein is one of the most immunogenic proteins in C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections. This protein is highly conserved leading to serum cross reactivity between the various chlamydial species. Since previous studies based on recombinant proteins failed to identify a species specific immune response against the OmcB protein, this study evaluated an in silico predicted specific and immunogenic antigen from the OmcB protein for the serodiagnosis of C. trachomatis infections. Results Using the ClustalW and Antigenic programs, we have selected two predicted specific and immunogenic regions in the OmcB protein: the N-terminal (Nt region containing three epitopes and the C-terminal (Ct region containing two epitopes with high scores. These regions were cloned into the PinPoint Xa-1 and pGEX-6P-1 expression vectors, incorporating a biotin purification tag and a glutathione-S-transferase tag, respectively. These regions were then expressed in E. coli. Only the pGEX-6P-1 has been found suitable for serological studies as its tag showed less cross reactivity with human sera and was retained for the evaluation of the selected antigens. Only the Ct region of the protein has been found to be well expressed in E. coli and was evaluated for its ability to be recognized by human sera. 384 sera were tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis by our in house microimmunofluorescence (MIF and the developed ELISA test. Using the MIF as the reference method, the developed OmcB Ct ELISA has a high specificity (94.3% but a low sensitivity (23.9. Our results indicate that the use of the sequence alignment tool might be useful for identifying specific regions in an immunodominant antigen. However, the two epitopes, located in the selected Ct region, of the 24 predicted in the full length OmcB protein account for approximately 25% of the serological response detected by MIF, which limits the use of the developed ELISA

  5. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... no symptoms; more often, it causes abdominal or lower back pain, painful urination, pain during intercourse, bleeding between menstrual ...

  6. MRI as a Novel In Vivo Approach for Assessing Structural Changes of Chlamydia Pathology in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shubing; Meng, Xiangjun; Skinner, Julie M.; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Boddicker, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent of sexually transmitted diseases. While Chlamydia infection is a reportable event and screening has increased over time, enhanced surveillance has not resulted in a reduction in the rate of infections, and Chlamydia infections frequently recur. The development of a preventative vaccine for Chlamydia may be the only effective approach for reducing infection and the frequency of pathological outcomes. Current vaccine research efforts involve time consuming and/or invasive approaches for assessment of disease state, and MRI presents a clinically translatable method for assessing infection and related pathology both quickly and non-invasively. Longitudinal T2-weighted MRI was performed over 63 days on both control or Chlamydia muridarum challenged mice, either with or without elementary body (EB) immunization, and gross necropsy was performed on day 65. A scoring system was developed to assess the number of regions affected by Chlamydia pathology and was used to document pathology over time and at necropsy. The scoring system documented increasing incidence of pathology in the unimmunized and challenged mice (significantly greater compared to the control and EB immunized-challenged groups) by 21 days post-challenge. No differences between the unchallenged and EB immunized-challenged mice were observed. MRI scores at Day 63 were consistently higher than gross necropsy scores at Day 65, although two of the three groups of mice showed no significant differences between the two techniques. In this work we describe the application of MRI in mice for the potential evaluation of disease pathology and sequelae caused by C. muridarum infection and this technique’s potential for evaluation of vaccines for Chlamydia. PMID:27467585

  7. 哮喘患儿肺炎衣原体及肺炎支原体感染的临床特征分析%Clinical characteristics of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in children with asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱虹; 王景刚; 宋永辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察分析哮喘急性发作患儿肺炎衣原体及肺炎支原体感染的临床特征,以降低哮喘患儿医院感染率。方法选取2012年3月-2013年3月儿科收治的哮喘急性发作患儿共180例,统计分析患儿哮喘病程长短与肺炎衣原体感染和肺炎支原体感染的关系及其药敏检测结果。结果哮喘急性发作患儿肺炎支原体感染22.2%、肺炎衣原体感染22.8%;其中哮喘病程≤3个月的患儿中肺炎衣原体的感染率为41.0%,比哮喘病程3~6个月和>6个月的患儿感染率高,3者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而肺炎支原体在哮喘病程>6个月的患儿中感染率最高,为38.3%;患儿年龄≤3岁的肺炎衣原体和支原体的感染率分别为39.6%和33.3%,均高于年龄3~6、>6岁患儿;肺炎衣原体对红霉素耐药率最低,为17.1%,对四环素耐药率最高,为78.0%;肺炎支原体对红霉素耐药率最低,为22.5%,对庆大霉素耐药率最高,为77.5%。结论肺炎衣原体和肺炎支原体感染是导致哮喘急性发作的主要病原体,其中患儿≤3岁,哮喘病程≤3个月和>6个月的患儿感染肺炎支原体和衣原体的概率较高。%OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical characteristics of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneu‐moniae infections in the children with acute exacerbation of asthma so as to reduce the incidence of nosocomial in‐fections in the children with asthma .METHODS A total of 180 children with acute exacerbation of asthma ,who were treated in the department of pediatrics from Mar 2012 to Mar 2013 ,were enrolled in the study ;the relation‐ship between the course of asthma and the C .pneumoniae and M .pneumoniae infections was observed ,and the re‐sults of drug susceptibility testing for the C .pneumoniae and M .pneumoniae were statistically analyzed .RESULTS The incidence of M .pneumoniae infection was 22

  8. Activity of Cathelicidin Peptides against Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Di Leo, Korinne; Benincasa, Monica; Cavrini, Francesca; Accardo, Silvia; Moroni, Alessandra; Gennaro, Renato; Cevenini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activity of six cathelicidin peptides against 25 strains of Chlamydia was investigated. SMAP-29 proved to be the most active peptide, reducing the inclusion numbers of all 10 strains of Chlamydia trachomatis tested by ≥50% at 10 μg/ml. This peptide was also active against C. pneumoniae and C. felis. PMID:15728927

  9. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  10. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H.; Elborgy, Ebrahim S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. METHODS This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. CONCLUSION Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value. PMID:27803864

  11. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Aeberhard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells' antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection.

  12. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  13. Pilot prevalence evaluation of Chlamydia Trachomatis by PCR in female infertile referred to study center of infertility in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Goshayeshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common diseases as sexually transferred in world. According to the World Health Organization statistics, approximately 92 million new Chlamydia trachomatis infection occur in the world. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is the cause of tubal obstruction, ectopic pregnancy and infertility in women. The aim of this study is prevalence evaluation of Chlamydia Trachomatis by PCR in female infertile referred to Montasarieh study center of infertility in Mashhad. Materials and Methods: The cervical swab specimens were collected from 100 infertile (as case and 30 fertile (as control group women attending to the infertility center of Mash-had Medical University. DNA extraction was performed from clinical specimens using DNA extraction kit. In this study, in addition to PCR reaction by commercial kit, PCR test was performed using specific primers and probe for CTCP gene. Results: The results of PCR reaction using the kit was match with PCR test and showed that the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is 21% in infertile women and 3.3% in normal fertile women that was statistically significant (p=0.024. Conclusion: Considering the high sensitivity of PCR method for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, this method can be useful for routine screening.

  14. 人类角膜结膜炎患者三种衣原体感染状况的调查%Study on the association of three chlamydia infection with keratitis-conjunctivitis in human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢江; 王秋旭; 叶丽珊; 顾勇

    2002-01-01

    @@ 衣原体是广泛感染畜禽、野生动物和人类的一群独特的原核细胞型微生物,分为沙眼衣原体(chlamydia trachomatis,Ct)、鹦鹉热衣原体(chlamydia psittaci,Cps)和肺炎衣原体(chlamydia pneumoniae,Cpn)三种,其可引起流产、肺炎、结膜炎和关节炎等多种疾病.但与人类角结膜炎有关的致病衣原体目前研究最多的是Ct,而Cps和Cpn的感染却鲜有报道.我们应用nPCR技术对62眼结膜炎或角结膜炎进行Ct、Cps及Cpn的联合检测,以了解人类角结膜炎患者衣原体感染的状况.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis responds to heat shock, penicillin induced persistence, and IFN-gamma persistence by altering levels of the extracytoplasmic stress response protease HtrA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and a leading cause of preventable blindness. HtrA is a virulence and stress response periplasmic serine protease and molecular chaperone found in many bacteria. Recombinant purified C. trachomatis HtrA has been previously shown to have both activities. This investigation examined the physiological role of Chlamydia trachomatis HtrA. Results The Chlamydia trachomatis htrA gene complemented the lethal high temperature phenotype of Escherichia coli htrA- (>42°C. HtrA levels were detected to increase by western blot and immunofluorescence during Chlamydia heat shock experiments. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a likely periplasmic localisation of HtrA. During penicillin induced persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis, HtrA levels (as a ratio of LPS were initially less than control acute cultures (20 h post infection but increased to more than acute cultures at 44 h post infection. This was unlike IFN-γ persistence where lower levels of HtrA were observed, suggesting Chlamydia trachomatis IFN-γ persistence does not involve a broad stress response. Conclusion The heterologous heat shock protection for Escherichia coli, and increased HtrA during cell wall disruption via penicillin and heat shock, indicates an important role for HtrA during high protein stress conditions for Chlamydia trachomatis.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  17. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis From Patients With Different Degrees of Clinical Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christerson, L.; de Vries, H.J.C.; Klint, M.; Herrmann, B.; Morré, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the past, contradictory results have been obtained linking Chlamydia trachomatis serovars (ompA gene) to different clinical courses of infection. Methods: A high resolution multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system was used to genotype 6 genetic regions, including ompA, in 70 Dutch uro

  18. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands. Oppo

  19. Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in screening infertile women for tubal pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, S. P.; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C.; Land, J. A.; Ouburg, S.; Morre, S. A.; Greub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Since Waddlia chondrophila is closely related to Chlamydia trachomatis, we hypothesise that W. chondrophila may also be associated with tubal factor infertility (TFI) in women, a major complication of chronic C. trachomatis infection. Five hundred twenty serum samples were tested for anti-Waddlia an

  20. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  1. Porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 and Chlamydia suis to modelize ocular chlamydiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Tobias; Cnudde, Thomas; Hamonic, Glenn; Rieder, Meghanne; Pasternak, J Alex; Lai, Ken; Tikoo, Suresh K; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, François

    2015-08-15

    Human ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections can lead to trachoma, the major cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Trachoma control strategies are very helpful but logistically challenging, and a trachoma vaccine is needed but not available. Pigs are a valuable large animal model for various immunological questions and could facilitate the study of human ocular chlamydial infections. In addition, a recent study identified the zoonotic potential of Chlamydia suis, the natural pathogen of pigs. In terms of the One Health Initiative, understanding the host-pathogen-interactions and finding a vaccine for porcine chlamydia infections would also benefit human health. Thus, we infected the porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 with C. suis and analyzed the chlamydial life cycle and the innate immune response of the infected cells. Our results indicate that C. suis completes its life cycle in VIDO R1 cells within 48 h, comparable to C. trachomatis in humans. C. suis infection of VIDO R1 cells led to increased levels of various innate immune mediators like pathogen recognition receptors, cytokines and chemokines including IL6, TNFα, and MMP9, also most relevant in human C. trachomatis infections. These results illustrate the first steps in the host-pathogen-interactions of ocular C. suis infections in pigs and show their similarity to C. trachomatis infections in humans, justifying further testing of pigs as an animal model for human trachoma.

  2. Mathematical analysis of a Chlamydia epidemic model with pulse vaccination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, G P

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have considered a dynamical model of Chlamydia disease with varying total population size, bilinear incidence rate and pulse vaccination strategy. We have defined two positive numbers R₀ and (R₁≤ R₀). It is proved that there exists an infection-free periodic solution which is globally attractive if R₀ 1 The important mathematical findings for the dynamical behaviour of the Chlamydia disease model are also numerically verified using MATLAB. Finally epidemiological implications of our analytical findings are addressed critically.

  3. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis, but the signifi......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis......, but the significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web......-based questionnaire from 1000 randomly selected Danes (control group) and 1300 young Danes with a laboratory-verified C. trachomatis infection. All respondents were between 15 and 29 years. Using univariate analysis, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) for having had concurrent partners in the group of C. trachomatis...

  4. Intranasal immunization with secretion protein Pgp3enhances protective immunity against mice genital Chlamydia muridarum infection%沙眼衣原体分泌性蛋白Pgp3滴鼻免疫增强小鼠对衣原体生殖道感染的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春雪; 吴移谋; 彭波; 李忠玉; 胡四海; 钟光明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To validate the immune protective efficacy of Chlamydia secretion protein Pgp3 and to analyze the potential immune mechanisms related to this protection. [Methods] The prokaryotic recombinant protein Pgp3 was purified and evaluated for its protective efficacy in a genital tract infected mouse model. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally or intramuscularly with adjuvants plus Pgp3 protein or PBS and GST control. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated. After Chlamydia muridarum in-travaginal challenge, the chlamydia shedding from the lower genital tract and the chlamy-dia-induced upper genital tract gross pathology and histopathological characterization were also detected. [Results] Adjuvant plus Pgp3 immunization can induce high level of Pgp3 specific antibody as well as IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-5 cytokine production. More importantly, intra-nasal immunization compare with intramuscular route induced more Thl-dominant immunity that significantly reduced the shedding of live organisms from the lower genital tract and attenuated inflammatory pathologies in the oviduct tissues. [Conculsion] These observations have demonstrated that secretion protein Pgp3 intranasal immunization can induce protective immunity against chlamydial infection and pathology in mice.%[目的]探讨不同免疫途径沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,Ct)分泌性蛋白Pgp3的免疫保护效果,分析其可能的保护机制,以确定Pgp3蛋白疫苗在Ct疫苗研制中的应用价值.[方法]分泌性蛋白Pgp3经滴鼻或肌注途径免疫雌性Balb/c小鼠,免疫60 d后,阴道接种鼠沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia muridarum,Cm)建立生殖道感染动物模型,在该模型中评价Pgp3蛋白疫苗抗Cm感染的保护效果,并探讨其机制.[结果]滴鼻或肌注免疫后,小鼠血清及生殖道中检测到了特异性抗体;小鼠脾淋巴细胞产生IFN-γ、IL-17及IL-5水平均明显高于对照组,且滴鼻免疫组IFN-γ水平

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis in Women with Ful-Term Deliveries and Women with Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are some documents which support the role of some certain infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis in spontaneous abortion. As there were not data about role this bacterium in abortion in this area of IRAN, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with abortion and compare it with healthy women with no previous history of abortion. Approach: This case-control study was carried out in Shariatee hospital of Hormozgan University of medical sciences, during 2004-2005. A number of 220 women with definite diagnosis of previous abortion and 200 matched women with normal full term delivery and negative history of miscarriage as controls were studied as case and control groups. All obtained PAP smears from the case and the control groups were then tested using Immunoflourescent method for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Data was analyzed, using SPSS software (chi square and t-test. Results: The prevalence of positive direct immunofluorescent test on PAP smears indicating the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was 56 (25.45% in women with abortion comparing to 13 (5.20% in women in control group, the difference was significant (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: This study showed Chlamydia trachomatis is an important causative agent for abortion in this area of IRAN.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul;

    2007-01-01

    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR......) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  7. 黄芩苷下调沙眼衣原体感染小鼠TLR2和TLR4基因表达的研究%Baicalin downregulates expression of TLR2 and TLR4 gene in chlamydia trachomatis-infected mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄浩; 付雷; 易艳东

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of baicalin on TLR2 and TLR4 expression in cervical tissue of gential tract Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infected mice.METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice aged 6-8 weeks were divided into azithromycin group, model group, high concentrations of baiealin group, the concentration of baicalin group and low concentrations of baicalin group.Seven days before inoculation with Ct through vagina, progesterone was administered to all the experimental mice by subcutaneous injection.The numbers of Ct shedding from genital tract were evaluated between the five groups.Twenty seven days after infection, cervical tissue were taken and expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were determined by RT-PCR or Western blot.RESULTS:On the 3rd and 6th day after infection,the amount of Ct in vaginal tract in model group was higher than those in the other groups.After baicalin treatment, the amount of Ct in vaginal tract in the drug groups was lower than that in the model group.The amount of Ct in vaginal tract in the azithromycin group and high concentrations of baicalin group were significantly decreased.Meanwhile, baicalin also reduced the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in cervical tissue.CONCLUSION: Baicalin effectively blocks high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in cervical tissue of gential tract chlamydia-infected mice.This is probably the mechanism of baicalin in ameliorating Chlamydia trachomatis-infected mice.%目的:研究黄芩苷对沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,Ct)感染小鼠宫颈组织Toll样受体2和Toll样受体4(TLR2,TLR4)基因表达的影响.方法:6~8周龄雌性C57BL/6小鼠,分为5组:阿奇霉素组,模型组,黄芩苷高、中、低剂量组.通过阴道接种Ct感染小鼠,建立Ct感染小鼠生殖道的动物模型.接种前7 d皮下注射黄体酮以增加小鼠对Ct感染的敏感性.通过比较各组小鼠阴道分泌物中的Ct数量,评价黄芩苷抗沙眼衣原体感染的能力.感染27 d之后,用RT-PCR法和Western Blot

  8. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra spp. selectively inhibit the growth of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena; Uvell, Hanna; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Elofsson, Mikael; Vuorela, Pia Maarit

    2015-10-01

    Lignans from Schisandra chinensis berries show various pharmacological activities, of which their antioxidative and cytoprotective properties are among the most studied ones. Here, the first report on antibacterial properties of six dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans found in Schisandra spp. is presented. The activity was shown on two related intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis upon their infection in human epithelial cells. All six lignans inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation and infectious progeny production. Schisandrin B inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation even when administered 8 h post infection, indicating a target that occurs relatively late within the infection cycle. Upon infection, lignan-pretreated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies had impaired inclusion formation capacity. The presence and substitution pattern of methylenedioxy, methoxy and hydroxyl groups of the lignans had a profound impact on the antichlamydial activity. In addition our data suggest that the antichlamydial activity is not caused only by the antioxidative properties of the lignans. None of the compounds showed inhibition on seven other bacteria, suggesting a degree of selectivity of the antibacterial effect. Taken together, the data presented support a role of the studied lignans as interesting antichlamydial lead compounds.

  9. Forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos værnepligtige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, P; Møller, B R; Thorsen, Poul;

    1996-01-01

    (VD) and actual symptoms of urethritis and cervicitis. EIA positive specimens were confirmed by immunofluorescent microscopy. The investigation comprised 831 men and 80 women (17-26 years). The prevalence was 5.7% (95% confidence limits 4.2-7.4%) and 15% (8-25%) for men and women, respectively (p ... among Chlamydia positive men was 6. The frequency of earlier VD was 7.5% and 10% among men and women, respectively. Treatment with tetracycline was effective, which makes control of eradication unnecessary. We conclude that genital chlamydial infection among young asymptomatic people is common...

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Patrick J.; Craig, Rachel; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Gary; McClure, Myra O.; Soldan, Kate; Nardone, Anthony; Johnson, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody. Methods Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE) were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16–44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey) (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men). Seroprevalence trends among 16–24 year-old women (n = 3,361) were investigated over ten time points from 1994–2012. Results In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16–44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0–27.1) in women and 13.9% (11.8–16.2) in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5–40.2] in 30–34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4–25.6] in 35–39 year-old men); years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16–24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16–24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008–2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84–1.05]). Conclusion Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes. PMID:28129328

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis and invasive cervical cancer: a pooled analysis of the IARC multicentric case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.S.; Bosetti, C; Munoz, N.; Herrero, R; Bosch, F.X.; Eluf-Neto, J; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Brule, van den AJ; Franceschi, S; Peeling, RW

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection is consistently associated with an increased risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) after accounting for the strong effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a case-control study of 1,238 cases of ICC and 1,100 control women from 7 countr

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis sigma28 recognizes the fliC promoter of Escherichia coli and responds to heat shock in chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Li, Maixiang; Zhang, You-Xun

    2004-01-01

    The rpsD gene of Chlamydia trachomatis encodes the alternative sigma factor sigma28, which bears strong homology to many bacterial sigma factors, including Escherichia coli sigma8 and Bacillus subtilis sigmaB and sigmaD. Recently, a sigma28 promoter was identified upstream of the late-cycle-expressed gene hctB, which encodes the Chlamydia-histone-like protein 2 (Yu & Tan, 2003). In this study it is shown that the product of chlamydial rpsD is an E. coli sigma28 homologue. It was found that recombinant chlamydial sigma8, in combination with E. coli core RNA polymerase, initiates transcription in vitro from the E. coli sigma28-dependent promoter of fliC. It was also demonstrated that the recombinant chlamydial sigma28 does not recognize major sigma factor sigma70-consensus-like sequences in vitro. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, two rpsD transcripts were detected with 5' ends located 18 (transcript I) and 54 bp (transcript II) upstream of the translational initiation codon at 16 and 30 h post-infection. When the temperature of cultures infected with C. trachomatis was shifted from 35 to 42 degrees C, the rpsD transcript I increased dramatically. The levels of chlamydial sigma28, relative to EF-Tu, were greater throughout the exponential growth phase of the reticulate body, but lower late in the developmental cycle. These data support the hypothesis that sigma28 plays a role in the regulatory network that allows chlamydiae to survive changes in its environment, enabling it to complete its unique developmental cycle.

  13. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis among male patients with urethritis in northeast of Iran detected by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiarash Ghazvini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning for appropriate preventive measures against Chlamydia trachomatis, a common cause of sexually transmitted disease, requires knowledge of prevalence of infection so that interventions can be targeted in a cost-effective manner. This study was performed on 178 male patients presenting with urethritis in the Mashhad province to determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection in Northeast Iran. A cotton swab and first voided urine specimen were collected according to standard procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests were used for the detection of C. trachomatis in the specimens collected and the results were analyzed using SPSS program. Results showed that 10.6% of male patients in this group were infected with C. trachomatis. This study provides strong evidence that prevalence of Chlamydia in the Northeast Iran is high and suggests that Chlamydia screening as a routine part of STD investigations is highly necessary in this area.

  14. Evaluation of glycogen assay,polymerase chain reaction,and cell culture for diagnostic value of chlamydia trachomatis infection%糖原试验、聚合酶链反应和细胞培养对沙眼衣原体感染的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎玲; 李丹; 冯树异; 周劲松; 王双元

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study on glycogen assay,polymerae chain reaction,and cell culture for diagnostic value of chlamydia infection of vervical smeat.Methods 106 specimens were examined by using glycogen assay,PCR and cell culture.Results Compared with cell culture,the sensitivity and specifity of glycogen assay are 80.0% and 95.8% ,and the sensitivity and specifity of PCR are 90.0% and 97.9% ,respectively.Conclusion The glycogen assay possesses diagnostic value for chlamydia trachomatis infection of vervical smear.%目的探讨糖原试验、聚合酶链反应(PCR)和细胞培养法检测泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染的诊断价值。方法用三种方法分别对106例女性门诊患者宫颈分泌物标本进行平行检测。结果以细胞培养作参比,糖原试验的敏感性为80.0%,特异性为95.8%;PCR敏感性为90.0%,特异性为97.9%。结论糖原试验对泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体感染有一定诊断价值。

  15. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  16. Pneumonia grave por "Chlamydia psittaci"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSCHIONI CRISTIANE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A psitacose, também conhecida como ornitose, é causada pela Chlamydia psittaci; caracteriza-se por doença de início insidioso, sintomas brandos e inespecíficos, lembrando infecção de vias aéreas superiores. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, sendo raramente doença sistêmica e fatal. Descreve-se um caso raro de pneumonia por Chlamydia psittaci que evoluiu para insuficiência respiratória aguda, necessitando de ventilação mecânica. Destaca-se a importância em considerar o diagnóstico, especialmente em casos de pneumonia comunitária que evolui de modo insatisfatório, que não responde à terapia antimicrobiana e cuja epidemiologia é positiva para exposição às aves. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental devido à excelente resposta terapêutica. O diagnóstico tardio pode levar a curso grave e fatal da doença.

  17. Primary study on change of STAT3-TLR2 signaling axis in Chlamydia trachomatis persistent infection%沙眼衣原体持续感染状态下STAT3-TLR2信号轴的变化初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纯静; 陈恩; 林琳; 罗奇志; 李伟; 余平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探索在沙眼衣原体( Chlamydia trachomatis,Ct)持续感染状态下,STAT3-TLR2信号轴的变化,以及相关炎性细胞因子的异常分泌情况。方法:以HeLa细胞为研究对象,建立Ct的急性感染和IFN-γ诱导的持续性感染模型,采用qRT-PCR、Western blot、ELISA等方法比较不同感染状态下,HeLa细胞STAT3-TLR2信号轴相关分子如TLR2、STAT3及IL-1α等的变化。结果:在Ct持续性感染状态下,上皮细胞分泌的IL-1α以及STAT3和TLR2的表达均明显增加,且IL-1α的分泌、TLR2的表达与STAT3的蛋白表达和活化呈一致性的升高。结论:在IFN-γ诱导的Ct持续感染状态下,STAT3-TLR2信号轴相关分子存在明显活化。%Objective:To explore in state of Chlamydia trachomatis persistent infection,the STAT3-TLR2 axis may be activated and mediating abnormal secretion of inflammatory cytokines.Methods: We established acute infection and IFN-γinduced persistent infection model of Ct in HeLa cell.Gene transcription, cytokine secretion and protein expression were detected by using qRT-PCR, ELISA and Western blot respectively in STAT3-TLR2 signaling axis in each Ct infection model.Results: Persistent Ct infections upregulated the transcription of TLR2,significantly increased both the secretion of inflammatory cytokine IL-1αand the expression of STAT3 and TLR2,moreover,enhanced the activation of STAT3 simultaneously.Conclusion: In the Ct persistent infection induced by IFN-γ,the STAT3-TLR2 signaling axis activated significantly in HeLa cell.

  18. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, David; Goy, Genevieve; Jaton, Katia; Osterheld, Maria-Chiara; Blumer, Serafin; Borel, Nicole; Vial, Yvan; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert

    2011-09-01

    To determine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, we prospectively collected serum, cervicovaginal swab specimens, and placental samples from 386 women with and without miscarriage. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G against C. trachomatis was higher in the miscarriage group than in the control group (15.2% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.018). Association between C. trachomatis-positive serologic results and miscarriage remained significant after adjustment for age, origin, education, and number of sex partners (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.9). C. trachomatis DNA was more frequently amplified from products of conception or placenta from women who had a miscarriage (4%) than from controls (0.7%; p = 0.026). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed C. trachomatis in placenta from 5 of 7 patients with positive PCR results, whereas results of immunohistochemical analysis were negative in placenta samples from all 8 negative controls tested. Associations between miscarriage and serologic/molecular evidence of C. trachomatis infection support its role in miscarriage.

  19. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  3. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

  4. Quinolones for the Treatment of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Faro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly sexually transmitted bacteria are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The quinolones ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have been shown to have activity against both of these bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Ofloxacin is particularly well suited for the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis cervical infection, which can be considered the earliest manifestation of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Not only can ofloxacin be effectively used as a single agent, it is also useful in treating urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Although it has moderate activity against anaerobes in general, ofloxacin does have activity against the anaerobes commonly isolated from female patients with soft tissue pelvic infections. Thus, ofloxacin has the potential for being utilized to treat early salpingitis.

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection in wheezing illnesses of young children in Chengdu%成都地区婴幼儿喘息性疾病衣原体感染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊映红; 谢诚; 艾涛

    2009-01-01

    衣原体是一类细胞内寄生、具有独特发育周期的原核型微生物,其中肺炎衣原体(Chlamydia pneumoniae,CP)和沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,CT)是引起小儿呼吸道感染的常见病原体。国外研究表明,衣原体感染与小儿毛细支气管炎、喘息性支气管炎、哮喘的发作密切相关。2006年1月-2007年12月,对我院儿内科住院期间的喘息性疾病婴幼儿进行了衣原体和呼吸道病毒IgM抗体水平测定,以了解衣原体在喘息性疾病婴幼儿人群中感染情况,现报道如下。

  6. Evidence of Infectious Asthma Phenotype: Chlamydia-Induced Allergy and Pathogen-Specific IgE in a Neonatal Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Katir K.; Webley, Wilmore C.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1) and adult (6 wks) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn) and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13) in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ). The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi), neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life respiratory

  7. Evidence of infectious asthma phenotype: Chlamydia-induced allergy and pathogen-specific IgE in a neonatal mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katir K Patel

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1 and adult (6 wks BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13 in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ. The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi, neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life

  8. Evidence of infectious asthma phenotype: Chlamydia-induced allergy and pathogen-specific IgE in a neonatal mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Katir K; Webley, Wilmore C

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose etiology is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that early-life respiratory infections with atypical bacteria may play an important role in the induction or exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease. The current study utilized a neonatal mouse ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization model of asthma to determine the course of early-life respiratory tract infection by Chlamydia. Neonatal (day 1) and adult (6 wks) BALB/c mice were infected intranasally with Chlamydia (MoPn) and 7 weeks later were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Allergic airway disease was characterized by examination of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellularity, cytokine production and antibody response. The presence of Chlamydia was determined by PCR and culture. Ova-specific IgE was quantified by ELISA and Chlamydia-specific IgE was determined via Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection in neonatal mice induced increased production of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, 5, 10, and 13) in both BAL and serum, while infected adult mice produced increased Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ). The BAL from infected neonates contained significantly elevated levels of eosinophils compared to infected adult mice. Although adult mice cleared the infection ∼30 days post infection (pi), neonates were still infected 66 days after initial infection. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in both the BAL and serum of neonatal mice beginning 28 days post infection, however, infected adult mice did not produce Chlamydia-specific IgE antibodies over the course of the study. When allergic airway was induced using Ova, infected neonatal mice increased their production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by >2 fold compared to uninfected controls and infected adult groups. Our findings demonstrate that early-life Chlamydia infection induces a Th2-dominant cytokine response in the airways of neonatal mice, leading to chronic infection. More significantly, early life respiratory

  9. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  10. Chlamydia causes fragmentation of the Golgi compartment to ensure reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Dagmar; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Machuy, Nikolaus; Karlas, Alexander; Wehrens, Andrea; Siedler, Frank; Brinkmann, Volker; Meyer, Thomas F

    2009-02-05

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis survives and replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed the inclusion, which intercepts host exocytic pathways to obtain nutrients. Like many other intracellular pathogens, C. trachomatis has a marked requirement for host cell lipids, such as sphingolipids and cholesterol, produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. However, the mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens acquire host cell lipids are not well understood. In particular, no host cell protein responsible for transporting Golgi-derived lipids to the chlamydial inclusions has yet been identified. Here we show that Chlamydia infection in human epithelial cells induces Golgi fragmentation to generate Golgi ministacks surrounding the bacterial inclusion. Ministack formation is triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of the Golgi matrix protein golgin-84. Inhibition of golgin-84 truncation prevents Golgi fragmentation, causing a block in lipid acquisition and maturation of C. trachomatis. Golgi fragmentation by means of RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of distinct Golgi matrix proteins before infection enhances bacterial maturation. Our data functionally connect bacteria-induced golgin-84 cleavage, Golgi ministack formation, lipid acquisition and intracellular pathogen growth. We show that C. trachomatis subverts the structure and function of an entire host cell organelle for its own advantage.

  11. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  12. 宿主的遗传背景对呼吸道感染沙眼衣原体后Treg产生的影响%The different genetic background of inbred mouse strains affect Treg cells during Chlamydia muridarum lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国生; 徐晚雪; 王海萍; 乔赛; 唐莹莹; 任建云; 张永慈; 邢冬红; 黄焕军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨宿主的遗传背景对呼吸道感染沙眼衣原体后调节性T细胞(Treg)产生的影响.方法 对衣原体感染具有明显易感性差异的C57 BL/6(C57)和C3H/HeN(C3H)小鼠鼻腔吸入1×103 IFU沙眼衣原体小鼠肺炎菌株(Chlamydia muridarum,Cm),于感染后不同天数处死小鼠.利用细胞内细胞因子染色技术检测小鼠脾脏单个核细胞CD4+ CD25+T细胞、Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25+T细胞百分率,利用RT-PCR技术检测小鼠肺组织Treg细胞分泌的相关细胞因子IL-10和IL-2的mRNA表达水平,并比较Cm呼吸道感染不同时期C57和C3H小鼠Treg免疫应答水平的差异.结果 Cm感染在两组小鼠均诱导较高水平的CD4+ CD25+T细胞、Foxp3+ CD4+ CD25+T细胞产生及IL-10、IL-2mRNA表达.感染后第3天和第7天,高易感性的C3H小鼠脾脏CD4+ CD25+T细胞、Foxp3+ CD4+CD25+T细胞扩增水平,以及肺组织细胞因子IL-2 mRNA的表达水平均高于C57小鼠,感染后第14天,C3H小鼠IL-10 mRNA表达水平明显高于C57小鼠.结论 衣原体呼吸道感染在高易感性的C3H小鼠诱导高水平的Treg的增殖及Treg相关细胞因子IL-10、IL-2的表达,从而对衣原体特异的Th1免疫应答抑制作用增强,在小鼠衣原体呼吸道感染易感性差异中发挥重要作用.%Objective To investigate the influence of different host genetic background on Treg cells during Chlamydia lung infection.Methods C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice that have different susceptibility to Chlamydia infection were inoculated intranasally with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm).To determine the Treg responses in two mouse strains,intracellular cytokine staining of spleen cells was performed to assay the proliferation of CD4+CD25+ T cells and CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ T cells.The mRNA expression of IL-10 and IL-2 in the lung was assayed by RT-PCR during the different periods of infection.Results The proliferation of CD4+CD25+ T cells and CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+T cells in the spleen and the mRNA expression of IL-2 in the infected

  13. Effect of natural killer cells on the production of interleukin-22 and disease process during Chlamydia muridarum lung infection%鼠衣原体肺部感染中自然杀伤细胞对白细胞介素-22产生及疾病进程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓婧; 李静; 赵蕾; 齐眉; 孙泽雨; 王红; 赵蔚明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of natural killer(NK)cells on the production of interleukin-22(IL-22)and disease process in Chlamydia lung infection.Methods Thirty-six mice were divided into experimental group (n=18) and control group (n=18).Mice in experimental group or control group were injected anti-asialo GM1 antibody or iso-type respectively,and then infected with Chlamydia muridarum intranasally.Body weight changes were monitored dai-ly.Mice were sacrificed at day 6 and day 12 after infection,and inclusion-forming units (IFU)of lungs were meas-ured.IL-22 expression was determined by real-time PCR and ELISA.The changes of Th17 cells numbers were meas-ured by flow cytometry analysis.Results Comparied with control group,mice in experimental group deepened the lung infection and body weight decrease trend,exhibited the incresed lung IFUs,reduced splenic IL-22 expressions in mRNA and protein levels(all P<0.05),and decreased percentage and absolute numbers of Th17 cells in spleen (both P<0.01).Conclusion NK cells depletion results in reduced IL-22 expression and severe lung disease.NK cells can promote the expression of IL-22,which contributes to the effective control of Chlamydial lung infection.%目的:探究小鼠衣原体(Chlamydia)肺部感染中自然杀伤(NK)细胞对白细胞介素-22(IL-22)产生及疾病进程的影响。方法36只小鼠分为实验组和对照组,每组18只。实验组小鼠尾静脉注射anti-asialoGM1,以封闭体内NK细胞,同时鼻吸入含鼠衣原体(Chlamydia muridarum)的感染液;对照组小鼠尾静脉注射同型对照抗体,感染方法同实验组。每天记录小鼠体质量变化;分别于感染后6、12 d,检测小鼠肺部衣原体包涵体形成单位(IFU);实时荧光定量PCR、ELISA方法检测小鼠脾脏中IL-22的表达,细胞内细胞因子染色技术检测小鼠脾脏Th17细胞数量变化。结果与对照组相比,实验组小鼠肺部感染加重,体质量

  14. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristien De Puysseleyr

    Full Text Available Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C. The tet(C gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  15. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Puysseleyr, Kristien; De Puysseleyr, Leentje; Geldhof, Julie; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  16. Frequency of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Non-pregnant Women in Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Okhli (MSc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common causes of genital infection in men and women. Genital chlamydial infections in women are clinically asymptomatic in 70-80% of the cases; therefore, the lack of timely diagnosis and treatment leads to complications such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydial infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic women in the Golestan province. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 cervical swab samples obtained from 150 women referred to the clinic, after obtaining written consent and completion of questionnaires. The swab samples were transferred to laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline solution and DNA extraction was carried out using phenol-chloroform and boiling methods. The frequency of chlamydial infection was evaluated by PCR. Results: None of the tested samples were found as Chlamydia-positive. Conclusion: The findings require that some more extensive research with larger sample sizes and dispersed population be performed to determine the true prevalence. Considering the serious complications of chlamydial infections and its asymptomatic nature, a highly sensitive and specific method such as PCR should be used to detect Chlamydia. It is suggested that this method be used along with a complementary test to obtain the results that are more accurate. Furthermore, conducting simultaneous studies on other populations at risk will be very helpful in obtaining representable national data.

  17. Co-cultivation of conjunctival epithelial cells and Chlamydia trachomatis: electron microscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D S; Ko, M K; Kang, K T

    1998-06-01

    This study used primary culture of rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells to investigate the infection process of chlamydia. The epithelial cells isolated from conjunctiva of rabbit were initially cultured for three weeks. After attaining confluence they were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) serotype D, and after co-cultivation for 24, 48, and 96 hours, electron microscopic study was performed. An inclusion body, a characteristic finding of chlamydial infection, was observed in the vicinity of the nucleus after 24 hours of co-cultivation. It contained a large number of elementary and reticulate bodies and their intermediate forms. Infectious particles known as elementary bodies were noted in the inclusion as 20 to 30 microns sized round bodies with an electron dense core. Reticulate bodies were also noted; they too were round but somewhat pleomorphic and larger than elementary bodies. Some reticulate bodies multiplied actively by means of binary fission. In this study, we observed the characteristic changes of C. trachomatis-infected cells; this in-vitro system might provide a suitable model for the study of some aspects of the pathogenesis of ocular chlamydia infection.

  18. An econometric analysis of screening and treatment of patients with suspected Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Manouche; Craig, Ann-Marie; Malek, Mo

    2002-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is probably the most common sexually transmitted disease in the Western industrialised countries with devastating consequences. However, it is an infection that can be so easily treated. There are over 50 million new cases occurring each year. In the United States chlamydia is seen as the most common and costly of the bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD), with approximately 4 million new cases occurring each year at an estimated total cost of $2.4 billion. The characteristic of this infection is its difficulty of detection that promotes its spread and making its prediction rather complex. Chlamydial infections are commonly asymptomatic or cause mild or non-specific symptoms and signs, which are not easily detected. Approximately 70% of women with endocervical infections and up to 50% of men with urethral infections are asymptomatic and thus not likely to seek medical care. Chlamydia has become known as the "silent epidemic". It is the more frequently identifiable single cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), occurring in an estimated 15-40% of women. The primary objective of the study was to identify factors and quantify their contribution to the risk of being infected with Chlamydia and to construct an easy to use friendly method for early detection. The importance of developing some means of early detection is vital and previous studies suggest that selective screening might be one solution. A logit model was fitted to three broad variables: behavioural, patients' characteristics, and signs/symptoms noted by patient. The age of the women, the number of sexual partners over the past year, previous history of sexually transmitted disease, the use of barrier contraception and patients' and their partners' signs and symptoms were found to be among the most important variables. Such a model should allow patients who are in a high-risk category, allowing appropriate treatment.

  19. 荧光定量聚合酶链反应检测沙眼衣原体感染的初步应用%Diagnostic efficacy of FQ-PCR method in evaluation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文蔚; 应春妹

    2005-01-01

    泌尿生殖道沙眼衣原体(Chlamydia trachomatis,Ct)感染是我国目前最常见的性传播疾病之一,并可引起宫颈炎、尿道炎、盆腔炎、异位妊娠、输卵管不孕症及早产等。细胞培养分离Ct是传统的实验室诊断“金标准”.但鉴于该方法操作烦琐,约需1周才能报告结果,故未能在临床普遍应用。

  20. The clinical manifestation and diagnosis of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia infection in female genital tract%女性生殖道支原体和衣原体感染的临床表现及诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚里

    2005-01-01

    性传播疾病(sexually transmitted diseases, STD)是指由性行为引起的生殖器间或生殖器外接触传染的一组疾病.世界卫生组织(WHO)规定20余种病原体感染属STD范畴,其中较常见的是衣原体(chlamydia trachomatis, CT)和支原体(ureaplasma)感染引起的STD,常称为非淋菌性尿道炎(nongonococal urethritis, NGU).支原体中又以解脲支原体(ureaplasma urealyticum, UU)和人型支原体(Mycoplasma hominis, MH)最为多见.

  1. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or babies born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Premature birth is the most common cause of infant death and can lead to long-term health and ... or babies born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Premature birth is the most common cause of infant death and can lead to long-term health and ...

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakar S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31% neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  3. The prevalence and identity of Chlamydia-specific IgE in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory symptoms

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    Patel Katir K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have confirmed the presence of viable Chlamydia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of pediatric patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. While specific IgG and IgM responses to C. pneumoniae are well described, the response and potential contribution of Ag-specific IgE are not known. The current study sought to determine if infection with Chlamydia triggers the production of pathogen-specific IgE in children with chronic respiratory diseases which might contribute to inflammation and pathology. Methods We obtained BAL fluid and serum from pediatric respiratory disease patients who were generally unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment as well as sera from age-matched control patients who saw their doctor for wellness checkups. Chlamydia-specific IgE was isolated from BAL and serum samples and their specificity determined by Western blot techniques. The presence of Chlamydia was confirmed by species-specific PCR and BAL culture assays. Results Chlamydial DNA was detected in the BAL fluid of 134/197 (68% patients. Total IgE increased with age until 15 years old and then decreased. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in the serum and/or BAL of 107/197 (54% patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease, but in none of the 35 healthy control sera (p p = 0.0001 tested positive for Chlamydia-specific IgE. Asthmatic patients had significantly higher IgE levels compared to non-asthmatics (p = 0.0001. Patients who were positive for Chlamydia DNA or culture had significantly higher levels of serum IgE compared to negative patients (p = 0.0071 and p = 0.0001 respectively. Only 6 chlamydial antigens induced Chlamydia-specific IgE and patients with C. pneumoniae-specific IgE had significantly greater levels of total IgE compared to C. pneumoniae-specific IgE negative ones (p = 0.0001. Conclusions IgE antibodies play a central role in allergic inflammation; therefore production of Chlamydia

  4. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebayehu N. Yilma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  5. "Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Badami

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6% of infertile females compare with 18 (7.2% of normal population. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 41 (32.8% of infertile females compare to 48 (19.2% of normal population. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct IF in 11 (8.8% of infertile and 2 (0.8% control group. The antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured in both groups of infertile and normal population and a positive titer of 1/16 and above was detected in 26 (20.8% of infertile cases and in 8 (3.2% of control group. The rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in case and control groups was significant (respectively P<0.0001, P<0.0001, p= 0.0018.

  6. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  7. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis and Hoopoe (Upupa epops in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeen K. El-Jakee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results reveal that 96.4%, 81.8%, 89.1%, 80.0% and 58.2% of the examined samples were positive for chlamydiosis using PCR, Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, FA, and CFT respectively among Hoopoe. The percentages were 90.6%, 77.4%, 83.0%, 75.5% and 66.0% respectively for the previous tests among Cattle Egret birds. The results suggest that Cattle Egret and Hoopoe may be reservoir of Chlamydiaceae species and thus shed the organisms in their excreta. The shedding of chlamydiae by free living birds in Egypt may expose humans that come in contact with these birds to zoonotic risks.

  8. 衣原体质粒研究进展%Progress in Research of Chlamydia Plasmid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭菁; 刘良专; 吴移谋

    2013-01-01

    质粒是染色体外的遗传物质,大部分衣原体中存在隐蔽性质粒,其特有的基因组学和编码的蛋白对衣原体的生长周期、毒力、致病性和免疫性等起着十分重要的作用,对衣原体质粒的研究有助于了解其生物学作用,从而更好的预防与治疗衣原体感染的感染.%Plasmids are extrachromosomal genetic material. There are cryptic plasmids in most of Chlamydia, whose unique genomics and proteins encoded by the genomics play an important role in the growth cycle, virulence, pathogenicity and immunity of chlamydia. The studying of chlamydia plasmid is benefit of understanding their biological roles and base the prevention and treatment of Chlamydia infection.

  9. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

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    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Mycoplasma and Chlamydia Infection in Infertility in Xiangyang%襄阳地区不孕不育者感染支原体衣原体情况分析初报--湖北省教育厅科技计划项目《襄阳市感染、自身免疫与不孕不育的初次研究》成果介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙莉

    2015-01-01

    探究解脲脲原体(UU)、人型支原体(MH)和沙眼衣原体(CT)感染及抗精子抗体(AsAb)与不孕不育的关系。对襄阳市1031例不孕不育患者的临床标本,分别采用培养法和PCR扩增法检测泌尿生殖道分泌物中的支原体和衣原体,用ELISA法检测血清AsAb,同时设立正常对照。不孕不育患者支(衣)原体感染率和AsAb阳性率均高于正常对照组,差异有统计学意义;支(衣)原体检测阳性患者血清AsAb总阳性率高于支(衣)原体检测阴性者;支原体感染类型以单纯UU感染最多见,不同类型感染者对抗生素的敏感程度亦不同。支(衣)原体感染和AsAb的产生与不孕不育密切相关,对不孕不育患者,应常规检测支(衣)原体和AsAb,以规避不孕不育风险;对支原体阳性者,根据药敏结果科学选择用药是提高治疗效果、防止耐药性产生的重要手段。%Objective explore the relationship of ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and anti sperm antibody (AsAb) with infertility. Methods with the clinical specimens of 1031 patients with infertility were used in Xiangyang City, culture and amplification of Mycoplasma and Chlamydia detection urogenital secretions in PCR method, the detection of serum AsAb with ELISA method, and normally control. Result Mycoplasma and Chlamydia infection rate of the patients with infertility and the AsAb positive rate was higher than that in normal control group, and the difference has statistical significance;the total positive rate of mycoplasma detection in serum of patients with AsAb is higher than that of negative patients; UU infection is the most common in mycoplasma infection. Conclusion Mycoplasma and Chlamydia infection and the production of AsAb are closely related to infertility. Infertility patients should test Mycoplasma and Chlamydia and AsAb regularly to avoid the risk

  11. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Louise M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group. Methods We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. Results GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgemental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Conclusion Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgemental attitude and minimising barriers to screening

  12. 非淋球菌性尿道炎患者支原体和衣原体感染及耐药性分析%Analaysis on Mycoplasma and Chlamydia infection as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility of mycoplasma in patient with non-gonococcal urethritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 肖敬川; 黄会; 王泉江

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨海南地区皮肤科门诊泌尿生殖道衣原体(CT)和支原体感染及支原体药敏情况.方法 2008-2010年本院皮肤科门诊共l 627例就诊患者采用PCR法检测标本中衣原体,采用试剂盒进行支原体培养和药敏试验.结果 单纯CT阳性89例,占5.47%,单纯Uu阳性1073例,占65.95%,单纯Mh阳性38例,占2.34%,MH+Uu 3例,占0.18%,CT+Uu 25例,占1.54%,CT+MH 2例,占0.12%,CT+Uu+MH 0例.耐药情况为:Uu对四环素、美满霉素、阿奇霉素,克拉霉素及交沙霉素敏感性较好.Mh对四环素、交沙霉素及美满霉素敏感性好.结论 本地区衣原体及支原体感染率较高,支原体经验性治疗首选美满霉素、四环素及交沙霉素.临