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Sample records for chittagong hill tracts

  1. Conflict and Livelihood Decisions in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Badiuzzaman (Muhammad); S.M. Murshed (Syed)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We analyse rural household livelihood and child school enrolment decisions in the post-conflict setting of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) region of Bangladesh. What makes this paper innovative is the use of current subjective perceptions regarding the possibility of v

  2. Conflict and Livelihood Decisions in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Badiuzzaman, Muhammad; Murshed, Syed

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We analyse rural household livelihood and child school enrolment decisions in the post-conflict setting of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) region of Bangladesh. What makes this paper innovative is the use of current subjective perceptions regarding the possibility of violence in the future and past actual experiences of violence in explaining household economic decision-making. Preferences are endogenous in line with behavioural economics. Regression results show...

  3. Food security and ecological footprint of chittagong hill tracts in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents food security and ecological footprint of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in Bangladesh. To estimate food security and ecological footprint, primary and secondary data were collected and a multistage sampling was designed for selecting the farm households from the three districts of the Hill Tracts of Chittagong. A quantitative method for computation of food security was used. To estimate the environmental sustainability sustainability as upazila (sub-district) levels, a method of computation of ecological footprint developed by Wackernagel was used. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to data on food security of the farmers in CHT to identify the factors affecting food security at household levels in CHT. Overall status of food security at upazila levels was found to be good for all the upazilas except Rangamati sadar and the best was found Alikadam. Environmental status in the Hill Tracts of Chittagong was poor for all the upazilas. Household food security was found to be significantly (p<0.05) affected by farm size, education, professions, crops cultivated (jhum and tobacco), distance from market and transition from jhum to horticulture. This study supports transition from jhum to horticulture crops for increased food security and banning tobacco cultivation to avoid deforestation in CHT. (author)

  4. Ectoparasites of livestock, dogs, and wild rodents in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in southeastern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Igel, Petra; Treiber, Moritz; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

    2012-10-01

    A large variety of ectoparasites parasitizing on livestock, dogs, and rodents are documented throughout the world, of which several are proven vectors for major (including zoonotic) diseases affecting humans and/or livestock. However, there remains a significant lack of knowledge in regard to the ectoparasite fauna in remote regions of the developing world, such as southeastern Bangladesh, and an urgent need to investigate this fauna to improve diagnostic options. In the course of the present study, more than 5,300 ectoparasites were collected by flag dragging and handpicking of livestock, dogs, and rodents in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in southeastern Bangladesh. Three tick species were identified: Haemaphysalis bispinosa (flagging, cattle, goats, and dogs), Rhipicephalus microplus (cattle, goats), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs, goats, and flagging). H. bispinosa was the dominant tick species on mammalian hosts as well as on vegetation. Furthermore, Ctenocephalides canis (dogs, goats) and Linognatus sp. (goat) were found. Overall, 73 rodents of eight different species (e.g., Mus musculus, Rattus sikkimensis, Bandicota bengalensis, and Niviventer sp.) hosted a variety of ectoparasites such as mites (Laelaps nuttali, Laelaps echidninus, Lyponissoides sp. and Ornithonyssus bacoti), fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), and one myiasis-causing dipteran species. Monitoring the ectoparasite burden of livestock and other mammals is urgently needed in order to control ectoparasites associated with social and economic burden (e.g., reduced milk production, weight loss). Several zoonotic diseases can be transmitted by ectoparasites in this area, where the majority of the population live in basic housing conditions and in direct contact with livestock, dogs, and rodents. PMID:22576854

  5. Implications of changing national policies on land use in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Gopal B; Rasul, Golam

    2006-12-01

    Land use in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh had undergone changes over the past several centuries. The landscape, which was mostly covered with forest with interspersed shifting cultivation plots until the beginning of the colonial period, has gradually changed into a landscape with a blend of land uses. Overall, the forest area has gradually declined, while the area under shifting cultivation and sedentary agriculture has expanded. The process of the change was multi-directional. National forestry, land use, land taxation, population migration policies, and development activities, such as construction of a hydroelectric dam and roads, played an important role in this process. Shifting cultivation had inflicted little damage on the forest until the beginning of the colonial period. The pace of deforestation accelerated with the nationalization of forests which abolished tribal people's customary use and management rights to the forest, and allowed large-scale commercial logging both legally and illegally. The pace was further intensified by the policy encouraging population migration to CHT and construction of a reservoir on the Karnafuli River. Efforts were made to replace shifting cultivation with more productive types of sedentary agriculture. However, much change could not take place in the absence of secure land rights, supportive trade policies, and the required support services and facilities, including infrastructure. Locationally suitable land use evolved in areas where transportation facilities were available and farmers were granted land title with the necessary extension services and credit facilities. These findings have important policy implications for the promotion of environmentally and economically sound land use in CHT. PMID:16549239

  6. "Let’s go back to go forward" : history and practice of schooling in the indigenous communities in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Mohammed Mahbubul

    2009-01-01

    This research deals with the history of education for the indigenous peoples in Chittagong Hills Tracts (CHT) Bangladesh who, like many places under postcolonial nation states, have no constitutional recognition, nor do their languages have a place in the state education system. Comprising data from literature and empirical study in CHT and underpinned on a conceptual framework on indigenous peoples’ education stages within state system in the global perspective, it analyzes in-depth on how ...

  7. Blaming Jhum, denying Jhumia : challenges of indigenous peoples land rights in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh : a case study on Chakma and Tripura

    OpenAIRE

    Tripura, Sontosh Bikash

    2008-01-01

    The special focus in this thesis is about the challenges of the indigenous peoples land rights in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in Bangladesh. Traditionally, indigenous peoples practiced jhum cultivation. The notion of the ownership of the land for the practices of jhum cultivation is distinct from wet-rice cultivation. The jhum cultivator must every year change the places to plant from one field to another. On the other hand, jhum cultivation has been blamed for environment...

  8. Formation of iron oxides in soils developed under natural fires and slash-and-burn based agriculture in a monsoonal climate (Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire-induced mineral transformations have been investigated in composite mineral grains separated from the coarse sand fractions (400-2,000 μm) from Ultisols developed in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh). Magnetic and colour based separation (into light brown, dark red, and magnetic, dark red classes) were used to select the grains that were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Aluminium substituted goethite (α-FeOOH) dominates the light brown particles. Fire transform the goethite into a poorly crystalline hematite (α-Fe2O3) dominating in the dark red particles. In the dark red, magnetic grains a recrystallized hematite dominates, but small amounts of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) are also present. The latter is indicated by comparing the line intensities in spectra measurement with and without an external magnetic field.

  9. Formation of iron oxides in soils developed under natural fires and slash-and-burn based agriculture in a monsoonal climate (Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Koch, C.; Borggaard, O. K.; Gafur, A.

    2005-11-01

    Fire-induced mineral transformations have been investigated in composite mineral grains separated from the coarse sand fractions (400-2,000 μm) from Ultisols developed in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh). Magnetic and colour based separation (into light brown, dark red, and magnetic, dark red classes) were used to select the grains that were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Aluminium substituted goethite (α-FeOOH) dominates the light brown particles. Fire transform the goethite into a poorly crystalline hematite (α-Fe2O3) dominating in the dark red particles. In the dark red, magnetic grains a recrystallized hematite dominates, but small amounts of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) are also present. The latter is indicated by comparing the line intensities in spectra measurement with and without an external magnetic field.

  10. Changes in Language, Communication and Thought: A Study on Linguistic Discrimination against the Indigenous People of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ala Uddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The Chittagong Hill Tracts that situated in the southeastern part of Bangladesh bordering Burma and India has been known as a conflict zone in South Asia. The conflicting situation between the indigenous peoples and Bengalis was worsened due to immigration of Bengalis, displacement of the indigenous peoples, and military intervention in the Hill Tracts. Putting an end of the two- and half-decade-long bloody conflict, an agreement (“peace agreement” was signed in December 02, 1997; nonetheless, still the region is neither a peaceful nor a secured region to its inhabitants. However, in the conflicting situation that began in the 1970s, the indigenous minorities are to adopt with the mainstream society and culture. This paper attempts to explore the ‘cope mechanism’ in which the indigenous peoples are communicating with the mainstream Bengalis, focusing on (the situations of the indigenous languages among other resources of culture. Here ‘cope mechanism’ is not only to manage their fear, and conflict in Chittagong Hill Tracts, but also to negotiate the cultural dimension, in which the Hill culture is schematized both in the Bengalis views toward Hill culture and the indigenous peoples views on their own culture.

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  11. Community ecology and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Feroz; Md Rabiul Alam; Prokash Das; Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the floristic composition, woody species diversity and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracks, Bangladesh. We recorded 25 families, 37 genera, 40 species and 1771 woody individuals in a 0.09 ha plot. Euphorbiaceae and Moraceae were the most species-rich families, and Castanopsis, Ficus and Terminalia were the most species-rich genera. Bursera serrata Wall. ex Colebr. was the dominant species in terms of highest importance value (13%). Trema orientalis (L.) Bl was typically a light demanding species as it appeared in the top can-opy with only one individual having the seventh highest IV, but had no regeneration. The expected maximum number of species (Smax) was 140, indicating that many species may invade the forest as the Smax is greater than the recorded total number of species. The nature of the disappear-ance and appearance of species in the present forest reflects instability of floristic composition. The values of Shannon’s index H′ and Pielou’s index J′ (evenness) were 3.36 bit and 0.63, respectively. These values show moderately high species diversity as compared to other subtropical forests in the tropics. In addition, a sample area of 200 m2 in this forest would be sufficient for measuring the diversity indices H′ and J′ , whereas the trend of J′may indicate the rate of equality of individuals among the different species decreased with increasing area. The distribu-tion pattern for the total stand was completely random. However, the dominant species showed aggregate distribution for small areas, but random distribution for large areas. The spatial association between species showed that the strongest positive interspecific association oc-curred between Streblus asper Lour. and Castanea indica Roxb. (ω =0.51). As a whole, most species were weakly associated with each other, of which 58%species associations were completely negative. The result of

  12. Malaria hotspots drive hypoendemic transmission in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh.

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    Sabeena Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malaria is endemic in 13 of 64 districts of Bangladesh, representing a population at risk of about 27 million people. The highest rates of malaria in Bangladesh occur in the Chittagong Hill Districts, and Plasmodium falciparum (predominately chloroquine resistant is the most prevalent species. METHODS: The objective of this research was to describe the epidemiology of symptomatic P. falciparum malaria in an area of Bangladesh following the introduction of a national malaria control program. We carried out surveillance for symptomatic malaria due to P. falciparum in two demographically defined unions of the Chittagong Hill Districts in Bangladesh, bordering western Myanmar, between October 2009 and May 2012. The association between sociodemographics and temporal and climate factors with symptomatic P. falciparum infection over two years of surveillance data was assessed. Risk factors for infection were determined using a multivariate regression model. RESULTS: 472 cases of symptomatic P. falciparum malaria cases were identified among 23,372 residents during the study period. Greater than 85% of cases occurred during the rainy season from May to October, and cases were highly clustered geographically within these two unions with more than 80% of infections occurring in areas that contain approximately one-third of the total population. Risk factors statistically associated with infection in a multivariate logistic regression model were living in the areas of high incidence, young age, and having an occupation including jhum cultivation and/or daily labor. Use of long lasting insecticide-treated bed nets was high (89.3%, but its use was not associated with decreased incidence of infection. CONCLUSION: Here we show that P. falciparum malaria continues to be hypoendemic in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, is highly seasonal, and is much more common in certain geographically limited hot spots and among certain occupations.

  13. Hemoglobin E and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kerry L; Ahmed, Sabeena; Rahman, Hafizur; Prue, Chai S; Khyang, Jacob; Ram, Malathi; Haq, M Zahirul; Chowdhury, Ashish; Akter, Jasmin; Glass, Gregory E; Shields, Timothy; Nyunt, Myaing M; Khan, Wasif A; Sack, David A; Sullivan, David J

    2015-08-01

    Hemoglobin E is largely confined to south and southeast Asia. The association between hemoglobin E (HbE) and malaria is less clear than that of hemoglobin S and C. As part of a malaria study in the Chittagong Hill Districts of Bangladesh, an initial random sample of 202 individuals showed that 39% and 49% of Marma and Khyang ethnic groups, respectively, were positive for either heterozygous or homozygous hemoglobin E. In this group, 6.4% were also found to be severely deficient and 35% mildly deficient for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In a separate Plasmodium falciparum malaria case-uninfected control study, the odds of having homozygous hemoglobin E (HbEE) compared with normal hemoglobin (HbAA) were higher among malaria cases detected by passive surveillance than age and location matched uninfected controls (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-46.93). The odds of heterozygous hemoglobin E (HbAE) compared with HbAA were similar between malaria cases and uninfected controls (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.42-1.19). No association by hemoglobin type was found in the initial parasite density or the proportion parasite negative after 2 days of artemether/lumefantrine treatment. HbEE, but not HbAE status was associated with increased passive case detection of malaria. PMID:26101273

  14. Progress and challenges to control malaria in a remote area of Chittagong hill tracts, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Haque Rashidul; Ahmed Syed; Hossain Shahed; Sunahara Toshihiko; Hashizume Masahiro; Haque Ubydul; Yamamoto Taro; Glass Gregory E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in 13 eastern districts where the overall infection prevalence is 3.97%. In 2006, Bangladesh received US$ 36.9 million from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) to support the national malaria control programme of Bangladesh. Objectives The objective of this study was to i) clarify factors associated with treatment seeking behaviours of malaria ii) distribution of LLIN, and iii) re-treatment of ITN in remote area of a CHT distr...

  15. Progress and challenges to control malaria in a remote area of Chittagong hill tracts, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Rashidul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in 13 eastern districts where the overall infection prevalence is 3.97%. In 2006, Bangladesh received US$ 36.9 million from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM to support the national malaria control programme of Bangladesh. Objectives The objective of this study was to i clarify factors associated with treatment seeking behaviours of malaria ii distribution of LLIN, and iii re-treatment of ITN in remote area of a CHT district of Bangladesh two years after implementation of national control programme. Methods All households of Rajasthali sub-district of Rangamati district (households about 5,322, population about 24,097, all BRAC health workers (n = 15, health facilities and drug vendors' locations were mapped. Distances from households to health facilities, BRAC health workers and drug vendors were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations between the choice of the treatment and the distance to various treatment sources, education, occupation and ethnicity. SaTScan was used to detect clustering of treatment-seeking approaches. Findings LLIN distribution and the re-treatment of ITN exceeded target goals. The most common treatment facility for malaria-associated fever was malaria control programme led by BRAC and government (66.6% followed by the drug vendor (48.8%. Conclusion Closeness to health facilities run by the malaria control programme and drug vendors were significantly associated with the choice of treatment. A high proportion of people preferred drug vendors without having a proper diagnosis. Drug vendors are highly patronized and thus there is a need to improve their services for public health good. Otherwise it may cause incomplete treatment, misuse of anti-malarial drugs that will contribute to the risk of drug resistance and jeopardize the present malaria control efforts in Bangladesh.

  16. Water quality of Kaptai reservoir in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamal Karmakar; S.M.Sirajul Haque; M.Mozaffar Hossain; M.Shafiq

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted in Kaptai reservoir, one of the largest man-made freshwater lakes of South-east Asia, to determine present status of water quality and its suitability for fishing and other uses.Water samplings were from middle pan of the reservoir at 0.2 and 0.8 fractional depths at five different locations from upstream to downstream viz.Burburichara, Maichchari, Subolong, Basanthakum, and Rangamati.Water analyses show that concentrations of NO3-N, K+ and total P, and suspended solid at all the sampling stations were beyond the recommended values for fish culture.Concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+.SO42-, Cl-,total dissolved solid (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were within the standards for aquaculture.Concentrations of NO3-N, SO42-, K- and total P showed no definite trend with depths, locations as well as rainy and dry seasons.Water pH, conductivity, Na- and HCO3- contents were lower in rainy season, and DO and COD higher at almost all the locations in both the depths, compared with dry season.Total solids and concentrations of TDS, DO, COD, Ca2+,Mg2+ and Na+ were higher in upstream and decreased gradually towards downstream in the reservoir.Concentrations of DO and Ca2+ and pH were higher and Mg2+ less at 0.2-fractional depth than those at 0.8-fractional depth at almost all the locations.The reservoir is in mesotrophic condition containing high concentration of NO3-N and total P, in alarming status with the presence of excessive suspended solids from urban pollution around the town.It is necessary to adopt measures for protecting water quality in the reservoir due to such deteriorations.

  17. Temporal trends in severe malaria in Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    Maude Richard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data on malaria in Bangladesh are sparse, particularly on severe and fatal malaria. This hampers the allocation of healthcare provision in this resource-poor setting. Over 85% of the estimated 150,000-250,000 annual malaria cases in Bangladesh occur in Chittagong Division with 80% in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT. Chittagong Medical College Hospital (CMCH is the major tertiary referral hospital for severe malaria in Chittagong Division. Methods Malaria screening data from 22,785 inpatients in CMCH from 1999–2011 were analysed to investigate the patterns of referral, temporal trends and geographical distribution of severe malaria in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh. Results From 1999 till 2011, 2,394 malaria cases were admitted, of which 96% harboured Plasmodium falciparum and 4% Plasmodium vivax. Infection was commonest in males (67% between 15 and 34 years of age. Seasonality of malaria incidence was marked with a single peak in P. falciparum transmission from June to August coinciding with peak rainfall, whereas P. vivax showed an additional peak in February-March possibly representing relapse infections. Since 2007 there has been a substantial decrease in the absolute number of admitted malaria cases. Case fatality in severe malaria was 18% from 2008–2011, remaining steady during this period. A travel history obtained in 226 malaria patients revealed only 33% had been to the CHT in the preceding three weeks. Of all admitted malaria patients, only 9% lived in the CHT, and none in the more remote malaria endemic regions near the Indian border. Conclusions The overall decline in admitted malaria cases to CMCH suggests recent control measures are successful. However, there are no reliable data on the incidence of severe malaria in the CHT, the most endemic area of Bangladesh, and most of these patients do not reach tertiary health facilities. Improvement of early treatment and simple supportive care for

  18. Sagamore Hill National Historic Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Friendship Hill National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Understanding the issues involved in urban landslide vulnerability in Chittagong metropolitan area, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, B; Rubel, Y. A.

    2013-01-01

    Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA) is highly vulnerable to landslide hazard, with an increasing trend of frequency and damage. The major recent landslide events were related to extreme rainfall intensities having short period of time. All the major landslide events occurred as a much higher rainfall amount compared to the monthly average. Moreover rapid urbanization, increased population density, improper landuse, alterations in the hilly regions by illegally cutting the hills, indiscriminate...

  1. Effect of shifting cultivation on soil physical and chemical properties in Bandarban hill district, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khandakar Showkat Osman; M. Jashimuddin; S. M. Sirajul Haque; Sohag Miah

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the effects of shifting cultivation at slashing stage on soil physicochemical properties at Bandarban Sadar Upazila in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. At this initial stage of shifting cultivation no general trend was found for moisture content, maximum water holding capacity, field capacity, dry and moist bulk density, parti-cle density for some chemical properties between shifting cultivated land and forest having similar soil texture. Organic matter was significantly (p≤0.05) lower in 1-year and 3-year shifting cultivated lands and higher in 2-year shifting cultivation than in adjacent natural forest. Significant differences were also found for total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K and in CEC as well as for available P. Slashed area showed higher soil pH. Deterioration in land quality starts from burning of slashing materials and continues through subsequent stages of shifting cultivation.

  2. Status and diversity of snakes (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes at the Chittagong University Campus in Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    M. F. Ahsan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the status and diversity of snakes of the Chittagong University Campus (CUC between September 2013 and December 2014, and on preserved snake specimens of museums of CUC (Department of Zoology, University of Chittagong; Institute of Marine Sciences and Fisheries, University of Chittagong; and Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong.  Thirty-six species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families (Typhlopidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, Elapidae and Viperidae were recorded from CUC during the study period. Colubridae comprised the highest (24 species i.e., 66.67% number of species and Pythonidae the lowest (1 species. Checkered Keelback Xenochrophis piscator was the most common snake and the rarest was the Bengalese Kukri Snake Oligodon dorsalis belonging to the family Colubridae.  Among venomous snakes Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus was the most common snake and Black Krait Bungarus niger was the most rare.  Their status in CUC has been assessed. 

  3. Modeling Chaotic Behavior of Chittagong Stock Indices

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    Shipra Banik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock market prediction is an important area of financial forecasting, which attracts great interest to stock buyers and sellers, stock investors, policy makers, applied researchers, and many others who are involved in the capital market. In this paper, a comparative study has been conducted to predict stock index values using soft computing models and time series model. Paying attention to the applied econometric noises because our considered series are time series, we predict Chittagong stock indices for the period from January 1, 2005 to May 5, 2011. We have used well-known models such as, the genetic algorithm (GA model and the adaptive network fuzzy integrated system (ANFIS model as soft computing forecasting models. Very widely used forecasting models in applied time series econometrics, namely, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic (GARCH model is considered as time series model. Our findings have revealed that the use of soft computing models is more successful than the considered time series model.

  4. Economic analysis of Red Chittagong Cattle farming system in some selected areas of Chittagong district

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, M A; M.A Kashem; J. U. Ahmed; Hossain, M.

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in 5 Upazilas under Chittagong district with a view to analyze the present socio-economic status of RCC farming practices on 100 RCC rearers (Potiya, Raujan, Chandanaish, Anowara and Satkania Upazila). The study showed that, about 39.00 percent of RCC farm owners were landless, 31.00 percent were small and marginal farmers, 17.00 percent were medium and 13.00 percent were large farmers according to their landholding sizes. The cost of rearing RCC per cattle per year ...

  5. Clear felling and burning effects on soil nitrogen transforming bacteria and actinomycetes population in Chittagong University campus, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.M.Sirajul Haque; Rahima Ferdoshi; Sohag Miah; M.Nural Anwar

    2012-01-01

    The effect of forests clear felling and associated burning on the population of soil nitrogen transforming bacteria and actinomycetes are reported at three pair sites of Chittagong University campus,Bangladesh in monsoon tropical climate.Clear felled area or burnt site and 15-21 year mixed plantation of native and exotic species,situated side by side on low hill having Typic Dystrochrepts soil was represented at each pair site.At all the three pair sites,clear felled area or burnt site showed very significantly (p≤0.001) lower population of actinomycetes,Rhizobium,Nitrosomonas,Nitrobacter and ammonifying as well as denitrifying bacteria compared to their adjacent mixed plantation.From environmental consideration,this finding has implication in managing natural ecosystem.

  6. Effects of shifting cultivation on biological and biochemical characteris-tics of soil microorganisms in Khagrachari hill district, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sohag Miah; S.M. Sirajul Haque; Wahida Sumi; Mohammad Mosharraf Hossain

    2014-01-01

    We collected soil samples from two representative sites at Aatmile of Khagarachari hill district in Chittagong Hill Tracts. One of the sites was under shifting cultivation and the other an adjacent 13-year old teak plantation. Both sites were in the same physiographic condition and same aspect with parable soil type, which enabled us to measure the effects of shifting cultivation on soil micro-flora. We studied soil phys-ico-chemical properties and the biochemical and biological properties of soil microbes. Moisture and organic matter content as well as fungi and bacterial populations, both in surface and subsurface soils, were signifi-cantly (p≤0.001) lower in shifting cultivated soils compared to soils not under shifting cultivation, i.e. the teak plantation site. The most abundant bacteria in surface (0-10 cm) and sub-surface (10-20 cm) soils under shifting cultivation were Pseudomonas diminuta and Shigella, respec-tively, while in corresponding soil layers of teak plantation, predominant microbes were Bacillus firmus (0-10 cm) and Xanthomonas (10-20 cm). The microbial population differences cannot be explained by soil texture differences because of the textural similarity in soils from the two sites but could be related to the significantly lower moisture and organic mat-ter contents in soils under shifting cultivation.

  7. Bovine Brucellosis: An Epidemiological Study at Chittagong, Bangladesh

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    Suchandan Sikder*, AKM Anisur Rahman1, Mohammad Rayhan Faruque, Mohammad Abdul Alim2, Shubhagata Das2, Aungshuman Das Gupta3, Bhajan Chandra Das, Mohammad Inkeyas Uddin4 and Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological survey was conducted to identify probable risk factors and prevalence of brucellosis in commercial and backyard dairy cows at Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 500 milk samples were collected (250 commercial and 250 backyards for Milk Ring Test (MRT. The MRT positive cows were subjected to sera collection and Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and indirect ELISA were done for confirmatory diagnosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle was 5% (7.6% in commercial and 2.4% in backyard. Significantly higher (P<0.05 prevalence was found in the zero grazing (5.74%, pregnant cows (7.53% and cows with history of retained placenta (7.89% or abortion (5.88% or both (11.76% than non-pregnant (2.68% and without any reproductive disorder (4.44%. A total of 420 farm attendants and owners were interviewed where 93.55 and 99.08% commercial and backyard personnel were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis and 9.67 and 87.77% consumed raw milk and yogurt respectively were highly vulnerable to zoonotic brucellosis. The results showed that brucellosis is widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including biovar determination.

  8. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna;

    2012-01-01

    A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were...

  9. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (rxy = 0.236, p xy = 0.244, p xy = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the

  10. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mukti Barua; Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan; Kamrul Islam; Sharmin Chowdhury; Md. Hasanuzzaman; Mohammed Ashif Imtiaz; Goutam Buddha Das

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commerc...

  11. Antibiotic residues in milk and eggs of commercial and local farms at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Suchayan Chowdhury; Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan; Mahabub Alam; Sarmina Sattar; Md. Saiful Bari; Saifuddin, A. K. M.; Md. Ahasanul Hoque

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to detection and determination of concentration or level of antibiotic residues in milk and egg of local and commercial farms at Chittagong during December 2011 to June 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 (200 milk and 200 egg) samples were collected from local and commercial dairy cows and local scavenging and commercial poultry farms, respectively. Microbial inhibition test and thin layer chromatography were used for screening and ultra-high performan...

  12. Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M A Islam; Alam, M.K.; M. N. Islam; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components...

  13. Landslide susceptibility mapping using multi-criteria evaluation techniques in Chittagong Metropolitan Area, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, B.

    2014-01-01

    Landslides are a common hazard in the highly urbanized hilly areas in Chittagong Metropolitan Area (CMA), Bangladesh. The main cause of the landslides is torrential rain in short period of time. This area experiences several landslides each year, resulting in casualties, property damage, and economic loss. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to produce the Landslide Susceptibility Maps for CMA so that appropriate landslide disaster risk reduction strategies can be developed. ...

  14. Mental health and functioning of female sex workers in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Pascal Hengartner; Md Nazrul eIslam; Helene eHaker; Wulf eRossler

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine the mental health and functioning of female sex workers (FSW) in Chittagong, Bangladesh, a population that has commonly been neglected in mental health policy and research.Methods: We included 259 women in the study (M age: 23.2 years; range: 11-48). The comprehensive Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess their 12-month prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental disorders and a comprehensive questionnaire was adapted to explore various factors such as s...

  15. Mental health and functioning of female sex workers in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hengartner, Michael P.; Islam, Md Nazrul; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine the mental health and functioning of female sex workers (FSW) in Chittagong, Bangladesh, a population that has commonly been neglected in mental health policy and research. Methods We included 259 women in the study (M age: 23.2 years; range: 11–48). The comprehensive Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess their 12-month prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental disorders, and a comprehensive questionnaire was adapted to explore various factors, such...

  16. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism of cattle in Banskhali upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rokeya Ahmed; Paritosh Kumar Biswas; Mukti Barua; Md. Abdul Alim; Kamrul Islam; Md. Zohorul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism (GP), and to determine the effects of age, sex, breed, body score and body weight in the occurrences of GP of cattle in Banskhali Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 50 fecal samples were randomly collected directly from rectum of cattle. The samples were examined by routine coproscopical methods for the presence of different parasites and oocysts. Overall prevalence of GP infestation was 7...

  17. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-01

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites. PMID:26351879

  18. The Relationship between Poverty and Healthcare Seeking among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Febrile Illnesses in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, M. Trent; Maude, Richard James; Chowdhury, Md. Safiqul; Kingston, Hugh W. F.; Jeeyapant, Atthanee; Samad, Rasheda; Karim, Rezaul; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Hossain, Md. Amir

    2016-01-01

    Delays in seeking appropriate healthcare can increase the case fatality of acute febrile illnesses, and circuitous routes of care-seeking can have a catastrophic financial impact upon patients in low-income settings. To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 527 acutely ill adults and children aged over 6 months, with a documented fever ≥38.0°C and symptoms of up to 14 days’ duration, presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh, over the course of one year from September 2011 to September 2012. Participants were classified according to the socioeconomic status of their households, defined by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative’s multidimensional poverty index (MPI). 51% of participants were classified as multidimensionally poor (MPI>0.33). Median time from onset of any symptoms to arrival at hospital was 22 hours longer for MPI poor adults compared to non-poor adults (123 vs. 101 hours) rising to a difference of 26 hours with adjustment in a multivariate regression model (95% confidence interval 7 to 46 hours; P = 0.009). There was no difference in delays for children from poor and non-poor households (97 vs. 119 hours; P = 0.394). Case fatality was 5.9% vs. 0.8% in poor and non-poor individuals respectively (P = 0.001)—5.1% vs. 0.0% for poor and non-poor adults (P = 0.010) and 6.4% vs. 1.8% for poor and non-poor children (P = 0.083). Deaths were attributed to central nervous system infection (11), malaria (3), urinary tract infection (2), gastrointestinal infection (1) and undifferentiated sepsis (1). Both poor and non-poor households relied predominantly upon the (often informal) private sector for medical advice before reaching the referral hospital, but MPI poor participants were less likely to have consulted a qualified doctor. Poor participants were more likely to attribute delays in

  19. The Relationship between Poverty and Healthcare Seeking among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Febrile Illnesses in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Trent Herdman

    Full Text Available Delays in seeking appropriate healthcare can increase the case fatality of acute febrile illnesses, and circuitous routes of care-seeking can have a catastrophic financial impact upon patients in low-income settings. To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 527 acutely ill adults and children aged over 6 months, with a documented fever ≥38.0 °C and symptoms of up to 14 days' duration, presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Chittagong, Bangladesh, over the course of one year from September 2011 to September 2012. Participants were classified according to the socioeconomic status of their households, defined by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative's multidimensional poverty index (MPI. 51% of participants were classified as multidimensionally poor (MPI>0.33. Median time from onset of any symptoms to arrival at hospital was 22 hours longer for MPI poor adults compared to non-poor adults (123 vs. 101 hours rising to a difference of 26 hours with adjustment in a multivariate regression model (95% confidence interval 7 to 46 hours; P = 0.009. There was no difference in delays for children from poor and non-poor households (97 vs. 119 hours; P = 0.394. Case fatality was 5.9% vs. 0.8% in poor and non-poor individuals respectively (P = 0.001-5.1% vs. 0.0% for poor and non-poor adults (P = 0.010 and 6.4% vs. 1.8% for poor and non-poor children (P = 0.083. Deaths were attributed to central nervous system infection (11, malaria (3, urinary tract infection (2, gastrointestinal infection (1 and undifferentiated sepsis (1. Both poor and non-poor households relied predominantly upon the (often informal private sector for medical advice before reaching the referral hospital, but MPI poor participants were less likely to have consulted a qualified doctor. Poor participants were more likely to attribute delays in

  20. Loess Hills of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage outlines the boundary of the Loess Hills in Iowa at 1:100,000 scale. Criteria applied to the delineation of the Loess Hills included drainage density,...

  1. Hygiene Condition of Water Use and Sanitation Facilities at Urban Slums: Analysis of Port City Chittagong, Bangladesh / Wyposażenie Sanitarne W Slamsach Miejskich - Analiza Na Podstawie Miasta Portowego Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhit, I. B.; Chowdhury, S. Tasneem; Nahid, Nurangir; Zaman, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Low income community development is the prerequisite for the overall development of a society. There are different kinds of parameters to widen community development, such as health, economic, social, a living pattern, etc. Sanitation condition is the crucial aspect that is directly or indirectly inter bond with all the parameters. To see the exact reasons behind brutal unhygienic sanitation conditions of water supply and latrine system in a low cost community, the Chittagong City Corporation area has been picked. Relevant data have been collected from field survey, consultancy with inhabitants, Chittagong City Corporation, Power Development Board, and WASA. To know the possible reasons behind the water supply and germ-infested sanitation, state of a low cost community, this paper attempts to shed some light on the tribulations behind the scarcity of safe drinking water, dirt free as well as sustainable latrine and drainage system and offensive water management. Obszary takie jak rozwój gospodarczy, bariery społeczne, standard życia i zdrowie, ściśle związane są ze stanem wyposażenia sanitarnego. W artykule dokonano analizy warunków sanitarnych związanych z zaopatrzeniem w wodę i odprowadzeniem ścieków dla społeczności o niskich dochodach w obszarze Chittagong City Corporation. Dane zostały zebrane podczas ankietowych badań terenowych, rozmów z mieszkańcami, z bazy Chittagong City Corporation, Power Development Board i WASA.

  2. Mental health and functioning of female sex workers in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pascal Hengartner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the mental health and functioning of female sex workers (FSW in Chittagong, Bangladesh, a population that has commonly been neglected in mental health policy and research.Methods: We included 259 women in the study (M age: 23.2 years; range: 11-48. The comprehensive Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI was used to assess their 12-month prevalence rates of DSM-IV mental disorders and a comprehensive questionnaire was adapted to explore various factors such as socio-demographics, working and living conditions, or experiences of abuse. Results: On average, participants began their commercial sex work at 18.5 years old (range: 10-45. Their main motives for sex work were coercion (49.4% and the necessity to financially support families (54.8%. In total, 224 FSW (86.5% wanted to quit commercial sex work. A mental disorder within the past 12 months was reported by 100 FSW (38.6%, with drug abuse clearly being the most prevalent diagnosis (15.4%. Sexual, physical and emotional abuse were very common among the FSW, and substance use disorders (SUD were significantly more prevalent in persons who experienced emotional abuse (OR=2.2. Prevalence rates of any mental disorder and SUD were higher in women who did sex work to support their family while mood disorders were more frequent in those who needed the money to pay debts. Participants with any disorder were significantly older than those without (M age: 24.4 vs. 22.5 years and had started significantly later in the sex business (M age: 19.7 vs. 17.7 years. Conclusions: Our study revealed that FSW in Chittagong are very vulnerable and highly impaired, as expressed by high rates of abuse and mental disorders. Coercion is very common and many FSW are required to work in the sex business because they need the money to support their families. FSW are a very marginalized population, especially in developing countries where awareness for mental health is low and the availability of

  3. Radiological Assessment of Drinking Water of the Chittagong Region of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific activity of 222Rn, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in drinking water of the Chittagong region of Bangladesh was measured using high resolution γ spectrometry. The specific activity of 222Rn in the drinking water ranged from 2.04 ± 0.51 to 9.39 ± 2.06 Bq.1-1 and the mean activity was 4.46 ± 1.95 Bq.1-1. The mean specific activity of 226Ra was found to be 0.043 ± 0.017 Bq.1-1, the mean activity of 232Th was 0.19 ± 0.05 Bq.1-1, and the mean 40K activity was 4.16 ± 1.58 Bq.1-1. No 134Cs and 137Cs activity was detected in any of the samples of drinking water from the region. From these data the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of these isotopes as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water has been calculated. The average adult effective dose due to intake of drinking water was 56.2 μSv.y-1 for 232Th, 7.6 μSv.y-1 for 226Ra and 16.7 μSv.y-1 for 40K. (author)

  4. Investigation of elemental and radiological contamination of soils in two shipyards in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M. Shuza; Shariff, M. Asad; Hasan, M. Mehedi [Tandem Accelerator Facility, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment; Barua, Bijoy Sonker [Tandem Accelerator Facility, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment; Chittagong Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Rashid, M. Abdur [Chittagong Univ. of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Kamal, Masud [Radioactivity Testing and Monitoring Lab. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Chittagong (Bangladesh)

    2014-10-01

    An analysis of metallic elements and natural radioactivity in soils collected from two shipyards and their surroundings in Chittagong, Bangladesh is presented. The elemental concentrations of the metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu were obtained by PIXE analysis with a 3 MV Tandem Accelerator, and the radioactivity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K was determined using HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry. From the mean specific activities of the three radionuclides in soil samples, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index were calculated. The study was focused on investigation of soil contamination via shipbreaking activities, if any. The somewhat higher contents of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu in soil samples of shipyards, as compared to other locations, seem to be caused by the shipbreaking activities. The specific radioactivities as well as radium equivalent activity in soils of shipyards are also higher and thus possibly an indirect result of shipbreaking activities.

  5. Haemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Capra hircus at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossan Shaikat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A 6 month long study was undertaken to determine various hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Caprahircus in Bangladesh.Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from goats of different ages of 5 Upazilla of Chittagong. Atotal of 120goats (60 Black Bengal and 60 Jamnapari having > 6 months of age were included. The whole blood was analyzed forhematology, and plasma and serum samples for biochemical analysis.Results: The study found higher number of RBC (million/cumm and PCV% in the goats of age 48 months and above (18.23± 1.89 and 28 ± 3.2 respectively. Besides, total protein was found higher (78.9 ± 14.5g/L in the goats of 6-24 months of age.Significant increase (p<0.01 of the number of WBC (thousand/cumm, RBC (million/cumm, PCV% was observed in BlackBengal over Jamnapari goat. In contrast, WBC, lymphocytes, RBC, PCV, ALT, and ASTwere significantly (p<0.01 higher inBlack Bengal than Jamnapari goat; whereas, monocyte, TP, Albumin, and Urea levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher inJamnapari than Black Bengal goats.Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haemato-biochemical values of two local goat breeds.Present results stated some significant variation of parameters between two goats whereas some shows no significant variationat all.

  6. Antibiotic residues in milk and eggs of commercial and local farms at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchayan Chowdhury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to detection and determination of concentration or level of antibiotic residues in milk and egg of local and commercial farms at Chittagong during December 2011 to June 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 (200 milk and 200 egg samples were collected from local and commercial dairy cows and local scavenging and commercial poultry farms, respectively. Microbial inhibition test and thin layer chromatography were used for screening and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography was used to estimate the concentrations of antibiotic residues in samples. Results: Tetracycline, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin residues were significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher in commercial farms than local. The boiling insignificantly (p˃0.05 reduced residues level in milk and egg. The average concentrations of amoxicillin residue in local milk, commercial milk, local egg, and commercial egg were 9.84 μg/ml, 56.16 μg/ml, 10.46 μg/g and 48.82 μg/g, respectively, in raw samples and were reduced to 9.81 μg/ml, 55.54 μg/ml, 10.29 μg/g, and 48.38 μg/g, respectively, after boiling. Conclusions: Proper maintaining of the withdrawal period and development of active surveillance system are highly recommended for public health security.

  7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism of cattle in Banskhali upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokeya Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism (GP, and to determine the effects of age, sex, breed, body score and body weight in the occurrences of GP of cattle in Banskhali Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 50 fecal samples were randomly collected directly from rectum of cattle. The samples were examined by routine coproscopical methods for the presence of different parasites and oocysts. Overall prevalence of GP infestation was 72% (n=36/50. Prevalence of Paramphistomum spp. infestation was found to be the highest (30%; n=15/50 followed by Toxocara spp. (12%; n=6/50, Fasciola spp. (10%; n=5/50, Oesophagostomum spp. (8%; n=4/50, Moniezia spp. (6%; n=3/50 and Trichostrongylus spp. (2%; n=1/50. Young cattle were mostly infested as compared to adult and calf. The results of this study provides an epidemiological forecast showing the prevalence of GP in cattle, which can be helpful for the clinician in diagnosis of such infections.

  8. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Barua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commercial dairy farms and 55 from backyards lactating dairy cows were considered. Sub-clinical mastitis (SCM was determined using three different indirect screening tests: California Mastitis Test (CMT, White Slide Test (WST and Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT. Sensitivity and specificity were also determined to measure the accuracy of those tests. Results: The prevalence of SCM by CMT, WST and SFMT were 32.43% (n=144, 33.56% (n=149 and 31.53% (n=140, respectively. Distribution of SCM in relation to different variables at quarter level and animal level was also recorded. The prevalence of SCM was significantly (P4 than others at quarter level. No significant difference (P>0.05 was found in relation to breed. Using CMT as a gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of WST and SFMT were also calculated at 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and disease prevalence by WST and SFMT were comparable. Conclusion: This study recommends that regular screening of sub-clinical mastitis will reduce the prevalence of sub-clinical mastitis. The most effective way to control sub-clinical mastitis is to take preventive measures such as regular cleaning of the floor, keeping the udder clean, milkman's cleanliness, dry cow therapy specially in high yielding dairy cows.

  9. Nose Hill Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She is a park…

  10. Heavy Metal Concentration in Some Common Spices Available at Local Market as Well as Branded Spicy in Chittagong Metropolitan City, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhangshu Kumer Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to evaluate some metal concentration of spicy from local market of Chittagong metropolitan city, Bangladesh. Total 30 spicy samples of red chili or chili red, coriander, turmeric were collected from five different spot (Khatungonj, Chakbazar, Muradpur, Baluchora, Amanbazar under Chittagong metropolitan city and metal as Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe concentration was measured. Metal concentration in red chili, coriander, turmeric were found as increasing order as CuKhatungonj>Muradpur>Baluchora>Amanbazar, Khatungonj>Chakbazar>Amanbazar>Muradpur>Baluchora,Khatungonj>Chakbazar>Baluchora>Amanbazar>Muradpur,Khatungonj>Chakbazar>Muradpur>Amanbazar>Baluchora,Khatungonj>Chakbazar> Baluchora >Amanbazar>Muradpur respectively. So, Spicy of Khatungonj was the highly contaminated with metal followed by chakbazar spicy and least metal concentrated spicy was in Amanbazar at Chittagong city. According to WHO (World Health Organization, Cr and Fe concentrations exceeded the permissible limit of heavy metals in spicy but other metal concentrations was within tolerable limit. The current research’s findings will convey a strong message for the government body, policy maker to establish rules and regulation in order to protect food chain contamination, environment pollution and will be helpful for public awareness. An immediate attention from the concerned authorities is required in order to protect food chain contamination and environment pollution.

  11. Changes in Language, Communication and Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ala Uddin

    2010-01-01

    The Chittagong Hill Tracts that situated in the southeastern part of Bangladesh bordering Burma and India has been known as a conflict zone in South Asia. The conflicting situation between the indigenous peoples and Bengalis was worsened due to immigration of Bengalis, displacement of the indigenous peoples, and military intervention in the Hill Tracts. Putting an end of the two- and half-decade-long bloody conflict, an agreement (“peace agreement”) was signed in December 02, 1997; nonetheles...

  12. The Technical and Economic Study of Solar-Wind Hybrid Energy System in Coastal Area of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvankar Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The size optimization and economic evaluation of the solar-wind hybrid renewable energy system (RES to meet the electricity demand of 276 kWh/day with 40 kW peak load have been determined in this study. The load data has been collected from the motels situated in the coastal areas of Patenga, Chittagong. RES in standalone as well as grid connected mode have been considered. The optimal system configurations have been determined based on systems net present cost (NPC and cost of per unit energy (COE. A standalone solar-wind-battery hybrid system is feasible and economically comparable to the present cost of diesel based power plant if 8% annual capacity shortage is allowed. Grid tied solar-wind hybrid system, where more than 70% electricity contribution is from RES, is economically comparable to present grid electricity price. Moreover, grid tied RES results in more than 60% reduction in greenhouse gases emission compared to the conventional grid. Sensitivity analysis has been performed in this study to determine the effect of capital cost variation or renewable resources variation on the system economy. Simulation result of sensitivity analysis has showed that 20% reduction of installation cost results in nearly 9%–12% reductions in cost of per unit energy.

  13. Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

  14. The Hill and the Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕文

    2007-01-01

    Once there was a well-known hill here. There were many lush trees, beautiful flowers and green grasses on it. One day, the hill said to the trees proudly, “Look, how beautiful I am! But you look so ugly on my back. It must be better if I could drive you away.” One of the trees said, “You won't have beautiful and green clothing without us trees? If you leave us, you will die away.” The hill laughed and said again,”I feel very ashamed for I am staying with you together. Sooner or later I will drive you all...

  15. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131I, 125I or 82Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14C and 191Y. The use of 57Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131I, 125I and 51Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51Cr

  16. Natural and anthropogenic radioactivity levels and the associated radiation hazard in the soil of Oodalia Tea Estate in the hilly region of Fatickchari in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Absar, Nurul; Rahman, M. Mashiur; Kamal, Masud; Siddique, Naziba; Chowdhury, Mantazul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity in the soil of a tea garden in the Fatickchari area in Chittagong, Bangladesh, was measured using a high-resolution HPGe detector. The soil samples were collected from depths of up to 20 cm beneath the soil surface. The activity concentrations of naturally occurring 238U and 232Th were observed to be in the range of 27 ± 7 to 53 ± 8 Bq kg−1 and 36 ± 11 to 72 ± 11 Bq kg−1, respectively. The activity concentration of 40K ranged from 201 ± 78 to 672 ± 81 Bq kg−1, and the highest ac...

  17. Regional structural analysis and velocity model (Vp) of the Chittagong-Myanmar Fold and Thrust Belt, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgi, P.; Hubbard, J.; Peterson, D. E.; Akhter, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    Bangladesh sits on the seismically active Chittagong-Myanmar Fold and Thrust Belt (CMFB), a partially exposed accretionary prism associated with the India-Eurasia collision. Ground shaking due to local and regional earthquakes presents a potential hazard to Bangladesh, one of the most populated areas in the world. In order to constrain this hazard, we first investigate potential seismic sources (active faults), and second we analyze the material through which seismic energy propagates. To address potential earthquake sources, we focus on the Comilla Anticline, which is the frontal-most exposed structure of the CMFB as well as the most proximal to the capital city of Dhaka. We present several industry-acquired and depth-converted seismic reflection profiles, which exhibit an asymmetric detachment fold rising from a relatively deep décollement (5-6 km). Because there is no strong evidence for an associated emergent thrust, this actively growing fold may have low seismic potential. We place this work into a regional context by integrating previous research of CMFB structures to create a regional structural model, which reveals laterally varying wedge geometry. To address ground shaking, the second component of this work, we assess stacking velocities from our seismic reflection data in conjunction with sonic log velocities from several locations in Bangladesh. These data show varying velocity versus depth trends by region. Following similar, data-rich studies performed in the Los Angeles and adjacent basins, we use data and theory-driven fitting techniques to analyze depth-velocity trends for these different regions, and interpolate to create a laterally varying regional seismic velocity model. Velocities generally slow from east to west, consistent with the younging trend as we move from older, exhumed CMFB formations to recent and undeformed deposits.

  18. Comparative regeneration status in a natural forest and enrichment plantations of Chittagong (south) forest division, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.KamalHossain; M.LutforRahman; A.T.M.RafiqulHoque; M.KhairulAlam

    2004-01-01

    The natural regeneration of the tree species in pure natural forest stand and enrichment plantations of Baraitali Forest of Chittagong (South) Forest Division, Bangladesh was studied by stratified random quadrat method during April 2002 to November 2002. Totally 100 plots of 3 m×3 m in size represents a total of 64 regenerating tree species from natural forest with an average seedlings of 24 767/hm2, while only 40 regenerating tree species were recorded from enrichment plantations with an average seedlings of 18 633/hm2. Maximum regeneration in natural forest was found with Castanopsis spp. (2200 seedlings/hm2) followed by Glochidion lanceolarium (2183/hm2) whereas, in enrichment plantations maximum regeneration was found with Dipterocarpus gracilis (2117/hm2) followed by Anogeissus acuminata (2000/hm2). For natural forest, highest relative density was found for Castanopsis spp (8.88%), relative frequency for Glochidion lanceolarium (7.36%), relative abundance for Syzygium spp. (3.79%) and Importance Value Index were recorded with Glochidion lanceolarium (18.24%). The corresponding values for enrichment plantations were highest with Dipterocarpus gracilis (11.36%), Glochidion lanceolarium(9.71%), Dipterocarpus gracilis (5.92%), Glochidion lanceolarium (23.32%) respectively. Stem per hectare of some common trees with their seedlings and saplings in both the natural stands and enrichment plantations showed that only Dipterocarpus gracilis successfully recruited in both sites but recruitment was higher in natural forest. Like many other primary rain forests,the Baraitoli forest typically has both substantial seedlings and soil seed bank from which regeneration may occur. The naturally regenerated seedlings are quite dense but it could not reach the pole stage due to human interference.

  19. Biopsy - biliary tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  20. Generalized Hill-Wheeler ansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, J.; Esebbag, C.; Martin, M.T.; Rebollo, L.; Plastino, A.

    1984-09-01

    The Hill-Wheeler ansatz for the total wave function, within the Generator Coordinate Method framework, is generalized by recourse to the theory of distributions. The ensuing approach allows one to obtain a basis that spans the collective subspace, without having to deal explicitly with the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the overlap kernel. Applications to an exactly soluble model and anharmonic vibrations illustrate the present treatment. 37 refs.

  1. Qualified Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Qualified Census Tract (QCT) is any census tract (or equivalent geographic area defined by the Census Bureau) in which at least 50% of households have an income...

  2. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in ... al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated ... in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from ...

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's ... Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary Tract? Your urinary tract is actually a system made up ... should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? First, your doctor will ask you questions about your symptoms. ...

  5. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more common kidney and urinary tract problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal ... congenital abnormalities (meaning abnormalities that exist at birth) is ...

  6. A Secure Variant of the Hill Cipher

    CERN Document Server

    Toorani, Mohsen; 10.1109/ISCC.2009.5202241

    2010-01-01

    The Hill cipher is a classical symmetric encryption algorithm that succumbs to the know-plaintext attack. Although its vulnerability to cryptanalysis has rendered it unusable in practice, it still serves an important pedagogical role in cryptology and linear algebra. In this paper, a variant of the Hill cipher is introduced that makes the Hill cipher secure while it retains the efficiency. The proposed scheme includes a ciphering core for which a cryptographic protocol is introduced.

  7. A Modified Hill Cipher using Randomized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V.N.Krishna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Hill Cipher, the plain text is divided into equal sized blocks. The blocks are encrypted one at a time. Cipher text only Crypto analysis of Hill Cipher is difficult. But it is susceptible to known plain text attack. In this work, Hill Cipher is improvised to make it more secure. The output of hill cipher is randomized to generate multiple cipher texts for one plain text. Any one cipher text is used for transmission of data. This approach thwarts any known plain text attacks and also chosen cipher text attacks.

  8. Hill climbing algorithms and trivium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to solve certain classes of systems of multivariate equations over the binary field and its cryptanalytical applications. We show how heuristic optimization methods such as hill climbing algorithms can be relevant to solving systems of multivariate equations. A...... characteristic of equation systems that may be efficiently solvable by the means of such algorithms is provided. As an example, we investigate equation systems induced by the problem of recovering the internal state of the stream cipher Trivium. We propose an improved variant of the simulated annealing method...

  9. Fiberwise Convexity of Hill's lunar problem

    OpenAIRE

    Junyoung, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I prove the fiberwise convexity of the regularized Hill's lunar problem below the critical energy level. This allows us to see Hill's lunar problem of any energy level below the critical value as the Legendre transformation of geodesic problem on $S^2$ with a family of Finsler metric.

  10. Counseling Uses of the Hill Interaction Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert E.

    While the Hill Interaction Matrix was developed as a research instrument to assess interview process, it is also generally useful in any undertaking requiring the evaluation of verbal interaction and, hence, can be used as an aid in modifying communication in order to increase its therapeutic effect. The Hill Interaction Matrix with accompanying…

  11. Urinary Tract Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Rowley, V. Allen

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the current imaging investigations usually required in the work-up of common urinary tract problems such as urinary tract infection, colic, trauma, hematuria and renal failure. Radiological therapeutic techniques such as percutaneous nephrostomy for drainage of obstructed systems and percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of renal calculi are briefly mentioned. The virtual elimination of percutaneous or open surgery for renal and upper urinary tract stones, resulting ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...

  14. Sullys Hill herd resembles original plains bison

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article is on recent findings on Sullys Hill National Game Preserve that show bison brought there nearly a century ago have remained closer to genetically pure...

  15. How to make a Hill Plot

    OpenAIRE

    Drees, H.; De Haan, Laurens; Resnick, S

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAn abundance of high quality data sets requiring heavy tailed models necessitates reliable methods of estimating the shape parameter governing the degree of tail heaviness. The Hill estimator is a popular method for doing this but its practical use is encumbered by several difficulties. We show that an alternative method of plotting Hill estimator values is more revealing than the standard method unless the underlying data comes from a Pareto distribution.

  16. Mapping hypoendemic, seasonal malaria in rural Bandarban, Bangladesh: a prospective surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Glass Gregory; Norris Douglas; Nyunt Myaing; Akter Jasmin; Ram Malathi; Khyang Jacob; Haque Rashidul; Alam Mohammad; Prue Chai; Ahmed Sabeena; Sack David A; Khan Wasif A; Shields Timothy; Haq Md; Cravioto Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Until recently the Chittagong Hill tracts have been hyperendemic for malaria. A past cross-sectional RDT based survey in 2007 recorded rates of approximately 15%. This study was designed to understand the present epidemiology of malaria in this region, to monitor and facilitate the uptake of malaria intervention activities of the national malaria programme and to serve as an area for developing new and innovative control strategies for malaria. Methods This research field ...

  17. Push Pull Services Offering SMS Based m-Banking System in Context of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Fouzia Mousumi; Subrun Jamil

    2010-01-01

    m-Banking technology has become one of the most familiar banking features throughout the world. Nowadaysmillions of inhabitants of Bangladesh are within a network through mobile network coverage. But in the commercial sectorslike banking, m-Commerce technology has not been adopted broadly yet. In context of Bangladesh where almost 95% ofgeographical areas including Chittagong Hill tract region is under cellular coverage and having insufficiency in Internetinfrastructure in remote regions, m-B...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  19. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: yur - ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A Movies & More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary ... ll never want to have one again! To help keep those bacteria out of your urinary tract, ...

  2. Acute Urinary Tract Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksic Djordje

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are paired organs with the primary function of helping to remove toxins from the body and regulate water balance. They are vital to survival. After urine is produced in the kidneys, it must pass into the bladder, where it can be stored before being eliminated from the body through the urethra. Urinary tract obstruction is a common problem encountered by urologists, primary care physicians, and emergency medicine physicians. Urine can become obstructed at any point in this pathway. There are three groups of urinary tract obstructions: 1 obstruction of the urinary tract lumen; 2 obstruction of the urinary tract wall; and 3 extrinsic obstruction, which can press on the urinary tract lumen. An obstruction can be present from birth or develop later in life. The most common causes of obstruction include stones, strictures, tumours, and bladder dysfunction. These obstructions may result in the hydronephrosis of one or both kidneys, which, if left untreated, may lead to the deterioration of renal function. The goal of an initial treatment of urinary tract obstruction is to remove the obstruction. Later, we treat the cause that led to the obstruction. The bottom line is that all efforts should be made to preserve kidney function to avoid the need for dialysis or renal transplantation.

  3. [Urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  4. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  5. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  6. Austin Bradford Hill: simply the best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Austin Bradford Hill was born on July 8, 1897, third son of Sir Leonard Erskine Hill, a distinguished medical physiologist, Professor of Physiology at The London Hospital. He grew up in an upper class Victorian family.  Sir Leonard, who created an ingenious instrument for blood pressure measuring, had a deep influence on his son. In fact, Bradford decided to follow his father example. He attended Chigwell Grammar School, which was established in 1629, but unfortunately, Bradford’s decision to join the Faculty of Medicine coincided with a really big event: First World War. Bradford entered British naval aviation and...

  7. K-12 Enrollment Forecast 2005 to 2030: rocky Hill Public Schools, Rocky Hill, CT

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando J. Rodriguez; Fred Carstensen

    2008-01-01

    The town of Rocky Hill experienced a spike in population growth from 2000 through 2005. By 2006, population growth in Rocky Hill had slowed to 50 new residents from a high of 240 new residents in 2002. This spike in population coincided with new single-family home construction. The number of new occupancy permits (single-family) peaked at 99, in 2002. In calendar year 2007, through November 30th, Rocky Hill had issued only 12 new occupancy permits. CCEA's Cohort-Component analysis methodology...

  8. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  10. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  11. Tail prepivoting for the Hill estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Margarida; Moreira Freitas, Ana Cristina; Milhazes Freitas, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that prepivoting reduces level error of confidence sets. We adapt this method to the context of the tail index estimation, introducing a procedure that we call tail prepivoting. We apply this procedure to the Hill estimator and establish its consistency.

  12. Tail prepivoting for the Hill estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that prepivoting reduces level error of confidence sets. We adapt this method to the context of the tail index estimation, introducing a procedure that we call tail prepivoting. We apply this procedure to the Hill estimator and establish its consistency. (paper)

  13. Jesse Stuart: Lessons from the Kentucky Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Lu

    1986-01-01

    Highlights events in the life of Jesse Stuart, who began his teaching career at the age of 17 in a remote one-room school in the Kentucky hills and went on to become widely recognized as teacher, lecturer, and significant regional writer. Emphasizes Stuart's love of teaching and his personal values. (JHZ)

  14. Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akter Jasmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past many regions of Bangladesh were hyperendemic for malaria. Malaria control in the 1960s to 1970s eliminated malaria from the plains but in the Chittagong Hill Tracts remained a difficult to control reservoir. The Chittagong Hill Tracts have areas with between 1 and 10% annual malaria rates, predominately 90-95% Plasmodium falciparum. In Southeast Asia, multiplicity of infection for hypo-endemic regions has been approximately 1.5. Few studies on the genetic diversity of P. falciparum have been performed in Bangladesh. Anderson et al. performed a study in Khagrachari, northern Chittagong Hill Tracts in 2002 on 203 patients and found that parasites had a multiplicity of infection of 1.3 by MSP-1, MSP-2 and GLURP genotyping. A total of 94% of the isolates had the K76T Pfcrt chloroquine resistant genotype, and 70% showed the N86Y Pfmdr1 genotype. Antifolate drug resistant genotypes were high with 99% and 73% of parasites having two or more mutations at the dhfr or dhps loci. Methods Nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were used to genotype P. falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh. Results The analysis of polymorphic and drug resistant genotype on 33 paired recrudescent infections after drug treatment in the period 2004 to 2008 in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, which is just prior to countrywide provision of artemisinin combination therapy. Overall the multiplicity of infection for MSP-1 was 2.7 with a slightly smaller parasite diversity post-treatment. The 13 monoclonal infections by both GLURP and MSP-1 were evenly divided between pre- and post-treatment. The MSP-1 MAD block was most frequent in 66 of the samples. The prevalence of the K76T PfCRT chloroquine resistant allele was approximately 82% of the samples, while the resistant Pfmdr1 N86Y was present in 33% of the samples. Interestingly, the post

  15. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Tract Infections in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection in the ...

  16. Changes in Language, Communication and Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ala Uddin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Chittagong Hill Tracts that situated in the southeastern part of Bangladesh bordering Burma and India has been known as a conflict zone in South Asia. The conflicting situation between the indigenous peoples and Bengalis was worsened due to immigration of Bengalis, displacement of the indigenous peoples, and military intervention in the Hill Tracts. Putting an end of the two- and half-decade-long bloody conflict, an agreement (“peace agreement” was signed in December 02, 1997; nonetheless, still the region is neither a peaceful nor a secured region to its inhabitants. However, in the conflicting situation that began in the 1970s, the indigenous minorities are to adopt with the mainstream society and culture. This paper attempts to explore the ‘cope mechanism’ in which the indigenous peoples are communicating with the mainstream Bengalis, focusing on (the situations of the indigenous languages among other resources of culture. Here ‘cope mechanism’ is not only to manage their fear, and conflict in Chittagong Hill Tracts, but also to negotiate the cultural dimension, in which the Hill culture is schematized both in the Bengalis views toward Hill culture and the indigenous peoples views on their own culture.

  17. Radiology illustrated. Gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ihn (ed.) [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiology

    2015-02-01

    Radiology Illustrated: Gastrointestinal Tract is the second of two volumes designed to provide clear and practical guidance on the diagnostic imaging of abdominal diseases. The book presents approximately 300 cases with 1500 carefully selected and categorized illustrations of gastrointestinal tract diseases, along with key text messages and tables that will help the reader easily to recall the relevant images as an aid to differential diagnosis., Essential points are summarized at the end of each text message to facilitate rapid review and learning. Additionally, brief descriptions of each clinical problem are provided, followed by case studies of both common and uncommon pathologies that illustrate the roles of the different imaging modalities, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. The Hill Chart Calculation for Pelton Runner Models using the HydroHillChart - Pelton Module Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Bostan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pelton turbines industrial design is based on the hill chart characteristics obtained by measuring the models. Primary data measurements used to obtain the hill chart can be processed graphically, by hand or by using graphic programs respectively CAD programs; the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software is a specialized tool in achieving the hill chart, using interpolation cubic spline functions. Thereby, based on measurements of several models of Pelton turbines, a computerized library, used to design industrial Pelton turbines can be created. The paper presents the universal characteristics calculated by using the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software for a series of Pelton runners.

  19. How to repair the Hill cipher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISMAIL I.A.; AMIN Mohammed; DIAB Hossam

    2006-01-01

    The Hill cipher algorithm is one of the symmetric key algorithms that have several advantages in data encryption.However, a main drawback of this algorithm is that it encrypts identical plaintext blocks to identical ciphertext blocks and cannot encrypt images that contain large areas of a single color. Thus, it does not hide all features of the image which reveals patterns in the plaintext. Moreover, it can be easily broken with a known plaintext attack revealing weak security. This paper presents a variant of the Hill cipher that overcomes these disadvantages. The proposed technique adjusts the encryption key to form a different key for each block encryption. Visually and computationally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed variant yields higher security and significantly superior encryption quality compared to the original one.

  20. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  1. A generalized Hill-Wheeler ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, J.; Esebbag, C.; Martin, M. T.; Rebollo, L.; Plastino, A.

    1984-06-01

    The Hill-Wheeler ansatz for the total wave function, within the Generator Coordinate Method framework, is generalized by recourse to the theory of distributions. The ensuing approach allows one to obtain a basis that spans the collective subspace, without having to deal explicitly with the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the overlap kernel. Applications to an exactly soluble model and anharmonic vibrations illustrate the present treatment.

  2. A generalized Hill-Wheeler ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hill-Wheeler ansatz for the total wave function, within the Generator Coordinate Method framework, is generalized by recourse to the theory of distributions. The ensuing approach allows one to obtain a basis that spans the collective subspace, without having to deal explicitly with the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the overlap kernel. Applications to an exactly soluble model and anharmonic vibrations illustrate the present treatment. (orig.)

  3. The Post-Newtonian Hill Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relativistic approach of the Hill Problem is presented by using an approximate binary system metric obtained from the first post-Newtonian expansion (1PN). We employ Poincaré maps and Lyapunov exponents to study the stability of bounded orbits of the system for different mass arrangements, and compare with the classical problem based on Newtonian dynamics. We find that for larger masses the system become totally stable, a striking behaviour that is not predicted by the Newtonian dynamics

  4. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.' The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912. The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite. Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 600 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers.

  5. Respiratory tract and mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory tract problems originating in attempts to diagnose and treat illness are commonplace. They range from pharyngeal trauma during intubation to radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma. Occasionally, as with pulmonary hypervolemia accompanying drug-induced renal failure, they originate at a distance. Their actual number far exceeds those brought to clinical attention. Familiarity with the procedures which give rise to these complications is helpful in detecting and remedying them. It is important, therefore, to discuss their pathogenesis as well as their clinical and radiological findings

  6. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Morrison, S. M.; Fendrich, K. V.; Yen, A. S.; Grotzinger, J.; Crisp, J. A.; Bristow, T. F.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  7. Diagnosis of urinary tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological exploration of the urinary tract has become highly sophisticated. The information provided by the new imaging techniques is extremely accurate and useful in the diagnosis and pretherapeutic assessment of most urinary tract diseases. Interventional radiology has given radiologists an important role in the treatment of some types of pathology. The authors describe the value of modern imaging and its different aspects in each of the principal branches of urinary tract pathology. viz.: tumours, obstructions, infections, vascular and prostatic diseases

  8. A version of Hill's lemma for Cosserat continuum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xikui Li; Qipeng Liu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of Hill's lemma for classical Cauchy continuum, a version of Hill's lemma for micro-macro homogenization modeling of heterogeneous Cosserat continuum is presented in the frame of average-field theory. The admissible boundary conditions required to prescribe on the representative volume element for the modeling are extracted and discussed to ensure the satisfaction of HillMandel energy condition and the first-order average field theory.

  9. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM)...

  10. Hill of Banchory Geothermal Energy Project Feasibility Study Report

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Guy; Wood, George; Younger, Paul; Feliks, Michael; Mccay, Alistair; Gillespie, Martin; Steen, Paul; McBeth, Neil; Townsend, David; Townsend, Phil; Stephenson, Randell; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study explored the potential for a deep geothermal heat project at Hill of Banchory, Aberdeenshire. The geology of the Hill of Fare, to the north of Banchory, gives cause to believe it has good geothermal potential, while the Hill of Banchory heat network, situated on the northern side of the town, offers a ready-made heat customer. The partners in the consortium consisted of academics and developers with relevant expertise in deep geothermal energy, heat networks, and fin...

  11. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  12. The gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has always been and remains a major source of interest in terms of both its function, and its malfunction. Our current knowledge of age-related changes in this system, as well as drug-food interactions, however, remains relatively limited. Paradoxically, the GIT is...... not one of the core battery of tests that pharmaceutical companies are obliged to investigate as part of drug development. This review aims to cover the basics of GIT function before highlighting aspects of relevance for safety pharmacology in terms of age, cancerogenesis, and noth drug and diet......-related GIT damage and dysfunction. New and novel aspects of drug delivery and drug-dietary supplement interactions are discusses and much needed areas of focus in terms of drug GIT testing are identified....

  13. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Dorian Nedelcu; Adelina Bostan; Florin Peris-Bendu

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of t...

  14. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of the isolines.

  15. Advances in alimentary tract imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Maglinte, Dean DT; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Tann, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Advances in imaging techniques are changing the way radiologists undertake imaging of the gastrointestinal tract and their ability to answer questions posed by surgeons. In this paper we discuss the technological improvements of imaging studies that have occurred in the last few years and how these help to better diagnosing alimentary tract disease.

  16. New type of hill-top inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R2-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections

  17. New type of hill-top inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barvinsky, A.O. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University,Lenin Ave. 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institue for Theoretical Physics,University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physcis,Kosygin str. 2, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov, D.V. [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute,Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-20

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  18. Hill crossing during preheating after hilltop inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Antusch, Stefan; Orani, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In 'hilltop inflation', inflation takes place when the inflaton field slowly rolls from close to a maximum of its potential (i.e. the 'hilltop') towards its minimum. When the inflaton potential is associated with a phase transition, possible topological defects produced during this phase transition, such as domain walls, are efficiently diluted during inflation. It is typically assumed that they also do not reform after inflation, i.e. that the inflaton field stays on its side of the 'hill', finally performing damped oscillations around the minimum of the potential. In this paper we study the linear and the non-linear phases of preheating after hilltop inflation. We find that the fluctuations of the inflaton field during the tachyonic oscillation phase grow strong enough to allow the inflaton field to form regions in position space where it crosses 'over the top of the hill' towards the 'wrong vacuum'. We investigate the formation and behaviour of these overshooting regions using lattice simulations: Rather t...

  19. 27 CFR 9.188 - Horse Heaven Hills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Horse Heaven Hills. 9.188 Section 9.188 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.188 Horse Heaven Hills. (a) Name. The name of...

  20. Hill-Burton Free and Reduced Cost Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hill-Burton free or reduced-cost care. Send complaints to: Director, Division of Poison Control and Healthcare Facilities 5600 Fishers Lane Room 8W Rockville, MD 20857 Email: DFCRCOMM@hrsa.gov Our brochure entitled “Free Hospital Care” provides additional information about the Hill-Burton ...

  1. Decay of isolated hills and saddles on Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Pierre; Brendel, Lothar; Roos, Kelly R.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael; Heringdorf, Frank-J. Meyer zu

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the high temperature decay of isolated hills and saddle points on Si(001). Using in situ dark-field imaging in low energy electron microscopy, we track the movement of individual steps during high temperature annealing. We find different temperature dependent decay rates for the top of the hill compared to a saddle point with low step density that is present in the vicinity of the hill. The decay rate of the hill is always higher than the decay rate at the saddle. The two rates converge with increasing temperature and become equal at temperatures above 1060 °C. We also report an alternating fast and low decay rate for the layer-by-layer decay of the hills. This surprising finding is independent of temperature and is explained by macroscopic strain in the sample.

  2. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  3. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your urinary tract, take these steps: Keep clean. Wash your private parts every day when you take ... choices. Those trips to the bathroom can help wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice ...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Urinary Tract Troubles Girls are more likely than boys to get a UTI. That's because their urethras are much shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get ...

  6. After Runaway: The Trans-Hill Stage of Planetesimal Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. Here we show that runaway is followed by a `trans-hill stage' that commences once the bodies become trans-hill, i.e. once the Hill velocity of the bodies that dominate viscous stirring matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the bodies remain in the trans-hill state. Trans-hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. We work out the properties of trans-hill growth analytically and confirm these numerically. Trans-hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, collisional cooling is irrelevant, in which case the efficiency of forming big bodies remains very low (0.1% in the Ku...

  7. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top of page What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that involves ... page What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs when germs (usually bacteria) ...

  8. Displacement and Destruction of Ethnic People in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ala Uddin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available
    Historically the indigenous people living in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh have been oppressing by the dominant majority groups. Today the indigenous ethnic people are seem to be “outsiders in own-nurtured land” because of various forms of discrimination and exploitation since the colonial British period in this region. Eventually they increasing are not only outnumbering in their own land in terms of population number, alarmingly they are displacing from their own culture and traditions. The paper based on empirical research examines the historiography of displacement and destruction of ethnic minorities living in Chittagong Hill Tracts.
    Key words: Displacement, destruction, demographic shift, peace accord, holistic approach
    Résumé: historiquement, les indigènes vivant dans l’Étendue de la Colline Chittagong du Bangladesh ont été opprimés par les groupes dominants de la majorité. Aujourd’hui, les indigènes ethniques semblent être des étrangers dans leur terre où ilss’élèvent. À cause de différentes formes de discrimination et de l’exploitation depuis la période de la colonie britannique dans cette région. Finalement, leur augmentation non seulement est plus nombreuse dans leur propre terre en terme du nombre de population, mais ils se déplacent de leur propre culture et leurs propres traditions de alarmante. Cette mémoire basée sur la recherche empirique examine l’historiographie du déplacement et de la destruction des minorités ethniques vivant dans l’Étendue de la Colline Chittagong.
    Mots-Clés: déplacement, destruction, changement démographique, accord pacifique, approche holistique

  9. Funny hills in pion spectra from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of some of the systematic features of the pion spectra in heavy-ions reactions is given. A discussion of the hills and valleys in heavy ion pion spectra that show up at the lower pion energies is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) three kinds of funny hills; (2) π-/+ ratios near center of mass; (3) new Monte Carlo studies of charged pion spectra; and (4) pion orbiting about fireballs and Bose-Einstein behavior as explanation for the mid-rapidity P/sub perpendicular to/ approx. = 0.4 to 0.5 m/sub π/c hill

  10. Immune Cells in the Female Reproductive Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus...

  11. Bile Acid Analysis in Biliary Tract Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Byung Kyu; Ko, Jun Sang; Bang, Seungmin; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of biliary tract cancer is obscure, but there are evidences that bile acid plays a role in carcinogenesis. To find the association between biliary tract cancer and bile acid, this study compared the bile acid concentration and composition among patients with biliary cancer, biliary tract stones, and no biliary disease. Bile was compared among patients with biliary tract cancer (n = 26), biliary tract stones (n = 29), and disease free controls (n = 9). Samples were obtained by per...

  12. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  13. Sullys Hill National Game Preservce Narrative Report : January - April 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the...

  14. Saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills area, South Dakota. The...

  15. Quarterly Narrative Report for the Sullys Hill Wildlife Refuge : 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains quarterly narrative reports for Sullys Hill Game Preserve for 1939 Reports summarizes activities and accomplishments, including hunting,...

  16. Background Contaminants Evaluation of Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge - 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to assess chlordane levels in sediments and fish of Flint Hills NWR. Chlordane is very persistent and highly toxic to aquatic organisms and...

  17. On the Spectral Singularities and Spectrality of the Hill Operator

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Veliev

    2014-01-01

    First we study the spectral singularity at infinity and investigate the connections of the spectral singularities and the spectrality of the Hill operator. Then we consider the spectral expansion when there is not the spectral singularity at infinity.

  18. Miscellaneous Reports for the Sullys Hill Wildlife Refuge : 1917 - 1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains data and yearly summaries for Sullys Hill Game Preserve since the time of its establishment in 1917 through 1932. Data reports covers deer,...

  19. Generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota. The...

  20. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Narrative Report : September - December 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1950. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. "Beverly Hills 90210" : kes mida teeb / Tiina Lepiste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepiste, Tiina

    2003-01-01

    Aaron Spellingu produtseeritud ja 2000. aastal lõpetatud menuseriaalis "Beverly Hills 90210" osalenud näitlejate edaspidisest elust seoses plaaniga teha täispikk mängufilm "10 Year High School Reunion"

  2. Bone Hill National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Bone Hill National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  3. EAARL Topography-Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of the Sagamore Hill National Historic Site were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  4. Refuge review report : Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review on Flint Hills NWR and summarizes refuge activities concerning staffing and employee development, budget, administration, planning,...

  5. Pesticide evaluation for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge in Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge is an overlay on the Corps of Engineers John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. The Refuge is managed to provide spring...

  6. [Sullys Hill National Game Preserve bison herd raw data, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Raw data from Texas AM University on the Sullys Hill National Game Preserve federal bison herd. Data includes nuclear introgression markers and nuclear polymorphic...

  7. USGS Hill Shade Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hill Shade (or Shaded Relief) is a tile cache base map created from the National Elevation Dataset (NED), a seamless dataset of best available raster elevation...

  8. Preserving genes: Sullys Hill bison gain national prominence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on transferring bison from Sullys Hill National Game Preserve to Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge to help maintain as genetically pure...

  9. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU)–1 is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α–1 × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies

  10. Exposure-wide epidemiology: revisiting Bradford Hill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-05-20

    Fifty years after Bradford Hill published his extremely influential criteria to offer some guides for separating causation from association, we have accumulated millions of papers and extensive data on observational research that depends on epidemiologic methods and principles. This allows us to re-examine the accumulated empirical evidence for the nine criteria, and to re-approach epidemiology through the lens of exposure-wide approaches. The lecture discusses the evolution of these exposure-wide approaches and tries to use the evidence from meta-epidemiologic assessments to reassess each of the nine criteria and whether they work well as guides for causation. I argue that of the nine criteria, experiment remains important and consistency (replication) is also very essential. Temporality also makes sense, but it is often difficult to document. Of the other six criteria, strength mostly does not work and may even have to be inversed: small and even tiny effects are more plausible than large effects; when large effects are seen, they are mostly transient and almost always represent biases and errors. There is little evidence for specificity in causation in nature. Biological gradient is often unclear how it should it modeled and thus difficult to prove. Coherence remains usually unclear how to operationalize. Finally, plausibility as well as analogy do not work well in most fields of investigation, and their invocation has been mostly detrimental, although exceptions may exist. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26646432

  11. SRTM Anaglyph: Haro and Kas Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This three-dimensional view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the

  12. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  13. Ethnobiology of the Nilgiri hills, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Sethuraman, M; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2002-03-01

    The Nilgiri is a popular massif towering high in the Western Ghats in South India with an altitude of 2623 m. Nature has been magnanimous in bestowing Nilgiri district with rich evergreen temperate to tropical forests. A high degree of biodiversity, marked by varied flora and fauna of good therapeutic potential as well as the varied number of indigenous groups of people in this area, makes it very popular among herbalists. The district has six anthropologically well defined ethnic groups namely Todas, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas, Paniyas and Kattunayakas living here possibly since 1200 B.C. The present review highlights the ethnobiological profile of six indigenous populations and their dependence on ambient flora and fauna for traditional health care needs. It has been observed that about 2700 therapeutically potent plant species are available in this hill station of which almost all have come from local medicine. Some have been explored scientifically. However, about 150 plant species are still to be explored for their therapeutic potential. The ethnography, phytochemical and therapeutic uses as well as the anthropological perspectives of the local medicines have been discussed in this review. PMID:11933110

  14. Hill Cipher pada Skema Shamir's Three Pass Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hasdiana

    2015-01-01

    In this study the authors use the scheme of Shamir's Three Pass Protocol for Hill Cipher operation. Scheme of Shamir's Three Pass Protocol is an attractive scheme that allows senders and receivers to communicate without the key exchange. Hill Cipher is chosen because of the key-shaped matrix, which is expected to complicate the various techniques of cryptanalyst. The results of this study indicate that the weakness of the scheme of Shamir's Three Pass Protocol for XOR operation...

  15. The Nascent Development of Ecotourism in Lagong Hill

    OpenAIRE

    Ah-Choy Er

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The nascent development of ecotourism in Lagong Hill faces an interesting challenge. The aim of this research note is to evaluate the nascent development of ecotourism in Lagong Hill, Malaysia based on the common core precepts of ecotourism. Approach: The research methods comprise of secondary data collection and field survey via an in-depth interview with selected key informants. This is aided by on-field observation to verify and complement the re...

  16. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  17. Stargazing at 'Husband Hill Observatory' on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to take advantage of extra solar energy by occasionally turning its cameras upward for night sky observations. Most recently, Spirit made a series of observations of bright star fields from the summit of 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater on Mars. Scientists use the images to assess the cameras' sensitivity and to search for evidence of nighttime clouds or haze. The image on the left is a computer simulation of the stars in the constellation Orion. The next three images are actual views of Orion captured with Spirit's panoramic camera during exposures of 10, 30, and 60 seconds. Because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, Orion appears upside down compared to how it would appear to viewers in the Northern Hemisphere of Earth. 'Star trails' in the longer exposures are a result of the planet's rotation. The faintest stars visible in the 60-second exposure are about as bright as the faintest stars visible with the naked eye from Earth (about magnitude 6 in astronomical terms). The Orion Nebula, famous as a nursery of newly forming stars, is also visible in these images. Bright streaks in some parts of the images aren't stars or meteors or unidentified flying objects, but are caused by solar and galactic cosmic rays striking the camera's detector. Spirit acquired these images with the panoramic camera on Martian day, or sol, 632 (Oct. 13, 2005) at around 45 minutes past midnight local time, using the camera's broadband filter (wavelengths of 739 nanometers plus or minus 338 nanometers).

  18. Eukyaryota in human digestive tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valtrová, T.; Mrázek, Jakub; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    Smolenice: IAP, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Košice, 2011. s. 80-80. ISBN 978-80-968618-6-6. [7th International Symposium on Anaerobic Microbiology. 15.6.2011-18.6.2011, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : eukaryota * human digestive tract Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  19. Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... takes pictures of the body’s internal organs and soft tissues without using x rays. MRI machines use radio waves and magnets to ... Urinary tract imaging techniques include conventional radiology, or x rays; ... tomography (CT) scans; and radionuclide scans. Preparations for an ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's ... near your body, especially when it's hot outside. Bacteria love to grow in warm, moist places. Gross! Reviewed by: T. Ernesto Figueroa, ... Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  1. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a diary of your diet and gas symptoms. ​​​​ ​Treatment for Gas in the Digestive Tract To reduce or prevent gas and gas symptoms, your doctor may suggest that you reduce swallowed air, quit smoking, make changes to your diet, or take medicines. ...

  2. Biofilm infections of urinary tract

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holá, V.; Růžička, F.; Horáková, L.; Renata, R.; Horká, Marie

    Istanbul, 2008. s. 232. [International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology /12./. 05.08.2008-09.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Keywords : catheter related urinary tract infections * affection of culture conditions * capillary isoelectric focusing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  3. Fort Donelson National Battlefield Tract & Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Piscataway Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Cowpens National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Petersburg National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Pipestone National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Catoctin Mountain Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Hovenweep National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Sequoia National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Navajo National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Chiricahua National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Alagnak Wild River Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Coronado National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Chamizal National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Antietam National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Pinnacles National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Vietnam Vetrans Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Theodore Roosevelt Island Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Colorado National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Noatak National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Haleakala National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Canyonlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157466.html Cranberry Juice for Urinary Tract Infection? Specialist says grocery-store ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to popular belief, cranberry juice does not cure a urinary tract infection, a ...

  5. Badlands National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Saguaro National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Mojave National Preserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Boundaries, Tracts (Published 2006), Petrified Forest, AZ

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI shapefile of National Park Service tract data. Tracts are numbered and created by the regional cartographic staff at the Land Resources Program...

  9. Wupatki National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Quantum theory of rotational isomerism and Hill equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugulava, A.; Toklikishvili, Z.; Chkhaidze, S.; Abramishvili, R. [I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 3, I. Chavchavadze Avenue, 0179 Tbilisi (Georgia); Chotorlishvili, L. [Institut fuer Physik, Martin-Luther Universitat Halle-Wittenberg, Heinrich-Damerow-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The process of rotational isomerism of linear triatomic molecules is described by the potential with two different-depth minima and one barrier between them. The corresponding quantum-mechanical equation is represented in the form that is a special case of the Hill equation. It is shown that the Hill-Schroedinger equation has a Klein's quadratic group symmetry which, in its turn, contains three invariant subgroups. The presence of these subgroups makes it possible to create a picture of energy spectrum which depends on a parameter and has many merging and branch points. The parameter-dependent energy spectrum of the Hill-Schroedinger equation, like Mathieu-characteristics, contains branch points from the left and from the right of the demarcation line. However, compared to the Mathieu-characteristics, in the Hill-Schroedinger equation spectrum the 'right' points are moved away even further for some distance that is the bigger, the bigger is the less deep well. The asymptotic wave functions of the Hill-Schroedinger equation for the energy values near the potential minimum contain two isolated sharp peaks indicating a possibility of the presence of two stable isomers. At high energy values near the potential maximum, the height of two peaks decreases, and between them there appear chaotic oscillations. This form of the wave functions corresponds to the process of isomerization.

  11. Cumbrian hill-farmers' views of scientific advice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This evidence examines one aspect of the communications between scientific experts and Cumbrian hill farmers affected by the Chernobyl fallout restrictions. Based on interviews with hill sheep farmers it analyses their responses to scientific advice, explanation and prognosis about the fallout and its effects on hill farming. Several factors were identified which influenced the credibility of expert advice: the degree of uncertainty and variability in the scientific knowledge; the recognition of relevant local knowledge needed to be integrated with scientific knowledge; the extent of past secrecy and lack of transparency of official institutional processes of decision making; the lack of apparent scientific learning from the radioactive fallout from the 1957 Windscale fire; and the opportunity for more informal personal interaction between farmers and scientists. The scientific advice was perceived as unrealistic and unrelated to hill farming realities. The effectiveness of communication of scientific advice influences the broader credibility of decision making bodies, and is therefore important. It is concluded that achievement of these ends requires not only changes in the public expression of scientific information, but also changes in the organisation of expertise to improve the practical relationships between scientific experts and relevant public groups such as the hill sheep farmers. (author)

  12. Magma hybridisation at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Madeleine; Edmonds, Marie; Christopher, Thomas; Hards, Vicky

    2010-05-01

    Arc volcanoes commonly show evidence of mingling between mafic and silicic magma. For example, the Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat typically erupts andesitic magma containing basaltic to basaltic-andesite inclusions. However, the andesite also contains a wide variety of phenocryst textures as well as strongly zoned microlites, suggesting that more intimate physical mixing also occurs. Analysis of minor elements in both phenocrysts and microlites allows the discrimination of different crystal populations, and provides insight into their origins. Microlites of plagioclase and orthopyroxene are chemically distinct from the phenocrysts, being enriched in Fe and Mg, and Al and Ca respectively. However, they are indistinguishable from the compositions of these phases in the mafic inclusions. Microlite compositions also give anomalously high temperatures using standard geothermometry techniques, similar to those of the mafic inclusions. Compositions of clinopyroxene from overgrowth rims on quartz and orthopyroxene and coarse-grained breakdown rims on hornblende, are identical to those from the mafic inclusions, indicating that these rims form during interaction with mafic magma. We infer that the inclusions disaggregated under conditions of high shear stress during ascent in the conduit, transferring mafic material into the andesite groundmass. This implies that the mafic component of the system is greater than previously determined from the volume proportion of mafic enclaves. The presence of mafic-derived microlites in the andesite groundmass also means that care must be taken when using this as a starting material for phase equilibrium experiments. Melt inclusions and matrix glasses in the erupted include an anomalously K2O-rich population which overlaps with residual (high-K2O, high-TiO2) mafic inclusion glass. These glasses represent the effects of physical mixing with mafic magma, both during ascent and by diffusive exchange during the formation of mafic

  13. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1987 and 1988. [Fenton Hill site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Maes, M.N.; Williams, M.C.

    1991-03-01

    Water-quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface- and ground-water stations at, and in the vicinity of, Fenton Hill (site of the Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project). The site is located on the southwest edge of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains. To determine the chemical quality of water, data were collected in 1987 and 1988 from 13 surface-water stations and 19 ground-water stations. The classification of the water quality is made on the basis of predominated ions and total dissolved solids. There are four classifications of surface water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, calcium and sulfate, and sodium and bicarbonate) and three classifications of ground water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, and sodium and bicarbonate). Variations in the chemical quality of the surface and ground water in 1987 and 1988 are apparent when data are compared with each other and with previous analyses. These variations are not considered significant, as they are in the range of normal seasonal changes. Cumulative production since 1976 from the supply well at Fenton Hill has been about 63 {times} 10{sup 6} gal, with a decline in the water level of the well of about 14 ft, or about 1.4 ft/yr. The aquifer penetrated by the well is still capable of reliable supply to the site for a number of years, based on past production. The quality of water from the well has deteriorated slightly; however, the water quality is in compliance with drinking water standards. The effects of discharge from the storage ponds into an adjacent canyon have been monitored by trace metal analyses of vegetation and soil. The study indicates minimal effects, which will be undetectable in a few years if there are no further releases of effluents into the canyon. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Midwest nukes tumble, rock industry: Byron, Marble Hill, Zimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry is suffering from a lack of investor confidence because of cancelled projects and the unprecedented rejection of an operating license for Commonwealth Edison's Byron plant on grounds that the utility failed to meet quality assurance responsibilities. When plans to complete the Zimmer and Marble Hill nuclear plants were abandoned, Bechtel came forward with a financing plan that, while rejected for Zimmer and Marble Hill, could lead to future bailouts. Both Zimmer and Marble Hill plants could be partially converted to coal. The loss of investor confidence in nuclear plants is largely due to political pressures brought on by a combination of citizen intervenors, whistle blowers on construction sites and disagreements between participating utilities. A rise in stock prices followed the cancellation announcements and the lowered investment security ratings

  15. Plastic media blasting activities at Hill Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    Hill Air Force Base in Utah developed plastic media blasting (PMB) paint removal process for removing paint from Air Force aircraft. The development of the process involved extensive testing of various abrasives and subsequent parameters to end up with an approved production process. Hill AFB has been using PMB in a production mode since 1985, and completely discontinued chemical stripping of airframes in 1989. We have recently installed and began operating a fully automated PMB facility that utilizes two nine-axis robots to strip an aircraft. This system has enabled us to further reduce the manhours required to strip an aircraft, and also allowed us to remove the employee from the blasting atmosphere into a control room. We have, and will continue to realize, significant environmental and economic savings by using PMB. Hill is also actively involved with the development of future paint stripping technologies.

  16. Surface water and groundwater interaction on a hill island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Rasmus Rumph; Rasmussen, Keld Rømer; Christensen, Steen

    hill islands – is relatively unknown. This study aims at providing new information about the rainfall-runoff processes in hill island landscapes where surface water and groundwater interaction is expected to have a dominant role and hill-slope processes not. Through stream flow measurements, field...... observed from old topographical maps as well as in the field. The geological data indicate shallow low permeable sediments primarily on the western side of Abild stream, and the geophysical data indicate shallow low resistivity layers on the western side of the stream. All these findings indicate a......A number of recent studies have indicated that the hydrological system in stream valleys is often complex and exchange of water takes place through semi-permeable contacts and flow paths may be quite diverse. Yet, surface water and groundwater interaction in one of the major Danish landscapes – the...

  17. Urinary Tract Infections In Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    N Sivalingam; Loh KY

    2007-01-01

    Urinary tract infections frequently affect pregnant mothers. This problem causes significant morbidity and healthcare expenditure. Three common clinical manifestations of UTIs in pregnancy are: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli remains the most frequent organism isolated in UTIs. All pregnant mothers should be screened for UTIs in pregnancy and antibiotics should be commenced without delay. Urine culture and sensitivity is the gold standard in...

  18. Approach to urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...

  19. Diet and biliary tract cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moerman CJ; Bueno de Mesquita HB; Runia S; Smeets FWM

    1991-01-01

    We studied the relation between diet and biliary tract cancer in a case-control study, comprising 111 incident cases and 480 controls from the general population. Food intake was assessed with a semi- quantitative food frequency questionnaire, which covered diet comprehensively. In half of the cases and 30% of the controls the information was obtained from the spouse or other relatives (indirect respondents). Mono- and disaccharides showed an elevated risk, independent from other sources of e...

  20. Immune cells in the female reproductive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Ki; Kim, Chul Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Kang, Jee-Hyun

    2015-02-01

    The female reproductive tract has two main functions: protection against microbial challenge and maintenance of pregnancy to term. The upper reproductive tract comprises the fallopian tubes and the uterus, including the endocervix, and the lower tract consists of the ectocervix and the vagina. Immune cells residing in the reproductive tract play contradictory roles: they maintain immunity against vaginal pathogens in the lower tract and establish immune tolerance for sperm and an embryo/fetus in the upper tract. The immune system is significantly influenced by sex steroid hormones, although leukocytes in the reproductive tract lack receptors for estrogen and progesterone. The leukocytes in the reproductive tract are distributed in either an aggregated or a dispersed form in the epithelial layer, lamina propria, and stroma. Even though immune cells are differentially distributed in each organ of the reproductive tract, the predominant immune cells are T cells, macrophages/dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, and mast cells. B cells are rare in the female reproductive tract. NK cells in the endometrium significantly expand in the late secretory phase and further increase their number during early pregnancy. It is evident that NK cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells are extremely important in decidual angiogenesis, trophoblast migration, and immune tolerance during pregnancy. Dysregulation of endometrial/decidual immune cells is strongly related to infertility, miscarriage, and other obstetric complications. Understanding the immune system of the female reproductive tract will significantly contribute to women's health and to success in pregnancy. PMID:25713505

  1. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Barry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven Ronald [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Park, Byoung Yoon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldredge, Lisa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wynn, Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Checkai, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, James Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  2. Variable-length Hill Cipher with MDS Key Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Magamba, Kondwani; Kadaleka, Solomon; Kasambara, Ansley

    2012-01-01

    The Hill Cipher is a classical symmetric cipher which breaks plaintext into blocks of size m and then multiplies each block by an m by m key matrix to yield ciphertext. However, it is well known that the Hill cipher succumbs to cryptanalysis relatively easily. As a result, there have been efforts to strengthen the cipher through the use of various techniques e.g. permuting rows and columns of the key matrix to encrypt each plaintext vector with a new key matrix. In this paper, we strengthen t...

  3. Comment: Comments on "How to repair the Hill cipher"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A modification of the Hill cipher algorithm was recently proposed by Ismail et al.(2006), who claimed that their new scheme could offer more security than the original one due to an extra non-linearity layer introduced via an elaborated key generation mechanism. That mechanism produces one different encryption key for each one of the plaintext blocks. Nevertheless, we show in this paper that their method still has severe security flaws whose weaknesses are essentially the same as that already found in the original Hill cipher scheme.

  4. Economic Development Benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm, Wind Powering America Rural Economic Development, Case Study (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-01

    This case study summarizes the economic development benefits of the Mars Hill Wind Farm to the community of Mars Hill, Maine. The Mars Hill Wind Farm is New England's first utility-scale wind farm.

  5. State of conservation of Santa Martha's hills, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urban growth of Santa Marta and the occupation without planning of their surrounding hills, affect their natural conditions. The hills are part of the scenic beauty of the city and its conservation is indispensable to maintain the standard of life in her the vegetal cover corresponds to forests and scrubs of isomegathermic floor with xeromorphic characters, due to the low pluvial precipitation, this landscape characterizes the Colombian Caribbean coast in a narrow strip that extends from the south of the Guajira to the gulf of Morrosquillo. At the present time, only they are left surpluses in natural state, due to the floristic simplification of the vegetation, the introduction of invading species and modification of the landscape. The responsibility of the suitable handling of the urban space is imperative for the official, private sector and citizen institutions. The objective is to make an evaluation of the environmental conditions of hills of the city, in order to obtain basic elements, for the design of appropriate strategies of handling and its conservation. By means of the use of the GIS, with verification and aerial photo interpretation of field a multi-temporary study (1955-1993-2003) of the vegetal cover of the hills was elaborated that allowed to establish the happened changes. The execution of inventors allowed knowing the wealth and the structure floristic the vegetal cover of the area. The work was executed between May of the 2004 and May of the 2005

  6. The Resonance Overlap and Hill Stability Criteria Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, X S; Beaugé, C

    2015-01-01

    We review the orbital stability of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, in the case of massless particles initially located between both massive bodies. We present new estimates of the resonance overlap criterion and the Hill stability limit, and compare their predictions with detailed dynamical maps constructed with N-body simulations. We show that the boundary between (Hill) stable and unstable orbits is not smooth but characterized by a rich structure generated by the superposition of different mean-motion resonances which does not allow for a simple global expression for stability. We propose that, for a given perturbing mass $m_1$ and initial eccentricity $e$, there are actually two critical values of the semimajor axis. All values $a a_{\\rm unstable}$ are unstable in the Hill sense. The first limit is given by the Hill-stability criterion and is a function of the eccentricity. The second limit is virtually insensitive to the initial eccentricity, and closely resembles a new resonance over...

  7. 77 FR 24543 - Beverly Hills Bancorp Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... that conducted its banking and lending operations through its wholly-owned subsidiary First Bank of Beverly Hills, a California banking corporation (the ``Bank''). From its incorporation in 1996 until...

  8. 78 FR 26410 - Beverly Hills Bancorp Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... banking and lending ] operations through its wholly-owned subsidiary First Bank of Beverly Hills, a California banking corporation (the ``Bank''). From its incorporation in 1996 until April 24, 2009, the...

  9. Correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics: connection with Hill nanothermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equivalence between Tsallis thermodynamics and Hill's nanothermodynamics is established. The correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics are pointed out. Through this connection we also find a general expression for the entropic index q which we illustrate with two physical examples, allowing in both cases to relate q to the underlying dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems

  10. 77 FR 17402 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., Black Hills National Forest, in the wake of increasingly severe and intense wild fires and mountain pine... forest issues such as forest plan revisions or amendments, forest health including fire management and... Plan, a priority following the major fires including the 86,000 acre Jasper Fire in 2000; 2. A...

  11. Mineralogy of the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Cavanagh, P. D.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; Morrison, S. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, J. D.; Crisp, J. A.; Fendrich, K.; Morookian, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rocks in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September, 2014, and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three rock samples to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF. The three targets, Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak, contain variable amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene, iron oxides, jarosite, phyllosilicates, and X-ray amorphous material. Hematite was predicted at the base of Mount Sharp from orbital visible/near-IR spectroscopy, and CheMin confirmed this detection. The presence of jarosite throughout Pahrump Hills suggests the sediments experienced acid-sulfate alteration, either in-situ or within the source region of the sediments. This acidic leaching environment is in stark contrast to the environment preserved within the Sheepbed mudstone on the plains of Gale crater. The minerals within Sheepbed, including Fe-saponite, indicate these sediments were deposited in a shallow lake with circumneutral pH that may have been habitable.

  12. Evaluation of a Variable Rate Irrigating Hill-Seeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variable rate irrigating hill-seeder is a drought-alleviating and water-saving agricultural machine that can adjust water application automatically according to the soil moisture content and realize the synchronization between water and seeds through photoelectric-detecting technology. The objecti...

  13. EDIBLE FRUIT YIELDING PLANTS OF SHEVAROY HILLS IN TAMIL NADU

    OpenAIRE

    Alagesaboopathi, C.; S. Balu; Dwarakan, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the common edible fruit yielding plants, During the course of medicinal plant survey of shevaroy hills of Eastern ghats. Salem district, Tamil Nadu. Thirty species belonging to 23 genera and 21 families yield edible fruits. They are listed in alphabetical order followed by family, common name and Tamil names.

  14. Factor Content of the Hill Interaction Matrix--Form B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Robert J.; McIntire, Walter G.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the construct validity of the Hill Interaction Matrix--Form B, a 64-item instrument designed to assess preferred modes of interaction in group settings. A factor analysis was performed by using 134 subjects. Results indicate that the items and the conceptual format are appropriate. (Author)

  15. 33 CFR 80.145 - Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill, RI... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.145 Race Point, MA, to Watch Hill... and Rhode Island from Race Point to Watch Hill. (b) A line drawn from Nobska Point Light to...

  16. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  17. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  18. Changes to the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This article explores changes in the ageing gastrointestinal tract, including: » Diminished sense of taste and smell. » Shrinking of the maxillary and mandibular bones in the jaw. » Slowing of oesophageal peristalsis giving a feeling that something is 'stuck in the throat'. » Relaxation of the lower sphincter leading to gastro-oesophageal reflux. » Reduction in gastric bicarbonate and prostaglandin in mucus increasing susceptibility to stomach ulcers. » Changes in villi in the small intestine reducing the area for absorption. » Overpopulation of bacteria in the small intestine leading to decreased absorption of folic acid and minerals. PMID:27573953

  19. Biliary tract duplication cyst with gastric heterotopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst. (orig.)

  20. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    BEHZADI, Payam; BEHZADI, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution o...

  1. Biliary tract duplication cyst with gastric heterotopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumbach, K.; Baker, D.H.; Weigert, J.; Altman, R.P.

    1988-05-01

    Cystic duplications of the biliary tract are rare anomalies, easily mistaken for choledochal cysts. Surgical drainage is the preferred therapy for choledochal cyst, but cystic duplication necessitates surgical excision as duplications may contain heterotopic gastric mucosa leading to peptic ulceration of the biliary tract. We report a case of biliary tract duplication cyst containing heterotopic alimentary mucosa which had initially been diagnosed and surgically treated as a choledochal cyst.

  2. A language for image processing HILLS and its supporting system SDIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a language HILLS and its supporting system SDIP for image processing. HILLS is a key-word type language for describing image processing procedures by using subroutine packages SLIP and SPIDER. SDIP, written in FORTRAN to keep portability, supports programming by HILLS in interactive mode including functions such as editing, translating HILLS into FORTRAN, error detection, and providing manual information. Results of preliminary experiments suggest that HILLS and SDIP are very useful tools for beginners and researchers in application fields of image processing to develop desired image analysis procedures

  3. Numerical study of density-stratified flow past two 3D hills : aligned in tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a parametric study using an immersed boundary method has been carried out to investigate the effects of stable density stratification on the wakes past two identical three-dimensional hills aligned in tandem. The Reynolds number based on the uniform inlet velocity and twice the hill height was fixed at Re=300 while the Froude number based on the inlet velocity and the hill height was retained at Fr=0.2. Neutral flow without density stratification was also computed for comparison. Under a strong stratification, vertical motion of fluid particles over the three-dimensional hills is suppressed and the wake structures behind the hills become planar. Depending on the distance between the two hills, the flow pattern of each wake is significantly affected by the stratification. There is a critical hill distance at which flow characteristics drastically change. Qualitative and quantitative features of the wake interaction are reported

  4. Radiopharmaceuticals and the gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frier, M. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom); Perkins, A.C. [Radiopharmacy Unit, Dept. of Medical Physics, Queens Medical Centre, Univ. Hospital Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1994-11-01

    A review is presented of the design of radiolabelled test meals for the evaluation of gastrointestinal function, including oesophageal transit, gastro-oesophageal reflux, gastric emptying, enterogastric reflux and transit through the whole bowel. Descriptions of different systems are presented, together with validations of the procedures used. Published methods for assessment of oesophageal transit show a marked degree of consistency, whereas gastric emptying studies employ a wide range of both liquid and solid test meals. Recommendations are made concerning the optimal system for investigation of each part of the gastrointestinal tract, but whichever system is adopted, it is important to employ some validation procedures, and to establish normal ranges in the population under study. (orig.)

  5. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  6. Polyphase-coded incoherent scatter measurements at Millstone Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Ilkka I.; Lind, Frank D.; Roininen, Lassi; Erickson, Philip J.; Rideout, William C.; Orispää, Mikko; Vierinen, Juha; Lehtinen, Markku S.

    2013-09-01

    We report first results of polyphase-coded incoherent scatter measurements at Millstone Hill. To our knowledge, these are the first incoherent scatter measurements with polyphase alternating codes of Markkanen et al. (2008) and optimal quadriphase sequences of Damtie et al. (2008). The results demonstrate that an arbitrary waveform generator recently installed at the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar, part of the National Science Foundation Geospace Facility operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Haystack Observatory, is capable of reproducing the polyphase waveforms with an accuracy sufficient for incoherent scatter measurements. Polyphase codes will allow incoherent scatter radar experiments to be better optimized, because they provide a larger variety of code and code cycle lengths than the traditional binary codes.

  7. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  8. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders. In kids, the more common problems include: Congenital problems of the urinary tract. As a fetus develops in the womb, any part of the urinary tract can grow to an abnormal size or in an abnormal shape or position. One common congenital abnormality (an abnormality that exists at birth) is ...

  9. Renal tract malformations: perspectives for nephrologists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerecuk, L.; Schreuder, M.F.; Woolf, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Renal tract malformations are congenital anomalies of the kidneys and/or lower urinary tract. One challenging feature of these conditions is that they can present not only prenatally but also in childhood or adulthood. The most severe types of malformations, such as bilateral renal agenesis or dyspl

  10. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  11. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  12. Metastases of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to personal observations of 77 patients with one or more metastatic sites in the gastrointestinal tract, the authors reviewed over 1000 similar cases in the literature. The general radiologic aspects of each location (oesophagus, stomach, intestine, colon/rectum) are discussed. The pathophysiology of this type of metastasis explains the radiologic images obtained during barium transit examinations. The lymphatic type of spread observed in the oesophageal region in connection with carcinoma of the breast is the origin of stenosis of the middle third. The haematogenous type of diffusion encountered during melanomas creates intramural or intraluminal radiologic images. Two means of spread can be observed in the stomach. Haematogenous spread can result in frequently multiple and ulcerated nodular submucosal lesions from melanomas and bronchogenic carcinomas; it can also cause a more or less stenotic invasive image, especially in connection with carcinoma of the breast. Dissemination by means of the mesenteric reflections, and in particular around the gastrocolic ligament, explains the spread of a carcinoma of the transverse colon towards the stomach. The most frequent secondary sites in the gastrointestinal tract occur in the small intestine, the majority of these metastases being caused by pelvic tumours. Whether occurring in the small intestine or the colon, the patophysiology is similar: direct invasion by a non-contiguous primary carcinoma along the fascias and mesenteric attachments (more rarely by lymphatic permeation), dissemination by the peritoneal fluid or haematogenuous spread. In the first two types of dissemination cited, the image encountered is often hard to differentiate from radiation-induced lesions. (orig.)

  13. Do Welsh hill farmers dream of radioactive sheep?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power portable device is being used successfully in North Wales to provide precise position-logging of sheep grazing on upland hill pastures following irradiation by fallout from the Chernobyl reactor. This follows the discovery that radiation levels appear to vary significantly among sheep from the same flock, suggesting hot-spots of radiation. The design and execution of the system is described. (UK)

  14. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India

    OpenAIRE

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have med...

  15. ANALYSIS OF A MODEL OF TEAMWORK BY HILL

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Petkovski; Fanche Joshevska

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary management of the intellectual capital of an organization, as a major determinant for efficient and effective operation of the organization has access to the teamwork. Teamwork means quality leadership which is necessary for a successful team management. In the theory and the practice are given a number of models for teamwork and team leadership, however, in this case the subject of this paperwork will be the analyzing of the model of team leadership according to Hill. Accord...

  16. Prof. Nanopoulos visits Hill Primary School in Greece

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    This video is an extract of a reportage broadcasted by SKAI TV in Greece about the visit of Prof. Dimitri Nanopoulos to Hill Primary School, the oldest operating school in Greece. The video describes a breakthrough education programme aimed at introducing big ideas in physics, particle physics and cosmology to K-6 students through a pedagogical approach that promotes inquiry, creativity and hands-on experimentation with the use everyday materials.

  17. Gold mineralisation in the central Ochil Hills, Perthshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, R.J.; Shaw, M.H.; Leake, R.C.; Jackson, B.

    2005-01-01

    Alluvial gold is wide-spread and locally abundant in the central Ochil Hills, but the bedrock sources have not been identified. The microchemical signature of 1246 alluvial gold grains collected from 24 different localities has been established by combining quantitative analyses of the alloy composition of the component grains with qualitative data defining the opaque mineral inclusion assemblage. Variations in the microchemical signature of gold from different localities and consideration of...

  18. Parameter Calibration of Mini-LEO Hill Slope Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, H.

    2015-12-01

    The mini-LEO hill slope, located at Biosphere 2, is a small-scale catchment model that is used to study the ways landscapes change in response to biological, chemical, and hydrological processes. Previous experiments have shown that soil heterogeneity can develop as a result of groundwater flow; changing the characteristics of the landscape. To determine whether or not flow has caused heterogeneity within the mini-LEO hill slope, numerical models were used to simulate the observed seepage flow, water table height, and storativity. To begin a numerical model of the hill slope was created using CATchment Hydrology (CATHY). The model was then brought to an initial steady state by applying a rainfall event of 5mm/day for 180 days. Then a specific rainfall experiment of alternating intensities was applied to the model. Next, a parameter calibration was conducted, to fit the model to the observed data, by changing soil parameters individually. The parameters of the best fitting calibration were taken to be the most representative of those present within the mini-LEO hill slope. Our model concluded that heterogeneities had indeed arisen as a result of the rainfall event, resulting in a lower hydraulic conductivity downslope. The lower hydraulic conductivity downslope in turn caused in an increased storage of water and a decrease in seepage flow compared to homogeneous models. This shows that the hydraulic processes acting within a landscape can change the very characteristics of the landscape itself, namely the permeability and conductivity of the soil. In the future results from the excavation of soil in mini-LEO can be compared to the models results to improve the model and validate its findings.

  19. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  20. Great Western Savings Center - Beverly Hills, California (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Pereira Asociados, Arquitectos

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available This building which has an original elliptic plan form and is enclosed by curtain walls is situated on a strategic ground-site in Beverly Hills and is the savings center for the densely populated area of Los Angeles. The building consists of: four basements for parking; ground floor with entrances, halls and savings-bank; mezzanine floor and first floor with coffee-shop, four dining halls and auditorium, seven storeys with offices; the tenth floor is reserved for the financial department and the management section. The top part is occupied by the machine rooms of the six elevators. Tre structure consists of high tensile steel reinforced concrete and bronzed coloured glass enclosures. This is the highet building in Beverly Hills.Este edificio, de original planta elíptica y cerramiento a base de muros cortina, ocupa un solar estratégico en Beverly Hills y sirve como central de ahorro a toda la zona densamente poblada de Los Angeles. Consta de: cuatro sótanos para estacionamiento de vehículos, y planta baja con accesos, vestíbulos y caja de ahorros; entreplanta y planta primera con cafetería, cuatro comedores y auditorio; siete plantas de oficinas y planta décima destinada a albergar los despachos de dirección y departamento financiero, además del cuerpo superior, ocupado por los cuartos de máquinas de los seis aparatos elevadores. La estructura es de hormigón armado con acero de alta resistencia y cerramientos de vidrio color bronce. Es el edificio más alto de Beverly Hills.

  1. Susceptibility of Shallow Landslide in Fraser Hill Catchment, Pahang Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tropical areas especially during monsoon seasons intense precipitation is the main caused that trigger the natural shallow landslide phenomena. This phenomenon can be disastrous and widespread in occurrence even in undisturbed forested catchment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the susceptibility of natural hill slopes to failure for a popular hill resort area, the Fraser Hill Catchment under different rainfall regimes and soil thickness. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM was prepared for the 8.2 km2 catchment. A GIS based deterministic model was then applied to predict the spatial landslide occurrence within catchment. Model input parameters include bulk density, friction angle, cohesion and hydraulic conductivity were gathered through in situ and lab analysis as well as from previous soil analysis records. Landslides locations were recorded using GPS as well as previous air photos and satellite imagery to establish landslide source areas inventory. The landslide susceptibility map was produced under different precipitation event’s simulation to see the effects of precipitation to stability of the hill slopes of the catchment. The results were categorized into naturally unstable (Defended, Upper Threshold, Lower Threshold, marginal instability (Quasi Stable and stable area (Moderately Stable and Stable. Results of the simulation indicated notable change in precipitation effect on Defended area is between 10mm to 40mm range in a single storm event. However, when storm event is exceeded 120mm, the result on Defended area produced by the model tends to be constant further on. For area categorized as naturally unstable (Factor of Safety, SF<1, with 110 mm of precipitation in a single storm event and soil depth at 2 meters and 4 meters could affect 69.51% and 69.88% respectively of the catchment area fall under that class. In addition, the model was able to detect 4% more of the landslide inventory under shallower soil depth of

  2. The Nascent Development of Ecotourism in Lagong Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah-Choy Er

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The nascent development of ecotourism in Lagong Hill faces an interesting challenge. The aim of this research note is to evaluate the nascent development of ecotourism in Lagong Hill, Malaysia based on the common core precepts of ecotourism. Approach: The research methods comprise of secondary data collection and field survey via an in-depth interview with selected key informants. This is aided by on-field observation to verify and complement the research findings. Results and Discussion: The ecotourism park management has exhibited environmentally responsible behavior. Nature conservation, tourism management, solid waste management and water utilization adopt the core precepts of ecosystem protection, minimal environmental impact and environmental education. However, there is a lack of outreach towards the indigenous people who are residing within this forest reserve. The Orang Asli, the indigenous people of this area, have profound and in-depth knowledge of the forest and its terrains. This local knowledge and cultural heritage has yet to be tapped as part of community-based ecotourism. In addition, there is a lack of scientific research on the impact of quarrying and timber production on ecotourism. Conclusion: The ecotourism venture in Lagong Hill fulfills the core precepts of ecotourism with the exception of the participation of indigenous people. There is a need to inculcate community-based ecotourism rather than primarily focusing on environmental or economic impacts. More scientific research is required to determine carrying capacity, and the impact of quarrying and timber production on ecotourism.

  3. Evolution of optimal Hill coefficients in nonlinear public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco; Scheuring, István

    2016-10-01

    In evolutionary game theory, the effect of public goods like diffusible molecules has been modelled using linear, concave, sigmoid and step functions. The observation that biological systems are often sigmoid input-output functions, as described by the Hill equation, suggests that a sigmoid function is more realistic. The Michaelis-Menten model of enzyme kinetics, however, predicts a concave function, and while mechanistic explanations of sigmoid kinetics exist, we lack an adaptive explanation: what is the evolutionary advantage of a sigmoid benefit function? We analyse public goods games in which the shape of the benefit function can evolve, in order to determine the optimal and evolutionarily stable Hill coefficients. We find that, while the dynamics depends on whether output is controlled at the level of the individual or the population, intermediate or high Hill coefficients often evolve, leading to sigmoid input-output functions that for some parameters are so steep to resemble a step function (an on-off switch). Our results suggest that, even when the shape of the benefit function is unknown, biological public goods should be modelled using a sigmoid or step function rather than a linear or concave function. PMID:27343626

  4. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Moo Yul (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  5. FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tract Infection” What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, which includes the bladder (which stores the ...

  6. Economic profitability of cane based furniture enterprises of Chittagong City Corporation Area, Bangladesh%孟加拉吉大港市藤家具企业的经济效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Alamgir; M.A.R.Bhuiyan; M.Jashimuddin; M.S.Alam

    2006-01-01

    An exploratory survey was conducted to assess economic profitability of cane based furniture enterprises in Chittagong City Corporation area of Bangladesh. A multistage random sampling was adopted to carry out the study. Based on the total investment the enterprises were divided into large, medium and small.. Most of the entrepreneurs (55%) are in the age class 40-50 years and only (18.33%)are >50 years. In small and medium category lowest entrepreneurs (8.33% each) are found graduate and 18.33% in large farm. Most of the enterprises are in the small category (45%) and 66.67% labors are skilled whereas only 33.33% are unskilled. Seven articles of sixteen different sizes were identified made from cane, which are Sofa (45 cm × 45 cm, 50 cm × 50 cm and 55 cm × 55 cm), Dinning (4ch. 1tab,and 6ch. 1tab.), Bed (1 m × 2m, 1.3 m × 2.3 m and 1.5 m × 2.3 m), Chair (45 cm × 45 cm and 50 cm ×50 cm), Rocking chair (large size,medium and small size), Dolna (Hanging and Running) and Partition. In all the three category enterprises chair (45 cm × 45 cm) was produced in highest number and the lowest production was Bed (1.5 m × 2.3 m). The total net benefit (2089 US$) and benefit cost ratio (1:16)was the highest for large cane enterprises. So among three categories of the cane enterprises the large enterprises are more profitable than others.%采用分阶段抽样方式对大港市藤家具企业的经济效益进行调查.根据总投资将企业分为大型、中型和小型三类.大部分的企业(55%)已有40-50年的历史,仅有18.33%的企业历史超过50年.在小型和中型企业中,具有大学毕业文凭的企业家只占8.33%, 而大型企业的大学毕业者占18.33%.大部分企业(45%)属于小型企业,66.67%的工人经过技术培训.7种商品是藤类制品并有16种尺寸,如沙发(45 cm ( 45 cm, 50 cm ( 50 cm and 55 cm ( 55 cm), 配套餐桌(4把椅子,1个桌子,或6把椅子1个桌子),床(1 m ( 2m, 1.3 m ( 2.3 m and 1.5 m ( 2.3 m),椅子(45

  7. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  8. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. PMID:26475951

  9. Ultrasound of the paediatric urogenital tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathology in the urinary tract is one of the most frequent queries when children are referred for an ultrasound examination. Comprehensive ultrasound examinations can answer most clinical questions of the urogenital tract with minimal patient preparation and without the use of ionising radiation. Therefore, optimised imaging protocols should be available in all radiology departments where children are examined. This review suggests a preferred imaging protocol for urogenital imaging in children and gives an overview of the different structures of the urogenital tract, the normal age-related sonographic anatomy, and gives examples of the most commonly encountered diseases of the urogenital system in children

  10. Diagnosis of liver, biliary tract and gastrointestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of RI imaging in the diagnosis of lesions of the liver, biliary tracts and gastrointestinal tracts are reviewed, and representative cases are shown. Liver scintigraphy was of value for the diagnosis of lesions limitted to the liver such as primary and metastatic liver cancer and inflammatory liver diseases. However, RI methods were less useful in the diagnosis of lesions of the biliary tracts and stomach. RI scintigraphy was more sensitive than angiography in the detection of Meckel's deverticulum, Ballet's esophagus, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Balloon dilatation of alimentary tract strictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a series of balloon dilatations of alimentary tract strictures 11 patients with different types of gastric and oesophagogastric anastomotic stenoses are reported. The dilatation of gastric outflow tract obstructions was highly effective in the treatment of retention. In 7 out of 8 cases with gastric outflow stenosis surgery could be entirely avoided and replaced by balloon dilatation. The importance of eliminating retention in the healing of gastric ulcer is discussed. Fistulation in oesophagogastric anastomoses due to stenosis of the outflow portion was successfully treated. The importance of achieving a free outflow tract in order to prevent insufficiency of the anastomosis and formation of a fistula is stressed. (orig.)

  12. Urinary tract stones in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, S K; Heilman, R L; Eversman, W G

    1995-02-01

    The presence of stones during an otherwise uneventful pregnancy is a dramatic and potentially serious issue for the mother, the fetus, and the treating physicians alike. The incidence and predisposing factors are generally the same as in nonpregnant, sexually active, childbearing women. Unique metabolic effects in pregnancy such as hyperuricuria and hypercalciuria, changes in inhibitors of lithiasis formation, stasis, relative dehydration, and the presence of infection all have an impact on stone formation. The anatomic changes and physiologic hydronephrosis of pregnancy make the diagnosis and treatment more challenging. Presenting signs and symptoms include colic, flank pain, hematuria, urinary tract infection, irritative voiding, fever, premature onset or cessation of labor, and pre-eclampsia. The initial evaluation and treatment are again similar to those used for the nonpregnant population. The most appropriate first-line test is renal ultrasonography, which may, by itself, allow the diagnosis to be made and provide enough information for treatment. Radiographic studies, including an appropriately performed excretory urogram, give specific information as to size and location of the stones, location of the kidneys, and differential renal function and can be used safely, but the ionizing radiation risks should be considered. All forms of treatment with the exception of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and some medical procedures are appropriate in the pregnant patient. Close coordination by the urologist, the obstetrician, the pediatrician, the anesthesiologist, and the radiologist is required for the appropriate care of these patients. PMID:7855714

  13. [Phytotherapy of respiratory tract diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylka, Wiesława; Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Studzińska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Matławska, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in cough due to their antitussive and expectorant activity. Antitussives act either centrally on the cough center of the brain or peripherally on the cough receptors in the respiratory passages. The antitussive effect of many herbs results from the content of mucilage, which exerts protective and demulcent activity. The activity of expectorant herbs results primarily from their influence on the gastric mucose (saponins and ipec alkaloids). This proves reflex stimulation which leads to an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Volatile-oil type expectorant herbs exert a direct stimulatory effect on the bronchial glands by means of local irritation with antibacterial activity. In colds and flu, herbs containing volatile oil can be used; also, volatile oils are ingredients of syrups and liquids as well as external phytomedicines in the form of liniments, ointments, and inhalations. The paper shows the herbs and phytomedicines present on the Polish market used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. PMID:23289257

  14. The recent malaria situation in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, S M B; Rahman, M M; Ahmed, Z; Siddique, M M

    2003-01-01

    This is a retrospective study on 7,005 cases of malaria treated in a base hospital during the period 1998 to 2001. The aim of the study is to analyze the patterns, complications and mortality rates of malaria and its response to standard anti-malarial drugs. Diagnosis of malaria was made from identification of parasites on Giemsa stained thick and thin blood slides among the febrile cases and the clinical (unspecified) malaria was diagnosed as per WHO criteria. Malaria cases accounted for 136.17 per thousand-hospital admissions. Out of 7,005 malaria cases, 54.22% were falciparum, 26.18% were vivax and 12.02% were mixed infections. The most common complications of falciparum malaria were cerebral malaria (2.80%), malarial hepatitis (1.55%), acute pneumonia and/or pulmonary edema (0.22%), acute renal failure (0.13%), algid malaria (0.13%) and black water fever (0.06%). Most of the cases (66.98%) responded (S-response) well to chloroquine. Among the rest, 11.99% required quinine, 9.79% required artemether and 0.08% required both mefloquine and artemether. The total mortality rate was 0.30% but it was 9.25% and 6.17% among complicated malaria and cerebral malaria cases, respectively. Prognosis appeared better on early recognition of complications and initiation of prompt, effective treatment and adequate nursing care. Most mortality was due to complicated falciparum malaria and the emergence of drug resistance. PMID:19238662

  15. A Contingent Valuation Estimation of Hill Recreational and Services Values in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pek, Chuen-Khee; Tee, Chee-Hoong; Ng, Phuay-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study estimates the economic values of household preference for preservation and conservation of hill recreational and services values in Malaysia. The Contingent Valuation technique is employed on 100 randomly selected households in the vicinities of Taman Melawati Hill. The study finds that hill preservation is important and the public is willing to pay for initiatives to mitigate further degradation to this ecosystem. More specifically, the study ascertains that households on average ...

  16. Distance-Based Functional Diversity Measures and Their Decomposition: A Framework Based on Hill Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Huo Chiu; Anne Chao

    2014-01-01

    Hill numbers (or the "effective number of species") are increasingly used to characterize species diversity of an assemblage. This work extends Hill numbers to incorporate species pairwise functional distances calculated from species traits. We derive a parametric class of functional Hill numbers, which quantify "the effective number of equally abundant and (functionally) equally distinct species" in an assemblage. We also propose a class of mean functional diversity (per species), which quan...

  17. Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) Activities by Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The data being displayed are census tract level counts of NSP-funded activities and is derived from an extract of HUD's Community Planning and Development’s (CPD)...

  18. Histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Fagerberg, Christina R; Ousager, Lilian Bomme;

    2013-01-01

    short review on histiocytic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in general. The primary histiocytic disorders of uncertain origin, Rosai-Dorfman disease, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and Erdheim-Chester disease, are addressed. Reactive and infectious conditions such as xanthomatosis...

  19. Diagnosing & Treating Digestive Tract Disorders Endoscopically

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our patients, the stones do comprise the major cause for jaundice or blockage in the bile duct. ... tract and bile duct, often there are other causes, namely, that of a pancreatic mass or cancer. ...

  20. Voyageurs National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Bureau of Land Maganement in GCDB for the Midwest Regional...

  1. Considerations on seismic microzonation in areas with two-dimensional hills

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohsen Kamalian; Abdollah Sohrabi-Bidar; Arash Razmkhah; Amirata Taghavi; Iraj Rahmani

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive numerical parametric study on seismic behavior of 2D homogenous hills subjected to vertically propagating incident SV waves. It is shown that the amplification potential of these hills is strongly influenced by the wavelength, by the shape ratio, by the shape of the hill and in a less order of importance, by the Poisson ratio of the media. The 2D topography effect could be ignored, only if the hill has a shape ratio of less than 0.1 or if it is subjected to incident waves with predominant dimensionless periods of greater than 13 times the shape ratio. In incidence of waves with wavelengths longer than the width of the hill, the amplification curve usually finds its maximum at the crest and decreases towards the base of the hill. Else, some de-amplification zones would occur along the hill. Among hills with similar shape ratios, those with intermediate cross section areas show intermediate seismic behavior, too. Estimated seismic site coefficients for the crest of a 2D rocky hill depend on its shape ratio and could reach even 1.7, which encourages one to classify it according to standard site categorization procedures as soil profile types SC or SD instead of the conventional SB type.

  2. Wine Industry Competitiveness: A survey of the Shawnee Hills American Viticultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matthew Rendleman

    2016-06-01

    Shawnee Hill׳s AVA winery owner/operators regard increases in regional tourism, growth in the US wine market continuous innovation, unique services and processes, and flow of information from customers to have the most enhancing effects on their businesses, and that confidence/trust in Illinois state political systems, tax systems, and administrative/bureaucratic regulations were the most constraining factors. Furthermore the Shawnee Hills AVA has growing competition, yet consists of innovative winery owners. It may currently lack external financial support, but with a community focus on product differentiation, the Shawnee Hills AVA has a chance, owners believe, to capture a portion of the growing market for regional products.

  3. The PIXE analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of the analysis of the jade unearthed from the Fuquan hill by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are reported. By using PIXE technology, an appraisal of the jades unearthed from Fuquan hill can be made. The experimental results show that the Fuquan hill's jades can be distinguished into two classes: Xiu jade and soft jade, and they are different to Xiaomeiling' s jade but similar to the soft jade from Hetian, Xinjiang province. Furthermore, by analyzing proportion of iron and magnesium, some information of mineral structure and the color exuding of the jade from Fuquan hill can be obtained without any interference from impurity element

  4. Accuracy Assessment Points for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation classification and mapping of Friendship Hill National Historic Site.

  5. Singing synthesis and the Vocal Tract Organ

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, David Martin

    2014-01-01

    Vocal synthesis has been the subject of investigation since the late 18th century when von Kempelen produced his mechanical ‘speaking machine’. The advert of electronics has enabled a number of different methods of voice synthesis to be realized in practice. Recently with the advent of 3-D printing and magnetic resonance imaging of human vocal tracts, it has been possible to create synthetic vocal sounds that combine both mechanical (3-D printed tracts) and electronic (synthesized larynx soun...

  6. Cholesterol crystal embolisation to the alimentary tract.

    OpenAIRE

    Moolenaar, W; Lamers, C B

    1996-01-01

    The features of cholesterol crystal embolisation (CCE) to the alimentary tract were studied by retrospective analysis of the clinical and pathological data of 96 patients (70 men, 26 women, mean age 73.8 (58-95) years) with this diagnosis in the Dutch national pathology information system (Pathologisch Anatomisch Landelijk Geautomatiseerd Archief (PALGA)) from 1973-92. In the 96 patients, 130 CCE sites were found throughout the alimentary tract, mostly in the colon (42.3%). Most patients had ...

  7. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Wasamwar; Vijay S.Wadha; Gopal S. Gond

    2012-01-01

    It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vagin...

  8. The Hill-determinant perturbation theory with triangular propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new version of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation prescription is proposed. Its main formal feature lies in an unusual choice of the model space and unperturbed H0 and in a resulting lower-triangular matrix structure of its propagators. Within the framework of the so-called Hill-determinant method, an admissibility of any incompletely solvable zero-order Hamiltonian is achieved in this way. As a consequence, the range of practical applicability of our new perturbative formalism may be expected to incorporate many new phenomenological interactions with a strongly anharmonic character. 18 refs

  9. Rosemary Hill Observatory lunar occultation summary for 1983-1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Glenn; Anderson, Chris

    1993-04-01

    The results from photometric observations of 21 previously unreported occultation disappearances obtained during the period from March 24, 1983 through March 12, 1984, with the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory 76-cm reflecting telescope are presented. Statistically significant determinations of stellar diameters are indicated for two stars: 32 Librae (12.2 mas) and BD + 22 deg 1032 (5.45 mas). Diameter measurements of marginal statistical significance are noted for two other stars (9 Cancri and 37 Capricorni). New duplicity determinations are reported for five stellar systems in this sample.

  10. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.' The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912. The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite. Spirit acquired this false-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers. The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the

  11. Hydrogen Sulfide and Urogenital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Villa Bianca, Roberta d'Emmanuele; Cirino, Giuseppe; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter the role played by H2S in the physiopathology of urogenital tract revising animal and human data available in the current relevant literature is discussed. H2S pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in the mechanism underlying penile erection in human and experimental animal. Both cystathionine-β synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ lyase (CSE) are expressed in the human corpus cavernosum and exogenous H2S relaxes isolated human corpus cavernosum strips in an endothelium-independent manner. Hydrogen sulfide pathway also accounts for the direct vasodilatory effect operated by testosterone on isolated vessels. Convincing evidence suggests that H2S can influence the cGMP pathway by inhibiting the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) activity. All these findings taken together suggest an important role for the H2S pathway in human corpus cavernosum homeostasis. However, H2S effect is not confined to human corpus cavernosum but also plays an important role in human bladder. Human bladder expresses mainly CBS and generates in vitro detectable amount of H2S. In addition the bladder relaxant effect of the PDE-5 inhibitor sildenafil involves H2S as mediator. In conclusion the H2S pathway is not only involved in penile erection but also plays a role in bladder homeostasis. In addition the finding that it involved in the mechanism of action of PDE-5 inhibitors strongly suggests that modulation of this pathway can represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and bladder diseases. PMID:26162831

  12. Soils of wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases (Princess Elizabeth Land, East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelov, N. S.

    2014-09-01

    The properties and spatial distribution of soils and soil-like bodies in valleys of the coastal Larsemann Hills and Vestfold Hills oases—poorly investigated in terms of the soil areas of East Antarctica—are discussed. In contrast to Dry Valleys—large continental oases of Western Antarctica—the studied territory is characterized by the presence of temporarily waterlogged sites in the valleys. It is argued that the deficit of water rather than the low temperature is the major limiting factor for the development of living organisms and the pedogenesis on loose substrates. The moisture gradients in the surface soil horizons explain the spatial distribution of the different soils and biotic complexes within the studied valleys. Despite the permanent water-logging of the deep suprapermafrost horizons of most of the soils in the valleys, no gley features have been identified in them. The soils of the wet valleys in the Larsemann Hills oasis do not contain carbonates. They have a slightly acid or neutral reaction. The organic carbon and nitrogen contents are mainly controlled by the amount of living and dead biomass rather than by the humic substances proper. The larger part of the biomass is concentrated inside the mineral soil matrix rather than on the soil surface. The stresses caused by surface drying, strong winds, and ultraviolet radiation prevent the development of organisms on the surface of the soil and necessitate the search for shelter within the soil fine earth material (endoedaphic niche) or under the gravelly pavement (hypolithic niche). In the absence of higher plants, humified products of their decomposition, and rainwater that can wash the soil profile and upon the low content of silt and clay particles in the soil material, "classical" soil horizons are not developed. The most distinct (and, often, the only diagnosed) products of pedogenesis in these soils are represented by organomineral films on the surface of mineral particles.

  13. Simulation of depth-integrated flow over a hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avramenko, Anna; Agafonova, Oxana; Sorvari, Joonas; Haario, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    This paper details work conducted using the commercial CFD software package ANSYS Fluent to investigate the depth-integrated flow over a hill. The calculation of wake development is really important for the design of the layout and the operation of a wind farm. Simulating a wind farm with more than one fully detailed wind turbines and possibly complex terrain geometry requires significant computational power and time. For this reason the depth-integrated flow equations derived by integrating the original 3D flow equations over the depth are presented. The complex 3D geometry need not be modelled or discretized in the pre-processing state: instead, the geometry of the terrain is only described with source terms in the depth-integrated equations, which are then solved in a very simple and fixed 2D domain. This approach reduces the equations from 3D to 2D and decreases the elapsed time of CFD simulations from hours to minutes. Thus, it is very practicable modelling method in real time optimization work. 2D CFD simulations of flow over a hill with depth-integrated governing equations are compared with full 3D models. The depth-integrated model will be used in future to find the optimal position of wind turbines in the wind park.

  14. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Ruff, S.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F., III; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, Ralf; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; McCoy, T.J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Occurrence and comparison of Jerdon’s Gecko Hemidactylus subtriedrus Jerdon 1853 with Termite Hill Gecko Hemidactylus triedrus (Daudin 1802 from Ananthagiri Hills, northern Eastern Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.M. Javed

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent herpetological surveys in northern Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh yielded sightings of Jerdon’s Gecko Hemidactylus subtriedrus Jerdon 1853. Little is known about its distribution and taxonomic status. This species closely resembles the Termite Hill Gecko Hemidactylus triedrus (Daudin 1802 and it has often been taxonomically confused with it. Therefore, through this communication we provide information on the occurrence of Jerdon’s Gecko along with details showing the level of resemblance and differences from Termite Hill Gecko.

  16. 78 FR 35314 - Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin, Riverside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3655). The Environmental Protection Agency Notice of Availability was published on January... Bureau of Reclamation Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement; Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin... capacity in the Bunker Hill Groundwater Basin and the Chino Basin. We issued a Notice of Intent on...

  17. Chronology of polyphase extension in the Windermere Hills, northeast Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, K.J.; Cerveny, P.K.; Perkins, M.E.; Snee, L.W.

    1999-01-01

    Fission-track and 40Ar/39Ar dating and chemical correlation of volcanic strata exposed in the Windermere Hills and northern Pequop Mountains, northeast Nevada, indicate a protracted, polyphase history of Tertiary (late Eocene-late Miocene) extension along the northern margin of a major Cordilleran metamorphic core complex. Early extension is recorded by a west-tilted half graben filled with early Oligocene (34.79 ?? 0.18-39.18 ?? 0.12 Ma) sedimentary rocks in the eastern Windermere Hills above the low-angle Black Mountain detachment fault. The early Oligocene half graben conformably overlies a widespread suite of late Eocene (39.18 ?? 0.12-40.38 ?? 0.06 Ma) calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, reflecting a temporal link between early extension at a high structural level and the end of the ignimbrite flare-up. These strata are cut by east-west-striking normal faults, which are exposed along, and parallel to, the northern margin of the metamorphic complex. Available age data (e.g., between 14.93 ?? 0.08 and 34.79 ?? 0.18 Ma) permit the interpretation that the east-west-striking faults formed at the same time as, or after, large-magnitude unroofing of high-grade rocks. We interpret the east-west-striking faults to accommodate differential uplift of greenschist-grade metamorphic rocks in the upper crust, above a lateral ramp in a west-northwest-directed mylonitic shear zone. Subsequent extension in the Windermere Hills is defined by deep, rapidly filled half grabens of middle Miocene (<7.42 ?? 2.0 to 14.93 ?? 0.08 Ma) age that unconformably overlie older faults and synextensional deposits. These are the youngest half grabens in the region and are inferred to be initiated by extensional stresses imparted to the base of the lithosphere by a laterally spreading mantle plume (e.g., the Yellowstone hotspot) located in southeastern Oregon at this time.

  18. Surface water and groundwater interaction on a hill island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumph Frederiksen, Rasmus; Rømer Rasmussen, Keld; Christensen, Steen

    2014-05-01

    A number of recent studies have indicated that the hydrological system in stream valleys is often complex and exchange of water takes place through semi-permeable contacts and flow paths may be quite diverse. Yet, surface water and groundwater interaction in one of the major Danish landscapes - the hill islands - is relatively unknown. This study aims at providing new information about the rainfall-runoff processes in hill island landscapes where surface water and groundwater interaction is expected to have a dominant role and hill-slope processes not. Through stream flow measurements, field observations, and existing geological and geophysical data, we have investigated the surface water and groundwater interaction in the Abild Stream catchment (flow indicating that shallow control by low permeable sediments is important. Nevertheless irrigation is intensive which indicates that the soil and shallow sediments are permeable. Since July 2014 we have measured stream flow during quarterly campaigns at 11 stations along the stream representing different spatial scales and using Acoustic Doppler techniques (ADCP) as well as current-meters. Furthermore we have mapped topography, soil types, geomorphology, ditches, drains and land use through field observations and digital maps. The shallow subsurface geology has been mapped using abundant well described geological data (boreholes) and geophysical data (airborne TEM). Our stream flow measurements show that the tributaries from west and north dry out during the summer period. Significant drained areas in the NW- and SW-part of the catchment have been observed from old topographical maps as well as in the field. The geological data indicate shallow low permeable sediments primarily on the western side of Abild stream, and the geophysical data indicate shallow low resistivity layers on the western side of the stream. All these findings indicate a catchment with at least two different hydrogeological settings. To further

  19. Viral infections of the biliary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ekta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections of the biliary tract are often considered to be an important cause of acute cholangitis. Viral infections of the biliary tract however, are very often mistaken as viral hepatitis. This article highlights various viral causes of common biliary tract infections. Viral cholangitis is both less common and less discussed than viral hepatitis. Hepatotropic viruses (A, B, C, and E are generally regarded as hepatocellular pathogens, yet cholangitic manifestations are now well described in association with these diseases. Systemic viral diseases also lead to cholangitis in varying proportion to hepatitis. Human immunodeficiency virus is associated with protean hepatic complications, including cholangitis due to several causes. Other systemic viruses, most notably those of the herpes virus family, also cause hepatic disease including cholangitis and possibly ductopenia in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients.

  20. Herbs In Treatment Of Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Wasamwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that urinary tract is very common source of infection and UTIs are second most common reason people visit their doctors each year. Escherichia coli is responsible for large majority of UTIs. UTIs is most commonly diagnosed bacterial infection in woman. Population at risk of complication include older woman, pregnant woman. Continuous antibiotics prophylaxis are used to treat and prevent recurrent urinary tract infections, frequent antibiotic use can result in vaginal and intestinal dysbiosis as well as antibiotic resistance. Thus, it is desirable to seek alternative methods of prevention and treatment of simple UTIs. Few herbal antimicrobial agents Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry, Vaccinium myrtillus (Bilberry; Blueberry, Berberine, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (Bearberry are proved to be very effective in preventing and treating urinary tract infections.

  1. Engineering report on drilling in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Zied, S.; Callihan, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Black Hills drilling project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The project consisted of five drill holes, ranging in depth from 365 feet (111.25 m) to 564 feet (171.90 m). A total of 2,211 feet (673.91 m) were drilled, all of which were cored. The objective of the project was to obtain subsurface data which would enable us to more accurately assess the favorability of the Precambrian Estes Conglomerate as a host of World Class uranium deposits. Drilling began on August 3, 1979, and concluded on September 7, 1979, with final site restoration and clean-up.

  2. SRTM Colored and Shaded Topography: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This shaded topography view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. In this view, the anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the linear feature trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion-resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. These features are simple examples of how shaded topography can provide a direct input to geologic studies.In this image, colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Colors range from green at the lowest elevations, through yellow and red, to purple at the highest elevations. Elevations here range from near sea level to about 300 meters (about 1000 feet). Shading has been added, with illumination from the north (image top).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that

  3. A Pragmatic Analysis of Hemingway's "Hills Like White Elephant"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺

    2008-01-01

    Hemingway's short story Hills Like White Elephant serves as a best illustration of the TiP of an Iceberg Theory.His deliberate omission of information concerning the background of the protagonists and purposeful avoidance of maklog authorial comments makes it possble to understand the text in totally differeot ways and leaves readers to struggle for the undersatnding of the potential meaning of the text all by themselves.By applying the Cooperative Principie and the Pragmatic Theory of Politeness to the conversation in the text,the essay here tries to recover the information hidden bonesth the surface of the text and to recoilstruct the text as a whole.The cooclusion is that proper application of relevant pragmatic theory can help readers have a relatively rationsl and reasonable understanding of the text.

  4. Nannobacterial alteration of pyroxenes in martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Robert L.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    2002-08-01

    In martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001, this scanning electron microscope study was focused on the ferromagnesian minerals, which are extensively covered with nanometer-size bodies mainly 30-100 nm in diameter. These bodies range from spheres to ovoids to caterpillar shapes and resemble, both in size and shape, nannobacteria that attack weathered rocks on Earth and that can be cultured. Dense colonies alternate with clean, smooth cleavage surfaces, possibly formed later. Statistical study shows that the distribution of presumed nannobacteria is very clustered. In addition to the small bodies, there are a few occurrences of ellipsoidal 200-400 nm objects, that are within the lower size range of "normal" earthly bacteria. We conclude that the nanobodies so abundant in ALH 84001 are indeed nannobacteria, confirming the initial assertion of McKay et al. (1996). However, whether these bodies originated on Mars or are Antarctic contamination remains a valid question.

  5. Fossil papio cranium from !Ncumtsa (Koanaka) Hills, western Ngamiland, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Blythe A; Ross, Callum F; Frost, Stephen R; Waddle, Diane M; Gabadirwe, Mohutsiwa; Brook, George A

    2012-09-01

    Three fossils, a cranium of Papio, a cercopithecid frontal bone, and a mandible of juvenile Papio, have been recovered from cave deposits in the !Ncumtsa (Koanaka) Hills of western Ngamiland, Botswana. These specimens are significant because well-preserved crania of Papio are extremely rare in the fossil record outside of South Africa and because this is the first report of fossil primate cranial remains from Botswana. Thermoluminescence dating of surrounding cave matrix indicates an age of ≥317 ± 114 ka, within the Middle Pleistocene, although it may be older. Based on univariate and multivariate analyses, the adult !Ncumtsa specimen falls within the range of variation seen in extant forms of Papio, yet is distinct from any living species/subspecies and represents a new taxon, named here as a new subspecies of Papio hamadryas-Papio hamadryas botswanae. PMID:22639236

  6. Hills and valleys: Understanding the under-eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind N Naik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue deflation and descent have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of facial aging. In the periorbital area, the upper orbital region is thought to change by descent of the eyebrow, as well as deflation of brow fat. While the understanding of the aging changes in the upper eyelid region are relatively simple, the lower eyelid poses a myriad of aging changes, each demanding a specific management plan. These can be best described in terms of elevations, or 'Hills' and hollows, or 'Valleys'. This article simplifies the understanding of the lower eyelid in the light of anatomical knowledge, and available literature. It forms a basis of easy diagnosis and treatment of the soft tissue changes in the lower eyelid and malar region.

  7. Hematolymphoid lesions of the sinonasal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Genevieve M; Duffield, Amy S

    2016-03-01

    Various hematolymphoid lesions involve the sinonasal tract, including aggressive B, T, and NK-cell neoplasms; myeloid sarcoma; low-grade lymphomas; indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations; and Rosai-Dorfman disease. Differentiating aggressive lymphomas from non-hematopoietic neoplasms such as poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, olfactory neuroblastoma, or sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma may pose diagnostic challenges. In addition, the necrosis, vascular damage, and inflammatory infiltrates that are associated with some hematolymphoid disorders can result in misdiagnosis as infectious, autoimmune, or inflammatory conditions. Here, we review hematolymphoid disorders involving the sinonasal tract including their key clinical and histopathologic features. PMID:26472692

  8. CT diagnosis of biliary tract diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, J.; Horak, J.; Antos, Z.; Vodak, M. (Ustredni Vojenska Nemocnice, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1983-09-01

    The possibilities are discussed offered by computed tomography in the diagnosis of biliary tract diseases. Attention is paid to difficulties associated with the diagnosis of pathological changes in the biliary tract, and to the detection of isodense concrements where diagnostic problems are reliably resolved by PTHC and ERCP. It is therefore useful to supplement CT with other examination methods. A suitable combination is cholescintigraphy and CT with the possibility of a final diagnosis or selection of further examination, as a rule of an invasive nature.

  9. CT diagnosis of biliary tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities are discussed offered by computed tomography in the diagnosis of biliary tract diseases. Attention is paid to difficulties associated with the diagnosis of pathological changes in the biliary tract, and to the detection of isodense concrements where diagnostic problems are reliably resolved by PTHC and ERCP. It is therefore useful to supplement CT with other examination methods. A suitable combination is cholescintigraphy and CT with the possibility of a final diagnosis or selection of further examination, as a rule of an invasive nature. (author)

  10. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Farzana Hamid; Md. Rafiqul Islam; Nibedeta Paul; Nadia Nusrat; Rafia Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species) and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an importa...

  11. Nosocomial Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    BALAT, Ayse

    1999-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized children, and the urinary tract is one of the most common sites of these infections. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 1,221 children discharged with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) from July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1994. Of the 1,221 UTIs, there were 137 (11.2%) cases of nosocomial UTI (NUTI) in 136 patients. NUTI accounted for 0.28% of all discharges (48, 382 patients) at a single institution...

  12. Imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is focused on the controversial topic of imaging strategies in pediatric urinary tract infection. A review of the recent literature illustrates the complementary roles of ultrasound, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. The authors stress the key role of ultrasound which has recently been debated. The commonly associated vesicoureteric reflux has to be classified as congenital or secondary due to voiding dysfunction. A series of frequently asked questions are addressed in a second section. The proposed answers are not the product of a consensus but should rather be considered as proposals to enrich the ongoing debate concerning the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. (orig.)

  13. Pivmecillinam treatment of chronic urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalager, T; Bøe, E; Digranes, A; Høisaether, P; Solberg, C O

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with chronic urinary tract infections were treated with 400 mg pivmecillinam orally three times daily for 10 to 15 days. The diagnosis was confirmed by a history of cystitis or cystopyelitis four to six times annually, microscopy of urine sediment, and growth of pathogens in urine specimens obtained by suprapubic bladder puncture. Three days, three and six weeks after completion of therapy the success rates were 24/28, 20/28 and 19/28 respectively. Pivmecillinam was well tolerated. Two patients developed nausea and vomiting. Other side-effects were not observed. Pivmecillinam is a useful drug in the treatment of chronic urinary tract infections. PMID:204581

  14. Modelling Fine Scale Movement Corridors for the Tricarinate Hill Turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, I.; Kumar, R. S.; Habib, B.; Talukdar, G.

    2016-06-01

    Habitat loss and the destruction of habitat connectivity can lead to species extinction by isolation of population. Identifying important habitat corridors to enhance habitat connectivity is imperative for species conservation by preserving dispersal pattern to maintain genetic diversity. Circuit theory is a novel tool to model habitat connectivity as it considers habitat as an electronic circuit board and species movement as a certain amount of current moving around through different resistors in the circuit. Most studies involving circuit theory have been carried out at small scales on large ranging animals like wolves or pumas, and more recently on tigers. This calls for a study that tests circuit theory at a large scale to model micro-scale habitat connectivity. The present study on a small South-Asian geoemydid, the Tricarinate Hill-turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata), focuses on habitat connectivity at a very fine scale. The Tricarinate has a small body size (carapace length: 127-175 mm) and home range (8000-15000 m2), with very specific habitat requirements and movement patterns. We used very high resolution Worldview satellite data and extensive field observations to derive a model of landscape permeability at 1 : 2,000 scale to suit the target species. Circuit theory was applied to model potential corridors between core habitat patches for the Tricarinate Hill-turtle. The modelled corridors were validated by extensive ground tracking data collected using thread spool technique and found to be functional. Therefore, circuit theory is a promising tool for accurately identifying corridors, to aid in habitat studies of small species.

  15. Draft tube flow phenomena across the bulb turbine hill chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the BulbT project launched by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines and the LAMH (Hydraulic Machine Laboratory of Laval University) in 2011, an intensive campaign to identify flow phenomena in the draft tube of a model bulb turbine has been done. A special focus was put on the draft tube component since it has a particular importance for recuperation in low head turbines. Particular operating points were chosen to analyse flow phenomena in this component. For each of these operating points, power, efficiency and pressure were measured following the IEC 60193 standard. Visualizations, unsteady wall pressure and efficiency measurements were performed in this component. The unsteady wall pressure was monitored at seven locations in the draft tube. The frequency content of each pressure signal was analyzed in order to characterize the flow phenomena across the efficiency hill chart. Visualizations were recorded with a high speed camera using tufts and cavitation bubbles as markers. The predominant detected phenomena were mapped and categorized in relation to the efficiency hill charts obtained for three runner blade openings. At partial load, the vortex rope was detected and characterized. An inflection in the partial load efficiency curves was found to be related to complex vortex rope instabilities. For overload conditions, the efficiency curves present a sharp drop after the best efficiency point, corresponding to an inflection on the power curves. This break off is more severe towards the highest blade openings. It is correlated to a flow separation at the wall of the draft tube. Also, due to the separation occurring in these conditions, a hysteresis effect was observed on the efficiency curves

  16. The History of Allan Hills 84001 Revised: Multiple Shock Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1998-01-01

    The geologic history of Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 is more complex than previously recognized, with evidence for four or five crater-forming impacts onto Mars. This history of repeated deformation and shock metamorphism appears to weaken some arguments that have been offered for and against the hypothesis of ancient Martian life in ALH 84001. Allan Hills 84001 formed originally from basaltic magma. Its first impact event (I1) is inferred from the deformation (D1) that produced the granular-textured bands ("crush zones") that transect the original igneous fabric. Deformation D1 is characterized by intense shear and may represent excavation or rebound flow of rock beneath a large impact crater. An intense thermal metamorphism followed D1 and may be related to it. The next impact (I2) produced fractures, (Fr2) in which carbonate "pancakes" were deposited and produced feldspathic glass from some of the igneous feldspars and silica. After I2, carbonate pancakes and globules were deposited in Fr2 fractures and replaced feldspathic glass and possibly crystalline silicates. Next, feldspars, feldspathic glass, and possibly some carbonates were mobilized and melted in the third impact (I3). Microfaulting, intense fracturing, and shear are also associated with 13. In the fourth impact (I4), the rock was fractured and deformed without significant heating, which permitted remnant magnetization directions to vary across fracture surfaces. Finally, ALH 84001 was ejected from Mars in event I5, which could be identical to I4. This history of multiple impacts is consistent with the photogeology of the Martian highlands and may help resolve some apparent contradictions among recent results on ALH 84001. For example, the submicron rounded magnetite grains in the carbonate globules could be contemporaneous with carbonate deposition, whereas the elongate magnetite grains, epitaxial on carbonates, could be ascribed to vapor-phase deposition during I3.

  17. The Hill Chart Calculation for Francis Runner Models using the HydroHillChart - Francis Module Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Bostan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In practice, for the design of hydraulic turbines, laboratory tests performed on reduced scale models of turbines are recommended. The optimisation of a turbine model requires extensive experimental research on several variants of geometry, the improvement of efficiency at an industrial scale which will lead to substantial economic benefits because of the extended life of the turbine. Warranty conditions arisen from model tests will be verified by additional tests performed on industrial prototypes at specific points agreed between the supplier and the customer. The purpose of these tests is the experimental determination of the relationships between the basic parameters of the operating turbine for different operating conditions. The graphic expression of these relationships represent the hill chart of the turbine which is valid for the whole turbine family similar to the tested model.

  18. Study on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant in the presence and absence of a hill for BARC, Trombay site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocking effects generated by topographical features leads to complex flow patterns that might generate mean concentration distributions significantly different from those that might be expected from the mean flow in the absence of the complex terrain features for atmospheric releases of pollutants. The present paper deals with one such study of the effect of a hill on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant for BARC, Trombay site. The study of wind flow as well as the atmospheric dispersion of pollutant in the presence of 130 m hill behind PP is found to be important to gauge the radiological consequences on population residing beyond this hill. The results of study of the effect of this hill on the wind flow and the concentration distribution of pollutants on the upwind and downwind side of the hill are presented in the paper. It is seen that the wind flow gets modified leading to deceleration in the upwind side of the hill due to terrain blocking, speed up at the top of the hill and deceleration behind the hill. In the absence of hill, flow remains uniform in the downwind direction. It is also found that in the presence of the hill, the released pollutant disperses more as compared to the absence of the hill. Because of the additional dispersion provided by the hill and also because of the elevated topography, the peak concentration value in the presence of hill is obtained at shorter distance when compared with the other case. The peak ground level concentration value found in the presence of hill is relatively higher; however, for the population residing at farther distances, the additional dilution provided by the hill reduces the ground level concentration. (author)

  19. Investigation of Hill's optical turbulence model by means of direct numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschinski, Andreas; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen M

    2015-12-01

    For almost four decades, Hill's "Model 4" [J. Fluid Mech. 88, 541 (1978) has played a central role in research and technology of optical turbulence. Based on Batchelor's generalized Obukhov-Corrsin theory of scalar turbulence, Hill's model predicts the dimensionless function h(κl(0), Pr) that appears in Tatarskii's well-known equation for the 3D refractive-index spectrum in the case of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, Φn(κ)=0.033C2(n)κ(-11/3) h(κl(0), Pr). Here we investigate Hill's model by comparing numerical solutions of Hill's differential equation with scalar spectra estimated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) output data. Our DNS solves the Navier-Stokes equation for the 3D velocity field and the transport equation for the scalar field on a numerical grid containing 4096(3) grid points. Two independent DNS runs are analyzed: one with the Prandtl number Pr=0.7 and a second run with Pr=1.0 . We find very good agreement between h(κl(0), Pr) estimated from the DNS output data and h(κl(0), Pr) predicted by the Hill model. We find that the height of the Hill bump is 1.79 Pr(1/3), implying that there is no bump if PrDNS and the Hill model predict that the viscous-diffusive "tail" of h(κl(0), Pr) is exponential, not Gaussian. PMID:26831396

  20. [Ketamine-associated urinary tract damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-hao; Guan, Zhi-chen

    2011-08-18

    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic during surgical procedures in both animals and humans. As its unique effects of inducing the dissociative hallucinatory,vivid dreams, out-of-body experiences, and delirium, it has diverted from legitimate uses to the illicit drug market, and abusing ketamine has become a serious social problem. The abusers may use ketamine alone or mixe it with other drugs to get an intense pleasure. There are case reports from all over the world in recent years that abusing ketamine may induce severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and a variety of anatomical and functional lesions can be found in the urinary tract if further examinations are administrated. There is no universally recognized treatment protocols for this syndrome. Ketamine cessation or even reduction is the most effective treatment to prevent deterioration of the urinary tract, and intravesical instillation of hyaluranic acid (cystitstat) and oral pentosan polysulphate (elmiron) may take effect. The pathogenesis of ketamine-associated urinary tract destruction is unclear, and further study is needed. PMID:21844983

  1. Diseases of the respiratory tract of chelonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Jacobson, E R

    2000-05-01

    Diseases of the respiratory tract commonly occur in captive chelonians, and several diseases also have occurred in wild chelonians. Infectious causes include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Herpesviruses have surfaced as important pathogens of the oral cavity and respiratory tract in Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanii), spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca), and other tortoises in Europe and the United States. Herpesvirus-associated respiratory diseases also have been reported in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in mariculture in the Cayman Islands. Of diseases caused by bacteria, an upper respiratory tract disease caused by Mycoplasma sp has been reported in free-hanging and captive gopher tortoises in the southeastern United States and in desert tortoises in the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. Mycotic pulmonary disease is commonly reported in captive chelonians, especially in those maintained at suboptimal temperatures. An intranuclear coccidia has been seen in several species of captive tortoises in the United States, and, in one case, a severe proliferative pneumonia was associated with organisms in the lung. The most common noninfectious cause of respiratory disease in chelonians results from trauma to the carapace. Although pulmonary fibromas commonly occur in green turtles with fibropapillomatosis, for the most part, tumors of the respiratory tract are uncommon in chelonians. PMID:11228895

  2. Bifidobacteria in the digestive tract of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Rada, V.; Dubá, S.; Marounek, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 165-170. ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Bumblebee * Digestive tract Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2010

  3. Pyoderma gangrenosum and urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra A

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of pyoderma gangrenosum is reported in a 52 - year - old man who had skin lesions without any association. On investigation urinary tract infection was detected. Treatment of UTI led to spontaneous healing of the lesions in short period thus avoiding the need of oral corticosteroids.

  4. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinarySalmonella entericaserotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection. PMID:25953964

  5. Prevention and Treatment of Reproductive Tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangLifang

    2005-01-01

    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.

  6. Targeted Therapy for Biliary Tract Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuse, Junji, E-mail: jfuruse@ks.kyorin-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Oncology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6-20-2, Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8611 (Japan); Okusaka, Takuji [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan)

    2011-05-03

    It is necessary to establish effective chemotherapy to improve the survival of patients with biliary tract cancer, because most of these patients are unsuitable candidates for surgery, and even patients undergoing curative surgery often have recurrence. Recently, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine was reported to show survival benefits over gemcitabine alone in randomized clinical trials conducted in the United Kingdom and Japan. Thus, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine is now recognized as the standard therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer. One of the next issues that need to be addressed is whether molecular targeted agents might also be effective against biliary tract cancer. Although some targeted agents have been investigated as monotherapy for first-line chemotherapy, none were found to exert satisfactory efficacy. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies such as bevacizumab and cetuximab have also been investigated in combination with a gemcitabine-based regimen and have been demonstrated to show promising activity. Furthermore, clinical trials using new targeted agents for biliary tract cancer are also proposed. This cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous tumor consisting of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial is necessary to confirm the efficacy of chemotherapy, and international collaboration is important.

  7. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Hamid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common paediatric infections. By the time children are 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys have had at least one episode of UTI. UTIs are caused mainly by colonic bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella and Proteus. However, any organism that gains access to the urinary tract system may cause infection, including fungi (Candida species and viruses. In some instances, UTI results in recognition of an important underlying structural abnormality of the urinary tract. The febrile infant or child with clinically significant bacteriuria and no other site of infection to explain the fever, even in the absence of systemic symptoms has UTI. Signs and symptoms of UTIs vary depending on the child's age and on which part of the urinary tract is infected. The diagnosis of UTI is based on routine microscopic examination and culture of a properly collected urine specimen. Imaging studies are done in selected patients to identify anatomic abnormalities. Most cases of uncomplicated UTI respond readily to outpatient antibiotic treatment without further sequelae. All patients should have close follow-up to evaluate response to antibiotics and to prevent the development of long term complication.

  8. Best pharmacological practice: urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay

    2003-05-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most frequent bacterial infection. Acute uncomplicated urinary infection and acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis occur in young women with normal genitourinary tracts. Empirical short-course therapy is preferred for the management of acute cystitis, but evolving resistance requires continuing reassessment of optimal antimicrobial selection. Empirical trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has been recommended, but increasing resistance to these agents suggests that pivmecillinam, nitrofurantoin and perhaps fosfomycin trometamol should be considered. Although flouroquinolones are effective as short-course therapy, widespread empirical use of these agents should be discouraged because of potential promotion of resistance. For acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis, flouroquinolones are the empirical oral treatment of choice, although urine culture results should direct continuing therapy. Complicated urinary tract infection occurs in men or women of all ages with underlying abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. Treatment of complicated urinary infection is individualised, taking into consideration the underlying abnormality and susceptibilities of the infecting organism. Asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be treated except in pregnant women, in patients prior to undergoing an invasive surgical procedure, or renal transplant recipients in the early postrenal transplant period. PMID:12739995

  9. Gastrointestinal tract modelling in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Hua Liao; Jing-Bo Zhao; Hans Gregersen

    2009-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the system of organs within multi-cellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. The various patterns of GI tract function are generated by the integrated behaviour of multiple tissues and cell types. A thorough study of the GI tract requires understanding of the interactions between cells, tissues and gastrointestinal organs in health and disease. This depends on knowledge, not only of numerous cellular ionic current mechanisms and signal transduction pathways, but also of large scale GI tissue structures and the special distribution of the nervous network. A unique way of coping with this explosion in complexity is mathematical and computational modelling; providing a computational framework for the multilevel modelling and simulation of the human gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of biomechanical modelling work of the GI tract in humans and animals, which can be further used to integrate the physiological, anatomical and medical knowledge of the GI system. Such modelling will aid research and ensure that medical professionals benefit, through the provision of relevant and precise information about the patient's condition and GI remodelling in animal disease models. It will also improve the accuracy and efficiency of medical procedures, which could result in reduced cost for diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Ghrelin Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Sakata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is 28-amino-acid peptide that was discovered from the rat and human stomach in 1999. Since the discovery of ghrelin, various functions of ghrelin, including growth hormone release, feeding behavior, glucose metabolism, memory, and also antidepressant effects, have been studied. It has also been reported that ghrelin in the gastrointestinal tract has an important physiological effect on gastric acid secretion and gastrointestinal motility. Ghrelin has a unique structure that is modified by O-acylation with n-octanoic acid at third serine residues, and this modification enzyme has recently been identified and named ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT. Ghrelin is considered to be a gut-brain peptide and is abundantly produced from endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa. In the gastrointestinal tract, ghrelin cells are most abundant in the stomach and are localized in gastric mucosal layers. Ghrelin cells are also widely distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, abundance of ghrelin cells in the gastric mucosa is evolutionally conserved from mammals to lower vertebrates, indicating that gastric ghrelin plays important roles for fundamental physiological functions. Ghrelin cells in the gastrointestinal tract are a major source of circulating plasma ghrelin, and thus understanding the physiology of these cells would reveal the biological significance of ghrelin.

  11. Mechanisms of infection in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, A

    1981-12-01

    Related to its potential vulnerability the respiratory tract has a very complex and effective defence apparatus. The interaction between these defence mechanisms and certain characteristics of aetiological agents results in a pattern in which initial infections by these agents tend to occur at specific sites in the tract. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the upper respiratory tract include Bordetella bronchiseptica and Haemophilus spp in pigs; Pasteurella spp in cattle, sheep, pigs; Mycoplasma spp in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry; equine herpesvirus 1 in horses; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in cattle; parainfluenza 3 in cattle and sheep; infectious laryngo-tracheitis and infectious bronchitis in poultry; feline viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirus in cats; Aujeszky's disease virus and swine influenza in pigs; and equine influenza in horses. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the lower respiratory tract include Aspergillus fumigatus in poultry and mammals, respiratory syncytial virus in cattle, distemper virus in dogs and adenovirus in cattle and dogs. A fuller understanding of the interactions between an agent and the host at the point of entry would make it much easier to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic agents. PMID:16030806

  12. Targeted Therapy for Biliary Tract Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is necessary to establish effective chemotherapy to improve the survival of patients with biliary tract cancer, because most of these patients are unsuitable candidates for surgery, and even patients undergoing curative surgery often have recurrence. Recently, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine was reported to show survival benefits over gemcitabine alone in randomized clinical trials conducted in the United Kingdom and Japan. Thus, the combination of cisplatin plus gemcitabine is now recognized as the standard therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer. One of the next issues that need to be addressed is whether molecular targeted agents might also be effective against biliary tract cancer. Although some targeted agents have been investigated as monotherapy for first-line chemotherapy, none were found to exert satisfactory efficacy. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies such as bevacizumab and cetuximab have also been investigated in combination with a gemcitabine-based regimen and have been demonstrated to show promising activity. Furthermore, clinical trials using new targeted agents for biliary tract cancer are also proposed. This cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous tumor consisting of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma. Therefore, a large randomized clinical trial is necessary to confirm the efficacy of chemotherapy, and international collaboration is important

  13. Spatial distribution of gamma radiation levels in Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of natural radionuclides in surface soil samples around Yelagiri Hills were determined by gamma ray spectrometry using NaI(Tl) detector. The spatial distribution of uranium and thorium was investigated in soils from the cultivated and undisturbed areas in Yelagiri Hills, Tamilnadu, India. The average absorbed dose rate in the study area was estimated to be 88.62 nGyh-1. To establish the level of radioactivity at different areas isodose map is drawn between the different sampling locations of Yelagiri hills and the absorbed gamma dose rate. (author)

  14. The Bolund Experiment, Part I: Flow Over a Steep, Three-Dimensional Hill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Mann, Jakob; Bechmann, Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    over the Bolund hill. Depending on the wind direction, we find a maximum speed-up of 30% at the hill top accompanied by a maximum 300% enhancement of turbulence intensity. A closer inspection reveals transient behaviour with recirculation zones. From the wind energy context, this implies that the best...... site for erecting a turbine based on resource constraints unfortunately also imposes a penalty of high dynamic loads. On the lee side of Bolund, recirculation occurs with the turbulence intensity remaining significantly enhanced even at one hill length downstream. Its transient behaviour and many...

  15. Capitol Reef National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Wilson's Creek National Battlefield Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Governors Island National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. John Muir National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Rainbow Bridge National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Fort Larned National Historic SiteTract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Edison National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. George Rogers Clark National Historic Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Grand Portage National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Natural Bridges National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Fort Bowie National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Whitman Mission National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. De Soto National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Eisenhower National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Nicodemus National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Andrew Johnson National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. General Grant National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Natchez National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Castillo de San Marcos National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Washita Battlefield National Historic SiteTract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Agate Fossil Beds National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Kings Mountain National Military Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Hopewell Culture National Historic Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Longfellow National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Minuteman MIssile National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Pipe Springs National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Fort Smith National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Valley Forge National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ESRI polygon shapefile of tracts for Valley Forge NHP (VAFO). Tracts shown on inset maps A, B, and C were spatially adjusted (i.e., rubbersheeted) to...

  11. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Maggie L. Walker National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Morristown National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Women's Rights National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Lincoln Home National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Cane River Creole National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Yucca House National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Springfield Armory National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Herbert Hoover National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Wolf Trap National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Arkansas Post National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Castle Clinton National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Pecos National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Aztec Ruins National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Petrified Forest National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Binary Vegetative Management of the Lower Urinary Tract Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim B. Berdichevskii

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review the neurophysiology of the bladder and the lower urinary tract function and discuss logical concepts for the development of novel drug therapy for patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

  10. Occult foreign bodies in the aero digestive tracts in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Somnath; Mishra, Saibal; Chakraborty, D. D.; Sengupta, Subhabrata; Mondal, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Foreign body impaction in aero digestive tract in infancy is difficult to diagnose sometimes. In this review of five unusual cases of occult foreign body impaction in aero digestive tract has been presented and their management discussed

  11. Fort Davis National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. World War II Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Hamilton Grange National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Korean War Veterans Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Andersonville National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Bryce Canyon National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Scotts Bluff National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Mesa Verde National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Flight 93 National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Clara Barton National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Virgin Island Coral Reef National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Jimmy Carter National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Walnut Canyon National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Wind Cave National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Cumberland Gap National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Federal Hall National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Guadalupe Mountains National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Devils Postpile National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Theodore Roosevelt National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Devils Tower National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Harpers Ferry National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Carlsbad Caverns National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Mammoth Cave National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Great Basin National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Golden Spike National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Gulf Islands National SeashoreTract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Kalaupapa National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Hampton National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Lake Mead National Recreation Area Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Hot Springs National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Rocky Mountain National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Lassen Volcanic National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Cuyahoga Valley National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. City of Rocks National Reserve Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. River Raisin National Battlefield Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. George Washington Memorial Parkway Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Mount Rushmore National Memorial Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Grand Canyon National Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Hohokam Pima National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. New device for dilatation of percutaneous biliary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung-Gwon; Lim, Myung-Gwan; Cho, Young-Kook; Suh, Chang-Hae [Inha Univ. Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyun Ki; Song, Ho-Young; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Joo-Won [Ulgi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tract dilatation using a Nipro set. We dilated 28 percutaneous biliary drainage tracts up to 18F; 26 procedures involved PTBD, and two, cholecystostomy. A Nipro set was used for dilatation, the purposes of which were stone removal (n=18) and choledochoscopic biopsy (n=10). For dilatation, local anesthesia was used in all cases. In all patients, tract dilatation was successful. In 21 of 28 cases, dilatation of the right PTBD tract was involved, and in five of 28, dilatation of the left tract. In two cases, tract dilatation was done in cholecystostomy tracts. Complications encountered were pain (n=17), bradycardia (n=2), hemobilia (n=2), bleeding (n=1), and fever (n=1). In choledocoscopy, tract dilatation using a Nipro set is safe and simple.

  17. Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. First Ladies National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Lava Beds National Monument Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Diagnosis of influenza from lower respiratory tract sampling after negative upper respiratory tract sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Zachary, Kimon C; Hohmann, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, we demonstrate that PCR-confirmed diagnoses of influenza were made solely by lower respiratory sampling in 6.9% of cases, as traditional upper respiratory tract tests were negative, indeterminate or not performed. Clinical features of these cases are presented. Clinicians should consider lower respiratory tract sampling in select cases of influenza-like illness for diagnosis. PMID:23135351

  2. Diagnosis of influenza from lower respiratory tract sampling after negative upper respiratory tract sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Hohmann, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, we demonstrate that PCR-confirmed diagnoses of influenza were made solely by lower respiratory sampling in 6.9% of cases, as traditional upper respiratory tract tests were negative, indeterminate or not performed. Clinical features of these cases are presented. Clinicians should consider lower respiratory tract sampling in select cases of influenza-like illness for diagnosis. PMID:23135351

  3. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute d...

  4. Bacterial Community Mapping of the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shenghua; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Jin-Na; Lv, Xiaoman; WANG Kun; Duan, Li-Ping; Nie, Yong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2013-01-01

    Keeping mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract communities in balance is crucial for host health maintenance. However, our understanding of microbial communities in the GI tract is still very limited. In this study, samples taken from the GI tracts of C57BL/6 mice were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequence-based analysis to examine the characteristic bacterial communities along the mouse GI tract, including those present in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and feces. Further a...

  5. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas

  6. Vertical deformation along the Indio Hills, San Andreas Fault, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharer, K. M.; Blisniuk, K.; Sharp, W. D.; Williams, P. L.; Johnson, K.

    2014-12-01

    Halfway between the Salton Sea and San Gorgonio Pass, the southernmost San Andreas Fault (SAF) bifurcates into the Mission Creek and Banning strands. These strands bound the Indio Hills (IH), and mark the first of a series of left-stepping branches that define the transpressional, southern Big Bend of the SAF. Between the fault strands, the Quaternary Ocotillo Formation is deformed with fold axis orientations consistent with dextral shear; structurally the IH are synclinal in the east, transitioning to a complex antiform with increased uplift suggested by exhumation of Tertiary units in the west. We report new long- and short-term erosion rates across the IH and uplift rates on the Banning strand, and we evaluate these measurements in terms of slip rates across the fault system and structural deformation within the IH. Two methods of catchment-averaged erosion rates provide minimum rates yield similar results, (0.08 to 0.34 mm/yr) across 6 catchments. The long-term rates are calculated from eroded volumes estimated from a 10-m DEM surface enveloping the Indio Hills and assume that all folding and uplift initiated ca. 500ka (the 750 ka Bishop ash is uplifted and warped within the IH). The short-term rates, determined from 10Be dating of alluvial sediments, increase gradually to the northwest. Similarity of the rates suggests steady state uplift over the history of the fold; ongoing structural analysis and dating needed to constrain the maximum rates will test this possibility. The new uplift rate for the Banning strand at the east end of the IH is determined from a 60 pts/m^2 DEM produced by structure from motion photogrammetry and U-series ages and cosmogenic dates that provide an age range of 20-76ka for a fan vertically offset by ~2.5 m. The resulting uplift rate on the fault (0.03-0.125 mm/yr) overlaps with the short-term catchment-averaged erosion rate for this location (0.08 mm/yr). Consequently, we interpret that vertical strain is partitioned onto both the

  7. 36 CFR 254.42 - Valuation of tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Valuation of tracts. 254.42 Section 254.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.42 Valuation of tracts. (a) Approximately equal value shall...

  8. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  9. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by...

  10. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  11. Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment: Sullys Hill National Game Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Sullys Hill National Game Preserve for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  12. Final Amendment to the Comprehensive Conservation Plan & Environmental Assessment: Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an amendment, accompanied by an Environmental Assessment EA, to the current 2000 Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP for Flint Hills NWR. The purpose of...

  13. Sullys Hill National Game Preservce Narrative Report for May - August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  14. Sullys Hill National Game Preserve Narrative Report for September - December 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  15. Integrated Pest Management Plan for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge 2004 through 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the Flint Hills NWR. The...

  16. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  17. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  18. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  19. Unioned layer of coal resource calculation in the Danforth Hills coal field, Colorado (dan*fing)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Final unioned polygon coverages and shapefiles used to calculate coal resources of the A through G coal zones, Danforth Hills coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  20. Generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Madison Limestone and Englewood Formation, Black Hills,...

  1. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by...

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is the final vegetation map of Sagamore Hill National Historic Site that provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the...

  3. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS Imagine image of Friendship Hill National Historic Site. Produced from 18 color infrared photos taken April 13, 2003....

  4. Aerial Image over Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge, Acquired on March 22, 1950 (Frame 1686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Georeferenced image, acquired on March 22, 1950, over a portion of the Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge. Image covers the central and western portions of the...

  5. Aerial Image over Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge, Acquired on March 22, 1950 (Frame 1656)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Georeferenced image, acquired on March 22, 1950, over a portion of the Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge. Image covers the eastern portion of the refuge...

  6. Aerial Image over Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge, Acquired on March 22, 1950 (Frame 1685)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Georeferenced image, acquired on March 22, 1950, over a portion of the Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge. Image covers the central portion of the refuge...

  7. Aerial Image over Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge, Acquired on March 22, 1950 (Frame 1655)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Georeferenced image, acquired on March 22, 1950, over a portion of the Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge. Image covers the eastern portion of the refuge...

  8. Aerial Image over Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge, Acquired on April 14, 1948 (Frame 1154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Georeferenced image, acquired on April 14, 1948, over a portion of the Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge. Image covers the eastern portion of the refuge...

  9. Aerial Image over Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge, Acquired on April 14, 1948 (Frame 1155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Georeferenced image, acquired on April 14, 1948, over a portion of the Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge. Image covers the eastern portion of the refuge...

  10. Sullys Hill National Game Preservce Narrative Report for May - August 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sullys Hill National Game Reserve outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NELSON, R.L.

    2000-05-08

    The CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project

  12. Where the buffalo roam : Moving Sullys Hill herd to Nebraska designed to preserve genetic quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article about the transfer of bison from Sullys Hill National Game preserve to Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge, and bison from the National Bison...

  13. Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota (NPS, GRD, GRE, WICA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the Butcher Hill quadrangle, South Dakota is composed of GIS data layers, two ancillary GIS tables, a Windows Help File with ancillary...

  14. Series of Aerial Images over Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge, Acquired on November 20, 1969.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set includes 19 Georeferenced images, acquired on November 20, 1969, over Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge. The frames were downloaded from Earth...

  15. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  16. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes activities during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  17. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. CH2M Hill Hanford Group Inc (CHG) Information Resource Management (IRM) Strategic Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., Information Resource Management Strategic Plan is the top-level planning document for applying information and information resource management to achieve the CHG mission for the management of the River Protection Project

  19. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  20. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  1. Atlas of water resources in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Williamson, Joyce E.; Lindquist, Van A.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills area is an important resource center that provides an economic base for western South Dakota through tourism, agriculture, the timber industry, and mineral resources. In addition, water originating from the area is used for municipal, industrial, agricultural, and recreational purposes throughout much of western South Dakota. The Black Hills area also is an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains.Population growth, resource development, and periodic droughts have the potential to affect the quantity, quality, and availability of water within the Black Hills area. Growth has resulted in competing interests for available water supplies. The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to address these concerns. This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators.

  2. Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge: Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  3. Annual narrative report Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge Burlington, Kansas September 1 to December 31, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Flint Hills National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1966. The report begins by...

  4. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clive, P. J. M.; Chindurza, I.; Ravey, I.; Bass, J.; Boyle, R. J.; Jones, P.; Lang, S. J.; Bradley, S.; Hay, L.; Oldroyd, A.; Stickland, M.

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  5. Habitability of Exomoons at the Hill or Tidal Locking Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Hinkel, Natalie R

    2013-01-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets mu Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at it's furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves it's largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar ...

  6. ANALYSIS OF A MODEL OF TEAMWORK BY HILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Petkovski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary management of the intellectual capital of an organization, as a major determinant for efficient and effective operation of the organization has access to the teamwork. Teamwork means quality leadership which is necessary for a successful team management. In the theory and the practice are given a number of models for teamwork and team leadership, however, in this case the subject of this paperwork will be the analyzing of the model of team leadership according to Hill. According to this model there are two functions of team leading established: leading functions in the team and leading functions out of the team. In the first part, which refers to the functions of leadership in the team, are set two major categories: team leader’s tasks and the built relationships and atmosphere in the team. In terms of the functions of the leader out of the team, the model focuses on two categories, namely: the functions of leadership out of the team, but within the organization and leading functions of the team outside the organization.

  7. Aquifer evaluation at Fenton Hill, October and November 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M.; Purtymun, W.D.; Ballance, W.C.

    1981-10-01

    An aquifer test at the Fenton Hill Geothermal Site was performed on a volcanic aquifer used for water supply. The test was made to determine the yield from the aquifer and to predict the amount of depletion that would occur with increased production during the period 1981 to 1985. A step-discharge test indicated the aquifer would comfortably yield 100 gal per min (gpm) without excessive water level drawdown in the pumping well. Drawdown test results indicated that the average aquifer transmissivity and storage coefficient are 5000 gal per day per foot (gpd/ft) and 0.07, respectively. Using these parameters, a drawdown was estimated to be at least 42 ft at the pumping well due to a withdrawal of 500 acre-ft of water over 5 yr. However, the presence of ground water boundaries indicates the aquifer is of limited extent, and because of this, the water level decline would probably be much greater. Past water level data indicate that there is little recharge to the aquifer.

  8. Hill Cipher and Least Significant Bit for Image Messaging Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Husnul Arif

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of information through cyberspace has many benefits as an example fast estimated time, unlimited physical distance and space limits, etc. But in these activities can also pose a security risk for confidential information. It is necessary for the safety that can be used to protect data transmitted through the Internet. Encryption algorithm that used to encrypt message to be sent (plaintext into messages that have been randomized (ciphertext is cryptography and steganography algorithms. In application of cryptographic techniques that will be used is Hill Cipher. The technique is combined with steganography techniques Least Significant Bit. The result of merging techniques can maintain the confidentiality of messages because people who do not know the secret key used will be difficult to get the message contained in the stego-image and the image that has been inserted can not be used as a cover image. Message successfully inserted and extracted back on all samples with a good image formats * .bmp, * .png , * .jpg at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels , 256 x 256 pixels. MSE and PSNR results are not influenced file format or file size, but influenced by dimensions of image. The larger dimensions of the image, then the smaller MSE that means error of image gets smaller.

  9. SRTM Stereo Pair: Haro and Kas Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This stereoscopic view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation model

  10. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clive, P J M; Chindurza, I [SgurrEnergy Ltd, 79 Coplaw Street, Glasgow G42 7JG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ravey, I; Bass, J [RES Group Ltd, James Blyth House, 7000 Academy Park, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Boyle, R J; Jones, P [TUV NEL Ltd, East Kilbride, Glasgow G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lang, S J [Sustainable Energy Research Group, University College Cork (Ireland); Bradley, S [Mighty River Power, Level 14, 23-29 Albert Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, L [Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd, 2064 Maryhill Road, Glasgow G20 0AB, Scotland (United Kingdom); Oldroyd, A [Oldbaum Services Ltd, Schoolhouse, Brig o' Turk, Callander, Scotland (United Kingdom); Stickland, M [University of Strathclyde, 16 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XQ, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.clive@sgurrenergy.com

    2008-05-01

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented.

  11. The Myres Hill remote sensing intercomparison study: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two remote sensing techniques (SODAR and LIDAR) have been developed for measuring wind speed and turbulence from ground level up to altitudes of 300 m or higher. Although originally developed in the defence sector, these techniques are now generating considerable interest in the renewable energy and meteorological sectors. Despite the benefits of these instruments they are not yet generally accepted for due diligence measurements by wind energy developers and financial institutions. There is a requirement for a series of independent assessments of these new metrology techniques, comparing their measurements with the approved cup-type anemometer readings. This is being addressed at TUV NEL's Myres Hill wind turbine test site in a measurement programme supported by the DIUS National Measurement Systems Measurement for Innovators scheme and a consortium of 21 industrial collaborators. Data from SODAR and LIDAR systems are being compared with results from cup-type anemometers mounted at different heights on an 80m meteorological mast. An ultrasonic sensor is also mounted on the mast. The objective of the test programme is to assess the effectiveness of SODAR and LIDAR wind speed measurement techniques under different operating regimes and atmospheric conditions. Results from the measurements will provide definitive data on the performance of the remote wind speed sensing techniques under test on complex terrain typical of many wind farm sites. Preliminary measurements based on data acquired during the initial measurement campaign are presented

  12. Puente Hills blind-thrust system, Los Angeles, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.H.; Plesch, A.; Dolan, J.F.; Pratt, T.L.; Fiore, P.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the three-dimensional geometry and Quaternary slip history of the Puente Hills blind-thrust system (PHT) using seismic reflection profiles, petroleum well data, and precisely located seismicity. The PHT generated the 1987 Whittier Narrows (moment magnitude [Mw] 6.0) earthquake and extends for more than 40 km along strike beneath the northern Los Angeles basin. The PHT comprises three, north-dipping ramp segments that are overlain by contractional fault-related folds. Based on an analysis of these folds, we produce Quaternary slip profiles along each ramp segment. The fault geometry and slip patterns indicate that segments of the PHT are related by soft-linkage boundaries, where the fault ramps are en echelon and displacements are gradually transferred from one segment to the next. Average Quaternary slip rates on the ramp segments range from 0.44 to 1.7 mm/yr, with preferred rates between 0.62 and 1.28 mm/yr. Using empirical relations among rupture area, magnitude, and coseismic displacement, we estimate the magnitude and frequency of single (Mw 6.5-6.6) and multisegment (Mw 7.1) rupture scenarios for the PHT.

  13. The Riparian Alder Forests of the Sopron Hills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZMORAD, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the classification of the riparian alder forests of theAlpokalja region through the analysis of their stands in the Sopron Hills. Besides the historical,ecological and floristic data collection, the differentiation of these forests was examined using36 coenological relevés recorded according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Cluster analysis,principal component analysis and TWINSPAN analysis were applied in the process; the definitionof diagnostic species for the resulting units was carried out by fidelity analysis using the coefficient. The presence of three alder forest associations was verified by the research in thestudy area. In the vicinity of the lower and middle sections of the streams, characterized bystagnant water, small patches of swampy alder forests (Angelico sylvestris – Alnetum glutinosaeoccur. In the fast-flowing stream sections alder woods rich in species of mesophilic deciduousforests (Aegopodio – Alnetum glutinosae can be found, while along the middle and upper sectionsof the streams, at sites with seepage water, mixed ash-alder forests with montane herb species(Carici remotae – Fraxinetum are typical. The investigations revealed that the Carex brizoidesdominance-type alder groves were secondary forests that formed in former meadows and theybelong to the 3 mentioned riparian alder forest types.

  14. Efficient utilization of rain water in hill agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill areas generally receive rainfall of around or more than 1150 mm. More than 2500 mm rainfall is received in about 30.2 million ha hilly area of the country. Besides many other factors high rainfall and heavy runoff are mainly responsible for low productivity. Because of sloppy characters and shallow soil depth, major fraction of rainwater is lost as runoff. Invariably evaporation exceeds the moisture stored and thereby depletes soils of their moisture reserve when crops are to be sown. Too much water at one time and too little in another during the same year causes wide instability in the production and productivity (Gupta et al., 2000). In high rainfall/hilly areas small and scattered land holdings exclusively rain dependent subsistence type of agriculture, low irrigated area of eastern Himalaya (northeastern region of India) further aggravate the problem. Harvesting of runoff at micro level for storage and recycling, control of erosion and moisture conservation are necessary and possible measures for better crop production. (author)

  15. Status of avifauna at Taranga Hill-forest, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D. Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Taranga is one of the famous pilgrim places of northern Gujarat. It is located (240 00’N & 72046’E at starting point of Aravalli ranges. Climate of this area is semi-arid with irregular rainfall. Variable width line transect method was adapted to study the avifaunal diversity. Taranga Hill-forest has atleast 90 species of birds belonging to 11 orders, 33 families and 68 genera. Passeriformes being the largest family. All common residents appear to be adapted to the prevailing conditions. Red-vented Bulbul and Rock Pigeon were most abundant while Asian Paradise-flycatcher, Crested Bunting and European Roller were rare. White-naped Tit a globally threatened and endemic resident has been found as local migrant, scarce in number, common in occurrence and breeder in the tropical thorn-scrub habitat of THf. Plum-headed Parakeet may be a breeding possible species. In comparison to other places, the avian diversity is observed poor, because Aravallis are not on the migratory route or landing site of migratory birds. In addition, anthropogenic factors, presence of predators and loss of vegetation may be having a telling effect.

  16. LEUCEMIAS Y RADIACIÓN: JUICIO CAUSAL SEGÚN LOS CRITERIOS DE SIR AUSTIN BRADFORD HILL Causal judgment by Sir Austin Bradford Hill criteria: leukemias and radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Martínez Betancur

    2010-01-01

    El cometido del presente trabajo es la lectura interpretativa con base en la propuesta de inferencia causal de Austin Bradford Hill, del documento Radiation-related leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-1964. I. Distribution, incidence and appearance time. El documento informado por el comité de las víctimas de la bomba atómica cumple con la totalidad de los nueve "criterios" propuesto por Hill, y entre las limitaciones se cuentan la presunciones de homogeneidad genética de los sujetos exp...

  17. PERIODONTAL STATUS OF MALAYALI TRIBES AT JAVADU HILLS IN POLUR TALUKA OF THIRUVANNAMALAI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Kirankumar B; Prashanthkumar; Shailarani; Praveeen; Prashant

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: AIM: The purpose of the study is to assess the Periodontal Health Status of Malayali tribes at Javadhu hills in Polur Taluk. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to assess the periodontal health status of Malayali tribes in Javadhu hills of Polur Taluk. Totally 710 subjects in four different age groups of 12yrs, 15yrs, 35 - 44yrs, 65 - 74yrs old were assessed for the periodontal status using the Com munity Periodontal ...

  18. Review of Barrow Hill: Curse of the Ancient Circle PC Game

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Charno

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological video games are few and far between. Internet Archaeology has reviewed a number of archaeologically-based computer applications, but none that in my opinion would fall under the video game category. Barrow Hill: Curse of the ancient circle from Shadow Tor Studios, is a video game…with archaeology in it. It would be a stretch to claim that Barrow Hill is actually an archaeological video game, but it does have an occasionally solid archaeological foundation and back story.

  19. Simulating farm income under the current soil management regime in the mid-hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatta, G.D.; Neupane, N.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers in the mid-hills of Nepal follow diverse farming systems. The peri-urban area of this region, where population density is higher, faces several problems in farming. While hills suffer from erosion because they are erodible, the peri-urban areas face the problem of decline in factor productivity, particularly in intensively cultivated farmlands. The present study is concerned with simulating farm income on a regional scale based on soil management practices. Spatial explicit simulatio...

  20. Persistent transmission of malaria in Garo hills of Meghalaya bordering Bangladesh, north-east India

    OpenAIRE

    Sangma Barlind M; Dev Vas; Dash Aditya P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in Garo hills of Meghalaya, and death cases are reported annually. Plasmodium falciparum is the major parasite, and is solely responsible for each malaria-attributable death case. Garo hills are categorized high-risk for drug-resistant malaria; however, there exists no data on malaria transmitting mosquitoes prevalent in the region. Included in this report are entomological observations with particular reference to vector biology characteristics for devi...

  1. Medico - botanical study of Yercaud hills in the eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Parthipan, M; Aravindhan, V; Rajendran, A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reports medicinal plant survey was conceded in Yercaud hills ranges of Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. The study primarily based on field surveys conducted throughout the hills, where dwellers provided information on plant species used as medicine, plant parts used to prepare the remedies and ailments to which the remedies were prescribed. The study resulted about 48- plant species belonging to 45- genera and 29- families of medicinal plants related to folk medicine used by the lo...

  2. Himachal Pradesh : Accelerating Development and Sustaining Success in a Hill State

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This Economic Report is the first by the World Bank on the economy of Himachal Pradesh (HP), and the first on a hill state in India. HP is a unique state in many respects-most importantly because of the enormous success it has achieved over the past three decades, despite severe structural disadvantages of relative remoteness, environmental fragility, and a difficult hill terrain, characte...

  3. India - Himachal Pradesh : Accelerating Development and Sustaining Success in a Hill State

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This Economic Report is the first by the World Bank on the economy of Himachal Pradesh (HP), and the first on a hill state in India. HP is a unique state in many respects-most importantly because of the enormous success it has achieved over the past three decades, despite severe structural disadvantages of relative remoteness, environmental fragility, and a difficult hill terrain, characte...

  4. Lateral Clavicular Autograft for Repair of Reverse Hill-Sachs Defect

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Kamineni, Srinath

    2011-01-01

    Posterior dislocations of the shoulder joint can result in an impression fracture over the anteromedial humeral head, termed the reverse Hill-Sachs lesion, the presence of which can contribute to recurrent dislocations. Methods described to repair this defect include using allografts, iliac crest and coracoid process autografts, and bone graft substitutes. We describe a novel technique using the lateral end of the ipsilateral clavicle as an autograft in a 78 year old man with a reverse Hill S...

  5. Investigation of periodic systems by means of the generalized Hill method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose the new method of investigation of infinite periodic determination which is a generalized Hill method. This method has been used for finding of the characteristic value for the Hill equation. finding the band structure of the one-dimensional periodic and obtaining of the dispersion equation for the electromagnetic wave propagation in the waveguide by plasma arbitrary periodic density modulation by plasma arbitrary periodic density modulation

  6. Geothermal exploration program, Hill Air Force Base, Davis and Weber Counties, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, W.E.; Chapman, D.S.; Foley, D.; Capuano, R.M.; Cole, D.; Sibbett, B.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-03-01

    Results obtained from a program designed to locate a low- or moderate-temperature geothermal resource that might exist beneath Hill Air Force Base (AFB), Ogden, Utah are discussed. A phased exploration program was conducted at Hill AFB. Published geological, geochemical, and geophysical reports on the area were examined, regional exploration was conducted, and two thermal gradient holes were drilled. This program demonstrated that thermal waters are not present in the shallow subsurface at this site. (MHR)

  7. Studies of the waterscape of Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Water management in hill furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Tagseth, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    The present study analyses the waters of Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, conceptualised as a waterscape constituted by material, institutional and ideational aspects. It draws on studies of the water management and the historical geography of hill furrow irrigation systems, based on 16 months of fieldwork.Hill furrow irrigation systems are operated by groups of farmers who continue to use and develop long-standing traditions. Their practices and technology are of relevance to debates about indi...

  8. Peer Review of the Hot Dry Rock Project at Fenton Hill, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the hot dry rock experiment project conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Laboratory at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, from about 1971 through 1995. The authors identify the primary lessons learned and techniques developed during the course of the Fenton Hill project, and summarize the extent to which these technologies have been transferred to the U.S. geothermal industry.

  9. The West Beverly Hills Lineament and Beverly Hills High School: Ethical Issues in Geo-Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, Eldon; Gonzalez, Tania; Roe, Joe; Buchiarelli, Philip; Kenny, Miles

    2014-05-01

    Results of geotechnical studies for the Westside Subway were disclosed in a public hearing on Oct. 19, 2011, showing new "active faults" of the Santa Monica fault and the West Beverly Hills Lineament (WBHL), identified as a northern extension of the Newport-Inglewood fault. Presentations made spoke of the danger posed by these faults, the possibility of killing people, and how it was good news that these faults had been discovered now instead of later. The presentations were live and are now memorialized as YouTube videos, (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Omx2BTIpzAk and others). No faults had been physically exposed or observed by the study; the faults were all interpreted from cone penetrometer probes, supplemented by core borings and geophysical transects. Several of the WBHL faults traversed buildings of the Beverly Hills High School (BHHS), triggering the school district to geologically map and characterize these faults for future planning efforts, and to quantify risk to the students in the 1920's high school building. 5 exploratory trenches were excavated within the high school property, 12 cone penetrometers were pushed, and 26-cored borings were drilled. Geologic logging of the trenches and borings and interpretation of the CPT data failed to confirm the presence of the mapped WBHL faults, instead showing an unfaulted, 3° NE dipping sequence of mid-Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits conformably overlying an ~1 Ma marine sand. Using 14C, OSL, and soil pedology for stratigraphic dating, the BHHS site was cleared from fault rupture hazards and the WBHL was shown to be an erosional margin of Benedict Canyon, partially buttressed by 40-200 ka alluvial deposits from Benedict Wash. The consequence of the Westside Subway's active fault maps has been the unexpected expenditure of millions of dollars for emergency fault investigations at BHHS and several other private properties within a densely developed urban highrise environment. None of these studies have found

  10. Reproductive tract microbiome in assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2015-12-01

    The human microbiome has gained much attention recently for its role in health and disease. This interest has come as we have begun to scratch the surface of the complexity of what has been deemed to be our "second genome" through initiatives such as the Human Microbiome Project. Microbes have been hypothesized to be involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of assisted reproduction since before the first success in IVF. Although the data supporting or refuting this hypothesis remain somewhat sparse, thanks to sequencing data from the 16S rRNA subunit, we have begun to characterize the microbiome in the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how this may play a role in reproductive competence. In this review, we discuss what is known about the microbiome of the reproductive tract as it pertains to assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26597628

  11. Experienced saxophonists learn to tune their vocal tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jer Ming; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2008-02-01

    Acousticians have long debated whether and how the resonances of the vocal tract are involved in the playing of clarinet and saxophone. We measured the resonances of saxophonists' vocal tracts directly while they played. Over most of the instrument's range, there is no simple relation between tract resonances and the note played, and the tract resonances varied among players. In the high (altissimo) range, a strong resonance of the tracts of professional saxophonists was systematically tuned slightly above the desired note. Amateurs, who did not tune a strong resonance, were unable to play notes in the altissimo range. PMID:18258908

  12. Bacterial biogeography of the human digestive tract

    OpenAIRE

    Stearns, Jennifer C.; Michael D. J. Lynch; Senadheera, Dilani B.; Howard C. Tenenbaum; Michael B. Goldberg; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.; Kenneth Croitoru; Gabriel Moreno-Hagelsieb; Neufeld, Josh D.

    2011-01-01

    We present bacterial biogeography as sampled from the human gastrointestinal tract of four healthy subjects. This study generated >32 million paired-end sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (V3 region) representing >95,000 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% similarity clusters), with >99% Good's coverage for all samples. The highest OTU richness and phylogenetic diversity was found in the mouth samples. The microbial communities of multiple biopsy sites within the colon were highl...

  13. MR of the urinary tract in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report on the application of standard 2D-FT MR combined with RARE-MR-Urography in a pregnant woman with right sided abdominal pain, dilated upper urinary tract and possible stone or inflammatory disease. This technique visualised the complete obstructed ureter in relation to the surrounding organs (uterus, vessels), allows precise diagnosis of the cause of the obstruction and avoids ionising radiation. (orig.)

  14. Neuropeptides in Lower Urinary Tract (LUT) Function

    OpenAIRE

    Arms, Lauren; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems including vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, neurokinin A, bradykinin, and endothelin-1 are expressed in the lower urinary tract (LUT) in both neural and non-neural (e.g., urothelium) components. LUT neuropeptide immunoreactivity is present in afferent and autonomic efferent neurons innervating the bladder and urethra and in the urothelium of the urinary bla...

  15. The Digestive Tract of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Bassler, Bl; Lichten, M; Schupbach, G.; Lemaitre, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The digestive tract plays a central role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Far from being a passive tube, it provides the first line of defense against pathogens and maintains energy homeostasis by exchanging neuronal and endocrine signals with other organs. Historically neglected, the gut of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has recently come to the forefront of Drosophila research. Areas as diverse as stem cell biology, neurobiology, metabolism, and immunity are benefitting ...

  16. Atresia of the gastrointestinal tract: imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide spectrum of congenital anomalies may affect the gastrointestinal tract at any level from the esophagus to the anus. Atresia is an important cause of gastrointestinal obstruction with high morbidity rate in neonates. Different pathogenetic mechanisms could cause this malformation and the two classical explanations are: a defect of recanalization of the intestinal tube or an interruption of blood supply during intrauterine life. The authors present a literature review with an iconographic essay of imaging findings in children with gastrointestinal atresia. (author)

  17. Functional lumen imaging of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottrup, Christian; Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fynne, Lotte; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Krogh, Klaus; Regan, Julie; Kunwald, Peter; McMahon, Barry P

    2015-10-01

    This nonsystematic review aims to describe recent developments in the use of functional lumen imaging in the gastrointestinal tract stimulated by the introduction of the functional lumen imaging probe. When ingested food in liquid and solid form is transported along the gastrointestinal tract, sphincters provide an important role in the flow and control of these contents. Inadequate function of sphincters is the basis of many gastrointestinal diseases. Despite this, traditional methods of sphincter diagnosis and measurement such as fluoroscopy, manometry, and the barostat are limited in what they can tell us. It has long been thought that measurement of sphincter function through resistance to distension is a better approach, now more commonly known as distensibility testing. The functional lumen imaging probe is the first medical measurement device that purports in a practical way to provide geometric profiling and measurement of distensibility in sphincters. With use of impedance planimetry, an axial series of cross-sectional areas and pressure in a catheter-mounted allantoid bag are used for the calculation of distensibility parameters. The technique has been trialed in many valvular areas of the gastrointestinal tract, including the upper esophageal sphincter, the esophagogastric junction, and the anorectal region. It has shown potential in the biomechanical assessment of sphincter function and characterization of swallowing disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, eosinophilic esophagitis, achalasia, and fecal incontinence. From this early work, the functional lumen imaging technique has the potential to contribute to a better and more physiological understanding of narrowing regions in the gastrointestinal tract in general and sphincters in particular. PMID:25980822

  18. Heterotopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhou; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Qi; Huang, Xin-yu; Yang, Zhe; Tang, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is defined as pancreatic tissue found outside the usual anatomical location of the pancreas. It is often an incidental finding and can be found at different sites in the gastrointestinal tract. It may become clinically evident when complicated by pathological changes such as inflammation, bleeding, obstruction, and malignant transformation. In this report, a 60-year-old man with carcinoid syndrome caused by heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the duodenum is described, along...

  19. Prion Diseases and the Gastrointestinal Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gwynivere A; Bryant, Adam R; John D. Reynolds; Jirik, Frank R.; Keith A Sharkey

    2006-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. These are human and animal diseases that include bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. They are uniformly fatal neurological diseases, which are characterized by ataxia and vacuolation in the central nervous system. Alhough they are known to be caused by the conversion of normal cellular prion protein to its infectious conformational isoform...

  20. Diagnosis of biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Miyazaki, Masaru; Miyakawa, Shuichi; Nagino, Masato; Kondo, Satoshi; Furuse, Junji; Saito, Hiroya; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Kimura, Fumio; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Nozawa, Satoshi; YOSHIDA, Masahiro; Wada, Keita; Amano, Hodaka

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for biliary tract carcinoma and the efficacy of these methods are discussed. Neither definite methods for early diagnosis nor specific markers are available in this disease. When this disease is suspected on the basis of clinical symptoms and risk factors, hemato-biochemical examination and abdominal ultrasonography are performed and, where appropriate, enhanced computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is carried out. Diagnoses of e...