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Sample records for chitsujo eno eikyo

  1. FY 1997 report on the survey of potential impacts of enlarging ASEAN on political and economic systems in South East Asia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (ASEAN kakudai no Higashi Asia no seiji keizai chitsujo eno eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report surveys potential impacts of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) on inter-ASEAN affairs and its external relations when ASEAN will enlarge its members to include all nations in South East Asia, and thus fully represent the region. For this purpose, the survey was conducted on Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, which joined in 1995, from the viewpoint of their economic and political system, and their relations with other member countries. The nature of ASEAN has gradually transformed, in which all the countries in the region have increased and internal economic issues have been tackled. It has an aim to stimulate inter-ASEAN trade and induce foreign direct investment into ASEAN as a whole by reducing import duties on intra-ASEAN trade. Underlying in these, new development is a concern about growing economic and military power of China. ASEAN solidarity will work an leverage against China should change toward worse, and ASEAN will function as a regional stabilization factor. ASEAN is needed for the stability of both in economic and political order in East Asia. Japan has to further promote its cooperation with ASEAN to help its solidarity as an association. 24 refs., 21 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Influence of spectral solar radiation to the generating power of photovoltaic module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku eno taiyoko supekutoru eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minaki, S.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, T.; Nakamura, H. [Japan quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As to the influence of spectral solar radiation to generating power of solar cells, a study was conducted from the aspects of season, time zone, intensity of solar radiation, etc. In the study, spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were introduced as evaluation values expressing the influence of spectral solar radiation. For the spectral distribution, an all sky spectral pyranometer by wavelength was used, and data were used which were obtained in the measurement in experimental facilities of the solar techno center. Concerning solar cell relative spectral sensitivity values, used were relative spectral sensitivity values of monocrystal and amorphous standard solar cells to the short-circuit current. Spectral response variation correction coefficients are coefficients correcting variations in conversion efficiency of solar cells due to changes in the spectral distribution. The changes of spectral responsive variation correction coefficients were studied using data obtained during April 1994 and March 1996. As a result, it was found that the coefficients showed large changes in summer and small ones in winter and that amorphous solar cells indicate this trend conspicuously. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Effect of water pollution on marine organisms; Sekiyu osen no kaiyo seibutsu eno eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Fujisawa, K. [Okayama Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Toxicity of petroleum component to aquatic organisms appears as a result of its deposition onto living organisms followed by its migration into bodies of the organisms, and emergence of toxicity from the migrated component. Effect evaluation processes standing on this viewpoint may include the exposure monitoring or migration monitoring, in which the petroleum component migrated into marine organisms is analyzed and the state of the component concentrated in these organisms is measured, or effect monitoring, in which actions of the petroleum component in the organisms are investigated. The effects of petroleum on aquatic organisms would include the following occurrence: direct fatal toxicity acting on cells and membranes, quasi-fatal toxicity causing death indirectly through feeding actions and abnormal actions, direct coating of oil on surface of organisms, which prevents movability and feeding actions of the organisms and reduces hydrophilicity of plumes and hairs, pollution of living organisms due to migration of carcinogenic aromatic compounds into bodies of the living organisms, and change in species compositions and geographic distribution of living organisms due to change in physico-chemical environment. This paper explains cases of detection and identification of organic sulfur compounds, aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds, paraffins, olefins and heavy metals in parametric compounds of petroleum. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Influence of life line stoppage on building equipments; Lifeline tozetsu no kenchiku setsubi eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadohara, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-06-05

    Our daily life is being supported by electricity in various ways. This paper, explains the influence of the stoppage of the electricity, affecting infrastructures, buildings and people`s daily life based on the survey result of a long term electricity stoppage in Hiroshima City in September 1991. This paper also introduces the survey result of emergency generators operation in Japan and in the U.S. Last, the ways and ideas to make lifeline reliability higher in the future are summarized. 1 ref., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Study about the effect of microgravity on biofunctions; Seitai kino eno bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A study is made for the elucidation of the effect of microgravity on biofunctions. The protoplast of shiitake is exposed to microgravity and then cultured, and a significant difference occurs. The rate of colony formation by cell fusion in the test sector is found to be two times higher than that in the control sector. When swimming ciliates which are unicellular are suddenly exposed to microgravity, their swimming speeds changed differently according to the direction of swimming. When a mouse subjected to acupuncture for three days is exposed to microgravity, its water metabolism and excretory function are enhanced. A mouse treated with Chinese medicine reacts in the similar way. The change due to microgravity in the amount of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus is found characteristically time dependent. Mice infected with lethal herpes viruses just after exposure to microgravity die at a rate in proportion to the number of exposures and to the amount of viruses given. The migration speed of chemical stripes in case of a gel-base BZ (Belousov-Zhabotinsky) reaction under microgravity is equal to that on the ground. The trigger wave migration speed in case of a water solution-base BZ reaction under microgravity is reduced to approximately 80% of the speed on the ground. 12 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Ecological processes for Environmental Impact Assessment in Coastal Waters; Engan no kankyo eikyo hyoka (EIA) eno seitaigakuteki apurochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Kimitoshi. [Environmental Assessment Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-25

    This paper focuses on a method for estimating adverse effects on natural environment by economic development in coastal waters in Japan. In particular, the most critical relations concerning the impact on marine organisms is pointed out and discussed according to an environmental impact assessment. Relations between environmental impact assessment and marine organisms needs a quantitative ecological approach in order to succeed in sustainable development of coastal waters management. Recently, the Environment Agency of Japan pointed out the unreliability and the theme on accuracy and the staff for biology and ecology in the environmental impact study. Ecological response to environmental impact occurs in a wide spectrum of physiological and biological and biological functions. Therefore biological monitoring measures must correspond to the given time-space scale of natural mechanisms. For the evaluation of environmental impact, it is desire able to develop of experimental technics and collect biological and ecological basic data for the object. I Reconstructing the following: 1. Reconstructing a clearlistic EIA process by EIA agencies and practitioners, 2. Scorping the biological and ecological issues by EIA professionals, 3. Using the current computer technology, 4. Considering monitoring systems over scales of time and space for the ecological target and 5. Making available to public all monitoring data and reports of EIA. (author)

  7. Low shear stress induces vascular eNOS uncoupling via autophagy-mediated eNOS phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Xia; Qu, Xin-Liang; Chu, Peng; Xie, Du-Jiang; Zhu, Lin-Lin; Chao, Yue-Lin; Li, Li; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Shao-Liang

    2018-05-01

    Uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) produces O 2 - instead of nitric oxide (NO). Earlier, we reported rapamycin, an autophagy inducer and inhibitor of cellular proliferation, attenuated low shear stress (SS) induced O 2 - production. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether autophagy plays a critical role in the regulation of eNOS uncoupling. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the modulation of autophagy on eNOS uncoupling induced by low SS exposure. We found that low SS induced endothelial O 2 - burst, which was accompanied by reduced NO release. Furthermore, inhibition of eNOS by L-NAME conspicuously attenuated low SS-induced O 2 - releasing, indicating eNOS uncoupling. Autophagy markers such as LC3 II/I ratio, amount of Beclin1, as well as ULK1/Atg1 were increased during low SS exposure, whereas autophagic degradation of p62/SQSTM1 was markedly reduced, implying impaired autophagic flux. Interestingly, low SS-induced NO reduction could be reversed by rapamycin, WYE-354 or ATG5 overexpression vector via restoration of autophagic flux, but not by N-acetylcysteine or apocynin. eNOS uncoupling might be ascribed to autophagic flux blockade because phosphorylation of eNOS Thr495 by low SS or PMA stimulation was also regulated by autophagy. In contrast, eNOS acetylation was not found to be regulated by low SS and autophagy. Notably, although low SS had no influence on eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation, whereas boosted eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation by rapamycin were in favor of the eNOS recoupling through restoration of autophagic flux. Taken together, we reported a novel mechanism for regulation of eNOS uncoupling by low SS via autophagy-mediated eNOS phosphorylation, which is implicated in geometrical nature of atherogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brian Eno Hollandi Festivali peakülaliseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Inglise helilooja, videokunstnik ja muusikaprodutsent Brian Eno on 5.-26. juunini Amsterdamis toimuva avangardse Hollandi Festivali peakülaline, kelle videoinstallatsioon seatakse üles Stedelijki Muuseumis. Festivali programmist

  9. Vascular nitric oxide: Beyond eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the first discovered gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO affects a number of cellular processes, including those involving vascular cells. This brief review summarizes the contribution of NO to the regulation of vascular tone and its sources in the blood vessel wall. NO regulates the degree of contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells mainly by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP, although cGMP-independent signaling [S-nitrosylation of target proteins, activation of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA or production of cyclic inosine monophosphate (cIMP] also can be involved. In the blood vessel wall, NO is produced mainly from l-arginine by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS but it can also be released non-enzymatically from S-nitrosothiols or from nitrate/nitrite. Dysfunction in the production and/or the bioavailability of NO characterizes endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  10. Study on the effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions; Seitai kino eno bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The effect of micro-gravity on bio-functions and vital reaction was studied using the facility of Underground Gravity-free Experiment Center Co. On the effect on osteoblast shape and gene expression, although fluorochrome reacting with Ca was well taken into cells, no significant difference in Ca content in cells was observed before/after falling. Expression of genes related to cell propagation was controlled under micro-gravity. Protoplast fusion of Lentinus was unaffected by micro-gravity. The mRNA fragments of gravity sensitive mutant of rice plant were affected by micro-gravity. Paramecium was set swimming in solutions with different specific gravities. The reaction behavior of Paramecium was affected by the difference in specific gravity between cell bodies and solutions. The water content metabolism functions of a mouse with needle stimulus, in particular excretory, were slightly promoted by micro- gravity. The cortisol level in blood of a falling mouse group rose showing strong stress. As the preliminary study on the geotaxis of insects, motion of bagworm was observed. 12 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Economical effect of introducing a photovoltaic system on future electric power system; Shorai no denryoku keito eno taiyoko hatsuden system donyu ni yoru keizaiteki eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akata, N.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Economic impact of introduction in the future of photovoltaic power generation (PV) systems into the commercial power system is discussed from the electric utilities` point of view. In the discussion, future demand for power is predicted from the demand for power in the base year, and the optimum power source configuration corresponding to the future demand and power generation curve are worked out by use of linear programming. Then, the fixed cost and variable cost are calculated for each of the power source components, and then the expected reduction in cost per unit of power generated is calculated. As the power sources, the hydroelectric, pumped storage, oil-fired, coal-fired, LNG-fired, combined cycle, and atomic technologies are considered. The conclusion is stated below. Upon introduction of PV power equivalent to 10% of the maximum demand power, the maximum power in the service area of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., will be reduced by 1.23GW in 2025, and the yearly demand power by 5472GWh. Since PV lowers the peak, an increased number of power sources low in variable cost will be used although such will be low in tracking capability. An increase in power demand will enhance the cost reducing effect of the PV system. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Economic development in India and the effect on the energy market in Asia; Indo no keizai hatten to Asia no energy shijo eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    As for the real GDP growth rate in India, the real GDP per capita during 1980-1993 increased 2.9% on annual average, but that in China did 8.0%. India has largely been behind China in the economic growth, but since the liberalization of economy in 1991, the Indian economy has remarkably been developed. It is predicted that the real GDP during 1993-2010 will be 5-6% on annual average. The difference in GDP increase between India and China is caused by differences in energy conservation, speed of conversion from non-commercial energy to commercial energy, serviceability of the industrial structure, etc. It is predicted that the primary energy consumption will grow on the level of China. The oil demand will grow 4-6% in China and 5-6% in India in 1993-2010, showing more increase in India. For oil import to India to exceed 1 million B/D in 2000, it is necessary to clear the ceiling of the international balance. For India to become a big country corresponding to its population size, a lot of difficulties should be overcome. 49 refs., 104 figs., 62 tabs.

  13. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S; Morihisa, H; Tamanouchi, M; Araki, H; Yamada, S [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Psychological influences for the driver by the changes of running circumstance; Jidosha no soko kankyo henka no driver eno shinriteki eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okura, S; Yokomori, M; Yamaguchi, S [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A driver is influenced psychologically by the cars proceeding on the street and the cars parked on the shoulder which come into the front view. The traffic accidents are caused when these influences put a lot of stress on a driver. In this report, we study the relations between the road traffic condition on the streets and the highway and the driver`s psychological and psysiological responses by using the driver`s front view, sweating and pulse rate. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Advancing aging society and its effect on the residential use energy demand; Shintensuru koreika shakai to kateiyo energy juyo eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The paper analyzed various factors regulating the energy demand in aged households and viewed the future residential use energy demand in the aging society. In Part 1, based on the family budget survey annual report, a study was made of the energy consumption situation of aged people and the trend of the future residential energy consumption. In Part 2, a study was conducted based on survey data on the U.K., France, Sweden and Denmark. In Western countries which are the developed countries of aging, the energy conservation policy effectively worked for the space heating demand which is highest of all, and factors of the energy consumption increase by aging were absorbed. However, since in Japan, aging is rapidly advancing and further there are relatively more factors which connect to an increase in energy consumption in aged households as compared with Western countries, it is thought that Japan is in a situation where the energy consumption increases more often, influenced by aged households. 91 refs., 130 figs., 41 tabs.

  16. Crataegus Special Extract WS 1442 Effects on eNOS and microRNA 155.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwen; Liang, Yan; Shi, Jian; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Bleske, Barry E

    2018-04-16

    Increased expression of microRNA 155 (miR-155) results in a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and impaired endothelial function. Factors that have been shown to increase expression of miR-155 may be mitigated by WS 1442, an extract of hawthorn leaves and flowers ( Crataegus special extract) that contains a range of pharmacologically active substances including oligomeric proanthocyanidins and flavonoids. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of WS 1442 on the expression of miR-155 and eNOS in the presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α ). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were studied after the exposure to TNF- α , with or without simvastatin (positive control) and WS 1442. The expression levels of eNOS, phosphorylated eNOS, and miR-155 in the different HUVEC treatment groups were determined by western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. To evaluate the effect of WS 1442 on the eNOS activity, the medium and intracellular nitrate/nitrite (NO) concentrations were also analyzed using a colorimetric Griess assay kit. The results demonstrated that TNF- α upregulated miR-155 expression and decreased eNOS expression and NO concentrations. WS 1442 also increased miR-155 expression and decreased eNOS expression but, unlike TNF- α , increased phosphorylated eNOS expression and NO concentrations. Surprisingly, WS 1442 increased miR-155 expression; however, WS 1442 mitigated the overall negative effect of miR-155 on decreasing eNOS expression by increasing expression of phosphorylated eNOS and resulting in an increase in NO concentrations. In the setting where miR-155 may be expressed, WS 1442 may offer vascular protection by increasing the expression of phosphorylated eNOS. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Association between nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various mutation on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOs) gene cause reduced production of NO, the expansion factor (VEF) and may accelerate the process of atherosclerosis. The study was designed to investigate the frequency of T-786C polymorphism of the gene or nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene in patients ...

  18. Introduction of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells induces cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejeskär, Katarina; Krona, Cecilia; Carén, Helena; Zaibak, Faten; Li, Lingli; Martinsson, Tommy; Ioannou, Panayiotis A

    2005-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumour of childhood often with an unfavourable outcome. One common genetic feature in aggressive tumours is 1p-deletion. The α-enolase (ENO1) gene is located in chromosome region 1p36.2, within the common region of deletion in neuroblastoma. One alternative translated product of the ENO1 gene, known as MBP-1, acts as a negative regulator of the c-myc oncogene, making the ENO1 gene a candidate as a tumour suppressor gene. Methods used in this study are transfection of cDNA-vectors and in vitro transcribed mRNA, cell growth assay, TUNEL-assay, real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan) for expression studies, genomic sequencing and DHPLC for mutation detection. Here we demonstrate that transfection of ENO1 cDNA into 1p-deleted neuroblastoma cell lines causes' reduced number of viable cells over time compared to a negative control and that it induces apoptosis. Interestingly, a similar but much stronger dose-dependent reduction of cell growth was observed by transfection of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells. These effects could also be shown in non-neuroblastoma cells (293-cells), indicating ENO1 to have general tumour suppressor activity. Expression of ENO1 is detectable in primary neuroblastomas of all different stages and no difference in the level of expression can be detected between 1p-deleted and 1p-intact tumour samples. Although small numbers (11 primary neuroblastomas), there is some evidence that Stage 4 tumours has a lower level of ENO1-mRNA than Stage 2 tumours (p = 0.01). However, mutation screening of 44 primary neuroblastomas of all different stages, failed to detect any mutations. Our studies indicate that ENO1 has tumour suppressor activity and that high level of ENO1 expression has growth inhibitory effects

  19. A central role of eNOS in the protective effect of wine against metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Federico; Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Urquiaga, Inés

    2006-01-01

    The positive health effects derived from moderate wine consumption are pleiotropic. They appear as improvements in cardiovascular risk factors such as plasma lipids, haemostatic mechanisms, endothelial function and antioxidant defences. The active principles would be ethanol and mainly polyphenols. Results from our and other laboratories support the unifying hypothesis that the improvements in risk factors after red wine consumption are mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Many genes are involved, but the participation of eNOS would be a constant feature. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The National Cholesterol Education Programmmes Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III) clinical definition of the metabolic syndrome requires the presence of at least three risk factors, from among abdominal obesity, high plasma triacylglycerols, low plasma HDL, high blood pressure and high fasting plasma glucose. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metabolic syndrome are not known. Since metabolic syndrome apparently affects 10-30% of the population in the world, research on its pathogenesis and control is needed. The recent finding that eNOS knockout mice present a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors comparable to those of the metabolic syndrome suggests that defects in eNOS function may cause human metabolic syndrome. These mice are hypertensive, insulin resistant and dyslipidemic. Further support for a pathogenic role of eNOS comes from the finding in humans that eNOS polymorphisms associate with insulin resistance and diabetes, with hypertension, with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and with albuminuria. So, the data sustain the hypothesis that eNOS enhancement should reduce metabolic syndrome incidence and its consequences. Therefore red wine, since it enhances eNOS function, should be considered as a potential tool for the control of metabolic

  20. Circulating Blood eNOS Contributes to the Regulation of Systemic Blood Pressure and Nitrite Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Katherine C.; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Noguchi, Audrey; Liu, Virginia B.; Wang, Xunde; Raghavachari, Nalini; Boehm, Manfred; Kato, Gregory J.; Kelm, Malte; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Mice genetically deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS−/−) are hypertensive with lower circulating nitrite levels, indicating the importance of constitutively produced nitric oxide (NO•) to blood pressure regulation and vascular homeostasis. While the current paradigm holds that this bioactivity derives specifically from expression of eNOS in endothelium, circulating blood cells also express eNOS protein. A functional red cell eNOS that modulates vascular NO• signaling has been proposed. Approach and Results To test the hypothesis that blood cells contribute to mammalian blood pressure regulation via eNOS-dependent NO• generation, we cross-transplanted WT and eNOS−/− mice, producing chimeras competent or deficient for eNOS expression in circulating blood cells. Surprisingly, we observed a significant contribution of both endothelial and circulating blood cell eNOS to blood pressure and systemic nitrite levels, the latter being a major component of the circulating NO• reservoir. These effects were abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME and repristinated by the NOS substrate L-Arginine, and were independent of platelet or leukocyte depletion. Mouse erythrocytes were also found to carry an eNOS protein and convert 14C-Arginine into 14C-Citrulline in a NOS-dependent fashion. Conclusions These are the first studies to definitively establish a role for a blood borne eNOS, using cross transplant chimera models, that contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and nitrite homeostasis. This work provides evidence suggesting that erythrocyte eNOS may mediate this effect. PMID:23702660

  1. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tran

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC. Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1 colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  2. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-03-31

    Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP) promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  3. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Cerqueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR. Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  4. Tidal breath eNO measurements in a cohort of unsedated hospitalized neonates-A method validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Birgitte J; Reim, Pauline S; Jensen, Andreas K

    2018-01-01

    to validate clinically feasible longitudinal online tidal eNO and V'NO in a real-life birth cohort of un-sedated, hospitalized preterm, and term neonates. METHOD: We included 149 newborns, GA 28-42 weeks. Each scheduled for six repeated, non-invasive, on-line eNO measurements with Ecomedics CLD 88sp and NO...

  5. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.D.; Xie, R.; Klein Nulend, J.; van Rheden, R.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von den Hoff, J.W.; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes are essential for bone remodeling. Nitric oxide, an important regulator of bone remodeling, is produced by osteocytes through the activity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We hypothesized that these

  6. Orthodontic force stimulates eNOS and iNOS in rat osteocytes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, S.D.; Xie, R.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Rheden, R.E.M. van; Bronckers, A.L.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanosensitive osteocytes are essential for bone remodeling. Nitric oxide, an important regulator of bone remodeling, is produced by osteocytes through the activity of constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We hypothesized that these

  7. Association between nucleotide mutation of eNOS gene and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galaxy

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... spasm among Japanese (Nakayama et al., 1999; Casas et al., 2006). It is believed that these mutations might result in altered NO metabolism and impaired .... ship between T-786C mutation of eNOS gene and CAD specifically in the Iranian population. To our knowledge, this polymorphism has never been ...

  8. Association of eNOS and HSP70 gene polymorphisms with glaucoma in Pakistani cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayub, H.; Khan, M.I.; Micheal, S.; Akhtar, F.; Ajmal, M.; Shafique, S.; Ali, S.H.; Hollander, A.I. den; Ahmed, A.; Qamar, R.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the involvement of stress-regulating genes, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary closed angle glaucoma (PCAG). METHODS: POAG and PCAG patients recruited from different areas of Pakistan

  9. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of decomposition of oxygen-functional groups on coal liquefaction; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 3. Gansanso kannoki no bunkai kyodo to ekika hanno eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komeiji, A.; Kaneko, T.; Shimazaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Pretreatment of brown coal in oil was conducted using 1-methyl naphthalene or mixture of tetralin and 1-methyl naphthalene as solvent at temperatures ranging from 300 to 430{degree}C under nitrogen atmosphere. Effects of the solvent properties on the structural change of oxygen-functional groups (OFG) and coal liquefaction were investigated by means of quantitative analysis of OFG and solid state {sup 13}C-NMR measurement. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient, it was suggested that brown coal molecules loose their hydrogen to be aromatized. While, at lower temperatures ranging from 300 to 350{degree}C, hydrogen contained in brown coal molecules was consumed for the stabilization of pyrolytic radicals, and the deterioration of liquefaction was not observed. When hydrogen transfer from solvent was insufficient at higher temperatures above 400{degree}C in nitrogen atmosphere during pretreatment in oil, crosslinking like benzofuran type was formed by dehydration condensation of hydroxyl group in brown coal, to deteriorate the liquefaction, remarkably. The addition of donor solvent like tetralin decreased the formation of crosslinking like benzofuran type, which suppressed the deterioration of liquefaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  10. New concept of combustion technology in small DI diesel engines. 4th Report. Effects of fuel injection rates on MK combustion; Kogata chokufun diesel kikan no shinnensho concept. 4. Funsharitsu no MK nensho eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, S; Matsui, Y; Kamihara, T [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A previous paper showed that EGR cooling and a low compression ratio which prolongs the ignition delay can expand the area of the new combustion concept. Experimental investigations were conducted in this research to examine the effects of the fuel injection rates, the injection pressure and the injection duration, on the exhaust emissions of an engine incorporating the MK concept The results showed that a higher injection pressure was effective in reducing NOx and particulate matter (PM) under MK combustion conditions. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Biochemical and toxicological impacts of persistent organochlorines on aquatic ecosystem. With particular attention to dioxins and their related compounds; Zanryusei yuki enso kagobutsu no suiken seitaikei eno eikyo. Toku ni dioxin rui ni chakumokushite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-07-10

    PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs are organochlorine compounds which induce toxicological impacts on test animals, such as reduced weight, thymic gland dwarf, hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental toxicity, carcinogenecity, teratogenicity and endocrine disturbance. They are generally referred to as dioxins. They are difficult to be decomposed in vivo, and tend to be more concentrated in higher organisms, placed at higher positions in the food chain. In aquatic ecosystems, they are observed to accumulate at high concentrations in fishes, fish-eating birds, claspers and whales. Therefore, there are growing concerns over their possible adverse effects on wild animals in aquatic ecosystems. This paper describes the effects of persistent organochlorine compounds on fishes, birds and aquatic mammals; and induction of cytochrome P450 of each organic species, caused by exposure to dioxins, and the induction examples in aquatic ecosystems. It also discusses whether or not the cytochrome P450 induction capacity of each organism species can be used as an index which explains difference between organism species in toxicological impacts of dioxins. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Effect of sail on augmenting attitude stability of hovering VTOL vehicle supported by one-ducted-fan. Ductedter dot fan shiji VTOL ki no hover shisei anteisei eno ho no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, S.; Kato, M. (Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-07-05

    An analytical investigation was given on augmenting attitude stability of a VTOL airplane supported by one-ducted-fan, at hovering, by means of installing a sail having air resistance on a place higher than the vehicle center-of-gravity. Since the problem becomes nonlinear, the time-marching technique was used. The sail on which the emphasis was placed had an area of as less than several times as much of the duct sectional area, and a height of as less than several times as much of the duct diameter. The stabilization effect is expressed as {Delta}h = center of gravity height region providing the stability/duct diameter. Without a sail, {Delta}h was several percent, but with a sail, the value increased to about ten times as much. This increase in {Delta}h was remarkable in the direction that elevate the position of the center of gravity. More stability is obtained by increasing the sail height than by increasing the area. Substitutes to a sail, working on the same principle, could be a gas-bag and wind mill. A gas-bag, which can change its volume readily, will be able to vary the sail area easily. A wind mill could make the weight lighter than a sail, and has a possibility of varying the resistance through changing its blade pitch angle. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A meta-analysis of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and risk of pre-eclampsia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, A P; Sultana, A; Bammidi, V K; Sampathirao, K; Jamil, K

    2011-10-01

    A meta-analyses of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphisms in pre-eclampsia was performed. We shortlisted 33 studies (17 for ACE; 16 for eNOS gene polymorphisms), of which 29 articles (16 for ACE and 15 for eNOS) were analysed. Overall, 1,620 cases with pre-eclampsia and 2,158 controls were analysed for intron 16 insertion-deletion polymorphism in ACE gene. A total of 1,610 subjects with pre-eclampsia and 2,875 controls were analysed for the Glu298Asp in eNOS gene. Overall, the random-effects odds ratio (OR) with Glu298Asp in eNOS gene was 0.958 (95% confidence intervals, CI 0.747-1.228, p > 0.05), and for the insertion-deletion/ACE polymorphism was 0.987 (95% CI 0.698-1.395, p > 0.05). Significant heterogeneity was observed in the studies that evaluated polymorphisms in ACE (Q value = 55.6; I(2) = 73; p value = 0.000); and eNOS (Q value = 37.2; I(2) = 62.4; p value = 0.001) polymorphisms. No significant risk of pre-eclampsia was observed in both eNOS and ACE genes with these polymorphisms.

  14. Gender, exercise training, and eNOS expression in porcine skeletal muscle arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M Harold; Welshons, Wade V; Sturek, Michael; Rush, James W E; Turk, James R; Taylor, Julia A; Judy, Barbara M; Henderson, Kyle K; Ganjam, V K

    2003-07-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of gender and exercise training on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein content of porcine skeletal muscle arteries and to evaluate the role of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in these effects. We measured eNOS and SOD content with immunoblots and immunohistochemistry in femoral and brachial arteries of trained and sedentary male and female pigs and measured estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA and alpha-ER and beta-ER protein in aortas of male and female pigs. Results indicate that female arteries contain more eNOS than male arteries and that exercise training increases eNOS content independent of gender. Male and female pigs expressed similar levels of alpha-ER mRNA and protein and similar amounts beta-ER protein in their arteries. E2 concentrations as measured by RIA were 180 +/- 34 pg/ml in male sera and approximately 5 pg/ml in female sera, and neither was changed by training. However, bioassay indicated that biologically active estrogen equivalent to only 35 +/- 5 pg/ml was present in male sera. E2 in female pigs, whether measured by RIA or bioassay, was approximately 24 pg/ml at peak estrous and 2 pg/ml on day 5 diestrus. The free fraction of E2 in sera did not explain the low measurements, relative to RIA, of E2. We conclude that 1). gender has significant influence on eNOS and SOD content of porcine skeletal muscle arteries; 2). the effects of gender and exercise training vary among arteries of different anatomic origin; 3). male sera contains compounds that cause RIA to overestimate circulating estrogenic activity; and 4). relative to human men, the male pig is not biologically estrogenized by high levels of E2 reported by RIA, whereas in female pigs E2 levels are lower than in the blood of human women.

  15. Activation of eNOS in endothelial cells exposed to ionizing radiation involves components of the DNA damage response pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagane, Masaki; Yasui, Hironobu; Sakai, Yuri; Yamamori, Tohru [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Niwa, Koichi [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Food and Cosmetic Science, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Abashiri 099-2493 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kondo, Takashi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Inanami, Osamu, E-mail: inanami@vetmed.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • eNOS activity is increased in BAECs exposed to X-rays. • ATM is involved in this increased eNOS activity. • HSP90 modulates the radiation-induced activation of ATM and eNOS. - Abstract: In this study, the involvement of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation was investigated in X-irradiated bovine aortic endothelial cells. The activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the phosphorylation of serine 1179 of eNOS (eNOS-Ser1179) were significantly increased in irradiated cells. The radiation-induced increases in NOS activity and eNOS-Ser1179 phosphorylation levels were significantly reduced by treatment with either an ATM inhibitor (Ku-60019) or an HSP90 inhibitor (geldanamycin). Geldanamycin was furthermore found to suppress the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ATM-Ser1181. Our results indicate that the radiation-induced eNOS activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells is regulated by ATM and HSP90.

  16. Towards unification of the Vorticity Confinement and Shock Capturing (TVD and ENO/WENO) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidilkover, David

    2018-04-01

    New multidimensional extensions of the TVD and finite difference ENO/WENO methods for the compressible flow equations are proposed. The novelty of the approach is in the discretization schemes that acquire by means of a single mechanism both shock-capturing and vorticity confinement capabilities. Thus, the new method can be interpreted as a unification of the two methodologies, intended initially for different purposes.

  17. Morus alba extract modulates blood pressure homeostasis through eNOS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizzo, Albino; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Damato, Antonio; Madonna, Michele; Storto, Marianna; Capocci, Luca; Campiglia, Pietro; Sommella, Eduardo; Trimarco, Valentina; Rozza, Francesco; Izzo, Raffaele; Puca, Annibale A; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-10-01

    Morus alba is a promising phytomedicine cultivated in oriental countries that is extensively used to prevent and treat various cardiovascular problems. To date, despite its beneficial effects, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Thus, we investigate the vascular and haemodynamic effects of Morus alba extract in an experimental model focusing our attention on the molecular mechanisms involved. Through vascular reactivity studies, we demonstrate that Morus alba extract evokes endothelial vasorelaxation through a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. Our molecular analysis highlights an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. In vivo administration of Morus alba extract reduces blood pressure levels exclusively in wild-type mice, whereas it fails to evoke any haemodynamic effects in eNOS-deficient mice. Molecular analyses revealed that its beneficial action on vasculature is mediated by the activation of two important proteins that act as stress sensors and chaperones: PERK and heat shock protein 90. Finally, Morus alba extract exerts antihypertensive action in an experimental model of arterial hypertension. Through its action on eNOS signaling, Morus alba extract could act as a food supplement for the regulation of cardiovascular system, mainly in clinical conditions characterized by eNOS dysfunction, such as arterial hypertension. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for simultaneous detection of the MTHFR 677 C > T, eNOS +894 G > T and - eNOS -786 T > C variants among Malaysian Malays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo Keat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of the MTHFR 677 C > T variant is associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. Another factor that can potentially contribute to these disorders is a depleted nitric oxide level, which can be due to the presence of eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants that make an individual more susceptible to endothelial dysfunction. A number of genotyping methods have been developed to investigate these variants. However, simultaneous detection methods using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis are still lacking. In this study, a novel multiplex PCR-RFLP method for the simultaneous detection of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants was developed. A total of 114 healthy Malay subjects were recruited. The MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C variants were genotyped using the novel multiplex PCR-RFLP and confirmed by DNA sequencing as well as snpBLAST. Allele frequencies of MTHFR 677 C > T and eNOS +894 G > T and eNOS −786 T > C were calculated using the Hardy Weinberg equation. Methods The 114 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study, and their DNA was extracted. Primer pair was designed using Primer 3 Software version 0.4.0 and validated against the BLAST database. The primer specificity, functionality and annealing temperature were tested using uniplex PCR methods that were later combined into a single multiplex PCR. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP was performed in three separate tubes followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR product residual was purified and sent for DNA sequencing. Results The allele frequencies for MTHFR 677 C > T were 0.89 (C allele and 0.11 (T allele; for eNOS +894 G > T, the allele frequencies were 0.58 (G allele and 0.43 (T allele; and for eNOS −786 T > C, the allele

  19. ENO1 promotes tumor proliferation and cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xinghua; Miao, Xiaobing; Wu, Yaxun; Li, Chunsun; Guo, Yan; Liu, Yushan; Chen, Yali; Lu, Xiaoyun [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, 30 North Tongyang Road, Pingchao, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yuchan, E-mail: wangyuchannt@126.com [Department of Pathogen and Immunology, Medical College, Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Road, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu (China); He, Song, E-mail: hesongnt@126.com [Department of Pathology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nantong University, 30 North Tongyang Road, Pingchao, Nantong 226361, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-07-15

    Enolases are glycolytic enzymes responsible for the ATP-generated conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate. In addition to the glycolytic function, Enolase 1 (ENO1) has been reported up-regulation in several tumor tissues. In this study, we investigated the expression and biologic function of ENO1 in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHLs). Clinically, by western blot analysis we observed that ENO1 expression was apparently higher in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma than in the reactive lymphoid tissues. Subsequently, immunohistochemical staining of 144 NHLs suggested that the expression of ENO1 was significantly lower in the indolent lymphomas compared with the progressive lymphomas. Further, we identified ENO1 as an independent prognostic factor, and it was significantly correlated with overall survival of NHL patients. In addition, we found that ENO1 could promote cell proliferation, regulate cell cycle associated gene and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in NHLs. Finally, we verified that ENO1 participated in the process of lymphoma cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Adhesion to FN or HS5 cells significantly protected OCI-Ly8 and Daudi cells from cytotoxicity compared with those cultured in suspension, and these effects were attenuated when transfected with ENO1-siRNA. Based on the study, we propose that inhibition of ENO1 expression may be a novel strategy for therapy for NHLs patients, and it may be a target for drug resistance. - Highlights: • ENO1 expression is reversely correlated with clinical outcomes of patients with NHLs. • ENO1 promotes the proliferation of NHL cells. • ENO1 regulates cell adhesion mediated drug resistance.

  20. KONSUMSI MIKRONUTRIEN DAN EKSPRESI GEN eNOS3 ALEL INTRO 4a4b PADA PENDERITA HIPERTENSI ETNIK MINANGKABAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmi Sulastri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGen eNOS3 varian intron 4a4b merupakan salah satu gen yang berhubungan dengan kejadian hipertensi esensial. Kemampuan Gen eNOS3 varian ini untuk mensintesis enzim nitric oxide synthase (NOS berkurang sehingga sintesis Nitric oxide (NO menurun. Senyawa NO adalah suatu senyawa vasoaktif yang menyebabkan vasodilatasi pembuluh darah.Penelitian pada subjek hipertensi dan normotensi berusia 30-65 tahun bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh mikronutrien terhadap ekspresi gen eNOS3 alel intron 4a4b. 130 subjek, diwawancara pola makannya lalu dilakukan analisis asupan mikronutrien, gen eNOS3, serta kadar NO plasma. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji T dan chi-square.Kadar NO plasma penderita hipertensi adalah 26.91 + 15.40 μM/L dan normotensi 25.79 + 15.04 μM/L. 55.5% subjek hipertensi memiliki gen eNOS3 varian intron 4b dan 69% subjek normotensi mempunyai varian intron 4a4b. Kadar NO plasma rendah, (66.7% ditemukan pada subjek hipertensi dengan varian intron 4b. Tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna asupan mikronutrien dengan kadar NO plasma pada subjek hipertensi.Hasil ini tidak mendukung pengaruh konsumsi mikronutrien terhadap kadar NO plasma pada penderita hipertensi dengan gen eNOS3 varian intron 4a4b.Kata Kunci : hipertensi esensial, gen eNOS3, kadar NO plasmaAbstracteNOS 3 gene intron 4a4b allel is one of the important genes which is related to hypertesion essensial. This gene expresses the nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme which regulates the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO in human body. NO causes vasodilatation, which decreases peripheral resistant and blood pressure.A research has been done based on cross sectional study on hypertension patients and those with normal blood pressure in the range of 30-65 years old. The main of this research is to evaluate the influence of micronutrient consumption on eNOS3 gene intron 4a4b allel expression in hypertension subjects in Minangkabau ethnicity. 130 subjects interviewed about micronutrient

  1. Disruption of COX-2 and eNOS does not confer protection from cardiovascular failure in lipopolysaccharide-treated conscious mice and isolated vascular rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Mette; Madsen, Kirsten; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    (NS 398), disruption of COX-2, endothelium removal, or eNOS deletion (eNOS(-/-)) did not improve vascular reactivity after LPS, while the NO synthase blockers 1400W and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester prevented loss of tone. COX-2 and eNOS activities are not necessary for LPS-induced decreases...... in blood pressure, heart rate, and vascular reactivity. Inducible NOS activity appears crucial. COX-2 and eNOS are not obvious therapeutic targets for cardiovascular rescue during gram-negative endotoxemic shock....

  2. Alpha-enolase (ENO1 controls alpha v/beta 3 integrin expression and regulates pancreatic cancer adhesion, invasion, and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitza Principe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA cells, the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1 also acts as a plasminogen receptor and promotes invasion and metastasis formation. Moreover, ENO1 silencing in PDA cells induces oxidative stress, senescence and profoundly modifies PDA cell metabolism. Although anti-ENO1 antibody inhibits PDA cell migration and invasion, little is known about the role of ENO1 in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts. We therefore investigated the effect of ENO1 silencing on the modulation of cell morphology, adhesion to matrix substrates, cell invasiveness, and metastatic ability. Methods The membrane and cytoskeleton modifications that occurred in ENO1-silenced (shENO1 PDA cells were investigated by a combination of confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The effect of ENO1 silencing was then evaluated by phenotypic and functional experiments to identify the role of ENO1 in adhesion, migration, and invasion, as well as in senescence and apoptosis. The experimental results were then validated in a mouse model. Results We observed a significant increase in the roughness of the cell membrane due to ENO1 silencing, a feature associated with an impaired ability to migrate and invade, along with a significant downregulation of proteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, including alpha v/beta 3 integrin in shENO1 PDA cells. These changes impaired the ability of shENO1 cells to adhere to Collagen I and IV and Fibronectin and caused an increase in RGD-independent adhesion to vitronectin (VN via urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR. Binding of uPAR to VN triggers integrin-mediated signals, which result in ERK1-2 and RAC activation, accumulation of ROS, and senescence. In shENO1 cancer cells, the use of an anti-uPAR antibody caused significant reduction of ROS production and senescence. Overall, a decrease of in vitro and in vivo cell

  3. Enhancing eNOS activity with simultaneous inhibition of IKKβ restores vascular function in Ins2(Akita+/-) type-1 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Manickam; Janardhanan, Preethi; Roman, Linda; Reddick, Robert L; Natarajan, Mohan; van Haperen, Rien; Habib, Samy L; de Crom, Rini; Mohan, Sumathy

    2015-10-01

    The balance of nitric oxide (NO) versus superoxide generation has a major role in the initiation and progression of endothelial dysfunction. Under conditions of high glucose, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) functions as a chief source of superoxide rather than NO. In order to improve NO bioavailability within the vessel wall in type-1 diabetes, we investigated treatment strategies that improve eNOS phosphorylation and NO-dependent vasorelaxation. We evaluated methods to increase the eNOS activity by (1) feeding Ins2(Akita) spontaneously diabetic (type-1) mice with l-arginine in the presence of sepiapterin, a precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin; (2) preventing eNOS/NO deregulation by the inclusion of inhibitor kappa B kinase beta (IKKβ) inhibitor, salsalate, in the diet regimen in combination with l-arginine and sepiapterin; and (3) independently increasing eNOS expression to improve eNOS activity and associated NO production through generating Ins2(Akita) diabetic mice that overexpress human eNOS predominantly in vascular endothelial cells. Our results clearly demonstrated that diet supplementation with l-arginine, sepiapterin along with salsalate improved phosphorylation of eNOS and enhanced vasorelaxation of thoracic/abdominal aorta in type-1 diabetic mice. More interestingly, despite the overexpression of eNOS, the in-house generated transgenic eNOS-GFP (TgeNOS-GFP)-Ins2(Akita) cross mice showed an unanticipated effect of reduced eNOS phosphorylation and enhanced superoxide production. Our results demonstrate that enhancement of endogenous eNOS activity by nutritional modulation is more beneficial than increasing the endogenous expression of eNOS by gene therapy modalities.

  4. Endothelial CaMKII as a regulator of eNOS activity and NO-mediated vasoreactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Murthy

    Full Text Available The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII is a serine/threonine kinase important in transducing intracellular Ca2+ signals. While in vitro data regarding the role of CaMKII in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS are contradictory, its role in endothelial function in vivo remains unknown. Using two novel transgenic models to express CaMKII inhibitor peptides selectively in endothelium, we examined the effect of CaMKII on eNOS activation, NO production, vasomotor tone and blood pressure. Under baseline conditions, CaMKII activation was low in the aortic wall. Consistently, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and plasma NO levels were unaltered by endothelial CaMKII inhibition. Moreover, endothelial CaMKII inhibition had no significant effect on NO-dependent vasodilation. These results were confirmed in studies of aortic rings transduced with adenovirus expressing a CaMKII inhibitor peptide. In cultured endothelial cells, bradykinin treatment produced the anticipated rapid influx of Ca2+ and transient CaMKII and eNOS activation, whereas CaMKII inhibition blocked eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1179 and dephosphorylation at Thr-497. Ca2+/CaM binding to eNOS and resultant NO production in vitro were decreased under CaMKII inhibition. Our results demonstrate that CaMKII plays an important role in transient bradykinin-driven eNOS activation in vitro, but does not regulate NO production, vasorelaxation or blood pressure in vivo under baseline conditions.

  5. Sildenafil promotes eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated vasculopathy in the penis is characterized by aberrant nitric oxide and phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 signaling, and by increased oxidative stress. Preliminary clinical trials show that continuous treatment with PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil unassociated with sexual activity decreases priapic activity in patients with SCD. However, the mechanism of its vasculoprotective effect in the penis remains unclear. We evaluated whether continuous administration of PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil promotes eNOS function at posttranslational levels and decreases superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase activity in the sickle cell mouse penis. SCD transgenic mice were used as an animal model of SCD. WT mice served as controls. Mice received treatment with the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 3 weeks. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site), eNOS interactions with heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) (positive regulator), phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177), an NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox), and a marker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [HNE]) were measured by Western blot. Effect of continuous sildenafil treatment on eNOS posttranslational activation, NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit, and oxidative stress in the penis of the sickle cell mouse. Continuous treatment with sildenafil reversed (P penis. Sildenafil treatment of WT mice did not affect any of these parameters. Our findings that sildenafil enhances eNOS activation and inhibits NADPH oxidase function in the sickle cell mouse penis offers a vasculoprotective molecular basis for the therapeutic effect of sildenafil in the penis in association with SCD. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Partial deletion of eNOS gene causes hyperinsulinemic state, unbalance of cardiac insulin signaling pathways and coronary dysfunction independently of high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Vecoli

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in eNOS gene, possibly interacting with high fat diet (HFD, affect peripheral vascular function and glucose metabolism. The relative role of eNOS gene, HFD and metabolic derangement on coronary function has not been fully elucidated. We test whether eNOS gene deficiency per se or in association with HFD modulates coronary function through mechanisms involving molecular pathways related to insulin signaling. Wild type (WT, eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice were studied. WT and eNOS+/- mice were fed with either standard or HF diet for 16 weeks and compared with standard diet fed eNOS-/-. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed during the last week of diet. Coronary resistance (CR was measured at baseline and during infusions of acetylcholine (Ach or sodium-nitroprusside (SNP to evaluate endothelium-dependent or independent vasodilation, in the Langendorff isolated hearts. Cardiac expression of Akt and ERK genes as evaluation of two major insulin-regulated signaling pathways involved in the control of vascular tone were assessed by western blot. HFD-fed mice developed an overt diabetic state. Conversely, chow-fed genetically modified mice (in particular eNOS-/- showed a metabolic pattern characterized by normoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia with a limited degree of insulin resistance. CR was significantly higher in animals with eNOS gene deletions than in WT, independently of diet. Percent decrease in CR, during Ach infusion, was significantly lower in both eNOS-/- and eNOS+/- mice than in WT, independently of diet. SNP reduced CR in all groups except eNOS-/-. The cardiac ERK1-2/Akt ratio, increased in animals with eNOS gene deletions compared with WT, independently of diet. These results suggest that the eNOS genetic deficiency, associated or not with HFD, has a relevant effect on coronary vascular function, possibly mediated by increase in blood insulin levels and unbalance in insulin-dependent signaling in coronary vessels

  7. Environmental Aspects as Assessment Criteria in Municipal Heat Energy Decisions - Case of Eno Energy Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhakka, Asko [North Karelia Univ. of Applied Sciences, Joensuu (Finland)

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide information whether it is possible to consider the sustainable development perspectives in the decision making of the district energy decision. The new EU-directives concerning public procurements allow the use of environmental aspects as selection criteria. The focus here is on small-scale district heating systems and their fuel-supply chains. The comparable fuels included the analysis are forest chips, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil and peat. The paper focuses to the concept of the sustainable development and establishes the indicators for ecological-, social- and economical aspects of the district heating. The indicators are utilized in the case study on the Eno Energy Cooperative. The equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and the combustion of the fuel, the employment impacts of the fuel production and the formation of the price of energy for the consumers are considered. After presenting the sustainable development indicators in the case of Eno Energy Cooperative, the investment models of heat entrepreneurship business are discussed. Finally, we also raise an attention into important aspects to be considered when establishing a local district heating scheme. The indicators used in this presentation show that the use of forest chips in energy production has positive effect through the reduced greenhouse gases. The use of wood in energy production also provides employment opportunities and is more favourable to consumers, because of the steady fuel price when compared to other alternative fuels.

  8. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Clapp

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK. Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  9. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in enhancing expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α and VEGF in wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Imam; Devi, Anita; Purwandhono, Azham; Hadi Warsito, Sunaryo

    2017-05-01

    Wound healing is a physiological process that occurs progressively through overlapping phases. Tissue oxygenation is an important part of the complex regulation for wound healing. Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) therapy is a method of increasing oxygen delivery to tissues. The therapy improves tissue oxygenation and stimulates the formation of H2O2 as a secondary messenger for Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF α), e-NOS, VEGF and Nuclear Factor Kappa Beta phosphorylation (NF-Kb) which play an important role in the rapid transcription of a wide variety of genes in response to extracellular stimuli. This study aims to determine the effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy in enhancing the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing. This study is an animal study with a ‘randomized control group of pre-test and post test design’ on 28 Wistar rats. Randomly, the rats were divided into 4 groups with 7 rats in each group. The HBO treatment group 1 received 5 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; the HBO treatment group 2 received 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA in 3 × 30 minutes; and each of the control groups were without HBO. Each of the 28 male rats were given a full thickness excisional wound of 1 × 1cm. Examinations of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF expressions and wound healing were performed on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-5 HBO or on day-0 (pre-HBO) and day-10 HBO. The resultsshowthat the Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy can improve e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p= 0.02), VEGF expression (p=0.02) and wound healing (p=0.002) significantly in the provision of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes in 5 sessions over 5 consecutive days. While the 10 sessions of HBO 2.4 ATA for 3 × 30 minutes over 10 consecutive days only increase e-NOS (p=0.02), TNF-α (p=0.04), VEGF expression significantly (p=0.03) but do not improve wound healing significantly (p=0.3) compared with no HBO. The study concludes that HBO can improve the expressions of e-NOS, TNF-α, VEGF and wound healing in the provision of HBO

  10. An Eulerian method for computation of multimaterial impact with ENO shock-capturing and sharp interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Udaykumar, H S; Belk, D M; Vanden, K J

    2003-01-01

    A technique is presented for the numerical simulation of high-speed multimaterial impact. Of particular interest is the interaction of solid impactors with targets. The computations are performed on a fixed Cartesian mesh by casting the equations governing material deformation in Eulerian conservation law form. The advantage of the Eulerian setting is the disconnection of the mesh from the boundary deformation allowing for large distortions of the interfaces. Eigenvalue analysis reveals that the system of equations is hyperbolic for the range of materials and impact velocities of interest. High-order accurate ENO shock-capturing schemes are used along with interface tracking techniques to evolve sharp immersed boundaries. The numerical technique is designed to tackle the following physical phenomena encountered during impact: (1) high velocities of impact leading to large deformations of the impactor as well as targets; (2) nonlinear wave-propagation and the development of shocks in the materials; (3) modelin...

  11. Identification and Function Analysis of enolase Gene NlEno1 from Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera:Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Xia; Li, Kai-Long; Chen, Yang; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The enolase [EC 4.2.1.11] is an essential enzyme in the glycolytic pathway catalyzing the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGE) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding α-enolase was cloned from rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and is provisionally designated as NlEno1. The cDNA sequence of NlEno1 was 1,851 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,305 bp and encoding 434 amino acids. The deduced protein shares high identity of 80–87% with ENO1-like protein from Hemiptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera speices. The NlEno1 showed the highest mRNA expression level in hemolymph, followed by fat body, salivary gland, ovaries and egg, and showed trace mRNA levels in testis. The mRNA of NlEno1 showed up-regulated level in virulent N. lugens population Mudgo, IR56 and IR42 when compared with TN1 population. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of NlEno1 into the adults significantly down-regulated the NlEno1 mRNA level along with decreased eggs and offspring. Moreover, injection of NlEno1-dsRNA decreased mRNA level of Vitellogenin (Vg) gene. These results showed that the NlEno1, as a key glycolytic enzyme, may play roles in regulation of fecundity and adaptation of N. lugens to resistant rice varieties. PMID:26056319

  12. Endothelial dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea is associated with epigenetic changes in the eNOS gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gozal, David; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Wang, Yang

    2013-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disorder that has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity, even in children. However, not all children with OSA manifest alterations in endothelial postocclusive hyperemia, an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-dependent response. Since expression of the eNOS gene is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms and OSA may cause epigenetic modifications such as DNA hypermethylation, we hypothesized that epigenetic modifications in the eNOS gene may underlie the differential vascular phenotypes in pediatric OSA. Age-, sex-, ethnicity-, and BMI-matched prepubertal children with polysomnographically confirmed OSA and either normal (OSAn) or abnormal (OSAab) postocclusive hyperemic responses, assessed as the time to attain peak reperfusion flow (Tmax) by laser Doppler flowmetry, were recruited. Blood genomic DNA was assessed for epigenetic modifications in the eNOS gene using pyrosequencing. Children with no evidence of OSA or endothelial dysfunction served as a control group. The study comprised 36 children with OSA (11 with OSAab and 25 with OSAn) and 35 children in the control group. Overall, the mean age was 7.5 ± 2.4 years, 65% were boys, and 30% were obese; mean apnea-hypopnea index was 18 ± 8.6/h of sleep for the children with OSA. Tmax was 66.7 ± 8.8 s in the OSAab group and 30.1 ± 8.3 s in the OSAn group (P < .001). Pyrosequencing of the proximal promoter region of the eNOS gene revealed no significant differences in six of the seven CpG sites. However, a CpG site located at position -171 (relative to transcription start site), approximating important transcriptional elements, displayed significantly higher methylation levels in the OSAab group as compared with the OSAn or control groups (81.5% ± 3.5%, 74.8% ± 1.4%, and 74.5% ± 1.7%, respectively; P < .001). eNOS mRNA expression levels were assessed in a separate group of children and were significantly reduced in the OSAab

  13. Estrogen Receptor Signaling and the PI3K/Akt Pathway Are Involved in Betulinic Acid-Induced eNOS Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hohmann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid (BA is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid with anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anti-cancer properties. Beneficial cardiovascular effects such as increased nitric oxide (NO production through enhancement of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS activity and upregulation of eNOS expression have been demonstrated for this compound. In the present study, immortalized human EA.hy 926 endothelial cells were incubated for up to 1 h with 1–100 µM BA and with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin, or the estrogen receptor (ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Phosphorylation status of eNOS and total eNOS protein were analyzed by Western blotting using a serine 1177 phosphosite-specific antibody. Bioactive NO production was assessed by determination of cGMP content in rat lung fibroblasts (RFL-6 reporter cells. Short-term incubation of EA.hy 926 cells with BA resulted in eNOS phosphorylation at the serine 1177 residue in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with a half-maximal effective concentration of 0.57 µM. This was associated with an enhanced production of NO. BA-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production was completely blocked by pretreatment with ICI 182,780, and was attenuated by pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. These results indicate that fast non-genomic effects of ER with downstream signaling through the PI3K/Akt pathway and consecutive eNOS phosphorylation at serine 1177 are involved in BA-induced eNOS activation.

  14. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Mat...

  15. FEATURES OF THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF POLYMORPHIC VARIANTS OF ENOS AND AGTR2 GENES IN PATIENTS WITH CAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Khokhlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a major cause of mortality. Morphological substrate of CHD in most cases is atherosclerosis, which is based on structural genes polymorphism eNOS and AGTR2. The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of eNOS and AGTR2 genes in patients with coronary artery disease and the association of these genes with coronary heart disease. The study involved 187 patients aged 36 to 86 years (62,2±11,2 with different forms of CHD: stable and unstable angina, myocardial infarction and 45 people without CHD. Determination of gene polymorphisms was performed by real-time PCR analyzer of nucleic acids IQ 5 Bio-Rad. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0. The study revealed a significant difference between the incidence of homozygous AA allelic variant gene AGTR2 group of patients with myocardial infarction and the comparison group; polymorphic variant AA AGTR2 gene is associated with earlier onset of coronary artery disease; It found that carriers of the polymorphic variant gene GA AGTR2 beginning statistically CHD occurred significantly later than in carriers of alleles GG and AA; age CHD debut TT allele carriers of the eNOS gene is associated with an earlier onset of the disease and statistically significantly different from the age of first CHD in carriers of alleles of polymorphic variants of GG and GT; revealed a positive correlation between the polymorphic allele AGTR2 gene with the presence of arterial hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease; It determined that the T allele carriers of the polymorphic gene eNOS is associated more early onset of hypertension, found the association of the polymorphic allele gene AGTR2 the need to use higher doses of ACE inhibitor — perindopril.

  16. Immunomodulatory effects of royal jelly on aorta CD3, CD68 and eNOS expression in hypercholesterolaemic rats

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    Amal Attia El-Morsy Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    RJ administration (300 mg/kg/day with CH, produced a counteractive effect, represented in recompense of biochemical alteration, CD4 and CD8 expression. RJ intake also amended the histological picture. The immunohistochemical picture revealed a decrease in CD3, CD86 and eNOS in the aortic tissue. These findings attributed to the significant immunomodulatory effect of RJ remedy suppress deleterious effects of hypercholesterolaemia.

  17. Prevalence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene exon 7 Glu298Asp variant in North Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarishan, Priyanka; Borah, Prasanta Kumar; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives Endothelial nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator and impairment of its generation brought about by gene polymorphism is considered a major predictor for several diseases. A single nucleotide polymorphism G894T within exon 7 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-7) gene, resulting in a replacement of glutamic acid by aspartic acid, has been studied as a putative candidate gene for cardiovascular diseases. The pattern of eNOS-7 Glu298Asp variant in the Indian population is poorly known. The present study was planned to determine the prevalence of the variant of this gene among tea garden community in Assam, North-East India with high prevalence of hypertension. Methods Study participants of both sex aged ≥18 yr were recruited randomly from temporary field clinics established in tea gardens of Dibrugarh, Assam. Genomic DNA was extracted from 409 subjects by the conventional phenol-chloroform method. The prevalence of the eNOS exon 7 Glu298Asp variant was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results The study population was in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. The frequency of the eNOS GG, GT and TT genotypes was found to be 75, 22 and 3 per cent respectively and did not show any significant difference in gender wise analysis. Interpretation & conclusions Our results showed that the prevalence of the homozygous GG genotype was high (75%) and the rare mutant genotype (homozygous, TT) was 3 per cent in a population at risk with cardiovascular disease. Such population-based data on various polymorphisms can ultimately be exploited in pharmacogenomics. PMID:21623032

  18. Substance P ameliorates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced endothelial cell dysfunction by regulating eNOS expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Jiyuan; Hong, Hyun Sook; Son, Youngsook

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of SP on NO production and inflammation-induced vascular endothelium cell death. To mimic the inflammatory environment, TNF-α was treated with HUVECs, and SP was added prior to TNF-α to determine its protective effect. WST-1 assay was performed to detect cell viability. NO level in conditioned medium was measured by Griess Reagent System. The protein level of cleaved caspase-3, eNOS, and phosphorylated Akt was detected by Western blot analysis. TNF-α declined endothelial cell viability by downregulating Akt and NO production. TNF-α-induced cell death was reliably restored by NO, confirming the requirement of NO for cell survival. By contrast, pretreatment of SP attenuated TNF-α-induced cellular apoptosis, accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS expression, and NO production. Blockage of NK-1R, phosphorylated Akt or eNOS by CP-96345, A6730, or L-NAME entirely eliminated the effect of SP. SP can protect the vascular endothelium against inflammation-induced damage through modulation of the Akt/eNOS/NO signaling pathway. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Efectos ecológicos del fenómeno ENOS en Colombia

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    Yesid Carvajal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno ENOS, tiene un sustancial efecto sobre las variaciones del clima a nivel mundial; por lo tanto, no sorprende que sus efectos tengan un impacto ecológico y socioeconómico fuerte, alterando la seguridad alimentaria de los países a nivel mundial. Ante este panorama, es comprensible que haya despertado el mayor interés mundial, no sólo en los especialistas en meteorología y oceanografía sino también entre biólogos, ecólogos, físicos, matemáticos, agrónomos, hidrólogos, economistas, sociólogos y planificadores, entre otros. En el presente documento, se muestra algunos de los principales efectos ecológicos en Colombia durante las fases extremas cálida (El Niño y fría (La Niña, indicando que es una necesidad urgente, orientar la investigación en sus causas, consecuencias e impactos.

  20. Association of eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and plasma nitric oxide with risk of non-small cell lung cancer in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddireddy, Vidyullatha; Badabagni, Siva Prasad; Gundimeda, Sandhya Devi; Mundluru, Hema Prasad

    2018-01-01

    The role of ACE and eNOS gene polymorphisms and their association with various cancers were reported. However, their role in the lung cancer is unclear. In this study, we analyzed eNOS and ACE gene polymorphisms and the risk of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in South Indian population. For the eNOS gene, the homozygous "AA" genotypic frequency was significantly associated with NSCLC with an overall risk of 3.6-fold (P = 0.006, odds ratio = 3.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.66, 7.723). The heterozygous "I/D" genotypic frequency of ACE gene was significantly higher in NSCLC patients when compared to the controls with a 2.29-fold risk for NSCLC. Multiple regression analyses indicated that gender, smoking status, and polymorphisms in eNOS and ACE genes as the strongest predicting factors for an increased susceptibility to NSCLC. We report for the first time that polymorphisms in the eNOS "A/A" (homozygous mutant) and ACE "I/D" genotypes might contribute to the increased risk of NSCLC in the South Indian population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Investigation of gene expression and serum levels of PIN1 and eNOS with high blood pressure in patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mina; Nikanfar, Masoud; Khakikhatibi, Fatemeh; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nourazarian, Seyed Manuchehr; Biray Avci, Cigir; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    According to evidence, Alzheimer's disease is known as one of the most serious neurodegenerative diseases, for which hypertension has been observed to be a key risk factor. Therefore, this study aims to examine the relationship between the PIN1 and eNOS genes expression, as well as serum levels and hypertension in Alzheimer's disease sufferers. Blood samples were obtained from subjects who were divided into four groups: the control group, normotensive Alzheimer's patients, the Alzheimer's sufferers group with hypertension, and the healthy group with only hypertension, considering the inhibition of confounding factors. Thereafter, eNOS and PIN1 genes expression along with serum levels were studied. Based on the obtained results, a statistically significant correlation didn't exist between serum level of PIN1 and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, between serum level of eNOS and diastolic blood pressure in the norm tension Alzheimer's disease patients, between serum levels of PIN1, eNOS and systolic blood pressure, and between serum eNOS and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the patients with hypertension (pdiseases in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of atorvastatin and T-786C polymorphism of eNOS gene on plasma metabolic lipid parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Vanessa Helena de Souza; Santos, José Eduardo Tanus dos; Danelon, Mirian Regina Gardin; Silva, Roger Marcelo Mesquita da; Panzoldo, Natália Baratella; Parra, Eliane Soler; Alexandre, Fernanda; Virgínio, Vítor Wilson de Moura; Quintão, Eder Carlos Rocha; Faria, Eliana Cotta de

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity may be modulated by high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), statins or polymorphisms, such as the T-786C of eNOS. This study aimed at evaluating if the T-786C polymorphism is associated with changes of atorvastatin effects on the lipid profile, on the concentrations of metabolites of nitric oxide (NO) and of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Thirty male volunteers, asymptomatic, aged between 18 and 56 years were genotyped and classified according to absence (TT, n = 15) or presence (CC, n = 15) of the polymorphism. They were randomly selected for the use of placebo or atorvastatin (10 mg/day/14 days). After each treatment lipids, lipoproteins, HDL2 and HDL3 composition, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, metabolites of NO and hsCRP were evaluated. The comparisons between genotypes after placebo showed an increase in CETP activity in a polymorphism-dependent way (TT, 12±7; CC, 22±12; p < 0.05). The interaction analyses between treatments indicated that atorvastatin has an effect on cholesterol, LDL, nitrite and lipid-protein ratios (HDL2 and HDL3) (p < 0.001) in both genotypes. Interestingly, we observed genotype/drug interactions on CETP (p < 0.07) and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) (p < 0.056), leading to a borderline decrease in CETP, but with no effect on Lp(a). HsCRP showed no alteration. These results suggest that statin treatment may be relevant for primary prevention of atherosclerosis in patients with the T-786C polymorphism of eNOS, considering the effects on lipid metabolism.

  3. eNOS se correlaciona com a biogênese mitocondrial em corações com cardiopatia congênita e cianose eNOS correlates with mitochondrial biogenesis in hearts of congenital heart disease with cyanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O programa de biogênese mitocondrial no coração parece apresentar remodelação adaptativa após estresse biomecânico e oxidativo. Os mecanismos adaptativos que protegem o metabolismo do miocárdio durante a hipóxia são coordenados, em parte, pelo óxido nítrico (NO. OBJETIVO: Observar a biogênese mitocondrial e expressão do óxido nítrico sintase (NOS em corações de cardiopatia congênita com cianose; discutir a resposta mitocondrial à hipóxia crônica do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Foram investigados 20 pacientes com defeitos cardíacos cianóticos (n = 10 ou acianóticos (n = 10. Foram estudadas amostras do miocárdio na via de saída ventricular direita, tomadas durante a operação. A análise morfométrica de mitocôndrias foi realizada por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. A relação mtDNA/nDNA foi determinada com PCR em tempo real. Os níveis de transcrição da subunidade I da citocromo c oxidase (COXI, coativador-1α do receptor γ ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma (PGC-1α, o fator respiratório nuclear 1 (NRF1, e fator de transcrição mitocondrial A (Tfam foram detectados por reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR ativado por fluorescência em tempo real. Os níveis proteicos de COXI e nNOS, iNOS e eNOS foram medidos por técnica de Western Blot. RESULTADOS: A densidade volumétrica mitocondrial (Vv e a densidade numérica (Nv foram significativamente elevadas em pacientes com cianose, em comparação com a cardiopatia congênita acianótica. MtDNA elevada e suprarregulação dos níveis de COXI, PGC-1 α, NRF1 e Tfam mRNA foram observadas em pacientes cianóticos. Os níveis de proteína de COXI e eNOS foram significativamente maiores no miocárdio de pacientes cianóticos que nos de acianóticos. Os níveis de transcrição do PGC-1α se correlacionam com os níveis de eNOS. CONCLUSÃO: A biogênese mitocondrial é ativada no miocárdio da via de saída ventricular na

  4. Relationship between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and natural history of intracranial aneurysms: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Paschoal Junior, Fernando Mendes; Jong-A-Liem, Glaucia Suzanna; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Yamada, Elizabeth Sumi; Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, Ândrea; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2018-01-01

    The aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major public health problem described as a sudden drastic event with no warning symptoms and high morbidity and mortality rates. The role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism in intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is still a matter of controversy with divergent findings among European, American, and Asian populations. Our study purposed to test the association between intracranial aneurysms formation and nitric oxide gene polymorphisms through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic search on Medline, Lilacs, and EMBASE was performed. The primary search resulted in 139 papers, out of which 9 met our inclusion criteria after a full text analysis. The dominant T786C model found a significant association with IA (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.04-1.44, p = 0.01), so did studies of the recessive T786C model (OR 0.37, 95 % CI 0.30-0.45, p < 0.0001) but with opposite effect. Our findings support the presence of the T786C polymorphism as a predictor for the development of intracranial aneurysm in the cerebral vascular system. More studies are necessary in order to elucidate the pathways of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cerebrovascular diseases and in defining how different allelic combinations of the eNOS gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) could favor this pathological process.

  5. Prunella vulgaris Suppresses HG-Induced Vascular Inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS Activation

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    Ho Sub Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV on high glucose (HG-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC are reported. APV decreased HG-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and E-selectin. APV also dose-dependently inhibited HG-induced adhesion of HL-60 monocytic cells. APV suppressed p65 NF-κB activation in HG-treated cells. APV significantly inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. HG-stimulated HUVEC secreted gelatinases, however, APV inhibited it. APV induced Akt phosphorylation as well as activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, eNOS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which may protect vascular inflammation caused by HG. In conclusion, APV exerts anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of ROS/NF-κB pathway by inducing HO-1 and eNOS expression mediated by Nrf2, thereby suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of diabetic vascular diseases.

  6. Sildenafil Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Role of iNOS and eNOS

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    Mohamed A. Morsy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, is used for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. However, its usefulness is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, was reported to prevent or decrease tissue injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential protective effects of sildenafil on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 6 days with and without sildenafil. Sildenafil administration resulted in nephroprotective effect in gentamicin-intoxicated rats as it significantly decreased serum creatinine and urea, urinary albumin, and renal malondialdehyde and nitrite/nitrate levels, with a concomitant increase in renal catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared to gentamicin-treated rats. Moreover, immunohistochemical examination revealed that sildenafil treatment markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression, while expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was markedly enhanced. The protective effects of sildenafil were verified histopathologically. In conclusion, sildenafil protects rats against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity possibly, in part, through its antioxidant activity, inhibition of iNOS expression, and induction of eNOS production.

  7. NOX4-dependent Hydrogen peroxide promotes shear stress-induced SHP2 sulfenylation and eNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Calvo, Enrique; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Anilkumar, Narayana; Shah, Ajay M; Schröder, Katrin; Brandes, Ralf P; Vázquez, Jesús; Lamas, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    Laminar shear stress (LSS) triggers signals that ultimately result in atheroprotection and vasodilatation. Early responses are related to the activation of specific signaling cascades. We investigated the participation of redox-mediated modifications and in particular the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the sulfenylation of redox-sensitive phosphatases. Exposure of vascular endothelial cells to short periods of LSS (12 dyn/cm(2)) resulted in the generation of superoxide radical anion as detected by the formation of 2-hydroxyethidium by HPLC and its subsequent conversion to H2O2, which was corroborated by the increase in the fluorescence of the specific peroxide sensor HyPer. By using biotinylated dimedone we detected increased total protein sulfenylation in the bovine proteome, which was dependent on NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-mediated generation of peroxide. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed us to identify the phosphatase SHP2 as a protein susceptible to sulfenylation under LSS. Given the dependence of FAK activity on SHP2 function, we explored the role of FAK under LSS conditions. FAK activation and subsequent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation were promoted by LSS and both processes were dependent on NOX4, as demonstrated in lung endothelial cells isolated from NOX4-null mice. These results support the idea that LSS elicits redox-sensitive signal transduction responses involving NOX4-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide, SHP2 sulfenylation, and ulterior FAK-mediated eNOS activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells

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    Kathrin Mutze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue destruction during lung injury. It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI and type II (ATII cells. ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2 and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. This was accompanied by increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Notably, ENO1 and PDIA3, along with T1α (podoplanin; an ATI cell marker, exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. We observed reduced CBR2 significantly correlating with surfactant protein C (SFTPC, whereas ENO1 and PDIA3 along with T1α were increased in injured ATII cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair.

  9. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance.

  10. Eno-culture and Identity: The installation as a new methodology in Artistic Research and Heritage Education

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    Ruth Marañón Martínez de la Puente

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic experience and the artistic knowledge always have been connected with the Heritage Education, due to the great importance in rewarding pedagogic processes, specially, in non-formal spaces. In our research, the installation (with its features and competences has turned into the most interesting educational tool to transform the reality of our work’s context: Rioja Alavesa. Thus, across the workshops "Instálate" (organized inside different wineries of the region, we worked the Wine Cultural Heritage (Eno-culture, the Artistic Research and the knowledge based on the sensitive experience. In this article, we showed the results of this experience, proposing the installation as a new interesting and practical method of Artistic Research in Heritage Education. In conclusion, we propose the art-installation as a different key to work the identity, contemporary art, culture and heritage.

  11. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

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    Beatriz C S Boa

    Full Text Available Obesity is epidemic in the western world and central adipose tissue deposition points to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, independently of any association between obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors. Physical exercise has been used as non-pharmacological treatment to significantly reverse/attenuate obesity comorbidities. In this study we have investigated effects of exercise and/or dietary modification on microcirculatory function, body composition, serum glucose, iNOS and eNOS expression on 120 male hamsters treated for 12 weeks with high fat chow (HF, n = 30 starting on the 21st day of birth. From week 12 to 20, animals were randomly separated in HF (no treatment change, return to standard chow (HFSC, n = 30, high fat chow associated to an aerobic exercise training program (AET (HFEX, n = 30 and return to standard chow+AET (HFSCEX, n = 30. Microvascular reactivity in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside and macromolecular permeability increase induced by 30 minutes ischemia followed by reperfusion were assessed on the cheek pouch preparation. Total body fat and aorta eNOS and iNOS expression by immunoblotting assay were evaluated on the experimental day. Compared to HFSC and HFSCEX groups, HF and HFEX ones presented increased visceral fat [(mean±SEM (HF4.9±1.5 g and (HFEX4.7±0.9 g vs. (HFSC*3.0±0.7 g and (HFSCEX*1.9±0.4 g/100 g BW]; impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation [Ach 10(-8 M (HF87.9±2.7%; (HFSC*116.7±5.9%; (HFEX*109.1±4.6%; (HFSCEX*105±2.8%; Ach10(-6 M (HF95.3±3.1%; (HFSC*126±6.2%; (HFEX*122.5±2.8%; (HFSCEX*118.1±4.3% and Ach10(-4 M (HF109.5±4.8%; (HFSC*149.6±6.6%; (HFEX*143.5±5.4% and (HFSCEX*139.4±5.2%], macromolecular permeability increase after ischemia/reperfusion [(HF40.5±4.2; (HFSC*19.0±1.6; (HFEX*18.6±2.1 and (HFSCEX* 21.5±3.7 leaks/cm2, decreased eNOS expression, increased leptin and glycaemic levels. Endothelial-independent microvascular

  12. A Multilevel Prediction of Physiological Response to Challenge: Interactions among Child Maltreatment, Neighborhood Crime, eNOS and GABRA6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins – i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment – and specific genetic polymorphisms of eNOS and GABRA6. A total of 186 children were recruited at age 4. At this time, the presence or absence of child maltreatment was determined, as was the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge – i.e., change in the amplitude of RSA – was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. Results confirmed that complex G x G, E x E, and G x E interactions were associated with different patterns of RSA reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed. PMID:26535938

  13. Fiscal 1999 research result report on energy and environment technology demonstration research support project (International joint demonstration research project). Improvement of long-distant power transmission efficiency and reliability, and its environmental impact assessment; 1999 nendo chokyori soden hoshiki ni kansuru soden koritsu to soden shinraido no kojo oyobi kankyo eno eikyo hyoka seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Japan-Russia international joint research was made on overhead ultrahigh-voltage DC power transmission lines for transmission loss reduction and reliability improvement, and an optimum international power supply cable system, considering energy saving and environment conservation. Using the European-Russian DC power transmission line of {+-}500kV and 4GW as a model, comparison was made between a model using Russian round strands and glass insulators and a model using Japanese low-loss wires and insulators. As for improvement of the reliability in cold districts, Russian design techniques for tower structure and ice loading were reasonable to counteract galloping oscillation and ice load. In evaluation and selection of optimum underground and marine cables, study was made on cable specifications using the Turkey-Russia power transmission route as a model. The environmental assessment result of these cables showed that XLPE cable under development is optimum. (NEDO)

  14. Effects of aerobic exercise on the blood pressure, oxidative stress and eNOS gene polymorphism in pre-hypertensive older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Anderson Saranz; Park, Joon-Young; Fenty-Stewart, Nicola; Silveira, Leonardo Reis; Kokubun, Eduardo; Brown, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    The polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are associated with reduced eNOS activity. Aerobic exercise training (AEX) may influence resting nitric oxide (NO) production, oxidative stress and blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of AEX on the relationship among blood pressure, eNOS gene polymorphism and oxidative stress in pre-hypertensive older people. 118 pre-hypertensive subjects (59 ± 6 years) had blood samples collected after a 12 h overnight fast for assessing plasma NO metabolites (NOx) assays, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS) and superoxide dismutase activity (ecSOD). eNOS polymorphism (T-786C and G-894T) was done by standard PCR methods. All people were divided according to the genotype results (G1: TT/GG, G2: TT/GT + TT, G3: TC + CC/GG, G4: TC + CC/GT + TT). All parameters were measured before and after 6 months of AEX (70% of VO(2 max)). At baseline, no difference was found in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, ecSOD and T-BARS activity. Plasma NOx levels were significantly different between G1 (19 ± 1 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM) and between G2 (20.1 ± 1.7 μM) and G4 (14.2 ± 0.6 μM). Therefore, reduced NOx concentration in G4 group occurred only when the polymorphisms were associated, suggesting that these results are more related to genetic factors than NO-scavenging effect. After AEX, the G4 increased NOx values (17.2 ± 1.2 μM) and decreased blood pressure. G1, G3 and G4 decreased T-BARS levels. These results suggest the AEX can modulate the NOx concentration, eNOS activity and the relationship among eNOS gene polymorphism, oxidative stress and blood pressure especially in C (T-786C) and T (G-894T) allele carriers.

  15. Evaluation of Protective Immune Responses Induced by Recombinant TrxLp and ENO2 Proteins against Toxoplasma gondii Infection in BALB/c Mice

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    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic protozoan that can infect almost all species of warm-blooded animals. As any chemical-based drugs could not act against the tissue cyst stage of T. gondii, vaccination may be one of the ideal control strategies. In the present study, two new vaccine candidates, named TgENO2 and TgTrxLp, were purified from Escherichia coli with pET-30a(+ expression system and then were injected into BALB/c mice to evaluate the protective efficacy against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. The results showed that both the recombinant proteins, either alone or in combination, could elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses with a higher level of IgG antibodies, IFN-γ, IL-2, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells as compared to those in mice from control groups. After acute challenge with tachyzoites of the GJS strain, mice immunized with rTgTrxLp (8±2.77 d, rTgENO2 (7.4±1.81 d, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 (8.38±4.57 d proteins showed significantly longer survival time than those that received Freund’s adjuvant (6.78±2.08 d and PBS (6.38±4.65 d (χ2 = 9.687, df = 4, P=0.046. The protective immunity of rTgTrxLp, rTgENO2, and rTgTrxLp + rTgENO2 proteins against chronic T. gondii infection showed 69.77%, 58.14%, and 20.93% brain cyst reduction as compared to mice that received PBS. The present study suggested that both TgENO2 and TgTrxLp were potential candidates for the development of multicomponent vaccines against toxoplasmosis.

  16. Activation of eNOS by D-pinitol Induces an Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilatation in Mouse Mesenteric Artery

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    Luciana N. Moreira

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available D-pinitol is a cyclitol present in several edible plant species and extensively investigated for the treatment of metabolic diseases in humans, as food supplement, and demonstrated protective effects in the cardiovascular system. For these reasons, the present work aimed at investigating the mechanisms involved in the vascular effects of D-pinitol in mouse mesenteric artery. Mesenteric arteries from male C57BL/6 mice were mounted in a wire myograph. Nitrite was measured by the 2,3-diaminonaphthalene (DAN method. Protein expression and phosphorylation were measured by Western blot. The systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. D-pinitol induced a concentration-dependent vasodilatation in endothelium-intact, but not in endothelium-denuded arteries. Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (300 μM abolished the effect of D-pinitol, while 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 μM shifted the concentration-response curve to the right. KN-93 (1 μM blunted the vasodilator effect of D-pinitol, but H-89 (0.1 μM did not change it. 1-[2-(Trifluoromethyl phenyl]imidazole (300 μM, indomethacin (10 μM, celecoxib (5 μM, wortmannin (1 μM, ruthenium red (10 μM, tiron (10 μM, MnTMPyP (30 μM, MPP (0.1 μM, PHTPP (0.1 μM, and atropine (1 μM did not change the effect of D-pinitol. D-pinitol increased the concentration of nitrite, which was inhibited by L-NAME and calmidazolium (10 μM. D-pinitol increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS activation site at Ser1177 and reduced the phosphorylation level of its inactivation site at Thr495. In normotensive mice, the intraperitoneal administration of D-pinitol (10 mg/kg induced a significant reduction of the SBP after 30 min. The present results led us to conclude that D-pinitol has an endothelium- and NO-dependent vasodilator effect in mouse mesenteric artery through a mechanism dependent on the activation of eNOS by the calcium-calmodulin complex, which can explain its

  17. Variable effects of maternal and paternal-fetal contribution to the risk for preeclampsia combining GSTP1, eNOS, and LPL gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Kalliopi I; Roubelakis, Maria; Vlachos, George; Marinopoulos, Spyros; Zissou, Antonia; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the maternal, paternal, and fetal genotype contribution to preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: We combined the analysis of polymorphisms of the GSTP1, eNOS, and LPL genes - affecting biotransformation enzymes and endothelial function - in a cohort of 167 preeclamptic and normal control trios (mother, father, and child) comprising a total of 501 samples in the Greek population, never analyzed before by this approach. For the frequency of the GSTP1 Ile(105)/Val(105), the eNOS Glu298Asp and the LPL-93 polymorphisms, statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. However, the transmission rates of the parental alleles to neonates studied by the transmission disequilibrium test, disclosed no increased rate of transmission to preeclampsia children for the variant alleles of Val(105) GSTP1, 298Asp eNOS, and -93G LPL. These novel data, suggest that interaction of all three types of genotypes (mother, father and neonate), reveals no effects on the development of preeclampsia, but provide the impetus for further studies to decipher the individual contribution of each genetic parameter of preeclampsia.

  18. Exercise Training Could Improve Age-Related Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow and Capillary Vascularity through the Upregulation of VEGF and eNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheepsumon Viboolvorakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise training on age-induced microvascular alterations in the brain. Additionally, the association with the protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was also assessed. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary-young (SE-Young, n=5, sedentary aged (SE-Aged, n=8, immersed-aged (IM-Aged, n=5, and exercise trained-aged (ET-Aged, 60 minutes/day and 5 days/week for 8 weeks, n=8 rats. The MAPs of all aged groups, SE-Aged, IM-Aged, and ET-Aged, were significantly higher than that of the SE-Young group. The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the SE-Aged and IM-Aged was significantly decreased as compared to SE-Young groups. However, rCBF of ET-Aged group was significantly higher than that in the IM-Aged group (P<0.05. Moreover, the percentage of capillary vascularity (%CV and the levels of VEGF and eNOS in the ET-Aged group were significantly increased compared to the IM-Aged group (P<0.05. These results imply that exercise training could improve age-induced microvascular changes and hypoperfusion closely associated with the upregulation of VEGF and eNOS.

  19. Marine Compound Catunaregin Inhibits Angiogenesis through the Modulation of Phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in vivo and in vitro

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    Jun-Xiu Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. Excessive or uncontrolled angiogenesis is a major contributor to many pathological conditions whereas inhibition of aberrant angiogenesis is beneficial to patients with pathological angiogenesis. Catunaregin is a core of novel marine compound isolated from mangrove associate. The potential anti-angiogenesis of catunaregin was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and zebrafish. HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of catunaregin in the presence or absence of VEGF. The angiogenic phenotypes including cell invasion cell migration and tube formation were evaluated following catunaregin treatment in HUVECs. The possible involvement of AKT, eNOS and ERK1/2 in catunaregin-induced anti-angiogenesis was explored using Western blotting. The anti-angiogenesis of catunaregin was further tested in the zebrafish embryo neovascularization and caudal fin regeneration assays. We found that catunaregin dose-dependently inhibited angiogenesis in both HUVECs and zebrafish embryo neovascularization and zebrafish caudal fin regeneration assays. In addition, catunaregin significantly decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, but not the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. The present work demonstrates that catunaregin exerts the anti-angiogenic activity at least in part through the regulation of the Akt and eNOS signaling pathways.

  20. Expression profiles of eNOS, iNOS and microRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum of rats submitted to chronic alcoholism and Diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Joao Paulo da; Lizarte, Fermino Sanches; Novais, Paulo Cezar; Gattas, Daniela; Carvalho, Camila Albuquerque Mello de; Tirapelli, Daniela Pretti da Cunha; Molina, Carlos Augusto Fernandes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Tucci, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the expression of endothelial and inducible NOS in addition to the miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood of healthy rats, diabetic rats, alcoholic rats and rats with both pathologies. Forty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (C), alcoholic (A), diabetic (D) and alcoholic-diabetic (AD). Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study protein expressions of eNOS and iNOS by immunohistochemistry and expression of miRNA-27b in the corpus cavernosum and peripheral blood. Immunohistochemistry for eNOS and iNOS showed an increase in cavernosal smooth muscle cells in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups when compared with the control group. Similarly, the mRNA levels for eNOS were increased in cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups and miRNA-27b were decreased in CSM in the alcoholic, diabetic and alcoholic-diabetic groups. The major new finding of our study was an impairment of relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle in alcoholic, diabetic, and alcoholic-diabetic rats that involved a decrease in the nitric oxide pathway by endothelium-dependent mechanisms accompanied by a change in the corpus cavernosum contractile sensitivity.

  1. Glycolipids from spinach suppress LPS-induced vascular inflammation through eNOS and NK-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masakazu; Nakahara, Tatsuo; Araho, Daisuke; Murakami, Juri; Nishimura, Masahiro

    2017-07-01

    Glycolipids are the major constituent of the thylakoid membrane of higher plants and have a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. However, anti-inflammatory effects of glycolipids on vascular endothelial cells have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of glycolipids extracted from spinach on lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced endothelial inflammation and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Treatment with glycolipids from spinach had no cytotoxic effects on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and significantly blocked the expression of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in them. Glycolipids treatment also effectively suppressed monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. Treatment with glycolipids inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In addition, glycolipids treatment significantly promoted endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and nitric oxide (NO) production in HUVECs. Furthermore, glycolipids treatment blocked LPS-induced inducible NOS (iNOS) expression in HUVECs. Pretreatment with a NOS inhibitor attenuated glycolipids-induced suppression of NF-κB activation and adhesion molecule expression, and abolished the glycolipids-mediated suppression of monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. These results indicate that glycolipids suppress LPS-induced vascular inflammation through attenuation of the NF-κB pathway by increasing NO production in endothelial cells. These findings suggest that glycolipids from spinach may have a potential therapeutic use for inflammatory vascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of high protein diet and exercise on irisin, eNOS, and iNOS expressions in kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastekin, Ebru; Palabiyik, Orkide; Ulucam, Enis; Uzgur, Selda; Karaca, Aziz; Vardar, Selma Arzu; Yilmaz, Ali; Aydogdu, Nurettin

    2016-08-01

    Long-term effects of high protein diets (HPDs) on kidneys are still not sufficiently studied. Irisin which increases oxygen consumption and thermogenesis in white fat cells was shown in skeletal muscles and many tissues. Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. We aimed to investigate the effects of HPD, irisin and NO expression in kidney and relation of them with exercise and among themselves. Animals were grouped as control, exercise, HPD and exercise combined with HPD (exercise-HPD). Rats were kept on a HPD for 5 weeks and an exercise program was given them as 5 exercise and 2 rest days per week exercising on a treadmill with increasing speed and angle. In our study, while HPD group had similar total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels with control group, exercise and exercise-HPD groups had lower levels (p highly selective and quite clear in this study. Effects of exercise and HPD on kidney should be evaluated with different exercise protocols and contents of the diet. İrisin, eNOS, and iNOS staining localizations should be supported with various research studies.

  3. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P. [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Searles, Charles D., E-mail: csearle@emory.edu [Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 1639 Pierce Drive, WMB 319, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, 1670 Clarimont Road, Decatur, GA 30033 (United States)

    2010-03-19

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  4. Ibuprofen arginate retains eNOS substrate activity and reverses endothelial dysfunction: implications for the COX-2/ADMA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S; Tesfai, Abel; Ahmetaj-Shala, Blerina; Gashaw, Hime H; Sampaio, Walkyria; Etelvino, Gisele; Leão, Nádia Miricéia; Santos, Robson A; Mitchell, Jane A

    2016-12-01

    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, are among the most commonly used medications and produce their antiinflammatory effects by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Their use is associated with increased risk of heart attacks caused by blocking COX-2 in the vasculature and/or kidney, with our recent work implicating the endogenous NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a cardiotoxic hormone whose effects can be prevented by l-arginine. The ibuprofen salt ibuprofen arginate (Spididol) was created to increase solubility but we suggest that it could also augment the NO pathway through codelivery of arginine. Here we investigated the idea that ibuprofen arginate can act to simultaneously inhibit COX-2 and preserve the NO pathway. Ibuprofen arginate functioned similarly to ibuprofen sodium for inhibition of mouse/human COX-2, but only ibuprofen arginate served as a substrate for NOS. Ibuprofen arginate but not ibuprofen sodium also reversed the inhibitory effects of ADMA and N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester on inducible NOS (macrophages) and endothelial NOS in vitro (aorta) and in vivo (blood pressure). These observations show that ibuprofen arginate provides, in one preparation, a COX-2 inhibitor and NOS substrate that could act to negate the harmful cardiovascular consequences mediated by blocking renal COX-2 and increased ADMA. While remarkably simple, our findings are potentially game-changing in the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug arena.-Kirkby, N. S., Tesfai, A., Ahmetaj-Shala, B., Gashaw, H. H., Sampaio, W., Etelvino, G., Leão, N. M., Santos, R. A., Mitchell, J. A. Ibuprofen arginate retains eNOS substrate activity and reverses endothelial dysfunction: implications for the COX-2/ADMA axis. © The Author(s).

  5. Arginase up-regulation and eNOS uncoupling contribute to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a rat model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandvuillemin, Isabelle; Buffat, Christophe; Boubred, Farid; Lamy, Edouard; Fromonot, Julien; Charpiot, Philippe; Simoncini, Stephanie; Sabatier, Florence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Peyter, Anne-Christine; Simeoni, Umberto; Yzydorczyk, Catherine

    2018-05-09

    Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, notably hypertension (HTN). Alterations in the vascular system, particularly impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, may play an important role in long-term effects of IUGR. Whether such vascular dysfunction precedes HTN has not been fully established in individuals born after IUGR. Moreover, the intimate mechanisms of altered endothelium-dependent vasodilation remain incompletely elucidated. We therefore investigated, using a rat model of IUGR, whether impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation precedes the development of HTN and whether key components of the L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway are involved in its pathogenesis. Pregnant rats were fed with a control (CTRL, 23% casein) or low-protein diet (LP, 9% casein) to induce IUGR. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography in 5- and 8-week-old male offspring. Aortic rings were isolated to investigate relaxation to acetylcholine, NO production, eNOS protein content, arginase activity, and superoxide anion production. SBP was not different at 5 weeks, but significantly increased in 8-week-old LP vs. CRTL offspring. In 5-week-old LP vs. CRTL males, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was significantly impaired, but restored by pre-incubation with L-Arginine or the arginase inhibitor BEC; NO production was significantly reduced, but restored by L-Arginine pretreatment; total eNOS protein, dimer/monomer ratio, and arginase activity were significantly increased; superoxide anion production was significantly enhanced, but normalized by pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor L-NNA. In this model, IUGR leads to early-impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, resulting from arginase up-regulation and eNOS uncoupling, which precedes the development of HTN.

  6. Enhanced estradiol-induced vasorelaxation in aortas from type 2 diabetic mice may reflect a compensatory role of p38 MAPK-mediated eNOS activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kumiko; Morishige, Akitaka; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Kamata, Katsuo; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular problems are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, mainly due to coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis, in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, female gender is a protective factor in the development of, for example, atherosclerosis and hypertension. One of the female hormones, 17β-estradiol (E2), is known to protect against the cardiovascular injury resulting from endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanism by which it does so remains unknown. Our hypothesis was that E2-mediated activation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the subsequent endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation, might protect the aorta in diabetic mellitus. The experimental type 2 diabetic model we employed to test that hypothesis (female mice given streptozotocin and nicotinamide) is here termed fDM. In fDM aortas, we examined the E2-induced relaxation response and the associated protein activities. In control (age-matched, nondiabetic) aortas, E2 induced a vascular relaxation response that was mediated via Akt/eNOS and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK)/eNOS pathways. In fDM aortas (vs. control aortas), (a) the E2-induced relaxation was enhanced, (b) the mediation of the response was different (via Akt/eNOS and p38 MAPK/eNOS pathways), and (c) E2 stimulation increased p38 MAPK and eNOS phosphorylations, decreased MEK phosphorylation, but did not alter estrogen receptor activity. We infer that at least in fDM aortas, E2 has beneficial effects (enhanced vascular relaxation and protection) that are mediated through Akt activation and (compensating for reduced MEK activation) p38 MAPK activation, leading to enhanced eNOS phosphorylation.

  7. Influence of eNOS gene 4a/bVNTR polymorphism on development of endothelial dysfunction and respiratory system disorders in children - residents of radioactively contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, Je.Yi.; Kolpakov, Yi.Je.; Zigalo, V.M.; And Others

    2015-01-01

    Total of 184 children were examined to determine the possible associative links between eNOS gene intron 4m polymorphism and indices characterizing the functional state of the endothelium and the bronchopulmonary system. Of them the main group of children consisted of 135 childrenresidents of radioactively contaminated areas, the control group - of 49 healthy children who lived in ''clean'' regions by the radioactive con tamination and were not belonging to victims of the Chernobyl accident contingents. The molecular genetic study determining the eNOS gene intron 4 polymorphism was performed. Children of the main group did not differ from that of control and literature data by the frequency of geno types 4a/b and eNOS gene allele polymorphism. An increase in the duration of circulation restoration up to the ini tial level after occlusion test was noted in children of the main group with genotype 4a/4b comparing to children with genotype 4b/4b ; a decrease in the nitrite content was observed in blood serum. The integral indices of elastic ity and tensility of the lung tissue, respiratory permeability were decreased; the signs of bronchospasm were record ed 1.5 times more often. These adverse effects were associated with the presence of genotype allele 4a , the signs of endothelial dysfunction and the level of the incorporated 137 Cs. More pronounced changes in vascular endothelial reaction to occlusion and the significant decrease of serum nitrite level in allele 4a carriers, especially in children who live in adverse ecological conditions, give the right to include them into the risk group for the development of endothelial dysfunction, and to conside pulmonary dysfunction as one of its manifestations

  8. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus O.; Mortensen, Alicja; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of estrogen replacement therapy or soy isoflavones supplement on endothelium-dependent relaxation in vitro and gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in cerebral arteries in a rabbit model of human hypercholesterolemia. Study design: Thirty...... cholesterol was significantly higher at termination in the SoyLife(R) group (P lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was comparable in all treatment groups. Neither treatment influenced the endothelium-dependent responses to carbamylcholine chloride or L-NAME or the endothelium...

  9. Influencia del fenómeno ENOS (El Niño y La Niña) en la disponibilidad de grados-día

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada García, Beatriz; Prela, Angélica; Sentelhas, Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la influencia del fenómeno ENOS (El Niño y La Niña) sobre la disponibilidad de calor, en 8 localidades, ubicadas en la región centro-occidental de Venezuela, utilizando concepto de grados-día (GD). Los cambios de la temperatura, representados por las variaciones en los GD, afectarían directamente el ciclo fenológico los cultivos, generando un incremento o reducción en función de desvíos positivos o negativos, respectivamente. Los GD estimados fueron agrupados según el evento predomi...

  10. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225, eNOS (rs1799983, CBS (rs2850144 and ACE (rs4343 gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects

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    Mehri Khatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case–control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively. The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD.

  11. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225), eNOS (rs1799983), CBS (rs2850144) and ACE (rs4343) gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mehri; Ratki, Farzaneh Morteza; Tajfar, Saba; Akrami, Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case-control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively). The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

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    Mahmoud Alhosin

    Full Text Available The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ, which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase, SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK. Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene.

  13. eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism is associated with development of complicated plaques in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis

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    Đurić Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide inhibits adhesion of thrombocytes, proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells and restricts oxidation of atherogenic low-density lipoproteins. Therefore, decreased production or activity of NO may play a role in the initiation, progression or complications of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of Glu298Asp eNOS gene polymorphism on the individual risk for development of complicated carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients from Serbia with advanced carotid atherosclerosis (CA who had undergone endarterectomy. The study population included 233 patients. eNOS G894T gene polymorphism was identified by PCR and RFLP methods. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Asp298Asp is an independent risk factor for the presence of complicated plaques in CA patients. Patients who were homozygous for the Asp298 allele had an adjusted OR of 4.36 for the development of complicated plaques compared to those that carry the Glu298 allele. Further validation and replication studies are needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI175085

  14. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in β-thalassemia occurs despite increased eNOS expression and preserved vascular smooth muscle cell reactivity to NO.

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    Ekatherina Stoyanova

    Full Text Available The hereditary β-thalassemia major condition requires regular lifelong blood transfusions. Transfusion-related iron overloading has been associated with the onset of cardiovascular complications, including cardiac dysfunction and vascular anomalies. By using an untransfused murine model of β-thalassemia major, we tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial dysfunction, alterations of arterial structure and of its mechanical properties would occur despite the absence of treatments.Vascular function and structure were evaluated ex vivo. Compared to the controls, endothelium-dependent vasodilation with acetylcholine was blunted in mesenteric resistance arteries of β-thalassemic mice while the endothelium-independent vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside produced comparable vessel dilation, indicating endothelial cell impairment with preserved smooth muscle cell reactivity to nitric oxide (NO. While these findings suggest a decrease in NO bioavailability, Western blotting showed heightened expression of aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in β-thalassemia. Vascular remodeling of the common carotid arteries revealed increased medial elastin content. Under isobaric conditions, the carotid arteries of β-thalassemic mice exhibited decreased wall stress and softening due to structural changes of the vessel wall.A complex vasculopathy was identified in untransfused β-thalassemic mice characterized by altered carotid artery structure and endothelial dysfunction of resistance arterioles, likely attributable to reduced NO bioavailability despite enhanced vascular eNOS expression.

  15. Differential effect of beetroot bread on postprandial DBP according to Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, D A; George, T W; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether the presence of Glu298Asp polymorphism in the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) gene differentially affects the postprandial blood pressure response to dietary nitrate-rich beetroot bread. A randomised, single-blind, controlled, crossover acute pilot study was performed in 14 healthy men (mean age: 34±9 years) who were retrospectively genotyped for Glu298Asp polymorphism (7GG; T carriers 7). Volunteers were randomised to receive 200 g beetroot-enriched bread (1.1 mmol nitrate) or control bread (no beetroot; 0.01 mmol nitrate) on two separate occasions 10 days apart. Baseline and incremental area under the curve of blood pressure and NOx (nitrate/nitrite) were measured for a 6-h postprandial period. A treatment × genotype interaction was observed for diastolic blood pressure (Pconsumption of beetroot bread compared with control bread. No significant differences were observed in the GG group. The beneficial diastolic blood pressure reduction was observed only in the T carriers of the Glu298Asp polymorphism in the eNOS gene after consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot bread. These data require confirmation in a larger population group.

  16. Hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by common bile duct ligation in a rabbit model: correlation between pulmonary vascular dilatation on thin-section CT and angiography and serum nitrite concentration or endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)1 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Nam; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Lee, Jin Wha; Kim, Ki Nam; Park, Byung Ho; Kwak, Jong Young; Jeong, Jin Sook; Kim, Young Hoon

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between radiologic vascular dilatation and serum nitrite concentration and eNOS expression in the endothelial cell and pneumocyte in a rabbit model of hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Thin-section CT scans of the lung and pulmonary angiography were obtained 3 weeks after CBDL (n=6), or a sham operation (n=4), and intrapulmonary vasodilatation was assessed. The diameter and tortuosity of peripheral vessels in the right lower lobe by thin-section CT and angiography at the same level of the right lower lobe in all subjects were correlated to serum nitrite concentration and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) expression as determined by immunostaining. The diameters of pulmonary vessels on thin-section CT were well correlated with nitrite concentrations in serum (r=0.92, ρ < 0.001). Dilated pulmonary vessels were significantly correlated with an increased eNOS expression (r=0.94, ρ < 0.0001), and the severity of pulmonary vessel tortuosity was found to be well correlated with serum nitrite concentration (r=0.90, ρ < 0.001). The peripheral pulmonary vasculature in hepatopulmonary syndrome induced by CBLD was dilated on thin-section CT and on angiographs. Our findings suggest that peripheral pulmonary vascular dilatations are correlated with serum nitrite concentrations and pulmonary eNOS expression

  17. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. ► Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. ► Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. ► L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. ► Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg −1 body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-κB. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be

  18. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic

  19. eNOS se correlaciona com a biogênese mitocondrial em corações com cardiopatia congênita e cianose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O programa de biogênese mitocondrial no coração parece apresentar remodelação adaptativa após estresse biomecânico e oxidativo. Os mecanismos adaptativos que protegem o metabolismo do miocárdio durante a hipóxia são coordenados, em parte, pelo óxido nítrico (NO. OBJETIVO: Observar a biogênese mitocondrial e expressão do óxido nítrico sintase (NOS em corações de cardiopatia congênita com cianose; discutir a resposta mitocondrial à hipóxia crônica do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Foram investigados 20 pacientes com defeitos cardíacos cianóticos (n = 10 ou acianóticos (n = 10. Foram estudadas amostras do miocárdio na via de saída ventricular direita, tomadas durante a operação. A análise morfométrica de mitocôndrias foi realizada por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. A relação mtDNA/nDNA foi determinada com PCR em tempo real. Os níveis de transcrição da subunidade I da citocromo c oxidase (COXI, coativador-1α do receptor γ ativado por proliferador de peroxissoma (PGC-1α, o fator respiratório nuclear 1 (NRF1, e fator de transcrição mitocondrial A (Tfam foram detectados por reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR ativado por fluorescência em tempo real. Os níveis proteicos de COXI e nNOS, iNOS e eNOS foram medidos por técnica de Western Blot. RESULTADOS: A densidade volumétrica mitocondrial (Vv e a densidade numérica (Nv foram significativamente elevadas em pacientes com cianose, em comparação com a cardiopatia congênita acianótica. MtDNA elevada e suprarregulação dos níveis de COXI, PGC-1 α, NRF1 e Tfam mRNA foram observadas em pacientes cianóticos. Os níveis de proteína de COXI e eNOS foram significativamente maiores no miocárdio de pacientes cianóticos que nos de acianóticos. Os níveis de transcrição do PGC-1α se correlacionam com os níveis de eNOS. CONCLUSÃO: A biogênese mitocondrial é ativada no miocárdio da via de saída ventricular na

  20. Age and gender differences in the influences of eNOS T-786C polymorphism on arteriosclerotic parameters in general population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Marowa; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Sonomi; Iwahara, Akihiko; Utsumi, Miyoko; Arita, Mikio; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of T-786C polymorphism in the promoter region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on arteriosclerotic parameters by age and gender were examined. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), heart-rate adjusted augmentation index (AIx@75), pulse pressure (PP) and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed as arteriosclerotic parameters in addition to non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) to HDL-C (non-HDL-C/HDL-C) ratio in 1499 participants. T-786C polymorphism (rs2070744) was screened using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Analyses of covariance were carried. Women with the non-C allele showed significantly lower AIx@75 in participants aged gender differences, possibly involving antioxidative and/or endothelial signaling other than inflammatory signaling.

  1. H2O2 Treatment of HUVECs Facilitates PKC Mediated Thr495 Phosphorylation on eNOS when Pre-treated with High Glucose Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guterbaum, Thomas J; Braunstein, Thomas H; Fossum, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome entails hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Hyperglycemia during coronary reperfusion is associated with a poor prognosis. Contrastingly, targeting correction of hyper......Objective: Metabolic syndrome entails hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Hyperglycemia during coronary reperfusion is associated with a poor prognosis. Contrastingly, targeting correction....... The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both mitochondria and cytoplasm was measured by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) on threonine 495 (Thr495) and serine 1177 (Ser1177) was assessed by western blotting. Short-term (20 hours...

  2. 2,4,6-Tri-amino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 3-(prop-2-eno-yloxy)propano-ate acrylic acid monosolvate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, V; Kanagathara, N; Chakkaravarthi, G; Marchewka, M K; Anbalagan, G

    2013-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C3H7N6 (+)·C6H7O4 (-)·C3H4O2·H2O, contains a 2,4,6-tri-amino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium cation, a 3-(prop-2-eno-yloxy)propano-ate anion and acrylic acid and water solvent mol-ecules in a 1:1:1:1 ratio and with each species in a general position. In the crystal, the components are linked into a supra-molecular layer in the bc plane via a combination of O-H⋯O, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin, the minor component contribution being approximately 26%.

  3. Treadmill exercise alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy by suppressing plasminogen activator inhibitor expression and enhancing eNOS in streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengji, Wang; Xianjin, Fan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the biological mechanism of the effect of different intensity exercises on diabetic cardiomyopathy. 87 raise specific pathogen SPF healthy 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed 6 weeks with high-fat diet for rats were used, and a diabetic model was established by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin - randomly selected 43 rats were divided into Diabetic control group (DCG, n  = 10), Diabetic exercise group 1 (DEG1, n  = 11), Diabetic exercise group 2 (DEG2, n  = 11) and Diabetic exercise group 3 (DEG3, n  = 11). The rats in DEG1 were forced to run on a motorized treadmill, the exercise load consisted of running at a speed of 10 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG2 were running at a speed of 15 m/min, the exercise load of the rats in DEG3 were running at a speed of 20 m/min, for one hour once a day for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks of exercise intervention, glucose metabolism-related indexes in rats such as blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated serum protein (GSP) and insulin (FINS); cardiac fibrinolytic system parameters such as PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), Von Willebrand factor (vWF), protein kinase C (PKC) and diacylglycerol (DAG); and serum level of NO, eNOS and T-NOS were measured. Compared with DCG, fasting blood glucose and GSP were decreased, while insulin sensitivity index and insulin level were increased in all rats of the three exercise groups. FBG decrease was statistically significant ( P  diabetic rats; myocardial PAI-1 in DEG1, DEG2 and DEG3 rats decreased significantly ( P  diabetic cardiomyopathy by affecting the levels of PAI-1 and eNOS, and there is a dependence on intensity. © 2018 The authors.

  4. San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang Prevents Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Apoptosis through eNOS and MAPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Liou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang (SHXT is a traditional Chinese medication consisting of three herbs, namely Coptidis rhizome, Scutellariae radix and Rhei rhizome. This study aimed to examine the cardioprotective effects of SHXT in a rat model of acute myocardial apoptosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. Vehicle (intravenous saline or SHXT (intravenous or oral was administered prior to I/R (occlusion of left coronary artery for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 2 h. In the vehicle group, myocardial I/R caused myocardial infarction with increased plasma cardiac enzymes, severe arrhythmia and mortality. Myocardial apoptosis was induced by I/R as evidenced by DNA ladder and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In the SHXT group, we found that SHXT significantly reduced plasma levels of cardiac enzymes, arrhythmia scores (from 5 ± 1 to 2 ± 1, P<.01 and mortality rate (from 53 to 0%, P<.01. In addition, pretreatment with intravenous SHXT reduced the infarct size dose-dependently when compared with the vehicle group (10 mg kg−1: 14.0 ± 0.2 versus 44.5 ± 5.0%, and 30 mg kg−1: 6.2 ± 1.2% versus 44.5 ± 5.0%, both P<.01. Similarly, oral administration of SHXT reduced the infarct size dose-dependently. Furthermore, SHXT markedly decreased the apoptosis induced by I/R with increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Finally, we found that SHXT counteracted the I/R-induced downstream signaling, resulting in increased myocardial eNOS expression and plasma nitrite, and decreased activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK. These data suggest that SHXT has cardioprotective effects against I/R-induced apoptosis, and that these effects are mediated, at least in part, by eNOS and MAPK pathways.

  5. Role of C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR and -786 C/T eNOS gene polymorphisms in atrial fibrillation susceptibility.

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    Betti Giusti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been suggested to play a role in the NonValvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF pathogenesis. Polymorphisms in genes coding for homocysteine (Hcy metabolism enzymes may be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia and NVAF. METHODOLOGIES: 456 NVAF patients and 912 matched controls were genotyped by an electronic microchip technology for C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A2756G MTR, and -786C/T eNOS gene polymorphisms. Hcy was determined by an immunoassay method. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genotype distribution of the four polymorphisms as well as genotype combinations did not differ in patients and controls. Hcy was higher in patients than in controls (15.2, 95%CI 14.7-15.7 vs 11.3, 95%CI 11.0-11.6 micromol/L; p<0.0001. In both populations, a genotype-phenotype association (p<0.0001 between Hcy and C677T MTHFR polymorphism was observed; in controls a significant (p = 0.029 association between tHcy and -786C/T eNOS polymorphism was also observed. At the multivariate analysis the NVAF risk significantly increased in the upper quartiles of Hcy compared to the lowest: OR from 2.8 (1.68-4.54 95%CI in Q2 to 12.9 (7.96-21.06 95%CI in Q4. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated the four polymorphisms, although able, at least in part, to affect Hcy, were not associated with an increased risk of NVAF per se or in combination.

  6. Dual-Specificity Phosphatase 4 Overexpression in Cells Prevents Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Apoptosis via the Upregulation of eNOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Julie A.; Kilbane Myers, Joanna; Khan, Mahmood; Angelos, Mark G.; Chen, Chun-An

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling cascades regulate several cellular functions, including differentiation, proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. The duration and magnitude of phosphorylation of these MAPKs are decisive determinants of their physiological functions. Dual-specificity phosphatases exert kinetic control over these signaling cascades. Previously, we demonstrated that DUSP4−/− hearts sustain a larger infarct and have poor functional recovery, when isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. Uncontrolled p38 activation and upregulation of Nox4 expression are the main effectors for this functional alteration. Here, dual-specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) overexpression in endothelial cells was used to investigate the role of DUSP4 on the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and vascular function, when cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) insult. Immunostaining with cleaved caspase-3 revealed that DUSP4 overexpression prevents caspase-3 activation and apoptosis after H/R. The beneficial effects occur via modulating p38 activity, increased NO bioavailability, and reduced oxidative stress. More importantly, DUSP4 overexpression upregulates eNOS protein expression (1.62 ± 0.33 versus 0.65 ± 0.16) during H/R-induced stress. NO is a critical small molecule involved in regulating vascular tone, vascular growth, platelet aggregation, and modulation of inflammation. The level of NO generation determined using DAF-2 fluorescence demonstrated that DUSP4 overexpression augments NO production and thus improves vascular function. The level of superoxide generated from cells after being subjected to H/R was determined using dihydroethidium-HPLC method. The results suggested that DUSP4 overexpression in cells decreases H/R-induced superoxide generation (1.56 ± 0.14 versus 1.19 ± 0.05) and thus reduces oxidant stress. This also correlates with the reduction in the total protein S

  7. Obesity, inflammation, and exercise training: relative contribution of iNOS and eNOS in the modulation of vascular function in the mouse aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Fernandes da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background - The understanding of obsesity-related vascular dysfunction remains controversial mainly because of the diseases associated with vascular injury. Exercise training is known to prevent vascular dysfunction. Using an obesity model without comorbidities, we aimed at investigating the underlying mechanism of vascular dysfunction and how exercise interferes with this process.Methods - High-sugar diet was used to induce obesity in mice. Exercise training was performed 5 days/week. Body weight, energy intake, and adipose tissues were assessed; blood metabolic and hormonal parameters were determined; and serum TNFα was measured. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed by plethysmography. Changes in aortic isometric tension were recorded on myograph. Western blot was used to analyze protein expression. Nitric oxide (NO was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were used for inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform (iNOS knockdown.Results - Body weight, fat mass, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, insulin, and leptin were higher in the sedentary obese group (SD than in the sedentary control animals (SS. Exercise training prevented these changes. No difference in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and heart rate was found. Decreased vascular relaxation and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS functioning in the SD group were prevented by exercise. Contractile response to phenylephrine was decreased in the aortas of the wild SD mice, compared with that of the SS group; however, no alteration was noted in the SD iNOS-/- animals. The decreased contractility was endothelium-dependent, and was reverted by iNOS inhibition or iNOS silencing. The aortas from the SD group showed increased basal NO production, serum TNFα, TNF receptor-1, and phospho-IκB. Exercise training attenuated iNOS-dependent reduction in contractile response in high-sugar diet

  8. Effects of stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase on diabetic nephropathy in diabetic eNOS knockout mice on top of angiotensin II receptor blockade.

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    Ina M Ott

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its complications, such as diabetic nephropathy (DN, is rising worldwide and prevention and treatment are therefore becoming increasingly important. Therapy of DN is particularly important for patients who do not adequately respond to angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB treatment. Novel approaches include the stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC as it is reported to have beneficial effects on cardiac and renal damage. We aimed to investigate the effects of the sGC stimulator riociguat and ARB telmisartan on kidney function and structure in a hypertensive model of diabetic nephropathy. Seventy-six diabetic male eNOS knockout C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided after having received streptozotocin: telmisartan (1 mg/kg/d, riociguat (3 mg/kg/d, riociguat+telmisartan (3+1 mg/kg/d, and vehicle. Fourteen mice were used as non-diabetic controls. Treatment duration was 11 weeks. Glucose concentrations were increased and similar in all diabetic groups. Telmisartan insignificantly reduced blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg compared with diabetic controls (111.2±2.3 mmHg vs. 117.1±2.2 mmHg; p = 0.071. Treatment with riociguat both alone and in combination with telmisartan led to a significant reduction of blood pressure towards diabetic vehicle (105.2±2.5 mmHg and 105.0±3.2 mmHg, respectively, vs. 117.1±2.2 mmHg. Combined treatment also significantly decreased albuminuria compared with diabetic controls (47.3±9.6 µg/24 h vs. 170.8±34.2 µg/24 h; p = 0.002 reaching levels similar to those of non-diabetic controls (34.4±10.6 µg/24 h, whereas the reduction by single treatment with either telmisartan (97.8±26.4 µg/24 h or riociguat (97.1±15.7 µg/24 h was not statistically significant. The combination treatment led to a significant (p<0.01 decrease of tissue immunoreactivity of malondialdehyde, as consequence of reduced oxidative stress. In conclusion, stimulation of sGC significantly reduced urinary

  9. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats

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    Thewarid Berkban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP and increased heart rate (HR, hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability.

  10. Synergistic Antihypertensive Effect of Carthamus tinctorius L. Extract and Captopril in l-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats via Restoration of eNOS and AT1R Expression

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    Putcharawipa Maneesai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of Carthamus tinctorius (CT extract plus captopril treatment on blood pressure, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME-induced hypertension. Rats were treated with l-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks and given CT extract (75 or 150 or 300 or 500 mg/kg/day: captopril (5 mg/kg/day or CT extract (300 mg/kg/day plus captopril (5 mg/kg/day for two consecutive weeks. CT extract reduced blood pressure dose-dependently, and the most effective dose was 300 mg/kg/day. l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats showed abnormalities including high blood pressure, high vascular resistance, impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings and mesenteric vascular beds, increased vascular superoxide production and plasma malondialdehyde levels, downregulation of eNOS, low level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and increased plasma angiotensin II. These abnormalities were alleviated by treatment with either CT extract or captopril. Combination treatment of CT extract and captopril normalized all the abnormalities found in hypertensive rats except endothelial dysfunction. These data indicate that there are synergistic antihypertensive effects of CT extract and captopril. These effects are likely mediated by their anti-oxidative properties and their inhibition of RAS.

  11. Influence of training status and eNOS haplotypes on plasma nitrite concentrations in normotensive older adults: a hypothesis-generating study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberta Fernanda; Sertório, Jonas Tadeu Cau; Lacchini, Riccardo; Trapé, Atila Alexandre; Tanus-Santos, José Eduardo; Rush, James W E; Amaral, Sandra Lia; Zago, Anderson Saranz

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between 3 eNOS gene polymorphisms and training status (TS) in affecting plasma nitrite concentration (NO2) in normotensive adults over 50 years old. Resting blood pressure (BP) was measured in all participants (n = 101). Plasma was taken to analyze: lipid profile, nitrite concentration (NO2) and lipid peroxide levels (T-BARS). Also, genomic DNA was extracted from plasma for genotyping NOS3 polymorphisms (-786T>C; 894G>T; and VNTR in intron 4). TS was determined by one-mile walk test and Functional Fitness Test Battery from AAHPERD (TS1-regular TS; TS2-good TS; and TS3-very good TS). BP was not influenced by TS, but NO2 was 15% higher in TS3 (123 ± 27 nM) compared to TS-2 (106 ± 22 nM). No differences were found in plasma NO2 in the haplotype analyses. However, the presence of the C allele (T-786C) and ASP allele (Glu298Asp) was found to enhance the correlation between TS and NO2 levels (r = 0.492 in C/4b/ASP haplotype and r = 0.855 in C/4a/ASP haplotype). This study thus identifies NOS3 polymorphism-dependent sensitivity to the effects of physical training on plasma NO2. Maintenance of good levels of training status, in carriers of C allele for T-786C polymorphism, combined with ASP allele for Glu298Asp polymorphism, may result in an increase in the NO2 plasma concentrations, which may reflect improved NO bioavailability in older adult normotensive individuals.

  12. A combination of genistein and magnesium enhances the vasodilatory effect via an eNOS pathway and BK(Ca) current amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Hou, Yunlong; Zhao, Tingting; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaoran; Zhang, Liming; Yu, Guichun

    2015-04-01

    The phytoestrogen genistein (GST) and magnesium have been independently shown to regulate vascular tone; however, their individual vasodilatory effects are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the combined effects of GST plus magnesium on vascular tone in mesenteric arteries. The effects of pretreatment with GST (0-200 μmol/L), MgCl2 (0-4.8 mmol/L) and GST plus MgCl2 on 10 μmol/L phenylephrine (PE) precontracted mesenteric arteries in rats were assessed by measuring isometric force. BK(Ca) currents were detected by the patch clamp method. GST caused concentration- and partial endothelium-dependent relaxation. Magnesium resulted in dual adjustment of vascular tone. Magnesium-free solution eliminated the vasodilatation of GST in both endothelium-intact and denuded rings. GST (50 μmol/L) plus magnesium (4.8 mmol/L) caused stronger relaxation in both endothelium-intact and denuded rings. Pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-N-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the effects of GST, high magnesium, and the combination of GST and magnesium. BK(Ca) currents were amplified to a greater extent when GST (50 μmol/L) was combined with 4.8 versus 1.2 mmol/L Mg(2+). Our data suggest that GST plus magnesium provides enhanced vasodilatory effects in rat mesenteric arteries compared with that observed when either is used separately, which was related to an eNOS pathway and BK(Ca) current amplification.

  13. MicroRNA-27b plays a role in pulmonary arterial hypertension by modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dependent Hsp90-eNOS signaling and nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Rui; Bao, Chunrong; Jiang, Lianyong; Liu, Hao; Yang, Yang; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: dbcar126@126.com

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial dysfunction is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Based on recent studies showing that microRNA (miR)-27b is aberrantly expressed in PAH, we hypothesized that miR-27b may contribute to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in PAH. The effect of miR-27b on pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and the underlying mechanism were investigated in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) in vitro and in a monocrotaline (MCT)-induced model of PAH in vivo. miR-27b expression was upregulated in MCT-induced PAH and inversely correlated with the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and miR-27b inhibition attenuated MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and remodeling and prevented PAH associated right ventricular hypertrophy and systolic pressure in rats. PPARγ was confirmed as a direct target of miR-27b in HPAECs and shown to mediate the effect of miR-27b on the disruption of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling to Hsp90 and the suppression of NO production associated with the PAH phenotype. We showed that miR-27b plays a role endothelial function and NO release and elucidated a potential mechanism by which miR-27b regulates Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling by modulating PPARγ expression, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAH. - Highlights: • miR-27b plays a role in endothelial function and NO release. • miR-27b inhibition ameliorates MCT-induced endothelial dysfunction and PAH. • miR-27b targets PPARγ in HPAECs. • miR-27b regulates PPARγ dependent Hsp90-eNOS and NO signaling.

  14. Impacto del ENOS sobre los rendimientos de maíz en la región pampeana argentina Impact of the ENSO on corn yields in the Argentinean pampas region

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    M. E. Fernández Long

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de “El Niño - Oscilación del Sur” (ENOS es uno de los principales responsables de la variabilidad climática interanual, con influencia sobre la región pampeana argentina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el impacto del ENOS sobre las variaciones anuales de la producción de maíz. La región fue dividida en 10 zonas en las cuales los rendimientos tienen una variabilidad interanual homogénea. Se utilizaron diferentes índices del ENOS. Los resultados indicaron que, en la mayor parte de la región, los desvíos de los rendimientos son, en general, positivos durante eventos “El Niño” y negativos durante “La Niña”. Sin embargo, el impacto es muy fuerte al norte y centro de la región analizada, y se debilita hacia el sur. En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires el comportamiento es diferente que en el resto. Los índices promediados de mayo a julio son, en general, un buen indicador de la influencia del ENOS sobre la productividad de los cultivos, y brindan una adecuada información para la toma de decisiones de la empresa agropecuaria, con suficiente anticipación respecto del comienzo de la campaña.The “El Niño Southern Oscillation” (ENSO phenomenon is one of the main responsible factor for interannual climate variability in the “pampas” region. This work aims to analyze the impact of ENSO on the annual variations of corn production. The region was divided into 10 areas in which yields have a homogeneous interannual variability. Five ENSO indexes were used The results indicated that, in most parts of the region, the deviations of trend line yields are, in general, positive during “El Niño” events and negative during “La Niña”. However, the impact is very strong in the North and Centre of the analyzed region and weakens southward. In the southeast of the province of Buenos Aires, the behavior is different than the rest. Averaging indexes from May to July we obtained a good indicator

  15. Puruvana puruvanavana : [luuletused] / Eno Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Eno, 1928-1996

    2000-01-01

    Sisu: Puruvana puruvanavana ; Vetesell ; Pada ja katel ; Nääripäkapikk ; Vanapaar ; Mere peremees ; Lepamaim ; Kiilaspää kiilasjääl ; Tõugu unistus ; Naljatilk silk ; Muttide jalutuskäik ; Hiir lumes ; Kalakari salakaril ; Naljalammas ; Mesilastest ; Kure mure ; Voki laul karule ; Põrsalaul ; Kurk ja kõrvits ; Tuhk ja tina ; Õige pea ja vale pea ; Suu pea, puupea! ; Siga õuel

  16. Efeitos da atorvastatina e do polimorfismo T-786C do gene eNOS sobre parâmetros do metabolismo lipídico plasmático

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    Vanessa Helena de Souza Zago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade do óxido nítrico sintase endotelial (eNOS pode ser modulada pelo colesterol da lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL-C, estatinas ou polimorfismos, como o T-786C de eNOS. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se o polimorfismo T-786C está associado a alterações nos efeitos da atorvastatina no perfil lipídico, nas concentrações de metabólitos de óxido nítrico (NO e da proteína C reativa de alta sensibilidade (PCR-as. MÉTODOS: Trinta voluntários do sexo masculino, assintomáticos, com idade entre 18-56 anos foram genotipados e classificados de acordo com a ausência (TT, n = 15 ou presença (CC, n = 15 do polimorfismo. Eles foram selecionados aleatoriamente para a utilização de placebo e atorvastatina (10 mg/dia por 14 dias. Após cada tratamento foram medidos lípides, lipoproteínas, frações HDL2 e HDL3, atividade da proteína de transferência de colesteril éster (CETP, metabólitos de NO e PCR-as. RESULTADOS: As comparações entre genótipos após a administração de placebo mostraram aumento da atividade da CETP polimorfismo-dependente (TT, 12 ± 7; CC, 22 ± 12, p < 0,05. As análises da interação entre os tratamentos indicaram que a atorvastatina tem efeito sobre colesterol, LDL, nitrito e razões lípides/proteínas (HDL2 e HDL3 (p < 0,001 em ambos os genótipos. É interessante notar as interações genótipo/droga sobre a CETP (p < 0,07 e a lipoproteína (a [Lp(a] (p < 0,056, levando a uma diminuição limítrofe da CETP, embora sem afetar a Lp(a. A PRC-as não mostrou alterações. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que o tratamento com estatinas pode ser relevante para a prevenção primária da aterosclerose em pacientes com o polimorfismo T-786C do eNOS, considerando os efeitos no metabolismo lipídico.

  17. 2,4,6-Tri­amino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium 3-(prop-2-eno­yloxy)propano­ate acrylic acid monosolvate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, V.; Kanagathara, N.; Chakkaravarthi, G.; Marchewka, M. K.; Anbalagan, G.

    2013-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C3H7N6 +·C6H7O4 −·C3H4O2·H2O, contains a 2,4,6-tri­amino-1,3,5-triazin-1-ium cation, a 3-(prop-2-eno­yloxy)propano­ate anion and acrylic acid and water solvent mol­ecules in a 1:1:1:1 ratio and with each species in a general position. In the crystal, the components are linked into a supra­molecular layer in the bc plane via a combination of O—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. The crystal studied was a non-merohedral twin, the minor component contribution being approximately 26%. PMID:23723892

  18. The Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M49 Nra-Ralp3 Transcriptional Regulatory Network and Its Control of Virulence Factor Expression from the Novel eno ralp3 epf sagA Pathogenicity Region▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Nakata, Masanobu; Köller, Thomas; Hildisch, Hendrikje; Kourakos, Vassilios; Standar, Kerstin; Kawabata, Shigetada; Glocker, Michael O.; Podbielski, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Many Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) virulence factor- and transcriptional regulator-encoding genes cluster together in discrete genomic regions. Nra is a central regulator of the FCT region. Previous studies exclusively described Nra as a transcriptional repressor of adhesin and toxin genes. Here transcriptome and proteome analysis of a serotype M49 GAS strain and an isogenic Nra mutant of this strain revealed the complete Nra regulon profile. Nra is active in all growth phases tested, with the largest regulon in the transition phase. Almost exclusively, virulence factor-encoding genes are repressed by Nra; these genes include the GAS pilus operon, the capsule synthesis operon, the cytolysin-mediated translocation system genes, all Mga region core virulence genes, and genes encoding other regulators, like the Ihk/Irr system, Rgg, and two additional RofA-like protein family regulators. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed that Nra additionally acts as a positive regulator, mostly for genes encoding proteins and enzymes with metabolic functions. Epidemiological investigations revealed strong genetic linkage of one particular Nra-repressed regulator, Ralp3 (SPy0735), with a gene encoding Epf (extracellular protein factor from Streptococcus suis). In a serotype-specific fashion, this ralp3 epf gene block is integrated, most likely via transposition, into the eno sagA virulence gene block, which is present in all GAS serotypes. In GAS serotypes M1, M4, M12, M28, and M49 this novel discrete genetic region is therefore designated the eno ralp3 epf sagA (ERES) pathogenicity region. Functional experiments showed that Epf is a novel GAS plasminogen-binding protein and revealed that Ralp3 activity counteracts Nra and MsmR regulatory activity. In addition to the Mga and FCT regions, the ERES region is the third discrete chromosomal pathogenicity region. All of these regions are transcriptionally linked, adding another level of complexity to the known

  19. The Streptococcus pyogenes serotype M49 Nra-Ralp3 transcriptional regulatory network and its control of virulence factor expression from the novel eno ralp3 epf sagA pathogenicity region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Nakata, Masanobu; Köller, Thomas; Hildisch, Hendrikje; Kourakos, Vassilios; Standar, Kerstin; Kawabata, Shigetada; Glocker, Michael O; Podbielski, Andreas

    2007-12-01

    Many Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) virulence factor- and transcriptional regulator-encoding genes cluster together in discrete genomic regions. Nra is a central regulator of the FCT region. Previous studies exclusively described Nra as a transcriptional repressor of adhesin and toxin genes. Here transcriptome and proteome analysis of a serotype M49 GAS strain and an isogenic Nra mutant of this strain revealed the complete Nra regulon profile. Nra is active in all growth phases tested, with the largest regulon in the transition phase. Almost exclusively, virulence factor-encoding genes are repressed by Nra; these genes include the GAS pilus operon, the capsule synthesis operon, the cytolysin-mediated translocation system genes, all Mga region core virulence genes, and genes encoding other regulators, like the Ihk/Irr system, Rgg, and two additional RofA-like protein family regulators. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed that Nra additionally acts as a positive regulator, mostly for genes encoding proteins and enzymes with metabolic functions. Epidemiological investigations revealed strong genetic linkage of one particular Nra-repressed regulator, Ralp3 (SPy0735), with a gene encoding Epf (extracellular protein factor from Streptococcus suis). In a serotype-specific fashion, this ralp3 epf gene block is integrated, most likely via transposition, into the eno sagA virulence gene block, which is present in all GAS serotypes. In GAS serotypes M1, M4, M12, M28, and M49 this novel discrete genetic region is therefore designated the eno ralp3 epf sagA (ERES) pathogenicity region. Functional experiments showed that Epf is a novel GAS plasminogen-binding protein and revealed that Ralp3 activity counteracts Nra and MsmR regulatory activity. In addition to the Mga and FCT regions, the ERES region is the third discrete chromosomal pathogenicity region. All of these regions are transcriptionally linked, adding another level of complexity to the known

  20. A multilevel prediction of physiological response to challenge: Interactions among child maltreatment, neighborhood crime, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS), and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Manly, Jody Todd; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    Physiological response to stress has been linked to a variety of healthy and pathological conditions. The current study conducted a multilevel examination of interactions among environmental toxins (i.e., neighborhood crime and child maltreatment) and specific genetic polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS) and GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha-6 gene (GABRA6). One hundred eighty-six children were recruited at age 4. The presence or absence of child maltreatment as well as the amount of crime that occurred in their neighborhood during the previous year were determined at that time. At age 9, the children were brought to the lab, where their physiological response to a cognitive challenge (i.e., change in the amplitude of the respiratory sinus arrhythmia) was assessed and DNA samples were collected for subsequent genotyping. The results confirmed that complex Gene × Gene, Environment × Environment, and Gene × Environment interactions were associated with different patterns of respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity. The implications for future research and evidence-based intervention are discussed.

  1. Factors responsible for subclinical mastitis in cows caused by Staphylococcus chromogenes and its susceptibility to antibiotics based on bap, fnbA, eno, mecA, tetK, and ermA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniarz, M; Adaszek, Ł; Dzięgiel, B; Nowaczek, A; Wawron, W; Dąbrowski, R; Szczubiał, M; Winiarczyk, S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize selected factors of virulence determining the adhesion of Staphylococcus chromogenes to cows' udder tissues in subclinical mastitis and to evaluate the susceptibility of this pathogen to antibiotics. The subjects of the study were 38 isolates of Staph. chromogenes from 335 samples of milk from cows with subclinical coagulase-negative staphylococci mastitis. Somatic cell count ranged between 216,000 and 568,000/mL of milk (average 356,000/mL of milk). We confirmed the ability to produce slime in 24 isolates (63.2%), and the ability to produce protease in 29 isolates (76.3%). In each slime-producing isolate, the bap gene was not found, and the fnbA and eno genes were not detected. In vitro tests showed that ceftiofur had the highest effectiveness against Staph. chromogenes (89.5% of susceptible isolates). Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 2µg/mL for susceptible isolates. The minimum concentrations required to inhibit growth of 90 and 50% of the isolates for ceftiofur were at or below the cutoffs recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2 and 0.06µg/mL, respectively). A significant percentage of the isolates were susceptible to other β-lactam antibiotics: amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (84.2%) and ampicillin (81.6%). The lowest effectiveness among β-lactams was for penicillin (73.7% of susceptible isolates), and the minimum inhibitory concentration for penicillin ranged from chromogenes (71.1 and 63.2% of susceptible isolates, respectively). The genes tetK (6 isolates) and ermA (1 isolate) were also detected. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. El cuento americano: Güeno-mapu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Carvajal

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available Helechos. Susurran como el abanico del pavo real. Ahí están. En grupos o hileras sobre la huella rojiza que va al caserío. Junto a la selva. Lejos, adentro, a donde solo llegan a ramonear los vahuales. En la traba de pellines, ulmos y araucarias, rosal silvestre y zarza levantada en altura de lianas y cañaveral.

  3. El niño, oscilación del sur (ENOS, con relación a la transmisión de malaria, densidad y paridad de An. albimanus y An. darlingi (diptera: culicidae en dos regiones de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mantilla

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Una fuerte asociación ha sido registrada entre los incrementos en la transmisiónas forzadas por el fenómeno El Niño. Entre las posibles explicaciones para esta asociación está el efecto del clima sobre la dinámica de población de vectores, por ejemplo, generando cambios en la densidad y en las tasas de sobrevivencia de la población, y en la cantidad y calidad de sitios de reproducción, como también a través de cambios en el período de incubación extrínseco del parásito dentro del vector. Con el propósito de evaluar la influencia de ENOS sobre la densidad y paridad de Anopheles albimanus y An. darlingi, y su relación con la transmisión de malaria, se realizó un estudio longitudinal en Chocó y Casanare. En cada área se seleccionaron dos localidades y se realizaron muestreos entomológicos durante una semana cada mes, desde finales de 1997 hasta 1999. Este período cubrió los eventos El Niño 1997 -1998 y La Niña 1998 - 2000. En las localidades de Chocó se observó un importante incremento en el número de casos de malaria durante el evento ENOS, asociado con la temperatura. No se observó una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre los casos de malaria y la precipitación o la humedad relativa. La relación entre el incremento de malaria durante El Niño y las variables entomológicas no fue evidente. La densidad y paridad de ambas especies de vectores fluctuaron durante el período de estudio y no se encontró una asociación significativa entre estas variables y los factores climáticos como la temperatura. La precipitación y la humedad relativa. La densidad de larvas de An. albimanus fluctuó durante el estudio, y mostró altas densidades alrededor de julio - agosto. No se observó asociación entre la densidad de larvas con la densidad de adultos o las variables climáticas. El efecto del evento ENOS sobre las poblaciones de vectores

  4. Composición y abundancia de artrópodos epígeos del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe: impactos del ENOS de 1997 y efectos del hábitat pedológico Abundance and composition of epigean arthropods from Llanos de Challe National Park: impacts of ENSO-1997 and effects of the pedological habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE CEPEDA-PIZARRO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediante el uso de trampas de intercepción, se estudió el efecto de la precipitación y el tipo de hábitat sobre la denso-actividad del ensamble de artrópodos epígeos _en particular Tenebrionidae_ del Parque Nacional Llanos de Challe. Este parque está ubicado en el desierto costero transicional de Chile, en la III Región de Atacama. Los muestreos se realizaron durante tres días por mes (septiembre, octubre y diciembre en el período de máxima actividad biológica del sistema y en los años 1989 (año no-ENOS seco, 1997 (año ENOS intenso y 2000 (año no-ENOS húmedo. En las comparaciones se utilizaron dos sitios pedológicamente contrastantes: un hábitat dunario costero y un hábitat pedregoso interior. Se registró la presencia de 15 órdenes de Arthropoda. Los hexápodos constituyeron > 95 % del total de los especímenes capturados (9.065 individuos, siendo Collembola (36,1 % y Coleoptera (29,8 % los órdenes con mayor representatividad numérica. El número de órdenes con representantes activos varió ligeramente entre años: 13 órdenes se registraron en 1989 (44 % de precipitación bajo el promedio, 15 en 1997 (443 % sobre el promedio y 11 en 2000 (52 % sobre el promedio. El efecto del evento ENOS se reflejó claramente en la contribución numérica en la mayoría de los taxa registrados. Aunque más sutilmente, este efecto también se reflejó en la composición del ensamble de taxa dominantes y entre hábitat pedológicos, particularmente con Tenebrionidae y Formicidae. Especialmente en las dunas costeras, Tenebrionidae dominó claramente el ensamble de artrópodos epígeos, siendo Gyriosomus Guérin-Méneville el género más diverso y abundante. La dominancia de Gyriosomus plantea un conjunto de interrogantes respecto de su nivel de endemismo, diversidad y distribución de sus especies, y el papel funcional de estas en el ecosistema estudiadoBy using pitfall traps, the effects of rainfall and habitat type on the denso

  5. Space tourism; next goal of rocketry; Uchu eno ryokaku yuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inatani, Y. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    As to the space travel to be conducted as business, the paper presented the results of the study being made to extract subjects. The single-stage space transport system which can be completely reused is said to be realized by much more weight reduction in airframe structure and improvement of propulsion performance, judging from the present technology standard. The reason the present form of rocket has to be reformed is that the cost needed to put a load of 1kg into orbit around the earth is higher in order of 1 million yen than those of other vehicles. Because the rocket is disposable, it is difficult to make an enormous cost reduction, and therefore, it is necessary to realize the same operation form as that adopted to airplane. The price of tickets for space travel rationally determined by the demand side is between 1.5-2.0 million yen. The annual sales are estimated at approximately 1.3 trillion yen on the market. When calculating this as business, it is necessary to reduce the transportation cost from 1,000,000 yen to 90,000-10,000 yen. A conceptual design was made of a space travel standard airframe 'Kanko-maru.' (NEDO)

  6. Meedikud loodavad rahumeelsele leppele / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Tervishoiutöötajate kutseliitude esindajad võtsid väljakuulutatud streigihoiatuse maha lootuses, et kokkulepe meditsiinitöötajate miinimumtunnitasu osas võib sõlmida rahulikul teel. Arvamust avaldab Haiglate Liidu juhatuse esimees Urmas Sule

  7. President istutas Torisse tamme / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves osales Toris Eesti sõjameeste mälestuskirikus traditsioonilisel vabadusvõitluse mälestusele pühendatud jumalateenistusel ja istutas kiriku kõrvale prominentide parki tamme. Varem on sellesse parki tammepuu istutanud president Arnold Rüütel, 20. augusti klubi, endine kaitseväe juhataja Aleksander Einseln ja peapiiskop Andres Põder

  8. President Ilves kohtus õpilaste ja kaitseliitlastega / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves külastas mitteametlikul visiidil 9.11.2007 Pärnu Sütevaka humanitaargümnaasiumi ja Kaitseliidu Pärnumaa malevat. Sütevaka humanitaargümnaasiumis kuulas president muusikakanali MTV Europe parima uustulnuka auhinna võitnud poistebändi Bedwetters esinemist ning osales lõpuklassi ühiskonnaõpetuse tunnis, rääkides kooli loosungist "Vabadus, loovus, vastutus" inspireeritult vabadusest ja vastutusest

  9. Feminismo e/no pós-colonialismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Bahri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-026X2013000200018 Neste artigo, a autora discorre sobre a relação entre feminismo e pós-colonialismoa partir dos conceitos-chave nos estudos pós-coloniais, salientando as premissas, os métodose as tensões dessa aliança, bem como os desafios entre os feminismos “ocidental” e “póscolonial”no contexto da globalização.

  10. Fire in Kuwaiti oil and its influence. Kuwait yuden kasai to sono eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, T. (The Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-01-10

    Fire which was brought about by the Gulf War in Kuwaiti oil fields caused artificial air pollution of the largest scale without precedent. In March, 1991 immediately after the War had come to an end, investigation was started by various organizations of different countries. Japan conducted her investigation from April to May, 1991 on. The present report gave the full particulars of air pollution investigation result together with the result of further investigation conducted on site in Kuwait in December, 1991 after the fire had been put out. It was reported that totally 500 to 850 oil wells were burned up in seven oil fields with a crude oil burning rate of 1 to 6 million barrels per day at its peak. However at most spots in Kuwait, the air pollution during the burning was unexpectedly much less than its environmental standard value though high content was locally detected of floating particulate substances, SO2, etc. Additionally with circumstances of traffic and industrial destructions, the measured data after the fire had been put out gave lower content of SO2 and NO2 than that in the non-polluted regions in Japan. 4 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography; Hiteiko tomography ni okeru konaisui no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Theoretical discussions were given on the effect of fluid-filled boreholes on resistivity tomography. The discussions performed incorporation of earth resistance as a method to consider borehole diameters in an FEM calculation using wire elements. The numerical experiment conducted a simulation on the following two objects: resistivity tomography in a horizontal multi-layer structure consisted of layers with resistivity ranging from 10 to 10000 ohm-m, and a model with a slanted low resistivity band existing in a background of 5000 ohm-m. As a result of the discussions, it was made clear that the effect of the boreholes can be corrected by giving earth resistance between the wire elements and natural ground. An improved potential calculating program indicated that the effect of the fluid-filled boreholes in the resistivity tomography generates false images with high resistivity along the bores if the resistivity has high contrast. Incorporating the wire elements into an inverse analysis model reduces the false images and improves the accuracy. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  12. Effects of organophosphoric acid triesters on human health; Yuki rinsan toriester rui no kenko eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A. [National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-10

    This paper describes the effects of organophosphoric acid triesters (OPEs) on human health. Tri-o-cresyle phosphate is metabolized in vivo, and forms neurotoxic esterase hindrance substance. More neurotoxic substance is formed by introduction of hydroxyl group into methyl group and cyclization. The toxicity is largely dependent on kinds of animals and individuals. Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, trimethyl phosphate and tris-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate give a carcinogenesis to experimental animals. In order to evaluate the effect of detected OPE concentrations in actual environment on human health, the genotoxicity of OPEs should be determined. In the case of no genotoxicity, the allowable intake of OPEs is determined by multiplying a safety factor by NOEL obtained from animal experiment. In the case of clear genotoxicity, the allowable intake is determined by model calculation. Although the toxicity of simple OPE is weak, the synergistic effect of multiple exposure is yet unidentified. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effect of groupware introduction on office works; Groupware donyu no white color gyomu e ataeru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Investments for information systems in Japanese firms have been shifting from those for main frame systems to PC, LAN and groupware systems. Described herein are effects of groupware introduction on office works, and efficient introduction and practical application of these systems. The groupware functions are divided into information sharing, analyzing, integrating and coordinating functions, and changed information transmission as a result of practical application of each function has been followed by literature and questionnaire surveys on experiences at advanced enterprises. The results indicate that the changes are represented by 6 patterns, from replacement of information media to changes in working styles. The major productivity-related effects brought by introduction of these systems are decreased document volumes and improved skills of employees. The notable effects on office works are improved efficiency resulting from allotting one personal computer to each employee and from introduction of E-mail systems which solve problems involved in telephone communication. 15 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Effects of diesel fuel additives on engine performance and reliability. Part 2. Effects of lubricity additives; Keiyu tenkazai ga engine seino oyobi shinraisei ni ataeru eikyo. 2. Junkatsusei kojo ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudaira, J; Okada, M; Naruse, H [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Many studies about the effects of lublicity additives for diesel fuel have been carried out and reported. These additives have already been used in Europe, north-America for couple of years and it has just started in Japanese market this July. This paper mainly describes the effects of lublicity additives on engine performance and reliability. At first, the effects on engine reliability were investigated during 30 thousand kms chasis dynamometer test. Secondary, the effects on piston ring corrosion, injection nozzle fouling and water separation were investigated. Furthermore, 70 thousand kms engine reliability test was conducted, and investigated some component parts. 2 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S; Sakamoto, K; Hanamoto, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Loading test of pile affected by soil layer deformation; Jiban henkei no eikyo wo ukeru kui no saika jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakurai, M.; Tsuchiya, T. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Large soil tank developed for shearing experiments is used to study the horizontal movement of piles in earthquakes. The system comprises a soil filled (8m deep) tank, pile head loading jig, and 6 actuators. The soil tank is fabricated of 40 layers of 20cm-high iron frames of inner dimensions 2.5mtimes2.5m, and it is filled with soil that is to simulate the ground. The frames are divided into 4 groups each containing 10 frames, and the frames in each group are coupled with each other, so that all the frames in one group will move horizontally when the topmost frame in the group is moved horizontally. An actuator, which travels horizontally ganging with a computer, is mounted on the top frame in each group, and this setup enables the arbitrary simulation of ground deformation in the horizontal direction in an earthquake. The pile head loading jig, driven by 2 actuators, can keep restraining the pile head from rotation while applying load or deforming force to the pile head as desired in the vertical and horizontal direction. Experiments conducted using this system involve the force imposed on a pile in the soil tank by ground deformation and the resultant pile behavior including breakdown. 9 figs.

  17. Evaluation on the effect of tsunami and seaquake on the floating structure; Tsunami kaishin no futai ni taisuru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K; Suzuki, H; Hosomi, I [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nahata, H [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The effects of tsunami and seaquake on large floating structures are theoretically studied, where these effects are followed in terms of local strength using the equation proposed by Sells to predict surface shapes changed by seaquake-caused uplift of the seabottom. The equation is combined with the one for tsunami propagation, to better predict the tsunami motion. The simulation results indicate the necessity of considering the effects of tsunami for the design of a large floating structure. The authors discuss that the effect of tsunami is minimized when a floating structure is set at a depth of at least 40 to 50m, chain length should be determined by equalizing the breaking weight with the load at which the structure starts to move, and a structure should be set at a position where it is not attacked by transverse waves. They also discuss that seaquake intensity should be predicted by the equation of motion of compressible fluid, and, noting local strength of a floating structure, it will not be damaged when it is at least 16mm thick under the conditions of 2m as seabottom uplift and 0.5m as draft depth. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Influence of oil starvation on piston ring oil film thickness; Junkatsuyu kyokyuryo fusoku ga ring yumaku ni ataeru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiruma, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Hydrogen Energy Research Center; Takiguchi, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An analytical behavior of the piston ring oil film has been carried out theoretically under the condition where sufficient lubrication oil dose not exist. Phenomena have been studied on the oil film when plural rings slide together on the surface of cylinder with a new concept in addition to the well-known assumptions. In particular, a comparison has been made on the friction force with the data obtained by the floating liner method. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Effect of ambient gas density for diesel spray; Diesel funmu ni taisuru fun`iki mitsudo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokohashi, M; Suzuki, T; Oshima, R [Tohokugakuin University, Sendai (Japan); Ono, A [Shinryo Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effect of ambient gas density for fuel spray are measured to investigate the Diesel spray behavior. The change of ambient gas density has been given by pressuring N2 gas and using a high density atmospheric pressure SF6 gas. The measurement are performed for the spray penetration and angle. As a result, the spray penetration is confirmed same tendency at the change of density by pressuring N2 and using SF6. Though spray angle is required modification with viscosity. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Evaluation on the effect of tsunami and seaquake on the floating structure; Tsunami kaishin no futai ni taisuru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Suzuki, H.; Hosomi, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nahata, H. [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effects of tsunami and seaquake on large floating structures are theoretically studied, where these effects are followed in terms of local strength using the equation proposed by Sells to predict surface shapes changed by seaquake-caused uplift of the seabottom. The equation is combined with the one for tsunami propagation, to better predict the tsunami motion. The simulation results indicate the necessity of considering the effects of tsunami for the design of a large floating structure. The authors discuss that the effect of tsunami is minimized when a floating structure is set at a depth of at least 40 to 50m, chain length should be determined by equalizing the breaking weight with the load at which the structure starts to move, and a structure should be set at a position where it is not attacked by transverse waves. They also discuss that seaquake intensity should be predicted by the equation of motion of compressible fluid, and, noting local strength of a floating structure, it will not be damaged when it is at least 16mm thick under the conditions of 2m as seabottom uplift and 0.5m as draft depth. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Influence of traffic situation on a driver`s visual behavior; Kotsu jokyo ga shinin kodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisumi, E; Hara, t [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    When a driver performs an in-car visual task, that task must be time-shared with the driving task. Therefore, his/her glances would be divided between the forward view and the in-car visual display in accordance with traffic situation. In order to investigate the influence of traffic situation on glance duration distribution, an experiment for in-car visual task was conducted using Mitsubishi`s flat-belt driving simulator. As a result, a glance duration tends to shorten as driving task demands increase, such as driving at high speed, being overtaken, etc., and a glance cycle tends to shorten under the same situation. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Risk communication. Risk studies in social science; Risk communication. Risk kenkyu eno shakai kagakuteki approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, M. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-05

    It is recently, that is, in and after the 1980s that socio-scientific approaches began to be made to studies on `risk`. It started to be made clear that the progress of the scientific technology does not necessarily bring about good news to man, and obvious estrangement has begun to appear between scientific evaluation and social evaluation of risk. The subject of risk communication (RC) study is to tackle a proposition whether the estrangement will continue to exist as estrangement or the estrangement can be made smaller by any means. This paper explains the recent trend of the study. For example, as for how each individual thinks about risk, that is, the risk perception, a new framework is trially being constructed by introduction of the quantitative method using psychometrics. A duty of RC is to serve to bridge the gap between scientific technology and society which are controlled by values which are incompatible with each other. Therefore, RC will be more and more important. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Application of wavelet transform to seismic data; Wavelet henkan no jishin tansa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagami, K; Murayama, R; Matsuoka, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is the use of the wavelet transform in the field of seismic exploration. Among applications so far made, there are signal filtering, break point detection, data compression, and the solution of finite differential equations in the wavelet domain. In the field of data compression in particular, some examples of practical application have been introduced already. In seismic exploration, it is expected that the wavelet transform will separate signals and noises in data in a way different from the Fourier transform. The continuous wavelet transform displays time change in frequency easy to read, but is not suitable for the analysis and processing large quantities of data. On the other hand, the discrete wavelet transform, being an orthogonal transform, can handle large quantities of data. As compared with the conventional Fourier transform that handles only the frequency domain, the wavelet transform handles the time domain as well as the frequency domain, and therefore is more convenient in handling unsteady signals. 9 ref., 8 figs.

  4. Spatial autocorrelation method using AR model; Kukan jiko sokanho eno AR model no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Obuchi, T; Saito, T [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    Examination was made about the applicability of the AR model to the spatial autocorrelation (SAC) method, which analyzes the surface wave phase velocity in a microtremor, for the estimation of the underground structure. In this examination, microtremor data recorded in Morioka City, Iwate Prefecture, was used. In the SAC method, a spatial autocorrelation function with the frequency as a variable is determined from microtremor data observed by circular arrays. Then, the Bessel function is adapted to the spatial autocorrelation coefficient with the distance between seismographs as a variable for the determination of the phase velocity. The result of the AR model application in this study and the results of the conventional BPF and FFT method were compared. It was then found that the phase velocities obtained by the BPF and FFT methods were more dispersed than the same obtained by the AR model. The dispersion in the BPF method is attributed to the bandwidth used in the band-pass filter and, in the FFT method, to the impact of the bandwidth on the smoothing of the cross spectrum. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Water supply method to the fuel cell cooling water system; Nenryo denchi reikyakusuikei eno kyusui hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, S. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-17

    The conventional fuel cell has long cooling water piping ranging from the fuel cell exit to the steam separator; in addition, the supply water is cooler than the cooling water. When the amount of supply water increases, the temperature of the cooling water is lowered, and the pressure fluctuation in the steam separator becomes larger. This invention relates to the water supply method of opening the supply water valve and supplying water from the supply water system to the cooling water system in accordance with the signal of the level sensor of the steam separator, wherein opening and closing of the supply valve are repeated during water supply. According to the method the pressure drop in every water supply becomes negligibly small; therefore, the pressure fluctuation of the cooling water system can be made small. The interval of the supply water valve from opening to closing is preferably from 3 seconds to 2 minutes. The method is effective when equipment for recovering heat from the cooling water is installed in the downstream pipeline of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  6. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Adjustment of muscle function to flight in bats; Komori no kinkino no hiko eno tekio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M. [Institute of the Space and Astronautical Science,Tokyo (Japan); Choi, I.H.

    1999-12-05

    This paper outlines the muscle of bats that generates a motive force for flight. The weight of the muscle is less compared with that of birds. The energy required for flight is twice as much as that for running. Conversely, in view of metabolic cost (transporting cost) for moving a unit mass for a unit distance, the transporting cost of bats for flying is one fifth. The acquisition of this flight ability through evolution can be inferred from the fossils of reptiles. Bats, having a stream-lined body shape and a small body mass, are capable of efficient flight. A fast durable flight is possible by having the pectoral muscle constituted of speed muscles of oxidation/glycolysis muscle fiber, a well-developed oxygen transporting system, the arrangement around the capillary of mitochondria and fat grains that are cell organs for producing energy, and a high-density contact between the capillary and the muscle fiber. The muscle functions at low body temperature and imparts adaptability to hibernation with the body temperature lowered. The flight is controlled by the cycle and synchronized with this biological clock, optical cycle and change in temperature. (NEDO)

  8. Resting Tension Affects eNOS Activity in a Calcium-Dependent Way in Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalis-Adam Molyvdas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of resting tension (RT from 0.5 g to 2.5 g increased significantly airway smooth muscle contractions induced by acetylcholine (ACh in rabbit trachea. The decrease in extracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]o from 2 mM to 0.2 mM reduced ACh-induced contractions only at 2.5 g RT with no effect at 0.5 g RT. The nonselective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME increased ACh-induced contractions at 2.5 g RT. The inhibitor of inducible NOS, S-methylsothiourea or neuronal NOS, 7-nitroindazole had no effect. At 2.5 g RT, the reduction of [Ca2+]o from 2 mM to 0.2 mM abolished the effect of L-NAME on ACh-induced contractions. The NO precursor L-arginine or the tyrosine kinase inhibitors erbstatin A and genistein had no effect on ACh-induced contractions obtained at 2.5 g RT. Our results suggest that in airways, RT affects ACh-induced contractions by modulating the activity of epithelial NOS in a calcium-dependent, tyrosine-phosphorylation-independent way.

  9. Riik hakkab Via Baltica maanteed neljarealiseks joonistama / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 25. sept. lk. 2. Pärnu maavalitsuse ja maanteeameti eestvedamisel alustatakse Tallinnast Iklani kulgeva Via Baltica liiklussoone teemaplaneeringut, mille järgi tuleb Pärnumaal leida lahendused Are ja Pärnu ümbersõidule ning Nurme õgvendusele. Arvamust avaldab Are vallavanem Jaanus Männik

  10. REŠEVANJE DELOVNIH SPOROV S SODIŠČU PRIDRUŽENO MEDIACIJO

    OpenAIRE

    Goričan Podbrežnik, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Za človeško družbo je značilno, da se v njej pojavljajo spori.Enega izmed načinov reševanja sporov predstavlja mediacija kot glavni in tipični predstavnik alternativnega reševanja sporov. S sprejetjem Zakona o mediaciji v civilnih in gospodarskih zadevah se je Slovenija pridružila državam, ki imajo zakonsko urejeno mediacijo. Na podlagi Zakona o alternativnem reševanju sodnih sporov pa je mediacija postala tudi del rednega poslovanja slovenskih sodišč. Sodišču pridružena mediacija je edini po...

  11. Model Skinner Operant Conditioning automata i bionički naučeno upravljanje robota

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jianxian; Hong, Li; Cheng, Lina; Yu, Ruihong

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy Skinner Operant Conditioning Automaton (FSOCA) sastavljen je na temelju Operant Conditioning mehanizma primjenom teorije neizrazitih skupova. Osnovno obilježje automata FSOCA je sljedeće: neizraziti rezultati stanja pomoću Gausove funkcije koriste se kao skupovi neizrazitog stanja; neizrazita pravila preslikavanja (fuzzy mapping rules) kod fuzzy-conditioning-operacije zamjenjuju stohastičke "conditioning-operant" skupove preslikavanja. Stoga se automat FSOCA može koristiti za opisivanje...

  12. Pärnu võimukoalitsioon kutsub pataljoni toetama / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu võimuerakonnad kutsuvad linna ja maakonna elanikke kõnekoosolekule, kus nad soovivad avaldada nördimust kaitseministeeriumi plaani üle sulgeda selle aasta lõpul Pärnu üksik-jalaväepataljon

  13. Maavanema avaldus surus linnavõimu kaitsesse / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu maavanem Toomas Kivimägi kritiseeris linnavalitsust Via Baltica Pärnu ümbersõidu projekti venimise pärast. Linnapea Mart Viisitamm ei pea avaldust põhjendatuks. Vt. samas lk. 15: Mart Viisitamm. Demokraatia või diktatuur - selles on küsimus

  14. Pidupäevaüritused olid Eestile ilus kingitus / Andris Tammela, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammela, Andris

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade EV 90. aastapäeva juubeliüritusest Pärnus. Vt. samas: Vabariigi juubel värvis Pärnu sinimustvalgeks; Head emotsioonid Eesti aastapäevalt: Are vallavanem Jaanus Männik, Euroopa Parlamendi liige Marianne Mikko, Pärnu linnavolikogu liikmed Valter Parve ja Raul Sarandi ja Pärnu maavanem Toomas Kivimägi

  15. Abilinnapea tõrjub opositsiooni süüdistusi / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu linnavalitsuse rahanduse abilinnapea Vambo Talu ei nõustu IRL poliitikute süüdistustega, et linna viletsas finantsolukorras on süüdi volikogu loata eelmise aasta eelarvest kärbitud 116 miljonit krooni

  16. Streigi saatus selgub täna lõunaks / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Riiklik lepitaja Henn Pärn tegi viimase kompromissettepaneku. Juhul, kui ametiühingute, tööandjate ja lepitaja kohtumisel osalised seda heaks ei kiida, alustatakse hoiatusstreigiga. Vt. samas: Pärnu streikivate bussijuhtide pöördumine linnarahva poole

  17. Estonia juhti kahtlustatakse ettevõtte varade omastamises / Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link, Teet Roosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2008-01-01

    Endine Pärnu linnapea, taastusravikeskuse Estonia pikaaegne juht Vello Järvesalu peeti kinni kahtlustatuna ettevõtte varade omastamises suures ulatuses. Kommenteerivad: Mart Viisitamm, Jane Mets ja Ahti Kõo

  18. Päästjatele tuli mullu tuhat väljakutset / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Pärnumaa päästeteenistus sai 2005. a. kõige rohkem väljakutseid Pärnusse ning Via Baltica äärde jäävatesse Pärnumaa valdadesse ja Vändrasse. Kaart: Pärnumaa päästeteenistuste väljasõidud omavalitsustesse 2005

  19. Pärnu linnavalitsuse hinnang esimesele valitsemisaastale / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Ajaleht esitas Pärnu linnajuhtidele kolm küsimust. Vastasid linnapea Mart Viisitamm, abilinnapea majanduse valdkonnas Raul Sarandi, abilinnapea arengu ja planeerimise valdkonnas Mart Alliku, abilinnapea kultuuri, spordi ja sotsiaalvaldkonnas Margus Tammekivi ja linnavalitsuse liige turvalisuse valdkonnas Simmo Saar. Arvamust avaldavad Reformierakonna Pärnu piirkonna esimees Väino Hallik ja SDE esindaja Pärnu linnavolikogus Valter Parve

  20. Poliitikud ei leidnud staadioni planeeringule uusi lahendusi / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Riigikogu Pärnumaa saadikuteühenduse ja Pärnu linnavõimu esindajate ning spordiseltsi Kalev juhtide nõupidamine Kalevi staadioni ümberehituse käimalükkamiseks lõppes tulemusteta, sest kõiki osapooli rahuldava tulemuseni ei jõutud. Kommenteerivad Mark Soosaar ja Vello Järvesalu

  1. Sotsid said prostitutsiooni ürituse pärast noomida / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Pärnu Postimees 16. märts lk. 3. Pärnu linnavalitsuse kultuuriosakonna peaspetsialist Tair Anton tegi kaubanduskeskuses Port Artur 2 prostitutsiooni vastu vastu allkirju kogunud sotsiaaldemokraatidele loata avaliku ürituse korraldamise eest suulise märkuse

  2. Koalitsioon ei plaani linna juhtimises muudatusi / Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Ester

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu koalitsiooninõukogu sõnul pole põhjust linnapea Mart Viisitamme, abilinnapea Simmo Saare ja koalitsiooninõukogu esimehe Vello Järvesalu välja vahetamiseks, kuna kedagi pole süüdi mõistetud

  3. President tunnustab Pärnumaad kümne riikliku autasuga / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Pärnumaalt saavad iseseisvuspäeva puhul riikliku autasu kümme inimest. Vt. samas: Ester Vilgats. Ivar Kaldasaunal on alati kollektiiviga vedanud; Vello Lahtvee kolmkümmend aastat kohtunikuna. Teenetemärgi pälvinute seas on Lääne-Eesti päästekeskuse direktor Ivar Kaldasaun ja Pärnu maakohtu kohtunik Vello Lahtvee. Vt. ka juhtkiri lk. 15: Vilgats, Kalev. Ebaõigluse visa vastupanu. Rüütliristi kavaler Harald Nugiseks jäi taas teenetemärgist ilma

  4. Prospects to solar energy power generation in space. Uchu taiyo hatsuden eno tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Solar energy power generation in space uses large arrays of solar cells developed on a geosynchronous orbit to obtain electric energy, which is transmitted to the earth using microwaves. The idea had already been advocated in 1968, which was followed a decade later by joint discussions done by NASA and DOE. The concept intended to take care of the U.S. power demand by using 60 power plant satellites, each having an output of 5 GW. This expanse of the scale, regarded reasonable even today, calls for the solar cell arrays in space spreading over an area of 10 km [times] 5 km if silicon solar cells with a conversion efficiency of 15% are used, and rectenna on the ground (a received wave converting facility) forming an ellipse of 10 km [times] 13 km (assuming a location at the north latitude of 36[degree]). Although there are a number of problems in the idea such as transportation means to lift construction materials into the space and effect of microwaves on the ionosphere and the ecosystems, the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology organized a 'committee for investigating and studying the space power generation systems' in the fiscal year 1991, and has been moving discussions forward since then. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Application of thermal spray coatings for jet engines. Kokuki sangyo eno yosha no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Y [All Nippon Airways Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-10-31

    Application condition of spray coating on jet engine parts and characteristics of spray reparing process are explained. Spray coating used for jet engine is classified as recovery of dimension, crevice adjustment, improvement of resistance to friction, improvement of fretting resistance and heat resistance. Titanium alloy having better adhesion and acid resistance, is used as coating for dimensional recovery, where as nickel-crome-aluminium coating is used for the improvement of heat resistance of stainless steel, etc. Crevice adjustment coatings are used in rotating parts of jet engines, and they are of two types are; gel-double coating of aluminium, nickel-aluminium, etc., abrasive coating of aluminium oxide. Tungsten carbide and cobalt are used as coatings for the friction improvement. Nickel and indium, etc., are used as fretting resistance coating. Various types of ceramics together with heat resistance steels like HS-188 are used as coating for heat resistance improvement. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Truncus Arteriosus in a 43 year old Male: Case Report | Ng'eno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In truncus arteriosus, the embryologic truncus fails to properly divide in-utero resulting in the pulmonary, aortic and coronary arteries arising from a single ascending portion of this trunk. This condition is usually fatal within the first year of life without correction. Over the past two decades, there has been a dramatic expansion ...

  7. Trial to active seismic while drilling; Jinko shingen wo mochiita SWD eno kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, T; Kozawa, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a more stable SWD system with larger energy by adding an artificial seismic source near the bit. SWD is a technique by which the seismic wave generated while drilling of rocks by bit can be observed on the ground surface and the records equivalent to the reverse VSP can be obtained. For this system, a shell with a vibrator was fixed immediately on the bit as a sub-generator, and total energy of usual impact by the bit and vibration by the vibrator was used as a seismic source for SWD. For the seismic wave generation mechanism of this vibrator, the shell was resonated by the magnetostrictive element, and vibration was given to the bit and drilling pipe. When this seismic source is used, only single frequency is obtained for each vibration due to the utilization of resonance of shell. Therefore, the generation patterns should be made, by which wide band energy can be obtained after the interaction. Since the survey was conducted using this bottom hole seismic source at the drilling depth more than 3,000 m, it was necessary to enhance the vibration energy. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Application of EM tomography to detect a buried pipe; EM tomography no maisetsukan tansa eno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakashita, S [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    EM tomography was applied to detect buried pipes. Underground radar exploration method is limited to 10m in depth. Positive use of bored holes is desirable, and in such case, magnetic logging based on the magnetic susceptibility (MS) contrast between buried body and surrounding ground is effective. The primary magnetic field is generated by coil current, and the secondary one is generated by the primary one responding to foreign bodies in the ground. Since the measured primary magnetic field of low frequency within 10Hz can be treated as static magnetic field responding to MS in the ground, it is useful to determine MS distributions. Since the measured magnetic field of high frequency within 100kHz can be treated as induction field responding to conductivity in the ground, it is useful to determine resistivity distributions. The EM tomography which can image both above distributions by using electromagnetic wave in a wide frequency range, was applied to detect buried pipes. The EM tomography could detect an buried foreign body of 3m in diameter at 10m in distance between bored holes. The theoretical equation for analysis was also derived. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Application of wear resistant spraying for diesel engine; Diesel kikan eno taimamo yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuliding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-31

    Diesel engines used widely as propelling engines of ships have increasingly been provided with a high output and a high thermal efficiency; their structural members, particularly, the component parts for combustion chambers are therefore used under severe conditions, giving rise to the need of surface treatment and surface reforming of the members. Parts for marine diesel engines are huge, so that the technology applicable to the surface treatment and reforming are limited in point of facility and cost; therefore, most suitable is thermal spraying. This paper primarily discusses, among marine diesel engines, a 2-cycle low-speed engine with a 260-980mm bore used for the main engine of a merchant ship such as a container ship, bulk carrier or a tanker, and a 4-cycle medium-speed engine with a 300-420mm bore used for the main engine of a naval vessel; the paper explains the application status of a thermal spraying technology which is in progress to cope with the high output and high thermal efficiency of the diesel engines, explaining particularly the story of the development and the technological features of the wear resistant thermal spraying, which has been put to practical use, on the cylinder liner and the piston ring of the 4-cycle medium-speed engine. (NEDO)

  10. Application of ECS to a hybrid automobile; `ECS` no hybrid jidosha eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, M.; Okamura, T.

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes a simulation for a case when an energy capacitor system (ECS) is mounted in a hybrid electric vehicle in place of secondary batteries. The ECS is electric power storage equipment consisted of capacitors and electronic circuits, and capable of quick charge and discharge at high efficiency. Its energy density per unit weight is about the same as lead-acid batteries, but its output density is greater than any type of batteries. Being free of deterioration due to charge and discharge, its cycle life is almost limitless. In order to suppress heat generation, a switching converter is used to control the output to about 300W. However, internal resistance of an ECS is smaller than in an equivalent secondary battery, and internal loss and heat generation stay as low as 1/5 to 1/10. Discussions have been given on cases of using the ECS in small passenger cars, small buses/trucks, and large buses. Since the ECS can use the stored power to about 94% of the capacity, and its cycle life is sufficiently long, it can operate with charge capacity as small as 1/4 of a lead-acid battery. The weight can also be reduced largely. Regenerative power storage efficiency is high, fuel consumption can be improved, heat generation is less, and no forced cooling is required. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. PV glass curtain walls; Kenzai ittaigata taiyo denchi gaiheki no kaihatsu (glass curtain wall eno tekiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, T.; Iwai, T.; Ouchi, T.; Ito, T.; Nagai, T.; Shu, I. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, T. [Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, N.; Tazawa, K.

    1997-12-20

    Reported in this article are PV (photovoltaic) modules now under development for integration into building walls. First of all, the power generating capability of PV modules and appropriate use of the generated power are studied, and the performance (resistance to fire or incombustibility, strength and durability, appearance and design, and dimensional standardization) that such outer wall materials are to be equipped with are determined. Next, module development, installation technique, computer graphics-aided facade designing, and real size module-using proof test are studied before installability, the power to be generated, and designs are finalized. In the development of modules, design evaluation involves the combining of various kinds of glass, solar cells, back sheets, and fillers, and the importance is confirmed of the prevention of insulation degradation around the modules. As for the methods of installation, the gasket method and aluminum sash method, etc., are tested. In the study of facade design, it is found that various expressions are possible by properly choosing gasket colors, module types, and kinds of glass to cover the openings. 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Waste minimization activities in Toyota Motor Corporation; Haikibutsu teigen eno torikumi jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Kurai, H. [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Toyota`s waste reduction efforts based on a drive for dealing with the source of waste generation are introduced. For the propulsion of the policy for dealing directly with the origin of waste, it is necessary to convert the existing manufacturing processes that give high priority to product quality and low production cost into environmental impact reduction oriented processes. In particular, conversion of materials into those that are easier to recycle, technology for reducing defective products, technology for the completion of recycling within the process involved, and the simplification of all the processes are mentioned. For the cleaning job in the machining process, a detergent enhanced in oil/water separating capability is developed, and this prolongs doubly the detergent replacement period and decreases the waste liquid to a 1/4 or less of what the conventional method produces. For the handling of foundry sand that is yielded in great quantities, a flow classification system is developed to replace the conventional gravitational classifier, and the reusable coarse-grain sand in the collected dust which occupies approximately 70% of the whole waste is now recovered for reuse. In the vehicle body coating process, a newly-developed robot arm type coating system is developed, which halves the coating waste. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Role of biotechnology in future agriculture. Korekarano nogyo to biotechnology eno kitai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komano, T. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1992-09-01

    In comparison with ancient times when everything is handled empirically, biological matter suitable for purposes can be produced and utilized faster and more reliably these days when life science has made a great advance. The advancement is related to new breeding technology and production means, and those means offer the point of contact between biotechnology and agriculture. The application fields of biotechnology are microbiology, cell technology, enzyme technology (bioreactor), and gene engineering. High yield, high content of high value ingredients as foods, adaptability to environment, resistance to disease and insect damage, etc. may be the subjects expected for future agricultural organisms. There may be many areas where biotechnology is related to those organisms, but a discussion is made in this report centering around the problem in breeding. Outlines are given on the applied cases of cell technological method, gene engineering method, and recombinant DNA technology, as well as on gene engineering for plants and animals. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Astronaut suitability requirements and selection process; Uchu hikoshi tanjo eno michi (shishitsu yokyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, H. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Manned space activities at National Space Development Agency of Japan and the suitability requirements that an astronaut is supposed to satisfy are described. At the first phase, candidates have to participate in a manned space experiment utilizing a NASA space shuttle and, in 1985, Mori, Mukai, and Doi were selected to be payload specialists. At the second phase, Astronauts Wakata, Doi, and Mori were sent to the mission specialist training course, this being one of the jobs aboard a space shuttle, which was for preparing for the construction and operation of the international space station. In January, 1996, Astronaut Wakata performed extravehicular tool manipulation and so forth, and Astronaut Doi did the same in 1997. The endowments that an astronaut is expected to have include undoubted professionalism, adaptability to branches out of his field, adaptability to a prolonged stay in space, spirit of teamwork and coordination, and ability to perform wide range of duties aboard an international space station. (NEDO)

  15. Projekteerijad asuvad kesklinna võimla kavandit täiendama / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    Pärnu Vanalinna põhikooli kõrvale kavandatavast võimlast. Võimla eskiisprojektide konkursi võitis (2. koht.) Ott Kadariku ja Mihkel Tüüri töö "Jae-Ja", 3. koha sai Kalle Kadalipu töö "Neo"

  16. Application of essential facility doctrine to transmission grid; Sodenmo eno essential facility no hori no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    This paper arranges the essential facility doctrine in America and describes it according to each judgment example how the doctrine is applied on the access of electricity supply companies to transmission grids. By applying the result to the situation of Japan, the point at issue occurring in the range of the Anti-Monopoly Law was arranged and investigated when third parties (power generating manufacturers) access the transmission grids of electricity supply companies in the form of wholesale or self transmission in the electricity supply industry of Japan. In the judgment example of America, a transmission grid can be considered as essential facility. The refusal of essential facility application is judged to be illegal only when it aims at keeping and expanding the leading market share without a fair reason. The application of essential facility can be refused when the transmission line is insufficient in capacity, when no necessary technical conditions are satisfied during use, or when the cost generated during use cannot be collected. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Application of FEM flow analysis to environmental engineering. FEM ryutai kaiseki no kankyo gijutsu eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, M; Ando, K; Shimada, S; Umetani, H [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1990-04-25

    In order to apply FEM (finite element method) flow analysis to environmental engineering, the two-dimensional analysis system was developed, and applied to the design of plant ventilation and improvement of an enviromental control equipment. Furthermore, the three-dimensional analysis system was developed to extend its application. Since in a large scale model, no enhancement of a processing capacity was expected even by a supercomputer because of longer I/O times between internal and external memories caused by a small internal memory space, the parallel processing system with multiple external memories was introduced to analyze such models. To achieve more efficient processing, multiple series of renumbering codes were also prepared to optimize the processing order of solvers, elements and nodes. As examples, the improvement of a thermal oxidizer and the ventilation design for a forging plant, and as an example of a three-dimensional large scale model, the flow analysis around a plant were presented. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Application of ceramics to the sliding seat of valve bridge; Valve bridge yodobu eno ceramics tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, T; Ono, T [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    For use in the valve train, using an OHV (over head valve) configuration. of a 4 valve diesel engine for trucks and buses; we developed a valve bridge, a component of a valve train, with a ceramic head that is made of silicon nitride(Si3N4) in contact with a rocker arm in order to reduce cost and improve wear resistance for further diesel engine emissions regulations. In order to evaluate the effect of this valve bridge, RIG tests and durability tests on actual engines were carried out. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. effect of dl-carnitine on tissue content of ad eno ine triphospha te

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    values of 16.2 ± 5.2µ mols lg dry weight for ATP and I 1.7± 2.5 ~11nols/g dry weight for CP in normal (non ischaem1c) myocardial tissue. Continuous perfusion of the heans "ith perfusate contaming 4.9µmols/ml. DL-Carnitine appeared to prevent the lowermg of ATP and CP levels as a result of induction of ischaemia.

  20. Utilization of new materials in prestressed concrete. Shin zairyo no puresutoresuto concrete eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y. (Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, H. (Building Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Mutsuyoshi, H. (Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-03-31

    In this session for the new materials, almost all of them were the presentation on the fiber reinforced plastics (FRP). Based on these facts, the topics of new materials about PC centered around FRP, and consequently it was found that how it was expected as the new materials and how it is being watched with keen interest. Even in FRP, the presentations on the carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) and aramid fiber reinforced plastics (AFRP) were a little bit more than those on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP), and therefore they were felt to be predominant. Although the ones about a fundamental study on the material characters of FRP held approximately 70%, as a content, there were 6 presentations on the design and execution of the actual bridges in which FRP was used for the PC take-up materials and the oblique cable of cable-stayed bridges, consequently it was found that FRP did not stay at a study stage, and was already shifting to the actual application stage. However, at the current situation, there were many of experimental ones like the small scale bridges in the golf courses, and furthermore it can not be said that a guideline for the design and execution is sufficiently established. 2 figs.

  1. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of effect of energy efficiency improvement on global environment; 1999 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Analyses are conducted into consideration given to global warming measures in the 3rd assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and into technology transfer from developed nations to developing nations in the Asia-Pacific region etc. to contribute to their energy efficiency improvement. The aim is to present data for deliberation as to how future energy efficiency improvement measures should be in the Asia-Pacific region. The chapters (Chapter 0 through Chapter 10) of the report to be worked out by Working Group III deeply involved in energy problems are 0) Introduction, 1) Scope of the report; 2) Socio-economic and emissions scenarios; 3) Technical and economic potential of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction; 4) Technical and economic potential of biological CO2 mitigation options; 5) Barriers, opportunities and market potential of technologies and practices; 6) Policies, measures and instruments; 7) Costing methodologies; 8) Global, regional and national costs and ancillary benefits of mitigation; 9) Sector costs and ancillary benefits of mitigation; and 10) Decision making frameworks. As the result of the survey, some actual technology transfer implementations are introduced covering branches closely related to energy efficiency improvement, which are branches of construction, traffic, industry, energy supply, and wastes. (NEDO)

  2. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Survey on environmental effects from photovoltaic power generation systems; 1998 nendo daikibo taiyoko hatsuden system no kankyo eikyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Different environmental effects may be assumed when large-size photovoltaic power generation systems are installed in vast unutilized lands including deserts. Knowledge having been acquired to date has been put into order on the following subjects as the pre-survey thereon: (1) environmental characteristics of desert areas, (2) discussions on environmental effects from (a) environmental assessment viewpoints, (b) contents of the environmental assessment, and (c) environmental assessment institutions, and (3) the survey policy. In discussing the environmental characteristics, it is revealed that desert areas are neither sterile nor unused, but pasturage and agriculture have been carried out in historical and traditional ways. In discussing the environmental effects, it was recognized that surveys on primary and secondary effects on the environmental are indispensable. With regard to the institutions, there are countries who have and have not the institutions even among the OECD member states. In addition, it was known that environments in the desert areas vary greatly according to the particular areas, whereas there are possibilities of installing the facilities because the effects of the facility locations on the environment are various. Therefore, it was decided to start from the case studies in locations of different types. (NEDO)

  3. Ecological effects assessment of anionic surfactant on aquatic ecosystem using microcosm system; Microcosm wo mochiita in ion kaimen kasseizai no suiken seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Inamori, Y. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurihara, Y. [Ou Univ., Fukushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Matsumura, M. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Applied Biochemical

    1997-11-10

    Microcosm system was applied to assess effect of anionic surfactant (LAS) on aquatic ecosystem. Anionic surfactant such as LAS was added to an flask microcosm consisting of four species of bacteria as decomposer, one species of ciliate protozoa (Cyclidium glaucoma), two rotifers (Philodina sp. and Lepadella sp.) and one aquatic oligochaete (Aeolosoma hemprichi) as predator, and a green alga (Chlorella sp.) and a filamentous blue-green alga (Tolypothrix sp.) as producer, comparing with that of an natural lake model ecosystem derived from natural lake water. In the flask microcosm system and the natural lake model ecosystem, biodegradation rates of LAS were almost same and NOECs (no observed effect concentration) of LAS were also below 1.5 mg{center_dot} l{sup -1}. It was found that flask microcosm test could provide precise ecological effect assessment of LAS on number of microorganisms because the system showed higher reproducibility and stability than natural take model ecosystem. It was suggested that flask microcosm test was useful ecological effect assessment method which can reflect natural aquatic ecosystem. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Engine performances and exhaust gas characteristics of methanol-fueled two-cycle engines. Kogata ni cycle ter dot methanol kikan no seino ni oyobosu shoinshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawa, N.; Kajitani, S. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineerineering); Hayashi, S.; Kubota, Y. (Muroran Inst. of Technology, Muroran (Japan))

    1990-10-25

    Regarding crank case compressed two cycle engine, feasibility of methanol-fueled engine was investigated by studying effective factors on properties of power, combustion, and exhaust gas. For the experiment, air-cooling single cylinder engine was used of which specification was shown by table. As for the experiment, quantities of in-taken air, fuel consumption, torque, and composition of exhaust gas were measured under various conditions. As the consideration of experimental results, those were obtained that less exhaust gas with high performance operation of tow-cycle engie was achieved, too, by using diluted mixture gas of methanol, and that problems were found to be studied for the realization of high compression ratio. 12 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effect of low oxygen partial pressure to the bumblebee respiration; Naruhanabachi ni okeru taikichu sanso bun'atsu henka no kokyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komai, Y. [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-25

    Insects augment oxygen supply using convective transport during flight in two ways: with deforming tracheae by surrounding muscles movement (muscle pumping) and with contracting air sacs by exoskeleton movement (abdominal or thoracic pumping). However, because induced flow inside tracheae is difficult to measure, it is not known how the convective transport actually contributes. By comparison between direct measurement of oxygen partial pressure in a flight muscle based on electrochemical method and flight/ventilation activities in a bumblebee, Bumbus hypocrita hypocruta, a method was developed for estimating gas transport efficiency. Oxygen partial pressure, P{sub 02}, in the bee periodically fluctuated with discontinuous abdominal movement in normal air. While the P{sub 02} strongly varied among individuals in normal air, the P{sub 02} took a unique value in oxygen poor air ({<=}8%). By enhancing ventilation, the bee could respire in an oxygen poor atmosphere up to 2%. Furthermore, the bee could fly in an atmosphere of 6%, in which the P{sub 02} decreased to 0.7%. Estimated efficiency of the gas transport increases with atmospheric oxygen concentration decreases. (author)

  6. Method for estimation of the spectral distribution that influence electric power of PV module; Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku ni eikyo wo ataeru bunko nissha bunpu no suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    A method was proposed for estimating the spectral distribution using air mass, precipitable water, and clear indexes which are generally obtainable, and a comparative study was made between the spectral distribution obtained by this method and the measured data using output power of PV modules, etc. as indexes. When solar light comes into the atmosphere, it dissipates receiving scattering/absorption by various gases and aerosols. Direct light component and scattered light component which arrive at the earth surface become functions of air mass and precipitable water. The wavelength distribution of scattered light in cloudy sky is not dependent upon air mass, but affected strongly by absorption band by steam of clouds. By relational equations considered of these, output power and short-circuit current of PV modules are obtained to make a comparison with the measured data. As a result, it was found that this method estimated the spectral distribution with accuracy. Further, seasonal changes in the spectral distribution were well reproduced. The simulation of the module output in Sapporo and Okinawa brought a result that the output in Okinawa is 1.93% larger than in Okinawa. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Influence of flow force on the flapper of a water hydraulic servovalve; Suiatsu servo ben no flapper ni sayosuru ryutairyoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, E. [Kanagawa University, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamashina, C. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-06-25

    In this paper flow force due to nozzle flow and its influence on the flapper-nozzle system for water hydraulic servovalves are discussed. The flow force acting on the flapper is estimated using the momentum theory, and expressed as a function of the nozzle pressure and flapper-nozzle gap. Analysis shows that the double nozzle flapper gives a quasilinear characteristic to the relationship between the force on the flapper, the flapper gap and the spool velocity. The numerical result based on the theory is used to estimate accuracy of the classical linear approximation. The flow force reduces the magnitude of the change of the nozzle back pressures which drive the spool of the water hydraulic valve, because the input moment acting on the armature is resisted by the moment due to the flow force. Experimental verification of the theory is also given. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of ferrous ions on the metabolism of sulfate-reducing bacteria; Ryusan`en kangenkin no taisha ni oyobosu tetsu ion no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, F.; Suzuki, T. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan). Technology and Engineering Lab.]: Seo, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School

    1995-11-15

    The grave damages due to microorganisms occur occasionally to the ironic piping and the like when river water is used as industrial water. In the present researches, the effects of Fe{sup 2+} on the amount and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the culture medium with the concentration of Fe{sup 2+} changed by stages from 3.6{times}10{sup -4} M to 0.7M are examined. Further, the relations between the activity of the bacteria and the amount of FeS generated in the medium are investigated as an in-site means to observe the activity of the bacteria in the medium wherein the produced S{sup 2-} is converted into FeS once it is generated. The following conclusions are drawn therefrom. In the initial medium with the Fe{sup 2+} concentration from 3.6{times}10{sup -4} M to 0.7M, the growth of the bacteria is maximum at the concentration of 1.0{times}10{sup -2}. Over this concentration the growth is weakened due to the osmotic pressure, lowering of nutriment and the deposit of waste, and the bacteria are extirpated due to the direct effect of osmotic press when the concentration is 0.7M. The total amount of FeS produced due to the bacteria is in conformity with the tendency of growth of bacteria till 30 hours of culture. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Influence of catalytic activity and reaction conditions on the product distribution in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekikayu no seiseibutsu bunpu ni taisuru shokubai kassei oyobi hanno joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, H.; Sakanishi, K.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    The NiMo sulfide supported on Ketjen Black (KB) was more effective and yielded lighter oil products containing light fractions with their boiling point below 300{degree}C during the two stage liquefaction combining low temperature and high temperature hydrogenation the conventional NiMo/alumina catalyst and FeS2 catalyst. Although the NiMo/alumina yielded increased oil products during the two stage liquefaction, the lighter oil fractions did not increase and the heavier fractions increased mainly. This suggests that the hydrogenation of aromatic rings and successive cleavage of the rings are necessary for producing the light oil, which is derived from the sufficient hydrogenation of aromatic rings using catalysts. For the two stage reaction with NiMo/KB catalyst, it was considered that sufficient hydrogen was directly transferred to coal molecules at the first stage of the low temperature reaction, which promoted the solubilization of coal and the successive hydrogenation at the high temperature reaction. Thus, high activity of the catalyst must be obtained. It is expected that further high quality distillates can be produced through the optimization of catalysts and solvents at the two stage reaction. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of heat treatment changes on swelling treatment of coal; Sekitan no bojun shori sayo ni oyobosu netsushori henka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satsuka, T.; Mashimo, K.; Wainai, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-10-28

    Discussions were given on effects of heat treatment at relatively low temperatures as a pretreatment for coal liquefaction on coal swelling and hydrogenolysis reaction. Taiheiyo coal was heated to 200{degree}C for one hour as a pretreatment. The attempted heating methods consisted of four steps of rapid heating (6.7{degree}C/min)quenching (20{degree}C/min), rapid heating/natural cooling (0.7{degree}C/min), heating (1.0{degree}C/min)/quenching, and heating/natural cooling. The swelling treatment was composed of adding methanol benzene into heat treated coal, and leaving it at room temperature for 24 hours. The hydrogenolysis was carried out by using a tetralin solvent and at an initial hydrogen pressure of 20 kg/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 350{degree}C and for a time of one hour. Hydrogenolysis conversion in the heat treated coal was found lower than that of the original coal because of generation of liquefaction inactive components due to thermal polymerization. When the heat treated coal is swollen by using the solvent, gas yield from the hydrogenolysis reaction decreased due to gas suppression effect, and the conversion was lower than that of the original coal. Heat treatment suggests densification of the coal structure. Swollen coal shows no conspicuous difference in the heat treatment methods against the hydrogenolysis due to the swelling effect. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effects of lithium iodide doping on devolatilization characteristics of brown coals; Yoka lithium no tenka ga kattan no kanetsu henka katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, J.; Kumagai, H.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to discuss effects of lithium iodide (LiI) doping on condensation structure of brown coals during heating, spectral changes were measured by using an in-situ FT-IR. It was found that the LiI doping accelerates weight reduction due to heating, and the doping effect is affected by coal structure. Both of Loy Yang (LY) coal and its LiI doped coal (DLY) had absorption intensity of the FT-IR spectra decreased with rising temperature, and the absorption center belonging to an OH group shows different shifts between the LY and DLY coals. This indicates that the LiI doping has affected the change in hydrogen bonding patterns associated with heating. Both of South Banko (SB) and LY coals had the absorption spectral intensity in the OH group decreased as the weight reduction (conversion) rate increased. Reduction in the OH groups associated with heating is caused by volatilization and condensation reaction in light-gravity fraction. However, in the case of equal conversion rate, the LiI doped coal shows higher spectral intensity than the original coal, with the LiI doping suppressing reduction in the OH groups. It appears that the doping suppresses the condensation reaction between the OH groups. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Influence of molybdenum on hardenability of destabilized high chromium cast irons. Ko kuromu chutetsu no netsushori tokusei ni oyobosu moribuden no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, M. (Ube, Collete of Technology, Yamaguchi (Japan)); Ogi, K. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Sawamoto, A. (Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan))

    1991-07-25

    Alloy elements are added to compensate for reduction in hardenability of high chromium cast iron as a result of destabilization heat treatment. With the purpose of investigating the influence of the added elements, this paper describes investigations made on effects of Mo and destabilization heat treatment conditions on martensite transformation , eutectoid transformation and base hardness, using Fe-Cr-C-based alloy containing C at 1.6-3.6%, and Cr at 6.6-26%. The main results obtained are as follows: Mo and Cr had the distribution coefficient for initial crystal austenite is smaller than one and were microscopically segregated in the dendrite base; the solute element distribution in the base is homogenized as a result of the long-time destabilization heat treatment while the Cr and C concentrations reduce largely, and the Mo concentration increases slightly; Mo has little influence on the Ms point, and reduces with the smaller the Cr/C ratio and the higher the retention temperature; and the base hardness corresponds well to a CCT diagram. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Survey on method of environmental-impact assessment in wind power development; 1998 nendo furyoku kaihatsu ni okeru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With the purpose of preparing the main points of 'environmental-impact assessment guidelines for wind power developments (draft)', examples of environmental-impact assessments, related laws and regulations in Japan and abroad were collected, and rearranged in respect to requirements in environmental-assessments, concrete procedures, survey/projection/assessment method, summarisation of results, etc. It was clarified, for example; in a large-scale wind power development, it can be dealt with by choosing items and contents on the assumption that a land area is developed; in a small-scale development, there is basically no need of considering the possible effect of the construction work; and, as far as noise, vibration and the ecosystem (plants/animals) are concerned, however, the characteristics of the site be taken into consideration. Objects for general assessment are noise, low-frequency air vibration, radio wave interference, the ecosystem (plants and animals) and the landscape. The guideline draft is constituted of (1) basic items, (2) overview of the area, (3) determination of items for environmental-impact assessment and (4) research, prediction, assessment, conservation measures and follow-up research; in the basic items, importance of preliminary consideration was emphasized, as were priority/simplification, implementation of environmental conservation measures, and implementation of follow-up research. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of energy supply/demand structure sophistication and global environmental impact; 1994 nendo energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Outlines of various energy supply/demand analytical models are surveyed. With environmental problems gathering importance, a number of models are being introduced in which energy supply/demand structures, long-term climate changes, and impacts of policy options on social economy are linked to each other. Some socioeconomic impact models cover a single country and others the whole world. They are various in type, ranging from dynamic optimization models to static balance models. Twenty-four models are chosen, and grouped into two types respectively covering Japan and the whole world from a geographical viewpoint and into three groups in view of their structures. Under an optimization model, such optimization is accomplished as economic growth maximization and energy cost minimization and so forth under given energy supply restrictions. Under a general balance type econometric model, an adjustment process in which capital and labor and production are coordinated across multiple departments is expressly stated. Under a partial balance type econometric model, a demand function for goods is given and optimum behavior such as consumption maximization is indirectly described. (NEDO)

  15. International symposium on environmental impacts of advanced alternative to CFC; CFC shinki daitai busshitsu no kankyo eikyo ni kansuru kokusai symposium hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-07

    The international symposium on environmental effects of new CFC substitutes was held in Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Pref. on February 7-9, 1996, and 19 papers were made public. In Session 1 (Plenary lecture), reports were made on Global warming and climate change: a review of recent studies; Stratospheric ozone, CFCs, and CFC-substitutes: an update, etc. In Session 2, Measurements of OH rate constants for advanced refrigerants as well as HCFCs and HFCs; The reaction rate of CFC alternatives with OH radical; Experimental and estimated rate constants: reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several halocarbons, etc. In Session 3, Measurement of uptake coefficients of some acetyl halides and fluorinated ethers into water; Mass transfer at the air/water interface: removal processes of halocarbonyl compounds; Heterogeneous reactions of fluorinated ethers on allophane or titanium dioxide, etc. In Session 4, papers were reported on model calculations relating to the global warming.

  16. Fiscal 1999 survey report on introducing technique for predicting impact on hot spring; 1999 nendo onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    For the application of fruits of the geothermal development promotion project to survey phase C and for the study of technical means for appropriate development to employ after phase C, some cases of impacts imposed on hot springs by geothermal development were taken up and the causes of the impacts were investigated. Activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) the survey of actualities of impacts imposed on hot springs, (2) the survey of the causes of such impacts, and (3) a comprehensive survey. Keyword searches were conducted into the data system and geothermal energy related magazines, and 13 cases were found in which hot springs were affected by geothermal development, which included the Palinpinon district (Philippines), the Koso district (America), and the Wairakei district (New Zealand). Concerning the 13 cases, data on geology, geological structures, and geothermal fluids were collected and studies were conducted about relations of geothermal development with geological structures and geothermal fluids, as in the case of hot springs, and the two were integrated for the clarification of the causes of impacts. In concluding the report, the difference in mechanism is deliberated between cases with impacts on hot springs and cases without impacts on hot springs. (NEDO)

  17. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Temperature effect on corrosion fatigue strength of coated ship structural steel; Zosen`yoko tosozai no fushoku hiro kyodo ni okeru ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takanashi, M.; Fuji, A.; Kojima, M.; Kitagawa, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kumakura, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The corrosion fatigue life was obtained using uncoated and tar epoxy resin specimens to clarify the temperature effect. The life curve for corrosion fatigue of machined and uncoated steel in the air and sea was obtained. The fatigue strength of uncoated steel largely decreases in the sea and breaks even in the nominal stress range of less than 1/2 of the fatigue limit in the air. The effect of temperature on the coated steel is represented by a corrosion coefficient. The steel coated at 25{degree}C is 1/1.03 to 1/1.13 at 40 to 60{degree}C. This showed that the fatigue strength decreases when the temperature exceeds 25{degree}C. However, it has not such tendency and significance that are represented quantitatively. There is a slight difference in the short-life area between the crack generation life and breaking life. However, the long-life area has no significance that influences the whole evaluation. In the long-life corrosion fatigue, the crack occurs from the corrosion pit due to the exposure below the coated film and progresses in the base material before the coated film is destroyed. The effect of the corrosion pit remarkably appears at a low-stress level. 14 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Remote sensing data analysis for assessment of sea level change in Asia; Asia ni okeru kaisuijun hendo eikyo hyoka no tame no remote sensing gazo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Y; Tanaka, A [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kaku, M [Bishimetal Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Remote sensing images include information of coastal land division, sea level change such as sedimentary environment and vegetation, and distribution of artificial structures. Past sea level changes and their causes can be regionally obtained by analyzing these data and by integrating them with information obtained from geological survey. In this study, causes and history of past sea level changes, formation mechanism of coastal topography, and past sea level change survey in Thailand have been reviewed. This paper describes an extraction method of the sea level change information in coastal districts by analyzing several actual remote sensing images. For understanding the current sea level rise, it is required to clarify the causes quantitatively among three causes of sea level changes, i.e., volumetric change of total ocean water on the earth, relative sea level change due to the crustal deformation, and change of irregularity of sea surface with ocean current. It is also required to compile maps in Asian or global scales. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Convenient methods for appreciating effects of acid rain on stone building materials; Sekizai ni taisuru sanseiu no eikyo hyokaho no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katami, T.; Takahara, Y.; Nishikawa, H.; Kato, K. [Gifu Prefectural Health and Environmental Research Center, Gifu (Japan)

    1996-05-10

    A method to evaluate effects of acid rain has been investigated by exposing building marble plates at both outdoor and indoor sites and measuring lightness and roughness on the surface of plates. The lower pH of rain water fell, the more remarkable loss of lightness appeared in a short period on the surface of outdoor samples in one to three months exposure tests. As an appropriate negative correlation was shown between the lightness and the pH value, it was found that physical change of the plate surface can be estimated by using the lightness, optically measured value. For three to nine months indoor-exposure tests, difference of the lightness were quantitatively observed, but little differences of the roughness height were recognized among the different exposure sites. From the reduction of lightness on the marble plate surface exposed at outdoor and indoor sites, it was also found that damage levels of the marble plates were four to eleven times higher at outdoor sites by rain water than those at indoor sites by air pollutants, such as acid gases, in the ambient air. Thus, the optical method may be useful to evaluate damage levels of marble building materials caused by acid-rain water after exposing them for a relatively short period. 10 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. FY 2000 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 2000 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Looking for effective measures for enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region, survey was made of the state of study of measures against global warming in the 3rd IPCC report and the state of study of the incidental convenience. The survey was made in the following two fields: 1) research analysis in study of the 3rd IPCC report; 2) research analysis of the convenience incidental to measures against global warming. 1) is composed of IPCC activities and the 3rd assessment report, and the developmental state of global warming prevention technology and potential of greenhouse effect gas reduction. Subjects on the prevention technology are the technology for enhancement of energy consumption and development of non-fossil fuels. Physical/chemical CO2 fixation is also studied. 2) is composed of the introduction, economic/social/environmental effects, international flow, reasons for different conclusion in every study, and fields of further study. Considered were global warming prevention measures, for example, economic/social/environmental effects of creation of the carbon tax, reduction in subsidy in energy sector, etc. (NEDO)

  2. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M; Kagemoto, H; Hamada, T [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R; Usui, K; Moriya, A; Sato, M; Nomura, T; Sue, H [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Influence of frequency spectra to annoyance caused by road traffic noise; Doro kotsu soon no urusasa ni oyobosu shuhasu supekutoru no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, T [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Hashimoto, T [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes a study of annoyance to road traffic noise in laboratories. To measure the annoyance to road traffic noise, subjective evaluation test was carried out using 48 road traffic noise recorded at various points in the city. Among the frequency spectra of these noise, the differences on the SPL of high frequency component were significant. As a result, we found that: (1) annoyance was different while A-weighted SPLs were the same, (2) fluctuation strength had the highest correlation with annoyance, (3) besides A-weighted SPL, roughness and sharpness contributed to annoyance -simultaneously, (4) contribution of high frequency noise was significant to annoyance. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effect of oil around the pin boss bearing on bearing friction force; Piston pin jikuukebu kinbo no junkatsuyu ga masatsuryoku ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takiguchi, M; Suhara, T; Ato, S; Someya, T [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Piston pin bearings are engine parts placed under severe lubricating condition because of the high unit load and temperature and the low sliding speeds. Therefore, they are vulnerable to many lubrication problems such as abnormal wear, scuffs and seizures. In our recent study, the bearing friction were measured using a original measuring device and it was found out that the lubricating conditions of piston pin boss bearings are non-fluid lubrication due to the oil starvation. In this study, we have also measured the lubricating oil behavior around the pin boss bearing using a special cylinder with glass window, and analyzed the relationship between the friction force and the oil behavior at the pin boss bearings in a actual operating gasoline engine. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effects of MTBE blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions; MTBE kongo keiyu ga diesel nensho haiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shundo, S; Yokota, H; Kakegawa, T [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effects of MTBE (Methyl-t-butyl ether) blended diesel fuel on diesel combustion and emissions were studied. In conventional diesel combustion, the testing mode was carried out in conformity with the Japanese 13 mode. Furthermore, this fuel was applied to a new combustion system (Homogeneous Charge Intelligent Multiple Injection). MTBE blended diesel fuel is more effective in the case of new combustion system and very low NOx, PM capability is suggested. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter from DI diesel engine; Particulate chu no PAH ni oyobosu nenryo sosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S; Tatani, T; Yoshida, H; Takizawa, H; Miyoshi, K; Ikebe, H [COSMO Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of fuel composition on poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from DI diesel engine was investigated by using deeply desulfurized fuel and model fuel which properties are not interrelated. It was found that the deeply desulfurized fuel have effect on reducing PAH emissions. Furthermore, it was suggested that poly aromatics in the fuel affect PAH emissions and the influence of tri-aromatics in the fuel was promoted by the coexistence of mono-aromatics or naphthene. PAH formation scheme from each fuel component was proposed by chemical thermodynamic data. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer; Reito joshitsuki ni okeru gyoshukusui bunri/haishutsu noryoku no joshitsu seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H.; Ichinose, T. [SMC Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y.; Hashizume, T. [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Science and Engineering Research Lab.

    1995-11-15

    The representative refrigerated dryer as the compressed air dryers is one in which air was cooled at rather low temperature by working medium of refrigerators, and the dew point was decreased with increase of pressure, and air with low relative humility called as the dried air was obtained again by heating. In this paper, for clarifying effect of separation and drainage of condensate on dehumidification in a refrigerated dryer in relation to shape of a main cooler and a precool-reheater and air temperature of each part, calculation and experimental investigation were conducted. In a refrigerated dryer, condensate happened in the precool part of a precool-reheater and a main cooler, and this would give rise to reduce of separation and drainage of condensate and increase of thermal loads of each heat exchange, and would made dehumidification low. For a fact that decrease of separation and drainage of condensate in a main cooler would bring out heat conduction with phase change in the reheating part of a precool-reheater, it has a profitable side, but it is not desirable for ability of dryers. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Influence of smectites on resistivity of rocks and soils; Smectite nendo kobutsu ga ganseki dojo no hi teiko ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, S; Nishizawa, O; Aoki, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Kozake, K [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    This paper illustrates the measurement results of resistivity for specimens including smectite clay minerals artificially synthesized, and also discusses the influence of smectites on resistivity. Three kinds of bentonites, i.e., KN-1, Kawasaki ore, and Kawasaki Sanhaku, were used for preparing smectites. The KN-1 is Na type smectite, the Kawasaki ore is Ca type smectite, and the Kawasaki Sanhaku is acid clay. It is well known that smectites lower the resistivity of rocks. However, the experimental results suggested that the degree of decreasing the resistivity depends on the kind of smectites. The effect of decreasing the resistivity by the KN-1 was much superior to the other smectites. For the KN-1, a thick electrical double layer was formed by Na ions in the interlayers, which resulted in the larger effect of decreasing the resistivity. Swelling capacity and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the KN-1 were large, which agreed with the above mentioned consideration. Reversely, it was considered that smectites having larger effect of decreasing the resistivity exhibited larger swelling capacity and CEC. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Investigation of local-dimensional galvanic distortion on MT data in the central part of Northeastern Japan; Tohoku chiho no MT data ni mirareru kyokushoteki sanjigensei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, N; Takasugi, S [GERD Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujinawa, Y [National Research Institute for Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Groom-Bailey decomposition analysis was carried out to investigate regional 3-D galvanic distortion on MT data in the central part of Northeastern Japan. Measuring sites were located nearly along the east-west line crossing Northeastern Japan. Three measuring lines (A, B, C) from the north to the south were prepared, and only data on the C line were analyzed in this paper. As a result, twist and shear were estimated to be not zero depending on local distortion in most of the sites. It was thus clarified that this method is not always perfect. This method was effective for regional 2-D structures, however, its application was doubtful to complicated 3-D underground structures in Japan. In order to obtain more accurate results, 2-D analysis using the impedance including no local distortion effect was necessary after the preliminary Groom-Bailey decomposition analysis. The direction of the wide area geological structure of Northeastern Japan was estimated to be N-S direction near NNW-SSE one. 6 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Development of Assessment Technology of Life Cycle Environment Impacts of Products; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Seihinnado lilfecycle kankyo eikyo hyoka gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An inventory data collecting format is formulated, data collecting activities are launched through 23 industry associations and several investigatory agencies, and almost all the primary data are collected. All the inventory items are being rearranged into a convenient order, and efforts are under way to designate the association to be in charge and the method to be used for data collecting (the accumulation method, process model method). Problems about techniques in the veinous department are extracted. The flow of matters relating to various metals and glass after their use and the magnitude of their environmental impacts at the ultimate sites of treatment are understood though roughly. Investigations are conducted into typical formats overseas, a data arranging format is constructed, specifications are defined for a data inputting software program, and a request is placed with a dedicated dealer for the compilation of the said program. The architecture and specifications of an LCA (life cycle assessment) database system are determined, and its functions are undergoing an intermediate check by a research team for improvement. Endeavors are exerted at quantifying global warming, ozone layer depletion, biotoxicity, and photochemical oxidants for use as the basic data for damage evaluation. (NEDO)

  13. Report for fiscal 2000 investigations on effects imposed by introducing emission trading system; 2000 nendo haishutsuryo torihiki system donyu ni yoru eikyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With regard to effectiveness of the emission trading targeted to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emission, evaluation has been given from the three viewpoints: economies, environment, and household economy. In the research, simulations were implemented by using the GEC calculation model modified for introduction of domestic emission trading, and utilization of international emission trading. In evaluating the effects on industries and foreign trades, notice was given on the large energy consuming industries to discuss the effects of introducing the emission trading on the quantity of production and export. Regarding the effects on environment, calculations and discussions were given on greenhouse effect gas leakage rates to assess the greenhouse effect gas emission reducing effects from the domestic and international viewpoints. As a result of the discussions, it was found that the economies, environment and household economy are all benefited in regard with the domestic emission trading. Utilization of the international emission trading was also found to have sufficient positive benefit exist for the economies and household economy. (NEDO)

  14. On the sea-covering effect of a huge floating structure on the surrounding water; Choogata futai shuhen no kaisui ni taisuru kaimen shahei no eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, M.; Kagemoto, H.; Hamada, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The numerical analysis program based on the difference method for dynamics of sea water with sea-surface displacement, flow rate, salt content and temperature as the parameters is modified to more accurately assess the effects of a huge marine structure on surrounding environment by adding the effects of insolation and boundary conditions of the sea-covering effects of the floating structure. The numerical simulation was done for summer and winter seasons, not in a sea area but using a rectangular bay with the floating structure at the center. A new flow evolves around the floating structure, due to the sea-covering effect. The flow patterns in summer and winter are clearly different, due to difference in insolation. The predicted flow is also sensitive whether stratification is considered or not, by which is meant that it is important what stratification effect is taken into account. Daily insolation changes are accompanied by vertical distribution of water temperature and its temporal change. These effects are also observed under the floating structure which shields insolation. 10 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Studies on surface tension effect for free surface flow around floating models; Futai mokei mawari no jiyu hyomenryu ni oyobosu hyomen choryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Akiba, H. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The effect of surface tension on free surface flow around floating models is discussed experimentally and numerically. Three-dimensional free surface flow around vertical circular cylinders floating in a circulating water channel was visually observed, where a surface-active agent was added to water. The results are analyzed using Weber number. The numerical analysis was done for vertical cylinder and CY100 models using the Rankine source method. Weber number of at least around 120 is necessary to eliminate the effect of surface tension from free surface flow around the CY100 model. The numerical analysis for the cylinder model needs simulation with wavelength shorter than that of free surface wave used by the Rankine source method. The model for the resistance test should be at least around 7m long to eliminate the effect of surface tension at Froude number of 0.1 or higher. 15 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Effect of synthetic detergent and soap on the waste-water treatment. Gosei senzai oyobi sekken no haisui shori ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamori, Y. (national Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)); Takamatsu, Y. (University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of surfactants on purification capability and living life phases in the living life membrane method and the activated sludge method as biological waste water treatment methods. As a result of treating artificial waste water in an immersion hearth process of the living life membrane method, it was found that LAS added concentration at 50 mg/l or higher would not affect noticeably the quality of water treated under a steady-state operation, but that at 100 mg/l has aggravated the treated water quality by increasing COD. In the case of soaps, the COD in the treated water has aggravated when the added concentration is 70 mg/l or higher. The result of discussing the activated sludge process using urban sewage water indicated that COD in the treated water shows higher value for synthetic detergents than for soaps at the detergent added concentration of 140 mg/l or higher, having affected adversely the treated water quality. An activated sludge treatment process was operated to identify the effects of synthetic detergents and soaps on living life phases in the activated sludge and living life membranes. The result suggests that either the LAS added system or the soap added system presents no problems in a long-time aeration, while activated sludge aerated for the standard period of time has a possibility of abnormally proliferating filamentous microorganisms that can cause bulking in the soap system. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Study on the performance improvement of multiblade fans. Effects of suction cones; Tayoku fan no seino kaizen ni kansuru kenkyu. Suction cone no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuratani, F.; Ogawa, T. [Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan); Yamamoto, S.

    1999-07-25

    In order to improve the performance of a multiblade fan, the effects of three types of suction cones of the fan casing on the fan efficiency and noise are investigated experimentally. The first type of the suction cone is the insertion type, which is inserted into the inside of the fan impeller. The second type is the extrusion type, which extrudes outside from the casing surface. The third type is the combination type of two types. The results of those three types are compared with those of the commonly used suction cone. The followings are made clear: (1) The insertion type and the extrusion type are effective in improving the efficiency and reducing noise. (2) The optimal lengths of the insertion and the extrusion exist. (3) The combination type is more effective in improving the efficiency. (4) The combination type with the skewed cutoff of the fan casing shows the best effect. (author)

  18. Changes in soil organisms by the application of sludge composits, and their effects. Odei taihirui no shiyo ni tomonau dojo seibutsu no henka to sono eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niijima, K.; Fujita, K.; Ogawa, M. (Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-08-31

    With an objective to utilize sewage sludge more effectively, composted sewage sludge has been applied to seed beds to investigate its effect on soil macrofauna and higher fungi, and its relativity with change in soil organisms, growth of young trees, and soil science. Forty-eight seedling sections, each 5 m [times] 5 m, were made on a seed bed which was applied with Tenryu sludge composts (polymer-based coagulant), several other kinds of sludge composts, fallen leaf composts, and cattle excrement composts at predetermined rates from zero to 20 kg. Each section was planted with 25 three-year-old nursery trees of a kind of oak, black pine, and cypress. As a result, the following findings were obtained: wet weight of larvae of Japanese gold beetles that attack tree roots has increased during the first and second years in the Tenryu sludge applied section, but no longer increased in the third year; the relationship between the other composts and soil macrofauna was not made clear; Scleroderma Cepa PERS, a mycorrhiza bacteria, has been generated in the oak planted section in the second, third and fourth years, with the second year particularly having generated it in a greater amount in proportion with the fertilizer application amount, but the fertilizer effect thereafter is not clear. 24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Emission characteristics of multiple stage diesel combustion. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation; Nidan nensho diesel kikan no haishutsubutsu tokusei. EGR no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New A.C.E. Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    For an aim to reduce NOx emission from diesel engines, it has become possible to realize it with smoke emission maintained at low levels by taking the following steps: initial combustion is carried out as lean pre-mixed combustion by adopting early fuel injection; the fuel is injected again after completion of this combustion; and EGR is combined with two-stage combustion which performs diffusion combustion under high temperature atmosphere. When a large quantity of EGR is used, cylinder temperature drops to have ignition timing delayed in the first stage, serving for improving fuel consumption. The problem of increase in smoke generation is solved by optimizing the injection timing at the second stage to suppress smoke generation increase, resulting in realization of lower NOx emission. By completing the second-stage fuel injection before ignition of the first-stage injection, it was possible to realize further lower NOx emission. Smoke increase due to higher EGR ratio was suppressed by pre-mixing both fuels injected in the first and second stages, although this is a high load operation. In addition, oxygen concentration and cylinder temperature were reduced, the gas pre-mixture was homogenized, and combustion velocity was suppressed by delaying the angle of ignition timing. This made low smoke combustion at {lambda} = 1 possible even in compressed ignition combustion. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effect of oxygenated fuel on premixed lean diesel combustion; Kihaku yokongo diesel nensho ni oyobosu gansanso nenryo kongo keiyu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Harada, A.; Akagawa, H.; Tsujimura, K. [New ACE Institute Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Because injection timing in diesel engines is early in a premixed lean diesel combustion system using early fuel injection, ignition timing is determined by ignitability of the fuel used. The conventional diesel fuel, which has good ignitability, causes excessively early ignition, thus aggravating fuel consumption. In order to reduce cylinder temperature with an aim of delaying ignition timing to improve the fuel consumption, attempts are being made on using low cetane fuels to reduce CO2 gas supply or compression ratio, and to vary ignitability of the fuels. The present study investigated ignition timing control and properties of exhausts by mixing different types of oxygenated fuels into light oil. Mixing the oxygenated fuels into light oil proved that the ignition timing can be controlled, and mixing such low cetane fuels as ethanol and MTBE achieved improvement in fuel consumption. Trial use of the oxygenated fuels aggravated CO concentration, which is caused because the cylinder temperature was reduced. Numerical calculations suggest that use of fuels with faster evaporation speed and lower cetane number is effective in improving the fuel consumption and the exhausts. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effects space velocity and gas velocity on DeNOx catalyst with HC reductant; HC tenka NOx kangen shokubai no kukan sokudo oyobi gas ryusoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, K.; Tsujimura, K.

    1995-04-20

    Discussions were given on the hydrocarbon added reduction catalyst method to reduce NOx in diesel engine exhaust gas. An experiment was carried out with actual exhaust gas from a diesel engine by using a copper ion exchanged zeolite catalyst that has been coated on a honeycomb type substrate, and using propylene as a reductant. When the catalyst volume was changed with the exhaust gas space velocity kept constant, the NOx conversion ratio decreased as the catalyst length is decreased, and the activity shifted to the lower temperature side. The NOx reduction efficiency increased if the faster the gas flow velocity. On the other hand, if the gas flow velocity is slow, the NOx reduction can be carried out with relatively small amount of the reductant. When the catalyst volume was changed with the passing gas amount kept constant, the NOx conversion ratio decreased largely if the catalyst length is decreased. Further, the NOx reduction characteristics shift to the higher temperature side. In the catalyst length direction, the NOx reduction activity shows a relatively uniform action. However, a detailed observation reveals that the reaction heat in the catalyst is transmitted to the wake improving the activity, hence the further down the flow, the NOx conversion ratio gets higher in efficiency. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Influence of strain hardening and thickness changes occurring in press forming process; Seikeiji no kako koka/itaatsu henka no buzai akkai tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, M; Hirota, K [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Nakazawa, Y [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Most components of the body structure are produced by press forming. This process make a uniform metal sheet into a component that have various material characteristics and thickness. This paper describes the estimation method of material characteristics and thickness changes based on the measured Vickers hardness, and the influence of these changes on the crush performance by using FE analysis. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Survey on method of environmental-impact assessment in wind power development; 1998 nendo furyoku kaihatsu ni okeru kankyo eikyo hyoka shuho chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With the purpose of preparing the main points of 'environmental-impact assessment guidelines for wind power developments (draft)', examples of environmental-impact assessments, related laws and regulations in Japan and abroad were collected, and rearranged in respect to requirements in environmental-assessments, concrete procedures, survey/projection/assessment method, summarisation of results, etc. It was clarified, for example; in a large-scale wind power development, it can be dealt with by choosing items and contents on the assumption that a land area is developed; in a small-scale development, there is basically no need of considering the possible effect of the construction work; and, as far as noise, vibration and the ecosystem (plants/animals) are concerned, however, the characteristics of the site be taken into consideration. Objects for general assessment are noise, low-frequency air vibration, radio wave interference, the ecosystem (plants and animals) and the landscape. The guideline draft is constituted of (1) basic items, (2) overview of the area, (3) determination of items for environmental-impact assessment and (4) research, prediction, assessment, conservation measures and follow-up research; in the basic items, importance of preliminary consideration was emphasized, as were priority/simplification, implementation of environmental conservation measures, and implementation of follow-up research. (NEDO)

  4. Effect of grain size on amplitude-dependent internal friction in polycrystalline copper. Do takessho no naibu masatsu no shinpuku izon sei ni oyobosu kessho ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, H.; Nishino, Y.; Asano, S. (Nagoya Inst. of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-08-20

    In this research, amplitude-dependency of internal friction was measured on various polycrystalline copper of varying grain size. Furthermore, the measurement data of amplitude-dependency of internal friction were analyzed from the phenomenological standpoint and microplastic strain was calculated as a function of stress. The obtained correlation between microplastic strain and stress corresponded to the stress-strain curve obtainable from normal tensile tests. Hence, comparing with the Hall-Petch relation, the relationship between flow stress and grain size in the microplastiic zone was discussed. The obtained results are summarized as follows: When grains were refined, amplitude dependency of internal friction was inhibited. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it was found that the flow stress in the microplastic zone increased following refining of grains. This agreed qualitatively with the macro deformation obtained from normal tensile tests. The grain size dependency of flow stress in the microplastic zone did not follow the normal Hall-Pitch relation, but the plastic strain increased, the dependency moved towards it. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1996-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Global environment assessment survey by advancing the energy demand and supply structure. 4; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the energy demand and supply structure in Japan, the international trend of approaches to global warming problems and the mitigation options to global warming in the energy related sectors have been surveyed. For the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, an Ad-hoc Group has discussed relevant topics after the 1st conference of the Parties. Meetings of the Group primarily focused on what objectives to set for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in and in and after 2000. IPCC completed their Technical Paper in November 1996 in which technologies and measures to reduce GHG emissions and to enhance GHG sinks were analyzed and evaluated in various aspects. This Paper discusses about each sector of institutional buildings sector, transport sector, industrial sector, and energy supply sector. Especially, in the energy supply sector, promising approaches to reduce future emission include more efficient conversion of fossil fuels, switching to low-carbon fossil fuels, decarbonization of flue gas and fuels, CO2 storage, switching to nuclear energy, and switching to renewable sources of energy. 5 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Effect of PV module output power on module temperature; Taiyo denchi no shutsuryoku henka ga module hyomen ondo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T; Kitamura, A [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Igaki, K; Mizumoto, T [Kanden Kako Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Effect of the photovoltaic (PV) module output power variation on the module surface temperature has been investigated by field measurements. PV modules with capacity of 54 W were used for the temperature measurements. Three 2 kW-class PV systems were operated. T-type thermocouples were used for measuring temperatures. Measurement time intervals were 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Measurement period was between May 25, 1995 and June 25, 1996. The surface temperature increased during non-loaded PV output, and decreased during load-carrying PV output. Difference of the surface temperature between non-loaded PV output and load-carrying PV output was 3.5{degree}C at maximum through a year. The surface temperature was saturated within 30 minutes. When PV output was changed in 30 or 60 minutes interval, the variation of surface temperature was distinctly observed. When PV output was changed in 15 minutes interval, it was not observed distinctly. There was no difference of the surface temperatures during the time zones with less solar radiation, such as in the morning and evening, and at night. Except these time zones, difference of the surface temperatures was 3.5{degree}C at maximum. 4 figs.

  8. Influence of hydrogen-ion concentration exponent on undrained shear behaviour of bentonites; Bentonaito no hihaisui sendan kyodo ni oyobosu suiso ion nodo shisu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, T [Kiso Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tokida, M [Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano (Japan)

    1994-12-21

    Because there is a report example that the yield stress of a landslide clay increases along with a decrease of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent, it is thought that a shear strength of the landslide clay depends on the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent. Furthermore, when the soil stabilization method by lime is applied to the soft ground and high organic earth, it is pointed out that the hydrogen-ion concentration exponent will become one of the harmful factors. Accordingly, it is understood that revealing an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affects on the characteristics of an earth is one of the important factors, to evaluate a strength, deformation and so forth of the viscous ground. In this study, in order to examine an influence of a hydrogen-ion concentration exponent affecting on an undrained shear behavior of the bentonites, for the artificially adjusted bentonite specimens with 5 kinds of different pH, the isotropic consolidated undrained triaxial compression tests were performed, and consequently an influence of pH affecting on the engineering characteristics of the bentonites was made clear quantitatively. 28 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Fiscal 1998 research report on the global environmental assessment for efficient energy consumption; 1998 nendo energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published the 1st assessment report in 1990 and the 2nd report in 1995 since its establishment in 1988, and is promoting the 3rd research and analysis. Among them, this report describes the study on technology transfer for efficient energy consumption. For stabilizing greenhouse effect gas concentrations in the air, strong control of such gas emission is indispensable, and a role of technology is important for the control. For overcoming some weak points for climate change, practical use of applicable technologies is necessary over a certain period of time, and technology transfer is essential in each country and all over the world. For promotion of such approach, the analysis and evaluation for technology transfer and diffusion are useful in addition to reports on technology itself. Based on such understanding, IPCC has promoted preparation of the special report on methodological and technological issues of technology transfer since 1997. Its approval at the IPCC general meeting is expected in late 1999 or early 2000. Some chapters related to efficient energy consumption are presented. (NEDO)

  10. Effect of Water Environment on Subcritical Crack Growth of Machinable Ceramics; Kaisakusei seramikkusu no kiretsu shinten tokusei ni oyobosu mizu kankyo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kaizu, K.; Inotani, T. [Miyazaki Univ., Miyazaki (Japan); Yoshikawa, A.; Adachi, K.; Igaki, H. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-06-15

    The fatigue behavior of ceramics has been discussed on the basis of the relation between stress intensity facter (KI) and crack velocity (V). In this paper, the effect of environment on the relation between KI and V was studied on machinable ceramics (mica glass ceramics) and two kinds of glass ceramics with different grain sizes. The double torsion (DT) technique was used for the determination of the KI-V characteristics under different environments of air and ion-exchanged water. The characteristics of acoustic emission (AE) during stress corrosion cracking of mica glass ceramics was also examined. In water environment, the region II in the KI-V curve, in which crack velocity varies slowly with KI, disappeared. From this experimental fact, it was considered that at high KI, the crack velocity is encouraged by diffusion of the corrosive species to the crack and thus depended on the amount of water. SEM farc tography revealed that mica single crystals in the material caused crack arrest and deflection to occur. It is also found that AE event rate is quantitatively related to the crack velocity. AE measurement can be used in studying the crack propagation behavior of mica glass ceramics. 11 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Effects of electrical stimulation on fruit of lentinus edodes; Shiitake jinko kindoko ni taisuru denki shigeki ga kojittai hassei kosu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitobe, K.; Sato, T.; Yoshimura, N. [Akita Univ. (Japan)] Suzuki, T. [Tohoku Electric Power Co. Ltd., Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-30

    So far, the cultivation of Lentinus edodes is cultivated from material wood mainly, however, recently, artificial bed-blocks method has been used widely. The advantage of bed-block cultivation is to a short growing period and be possible to cultivate by a large scale facilities. Hereafter, it is thought that this growing method is used mainly. Before now, based on the experimental fact that abnormal fruiting of Lentinus edodes occurs due to lightening, the study on the effects of electrical stimulation was reported, however, the investigation on the effects of electrical stimulation on the artificial bed-bocks which is thought to come into wide use in future does not carry out until now. The purpose of this study is to investigate an increased yield of the Lentinus fruit-bodies grown on artificial bed-blocks that electrical stimuli were applied. Nineteen artificial bed-blocks were provided for each applied voltage condition; Control, 200V, 400V, 600V, for the AC. As a result of experiment, in the 600V condition, the total number of fruiting of Lentinus edodes was significantly increased as compared with other conditions. Especially, in the artificial bed-blocks that peak current was over 300 mA, the total number of fruiting was increased. 6 refs., 6figs.

  12. Effect of laser heat treatment on intergranular corrosion of austenitic stainless steel; Austenite kei stainless ko no ryukai fushoku kanjusei ni oyobosu laser netsushori no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, M.; Yoneyama, T. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Isshiki, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-15

    The laser heat treatment of SUS304 steel was studied to lower the intergranular corrosion sensitivity of austenitic stainless steel. By the short-time heating around 923K, the SUS304 steel is sensitized to the intergranular corrosion with the deposition of Cr carbide into the granular field of crystals. To recover it, it is necessary to solidly dissolve, and simultaneously, quickly cool the Cr carbide above 1273K. For such solution heat treatment, CO2 laser beams were used with the treatment condition that the power and beam diameter were 800 to 1200W and 0.3 to 0.64cm, respectively. Regardless of both power density and beam diameter, the desensitization was observed at heating temperatures above 1323K. As a result of calculation by simulation, the solid dissolution of Cr carbide and recovery of Cr`s depletion zone in the granular field of crystals took place in a very short time at heating temperatures above 1323K. It agreed well with the experimental result. The laser beams are effective in the solution heat treatment of stainless steel. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Survey of effects of enhancement of the energy supply/demand structure on the global environment. 3; Energy jukyu kozo kodoka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of studying how the energy supply/demand structure in Japan should be, a report on the secondary IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) evaluation was analyzed. Possibilities of reducing the world CO2 emissions in association with the energy consumption were studied in the five assumed cases. Every case says that CO2 can be reduced to 1/3 of the 1990 level by 2100. In a case of the use of biomass as main fuel (1), the use of primary energy is suppressed to two times the 1990 level, and photovoltaic/wind/biomass power generation is introduced in a large quantity. Synthetic methanol and hydrogen are used for transportation and commercial/residential use fuels. There are four more assumed cases: the use of nuclear power as a substitute for renewable energy in the power generation in (1), the use of natural gas of 1.5 times that used in (1), the substitution of coal for biomass used in (1), and the assumption that the demand for primary energy in 2100 will be twice that used in (1). In Japan it is assumed that basically the nuclear power generation will be expanded, that the photovoltaic and waste power generation will be introduced in a large quantity, and that synthetic methanol and hydrogen are mainly used as transportation and commercial/residential use fuels. It is necessary, therefore, to analyze conditions under which the quantity introduction of such non-fossil energy is made possible. 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Study of effects of engine oil additives on the properties of fluorelastomers; Fusso gomu ni oyobosu engine yu tenkazai no eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurono, K; Owaki, M; Suzuki, Y; Akiyama, K; Shionoya, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Fluoroelastmers are well known for their resistance to heat and fluids and have become major material for crankcase oil sealers. On the other hand new additive formulations are developed for engine lubricants used for fuel economic gasoline engines. In this paper the effects of those additives on properties of fluoroelastmers are investigated. The results of the immersion tests of both test plaques and oil sealer products indicates that dithiocarbamates friction modifier have hardening effects on fluoroelastomers. The fluoroelastmer deterioration mechanism is presumed by analysis of elastmer samples after immersion in oil. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Study on the effect of measurement points upon reduced added mass matrix; Shukusho fuka shitsuryo matrix ni okeru kansokuten no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, T; Hayashi, S [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering

    1997-12-31

    It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. A parameter calculation was performed on node vibration in the vertical direction of a rotating elliptic body such as a ship to investigate the effect of an arranging method of the measurement points upon the result of the analysis. As a result, it is thought that equivalent interval arrangement of 21 measurement points would be sufficient in a lower order side mode of vibrations with less than four nodes. An analysis of calculations performed by arranging measurement points in experimental measurement points revealed that analysis accuracy would not increase even if the number of measurement points is increased if it is done so without considering rotation vector. An experiment was carried out with the number of measurement points increased to verify the above fact, with which the analysis was verified correct. Therefore, as has been forecasted in the previous report, the cause for the analysis accuracy deterioration in a high order mode may be estimated as the effect of the rotation vector. However, since it is not the situation that an analysis considering the rotation vector has been conducted, it cannot be concluded yet that the effect of the rotation vector is the sole cause. 4 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Effect of fish on water quality and nutrients cycle from an outdoor pond experiment; Sakana no suishitsu, busshitsu junkan ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, T.; Matsushige, K.; Aizaki, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Park, J.; Goma, R. [Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo (Japan); Kong, D. [Korea National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-11-10

    The influences of fish (goldfish) on water quality and nutrients cycle (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) were investigated during 39 days in the summer of 1993, using six outdoor experimental ponds (36 m{sup 3}) with the same water residence times and nutrient inputs. Blue-been algae dominated the ponds with fish. Compared with ponds without fish, the ponds with high densities of fish had standing stocks of zooplankton and macrozoobenthos nearly one order of magnitude lower, about twice the concentrations of chlorophyll a and twice the rate of primary production. Settling rates of particulate substances in the high density ponds were nearly half those observed in ponds with no fish. The processes of sedimentation and exchange with air played important roles in the nutrient budgets as well as the in- and outflows and the changes in nutrient standing stocks. The high concentrations of chlorophyll a in the fish ponds were attributed in part to the lower zooplankton grazing pressure and in part to the higher nutrient concentrations due to lower settling rates and rapid nutrient recycling between biomass and dissolved components. 28 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Efficacy of nitric oxide, with or without continuing antihypertensive treatment, for management of high blood pressure in acute stroke (ENOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bath, Philip M W; Woodhouse, Lisa; Scutt, Polly

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs......·91-1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90-1·22; p=0·55). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure, transdermal glyceryl trinitrate lowered blood pressure and had acceptable safety but did not improve functional outcome. We show...

  18. Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from the staff panel on the Commission's determination of an Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrence (ENO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Panel finds that the first criterion, pertaining to whether the accident caused a discharge of radioactive material or levels of radiation offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.84, has not been met. It further finds that there is presently insufficient information to support any definitive finding as to whether or not the second criterion, relating to damage to persons or property offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.85, has been met. Since the Panel has not found that both criteria have been met, it recommends that the Commission determine that the accident at Three Mile Island did not constitute an extraordinary nuclear occurrence

  19. Optimum design of automobile seat using statistical design support system; Tokeiteki sekkei shien system no jidoshayo seat eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwamura, T [NHK Spring Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Shiratori, M; Yu, Q; Koda, I [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The authors proposed a new practical optimum design method called statistical design support system, which consists of five steps: the effectivity analysis, reanalysis, evaluation of dispersion, the optimiza4ion and evaluation of structural reliability. In this study, the authors applied the present system to analyze and optimum design of an automobile seat frame subjected to crushing. This study should that the present method could be applied to the complex nonlinear problems such as large deformation, material nonlinearity as well as impact problem. It was shown that the optimum design of the seat frame has been solved easily using the present system. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Adaptation of topology optimization on truck-structure; Kinshitsukaho ni yoru iso saitekika shuho no truck kozo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, H; Kojima, A; Chiba, S [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An optimization using the homogenization method has been applied to a truck-structure on the concept design stage. A truck-structure is grouped into 3 classes (thin plate structure , thick plate structure and solid structure), then example, effectiveness and method for the application for the purpose of weight reduction , high rigidity and high eigen-frequency are introduced. 3 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Role of iNOS and eNOS expression in a group of Egyptian diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssa I. Aly

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The presence of iNOS is associated with tubular damage resulting in renal failure. The upregulation of NO in diabetes mellitus type 2 may explain the endothelial dysfunction that is associated with almost all diabetic complications.

  2. Latest trends in variable speed drive systems. ; Application to elevators. Kahensoku drive system no saishin doko. ; Elevator eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, H. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-07-12

    The history of the elevator development may be summarized as a challenge to heights of buildings, pursuit of energy saving, and realizing comfort. Transfer of its drive system to the inverter drive system has been nearly completed keeping the pace with advance of electronic technologies. This paper describes control systems of elevators, effects of introducing inverters, and future trends. The inverter system used widely now for standard elevators with a speed lower than 105 m/min consists of a converter to rectify the utility power, a regenerative power consuming circuit to suppress overvoltage in the DC stage, and an inverter to supply power to induction motors. Those elevators exceeding a 120 m/min speed use power regenerating inverter system, with its converter controlled using micro computers according to loads and speeds of motors. The inverter system is particularly marked for having realized energy saving, lower power consumption, lower environmental pollution (from harmonics), comfort and maintainability at high levels. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Kinnisvaraäri ajas Pärnu linnajuhid omavahel tülli / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu linnavolikogu esimees Ahti Kõo peab ebaeetiliseks linnapea Mart Viisitamme ja spordiseltsi Põhjakotkas juhatuse esimehe Ivar Hallopi vahel sõlmitud ühtse kavatsuse protokolli. Ilmunud ka Pärnu Postimees 17. nov. lk. 1

  4. Pärnu leivatööstusest võib saada sakslaste allhankija / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Pere Leib Tootmine plaanib kolida leiva-saia tootmise suuremas osas Tartusse ja keskenduda Pärnus eksporttoodete valmistamisele Saksa turule. Arvamust avaldab Pere Leib Tootmise juhatuse liige Eero Mikenberg

  5. Rapala landitehas püüdis tänavugi suurima kala / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Maailmakuulsa landitootja Rapala Pärnus Reldori tööstuskülas asuv tehas pääses teist aastat järjest Pärnumaa aasta ettevõtete edetabeli etteotsa. Diagramm: Rapala Eesti ASi majandustulemused. Vt. samas: Pärnumaa ettevõtete tipp 50

  6. Häädemeeste vallavanem jäi kihutamise pärast jalameheks / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimehes 9. nov. lk. 5 lüh.Korduva kiiruseületamisega silma paistnud Häädemeeste vallavanem Urmas Aava peab viimase kihutamise eest kuuks sõiduõiguseta jätmist liiga karmiks karistuseks

  7. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P.; Searles, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm 2 ) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p · ) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO · pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  8. Introduction of electric double layer capacitors in the solar-EV; Solar denki jidosha eno denki nijuso condenser no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaka, M [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A basic experiment was carried out on a supplementary power supply, in which solar cells and electric double layer capacitors(EDLC) were combined for a DC/DC converter, for the use of a solar-electric vehicle (S-EV); and in actuality, an S-EV was loaded with the power supply with a running test conducted on a public road. The EDLC was found effective and useful for avoiding temporary lowering of voltage and momentary break. An electric supply was thereby made possible for an emergency light without the use of the DC/DC converter. However, in a tunnel or a night driving and in case of failure of the DC/DC converter, an operating time of only 7 minutes or so was affordable with the EDLC having a capacity of 100F. Moreover, particularly with a heavy load, it was impossible to maintain a voltage for many hours. Under the circumstances, an S-EV design would primarily require two sets of independent DC/DC converter loaded in the future. The EDLC, young after it was developed, still has a small energy density compared with a lead storage battery. Yet, an EDLC with a higher performance being developed, there is a possibility that it will be applied to S-EV`s by utilizing its characteristics such as a high efficiency and a long service life. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Estimation of the charge quantity from solar cell to battery; Taiyo denchi ni yoru chikudenchi eno juden yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K; Nishitani, M [Daiichi University, College of Technology, Kagoshima (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    In performing an experiment of running a small electric vehicle by installing solar cells in it and by charging the storage battery at a specific voltage, an estimation was made on the charge quantity to the battery for each solar altitude and inclination of a module at different hours. The solar altitude was determined at Daiichi University, College of Technology, according to the month and the time of day from a formula using day-declination and time equation of a chronological table of science. The quantity of global solar radiation was determined by resolving the solar radiation into its direct and diffuse components on the basis of the extra-terrestrial solar radiation quantity with the change in radius vector taken into consideration; and then, the global solar radiation on the inclined face was obtained from the angle of inclination and incidence. On the roof of a Daiichi University building, solar cell modules were installed facing north and south at 0{degree}, 30{degree}, 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 90{degree} each, so that a short-circuit current was measured for each differently inclined angle. As a result of the experiment, shown in an regression formula is a relation between the temperature conversion value of the maximum output of the solar cell at the standard temperature of 25{degree}C and the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface. Consequently, it enabled the prediction of a charging quantity, in the case of running a small vehicle with solar cells installed, from the quantity of solar radiation on the inclined surface in the clear weather. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Problems in green improvement projects in recent city planning. Kinnen no toshi keikaku ni okeru ryokuchi keikaku eno kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funabiki, T. (Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-06

    The present city plans are questioned on the formation of a good city environment, improvement of mansion/building supply, due to the new city problems on the Tokyo concentration and re-increase of the land value recently. Based on the discussion of the central city planning council, various improvement of the system were made by government. As a structure plan of the city, the green area plan that the balance between the urban land use and the national land use is distributed, must be included. As the problem of the green area plan on the system of city plan, this paper explained the distinguish between city area and city adjustment area, the green master plan about the green area preservation in long time, the green area system corresponded to the policy for realizing the plan of preserving the green area mainly, and the park work and green area policy corresponded to the policy for realizing the plan of creating the green area.

  11. President tunnustab Eesti riigi edendajate elutööd / Silja Joon, Ester Vilgats, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Joon, Silja, 1966-

    2008-01-01

    Pärnumaalased, kes pälvivad iseseisvuspäeva puhul ja Eesti riigile osutatud teenete tunnustamiseks president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt riiklikud autasud. Juuresolevatel fotodel Valgetähe V klassi ordeni pälvinud koorijuht ja muusikaõpetaja Toomas Voll ja Kotkaristi IV klassi teenetemärgi pälvinud Lääne prefektuuri politseiametnik Kalvi Almosen. Vt. ka lk. 1: Enn Hallik. Tatjana Jaanson üllatus suurest aust. Sõudetreener pälvib Valgetähe IV klassi teenetemärgi

  12. Application of laser cladding to the aeroengine component. Koku engine buhin eno laser nikumori yosetsu no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, A [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-08-01

    Keeping the pace with recent development and application of laser cladding, hard-facing is used more frequently on turbine blades made of superalloys used in aeroengines. This paper explains the basic principles and features of laser hard-facing technique, welding parameters, and examples of practical use. Examples of practical use include application to turbine blades used in ALF502R-5 turbo fan engines for commuter aircraft and high-pressure turbine blades used in RB211 turbo fan engines for large passenger aircraft. In the former engine, improvement of abrasion resistance was intended at the shroud section where blades are in contact with each other, for which inconel was used as the base material and CO-group alloy as the welding material. The welding used a powder supply system with a laser generator oscillating CO{sub 2} at 5 kW and employing a beam collecting mirror plus scanner to attain a beam covering wider width. Faces with higher performance were obtained than by the conventional TIG welding, and the finishing time was decreased largely. 2 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Crankshaft strength and rigidity analysis and application to shape optimization; Crank jiku kyodo gosei kaisekiho to keijo saitekika eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numajiri, S [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tamura, Y [Mitsubishi Automotive Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A crankshaft bending stress analysis method using an elastically supported continuous beam model has been established based on the exact evaluation of the stress concentration at fillet R sections and the crankshaft rigidity. Through various examinations, it was revealed that the calculation results of the bending stress well agreed with the actual measurements. This allowed the reliability analysis and the rigidity analysis to be used to determine optimized crankshaft specifications and web shape, which in turn made it possible to apply this method to the weight reduction of a crankshaft (material removal from web). 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Power feeding to terminal devices in optical subscriber network; Hikari fuaiba tsushin ni okeru tanmatsu kiki eno kyuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper outlines present state of the feeding system in the light access system in consideration of backup in case of home power failure. In the optical communication, equipment with bilateral conversion function for light and electricity has to be installed both on communication service side and home side. Outline of the light access system and equipment requiring backup are shown. The following items are explained: main types of the light access system, such as FTTC (fiber to the curb), FTTP (fiber to the pole), FTTH (fiber to the home) and HFC (hybrid fiber coax), and the feeding system; problems on feeding system for the light access system. Key elements of ONU (optical network unit) for FTTH and construction of the ONU power source are illustrated. The ONU power source is composed of a backup power supply unit and main body supply unit. Backup power is indispensable to the ONU and analog telephones: output is supplied by the backup batteries in power failure. For miniaturization of the backup power source, power supply circuits and backup batteries have to be miniaturized simultaneously. History of miniaturization is explained on the experimental models. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Role of civil technology towards environmental conservation and creation; Kankyo hozen/sozo eno doboku gijutsu no yakuwari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-15

    The recent circumstances domestic and abroads around `environment` are showing a kaleidoscopic movement with the Earth Summit in 1993 as a turning point, such as the materialization of the Environmental Fundamental Law, enactment of environmental policy fundamental principle by the Ministry of Construction, and furthermore and adoption of the earth environmental action plan-agenda 21-by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Under the circumstances like this the civil work execution study committee has planned this panel discussion for study, for a purpose of catching hold of the environmental problem from a standpoint of the actual constructor and furthermore searching for what should be done. As a consequence, the various opinions have been presented as follows: Namely, in order to grapple with the environmental problems it is required for that a co-operation work of the civil engineers should be done with the people in the other field. As for the environmental problems, a discussion forecasted for the future is necessary. Because an environment itself is fuzzy matter, it would be better not to give the too clear solution for a concept. An attitude to make much of the matter which can not be counted is needed. The mitigation (influence alleviation countermeasure) is required for applying flexibly.

  16. Realization of an accelerator for environmental refreshment in case of soil; Fukyugata kasokuki ni yoru kankyo sosei eno koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, H [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Learning from a history of the earth of ancient times, the paper studies effects of refreshing environment and soil or making them natural and harmless mostly using primitive bacteria, and develops element technology which is industrially accelerating. The spread type accelerator working only by solar energy was installed and operated for experiment. As indices of refreshment effects, a study was comparatively made between a sugar degree of sweet potato and a yield shown in the number of potatotimesunit weight. An EM propagation garbage layer is formed, and the two sections were installed of a site of the actual installation of the spread type accelerator and a site naturally left alone. Other effects of weather, temperature and humidity which are external factors and general fertilization are offset as common modes, and a consideration was so made that only refreshment effects of primitive bacteria can be relatively compared. Acceleration effects in using accelerator for growing sweet potato could be quantitatively confirmed. As to sugar degree, because the last study was made in the beginning of summer, the underground temperature was high enough. Even only EM effects were fully effective. This time, the weather was much colder, and it was found to be a must to use accelerator. 2 figs.

  17. Port Artur 3 arhitektuurikonkursi võidutöö sündis Itaalias / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2006-01-01

    Pärnu kesklinna jõeäärse ala rahvusvahelise arhitektuurikonkursi tulemustest. Võitis itaalia arhitektide projekt "Flood". Teise koha võitis projekt "Istu ja vaata" (Jan Skolimovski ja Peeter Loo), kolmanda koha "Nicesaar" (Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür)

  18. Approach to load leveling in Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc.; Kansai Denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents an electric hot-water heater and ice storage air conditioning system as systems to be recommended for load leveling. Electric hot-water heater is featured by safety, cleanliness, silence and convenience because of no use of fire. Its electricity charge is only 7.15 yen/kWh less than 1/3 of that for ordinary homes because of use of midnight power. Mainly used MPU-control type electric hot-water heater is more economical because of a 15% discount system. Ice storage air conditioning system is operated in the daytime using ice made by midnight power. It is featured by reduction of facility and installation costs due to the small capacity of heat source equipment, use of inexpensive midnight power, and reduction of running cost due to small contract demand. However, since an ice storage air conditioning system is in the initial stage of diffusion, its initial cost is expensive as compared with conventional non-heat storage air conditioning systems, remaining the issue of cost reduction. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Load levelling measures being tackled by shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc.; Shikoku Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    For the electric power companies, the activity of pushing forward the load levelling contributes greatly to the curtailment of cost by means of effective formation and utilization of facilities. It is planned to take up more positive activities with a target of 3% improvement in the load factor in ten years. Concrete measures for further promotion of load levelling are the diversity of the rate menu of appraising the load levelling effort of the customers and the promotion of the spread of equipment and systems relating to load levelling such as electric water heating apparatuses and thermal energy storage air conditioning systems. The rate system has been reviewed taking the opportunity of rate revision made in January, 1996. Particularly, further load shift to midnight time zone is expected as a result of better rate incentive for customers which is brought about by large reduction of the rate level due to the cost reduction effect accompanying the improvement in atomic power generation ratio. Outlines are given on the fields relating to general households, business, dwellings, buildings, and industry. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Approach undertaken by our Company for leveling electric loads; Chubu Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Measures for leveling the electric loads relying upon two facets - tariff system and business activities - in Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. are presented. Firstly, the existing pricing systems for midnight electric power and electric light according to the period of time for the household as well as those of seasonal and time zone electric power, modifiable contract with the time zone and so forth for large industry users, together with a similar contract for the owner of regenerating installation are outlined. In addition, a price reduction system is indicated in favor of a scheduled shutdown of large industry operations as a means of avoiding electric consumption during weekdays in summer and between 13h and 16h when large demands exist. Further, a selective contract system put in service in 1995 and the price reduction for ice regenerating air conditioning system are cited. As for business facet, 1995 is regarded as the first year of the ice regenerator for its generalization through exhibition and promotive campaign to the foods processing industry, and the application of the latent heat regenerative system to perishable foods is recommended. Moreover, installation of energy saving type automatic vending machine, so-called eco-vendor is encouraged for its merit of peak-cut and energy price lowering. Lastly, activities to extend the use of electric calorifiers and the regenerative floor heating are mentioned. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Load leveling efforts of The Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc.; Hokkaido Denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc., aiming to enhance power generation efficiency through power load levelling, strives to expand and substantiate its electricity billing menu and to popularize and encourage the use of levelling-oriented apparatuses and systems most of which are designed for utilizing midnight power. The billing menu has in it a snow-melting power which is cut off for load levelling during the peak demand time zone. For domestic use, a time zone-specified lighting system named Dream Eight is created, which is one of the billing systems dependent upon time zone. Introduced therein for industrial use is a demand/supply adjustment contract system. Furthermore, in compliance with the amended Electricity Business Law that came into force in 1995, efforts are under way for revising the period wherein power is to be supplied for melting snow, expanding the scope of application of the power supply system dependent upon time zone, and newly introducing a heat accumulation assisted peak adjustment contract system and an operation adjustment contract system. As for business efforts in relation to load levelling, the company proposes household electrical systems centering about 200V high-efficiency apparatuses, electric water warmer contributing to the enhancement of year-round load levelling, popularization and reinforcement of electric snow melting systems, and power utilizing technologies capable of meeting local demands raised for example by agriculture and fishery.

  2. Investigation of load leveling in Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc.; Hokuriku denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc. aims at an around 2% improvement of the load factor up to 2005, by which the quick and proper service and the proposal of load leveling menu are planned. This paper describes an outline of the investigation of load leveling. Various programs have been proposed so that the customers can further shift the load by their consideration. Proposed systems include the time-of-day electricity rate system, the load regulation contract system for industries, the seasonal time-of-day rate system, the electric power system for snowmelt in which the load is dumped at the peak, and the secondary electric power system for snowmelt. Accompanying with the revision of electric utility law, the enlargement of its available time, the price reduction, and the discount rate system for the ice regenerative air conditioners have been provided. For the business activities, a demonstration model house was exhibited to indicate a proper house with local characteristics in Hokuriku district. Furthermore, the spreading activities of regenerative systems and the consulting activities have been positively promoted. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Efforts of load leveling in Tohoku Electric Power Co. Inc.; Tohoku denryoku no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes efforts of load leveling in Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. from the viewpoint of the rate system and business development. For the approach from the rate system, various rate menus for the peak shift have been arranged for domestic and large industry customers. To create the midnight demand, spread and expansion of electric hot water service are promoted. Consequently, the contract of midnight power has reached 914,000 kW at the end of 1995, which was 774,000 kW in 1985. To spread the ice regenerative air conditioning systems, the grant of incentive to the manufacturers and special discount of electricity rate have been conducted. These systems have been introduced in the eight places of Tohoku Electric Power`s business. The spread incident system has been created to introduce the automatic vending machines for beverages with the power peak cut function. Unused energy, such as exhaust heat from the non-treated sewage water and substations has been utilized as a heat supply project for city redevelopment. Multi-functional heat pump with regenerative function has been developed. This system aims at the peak shift by combining multi-functional heat pump and electric hot water service. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Ubiad1 is an antioxidant enzyme that regulates eNOS activity by CoQ10 synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugoni, V.; Postel, R.; Catanzaro, V.; De Luca, E.; Turco, E.; Digilio, G.; Silengo, L.; Murphy, M.P.; Medana, C.; Stainier, D.Y.; Bakkers, J.; Santoro, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protection against oxidative damage caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) by an antioxidant network is essential for the health of tissues, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we identified a gene with important antioxidant features by analyzing a null allele of zebrafish

  5. Application of CO2 laser cutting machine to shipbuilding; Zosen no setsudan eno CO2 laser no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Carbon dioxide laser has been applied to cutting works in shipbuilding. As NC cutter was obsolete, CO2 laser cutting machine with a rated output 3 kW was introduced. According to the specifications of the machinable plate, the maximum thickness is 19 mm, and effective width and length are 5.4 m and 29.1 m, respectively. As the cutting width is wide and the running distance of laser beam is long, the error of light axis is expanded only by a small error of irradiation angle, which results in the inconvenience. Stable operation was realized by improving the fixation of reflecting mirror. Right angle cutting section with a cutting curve below 0.5 mm was obtained, and cutting time was reduced by the one-line cutting by which both sections can be available with a single cutting line. For the cutting of thin plate with a thickness less than 10 mm, strain was not formed, and remedy was not required. Block strain was remarkably reduced during the assembly process. Maintenance-free operation without monitoring can be performed for a long time. This machine is operated at night and lunch time, resulting in the reduced processes. The working environment is appropriate without noise and dust. Facility cost and maintenance cost were also reduced. Lower cutting speed is a weak point, when compared with the plasma cutting machine. The present machine is not applied to aluminum plates with high surface reflectivity. 13 figs.

  6. enos a ochrana informací v mobilních telekomunikacích

    OpenAIRE

    Pacák, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Arts Institute of Information Studies and Librarianship Study program: Information Studies and Librarianship Field of study: Information Studies and Librarianship Pavel Pacák The transfer and protection of information in mobile telecommunications Bachelor thesis abstract The work focuses on the transfer and protection of information in mobile telecommunications. First, historical development of each technology used is introduced. Also different forms of...

  7. Application fo tunneling and atomic force detection to machines and scientific instruments. Tunnel gensho ya genshikan no mechatronics eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakatsu, H. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science)

    1991-11-01

    It is now about ten years since the scanning tunnel microscope (STM) and the atomic force microscope (AFM) were invented. These microscopes are used very importantly today as a surface analyzer capable of atomic order analysis for their very high resolution. The STM and AFM obtain images of atomic orders by means of mechanical scanning of the probes. This means that the microscopes can control positioning, force detection and displacement in regions of sub-nanometer orders. Examples of researches may include detection of acceleration, length measurement, positioning, force detection, nano-tripology, processing and gravitational wave detection. As described above, this paper notes the researches derived from the operational principles of the STM and AFM, rather than the researches on the observation objects. The great diversity of the researches taken up and the greatness in the number of researches in the STM and AFM gather how superbly germinative these were. 34 refs.

  8. Astronaut training plans and training facilities in Japan; Uchu hikoshi tanjo eno michi (kunren to kunren setsubi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, C. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-05

    Introduced are the training of astronauts for duties aboard a space shuttle, training provided by NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan), and training facilities. The astronaut candidate training course involves space science, space medicine, ocean science, and others, in addition to flight training aboard the T-38 jet trainer, emergency procedure training, shuttle system training, weightlessness training aboard the KC-135 jet plane on a ballistic flight, and SCUBA training. After candidates are named to serve aboard the space shuttle, they are to undergo training related to the shuttle system, emergency exit, adaptation to the surroundings, and the space laboratory system. As for ISS (international space station), astronauts will have to construct the station, and to stay there for a long time operating and maintaining the station and manipulating various experimental apparatuses. The astronaut training process in Japan covers approximately four years, including candidate training, advanced training, and mission dependent training. The training facilities include a weightless environment test system, low-pressure environment adaptation training system, etc., available at NASDA's Tsukuba Space Center. (NEDO)

  9. Ilves viskas koos Bedwettersiga näppu. President Ilves kohtus õpilaste ja kaitseliitlastega / Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Link, Eno-Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Münchenis MTV Euroopa muusikaauhindade jagamisel Uue Euroopa Heli kategoorias lauluga "Dramatic Letter to Conscience"esikoha võitnud Pärnu pop-punkbändist Bedwetters ja president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese Pärnu Sütevaka humanitaargümnaasiumi ja Kaitseliidu Pärnumaa maleva külastusest 9. novembril

  10. Application of genetically engineered microorganisms to bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Idenshi sosa biseibutsu no kankyo joka mizushori eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, M; Ike, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-11-10

    This paper summarizes the following techniques: a gene engineering method for bioremediation and wastewater treatment, microorganism breeding using the former method, and a monitoring technique for genetical and ecological stability of genetically engineered microorganisms. Recombination bacteria reinforced with PH genes showed higher phenol removing rate than wild strains, but presented accumulation of catechol in such a large quantity as cannot be seen in wild strains, with the complete degradation rate rather decreased. Gene recombined bacteria structured by introducing the recombined plasmid, pBH500, had high genetic stability when P.putida BH-1 is used as a host. E.coli C600 having recombined plasmid and P.putida BH were added and cultivated in activated sludge. As a result, both recombined bacteria showed rapid logarithmic decrease just after the addition, then, maintained the relatively stable population groups, and remained in the activated sludge for an extended period of time. In monitoring techniques, the colony hybridization process detected clearly the gene recombined bacteria. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission from the staff panel on the Commission's determination of an Extraordinary Nuclear Occurrence (ENO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The Panel finds that the first criterion, pertaining to whether the accident caused a discharge of radioactive material or levels of radiation offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.84, has not been met. It further finds that there is presently insufficient information to support any definitive finding as to whether or not the second criterion, relating to damage to persons or property offsite as defined in 10 CFR 140.85, has been met. Since the Panel has not found that both criteria have been met, it recommends that the Commission determine that the accident at Three Mile Island did not constitute an extraordinary nuclear occurrence.

  12. Design and erection of the MUSEUM BRIDGE; Bijutsu no sekai eno yume no kakehashi. MUSEUM BRIDGE no sekkei seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, S.; Tsunekawa, M.; Umda, A.; Kishimoto, Y.; Yotsukura, Y.; Miitsu, K.; Okada, S.; Furukawa, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-12-20

    MUSEUM Projects for the religious corporation of Shinji-Shumeikai, at Shigaraki, Shiga prefecture. Fundamental design was by a project team led by the world-famous architect I.M. Pei. The museum is located in a prefectural park surrounded by forests. The design concept of the bridge aimed to connect Shangri-La (museum) to the real world. In order to satisfy this purpose, a cable-stayed bridge with external tendon was adopted as an original structure style, and details such as handrails, gratings, and gloss painting taken into consideration. The authors report the characteristics of the bridge and the sequence of erection. (author)

  13. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  14. Report on the survey made under the research contract with NEDO, `The International Work Division/Energy Demand Effect Survey.`. Influence of the economic growth in Asia on the energy demand; 1996 nendo `kokusai suihei bungyo energy juyo eikyo chosa` itaku chosa kekka hokokusho. Asia no keizai hatten ga energy juyo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report includes surveys on the following: (1) the progress situation of the Asian information society, (2) changes of corporate network, business flow, material flow and money flow in association with the information society, (3) the present situation of the industry-accumulated region in Asia and inter-region network, (4) impacts of the above-mentioned changes on the trade and investment structure in Japan, (5) how to tackle the energy issue in Asia in the future. First, effects of the advance of the information society on energy supply/demand were studied. Next, an analysis was made of effects of the progress of the high-grade information society in Asia on economy, industry and corporate action. The degree of the progress of the information society in Asian countries was made clear from the infrastructure arrangement and the developmental status of application. Contribution of the financial network to the economic growth in Asia and the development were clarified. The organization of corporate networks in Asia where paradigms are converting was made clear to consider industrial clusters in Asia. Last, in the light of the economic relationship between Japan and Asia, a study was made on the future policy of Japan for Asia. 238 refs., 77 figs., 89 tabs.

  15. Effect of mixture formation process of premixed lean diesel combustion. Study of the effect of mixture homogeneity on premixed lean diesel combustion in aid of numerical simulation; Yokongo diesel nensho ni okeru kongoki keisei katei no eikyo. Kongoki no kin`itsusei no eikyo to suchi simulation ni yoru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, N; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    NOx emission was extremely decreased by PREDIC (PREmixed lean DIesel Combustion) in which fuel was injected at very early stage of compression stroke and the combustion started at near the TDC by self ignition. We have considered that NOx reduction is caused the decrease of a region of stoichiometric mixture ratio by means of extremely early injection. Therefore the homogeneity is very important to decrease of NOx. In this study to investigate the effect of mixture homogeneity in the PREDIC, gaseous fuels (DME, CH4) were charged into the intake, by the combination of direct fuel injection, the mixture heterogeneity was positively changed. In addition the mixture formation process is shown in aid of numerical simulation, it is observed that the homogeneous has the advantage of low NOx emission in PREDIC region. 9 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. FY 2000 report on the survey for introduction of the hot spring effect prediction method in the geothermal development promotion survey. Improvement of the hot spring effect prediction method in the geothermal development promotion survey; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa - Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa ni okeru onsen eikyo yosoku shuho no kairyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Supposing the case where the geothermal development promotion survey was carried out in promising geothermal areas in Japan, investigational study was conducted on possibilities of introducing the hot spring effect prediction method, improvement of the method, etc. In the survey, adjustment/classification of formation mechanisms of hot spring were made. For each of the formation mechanisms, the mechanisms in case of the geothermal development having effects were studied/summarized. As to how effects are brought about, presumed were the lowering of water level and decrease in discharge amount in accordance with the decreasing pressure and the dilution by increase in mixture of the ground water around the area. Also cited were the vaporization of hot spring aquifers by the increasing rate of vapor inflow, etc. For the introduction of the hot spring effect prediction method to the geothermal development promotion survey, the problem is short supply of various data, and the examination for it was made. Based on the results of the survey, items to be studied in case of introducing the hot spring effect prediction method were selected. Further, the hot spring effect prediction flow in case of introducing surface survey and well survey was made out. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of leading countries' approaches to biomass energy development; 1999 nendo shuyokoku ni okeru biomass energy kaihatsu eno torikumi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The survey aims to help Japan deliberate its future biomass energy development strategy including the course Japan is to follow in its research and development of biomass energy by clarifying leading countries' approaches to the subject matter and trends of their research and development efforts in this connection. The states of biomass energy development in the U.S. and Europe are reported. In the U.S., President Clinton issued Executive Order 13134 on August 12, 1999, regarding bio-based products and bioenergy development. In this country, bioenergy and bio-based production technologies have developed to reach a stage where business pays, and commercial plants are in service. The U.S. Administration mentions as a strategy the efficient development of the bioenergy industry. In Europe, where resources are versatile and local, it is difficult to assess the economy of scale, and small-scale development efforts are being accumulated. Practical technologies under development mostly involve direct combustion. European measures are similar to U.S. measures in that such political goals as local development and employment promotion are firmly woven into them. (NEDO)

  18. Expression of iNOS, eNOS, and peroxynitrite-modified proteins in experimental anti-myeloperoxidase associated crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Moshage, H; Klok, PA; Huitema, MG; de Jager, A; Schep, AJ; Kallenberg, CGM

    Nitric oxide radicals are recognized as important mediators in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. During inflammation, increased amounts of nitric oxide (NO) are produced, but it is unclear whether NO radicals are either protective or harmful. To obtain more insight into the

  19. Application to the field of medical and welfare with fluid power; Fluid power servo no iryo fukushi bun`ya eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y. [Nara Technical Coll., Nara (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    Reported herein are medical and welfare apparatuses activated by fluid power servos. Reference is also made to equipment now undergoing research and development. Numerous fluid power-driven welfare and caring apparatuses have been developed, some of which are named below. In an externally powered prosthetic leg, a rocking type hydraulic servo actuator is attached on the knee section. In this device, switching is performed between an active operation in which much torque is required for instance going up and down a stairway and a passive operation in which less torque is required for instance walking on a flat place, this for increased energy efficiency. In an externally powered orthosisis, an exoskeleton is installed on the lower extremities of a patient suffering from the paralysis of both legs, and enables physical exercises for rehabilitation. Such devices are controlled by one of the two methods, the master-slave method or the manual method. Devices for the transfer of patients include an in-home bathing assist system, powered assist suit for caring, powered assist chair, movable lift for transfer, pneumatic Rubbertuator-driven rehabilitation equipment, walk training device, and wavy motion pneumatic vibrator. (NEDO)

  20. Conversion of char nitrogen to N2 under incomplete combustion conditions; Fukanzen nensho jokenka ni okeru char chuchisso no N2 eno tenka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Q.; Yamauchi, A.; Oshima, Y.; Wu, Z.; Otsuka, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    The effect of combustion conditions on conversion of char nitrogen to N2 was studied in the combustion experiment of char obtained by pyrolysis of coal. Char specimen was prepared by holding ZN coal of Chinese lignite in Ar atmosphere at 1123K for one hour. A batch scale quartz-made fluidized bed reactor was used for combustion experiment. After the specimen was fluidized in reaction gas, it was rapidly heated to start combustion reaction. CO, CO2 and N2 in produced gases were online measured by gas chromatography (GC). As the experimental result, under the incomplete combustion condition where a large amount of CO was produced by consuming almost all of O2, no NOx and N2O produced from char were found, and almost all of N-containing gas was N2. At the final stage of combustion, pyridinic-N disappeared completely, and pyrrolic-N decreased, while O-containing nitrogen complexes became a main component. It was thus suggested that O-containing nitrogen complexes are playing the role of intermediate product in combustion reaction. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Application of photo-excitation reaction on titanium oxide thin film for control of wettability; Sanka chitann hakumakujo no hikari reiki hanno no nuresei seigyo eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T.; Nakajima, A.; Hashimoto, K. [The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Takada, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-03-31

    It is clarified that the photo-excitation hydrophilic reaction increasing wettability remarkably is induced by changing surface structure of titanium oxide radiated light. There are already many examples being in practical use of coating products applied hydrophilic reaction of titanium oxide surface such as drip-proof side millers for automobiles, self-cleaning building materials, and the like. When surface of titanium oxide having high activities for oxidisation and decomposition is coated organic materials and radiated light, wettability of surface changes as organic materials are decomposed. If it is possible to change wettability shaping pattern drastically by radiating light, the possibility of application for printing materials will be developed. After increasing contact angle by coating water and oil repellent on the titanium oxide thin film, images can be shaped by radiating light into pattern for changing surface of titanium oxide to be ultra hydrophilicity as decomposition of repellent. At that time, contact angle is 150 degree in water, 80 degree in oil, for not radiated aria, and is 0 degree in water and oil for radiated aria. Application for control technology of wettability keeps possibility of broader development to itself, not staying ability of self-cleaning and drip-proof. (NEDO)

  2. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in mice results in reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma renin, increased aortic eNOS expression, and altered cardiovascular structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egecioglu, E; Andersson, I J; Bollano, E

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the development of cardiovascular structure and function, female GHR gene-disrupted or knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at age 18 wk were used. GHR KO mice had lower plasma renin levels (12 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 4 mGU/ml, P < 0.05) and inc....... These data suggest an important role for an intact GH/IGF-I axis in the maintenance of a normal cardiovascular system....

  3. Instantaneous heat flux flowing into piston top-land surface of D.I. diesel engine; DI diesel kikan no piston top land bu eno shunji netsuryusoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguma, M [Zexel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Inui, M; Enomoto, Y; Hagihara, Y [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Koyama, T [Mitsubishi Motors Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The thermal loads of the piston top-land surface in D.I. diesel engine during actual operation is not cleared. The authors fixed thin film thermocouples in the top-land center of a standard piston, and measured the instantaneous heat fluxes in that place. As a result, the authors made clear the thermal loads of the piston top-land surface in a cycle, and confirmed presence of the flame inflow to the piston top-land center. In addition, the authors made clear the thermal loads of the piston top-land surface in EGR operation. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Inverse LMI control design method and its application to position keeping system; Gyakumondai LMI seigyokei sekkeiho no kaihatsu to ichi hoji system eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, I; Hayashi, T [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, with a progress of robust control such as H{infinity} control, the application of a control system design considering a robustness of controlled system fluctuation to real machinery became possible. In addition, LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) control system design method is superior to conventional H{infinity} control, although including various difficult elements. The design algorithm permitting the robust control system design of non-linear problems by giving controlled systems was thus developed by introducing an inverse LMI control design method. This design algorithm determines the solution of models outputting the deviation between a target value and controlled variables by solving the simultaneous equations composed of a linear matrix inequality under an impulse response constraint condition and that under an H{infinity} norm constraint condition. This technique allows to give a pending step response as control condition. The technique was confirmed to be effective by its application to the position keeping control problem of marine floating structures. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Sildenafil citrate-restored eNOS and PDE5 regulation in sickle cell mouse penis prevents priapism via control of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Musicki, Biljana; Hsu, Lewis L; Berkowitz, Dan E; Champion, Hunter C; Burnett, Arthur L

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders.

  6. Study on low permeable backfill materials. Backfill materials for waste disposal facilities; Koshisuisei juten zairyo ni kansuru kenkyu. Hoshasei haikibutsu shobun shisetsu eno tekiyosei kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, F; Konishi, M; Shiraishi, H [Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-15

    A discussion was given on the fundamental properties of mortar made from cement mixed with silica fume. Four kinds of silica fumes with different particle size distributions were used. The following results were obtained: distribution of pores in mortar admixed with silica fume shifts to the smaller radius side; while the admixture increases the compression strength in mortar, the increasing trend varies depending on the kinds of silica fumes; this is thought to be caused from the difference in pozzolan activity between silica fumes; and the strength increase is caused by densification of the structure due to the pozzolan reaction that is generated after hydration, or in other words, decrease in the pore volume. The applicability of the mortar was investigated as a filling mortar to fill up clearances between wastes. It was found that the filling performance can be controlled by mixing silica fume at an adequate level and adjusting the viscosity. The diffusion coefficient for the admixed concrete is smaller by 30% to one digit than that for the ordinary concrete. High-performance water stopping concrete of 0.11 {times} 10{sup 4}cm {sup 2}/s at maximum was obtained. The concrete can be regarded as a material having superb filling and water stopping performances. 6 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Application of photovoltaic generating system to electric power in large ship; Taiyoko hatsuden system no ogata senpaku eno oyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagi, T; Ogawa, S; Nishikawa, E; Hashimoto, T [Kobe University of Mercantile Marine, Kobe (Japan); Ishida, K

    1996-10-27

    This paper describes the design of electric power system in a ship with photovoltaic power generating system, to examine applicability of the photovoltaic power generating system to the inboard power source. It also discusses effectiveness of the system for sea environment. At first, the actual route of a car carrier, meteorological data, and quantity of power consumption were picked up from the deck logbook and engine logbook. Then, the installation area of photovoltaic arrays, the quantity of photovoltaic power generation derived from the quantity of solar radiation, and the capacities of batteries and inverters were calculated, to design the electric power system in the ship with photovoltaic power generation system. Moreover, the NOx and SOx emissions were compared between the present power system and the usual power system using diesel power generator, to discuss the effectiveness of the present system for sea environment. Consequently, it was found that the emission of NOx was reduced by about 33% and the emission of SOx was reduced by about 28% compared to the usual power system. The effectiveness for sea environment was confirmed. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Management in ekonomija: ali je to dvoje ali eno? (Elementi in razumevanje postocializma in managerske revolucije = Management and Economy: Are They the Same Or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonci Kuzmanic

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Author starts from important but suppressed equalisation of economy and management in post socialist and post capitalist circumstances which represents the very essence of post-modern global dominance (globalisation. An attempt to distinguish economy from management is connected with the appearance of neo-liberalism as the central argumentative machinery of management being connected with postmodern type of subjectivity. In comparison with the so-called »objective law« around which economy used to revolve (ideally, of course, management explicitly leaves this terrain and opens itself up to the subjective, even subversive activity at the level of global society. In that sense economy and management are operating on two radically different levels and we could even speak of two different entities which should be analytically distinguished. The very supposition for modern defence with regard to post-modern forms of dominance is exactly a possibility of differentiating between economy and management.

  9. ANALYSIS OF ACE, ACTN3, ENOS, PPARG, PPARA, HIF-15, PPARGC1B GENE POLYMORPHISMS FOR DETERMINATION A GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO A VARIETY OF SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Drozdovska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To establishing the possibility of assessing genetic iinherited predisposition to various sports, the differences in the distribution of genotypes of the complex polymorphisms in groups of athletes, specializing in sports with different types of energy supply of muscular work were studied. The paper examined the DNA 332 persons, of which 110 athletes involved in speed- power sports, 85 - in endurance sports , 51 - in sports that require a combination of strength and endurance, 86 - with no experience regular exercise.

  10. Field experiment for investigation of very shallow basement structure by micro-gravity survey; Microgravity tansa no gokusenbu kiban chosa eno tekiyo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshita, K; Nozaki, K [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper illustrates the field experiment results in which micro-gravity survey was applied to investigation of very shallow basement structure between a few m and 10 m. Its applicability was discussed. In principle, the micro-gravity survey was conducted at the measuring points in a grid with 20 m pitch. Measuring points of 174 were used. The gravity system used for the measurements is an automatic gravimeter CG-3M made by the Scintrex. Survey results of P-wave reflection method conducted at the site using a vibrator focus were used as control data of micro-gravity survey. Consequently, change in the thickness of surface layer (earth filling) shallower than the depth of -10 m could be grasped as a plane. It was found that the micro-gravity survey is a useful method for the investigation of very shallow basement structure. Survey results by the reflection method could contribute to the determination of trend face at filtration and construction of density model as well as the geologic interpretation of gravity anomaly. As a result, reliability of micro-gravity survey and reflection method could be enhanced, mutually. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Study on application of radar technique to explore mineral resources. 1. Sample test in laboratory; Radar ho no kosho tansa eno tekiyosei kento. 1. Shitsunai shiryo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, A; Okada, K [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Noguchi, K; Fujiwara, K [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Dielectric constants of ore body and mother rock specimens taken from an epithermal gold deposit were measured in the frequency band of radar technique. Applicability of the radar technique to mineral exploration has been investigated by comparing measured results and ore showing. This paper describes the results. Measured results of the dielectric constants are summarized as follows. The specific dielectric constant in the forced dry condition did not depend on specimens. The specific dielectric constant in the water saturated condition increased with increasing the porosity. The conductivity increased with increasing the specific dielectric constant. The specific dielectric constant and conductivity increased with increasing the water content. The specific dielectric constant did not depend on types of rocks. The specific dielectric constant decreased with increasing the frequency. Difference of the specific dielectric constant in the water saturated condition decreased with increasing the frequency. The radar technique was applied to blind deposits. Since they were often in the ground water saturated zones, it was considered that the reflection at the boundary was enhanced with increasing the difference of specific dielectric constant between ore body and mother rock compared with that in unsaturated zones. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Simulation of emergency evacuation behaviour during disaster by using distinct element method; Hisaiji no gunshu hinan kodo simulation eno kobetsu yosoho no tekiyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyono, J.; Miura, F.; Takimoto, K. [Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-21

    In this study, the possibility to apply the Distinct Element Method (DEM) to human evacuation behavior during a disaster was investigated, evacuation from rooms to outside though a passage or steps and a jam were examined as a basic consideration. The main results were obtained as follows: according to an analysis of evacuation behavior when elements of DEM were substituted for individual humans, the trace of individual people and force acting there to and the trace of the whole group so every time can be understood, analysis can also be conducted from local to macro. In the DEM analysis, a mutual distance between people and characteristics of behavior can be expressed well by introducing an imaginary bane into the elements. Evacuation time due to change of space shape can be compared and time series change of force acting on individual people can be understood according to the investigation on evacuation time difference due to shape change at the exit and entrance and the jam caused by the arch effect happened when the crowed flow appeared at the exit and entrance. 16 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Sildenafil citrate-restored eNOS and PDE5 regulation in sickle cell mouse penis prevents priapism via control of oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinity J Bivalacqua

    Full Text Available Sildenafil citrate revolutionized the practice of sexual medicine upon its federal regulatory agency approval approximately 15 years ago as the prototypical phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor indicated for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. We now provide scientific support for its alternative use in the management of priapism, a clinical disorder of prolonged and uncontrolled penile erection. Sildenafil administered continuously to sickle cell mice, which show a priapism phenotype, reverses oxidative/nitrosative stress effects in the penis, mainly via reversion of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase to the functional coupled state of the enzyme, which in turn corrects aberrant signaling and function of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP/protein kinase G/phosphodiesterase type 5 cascade. Priapism tendencies in these mice are reverted partially toward normal neurostimulated erection frequencies and durations after sildenafil treatment in association with normalized cyclic GMP concentration, protein kinase G activity and phosphodiesterase type 5 activity in the penis. Thus, sildenafil exerts pleiotropic effects in the penis that extend to diverse erection disorders.

  14. Sočutno starševstvo in vzgojni stili v eno- in dvostarševski družini

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Petra; Urh, Katarina; Presker, Martina

    2018-01-01

    Vzgoja otroka je ena izmed najtežjih vsebin življenja, v katero so starši neposredno vpleteni v procesu svojega delovanja. Otrok se rodi v že ustaljen sistem, ki si ga zakonca oziroma partnerja ustvarita še pred rojstvom otroka. Z vsakim novorojenim otrokom je treba vzpostaviti novo družinsko ravnovesje, da se bo družina lahko razvijala naprej. Pri razvoju otroka v družini ima najpomembnejšo vlogo odnos, ki ga starša vzpostavita z njim takoj ob njegovem rojstvu. Enako pomembno je tudi čustven...

  15. Všeobecný přenos daňové povinnosti jako krok k zásadní modernizaci DPH

    OpenAIRE

    Kohoutková, Růžena

    2014-01-01

    This final thesis deals with introduction of reverse charge mechanism of value added tax. The current system of value added tax has weaknesses, including carousel fraud, negative impact on cash flow of businesses and complicated rules to collect and manage the tax. Reverse charge mechanism is considered as a solution of existing weaknesses of current system. Although this regime is able to solve the mentioned weaknesses, it also has some disadvantages. Especially, it is a negative impact on c...

  16. Material revolution, and analysis of its impacts on the industry and technology of the next generation; Zairyo kakumei to jisedai sangyo gijutsu eno impact bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper discusses possibility of advanced materials from seeds and expectations from needs; and also describes consistency between the seeds and needs, and possible impacts of these materials on the industry and technology of the next generation. Chapter 1 presents the promising results and eventual possibilities, based on the basic studies, of the advanced materials, e.g., fine ceramics, highly functional polymers, new alloys and composite materials. Chapter 2 analyzes the properties and functions attainable by these materials, and expected applicable areas; investigates their technical and economical possibilities; and also investigates their ripple effects on the technology and economy. Chapter 3 investigates the current situations of the demands in the automobile, chemical plant and energy areas, and problems involved in development of these materials for these areas. Chapter 4 investigates the measures to promote consistency between the seeds and needs of these materials, and impacts of these advanced materials on the related techniques, related industries and industrial structures. Chapter 5 summarizes the problems and measures narrowed down in Chapters 1 to 4 comprehensively for the above areas; and the measures to be taken by the private sector, and cooperation by the industrial, government and academic circles. (NEDO)

  17. In Vitro Activation of eNOS by Mangifera indica (Careless™) and Determination of an Effective Dosage in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Human Pilot Study on Microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstgrasser, Alexandra; Röchter, Sigrid; Dressler, Dirk; Schön, Christiane; Reule, Claudia; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2016-03-01

    Mangifera indica fruit preparation (Careless™) activates the evolutionary conserved metabolic sensors sirtuin 1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, which have been identified as playing a key role in microcirculation and endothelial function. Here, an acute effect of a single dose of 100 mg or 300 mg Careless™ on microcirculation was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot study in ten healthy women to determine the effective dosage. Microcirculation and endothelial function were assessed by the Oxygen-to-see system and pulse amplitude tonometry (EndoPAT™), respectively. Cutaneous blood flow was increased over time by 100 mg (54% over pre-values, p = 0.0157) and 300 mg (35% over pre-value, p = 0.209) Careless™. The EndoPAT™ reactive hyperemia response was slightly improved 3 h after intake compared to pretesting with 300 mg Careless™. Furthermore, activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, as an important regulator for endothelial function, was tested in vitro in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Careless™, after simulation of digestion, increased the activated form of endothelial nitric oxide synthase dose-dependently by 23% (300 µg/mL), 42% (1500 µg/mL), and 60% (3000 µg/mL) compared to the untreated control. In conclusion, the study suggests moderate beneficial effects of Careless™ on microcirculation, which is at least partly mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Simple method for thick blade calculation. Part 2. Application to a thin blade; Kanbenna ichiatsuyoku keisanho (zokuho). Usui tsubasa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maita, S; Ando, J; Nakatake, K [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-10

    A source and QCM (SQCM) method has been developed, by which the blade performance can be calculated in a short time with satisfying the Kutta`s condition without repeating calculations even for the three-dimensional blade. Performances were calculated for the two-dimensional and three-dimensional blades. The SQCM has provided appropriate results. However, it was found that there are some problems for thin blades. In this study, the SQCM has been applied to a thin blade. The conventional eddy model equation of SQCM is not a continuous distribution in the strict sense. In this study, this problem has been modified. When point eddies with constant strength are in line continuously within the interval, the induced velocity at an arbitrary position can be expressed by the integral equation using a position of marginal point of the interval. This equation can be analyzed by the integral of influence coefficient. The position of marginal point of the interval is a position of control point determined by the QCM theory. As a result of the modification, it was found that the SQCM in response to a thin blade has provided precise calculation results stably even for an ultra thin blade with the blade thickness ratio of 0.001. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  19. Application of vertical electrical sounding combined with induced polarization method in ground water exploration; IP koka wo koryoshita hiteikoho suichoku tansa no chikasui chosa eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, M; Sakurada, H [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, T [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For ground water exploration using vertical Schlumberger exploration method, measurement and analysis combined with induced polarization (IP) effect were conducted as trial. For the Schlumberger method, potential is measured at the center between potential electrodes during flow of dc current between current electrodes. In the case of vertical exploration, measurements are repeated with fixed potential electrodes by extending the distance between current electrodes. Ground water exploration was conducted using this method at Otaki village, Hokkaido. Geology of surveyed plateau consists of a basement of Pliocene tuffs and Quaternary Pleistocene sediments covering on the surface. For the results of analysis, four to seven beds were detected from the resistivity. The depth up to the lowest bed was between 25 and 85 m, the resistivity of each bed was between 9 and 8,000 ohm{times}m, and the polarizability was between 1 and 15 mV/V. Among these resistivity zones, it was judged that zones satisfying following three conditions correspond to coarse grain sediments saturated with ground water, and can be expected as aquifers; having resistivity ranging between 100 and 1,000 ohm{times}m, polarizability higher than 10 mV/V, and relatively large thickness. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Three dimensional transient electromagnetic model study for fracture prediction from tunnel face; Sanjigen model keisan ni yoru TEM ho no tunnel zenpo tansa eno tekiyosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, K; Tsutsui, T; Saito, A [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hara, T [Toda Corp., Tokyo, (Japan); Zhdanov, M [University of Utah, UT (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In order to apply TEM model to fracture prediction at tunnel face, 3-D TEM model computation by FEM was conducted by installing a transmission loop on a tunnel face. MT field responses diffusing into the 3-D model were computed by time-domain difference calculus, and analytical precision was improved by introducing a staggered grid method. In the case where a low resistive zone exists before a tunnel face, time variance in diffused eddy current and induction current in the low resistive zone could be obtained. The difference in tunnel-axial transient curve (transient phenomenon curve in magnetic field) between uniform medium and low resistive zone models was based on the absorption process of diffused eddy current into the low resistive zone, and the expanding process of it toward the outside. Change in background condition could be predicted from the background and the ratio of transient curves every measurement. The detection limit of the low resistive zone was dependent on resistivity contrast, distance and geometry. Fluctuation in measurement due to noises and S/N ratio were also essential. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Can spatial autocorrelation method be applied to arbitrary array shape; Kukan jiko sokanho no nin`i array eno tekiyo kanosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Iwamoto, K; Saito, T; Tachibana, M [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Methods to learn underground structures by utilizing the dispersion phenomenon of surface waves contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number analysis method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (the SAC method). Despite the fact that the SAC method is capable of exploring structures at greater depths, the method is not utilized because of its stringent restriction in arrangement of seismometers during observation that they must be arranged evenly on the same circumference. In order to eliminate this restriction in the SAC method, a research group in the Hokuriku University has proposed an expanded spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) method. Using the concept of the ESAC method as its base, a method was realized to improve phase velocity estimation by making a simulation on an array shifted to the radius direction. As a result of the discussion, it was found that the proposed improvement method can be applied to places where waves come from a number of directions, such as urban areas. If the improvement method can be applied, the spatial autocorrelation function needs not be even in the circumferential direction. In other words, the SAC method can be applied to arbitrary arrays. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  2. Passive leg movement enhances interstitial VEGF protein, endothelial cell proliferation, and eNOS mRNA content in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Rufener, Nora; Nielsen, Jens J

    2008-01-01

    .05) in blood flow without a significant enhancement in oxygen uptake. Muscle interstitial fluid was sampled with microdialysis technique and analyzed for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and for the effect on endothelial cell proliferation. Biopsies obtained from the musculus vastus lateralis...... to cultured endothelial cells revealed that dialysate obtained during leg movement induced a 3.2-fold higher proliferation rate (P level fourfold above resting levels. VEGF mRNA and MMP-2 mRNA levels were...

  3. Utilization of hot exhaust water from power station to marine cultivation to increase product. Hatsudensho onhaisui no suisan zoyoshoku eno riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, K [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1990-07-20

    A large quantity of waste sea water, exhausted after having been used as cooling water in the thermal and unclear power stations, is higher by about 7 centigrade in temperature than that when taken in. Its utilization to the marine cultivation to increase product was explained in present status and points of problem. Among aquatic animals to like high temperature, those, valuavle from the viewpoint of fishery, are bred in different places. Upon breeding spawn to fry young fish, there are two methods of using it, ie., as species to be cultivated or let go in the water flow, and for the production of edible fish, high in price, such as sea bream, yellowtail and lobster. In any case, hot exhaust water gives effect of having fish quickly grow, and stimulating spawn and fry young fish in sexual ripeness. For example, ear shell and prawn are 5 to 6 times in elongation of shell length and 9 times even in weight, respectively, as large as those in case of natural sea water. While there are problems in costing required for pumping hot exhaust water up in the cultivation on land, and temperature adjustment in summer and winter, and water quality control in the crawl cultivation at the water takeout, which must be going to be solved for the commercialization and industrialization. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Application of adaptive control to windmill power system by computer simulation. Simulation ni yoru tekio seigyo no furyoku hatsuden system eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomiya, T.; Matsuo, T. (Anan College of Technology, Tokushima (Japan)); Suzuki, T.; Kamano, T. (Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-07-20

    A windmill power system using load DC generators having resistive load was subjected to discussions by simulation on development of a control method and its output characteristics to draw out the wind energy effectively even when the system characteristics are unknown. The control method used is a mountaineering method available among adaptive control methods. As a result of discussions, the effectiveness of the mountaineering method was confirmed in controlling the output either when the wind velocity is constant or variable. With respect to the control interval, which is a problem in carrying out a control, it was found that the control output stabilizes as the control interval is increased when the wind velocity is constant, but takes longer time before reaching a steady state output. When the wind velocity is variable, the increased control interval reduces the output slightly because of the load resistance change becoming coarser. It was also revealed that, on simulated natural winds, this control method can draw out more energy than by a fixed load resistance. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Genetic algorithm based on virus theory of evolution for traveling salesman problem; Virus shinkaron ni motozuku identeki algorithm no junkai salesman mondai eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, N. [Osaka Inst. of Technology, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    This paper deals with virus evolutionary genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithms (GAs) have been demonstrated its effectiveness in optimization problems in these days. In general, the GAs simulate the survival of fittest by natural selection and the heredity of the Darwin`s theory of evolution. However, some types of evolutionary hypotheses such as neutral theory of molecular evolution, Imanishi`s evolutionary theory, serial symbiosis theory, and virus theory of evolution, have been proposed in addition to the Darwinism. Virus theory of evolution is based on the view that the virus transduction is a key mechanism for transporting segments of DNA across species. This paper proposes genetic algorithm based on the virus theory of evolution (VE-GA), which has two types of populations: host population and virus population. The VE-GA is composed of genetic operators and virus operators such as reverse transcription and incorporation. The reverse transcription operator transcribes virus genes on the chromosome of host individual and the incorporation operator creates new genotype of virus from host individual. These operators by virus population make it possible to transmit segment of DNA between individuals in the host population. Therefore, the VE-GA realizes not only vertical but also horizontal propagation of genetic information. Further, the VE-GA is applied to the traveling salesman problem in order to show the effectiveness. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. FY 2000 report on the survey of strategies for spreading renewable energy to developing countries; 2000 nendo tojokoku eno saisei kano energy fukyu senryaku chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For Laos, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Vietnam, survey was conducted to promote the introduction and spread of renewable energy, mainly the photovoltaic power generation. Relating to the solar radiation, the amount in the four countries is much higher than that in Japan, 3.4kWh/m{sup 2}/day on average. The countries are areas suitable for the photovoltaic power generation. As to the wind velocity, the area where the wind velocity is higher than 5m/second, which enables the introduction of the wind power generation, is limited to the south/west of Bangladesh, Malaysia, and the coastal part and islands in Vietnam. The wind power generation is being used in Malaysia and Vietnam. As for the precipitation, it rains concentratedly in the rainy season, and therefore, it is difficult to stably secure energy through the year by the small-scale hydroelectric power generation. In Vietnam, however, resident individuals eagerly introduce the small-scale hydroelectric power generation, and about 20,000kW is now in operation. Concerning the introduction of the photovoltaic power generation, Bangladesh is in a state of working out a master plan, Laos is in a state of drawing up a plan for the spread, and Malaysia and Vietnam are in a state of the verification. (NEDO)

  7. Fundamental study on PV system for floating water power device `Mighty Whale`; Okiai futaishiki haryoku sochi `Mighty Whale` eno taiyoko hatsuden sochi tosai no kihon kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washio, Y [Japan Marine Science and Technology Center, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Studied in this paper is the use of a photovoltaic power generation system in combination with a wave energy conversion system to cover the latter`s weak point that it is available but intermittently. An offshore floating wave power device Mighty Whale (MW) is described, which will have a wave energy absorbing air chamber in the front and an anti-rocking float that looks like a whale in the rear. The movement, up and down and back and forth, of the water surface in the air chamber due to incident waves turns the power generator turbine. Out of the space available on the MW, a 200m{sup 2} area has been specified as the place suitable for the installation of solar cells capable of a maximum output of 20kW, for which specification the elevation of the sun has been taken into account. Batteries will routinely be supplied with power in parallel from the wave activated and photovoltaic devices, the supply will be limited when the batteries are fully charged, and an auxiliary power generator will be run in case of shortage. Power that can be provided by a 20kW solar array was calculated using actual data of sunshine on the slope for each array orientation, and required battery capacity was calculated for each solar array orientation. Important items for consideration for the insurance of reliability on the ocean include measures against salt damage, detailed designing of wiring, and coordinated operation of photovoltaic and wave activated power generation systems. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Thermal sensation vote simulation on the aged for bus air conditioning; Koreisha wo koryoshita onkan suchi simulation no bus kucho eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H; Nishijima, H; Kitada, M; Shinma, A [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The Numbers of passengers on the aged of sight-seeing buses about 5 times bigger than those of car passengers, have been increasing gradually. The former paper of DENSO in 1994 introduces quantitative method, which simulates passenger heat amount given by sun light at various solar positions. At this time, this paper introduces quantitative method, which simulates passengers thermal sensation skin temperature and also heat amount given by sun light at various solar positions. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Estrogen and phytoestrogens: Effect on eNOS expression and in vitro vasodilation in cerebral arteries in ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Claus Otto; Mortensen, A; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2007-01-01

    -six female ovariectomized Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits were randomised to treatment with 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)), SoyLife 150 or control for 16 weeks. Ring segments of basilar artery (BA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were mounted in myographs for isometric tension recordings...

  10. Recent progress in 'bioelectronics' research. Part 4. ; Recent trends in biosensor research and development. Baioerekutoronikusu eno michi (shorai wa saibogu mo). 4. ; Baiosensa gijutsu saizensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karube, I. (The Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology)

    1994-02-20

    Biosensors are structured basing on a variety of principles. The latest trend of the research and development of biosensors is introduced to explain how the five senses such as taste sense and olfactory sense are detected. A biosensor is structured by combining biological element with a transducer which converts the result measured by the said element into electrical signal. Enzyme is most widely used at present. The enzyme recognizes a chemical substance very closely, and has a feature of promoting its reaction only. Chemical substances, therefore, can be distinguished if this enzyme is used. The principle of the biosensor is explained quoting the enzyme sensor as an example. Immune reaction and microbe reaction can be monitored by the similar principle to the above-mentioned principle. Sensors for measuring substances which are the bases of taste have been developed. Studies on smell sensors are also actively carried on, and the quartz oscillator is used mainly. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  11. FY 1990 achievement report on the survey of possibility of introducing solar energy into buildings; 1990 nendo taiyo energy no kenchikubutsu eno donyu kanosei chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 1990 on survey on possibility of introducing solar energy into buildings. Capacity of photovoltaic power generation facilities installed on an area of 1600 km{sup 2}, such as roofs of residential houses, schools and building may be calculated on a trial bases as 100 million kW at maximum. The capacity can replace 16% of the total demand and corresponds to 26.30 million kiloliters (9%) as converted to crude oil. If photovoltaic power generation is utilized on buildings of users, diversified technological criteria are required from the viewpoint of legislation covering wide range of architectural, electrical and disaster aspects. However, no direct and clear standards are available now, except for the electric power business law. What are urgently required are solar cell standardization, incentive subsidies, aging safety, institutions for electric power sale and purchase, and establishment of technological criteria. An utilization example survey revealed problems in array installation and size. Increased demand, mass production and cost reduction will create a favorable cycle. Introduction, proliferation, and acceleration under policies at public facilities which are expected of enlightenment and development into other areas will be the effective means for the purpose. (NEDO)

  12. Application of super workable concrete to main tower of cable-stayed prestressed concrete bridge. ; Kiba park grand bridge. PC shachokyo no shuto eno tekiyo. ; Kiba koen ohashi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Shindo, T.; Sakamoto, A. (Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    The Kiba Park Grand Bridge is a cable-stayed prestressed concrete (PC) bridge with a length of 186m. The main tower of this PC cable-stayed bridge consists of a pair of vertical columns with height of 60m and a beam connecting the columns. For the purpose of the advanced efficiency of construction without formwork and removal work and the improvement of durability, the precast buried formwork made of polymer impregnated concrete formwork was adopted. Approximate 650 cubic meter of super workable concrete was placed for the upper part ranging from 7th to 17th blocks of vertical columns and the beam. Blast furnace cement B and fly ash were used as binder. Naphthalenesulfonic acid type high performance water reducing agent and lignosulfonic acid type AE (air-entraining) water reducing agent were used as admixtures. Super workable concrete was mixed using forced double-axle mixers in the ready-mixed concrete plant. Satisfactory quality of the fresh concrete and strength of the hardened concrete were obtained. 2 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Progress of admixtures and quality of concrete. 2. ; Approaches to ultra-high-strength concrete. Konwa zairyo no shinpo to concrete no hinshitsu. 2. ; Chokokyodo concrete eno approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, T. (Shimizu Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Abe, M. (Building Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-02-15

    Ultra-high-strength concrete of 600 kgf/cm[sup 2] or more is reviewed. MDF (macro defect free) cement, spheroidal cement and mechanically stabilized cement have been developed for ultra-high-strength concrete, however, in general, DSP (densified system containing homogeneously arranged ultra-fine particles) technique is now usual in which a water-cement ratio is reduced by use of advanced air entraining and water reducing agents and cured concrete is densified by use of ultra-fine particles as admixture. Four kinds of substances such as naphthalene system and polycarboxylic acid system are used as air entraining and water reducing agents, and silica fume is used as ultra-fine particle admixture which can be effectively replaced with blast furnace slag or fly ash. Various use examples of ultra-high-strength concrete such as an ocean platform are found in the world, however, only some examples such as a PC truss bridge and the main tower of a PC cable stayed bridge in Japan. 22 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Deposition of calcium carbonate into postglacial reefs: a test on a 'coral reef hypothesis'. Kohyoki no sangosho eno tansan calcium taiseki sokudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayanne, H [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-06-15

    This paper describes the following matters on changes in rates of deposition of calcium carbonate into postglacial coral reefs: Estimation was made on change in CaCO3 deposition in four coral reefs the data of which relating to all cross sections down to reef base have been acquired by drilling; the main deposition periods in the coral reefs formed in the postglacial period were five to six thousand years ago; the maximum deposition rate is estimated to be 2.7 [times] 10[sup 14] gC per one thousand years under an assumption that the total deposition amount in postglacial coral reefs is 1.2 [times] 10[sup 18] gC (converted to carbon amount); the recent deposition rate is (1/7.5) that of the former rate; from information obtained on submerged coral reefs, deposition amounts in coral reefs before 10,000 years ago are judged to have been smaller than those thereafter; and the above knowledges do not support the 'coral reef hypothesis' by Berger et al. that deposition of calcium carbonate into postglacial coral reefs has occurred from 15,000 years ago to 10,000 years ago. 30 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on environmental impact survey - 5 (Musadake area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the environmental impact to result from the digging of borehole N11-MD-3 in Shibetsu-gun, Hokkaido, a survey was conducted of changes in (1) hot spring water quality, (2) noise/vibration pollution, and (3) air pollution due to hydrogen sulfide, before and after the digging period. Under item (1), measurements were made at four hot springs, which involved weather, air temperature, water temperature, amount of welled-up water, pH, electric conductivity, etc. Although minor changes were observed during the measuring period, none was found related to the digging process. Under item (2), noise levels were measured during the drilling period along the site boundary, at a point 500m from N11-MD-3, the Kawakita hot spring, and the entrance of Sekiyunosawa. Along the site boundary, they were 55-60 dB during the drilling period, and there was an increase of 30dB attributable to the drilling. At the 500m point, there was a 15-20dB increase attributable to the same. Vibration levels during the drilling period were 40dB along the site boundary and less than the observable minimum at the other points. Under item (3), at four points along the site boundary (50m), hydrogen sulfide concentration in the air fluctuated by 0.01-0.21ppm when the steam discharge rate was 4.47-7.20t/h. (NEDO)

  16. Report on fiscal 2000 geothermal development promotion survey. No. C-5 Appi district environmental impact survey (1st phase); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho - No.C-5. 1. Appi chiiki kankyo eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    For the survey of weather in the Appi district, Iwate Prefecture, observation data covering the last decade were collected at weather stations and the like, and characteristics of weather, climate, and natural earthquakes were learned. In the survey of fluctuation in the spa water level, studies were made about fluctuation in water temperature, spring water, and river water, and basic data were collected for the examination of the impact to be generated by geothermal exploration well boring and short-term discharge tests. In the survey of animal and vegetables, the habitation and distribution of animals and vegetables at sites planned for geothermal well boring were investigated, and data were collected for the evaluation of the impact to be imposed on them by well boring or the like. In the survey dealing with nature conservation and landscape, laws and regulations governing nature conservation were collected and put in an easy-to-use order, and seasonal changes in the natural landscape were photographed and recorded. In the survey of noise/vibration and ground fluctuation, the background values were measured prior to the implementation of geothermal well boring, discharge tests, and so forth. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of environmental effect pertaining to survey for geothermal development and promotion (Hakusuigoe area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa no uchi kankyo eikyo chosa (Hakusuigoe chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey of environmental effect was intended to grasp actual state concerning some environmental factors that should agree with survey/development and also to assess its effect on the surrounding environment, particularly as a part of the 'stage C' in the 'survey for geothermal development and promotion', which was implemented by the Government for the purpose of guiding geothermal development by enterprises. This report compiles the plan details of the environmental effect survey to be conducted in the Hakusuigoe district, and presents proposals. The survey area is in the north of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, in Kagoshima prefecture and situated about 3 km west of Onaminoike in Karakunidake, one of the peaks in the Kirishima mountain range. The Ogiri geothermal power plant is in the west of the site, a tourist spot Ebino Heights about 4 km northeast, and the Kirishima hot-spring about 4 km southeast. The location is in the national park, with a part designated as No. 2 and 3 class special areas. The environmental effect survey was divided broadly into such categories as fauna/flora, hot-spring water alteration and inland water, landscape, noise/vibration/subsoil, and air/water, and was further subdivided in accordance with the actual operations. (NEDO)

  18. Robust estimation of space influence model. Part 2. ; Synthesis of urban lattice data analysis for practical use. Kukan eikyo model no antei suiteiho. 2. ; Jikkenteki mesh data kaiseki system kochiku no tameno kukan sokan bunsekiho no taikeika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y.; Osaragi, T. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-07-30

    In this study, a method for robust estimation of parameters of the space influence function model, which was possible to become unstable, was investigated by applying a principal component method. In order to carry out the robust estimation of parameters without the effect of multicollinearity, regression coefficients of principal components with small eigenvalue and with small single-correlation with dependent variables were required to forced to be zero in the estimation method by principal component. Through the case study using the real urban lattice data, the conventional method was compared with the principal component method. As a result, the latter method realized the excellent sabilization of spatial distribution patterns of estimation parameters and the simple interpretation of parameters. It also improved reliability since 95% confidence interval of the estimated value became smaller. This method was found to be effective as a basic measure to acheve the stability of parameters. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Effects of air pollution on the health of regional inhabitants. Part I. Survey of disease state by Enquete. Taiki osen ga chiiki jumin no kenko ni oyobosu eikyo ni tsuite-dai ippo; anketo ni yoru shojo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    From May to July 1972, the disease states of 2096 inhabitants (710 men and 1386 women) in the Fukushima Ward of Osaka City, where the concentration of sulfur trioxide in the air was (yearly average) 1.81 mg/day/100 sq cm and that of carbon monoxide was 5.3 ppM, and that of nitrogen dioxide was 5.3 ppM, were surveyed. The number of persons surveyed was 2.9% of all the inhabitants of the Ward. Twenty-two point one percent were in their thirties, 20.1% in their forties, 16.5% in their sixties, and 15.3% in their fifties. Those who experienced chest diseases were 2.9% of the total, and those with heart diseases were 1.5%. Non-smoking men were 31.7% of the total. The percentage of long-term complaints of cough and sputum was 11.8% in the eastern section, 11.2% in the northern section, 10.0% in the southern section, 6.8% in the western section of the Ward. The frequency of complaints was highest in the sixties (12.7%), followed by 11.5% in the fifties, 11.3% in the thirties, and 8.6% in the forties. The frequency of complaints from men was 11.1% and that from women was 6%. The frequency of complaints was 19.8% in smokers, 8.5% in those who smoked less, and 6.8% in non-smokers. The frequency of complaints classified by residential area showed 12.6% in industrial areas, and 7.8% in residential and commercial areas. The frequency of complaints of inhabitants who live along National Road No. 2 was relatively high, ranging from 15.0 to 18.8%, and the frequency of complaints of inhabitants was apparently higher than those of people who only work in the Ward.

  20. Effect of aluminum on the growth and nutrient uptake in cryptomeria japonica D.Don and Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.; Sugi oyobi hinoki no ikusei to yobun kyushu ni oyobosu aluminium no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Y; Matsumura, H; Kobayashi, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-10

    Two-year-old seedlings of Sugi (Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki (Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) were grown for 4 months in 1/5 Hoagland`s No.2 nutrient culture solution containing aluminum chloride in the concentration range of 0.5 to 20 mM within the pH range of 3.5 to 4.0. Aluminium supplied at or below 1 mM of Al had no effect on the mortality of these species. However, the increase Al concentration higher than 2 mM increased the mortality. While they showed significant growth reduction at or higher Al concentration of 5 mM, there were no difference in growth response to Al between the two species in this experiment. While Al contents in leaf and root significantly increased with increasing Al concentration in the solution, contents of Ca, Mg and P in leaf decreased. Roof p content in Sugi increased with the increase of Al concentration in the solution, while no such change was observed in Hinoki root. This result suggests that Al might make phosphate immobile or inviolable form in Sugi root and this might lead to the reduced translocation of P into the leaf. In contrast, Al did not interfere with the uptake of phosphate in the root, however, it might interrupt phosphate transport into leaf from root system in Hinoki. The Al concentration such as 5 mM in the root sphere induced growth reductions in Sugi and Hinoki, with no significant difference in the response between the two species. This concentration was much higher than those reported in the field crops, vegetables and/or herbs. Thus, if soil acidification will be induced by acidic deposition in future, these herbaceous plants will be influenced faster than the conifer trees. This also means that ground vegetation change will be observed earlier than the conifer decline by the soil acidification stress. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Assessment of a Mega-Float on water quality and ecosystem in Tokyo bay; Choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ga Tokyowan no suishitsu to seitaikei ni oyobosu eikyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyozuka, Y.; Hu, C.; Hasemi, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hikai, A.

    1997-08-01

    The effect on the marine environment in the bay when a Mega-Float is installed in a bay was investigated. The physical process such as a residual flow (including tidal currents, water temperature, salt, density, and density currents), and the ecosystem model for which floating organic matter and plankton are handled were incorporated to develop a program for water quality calculation in a bay. The program was used for Tokyo Bay and compared with the conventional calculation result and the oceanograhpic observation result. Simultaneously, the effect on the Mega-Float was considered. On the flow in Tokyo Bay in summer, the calculation result that comparatively coincided with the observation value in a residual flow level was obtained. The horizontal distribution of COD comparatively coincides with the existing observation result. The influence that the Mega-Float exerts on the flow, water temperature, water quality, and ecosystem in the ambient sea area was little and local in the calculation scale (L {times} B {times} d = 6 km {times} 3 km {times} 2 m) of this time. However, the difference occurring due to the design position must also be investigated in future. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  4. Influences of species of metals and supports on the hydrogenation activity of carbon-supported metal sulfides catalysts; Tanso biryushi tanji shokubai no suisoka kassei ni taisuru kassei kinzoku oyobi tantaishu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakanishi, K.; Hasuo, H.; Taniguchi, H.; Nagamatsu, T.; Mochida, I. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study

    1996-10-28

    In order to design catalysts suitable for primary liquefaction stage and secondary upgrading stage respectively in the multi-stage liquefaction process, various carbon-supported catalysts were prepared. Catalytic activities of them were investigated for the hydrogenation of 1-methylnaphthalene, to discuss the influences of metals and carbon species on the catalytic activity. Various water soluble and oil soluble Mo and Ni salts were used for NiMo supported catalysts. Among various carbon supports, Ketjen Black (KB) was effective for preparing the catalyst showing the most excellent hydrogenation activity. The KB and Black Pearl 2000 (BP2000) showing high hydrogenation activity were fine particles having high specific surface area more than 1000 m{sup 2}/g and primary particle diameter around 30 nm. This was inferred to contribute to the high dispersion support of active metals. Since such fine particles of carbon exhibited hydrophobic surface, they were suitable for preparing catalysts from the methanol-soluble metals. Although Ni and Mo added iron-based catalysts provided lower aromatic hydrogenation activity, they exhibited liquefaction activity competing with the NiMo/KB catalyst. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  6. Effect of Al content on critical CTOD properties in heat affected zone of C-Mn microalloyed steel. Teitanso teigokin koyosetsu netsu eikyobu no genkai CTOD tokusei ni oyobosu Al ganyuryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Y.; Komizo, Y. (Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-08-05

    Two types of molten alloys specimen with a base of 0.10%C-0.20%Si-1.40%Mn-0.01%Ti system and varied Al content, were studied. The critical crack tip opening displacement(CTOD) properties in heat effected zone(HAZ) of extreme low Al content steel was stable at. extremely low temperature and there was no formation of M-A. Fine ferrite has a texture of [alpha] main body and it has been thought that the the change in the CTOD properties with the variation in Al content has been due to the difference in the texture. In case of Al content steel plate, the interfacial energy has been decreased due to excessive carbon concentration at [gamma] /[alpha] interface, M-A formation has been easier by the suppression of [alpha] transformation. In case of extremely low Al content steel plate, [alpha] transformation has been promoted and cementite deposition has been estimated from a small amount. of left [gamma] of extremely high carbon concentration. As for SH-CCT diagram of extremely low Al content steel plate, compare to Al content steel plate, [alpha] noze has shifted toward shorter time and formation of [alpha] has been easier within the normal welding cooling rate, and microstructures of [alpha] texture have formed in HAZ. 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effect of temperature on degradation of musty odour compound producing by cyanobacteria, Phormidium tenue by microflagellate, Monas guttula; Benmochu Monas guttula ni yoru kabishu sansei sorui Phormidium tenue no bunkai ni oyobosu ondo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.; Sudo, R. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Sugiura, N. [Ibaraki Prefectural Waterworks, Ibaraki (Japan); Inamori, Y.; Nishimura, O. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Higashi, T. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan). Institute of Applied Biochemical

    1998-04-10

    Biodegradation characteristics of cyanobacteria, Phormidium tenue and its metabolites, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) by protozoan microflagellate, Monas guttula, and the effect of temperature on them were examined in batch culture experiment. The flagellate was found to predate on P. tenue favorably as a food source within a wide temperature range from 10degC to 30degC. Specific growth rate ({mu}) and generation time (t{sub d}) of the flagellate were 4.6 day{sup -1} and 3.5 h{sup -1}, respectively at 20degC and 30degC, whereas in the case of 10degC the lag values of {mu} and t{sub d} were obtained by 1.9 fold in comparison with the removal ratio of 61% at the first cultivation day and that of 99% at the 2nd day at 30degC, while at 20degC the removal was only about 30% in the first day, but P. tenue could be perfectly reduced at the 2nd day. Although the reduction rate of the P. tenue was slow at the lower temperature of 10degC, the removal reached 98% in the 7th day. Removal rate of P. tenue by the flagellate increased with the increase in temperature and reached the maximal value with 4.0 h{sup -1} at 30degC. The flagellate could contribute to the degradation of MIB, although the degradation was lower than that of P. tenue. It was found that the microflagellate could favorably predate on P. tenue and degrade its metabolite, MIB emitting musty odor in a wide range of temperature. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Wall effect in deactivation of excited molecular oxygen {sup 1}{delta}g; Reiki sanso bunshi {sup 1}{delta}g no shikkatsu ni oyobosu hyomen hanno no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Yamashita, I. [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-10-25

    This paper discusses effects of surface reaction on deactivation of excited molecular oxygen in {sup 1}{Delta}g condition. Gaseous oxygen containing excited oxygen generated by microwave discharge at a concentration of less than 1% is flown into several kinds of tubes to be measured such as quartz tubes (with an inner diameter of about 10 mm), and the light emitting intensity of the excited oxygen was measured upstream and downstream of the tubes to be measured (with in-tube pressure of 1 Torr or 2 Torr) to derive its concentration change. The surface reaction on the tube wall was regarded as a primary reaction, and the concentration change of the excited oxygen in flows in the round tube (attributable to the surface reaction) was analyzed. With respect to effects of tube wall materials on deactivation of the excited molecular oxygen, the surface deactivation probability in the case of using low-activity materials has decreased in the order of Pyrex, PVC, quartz, PFA and PTFE. The surface deactivation probability in the case of using a metallic material, SUS316L, was about 1000 times larger than that in the quartz. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Study on the performances of handling and stability influenced by the differential terms in the state variables; Soansei ni okeru jotai hensunai no bibun yoso ga seino ni oyobosu eikyo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugasawa, F [Tamagawa University, Tokyo (Japan); Mori, H [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The analysis method using the system matrix for state variables can not be applied to the analysis for the system has Complex Cornering Stiffness. The reason is there are differential terms in the state variables. It is found that the differential terms m the state variables can be changed to the constant terms in another state variables. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Study on turning performance of four-track steering vehicles. Effect of traction force and track speed distribution control; Sodashiki sokisha no senkai seino ni kansuru kenkyu. Kudoryoku haibun to sokudo haibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, M; Watanabe, K; Kitano, M [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The four-track steering vehicles (4TS) is a new type of off-road vehicle which can replace four wheels with track units to improve the mobility on soft terrains. In this paper, the numerical simulations, under the various types of differential and track velocity control systems, are conducted to predict the turning performance and steer ability of the 4TS vehicles. The results of the numerical analysis demonstrate that the differential systems with realistic combined distribution control systems of the track speed is efficient at a small turning radius. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Thermal boundary condition effects on forced convection heat transfer. Application of a numerical solution of an adjoint problem; Kyosei tairyu netsudentatsu mondai ni okeru netsuteki kyokai joken no eikyo. Zuihan mondai no suchi kai wo mochiita kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, K.; Saso, K.; Kimoto, H. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1997-11-25

    We propose a numerical solution for the adjoint operator of a forced convection heat transfer problem to evaluate mean heat transfer characteristics under arbitrary thermal conditions. Using the numerical solutions of the adjoint problems under Dirichlet and Neumann conditions, both of which can be computed using a conventional CFD code, the influence function of the local surface temperature on the total heat transfer and that of the local surface heat flux on the mean surface temperature are obtained. As a result, the total heat fluxes for arbitrary surface temperature distributions and the mean surface temperatures for arbitrary surface heat flux distributions can be calculated using these influence functions. The influence functions for a circular cylinder and for an in-line square rod array are presented. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effect of release sheet on the preparation of CF paper/aluminium phosphate composite; Tanso sen`i paper/rinsan aluminium fukugo zairyo choseiji ni okeru hakurizai no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshii, S.; Kojima, A. [Gunma National College of Technology, Gunma (Japan); Otani, S. [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). School of High-Technology for Human Walfare

    1995-12-27

    A composite material was prepared with carbon fiber (CF) and a matrix of phosphate (as named ACP) mainly consisting of aluminum phosphate. CF was used in the form of felt cloth. Prepreg was made with CF and ACP, which was laminated and formed under pressure in a hot press into a composite. The prepreg was pretreated by drying at 80{degree}C to form a compact matrix and to increase the adhesion between laminated prepregs. At the hot press treatment thorough removal of water was tried by using absorbent sheet and release sheet to form a compact structure. Consequently, porosity of CF/ACP composite decreased, and its bulk density and bending strength increased. SEM observation showed the formation of vitreous and compact matrix. Besides, adhesion between prepregs and shear fracture resistance were improved. 24 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Fiscal 2000 report of investigation. Project for promoting international cooperation for global environment/Project for assessment on effect of climate change; 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo / kiko hendo eikyo hyoka nado jigyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Assessment and examination were conducted on the scientific/technological aspect, environmental aspect and economic/social aspect concerning measures for mitigating climate change, as a part of international cooperation in global warming issues. In the development of assessment methods for cost analysis, it revealed that, in the activities for mitigating emission of greenhouse effect gases (GHG) or for increasing carbon sequestration, benefits of the mitigation sometimes surpassed their cost, allowing the society to benefit from the mitigation. In the examination of problems in technology transfer and their solutions, it was found that, in order to attain successful transfer, partnership among the parties interested was essential and that each government was capable of promoting such partnership. In the assessment of various policy options, the situation in the U.S. is such that the market aspect of GHG emission permit and credit trading is rather weak because of immaturity in a legal framework on GHG emission trading and because of undefinedness in the systems of the Kyoto Protocol and in the possibility of its validation. However, the reason enterprises are actively participating in the early market is that they plan a risk-hedge for example in anticipation of tighter regulations in the future. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Project of promoting international cooperation on global environments/Project of assessing climate change impacts; 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku suishin jigyo chosa hokokusho. Kiko hendo eikyo hyoka nado jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As part of international cooperation concerning global warming, an assessment is conducted of climate change mitigating measures, from the viewpoints of technology, environment, economy, and community, in coordination with the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 3rd working group responsible for energy policy and technological development. It aims to contribute to the preparation of a 3rd assessment report, and covers (1) the development of an assessment technique relating to cost analysis, (2) problems in the transfer of technology and solutions for them, and (3) the assessment of various policy options. Under item (1), studies are made about modelling techniques, common parameters and their values, potentials for effect, control of warming, etc. Under item (2), factors impeding the transfer and diffusion of technology are extracted and solutions therefor and the establishment of new incentives are deliberated, with analysis and investigation focused on tasks and solutions for furthering global transfer of technology with attention paid to various specific cases. Under item (3), concrete and feasible policy options are discussed on the basis of the outcome of the above-named endeavors, in view of characteristics of each of the regions, departments, and techniques. (NEDO)

  15. Experimental and numerical studies on aerodynamical noise in a high-speed elevator. ; Effect of apron on flow around elevator car. Kosoku elevator no kuriki soon ni kansuru kenkyu. ; Kagomawari no nagare ni oyobosu apron bu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, H.; Fukuyama, Y.; Miyasako, K.; Endo, M. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Yokono, Y. (Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Research Laboratory of Precision Machinery and Electronics)

    1993-08-25

    For the purpose of reducing aerodynamic noise of a high-speed elevator, the flow around the elevator car was subjected to a flow visualization experiment and numerical simulation using a model simulating an elevator. The state of the flow in front of the door was observed by visualizing the field of flow around the model submerged in a water bath using a poster color tracer. Further, a wind tunnel experiment was carried out to observe the effects of flow at the side wall of the car. An oily agent using TiO2 as pigment was used for observing the pattern of oil film on the surface of the model and the observed results were recorded on a video tape. Since the oil solution is white, the place where the oil film is peeled by a strong shearing force exhibits a pattern of black color which is the color of the model substrate. Flow in front of the door is different depending on whether the car is in the upward motion or in the downward motion and affected by the presence of apron. During the downward motion of the car, the vertical vortices accompanying the flow detouring from the rear surface to the front surface of the apron are generated at both ends of the apron and thereby the streamlines are concentrated to generate accelerated flow in front of the door. Suppression of vertical voltices is important for reducing noise during downward motion. Peeled flow and vortex interference appear at the side and back of the car and forms a field of complex flow. 12 refs., 10 figs.

  16. FY 1998 international cooperation project for global environment/project to evaluate influence of climate change; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chikyu kankyo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo/kiko hendo eikyo hyokanado jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the international cooperation for the global warming problem, evaluation/study were conducted on policy to lessen climate changes from viewpoints of scientific technology, environment, and economy/society. In the development of evaluation methods on cost analysis, the following were pointed out: Changes in resource utilization brought about as a result of the policy are all needed to be numerated; In resource, clean air and water, and also abolition of price barrier and prices now in force are included. As subjects on the technology transfer, cited are barriers in aspects of organization/system and barriers in aspects of economy/finance and society. Especially, it was pointed out that it is necessary to exchange the persons concerned in the industrial sector. Of various optional policies toward the prevention of global warming, the Kyoto mechanism not only has an economical merit of the use of low cost option but can be fairly promising from an environmental viewpoint of internationally controlling the greenhouse effect gas emission, if the characteristic of practically using the market can be so designed that it fulfills its function. (NEDO)

  17. FY 2000 report on the investigation of environmental effects in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho - No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, survey was conducted to grasp effects of drilling for structural boring in the geothermal survey on the peripheral environment. In the survey of animals, there were 5 orders/10 families/19 species of mammals and 10 orders/25 families/73 species of birds. Three kinds of precious animals were confirmed. There were 132 families/6,670 species in the flora. Three kinds of precious plants and three kinds of precious floras were confirmed. During the survey, drilling for structural boring was conducted. At three spas for survey, there were recognized some survey items of which there were great fluctuations. However, those are seasonal valuations or valuations related to the situation of the inside of hot springs. It is not recognized that the fluctuations were caused by the drilling work and pumping-up of geothermal water. The noise made during the well drilling was reduced around the well as theoretical values indicated. At a spot 200m away from the well, the noise was reduced from the environmental standard, and accordingly, it seems that there are few effects on the peripheral environment. The vibration was reduced around the well more than theoretical values indicated. That was below the control level at a spot 25m away from the well, and it seems that there are few effects on the peripheral environment. (NEDO)

  18. Fiscal 1998 research report on the basic study on the effect of microgravity on living individuals; Bisho juryoku no seibutsu kotai ni taisuru eikyo no kiso kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to clarify the effect of microgravity on vital functions and organisms at a cell level, this research studies the molecular biological response function of higher animals, the gravity acceptable mechanism of single-cell organisms, the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects, measurement of monoamine system neurotransmitters of rat hippocampus by dialysis in a brain and the effect of microgravity on it, the effect of microgravity on water and bone metabolism functions and immunity function, and the analysis of BZ reaction as a simple model of vital reaction. The themes of the research are as follows: the effect of microgravity environment on cell fusion, the analysis of gravity acceptable mechanisms of single-cell organisms, the effect of oriental medical treatment on bone metabolism anomaly of mouses under microgravity environment, the effect of oriental medical treatment on change in physiological function under microgravity environment, the effect of microgravity environment on immunity systems, the effect of gravity on cell activities, the effect of a gravity field on chemical oscillation reaction, and the effect of gravity on geotaxis of insects. (NEDO)

  19. Effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system applied to grey water treatment. kenkiter dot koki roshoho no shori seino ni oyobosu ryuryo hendo oyobi kendaku busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, T; Sagehashi, M; Otsuka, N; Okada, M; Murakami, A [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-10

    In this study, effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids (SS) on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system were investigated through the laboratory test using synthetic wastewater and the field test using grey water. Effects of flow variation scarcely appeared on the time change of effluent quality in both cases where daily average hydraulic retention time (HRT) in anaerobic filter was 20h and that of aerobic filter was 6.7h. In the field test, however, removal rate of organic substances was lower (20-30%) than that of the laboratory test (90%), since SS content in grey water accumulated in the anaerobic filter which led dissolution of organic substances from accumulated SS, blocking, and short-circuit flow. Moreover, it was confirmed by the batch test that constituent of grey water has lower resolution for microorganisms and is more difficult to nitrate than synthetic waste water. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Effects of sand compaction pile (SCP) driving on the strength of clay outside the improved area; Sand compaction pile no dasetsu ga jiban kairyo ikigai no nendo jiban no kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, H. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan); Takahashi, S. [Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, K. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitayama, N. [Fukken Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-06-21

    This paper describes effects of the disturbance by the sand compaction pile (SCP) driving operations on the shear strength of clay outside the improved area and the border of region affected by the SCP driving. About 1,400 soil specimens were taken before and after the SCP driving inside and outside the improved area during the foundation improvement at Tokuyama-Shimomatsu Port in Yamaguchi Prefecture. Soil test data of the specimens and strength characteristics of disturbed clay specimens were investigated through the laboratory experiments. The results obtained are as follows. According to the multi-directional simple shear test results, the shear strength immediately after the cyclic shear decreased in 10 to 30% compared with that before the cyclic shear. When recompaction was conducted before the cyclic shear, however, it increased in 50% compared with that before the cyclic shear. The strength of clay decreased by the SCP driving even outside the improved area. When the internal frictional angle of clay, friction coefficient of the improved boundary and driving depth of SCP were determined, it was possible to estimate an area affected by the SCP driving using a combined sliding plane. 21 refs., 18 figs.

  1. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  2. Effects of short fiber reinforcement and mean stress on tensile fatigue strength characteristics of polyethersulfone; Tansen`i kyoka porieterusaruhon no hippari hiro tokusei ni oyobosu heikin oryoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furue, H.; Nonaka, K. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-01-15

    Thermoplastics are often reinforced with short fibers with aims of improvement of their strengths, rigidities and hardness or maintenance of their dimensional stabilities. Such short fiber reinforced plastic materials have more expectation for high performance plastics. Authors already examined of some effects of reinforced fiber and of orientation in injection molding on flexural fatigue characteristics of the injection-molded high performance thermoplastic materials. However, the examination of short fiber reinforced effects on fatigue strength characteristics was not always sufficient. In this study, in order to obtain a guiding principle for fatigue resistant design of the short fiber reinforced injection molding materials, polyethersulfones (PES) was examined on its tensile fatigue strength and an effect of short fiber reinforcement for improvement of its fundamental dynamic properties on its fatigue characteristics. Especially, its fatigue life characteristics was elucidated mainly on relationship of mean stress, stress amplitude and number of repeating fracture in tensile fatigue behavior. 10 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area and hydraulic loading on the treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter. Sesshoku bakkiho no shori koritsu ni taisuru kishitsu nodo, hihyo menseki oyobi suiryo fuka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyo, T; Ono, S; Yoshino, T [Kitasato University, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Science

    1991-06-10

    Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading, which are major factors influencing treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter, were analyzed through the test with a special apparatus. In the test, the wall of the submerged biological filter was regarded as the contact material, and the specific surface area was changed by adjusting the sectional form of the filter. Using specimens from actual plant reservoirs, treatment efficiency for each case of three kinds of substrate concentration and hydraulic loading was measured. BOD removal rate was lower with smaller specific surface area. It was conspicuous particularly with higher BOD concentration in influent water. After the multiple regression analysis of the test results, the multiple regression equation to estimate BOD residual rate from three variates such as BOD concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading was obtained. When 200mg l as BOD concentration and 50m{sup 2} m{sup {minus}3} as specific surface area were applied in this equation, the result almost agreed with the tendency obtained from data of actual plants. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Survey on acceleration of geothermal development in fiscal 1998. Report on survey for influence on environment (No. B-7, Kuwanosawa district); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa.Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    A survey was performed on the current situation in the Kuwanosawa district in Akita Prefecture to identify influence on the surrounding environment due to drilling of geothermal structure testing wells. The survey on animals covered mammals of five divisions, 10 families and 19 species, Aves of ten divisions, 25 families and 73 species, reptiles of one division, 3 families and 6 species, Amphibia of two divisions, 6 families, 9 species, and Insects of 17 divisions, 179 families and 719 species. Precious animals of a several species including black salamander were identified. In the plant survey, 132 families and 670 species were identified, with several species listed as the precious plants. In the survey of hot springs, those at three locations were all high-temperature hot springs at as high as 53.8 to 96.9 degrees C. Amount of discharge, pH and electrical conductivity differ largely by the hot springs. The hot spring in Takamatsu did not show large variation throughout the survey period. The Ogura Inn at Doroyu Spa has small variation in pH and hot spring temperature, but large variation in the amount of discharge and Al{sup 3+} concentration. Correlation was recognized between hot spring temperature and amount of discharge, between hot spring temperature and anion, between amount of discharge and electric conductivity, and between amount of discharge and anion. (NEDO)

  6. Numerical simulation of growth of flames formed in two-dimensional mixing layer. 2nd Report. Effect of dilution of fuel; Nijigen kongo sonai ni keiseisareta kaen no seicho ni kansuru suchi simulation. 2. Nenryo no kishaku ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, S [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Hashimoto, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Nakajima, T [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-07-25

    The effect of fuel dilution on growth of flames formed in 2-D mixing layers was studied by numerical simulation. The methane mass fraction of fuel was adjusted to 1.0, 0.3 and 0.2 through dilution by nitrogen, while the oxygen mass fraction of an oxidizer was fixed at 0.27. Flame structure was complicated due to the flows separated by flame at the leading edge of flames, and three peaks of the second Damkohler number were observed. Fuel dilution by nitrogen caused blow-off of flames, and the mixing ratio of the fuel and oxidizer at the leading edge of flames was essential to blow-off of diffused flames. In the case where vortices were observed in a flow field, the first Damkohler number was important which was determined by the hydrodynamic characteristic time of coherent vortices and the chemical characteristic time of flame propagation based on the mixing ratio of the fuel and oxidizer at the leading edge of flames. The diffused flames were elongated by shearing force, and an exothermic reaction was suppressed and a flame stabilization decreased with a decrease in second Damkohler number. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Stability of diffusion flame formed in a laminar flat plate boundary layer. Effect of fuel dilution; Soryu heiban kyokai sonai ni keiseisareru kakusan kaen no anteisei. Nenryo kishaku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Ueda, T; Mizumoto, M [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Amari, T [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-25

    A stability limit of the diffusion flame with fuel injection from a porous wall in a laminar flat plate boundary layer is measured as functions of fuel (CH4) concentration of CH4/N2 injectant mixture ({chi}) and its injection velocity (v). The free stream velocity (U{infinity}) is set as 0.6 m/s. The thermal condition at the wall is controlled by setting temperature at the upstream end of the porous wall as a reference temperature. When v >20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the separation of leading flame edge with decreasing {chi}. The value of {chi} at the stability limit is constant without regard to v as long as the wall temperature is kept constant. As the wall temperature is decreased the value of {chi} increases. The separation is supposed to take place as a result of the limit of the reaction rate. When v <20 mm/s, the flame becomes unstable with the oscillation. The value of {chi} at the stability limit increases drastically with decreasing v. The oscillation takes place mainly due to the repeat of the extinction due to heat loss to the wall and the flame propagation in the combustible layer. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Analysis of transient thermal behaviors during the charging process in stratified heat storage tanks. 2nd Report. Effects of characteristic parameters; Seiso chikunetsu sonai deno juten katei no kato netsuteki kyodo ni kansuru kaiseki. 2. Tokusei inshi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, H; Hong, H; Pak, E

    1997-11-25

    The mixing effect deteriorates performance in a stratified heat storage tank. In the present study, the effect of characteristic factors during the charging process was analyzed, based on the analytical solution in the previous study in which a strict boundary condition was applied and a mixing effect was included. Also, the usefulness of the solution was verified and the method of application to a real system was examined by comparing it to other experimental results. It was concluded that the depth of the perfectly mixed region is dominant unless the Peclet number is very small. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Effect of volume change of coal during plastic and resolidifying phase on the internal gas pressure in coke ovens; Sekitan nanka saikoka katei ni okeru taiseki henka ga cokes ro no nanka yoyu sonai gas atsu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S; Arima, T [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    The coking pressure in coke oven, which is caused by the internal gas pressure in the coal plastic layer, is determined by the gas permeability of the layer. The gas permeability of the plastic layer depends on its density as well as the physical property of the plastic coal itself The plastic layer is between the coke layer and the coal layer and the effect of the volume change of these outer layers, i.e. contraction and compression, on the density and the internal gas pressure of the plastic layer was studied. Sandwich carbonization test, where different coals were charged in the test coke oven, showed that the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer depends not only on the one kind of coal in plastic phase but also on the other kind of coal in resolidifying phase near the oven walls. The relative volume of coke transformed from the unit volume of coal was measured using X-ray CT scanner and it varied greatly across the coke oven width depending on the kinds of coals. The volume change of coal during plastic and resolidifying phase affects the density and the internal gas pressure of the plastic layer The relative volume of semicoke and coke transformed from the unit volume of coal near the oven walls is higher for a high coking pressure coal than that for a low coking pressure coal. This leads to the high density of the plastic layer and the generation of dangerously high internal gas pressure in the oven centre. (author)

  10. Effect of pore water pressure on P-wave velocity in water-filled sands with partial air saturation; Fukanzen howa jotai no suna shiryo wo denpasuru P ha sokudo ni oyobosu kangeki suiatsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanema, T [Chishitsu-Keisoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to elucidate change in velocity of elastic waves in association with water pressure increase in a sand bed below the groundwater level in a shallow portion of the ground, a measurement experiment was carried out on P-wave velocity in sand samples with partial air saturation. The experiment has used fine sand having an equivalent coefficient of 2.40, a soil particle density of 2.68 g/cm {sup 3} or 60%, and a grain size of 0.36 mm. Inside the water-filled sand sample, two accelerometers were embedded 20 cm apart from each other as vibration receivers. An electromagnetic hammer for P-wave was used as the vibration source. In the experiment, measurement was carried out on the P-wave velocity in association with increase in pore water pressure by applying water pressure afresh to the water-filled sample. As a result of the experiment, the following matters were disclosed: the P-wave velocity increases as the pore water pressure was increased, and a phenomenon was recognized that the dominant frequency changes into high frequency; the degree of increase in the P-wave velocity varies depending on initial saturation of the sample; and bubbles in the pore fluid have their volume decreased due to compression resulted from increased pore water pressure and dissolution of air into the pore water. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  11. CFD prediction of heat island formation on growing Asian cities. Effect of urbanization in Shanghai; Kyodaikasuru Asia no toshi ni okeru heat island keisei ni kansuru CFD yosoku. Shanghai no toshika ga oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojima, T.; Murakami, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Mitsumoto, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Study is conducted of the effect of change in land use and increase in artificial exhaust heat on heat island formation in Shanghai. Concerning the land use distribution in Shanghai, a point sampling survey was conducted in the 1930s using topographic charts, when the area was broken down into building-occupied region, paddy field, bare ground, and waters. In the 1990s, thanks to data from satellites, high-density and low-density urban regions have added. Calculation for Shanghai is performed, based on the rate of increase in Tokyo`s population and data predicted for Shanghai`s population, on the assumption that Shanghai`s population in the 2050s will grow 2.3 times larger than it is in the 1990s. The prediction thus produced indicates that the urban area in Shanghai in the 2050s will be as large as that of the present-day Tokyo that covers a 50km zone. Heat island formation prediction for Shanghai is worked out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-aided simulation. According to the prediction, while the maximum temperature in the 1930s was 29.6degC or 4degC higher than in the suburbs, it is 33.2degC or 7.6deg higher in the 1990s, and will be 34.4degC or 8.6degC higher in the 2050s. 16 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Few studies of the effect of diluents on extraction of cobalt with D2EHPA. D2EHPA ni yoru Co no chushutsu ni ataeru kishakuzai no eikyo ni kansuru jakkan no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranae, M.; Nakataka, Y.; Wakamatsu, T. (Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Saito, I.; Sakamoto, H. (Environment Research Inst. Resources Technical Tsukuba (Japan))

    1991-12-27

    Study was made on extraction of cobalt from weak acid solution with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) using various polar diluents such as benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, n-heptane, cyclohexane and n-hepatne-benzene mixtures. Extraction efficiency of cobalt has decreased in the order, n-heptane > cyclohexane > m-xylene > o-xylene > toluene > benzene and this order has been in good agreement with the decreasing order of solubility parameters of diluents,and has shown the possibility of application of regular solution theory. When n-heptane and cyclohexane as diluents, in low loading ratio(L),were used Co-D2EHPA polymer were formed compared to other diluents. On the other hand when mixture of n-heptane/benzene was used as diluent, the efficiency of extraction, salting-out effect and formation of Co-D2EHPA polymer has changed with the texture of mixture.This change may be due to the effect of L and it has been thought for the necessity of investigation of extraction of cobalt in low polar diluents. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Research report for fiscal 1998. Survey on the researchers and research institutes for the effects of global warming and its countermeasures; 1998 nendo onshitsu koka gas ni yoru kankyo eikyo nado ni kansuru kenkyusha kenkyu kikan chosa chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Researchers and research institutes across the world (except those in Japan), engaged in the study of global warming and measures to deal with the phenomenon, are extracted in compliance with certain specified standards, and the latest information on them is appropriately arranged and listed. It is further developed into an electronic database for the convenience of users. The collected information includes more than 230 research institutes and more than 1,000 researchers. The endeavor is exerted by extracting essays and institutes mainly out of the on-line databases. More than 1,000 essays and 130 institutes are covered. Visits are made to five institutes in the U.S. and four in Europe who are most actively engaged in the study of global warming, and detailed researches are conducted and information is exchanged. The Argonne National Institute copes with all energy problems related to global warming. Descriptions are given about environmental impact surveys and CO2 isolation in the ocean at the Center for Global Science of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the visitors heard explanations of technologies related to renewable energies and so forth. Researches are made into ecosystems at the University of California, and into natural energies at the University of Hawaii. Also visited are research institutes in Australia, Germany, Netherlands, and Britain. (NEDO)

  14. Investigations in fiscal 1983 on promotion of geothermal development. Part 1. Report on investigation of fumarolic environmental effects in Oku-Aizu area; 1983 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. 1. Okuaizu chiiki funkichu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    As part of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development, surveys have been carried out in the Oku-Aizu area to identify the existence and/or extent of effects of collecting geothermal fluids above the ground imposed on the environment, such as the natural ecological system. The investigated area is an area of 60 km{sup 2} covering Kawanuma County and Onuma County in Fukushima Prefecture, a mountainous area with undulations. The investigation result may be summarized as follows: the area shows the inland climate and has snow fall as much as 2 m in winter; according to the H2S diffusion prediction, the concentration thereof on the land in seasonal average is 0.7 ppm at maximum, which is a value presenting no problems. No fumarolic effects of SO2 were identified, and floating dust and Hg showed values that present no problems. With regard to water quality during and after the blowout test, no effects of blowout return were identified. The noise level was 41 to 45 phones at a place 100 m distant, and the vibration level has become the lower detection limit at a place 50 m distant. Leveling has discovered no ground movement. No variation in major constituents in thermal spring water was verified before and after the blowout test. (NEDO)

  15. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structures. 2nd Report. Effect of the water depth and the drift forces; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu chosei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Senkai eikyo to hyoryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, H; Miyajima, S [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K; Ikoma, T [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1997-12-31

    Steady-state drift force in regular waves is theoretically analyzed. It is also studied under combined external force experimentally using a two-dimensional water tank. The fluid forces are analyzed by the pressure distribution method based on the potential theory, in which the effects of water depth are taken into account to discuss the effects of elastic deformation of the floating structure on the drift characteristics of steady-state waves. The tests were carried out using a wave-making circulating water tank equipped with a wind duct to create wind, waves and tidal flow. Drift force under a combined external force by wind, wave and/or tidal flow cannot be accurately predicted by arithmetically adding these components. For predicting drift force by tidal flow, it is necessary to take into account drag force in current at the floating structure bottom as well as that in wind at the front face. Drift force by tidal flow is affected by shallowness of water, which should be taken into account for drag forces. The floating structure will be deformed along the wave face as its stiffness decreases, basically decreasing steady-state drift force. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Study of the oil flow and the bearing temperature in engine. Part 3. Influence of the bearing designs; Engine ni okeru jikuuke yuryo oyobi jikuuke ondo ni kansuru ichikosatsu. 3. Jikuuke sekkei yoso no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, K; Kawai, K; Sasaki, S [Taiho Kogyo Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    It is necessary to find the bearing design so that the bearing temperature drops most efficiently by making the proper oil flow. We measured the oil flow and the bearing temperature using the narrow width bearing the bearing with small oil relief , the bearing with shallow circumferential microgrooves (the microgrooved bearing), the narrow width bearing with microgrooves. And further, we measured the variation of the oil flow every 5-15deg crank angle and searched for the efficient oil flow. As the result the bearing temperature using the microgrooved bearing dropped most efficiently. 3 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Emission characteristics of premixed lean diesel combustion. Effects of injection nozzle and combustion chamber shape on combustion and emission characteristics; Kihaku yokongo diesel nensho no haishutsubutsu tokusei. Funmu keijo oyobi nenshoshitsu keijo ga haishutsu gas tokusei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, A; Sasaki, S; Miyamoto, T; Akagawa, H; Tsujimura, K

    1997-10-01

    Many articles about low NOx emission combustion are reported. A mixture formation is necessary to success low NOx emission combustion. But, there is few reports about the effect of nozzle and combustion shape on emissions which give influence on mixture. In this paper, the effects on characteristic of combustion and emissions of some land of injection nozzle and combustion chamber shape were investigated. As a result, it was cleared that the influence of combustion chamber shape on characteristic of combustion and emissions was varied by spray shape, and pintle type injection nozzle was suitable for PREDIC. 7 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in total knee arthroplasty; Jinko kansetsu okikaeji no one cement no hatsunetsu ga seitai soshiki ni oyobosu eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M.; Uchida, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Iwatsubo, T. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kurosawa, M.; Hashimoto, Y. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Fukushima, H.

    1998-01-25

    Bone cement is often applied to fix the components in a surgical operation, such as TKA (total knee arthroplasty). In this paper, we consider the effect of heat generation from bone cement on bone tissue in TKA by using numerical simulation. First, we applied an axisymmetric model of tibia to finite element method and analyzed heat generation of bone cement. To confirm the results of analysis by experiment, we measured the temperature determined by 6 points i.e., 2 points each in component-cement interface, cement and bone-cement interface. As a result, the temperature determined by analysis agrees with that determined by experiment. Next, we proposed the evaluation formula of the bone necrosis. We constructed a bone necrosis map from the simulation. From the map, we found that the bone necrosis region was about 2 mm from the bone-cement interface. In addition, the bone necrosis is severe at the base of the tibial component. 7 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Effect of heat transfer in cylinder on air quantity of 4-stroke cycle gasoline engine; 4 Stroke gasoline engine no kyunyu shinkiryo ni oyobosu cylinder nai dennetsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M.; Oguri, Y.; Suzuki, T. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-01-25

    Many papers concerning air quantity of 4-stroke cycle gasoline engine have been published. It has been reported in these papers that heat transfer in surface of cylinder and inlet port gives big influence to the air quantity. But it has not been clear which influence of heat transfer in cylinder and inlet port is strong. So the authors derived a function of the air quantity thermodynamically considering heat transfer, and examined which of influence of heat transfer was strong. The results show ; (1) The influence of heat transfer in cylinder is small (about 1%) at full load, and is also small (about 5%) at light load. (2) Heat transfer in cylinder almost increases the air quantity. (3) The influence of heat transfer in inlet port decreases the air quantity with around 30% greatly. (author)

  20. Influence of fragmentation of substrate on synergistic effect in hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose with cellulases; Seruraze niyoru kessho serurosu bunkaikatei deno sojokoka ni oyobosu kishitsu no danpenka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.; Morita, M.; Mitsui, R. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2000-05-10

    The expression mechanism of synergistic effect is investigated by using two cellulase components obtained from Meicelase CEP-6000 by purification. Purified cellulose components are classified into two types. One, tentatively named CMCase-type (FIE and FIIIE), has relatively low values of the ratio of MCC hydrolysis to CMC hydrolysis, and considerably high values of the ratio of K{sub m} for MCC and CMC. The other, tentatively named MCCase-type (FIIE and FIVE), has largely different values about those properties. In the case of MCC hydrolysis with FIVE alone, the particle diameter of MCC decreases (fragmentation) and the particle number of MCC increased rapidly in the early stage of reaction, and both decrease gradually in the late stage of reaction. In the case of a mixture of the above two components is for an increase in amounts of reaction site in the substrate for FIIIE, dependent on fragmentation of MCC by FIVE, and the activity of FIVE is stimulated by FIIIE. In the case of the mixture of FIE and FIIIE, the synergistic effect is not expressed. This finding suggests that these two components do not have the activity of fragmentation of MCC. (author)

  1. Reduction of artificial source effect in the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in the Hanshin region; Hanshin chiiki no komitsudo kuchu jiki tansa ni okeru jinko noise source no eikyo no jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsuka, T; Makino, M; Morijiri, R; Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in December 1995 on areas from Kobe City to Kyoto City in relation to the Hyogoken-nanbu Earthquake in 1995. It was found in the survey that effects of electric trains driven by direct current and man-made structures cannot be avoided, working as a large noise factor in extraction and analysis of geological information. This paper describes a quantitative analysis on magnetic anomaly suspected to have been caused from artificial sources seen in the magnetic map of the Hanshin area obtained from the above exploration data. The paper also gives considerations on methods to remove the effects therefrom. It then describes a quantitative analysis and the result of attempts on removal of the anomaly, taking up the following factors: (1) distribution of specific and remarkable magnetic anomalies which correspond to railroad positions of the Hanshin Railways running through the Nishinomiya-Toyonaka area, (2) the magnetic anomaly trend in positive and negative pair seen in the seafront area of Kobe City, and (3) typical bipolar isolated type magnetic anomaly in the north-west part of Kobe City. The cause for (1) was loop current flown for the railway operation, that for (2) was man-made structures in the improved seafront area, and that for (3) was a provisionally built metal waste storage yard. 9 figs.

  2. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on survey of introduction of techniques for predicting impact on hot springs; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Onsen eikyo yosoku shuho donyu chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    In an effort to find guidelines on how to proceed with geothermal energy development so that it may coexist with hot springs, investigations are conducted into cases of impacts on hot springs imposed by geothermal energy development activities. An impact is judged to exist when geothermal development results in a decrease or depletion of pumped or spontaneously welling hot spring water, change in the concentration of dissolved chemical ingredients, fall in water temperature, or in an increase in the amount of discharged steam. Keyword-aided retrieval of data from databases is performed, and geothermal magazines are referred to for information. There are articles reporting impacts imposed by geothermal development on hot springs in the Palinpinon area (Philippines) and 12 others and in the Corwin Springs area (U.S.) and 13 others. These articles carrying outlines and impacts of geothermal development are collected, put in order, and analyzed. Cases in which such impacts are found to exist are categorized into four groups and, in each group, episodes are differentiated from each other by the type of mechanism linking the aquifer and the reservoir which is the object of development. (NEDO)

  3. Local approach to brittle fracture under residual stress field. Assessment of pre-loading effect; Local approach no tekiyo ni yoru zanryu oryoku wo motsu buzai no zeisei hakai kyodo hyoka. Yokaju no eikyo no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Sakano, K.; Onozuka, M. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Minami, F. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on brittle fracture was investigated on the basis of the Local Approach. Compressive residual stress was introduced by pre-loading and the subsequent fracture test conducted with a 780 MPa class steel. Preloading apparently increased the critical load and critical CTOD at the onset of brittle fracture initiation. The Weibull stress criterion was used to evaluate the brittle fracture resistance of the pre-loaded specimen. The critical Weibull stress is a material property independent of test conditions with and without pre-loading. Using the Weibull stress criterion, the critical CTOD of the pre-loaded specimen can be predicted from test results of the specimen without pre-loading. (author)

  4. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structures. 2nd Report. Effect of the water depth and the drift forces; Pontoon gata choogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no harochu chosei oto ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Senkai eikyo to hyoryuryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, H.; Miyajima, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Masuda, K.; Ikoma, T. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    Steady-state drift force in regular waves is theoretically analyzed. It is also studied under combined external force experimentally using a two-dimensional water tank. The fluid forces are analyzed by the pressure distribution method based on the potential theory, in which the effects of water depth are taken into account to discuss the effects of elastic deformation of the floating structure on the drift characteristics of steady-state waves. The tests were carried out using a wave-making circulating water tank equipped with a wind duct to create wind, waves and tidal flow. Drift force under a combined external force by wind, wave and/or tidal flow cannot be accurately predicted by arithmetically adding these components. For predicting drift force by tidal flow, it is necessary to take into account drag force in current at the floating structure bottom as well as that in wind at the front face. Drift force by tidal flow is affected by shallowness of water, which should be taken into account for drag forces. The floating structure will be deformed along the wave face as its stiffness decreases, basically decreasing steady-state drift force. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Assessment of effects of maturity of Japan`s economy and society and improvement in automotive fuel consumption on demand for automotive fuels; Nippon keizai shakai no seijukuka to nenpi kaizen ga jidoshayo nenryo juyo ni ataeru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper evaluates impacts of the maturity of Japan`s economy and society and the improvement in automotive fuel efficiency on the demand for automotive fuels by FY 2010. Standard case and lower order case were examined. When the traffic volume of passenger cars in FY 1995 is assumed to be 100, it become 121 and 119 in standard and lower order cases, respectively. The traffic volume of lorries become 106 and 102 in standard and lower order cases, respectively, which showed a rather small growth. Deterioration rate of the fuel consumption was estimated by considering the difference in fuel consumption of new cars and existing cars. Although the fuel consumption will be lowered by FY 2000 when the cassation rate of ordinary passenger cars will rapidly increase, the impact will be lowered after that. For lorries for commercial use, the running fuel consumption will be gradually lowered due to the increased carrying capacity and vehicle weight a lorry with improving the transportation efficiency. Decreased running speed by traffic jam is also a cause of the deterioration of fuel consumption. When a policy of improvement in the fuel consumption is promoted in a background of CO2 issues, the fuel consumption of each vehicle will be gradually improved. The peak of fuel demand will be in FY 2005 by considering the changes in economical and social structures and the improvement in fuel consumption for the environmental protection. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Improvement of the material with the hard pressure for high fireplace. Koroyo koshitsu atsunyuzai no kaizen. (2) Ataunyuzai no bussei ni ataeru kotsuzai [center dot] ekitai bainda no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R. (Harima Ceramics Corp., Hyogo (Japan))

    1999-02-01

    It had already been reported, and the damage factor of the material with the pressure was investigated from the core boring sample with an opportunity this time, and improvement was done about the kind of the bone material, the liquid binder as for the material with the pressure of the phenol plastic base and that system. The reduction of the amount of binder became possible by using a thick bone material, and the ones for the volatilization decreased by adding the plastic of the high concentration again, and the appearance pore rates of the material with the pressure decreased and worked for high strength performance as a result. This high strength performance is thought to be effective against the decrease of the mechanical abrasion to the thing with high fireplace, which is the damage cause of the material with the pressure. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Improvement of the material with the hard pressure for high fireplace; Koroyo koshitsu atsunyuzai no kaizen. (2) Ataunyuzai no bussei ni ataeru kotsuzai {center_dot} ekitai bainda no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R. [Harima Ceramics Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    It had already been reported, and the damage factor of the material with the pressure was investigated from the core boring sample with an opportunity this time, and improvement was done about the kind of the bone material, the liquid binder as for the material with the pressure of the phenol plastic base and that system. The reduction of the amount of binder became possible by using a thick bone material, and the ones for the volatilization decreased by adding the plastic of the high concentration again, and the appearance pore rates of the material with the pressure decreased and worked for high strength performance as a result. This high strength performance is thought to be effective against the decrease of the mechanical abrasion to the thing with high fireplace, which is the damage cause of the material with the pressure. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Study on initial stage of diesel spray formation. Effects of the condition inside the nozzle sac; Diesel funmu no shoki keisei katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sac nai nenryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, N.; Tsujimura, K. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Komori, M.

    1996-06-25

    To realize clean diesel exhaust, it is very important to clarify the atomization phenomena of the fuel spray. In this study, the initial stage of the atomization process of a diesel injection fuel spray was analyzed with a high-speed image converter camera under the conditions of atmospheric gas pressure and room temperature. As a result, it was found that the initial spray formation was greatly affected lay the condition inside the nozzle sac. In the case in which fuel existed in the sac, pin-like structure spray formation was observed at the initial injection stage. This phenomenon was not observed in the case in which no fuel was present in the sac, and a widely spread fuel spray formation was observed at the initial injection stage. The relatively low-speed fuel spray injected in the initial low-sac-pressure condition was pushed away by the subsequent fuel spray injected in the high-sac-pressure condition. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Surface flaw detection by means of infrared radiometer. Part 3. ; Detection limit influenced by an environment temperature. Sekigai hoshakei ni yoru hyomen kekkan no kenshutsu. 3. ; Shuhen ondo ni yoru kenshutsu genkai no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, U; Kaminaga, F [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ishii, T [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan); Eto, M; Ooka, N; Kanaya, K; Eto, Y [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Kurokawa, T [Nippon Denki Sanei Ltd. Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1990-12-20

    Measuring a radiation energy distribution around surface flaw by means of a infrared rediometer can detect fine flaw on the surface. The characteristics were examined using a light quantum type radiation thermometer consisted of Hg-Cd-Te as a sensor. A surrounding wall consisted of a black body wall was installed between the sensor and test piece, and by thus maintaining the surrounding wall temperature constant, reflection energy from the test piece surface was maintained constant for stabilized measurement. The measurement values are the sum of energies from emission and reflection, or the so-called radiosity values. To avoid effects from the reflection to reduce variance in the emissivity, it is necessary to keep the surrounding wall temperatures lower by more than 20 {degree}C than the test piece radiation temperatures. Emissivity can be calculated from the rediositivity (sum of the radiation and the reflection), the surrounding wall temperatures, and the test piece radiation temperatures. If the surface is rough, variance in the measurements increases. The larger the difference in the test piece and surrounding wall temperatures, the thermo image of the defects on the test piece surface becomes more distinctive, thus the detection limit can be enhanced. 7 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of effects of enhancement of energy consumption efficiency on the global environment; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka chikyu kankyo eikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper surveyed the state of studying the measures against global warming in the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and made analyses of the trends of preventive measures for global warming in other countries, aiming at presenting data for studying the future enhancement of energy consumption efficiency in the Asia Pacific region. In the U.S., a report was taken up from Executive Office of the President which is entitled `the federal government R and D of energy for solution to problems in the 21st century.` The report made analyses of the federal government R and D of energy and at the same time recommended an increase in R and D budget and reinforcement of the organization of the Department of Energy. In Europe, the carbon tax, CO2 tax, energy tax, etc. are introduced or studied for reduction of CO2 emissions. OECD made public a report approved in May 1997 which is entitled `the environmental tax and green tax reform.` Also studied were the introduction and effects of the carbon tax aiming at reducing CO2 emissions in developing countries. More attention is being paid to economic effects predicted in case developed countries reinforce various kinds of measures for targeted reduction of greenhouse gases. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Effect of insolation forecasting error on reduction of electricity charges for solar hot water system; Taiyonetsu kyuto system no denki ryokin sakugen koka ni oyobosu nissharyo yosoku gosa no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A solar hot water system can be economically operated if inexpensive midnight power is purchased to cover the shortage of solar energy predicted for the following day. Investigations were conducted because error in insolation prediction affects the system operation and electric charge reduction effect. The target temperature of the heat accumulation tank at every predetermined time point is calculated on the previous evening in consideration of predicted insolation so that the water will be as hot as prescribed at the feeding time on the following day. Midnight power is used for uniform heating to attain the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning. The uniform heating continues from 8 o`clock to the feeding time, this time using solar energy and daytime power to attain the target temperature. Accordingly, the division between the midnight power and daytime power is determined in view of the target temperature for 7 o`clock on the following morning, which target temperature is so set that the charge will be the minimum by optimizing the allocation of the above-said two. When the insolation prediction error rate is beyond 30%, the electric charge grows higher as the rate rises. But, when the rate is not higher than 30%, the charge is little affected by a rise in the rate. 5 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. FY 1990 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of environmental effects before jetting (No.34 - Kaminoyu/Santai area); 1990 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. No.34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki - Funki zen kankyo eikyo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    For the evaluation of effects of geothermal development on the peripheral environment in the Kaminoyu/Santai area in the southwest part of Hokkaido, survey of the present situation of the environment was made. As a result of the survey, as to the climate of this area, the mean temperature, precipitation, etc. were almost the same as those of the nearest meteorological office of Hakodate, and the wind velocity was lower. Concerning the air, the mean concentration of H{sub 2}S was 0.8-3.6 ppb, SO2 was less than the detectable limiting value, Hg was 0.018-0.12 {mu}g/m{sup 3}N in average, and suspended particulate was 0.014-0.028 mg/m{sup 3}. Each of them satisfied the environmental criteria and the control level. The water quality satisfied the AA type criteria at every point of the river surveyed. The noise/vibration at the time of well drilling were 47-50dB at 10m measuring point and less than the lower limit of measuring at measuring points farther than 50m measuring point/100m measuring point. Every hot spring was drilled and spontaneously welling, and variations in spring temperature/welling amount were comparatively small. Micro earthquakes of 495 were observed in 47 days in total. Besides, survey was made of animals, plants, soils, scenery, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Effect of metal ion species on mechanical relaxation of ethylene-co-methacrylic acid based ionomers; Ethylene-metakuriru san ionomer no rikigaku kanwa ni oyobosu kinzoku ion shu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, X; Araki, O; Takigawa, T; Masuda, T [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Takahashi, M [Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-12-15

    Dynamic viscoelasticity of ethylene-co-methacrylic acid (EMAA) based ionomers containing Zn or Na as well as EMAA was investigated. The film samples used for viscoelasticity measurements were molded at 195{degree}C. Two kinds of specimens, quenched and slowly cooled samples after molding, were prepared for each polymer specimen. For the quenched samples, the effect of aging on dynamic viscoelasticity was also examined. The temperature dispersion curves of dynamic storage modulus (E{prime}) of the ionomers obtained by quenching showed a large decrease around 35{degree}C due to the glass transition of EMAA ionomers. The ionomers prepared by slow cooling showed a high value of E{prime} in the high temperature region, compared with the quenched samples. This may be due to the difference in the degree of ionic cluster formation in the ionomers. The values of E{prime} at low temperatures increased with aging time for the quenched samples, which originates from the equilibration of the glassy state by aging. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Influence on driver fatigue of vertical vibrations over long distances. Assessment in terms of stress hormones; Driver no unten hiro ni okeru joge shindo no eikyo. Stress hormone wo shiyo to shite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, T.; Inagaki, H. [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    Driving tests are conducted to obtain some indexes that describe the cumulative effect of the sense of tiredness. The heart rate, Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, urinary adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol in saliva are tested. Adrenaline and Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia are ultimately named in view of their correlation with tiredness. It is believed that tiredness is attributable to two factors, which are increase in mental stress and decrease in vigilance. An excitation test is then conducted using a motion simulator. Upon application of 4Hz vibrations (equivalent to the chest section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases sharply, and then decreases sharply upon termination of excitation. Upon application of 1.6Hz vibrations (equivalent to the head section resonance frequency), adrenaline increases but not sharply, and the elevated level is sustained for some time after excitation. Driving tests are next conducted using a vehicle with its suspension fixed and another with 1-2Hz vibrations reduced. Rise in the adrenaline level is found inhibited aboard the latter. No difference is detected in terms of Mayer wave related sinus arrhythmia between the two vehicles. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Effects of types of work and visual environemnt on human pschology and behavior in an office space. Shikankyo ga shitsumusha no shinriter dot kodo ni oyobosu eikyo sagyo naiyo no chigai ni yoruhyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M [The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Inui, M., Nakamura, Y. (Tokyo Institute of technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-30

    In this paper, was investigared an effect of work and visual environment types on the psychology and behavior of workers in office spaces in terms of subjective appraisal, work performance, behavior pattern, etc. In order to make a such effect of visual environment clear, a series of factorial experiments were conducted. Window and interior decoration of pot plants and paintings were adopted as factors of the visual environment. A Krepelin addition, a Krepelin addition-subtraction and multiplication, a Krepelin machiene, a hand-written manoscript, a word-processed manuscript, and a mirror tracing were adopted as work types. The number of sobjects was five for each work type. Consequently, a significance of the effect of the window and interior decoration on workers was verified. It was also found that the presence of the window and interior decoration improved the work performance for the major types of perfomance test. Furthermore, it was revealed that the presence of the window ans interior decoration the behavior of subjects active. 11 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1998 research report on promotion of geothermal development. Environment impact research report (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-Dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    For extracting the areas to be conserved from the viewpoint of environment for the research on geothermal well drilling, the environment impact research was made on the protection and regulation states of animals and plants in Kunbetsu-Dake area. 46 species in 12 families of mammals were confirmed in/around the area by document survey, and among them 19 species in 10 families of mammals were important academically. 340 species in 55 families of birds were confirmed, and among them 79 species in 29 families of birds were important academically. 3 species in 3 families of amphibians, and 6 species in 4 families of reptiles were confirmed, and among them 1 species of amphibian was important. 873 species in 135 families of land insects were confirmed, and among them 20 species in 11 families were important. 1055 species in 115 families of plants were confirmed, and among them 126 species in 46 families were important. Most of vegetation was 9 or more in degree of naturalness. The peripheral area of Kaibetsu-Dake is the plant colony area specified by the 2nd basic survey on natural environmental conservation (Environment Agency). (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1998 survey for geothermal energy development promotion. Environmental impact survey report (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa region); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This survey aims to learn the current states of environmental factors required for the comprehension of the impacts on surroundings of a structural boring for geothermal energy exploration. The target site is an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area located among the mountains 20km south-south-east of Yuzawa City, Akita Prefecture. It is found that numerous animals and vegetables inhabit the Kuwanosawa region and its vicinity. They are 19 species of mammals in 10 families under 5 orders; 73 species of birds in 25 families under 10 orders; 6 species of reptiles in 13 families; 9 species of amphibians in 6 families under 2 orders; and 719 species of insects in 179 families under 17 orders. Valuable animals include flying squirrels, mandarin ducks, black salamanders, and small Gifu butterflies. There are 670 species of vegetables in 132 families. Valuable vegetables are Iinuma bulblets, wild rhubarb roots, and Amur adonises. Floras found in existence are a natural flora in the beech class area, compensatory flora in the beech class area, afforested area, and a flora in the crop land. No remarkable fluctuation was observed in the Takamatsu spa throughout the survey period. Fluctuations were observed in all the survey items at the Doroyu-Okuyama inn. (NEDO)

  18. Studies of an application of mobile communication system to the private telecommunication network. Part 2. Trend of mobile communication systems and application to power utility; Idotai tsushin system no denryoku tsushinmo eno tekiyo. 2. Idotai tsushin system no genjo to denki jigyo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents future prospects on development of different mobile communication systems operated by public communications operators, and discusses their application to power utilities. For automobile and cellular telephones, discussions are being made on the code division multiple access (CDMA) system which multiplexes and transmits information by using tally codes. Influence of noise decreases, and so does the need of retransmission due to code errors. Higher speed transmission than conventional systems may be expected. The system can be utilized for transmitting still images, such as for status of construction being carried out by power utility companies. For PHS, a discussion will start on 32 to 64-kbps transmission in fiscal 1997. By using the system together with an image compression technology, the system may be expected of utilization as a moving image transmission method for supporting site works by utility companies. The low and medium orbit satellite communications whose use is scheduled to start shortly can be utilized as construction and emergency disaster communication networks for mountainous areas and islands. Movements around the frequency band utilization and communication systems of IMT-2000 are becoming more complex. The Japanese proposal plans transmission of moving images, whereas more diverse utilization can be expected, such as for voice, data and images, in areas where no ground communication facilities are available for electric power operations. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Study of transmitting electric power utility communications in IP network. Transmission of existing electric power utility communications in best effort type IP network under delay constraint; Denryokuyo tsushin kaisen no IP mo eno shuyo kento. Chien jikan seiyakuka ni okeru best effort gata IP mo eno kison denryokuyo tsushin kaisen no shuyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, H.

    2000-07-01

    Since IP network does best effort behavior fundamentally, it always generates delay time and delay variation. For this reason, IP network has been unsuitable to transmit real time data such as a voice. However, in recent years, the technologies which transmit real time data in IP network, e.g. VoIP, have spread. If it is possible to transmit the existing electric power utility communications in IP network using these technologies, total network cost can be reduced by the reduction of required bandwidth and the simplification of communication network systems. In this report, it is examined quantitatively whether end-end delay time of the existing electric power utility communications, e.g. on-line, telephone, carrier relay, CDT (cyclic digital transmission equipment), video conference, ITV(industrial television), is within their permission delay time when they are transmitted in the best effort type IP network. (author)

  20. Resveratrol: A Multifunctional Compound Improving Endothelial Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huige; F?rstermann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The red wine polyphenol resveratrol boosts endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxations. The improvement of endothelial function by resveratrol is largely attributable to nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). By stimulating eNOS expression, eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS deacetylation, resveratrol enhances endothelial NO production. By upregulating antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and suppressing the expression a...

  1. Vliv konečné apertury na přenos výkonu super-gaussovských svazků - analýza s využitím VirtualLabu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stanke, Ladislav; Palatka, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, Jan (2017), s. 26-29 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : beam clipping * super-Gaussian beams * simulation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics)

  2. FY 1998 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. Development of woody ceramics and application to building parts; 1998 nendo woody ceramics no sosei to kenchiku buzai nado eno oyo seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for developing materials for, e.g., light, highly heat-insulating and energy-saving type building parts (e.g., roofing tiles and tiles), and light tableware having warmness of wood. The stock materials for china and porcelain, roofing tile clay, tiles and cement are dispersed with hollow microcapsules as the filler, which are of glassy balloons thermally treated to be highly functional, in order to develop superlight, highly heat insulating and high-strength materials. For development of the woody ceramic materials, the microcapsules are investigated for size, thickness, thermal shrinkage, fusibility, compressive stress, reinforcing mechanisms, and monodispersibility. Also investigated are optimization of material formability, development of commercial ceramics and evaluation of their marketability, decoration techniques, antimicrobial membrane materials and their immobilization techniques, development of antimicrobial ceramic tiles, evaluation of the antimicrobial membranes, evaluation of resistance to microwaves, and so on. The efforts are also directed to researches on fundamental techniques for woody tile clay, and R and D of the application techniques and products of the woody cement. (NEDO)

  3. Polimorfísmos genéticos de COX-1 y eNOS y hemorragias gastrointestinales: interacción con aire: Un estudio de casos y controles

    OpenAIRE

    Salado Valdivieso, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    La hemorragia gastrointestinal alta es un cuadro grave que está producido por medicamentos en un porcentaje elevado de los casos. Ciertos fármacos como los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos (AINE), los antiagregantes plaquetarios o los anticoagulantes orales, pueden dar lugar a una hemorragia que exija la hospitalización del paciente y, en ocasiones, provoque la muerte. Además de los fármacos, se han identificado otros factores que se asocian con la hemorragia gastrointestinal; entre ellos es...

  4. Application of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings to the base materials of the rotating disk in the centrifugal atomization process. Enshinryoku funmuho ni okeru kaiten enban eno ceramic yosha himaku no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T; Okimoto, K [Government Industrial Research Inst., Kyushu, Tosu, Saga (Japan); Yasutake, R [Koeiseiko Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1992-07-08

    Applicability of the ceramic coating on the rotating disk was studied. In regard to the synthesis of Cu-based rapidly solidified powders, centrifugal atomization with molten Cu-24.6Sn was carried out using rotating disks sprayed with four kinds of sprayed ceramic coatings. It was found that atomization of Al203-40%TiO2 sprayed coating has been the best, and the yield ratio has been about 60 %. The melt temperature in case of Fe-based rapidly solidified metal powders, has risen above 1600[degree]C, and the required conditions for rotating disk have been very difficult to meet. The reason for it is thought that there has also been limitations regarding the functions of the characteristics like heat transfer, heat capacity, etc. Fe-24Cr-5Ni-1Mo 2 phase stainless steel powder has shown the most suitable trend among the seven kinds of disk materials examined for ZrO2 ceramic sprayed coatings. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Research of the elastic waves generated by a pulse laser. Excitation mechanism of elastic waves and application to nondestructive testing; Pulse laser de reikishita danseiha ni kansuru kenkyu. Danseiha reiki no mechanism to hihakai kensa eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering

    1994-07-20

    A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Three-dimensional computer simulation at vehicle collision using dynamic model. Application to various collision types; Rikigaku model ni yoru jidosha shototsuji no sanjigen kyodo simulation. Shushu no shototsu keitai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M; Morisawa, M [Musashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, K [Molex-Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The past study of safety at vehicle collision pays attention to phenomena within the short time from starting collision, and the behavior of rollover is studied separating from that at collision. Most simulations of traffic accident are two-dimensional simulations. Therefore, it is indispensable for vehicle design to the analyze three-dimensional and continuous behavior from crash till stopping. Accordingly, in this study, the three-dimensional behavior of two vehicles at collision was simulated by computer using dynamic models. Then, by comparison of the calculated results with real vehicles` collision test data, it was confirmed that dynamic model of this study was reliable. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. CFD simulation of three-dimensional motion of a vehicle with movable wings. Application to the keel of a racing yacht; 3 jigen undo suru kado yokufu shinko buttai no CFD simulation. Racing yacht keel eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, N. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sato, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is so remarkably developed in the various kinds of science and technology fields that it is utilized in aeroplane and other machines and structures. The introduction of Navier-Stokes equation into the fixed coordinate system makes it possible to perform the CFD simulation of vigorously moving body. Combining its procedure with the moving grid scheme enables us to maneuver a moving wing. A body with complicated shape like the keel of racing yacht is expressed by the multi-block grid to develop the CFD code corresponding to it. The simulation of forced motion, which is the first step of the motion simulation system, is applied to the keel of racing yacht to prove that the viscous flow field around the complicatedly shaped body. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Report on the survey in fiscal 1998. Systematic arrangement of environment technologies. 5 (Application of advanced technologies to environmental measures); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo gijutsu ni kansuru taikeiteki seiri. 5 (sentan gijutsu no kankyo taisaku eno oyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Global environment handling technologies were investigated and put into order. Universities often make research and development on themes that can be handled at laboratory levels or by simulations. Development at a practical application level is few. Technological seeds may include manufacture of hydrogen by water and steam decomposition using solar energy, and new synthesizing reactions utilizing solar energy. Included may also be urban type wind power generation, superconductive energy storage systems, biomass utilization, and natural energy utilization. Furthermore, CO2 recovery and utilization by liquefaction, alkaline metal heat power generation, and pulse power technologies can also be found. Studies on applying advanced technologies to environmental measures include composite materials, membrane separation, photo-catalysts, optical elements, porous bodies, functional polymers, bio-reactors, electron beams, and aeration. Private corporations are working noticeably on prevention of fluorocarbon and dioxin emission, PCB treatment and waste water treatment technologies, catalyst application technologies, recycling technologies, and incineration ash treatment and utilization technologies. (NEDO)

  9. Síntese da 5-metil-2-oxabiciclo[3.3.1]nom-7-eno-3,6-diona.Determinaçăo estrutural de uma lactona bioativa isolada de otoba parvifolia /

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz, Cesar Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Orientador: Francisco de Assis Marques Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Cięncias Exatas, Programa de Pós-Graduaçăo em Química. Defesa: Curitiba, 2003 Inclui bibliografia

  10. Bussijuhtide streigi ärahoidmiseks on täna jäänud viimane võimalus / Ingvar Bärenklau, Hindrek Riikoja, Eno-Gerrit Link

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bärenklau, Ingvar, 1967-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 11. dets. 2007, lk. 6. Postimees : na russkom jazõke lüh. Transpordi ametiühingu ja autoettevõtete liidu delegatsioonid annavad hinnangu riikliku lepitaja ettepanekule palgatüli lahendamiseks, mis on viimane võimalus üldstreigi ärahoidmiseks. Lisa: Võimaliku streigi ajakava; Kuidas elab Tartu streigipäevadel?; Streigid ja streigiähvardused. Vt. samas intervjuud bussijuht Leo Sillastega: 6000-kroonist kuupalka peetakse kodus valejutuks; Pärnu bussijuhid on streigi osas ühel meelel

  11. Study of combustion in microgravity environments and application of the findings to combustors for industrial use; Bisho juryoku kankyoka ni okeru nensho kenkyu oyobi sangyoyo nensho kiki eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, J. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-10

    Natural convection is one of the factors that make the elucidation of the combustion phenomenon difficult. Such being the case, it is necessary to utilize microgravity enviroments to learn fuel combustion characteristics and parameters governing the combustion phenomenon for the development of optimal burning appliances. The free-fall facility of JAMIC (Japan Micro Gravity Center) creates a microgravity field that lasts for 10 seconds, and helps perform various combustion-related researches. This report outlines the findings obtained thanks to the use of this facility. In a `study concerning the creation of sophisticated combustion technology,` the combustion of 50{mu}m fuel droplets (too small to involve natural convetion) in a jet engine combustor is simulated in a microgravity field using experimentally producible 1mm drops, and the relationship between the droplet burn time and pressure is disclosed. In addition, using a small combustion furnace, the behavior of a natural-size flame is estimated and the propagation speed of a carbon powder flame is studied. 6 figs.

  12. Synthesis and Characterisation of Tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethyl eno dithiol enic-S,S') Tungsten Complex as Photo catalyst for Photolysis of H2O Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhli Hadana Rahman; Rusli Daik; Mohammad Kassim; Khuzaimah; Wan Ramli Wan Daud

    2008-01-01

    Tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex is one of the most promising photo catalyst to be used in photolysis of water to produce hydrogen. The first step of the synthesis involves a metathesis reaction of tetrapropylammonium bromide [((C 3 H 7 ) 4 N)Br] and ammonium tetrathiotungstate [(NH 4 ) 2 WS 4 ] to form a tetrapropylammonium tetrathiotungstate [((C 3 H 7 ) 4 N) 2 WS 4 ] (precursor). Then, the precursor was reacted with phenyl acetylenecarboxylic acid (C 9 H 6 O 2 ) to form tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex (C 27 H 18 O 2 S 6 W). The infra-red, ultra violet/ visible (UV/ Vis) spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental micro-analysis of C, H, N and S agreed with the characteristic of the tris(1-carboxyl-2-phenyl-1,2-ethylenodithiolenic-S,S ' ) tungsten complex. The (W-S), (C-S) and (C=O) stretching frequencies were detected at 511, (1470 and 1035) and 1655 cm -1 , respectively. The 1 H NMR spectrum showed six protons in the complex. The 13 C NMR showed only 7 signals for carbon atom in the benzene ring, ethylene groups and carboxylic acid pendant group due to the symmetry of the molecules. The reaction yield was about 50 percent. Photolysis of acetone spiked H 2 O showed that the catalyst was able to produced 1.8 μmol/ h hydrogen. (author)

  13. Electrolyte loss mechanism of molten carbonate fuel cells. 2.; Application to the cell with matrix electrolyte layer; Yoyu tansan`engata nenryo denchi ni okeru denkaishitsu loss kiko ni tsuite. 2.; Matrix gata denkaishitsuso wo yusuru denchi eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonai, A; Murata, K [Toshiba Research and Development Center, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1993-11-01

    A single cell of molten carbonate fuel cell using a matrix electrolyte layer fabricated by using the doctor blade process has been operated for several thousand hours, measured of electrolyte loss amount, and analyzed by using a new electrolyte loss mechanism. The result may be summarized as follows: according to a result of measuring the matrix layer pore distribution, the average pore size has increased little by little; pores with diameters greater than 2 {mu}m at which no electrolyte retention becomes possible remain at nearly constant ratio up to 1800 hours, but increased after 2500 hours; the pore capacity in ports with the largest electrolyte retaining diameter of 2 {mu}m or less showed slight decrease with time in the anode, and an initial decrease followed by flatness, and then a sharp decrease after 1800 hours in the matrix layer; the electrolyte loss measurement values have remained nearly constant for 25 hours to 1800 hours, but increased sharply thereafter; and the electrolyte loss in this single cell due to pore capacity decrease in pores as power generating parts with diameters smaller than 2 {mu}m was explained quantitatively by a new electrolyte loss mechanism. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Fázově koherentní přenos stabilní optické frekvence Brno - Praha po optickém vlákně délky 306 km

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číp, Ondřej; Čížek, Martin; Pravdová, Lenka; Hucl, Václav; Řeřucha, Šimon; Hrabina, Jan; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Vojtěch, J.; Smotlacha, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, 4-5 (2016), s. 91-97 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : laser * optical fiber * optical and frequency transfer * optical frequency standard Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  15. Epidemias de ferrugem asiática no Rio Grande do Sul explicadas pelo fenômeno ENOS e pela incidência da doença na entressafra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Antonio Minchio

    Full Text Available RESUMO Estudou-se a interferência da variabilidade da variabilidade climática e do número de relatos de ferrugem asiática na entressafra sobre a epidemia da doença no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, durante 11 safras agrícolas. A ocorrência da doença foi obtida a partir de relatos apresentados no Consórcio Antiferrugem e dividida entre os períodos “Safra”, “Entressafra” e “Ano Todo”. Os dados das epidemias foram testados para correlação, via regressões polinomiais lineares e quadráticas, com as variáveis climáticas: precipitação pluvial, índice padronizado de precipitação - SPI, índice de oscilação sul - IOS e anomalia da Temperatura na Superfície do Mar - SST no Oceano Pacífico Tropical e número de ocorrências da doença no período de entressafra. Os índices que melhor explicaram a variação das ocorrências da doença para o período “Ano Todo” foram o SST e IOS, com coeficientes de determinação (R2 de 0,94 e 0,59, respectivamente. As ocorrências de ferrugem no período “Entressafra” influenciaram positivamente nas ocorrências no período “Safra”.

  16. Application of waste tires to asphalt pavement. Improvement of adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles; Haitaiya no asphalt hoso eno tekiyo. Asphalt to gomu ryushi no fuchakusei no kairyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaoka, I. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-10-10

    With an objective to apply waste tires to asphalt pavement, an experiment was carried out to improve adhesion of asphalt with rubber particles by using polymers. The state of interface on rubber particle and asphalt mixture was observed by a scanning electron microscope. As a result, it was found that the surface of untreated rubber particles is not bonded with the asphalt, but polymer treated mixture was found to have the affinity of rubber particles with asphalt improved. Tensile bonding strength was tested on rubber plates and asphalt. The result revealed that the polymer-reformed mixture has two times as large tensile bonding strength as that of the untreated mixture. With regard to the characters of asphalt mixture mixed with rubber particles, the stability shows a decreasing trend as compared with the standard asphalt concrete, but presents an excellent performance in wear. The fluidity resistance value is inferior to the standard, but not as great as presenting a problem under normal using environment, where its applicability as a road paving material was verified. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. FY1995 study of ultra high resolution laser and microwave spectroscopy and its application to future standards; 1995 nendo choseimitsu laser micro ha bunko to sono jisedai hyojun eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Ultra high resolution spectroscopy is carried out in a range from microwave to ultraviolet using lasers with laser cooling, saturated absorption, 2 photon absorption and ion trap, and optical parametric oscillation is studied for optical frequency measurement. A temperature of 10 {mu}K and that of 150 mK were obtained for Cs atoms and a single Yb ion, respectively. A stability of 3.3 x 10{sup -12} was obtained for iodine stabilized YAG lasers. A saturation signal of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} was observed during wore than 9 months. An optical parametric oscillator, which was fabricated to measure an optical frequency, was probed to work continuously more than 3 hours. (NEDO)

  18. Development of a readily recyclable sound insulation material made of polyester fibers. Application of the PET fibers from plastic bottles; Recycle kanona jidoshayo polyester sei kyuon zairyo no kaihatsu. Shiyozumi pet bottle zai no insulator zai eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, K; Watanabe, K; Sugawara, H; Minemura, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have developed new polyester sound-absorbing materials made of fine and modified-cross-section polyester fabric. They provide noticeably higher sound-absorbing performance than traditional materials. Another feature of the new materials is their excellent recyclability since they are made of polyester. Application of the new materials to the dash silencer and the floor carpeting produced a great improvement in sound-insulation performance with less weight. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Development II of ion current combustion control system. Application to the lean burn system of the micro vehicle engine; Ion denryu wo mochiita nensho seigyo system no kaihatsu. 2. Keijidosha engine wo mochiita lean burn eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T; Asano, M; Kajitani, M; Kuma, t; Morinaga, Y [Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The lean bum engine has not been introduced into the micro vehicle so far because of the low cost requirement and small displacement, in spite of it is one of the effective solutions which increase the fuel economy. By the way, we had already reported in the former paper that we developed the ion current combustion control system the architecture of which is cheaper than the other system. In this paper, we described the way how the above system is applied to the lean burn system of the micro vehicle engine and also we reported the gain of fuel economy and the exhaust emission level. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Life cycle assessment of supercharger for automotive use. Small displacement, high charging pressure engine and environmental load; Jidosha tosaiyo supercharger no life cycle assessment (LCA hyoka). Shohaikiryo kokakyu engine no kankyo eno yasashisa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabe, S; Sonoya, T; Hara, M [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In resent years environmental conservation requires low fuel consumption and low emission engine. And environmental load of every car life stage (production, using, abolition) is considered. Life Cycle Assessment of supercharging small displacement engine is reported, compared with natural aspirated engine as same maximum torque and maximum power as supercharging engine. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Strain measurement of wheel by a super-small size strain history recorder and its application to fatigue design; Chokogata jitsudo hizumi keisoku sochi ni yoru wheel no hizumi keisoku to hiro kyodo sekkei eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Mineki, K; Wakamatsu, K [Central Motor Wheel, Tokyo (Japan); Morita, T

    1997-10-01

    A very small strain history recorder based on the rainflow method has been developed and applied to strain measurement of car wheels under several road tests. Various strain amplitude histogram data under mountain road, city road and high-way were acquired by the recorder for various types of wheels. The data were studied from the viewpoint of random fatigue and the fatigue damages were evaluated by Miner`s rule. The results of the damage evaluation were used for the improvement of shapes of wheels. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Achievement report on the research on possibility of expanding application of information technology to automobile production line; Jidosha seisan kotei eno joho tsushin gijutsu tekiyo kakudai kanosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Before submitting propositions on important technological tasks to be generated in the automobile production line upon application of IT (information technology), a questionnairing is implemented to know the actualities of the line for the purpose of planning a proper merger of IT and the manufacturing technology development capability of the IT accepting site. The questionnaire, aiming at the embodiment of the goals of the projects 'IT related technical tasks relative to its helping human creation of new technologies and enhancement of human ability to make improvement' and 'Technical tasks of developing technical skills into technologies,' asks engineers about the actualities of knowhow at automobile production lines and its development into technologies, about how they take care of what they learned from their predecessors, and about their expectations from and views and opinions toward IT introduction and utilization. It is important to efficiently utilize IT as a means to solve problems involving the knowhow related training on the production line and the handing down of the acquired knowhow to the juniors. Since individual workers' knowhow assumes a certain role at each stage of the automobile production line and since it is necessary to extract the maximum from each worker and to utilize the fruit for improvement on productivity and work efficiency, it is indispensable to efficiently merge the knowhow with IT. (NEDO)

  3. Study on electrical monitoring of fill-up improvement. Utilization of resistivity data for soil compaction management; Hiteiko mitsudo kanri ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu. Moritsuchi seko kanri eno hiteiko yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, N; Hiramatsu, W [Dai Nippon Construction, Gifu (Japan); Sugano, T [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    At present, measurement of wet density and water content by radio isotope (RI method) is used for filling management. It is supposed for filling in road construction that putting-out thickness of banking material reaches nearly 1m in the future rapid construction, however, use of RI method is difficult because of inserting and installing of a radiation source rod, large measuring apparatus, and the legal regulation on radioactivity intensity. Application of resistivity measurement was thus considered. Since resistivity has the same parameter as compaction curve, and monotonously decreases with an increase in water content by volume, it is applicable as construction management index. The management reference of resistivity (Rm) is set by plotting of a compaction curve and corresponding resistivity curve, determination of the reference resistivity (Ro) corresponding to a maximum dry density and optimum water content ratio, and setting of the allowance to Ro according to soil or application. It was clarified that Rm is applicable as set for every filling material. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Application of magnetotelluric method to hydrocarbon exploration. Case study of MT survey in Yurihara oil and gas field, Akita prefecture; MT ho no kokunai sekiyu tanko eno tekiyo. Akitaken Yurihara chiiki ni okeru jikken chosa kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuhata, Y; Matsuo, K; Ishikawa, H; Tanaka, H; Nakagami, K [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    The experiment and survey were carried out to verify the effectiveness and limitation of MT method. The previous seismic reflection method is unsuitable for steep terrain and over-folded complicated geological structure. In such difficult areas, application of MT method is increasing as complement or substitution for the reflection method. However, the evaluation of resistivity structure interpretation for every area is slightly difficult because of lack of data, poor quality of data, and no verification data at boreholes. Consequently, the survey was again carried out in well-known Yurihara oil and gas field, Akita prefecture whose geological structure has been surveyed in detail at boreholes, by adding new 32 sites, 22 sites on the south side and 10 sites on the north side of the measuring line extending from east to west. As a result, it was clarified that the lower high-resistivity layer found by MT method is equal to the Nishikurosawa basaltic layer, and basalt extends to the west in the north area. This result can`t be simply compared with the previous geological profile. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Hodnocení efektivity vynaložených prostředků na reklamu během sportovních přenosů

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlová, Natálie

    2015-01-01

    Title: Evaluation of the effectiveness of advertising expenses during sport broadcasts Objectives: The main goal of this work is to compare the amount of money invested into the commercial advertisement during sport broadcasts at the ČT sport channel with viewer ratings. The used metric is a coefficient computed as a ratio between the viewer rating of the particular broadcast and the corresponding advertisement cost, normalized using Cost per Thousand method. Methods: Analysis of the secondar...

  6. Advanced mineral and lithological mapping using high spectral resolution TIR data from the active CO2 remote sensing system; CO2 laser wo mochiita kosupekutoru bunkaino netsusekigai remote sensing data no ganseki kobutsu shikibetsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, K [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hato, M [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Cudahy, T; Tapley, I

    1997-05-27

    A study was conducted on rock/mineral mapping technology for the metal ore deposit survey using MIRACO2LAS, an active type thermal infrared ray remote sensing system which was developed by CSIRO of Australia and is now the highest in spectral resolution in the world, and TIMS of NASA which is a passive type system. The area for the survey is the area of Olary/Broken Hill and Mt. Fitton of Australia. A good correlation is seen between the ground reflectance measured by MIRACO2LAS and the value measured by the chamber CO2 laser of rocks sampled at the above-mentioned area. In case that the width of spectral characteristics is below 300nm, the inspection ability by MIRACO2LAS`s high spectral resolution is more determined in mineral mapping as compared with TIMS which is large in band width. Minerals mapped using MIRACO2LAS are quartz, talc, amphibole, hornblende, garnet, supessartine, dolomite, magnesite, etc. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Sterilization using ozone-ion gas sterilization using ozone-ion gas for mattresses used by the elderly; Ozone ion kunjoho ni kansuru kenkyu. Ozone ion kunjoho no zaitaku kaigoyo mattress mekkin eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, H.; Suzuki, A.; Hamasaki, H. [Shinryo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, S.; Miyata, M.; Nanba, T. [Kitasato Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Sueyoshi, K. [Mitsubishi Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-25

    The new generation of Japanese is facing an aging society: the number of young people is decreasing dramatically, while the number of elderly is increasing. Consequently, care for the elderly has become a big problem. One particular problem area we`ve investigated is the use of unclean mattresses by the bedridden elderly. These mattresses provide an all too excellent environments for the growth of microbes. We measured the density of microbes on the cover of mattresses at 775cfu/cm{sup 2} and in the bed filling at 136cfu/g. The dominant species of microbes were MRSA and Bacillus. We used MRSA, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli as biological indicators and tested whether our system using ozone-ion fumigants was applicable for sterilization of mattresses. The survival ratio of MRSA were 10{sup -8} {approx} 10{sup -9}, 10{sup -7} {approx} 10{sup -8} for B. subtilis and below 10{sup -8} for E. coli. These experiments made it clear that our system is applicable for sterilization of the mattresses used by bedfast elderly. (author)

  8. Adoption of a fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) inner cylinder for the chimney stack at the Wakayama power plant; Wakayama hatsudensho entotsu eno FRP sei naito no saiyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, M. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    The chimney stack at the Wakayama power plant is planned to adopt a fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) inner cylinder having greater cost reduction effect than a steel made inner cylinder. The present study has performed different experiments on FRP under the gas emitting condition at the Wakayama power plant, and discussed structural plans based on the result therefrom. The Wakayama power plant has the waste gas raised in temperature because of difference in the power generation system. Therefore, physical constant verification tests and heat resistance tests were performed on FRP to verify its applicability. Structural discussions to pursue economy were given on the 'joints' and 'suspension points' (supporting points to suspend the FRP inner cylinder) being the major FRP structures based on the actual record at the Nanko power plant. The tests have placed focus on the 'heat resistance', and different experiments were carried out upon selecting two kinds of novolak-based vinyl ester resins. As a result, applicability of the FRP made inner cylinder to high waste gas temperatures was verified, and so were various property values to be used for designing the cylinder. Structural design was performed by applying design safety factor to the derived property values, and the basic structural plan was established for the FRP inner cylinder. (NEDO)

  9. Report for fiscal 2000 investigations on Activities Implemented Jointly in China and promotion of transfer to CDM; 2000 nendo Chugoku ni okeru kyodo jisshi katsudo oyobi CDM eno iko suishin chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    It is purposed to promote the Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) intended of reducing carbon dioxide emission amount in China. Investigations have been performed on China's environment and energy problems, CDM assignments and transfer means, and project candidates. China emits a great amount of CO2 due to coal combustion, and the CO2 emission is anticipated to increase from the coal burning thermal power generation that may continue into the future. Countermeasures for the thermal power department as the object are required. Since 1997, China has been performing the AIJ project with Norway, Japan, and America, wherein such projects have been implemented with Japan as the dry coke fire extinguishing facility model project, the energy saving model project using alloy iron electric furnaces, and the model project to utilize effectively the refuse combustion waste heat. China is one of the countries in which the greenhouse effect gas emission reducing project can be performed at a minimum cost, who will be the important party in the CDM performed by the developed countries to achieve their obligation to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emission. (NEDO)

  10. Evaluation report on the study on the application of 3D woven C/C composite materials; Sanjigenori C/C composite zairyo no kikai buhin eno oyo ni kansuru kenkyu hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described a study made during 1995 through 1998 on the application of 3D woven C/C composite materials to machine parts. The materials are large in rigidity, small in specific gravity, excellent in specific rigidity, and suitable for high speed rotation. They are excellent in heat resistance/dynamic reformation and expected as materials which can exceed limits of the existing steel for machine parts. However, to use them as machine parts, a possibility of high precision cutting is required. Therefore, a study was made on metal multi-layer membrane coating to C/C composites. Pitch-system high-elastic carbon fibers were made a 4-directional material by orienting horizontally in 3 directions at 120 degrees per plane and also orienting vertically. Various materials such as W, Mo and WC were coated by the laser assisted plasma hybrid spraying method. High adhesion coats with little pore were obtained. Multi-directionally woven C/C composites used to be poor in surface precision workability, but the problem was able to be solved by coating surfaces with metal layers and metal multi-layer membranes. The application is expanded not only to polygonal mirrors (for laser printing machine) and milling spindles, but largely to machine parts. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of leading countries' approaches to biomass energy development; 1999 nendo shuyokoku ni okeru biomass energy kaihatsu eno torikumi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The survey aims to help Japan deliberate its future biomass energy development strategy including the course Japan is to follow in its research and development of biomass energy by clarifying leading countries' approaches to the subject matter and trends of their research and development efforts in this connection. The states of biomass energy development in the U.S. and Europe are reported. In the U.S., President Clinton issued Executive Order 13134 on August 12, 1999, regarding bio-based products and bioenergy development. In this country, bioenergy and bio-based production technologies have developed to reach a stage where business pays, and commercial plants are in service. The U.S. Administration mentions as a strategy the efficient development of the bioenergy industry. In Europe, where resources are versatile and local, it is difficult to assess the economy of scale, and small-scale development efforts are being accumulated. Practical technologies under development mostly involve direct combustion. European measures are similar to U.S. measures in that such political goals as local development and employment promotion are firmly woven into them. (NEDO)

  12. Měření dohlednosti kamerou pro účely studia vlivu reálné atmosféry na přenos optického bezkabelového spoje

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázda, V.; Fišer, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 1 (2013) ISSN 1802-4564 R&D Pro jects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP102/11/1376 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : visibility * digital camera * free space optical link Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://147.228.94.30/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=369:meni-dohlednosti-kamerou- pro -uely-studia-vlivu-realne-atmosfery-na-penos-optickeho-bezkabeloveho-spoje&catid=44:islo-12013&Itemid=51

  13. Environmental science, petroleum engineer`s view. CO2 gas reduction technologies for global warming prevention; Sekiyu gijutsusha no shiten kara no kankyo kagaku. Chikyu ondanka eno taio no tame no CO{sub 2} yokusei gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, K [Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses the techniques concerning diesel engines for cogeneration systems, techniques concerning fuel consumption-saving type lubricating oils and techniques concerning oil refineries, out of the CO2 emission control (energy saving) techniques for coping with the global warming which the petroleum engineers are now tackling. The paper introduces CO2 emission control techniques using a petroleum cogeneration system and studies on NOx removing techniques using catalysts as the techniques concerning diesel engines; techniques for reducing friction loss, which occurs in an engine and a transmission, by improving the recipes of lubricating oils and the development of novel friction modifiers as the fuel consumption-saving type lubricating oil techniques; and the CO2 separating techniques using a system for recovering the low-temperature waste heat produced in petroleum refinement with a high efficiency, or using a solid film such as a molecular sieve as the energy-saving techniques used in oil refineries. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Achievement report on the survey concerning possibility of expansion of ITS technology application to various mobility systems; Kakushu mobility system eno ITS gijutsu tekiyo kakudai kanosei ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project aims to evaluate the results so far achieved in 'The research and development of ITS (intelligent transportation system) by use of clean energy vehicles' and 'Research and development of ITS technology assisted mobility systems' and the development systems under which the efforts are exerted and to evaluate the possibility of their practical application and the spread of the effects brought about. Ex post facto evaluation is conducted of two types of test systems. The first type includes a rent-a-car for business use in the urban area, a rent-a-car for sightseeing, and a system which is an ITS provided electric car as a domestic second car in the residential district. The second type includes a shuttle bus park-and-ride system and a natural gas fueled physical distribution truck. The result is that the ITS provided electric car system is evaluated high by evaluation committee members. The score lowers in the order of the system for business use in the urban area, the system for sightseeing, and the second car system in the residential district. An electric car reduces its environmental impact when it uses a power generation system that utilizes renewable energy. It has become clear that high convenience will be achieved when a dispatching system is improved for a combination of a 'subminiature electric vehicle and ITS technology' as a method to satisfy the demand for commutation means in case the clientele is one or two people. (NEDO)

  15. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (conversion of old coal-fired thermoelectric power plants in Poland into combined cycle plants); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Poland sekitan karyoku hatsudensho (kyushiki) combined cycle eno tenkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A project is discussed for modernization for energy efficiency enhancement and greenhouse gas reduction. The most effective way to reduce greenhouse gas in Poland is to totally replace the existing coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants. Under this project, however, natural gas-fired power generation and integrated coal/brown coal gasification combined cycle power generation are both subjected to study. This is because the power plant modernization project is closely related to the fate of coal/brown coal industries which constitute the important industrial department of Poland. As for the earning rate of the project in case of natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation, the rate will be 13.2% even at the Kaweczyn station which is the highest in earning rate, and this fails to satisfy the project conditions. If integrated coal/brown gasification combined cycle power generation is chosen, the rate will be still lower. When the cost for greenhouse gas reduction is taken up, the Konin station exhibits the lowest of 9 dollars/tCO2, and the others 15-17 dollars/tCO2. When coal gas combined cycle is employed, the cost will be 3-4 times higher. (NEDO)

  16. Fracture mechanical modeling of brittle crack propagation and arrest of steel. 3. Application to duplex-type test; Kozai no zeisei kiretsu denpa teisi no rikigaku model. 3. Konseigata shiken eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Tsuchida, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Machida, S.; Yoshinari, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was made previously on a model of brittle crack propagation and arrest that considers the effect of crack opening suppression by using unbroken ligaments generated on steel plate surface and the effect that cracks precede in the central part of the plate thickness, based on a local limit stress theory for brittleness fracture. This paper discusses applicability of this model to a mixed type test, and elucidates causes for difference in the arrest tenacity of both types in a double tensile test of the standard size. The brittle crack propagation and arrest model based on the local limit stress theory was found applicable to a simulation of the mixed type test. Experimental crack propagation speed history and behavior of the arrest were reproduced nearly completely by using this model. When load stress is increased, the arrests in the mixed type test may be classified into arrests of both inside the steel plate and near the surface, cracks in the former position or arrest in the latter position, and rush of cracks into both positions. Furthermore, at higher stresses, the propagation speed drops once after cracks rushed into the test plate, but turns to a rise, leading to propagation and piercing. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Ultimate strength analysis of thin plated structures using eigen-functions. 3rd Report. Application to reliability analysis; Koyu kansu wo mochiita usuita kozobutsu no dansosei kaisekiho. 3. Shinraisei kaiseki eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Institute; Masaoka, K.; Okada, H. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A reliability analysis was performed on ultimate strength of a hull by introducing reliability engineerings into the idealized structural unit method. Elements developed under the present study were applied to a model of an actual structure to indicate that even an analysis requiring much time under the finite element method can be performed in a short time and at high accuracy when this method is used. Analysis acted with bending moment and shear force simultaneously was performed on a model used as a structure in experiments carried out by Nishihara, assuming pure bending moment and longitudinal strength during slamming. Then, a reliability analysis was conducted on the same model based on this analysis method to investigate the ultimate strength. In an analysis of an ultimate strength when bending and shearing that assume slamming act upon simultaneously, axial force in the hull side decreases as loading increases, wherein how the shearing force increases can be identified clearly. Although existence of initial bends reduces the strength, the effect of variance in the vicinity of the average value on the reliability is rather small, while the effect due to variance in yield stress is greater. 27 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M.; Minami, F.; Toyoda, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T.; Arimochi, K. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A. [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T. [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Present situation, current problems and countermeasures to solve them by the material technology group in chemical companies; Kagaku shakai ni okeru sochi zairyo gijutsu no genjo to kadai oyobi sore eno taio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Masao. [Asahi Chemical Industry Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Production Technology Center

    1999-05-15

    A questionnaire investigation about the present situation, current problems and countermeasure to be discussed with by material technology groups in the eight chemical companies was carried out. It has become clear from the analysis of answers obtained that the roll of material group has been changing under the diminishing construction of new plant and the increased needs of stable and sustainable plant operation. The present major subjects of material groups, which are pointed out in the answers, are such new technological problems as the plant life estimation, the dissemination and handing down of material technology and the upbringing of technology successors. The countermeasures to meet those requirements made clear are such technology developments as a new monitoring system, preparation of database on material technology and closer cooperation with relatied associations. It is hoped for that the findings of this study would lead to further and more detailed indentification of common problems to be solved and development of practical countermeasures therefor. (author)

  20. Application of a temperature selective storage tank solar system. Part 4. Fundamental experiment under a solar simulator; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 4. Solar simulator ni yoru kiso jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, K; Endo, N; Baba, H; Okamoto, A [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Kamiya, Y [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The storage tank is classified into a mixed type and stratified type. The stratified type is judged to be more advantageous from a viewpoint of the effective energy utilization. An experiment was made using a solar simulator to put the system, consisting of a vacuum double-glass tube collector and temperature selective storage tank, to practical use. The ejection position of the storage tank at the top is superior to that at the bottom, in the 60{degree}C layer of three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C). The ejection position hardly varies with the shape (straight or elbow) of an ejection port. When the temperature stratified layer is formed in two layers (40 {times} 2, 20{degree}C) to three layers (60, 40, and 20{degree}C), heat can be stably stored as the flow rate is higher. The stratified storage tank is inferior to the mixed storage tank in heat collection efficiency, but the specific exergy increases. By increasing the number of heat storage layers, the result of this experiment can also be applied to the linear temperature gradient layer obtained in the practical use. As a result of the above experiment, the basic data for an automated system design during practical application was obtained. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Application of a temperature selective heat storage tank to a solar system. Part 3. Solar heat collecting system; Ondo sentaku chikunetsuso no solar system eno tekiyo. 3. Shunetsu hoshiki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y [Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama (Japan); Kanayama, K [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The tank system and tank-less system when the temperature selective heat storage tank is applied to a solar system were considered. In the tank system, the simulation shows that the annual supplementary heat consumption is reduced as the tank capacity becomes lower. The most suitable operating time set for determining the reference time is about five hours in winter and about nine hours in summer. The annual operating time is about 6.5 hours. In the tank-less system, the most suitable minimum flow rate per solar collector area of a heating medium in Tokyo and its districts is 10 L/hm{sup 2} for both three-step flow control and constant flow control. The tank-less system is slightly lower in annual supplementary heat consumption than the tank system. For the three-step flow control, a change in the annual supplementary heat consumption is lower than that in the minimum flow rate. For the constant flow control, however, the annual supplementary heat consumption rapidly increases when the flow rate more decreases than the optimum value. The number of pump start/stop counts for the three-step flow control is less than two times as high as for the constant flow control. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Separation and purification of lactic acid. Thermal catalytic depolymerization of poly-lactic acid into lactide; Hakkoho nyusan no bunri seisei ni kansuru kenkyu. Pori nyusan no rakuchido eno sesshokuteki netsukai jugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, M.; Hirama, Y.; Liew, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-10

    A new separation and purification method for lactic acid from fermentation broth is proposed by which poly-lactic acid produced from unpurified lactic acid is catalytically depolymerized into lactide fractions then further purified into lactide. In the present study, thermal depolymerization catalysts were investigated for commercial use. Iron catalysts, especially metallic iron, and ferrous oxide and lactate, were found to provide almost the same catalytic activity and lactide composition in depolymerization products and those in tin octoate and antimony oxide catalysts. Ferrous oxide was also applied to depolymerize poly-lactic acid derived form unpurified lactic acid to compare catalytic activity and lactide composition and was confirmed to show results similar to those of pure polymer. Based on these findings, it is concluded that iron catalysts can be used commercially. Furthermore, catalytic depolymerization of poly-lactic acids with different molecular weights were studied. Polymers with Mw 5,000-10,000 were found to be better for production of lactide, based on the behavior of depolymerization and lactide content in the product. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Development of new technologies for high quality thin film and its application to energy engineering; Hikari seigyo to sokudo senbetsu ni yoru chokinshitsu usumaku no seisaku to energy bun`ya eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijikata, K; Inoue, T; Nagasaki, T; Suzuki, Y; Sato, I [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nakabeppu, O [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes laser irradiation and velocity selective deposition experiments for fabricating high quality thin films. For the formation of Ag thin film by vacuum deposition method, YAG laser was irradiated to atoms or clusters parallel or perpendicular to the NaCl single crystal substrate, to deposit them on the substrate. For another experiment, Ag atoms selected in the given velocity were deposited on the (001) NaCl substrate by passing the molecular beam through the velocity selector. When laser was not irradiated, the thin film showed a random structure. Epitaxial growth was accelerated by the laser irradiation. When the selective velocity was set in 353 m/s at the constant intensity of molecular beam, the diffraction pattern of the thin film showed net pattern. When the selective velocity was set in 529 m/s, a structure in which ring pattern was overlapped on the net pattern was obtained. 2 figs.

  4. Development of hydriding alloys with multi-functionally-graded properties and their applications to energy conversion devices; Keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, S; Kadoma, H; Nagamoto, H; Okura, T [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the formation of fluoride layer on the surface of hydriding alloys. The fluoride formation reaction consists of a reduction removal process of surface oxide and a fluorination process. Specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by the hydrogenation reaction in the surface layer accompanied with the removal of surface oxide, which results in easier permeation of molecular hydrogen into fluoride layer. During the fluorination process, a large amount of Ni in the alloy components is eluted, which results in the reduction of Ni distribution immediately under the fluoride layer in the alloy. Consequently, collector sites near the surface are reduced, and conductivity among alloy grains is degraded. To enhance the hydrogen collector sites, specific surface area of alloy grains can be increased by controlling the pH value of fluorination treatment solution in a given range. Moreover, performance of fluoride layer can be advanced by electrochemically dispersing metal Ni in the fluoride layer using Ni complex ion mixed in the treatment solution. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Report on FS survey for project of introduction of highly energy-efficient trolley buses into the Mexico Metropolitan Area in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Mexico city eno sho energy gata trolley bus donyu project FS chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Traffic jam and air pollution by automobiles are currently getting severe in the Mexico Metropolitan Area. Trolley buses were introduced for improving the environment more than ten years ago. Vehicles become too old for use, and their energy efficiency is low. In this project, 200 highly energy-efficient trolley buses are introduced to replace old inefficient trolley buses, which results in the improved traffic convenience in the City and enhanced energy efficiency. The new energy-efficient trolley buses are made of energy-efficient control VVVF inverters produced and exported by MELCO (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation), energy-efficient motors by MELMEX (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Mexico), and bodies by MASA which is a major manufacturer of bus bodies. The objective of this research is to analyze the background of introduction of new energy-efficient trolley buses and the effects of the present project. The results of analysis are going to be utilized for future promotion of the Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism. 30 refs., 30 figs., 24 tabs.

  6. Desarrollo y aplicación de índices y simulaciones para la vigilancia y el pronóstico a mediano plazo del impacto del ENOS frente a la costa peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Ccalluari, Carlos; Tam Málaga, Jorge; Arrellano Rojas, Cinthia; Chamorro Gómez, Adolfo; Espinoza Morriberón, Dante; Romero Tadeo, Carlos; Ramos Flores, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    El propósito del trabajo es presentar índices oceanográficos del Pacifico Sudeste, pronósticos de la propagación de las ondas Kelvin ecuatoriales (OKE) y pronósticos del Índice Térmico Costero Peruano (ITCP), usando como un ejemplo la información observacional actualizada hasta setiembre 2016. Durante el trimestre julio-agosto-setiembre (JAS) 2016, los Índices Térmico Costero Peruano (ITCP) y del Anticiclón del Pacífico Sur (IAPS) presentaron condiciones neutras, el Índice del Áre...

  7. Preparation of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O high Tc thick films on Ag or MgO substrate with superconductor paste; Bi kei ko Tc chodendo paste ni yoru Ag, MgO kibanjo eno atsumaku sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takabatake, N. [Ishikawa Technical High School, Ishikawa (Japan); Tsubota, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Ohashi, K. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    The following were reported on making Bi series superconducting thick films by a wet method. A paste was made by adding PSO (or ethanol solution of ethylenegrycol) of Yushiro Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. as a binder to a Bi series 2223 single-phase powder sample (blending composition Bi:Pb:Sr:Ca:Cu=1.8:0.4:2:2:3.2); the sample was then coated on an Ag (or MgO) substrate with a brush; after being dried at 105{degree}C for one hour, it was thermally decomposed at 700{degree}C for one hour; then, the process of prissurized forming (at pressure 2 to 5 ton f/cm{sup 2}) and of sintering at 845{degree}C for 20 hours or more were performed on the sample to form a thick film sample. A critical temperature Tc, critical current density Jc, etc., were measured on such thick film sample. As a result, nearly same values were obtained as Tc (93K) and Jc (84A/cm{sup 2}) which were those of a bulk sample made by using the same powder sample, pressurizing at 2 ton f/cm{sup 2} for pelletizing, and sintering at 845{degree}C for 20 hours. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Příroda a domov : postřehy z pouště: domov je něco, co je na přírodě vyvzdorováno a odlišeno

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cílek, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 23 (2010), s. 79-79 ISSN 0862-6545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : nature * desert * desert animals * nature a culture * man and nature Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. enos tradičních hodnot Romů ve smíšených manželstvích romsko-českých

    OpenAIRE

    Innemanová, Petra

    2007-01-01

    The goal of my graduation treatise is research of three generations of mixed Romany-Czech marriages in the aspects of upbringing, education and traditions and how and how many of these aspects were transmitted in a progress of time. Which Romanian traditional values have kept during the theree genarations of the inter marriages. In the theoretical part of my treatise I tried to describe all topics which I then researched in the practical part with individual couples which were namely the fell...

  10. Aspiration toward geothermal energy utilization in regional development plan. Part 6. ; Hydrothermal fluid utilization business in Matsuo-mura of Iwate prefecture. Chiiki keikaku ni okeru 'chinetsu riyo' eno hofu. 6. ; Iwateken Matsuomura no chinetsu nessui riyo jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otobe, Y; Furutate, E

    1992-10-31

    Twenty six years have passed since the first geothermal power station was constructed in Matsuo-mura of Iwate Prefecture, Japan. This paper describes the history, the present situation and the future conception of the geothermal energy utilization in this village. This village includes Hachimantai of a vantage ground in the center and has the gross area of 233.8km[sup 2], the annual average temperature of 8.3 centigrade and the continuous snow cover period of about 100 days. The hot water leading facility was cooperatively constructed by Japan Metals and Chemicals, Hachimantai Hot Spring Development and Matsuo-mura. The total working expense is 539.3 million yen. Hot water sources are the condensate from the condenser of geothermal power plant and hot spring. This mixed hot water of 4.3 t/min is led to respective facilities. The hot water supplying channel has the length of 12.8km from the power station through the Hachimantai hot spring resort, Kamiyogi to Takaishino. Respective total areas of greenhouses using hydrothermal fluid in both districts are 1,075ha and the inlet temperature of hot water is 60 centigrade and kinds of crop are 5 like green pepper and others. Takaishino agricultural park has selected flower and ornamental plant culture such as poppy anemone, stock and statice which are suitable for this district of low temperature and insufficient sunshine. The planted area is 10,700m[sup 2]. 2 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Bi-axial M-. Phi. analyses of RC columns using fiber model and comparison with experimental results. 2 jikumage wo ukeru hashirabuzai no M-. Phi. kankei eno fiber model no tekigosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, Y.; Tokuyama, S.; Furuichi, K. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-31

    In order to examine the accuracy of a fiber model for analyzing the stability of towers of a cable-stayed bridge subjected to biaxial bending force due to earthquake, experimental results of column test specimens were compared with analytical results. The relation between biaxial bending moment and curvature (M-{Phi}) was measured in biaxial bending model experiment using a reinforcement ratio, axial compressive force and loading pattern as parameters. Since the relation was greatly affected by axial modeling of a reinforcing material, the parameter analysis was conducted by paying particular attention to reinforcement models (bilinear model, cubic one and Ramberg-Osgood one). As a result, the Ramberg-Osgood model was suitable for columns with a large longitudinal reinforcement ratio and large axial tension such as seen in highrise buildings, while the cubic model was more suitable for columns with a small ratio such as seen in cable-stayed bridges. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Energy-based damping evaluation of cable-stayed bridges and its application to Tsurumi Tsubasa bridge; Shachokyo shindo gensui no energy teki hyokaho to Tsurumi Tsubasakyo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama University, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Takano, H.; Ogasawara, M.; Shimosato, T. [Metropolitan Expressway Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, M.; Kato, H. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-21

    This paper provides and discusses a more common energy-based evaluation method of vibration damping in cable-stayed bridges. This method was applied to data obtained from the field vibration test of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge. The damping was defined as dissipation energy in one cycle against the total potential energy. The dissipation energy from shoe friction, aerodynamic damping, and dampers for cables was added to the method proposed by Yamaguchi, et. al., in which the energy of girders, towers, and cables were quantitated, and the dissipation energy was determined from the loss factor of each constituent, to evaluate the damping of whole bridge. Thus, a more common energy-based evaluation method was provided. This method was applied to the damping obtained from the field vibration test of Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge. Consequently, it was found that the damping of whole bridge was significantly affected by the shoe friction, aerodynamic damping, and dampers for cables. Distinguished damping characteristics of the Tsurumi Tsubasa Bridge could be explained by the energy-based evaluation. Validity of the energy-based evaluation method for damping of cable-stayed bridges was demonstrated. 15 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Fracture mechanical modeling of brittle crack propagation and arrest of steel. 3. Application to duplex-type test; Kozai no zeisei kiretsu denpa teisi no rikigaku model. 3. Konseigata shiken eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S; Tsuchida, Y [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Machida, S; Yoshinari, H [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A proposal was made previously on a model of brittle crack propagation and arrest that considers the effect of crack opening suppression by using unbroken ligaments generated on steel plate surface and the effect that cracks precede in the central part of the plate thickness, based on a local limit stress theory for brittleness fracture. This paper discusses applicability of this model to a mixed type test, and elucidates causes for difference in the arrest tenacity of both types in a double tensile test of the standard size. The brittle crack propagation and arrest model based on the local limit stress theory was found applicable to a simulation of the mixed type test. Experimental crack propagation speed history and behavior of the arrest were reproduced nearly completely by using this model. When load stress is increased, the arrests in the mixed type test may be classified into arrests of both inside the steel plate and near the surface, cracks in the former position or arrest in the latter position, and rush of cracks into both positions. Furthermore, at higher stresses, the propagation speed drops once after cracks rushed into the test plate, but turns to a rise, leading to propagation and piercing. 8 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Equivalent CTOD concept based on the local approach and its application to fracture performance evaluation of welded joints; Local approach ni motozuku toka CTOD gainen no teian to tsugite hakai seino hyoka eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, M; Minami, F; Toyoda, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Tanaka, T; Arimochi, K [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Glover, A [Nova Gas Transmission Ltd., Calgary (Canada); North, T [University of Toronto (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A proposal was given on an equivalent crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) concept which relates quantitatively fracture performance of a structural member with the result of a three-point bending CTOD test via the Weibull stress based on a local approach. The equivalent CTOD is defined as a CTOD in which a three-point CTOD test piece and a structural member provide the same Weibull stress. Experimental and analytical discussions were performed on X80 steel welded joints. Effectiveness of the equivalent CTOD concept was verified from the fact that the fracture performance in welded joints with a large width estimated from the result of the three-point bending CTOD test using the equivalent CTOD concept showed good correspondence with the fracture performance obtained in the experiments. On the other hand, the result of estimation using the conventional CTOD concept is considerably smaller than measurements. As an application of the equivalent CTOD concept, a new determination procedure was introduced on required fracture tenacity to ensure deformation performance required on structural elements. The required CTOD value shows a trend that the smaller the ratio of yield stress of the welded metals to that in the base material, the greater the required CTOD grows. 16 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Ultimate strength analysis of thin plated structures using eigen-functions. 3rd Report. Application to reliability analysis; Koyu kansu wo mochiita usuita kozobutsu no dansosei kaisekiho. 3. Shinraisei kaiseki eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Y [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Welding Research Institute; Masaoka, K; Okada, H [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A reliability analysis was performed on ultimate strength of a hull by introducing reliability engineerings into the idealized structural unit method. Elements developed under the present study were applied to a model of an actual structure to indicate that even an analysis requiring much time under the finite element method can be performed in a short time and at high accuracy when this method is used. Analysis acted with bending moment and shear force simultaneously was performed on a model used as a structure in experiments carried out by Nishihara, assuming pure bending moment and longitudinal strength during slamming. Then, a reliability analysis was conducted on the same model based on this analysis method to investigate the ultimate strength. In an analysis of an ultimate strength when bending and shearing that assume slamming act upon simultaneously, axial force in the hull side decreases as loading increases, wherein how the shearing force increases can be identified clearly. Although existence of initial bends reduces the strength, the effect of variance in the vicinity of the average value on the reliability is rather small, while the effect due to variance in yield stress is greater. 27 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the project on the R and D of the global environmental industry technology. R and D of the technology for predicting environmental effects associated with the CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point and survey for supporting study); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    To obtain the technical outlook for CO2 ocean sequestration by CO2 discharge into the intermediate layer, the R and D was conducted of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the elucidation study of the behavior at the time of discharging liquid CO2, the melting process of CO2 droplets discharged/dispersed into the seawater of the intermediate layer was observed, and the specific phenomenon of hydrate formation in the process of CO2 droplet formation was grasped. As to the technology for sending CO2 into the ocean and diluting it, experimental study was made of CO2 transportation technology from on the sea to the intermediate layer, technology for rapid dilution immediately after discharge, etc. About the indoor experiment on the CO2 influence on marine organisms, experiment on the CO2 influence was carried out using shells, sea urchin, red sea bream, etc. In the developmental study of models for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, the 3D two-phase flow LES model was developed as a model for predicting the CO2 behavior, and the simulation of the liquid CO2 discharge was made at the planned experimental site. The model for evaluation of the biological influence was also made which can consider the interaction between two kinds of organisms. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge and the research support survey); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of studying viability of CO2 ocean sequestration by discharging it at the intermediate depth of ocean, the R and D were conducted of 'prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge,' and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the study of elucidation of behavior of liquid CO2 at the time of discharge, melting speed of CO2 in water and seawater, 2D CO2 concentration distribution, etc. were measured using the circulation type deep-sea simulation experimental equipment. In the study of technology to send CO2 into the sea and dilute it, the process test using mock liquid was conducted. In the indoor experiment on CO2 effects on marine organisms, conducted were the detailed experiment on long-term effects of low concentration CO2 on sea urchins and shellfish, experiment on CO2 acute effects on eggs/fry and experiment on CO2 effects on adult fish. In the developmental study of the model to predict environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge, carried out were the improvement of the model for prediction of effects on marine organisms, study of the CO2 diffusion in topographic features supposed to be Hawaii, etc. In the international joint study, measurement/observation technology, facilities, etc. were studied in preparation for the experiment actually conducted in the sea. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge and the research support survey); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of studying viability of CO2 ocean sequestration by discharging it at the intermediate depth of ocean, the R and D were conducted of 'prediction technology of environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge,' and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the study of elucidation of behavior of liquid CO2 at the time of discharge, melting speed of CO2 in water and seawater, 2D CO2 concentration distribution, etc. were measured using the circulation type deep-sea simulation experimental equipment. In the study of technology to send CO2 into the sea and dilute it, the process test using mock liquid was conducted. In the indoor experiment on CO2 effects on marine organisms, conducted were the detailed experiment on long-term effects of low concentration CO2 on sea urchins and shellfish, experiment on CO2 acute effects on eggs/fry and experiment on CO2 effects on adult fish. In the developmental study of the model to predict environmental effects around the point of CO2 discharge, carried out were the improvement of the model for prediction of effects on marine organisms, study of the CO2 diffusion in topographic features supposed to be Hawaii, etc. In the international joint study, measurement/observation technology, facilities, etc. were studied in preparation for the experiment actually conducted in the sea. (NEDO)

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to forecast environmental effect in association with isolation of carbon dioxide in oceans. (Surveys on development and research support on a technology to forecast environmental effect in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points); 1998 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. CO{sub 2} horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is increasing, and discussions are urged on measures to suppress emission of CO2 into atmosphere. While different CO2 fixing technologies may be conceived, there is a technology to utilize CO2 absorbing capability of ocean by discharging and dissolving CO2 artificially into middle layer of the ocean to separate CO2 from atmosphere. This technology is one of the technologies which are promising in the aspects of technology, economic performance, and possible amount of CO2 reduction. However, it is difficult to say that scientific and technological discussions have been given sufficiently on behavior of CO2 discharged into the ocean, effect of the discharge on environments, and CO2 separation capability of the ocean. Therefore, in the present research and development, a 'technology to forecast environmental effect in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points' is developed to serve for acquiring technological prospect on the feasibility to realize the CO2 ocean separation by discharging CO2 into the middle layer of the ocean. The present fiscal year has performed researches on the following research and development items: elucidation of behavior of liquefied CO2 when discharged into the ocean, CO2 feeding and diluting technologies, indoor experiments on the effects of CO2 on ocean living organisms, and development of a model to forecast environments in areas in the vicinity of CO2 discharging points. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the project on the R and D of the global environmental industry technology. R and D of the technology for predicting environmental effects associated with the CO2 ocean sequestration (Development of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point and survey for supporting study); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (CO2 horyuten shuhen'iki no kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu no kaihatsu narabini kenkyu shien chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    To obtain the technical outlook for CO2 ocean sequestration by CO2 discharge into the intermediate layer, the R and D was conducted of the technology for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the elucidation study of the behavior at the time of discharging liquid CO2, the melting process of CO2 droplets discharged/dispersed into the seawater of the intermediate layer was observed, and the specific phenomenon of hydrate formation in the process of CO2 droplet formation was grasped. As to the technology for sending CO2 into the ocean and diluting it, experimental study was made of CO2 transportation technology from on the sea to the intermediate layer, technology for rapid dilution immediately after discharge, etc. About the indoor experiment on the CO2 influence on marine organisms, experiment on the CO2 influence was carried out using shells, sea urchin, red sea bream, etc. In the developmental study of models for predicting environmental effects in the area around the CO2 discharge point, the 3D two-phase flow LES model was developed as a model for predicting the CO2 behavior, and the simulation of the liquid CO2 discharge was made at the planned experimental site. The model for evaluation of the biological influence was also made which can consider the interaction between two kinds of organisms. (NEDO)

  2. Effects of lactic acid bacteria in kimoto on sake brewing. Part 2. ; Promotion mechanism of enzymolysis in rice by teichoic acid. Kimotochu no nyusankin no seishu jozo ni oyobosu eikyo. 2. ; Kimotochu no nyusankin ni yuraisuru teikosan no. alpha. kamai yokai sokushin sayo kisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, H.; Tsurumoto, M.; Furukawa, A.; Kawasaki, T. (Kikumasamune Sake Brewing Co. Ltd, Hyogo (Japan))

    1991-07-25

    In order to elucidate promotion mechanism of dissolution of {alpha}-rice (pregelatinized rice) by teichoic acid. adsorption of teichoic acid and {alpha}-amylase onto rice protein oryzenin was investigated by experiments. Teichoic acid was adsorbed well onto oryzenin and reduced adsorption of {alpha}-amylase. Adsorption of {alpha}-amylase onto rice powder was decreased logarithmically in proportion to the teichoic acid added. Both teichoic acid and {alpha}-amylase were adsorbed by histone, abundant in basic amino acids, and by anion-exchange resin. Adsorption of {alpha}-amylase onto them was reduced by coexistence with teichoic acid. As the results of experiments, it was inferred that teichoic acid became dissolvable through autolysis by lactic acid bacteria in kimoto, changed the state of electric charge on oryzenin surfaces through adsorption onto oryzenin by phosphoric group, decreasing adsorption of {alpha}-amylase onto oryzenin and increasing free {alpha}-amylase in the liquid phase, and thus increased the dissolution of {alpha}-rice. 9 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1994. 2. Main issue (Part 1 for research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology); 1994 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kekyu kaihatsu. 2. Honronhen (Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This research and development was performed on (1) a composite physiological function measuring technology for stress measurement, (2) a contact-free skin temperature measuring technology, and (3) a stress indexing substance measuring technology. With regard to the subject (1), the target for the current fiscal year is to restructure a small restraint-free skin impedance measuring device into a practical device that can be used easily at working sites. In order to achieve the goal, electric power conservation and size reduction were moved forward by improving the circuit design, and stabilized measurement, in which the measurement algorithm is made more intelligent, was realized. With regard to the subject (2), the contact-free skin temperature measurement device having been structured by the previous fiscal year was given improvements in such parts as the infrared and visible image input, image processing, and data indication and sense volume estimation. With respect to the subject (3), the technology was established to measure such stress indexing substances as CS and CA from saliva. Positioning of CS and CA as the stress indexing substance was nearly completed. The stress indexing substance measuring device was tried of structuring the prototype A and prototype B applying the semi-micro specifications for an attempt of clearing the steps toward practically usable device. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 2000 report on geothermal energy development promotion survey. Phase 1. Report on environmental impact survey in No. C-5 Appi district (Weather); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-5. Appi chiiki - kankyo eikyo chosa (kisho) dai 1 ji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    For grasping the characteristics of weather, climate, and natural earthquakes in and around the geothermal survey area in the Appi district, Iwate Prefecture, observation data of weather stations or the like in the neighborhood were collected and put in an easy-to-use order. Weather and earthquake data of the 1990-1999 decade were collected and subjected to statistical processing. Weather in the Appi District Survey C area is characterized in that it assumes the Japan Sea side pattern with much snow in winter and much rain in the rainy season. In the other seasons, however, it assumes the Pacific side inland pattern. Weather data in the Appi district and its vicinity are deemed to be similar to the values observed at the Hachimantai weather station. The area covered by the survey, however, is higher than the Hachimantai weather station by 400-900m, and therefore is that much colder and has more rain and snow. As for earthquakes, a total of 647 were recorded in the decade 1990-1999. In the Appi District Survey C area, which is approximately 20km times 20km large, suffered 31.1 events/month in 1998, which indicated a great rise in seismic occurrence. The rise is now attributed to the volcanic activity of Mt. Iwate which is deemed to be waning. (NEDO)

  5. Change of environmental factors in different site which effect the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic module. Comparison of the environmental factors in Shinjuku Tokyo with the one in Chino Nagano; Kotonaru chiten ni okeru taiyo denchi no henkan koritsu ni eikyo wo ataeru kankyo inshi no henka. Tokyoto Shinjukuku to Naganoken Chinoshi no kankyo inshi no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T.; Tani, T.; Hirata, Y.; Inasaka, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Environmental factors affecting conversion efficiency of solar cells were measured in Tokyo and Nagano to comparatively study the difference. In the study, measurement was made of intensity of global solar radiation on an inclined surface (insolation intensity), ambient air temperature, and distribution of spectral solar radiation at the two points. Also measured were output characteristics of polycrystal silicon solar cell modules and amorphous silicon solar cell modules. The result of the comparative analysis was as follows: The annual inclined global solar radiation amount integrated in 1996 is 27% more in Nagano than in Tokyo. The weighted average insolation intensity in Nagano is 0.09 kW/m{sup 2} higher in Tokyo. The weighted average cell temperature in Nagano is 4degC lower than in Tokyo. The effective spectral ratio in Nagano is 1-2% lower both in polycrystal Si and amorphous Si than in Tokyo. Thus, it was inferred from that environmental factors are different that conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic modules were different. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Desolvation of L-histidine and {alpha}-ketoisocaproic acid complex from ethanolate crystals under humidified conditions and influence of crystallinity on its desolvation; Histidine Ketoisocapron san ensan ethanol wamono kessho no koshitsudo jokenka deno datsu ethanol to datsu ethanol sei ni oyobosu kesshosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, S.; Tanabe, T.; Maruyama, S.; Kishishita, A.; Nagashima, N. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    Desolvation of L-histidine and a-ketoisocaproic acid complex from ethanolate crystals was investigated. The ethanolate crystals were obtained from ethanol aqueous solutions of above 60 wt% of ethanol. It was difficult to remove ethanol molecules from the crystals lay vacuum drying. However, it was found that ethanol molecules in the crystal lattice could be released under humidified conditions, for example, 313 K and 60% relative humidity, accompanied by transformation to non-solvated crystals. When the peak of 2{theta}=9.0{degree}(CuK{alpha} radiation) in powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the ethanolate crystals was weak, ethanol molecules (about 1wt.%) remained in the crystals at the end of transformations and then the residual ethanol decreased slowly. A controlled moderate cooling process, where the supersaturation is released slowly, is the key point to obtain ethanolate crystals having high `crystallinity` (defined as peak height of 2{theta}=9.0{degree}) which shows quick desolation rather than adding ethanol for a rapid increase of supersaturation in crystallization. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Influence of ([alpha]+[beta]) STA and surface finishing on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Ti-6Al-4V gokin no kikaiteki seishitsu ni oyobosu taikichu ([alpha]+[beta])STA shori oyobi hyomen shiage no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, K [Musashi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan); Hironaga, M [Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate Student

    1992-10-15

    Ti-6Al-4V allow was solution treated and aged (STA) in air, and the effect of degraded layer on static tensile properties and fatigue behavior was studied. Also, influence of surface finishing on fatigue strength was studied. Degraded layer formed with 0.75mm thick hardened layer has been formed below extremely thin TiO2 scale. Static tensile properties and fatigue behavior are not influenced by the hardened layer. The hardened layer formed below embrittle layer has smaller hadenening scale, and has shown no structural change with the core. Even for an embrittle layer of about 10[mu]m thickness, the ductility and fatigue strength have reduced significantly. The static strength has been improved about 20% with the complete removal of embrittle layer. The fatigue strength of the receiving material has been greater in the case of mechanical polished finishing using NO.1500 emery paper and diamond taste of 1[mu]m compared to electrical polishing. However, the fatigue strength has been lower in the case of mechanical polished STA material compared to electropolished material. 8 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Combustion-driven oscillation in a furnace with multispud-type gas burners. 4th Report. Effects of position of secondary air guide sleeve and openness of secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation condition; Multispud gata gas turner ni okeru nensho shindo. 4. Nijigen kuki sleeve ichi oyobi nijigen kuki vane kaido no shindo reiki ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, I.; Okiura, K.; Baba, A.; Orimoto, M. [Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-25

    Effects of the position of a secondary air guide sleeve and the openness of a secondary air guide vane on combustion oscillation conditions were studied experimentally for multispud-type gas burners. Pressure fluctuation in furnaces was analyzed with the previously reported resonance factor which was proposed as an index to represent the degree of combustion oscillation. As a result, the combustion oscillation region was largely affected by both position of a guide sleeve and openness of a guide vane. As the openness having large effect on the ratio of primary and secondary air/tertiary air and the position hardly having effect on the ratio were adjusted skillfully, the burner with no combustion oscillation region was achieved in its normal operation range. In addition, as the effect of preheating combustion air was arranged with a standard flow rate or mass flow flux of air, it was suggested the combustion oscillation region due to preheating can be described with the same manner as that due to no preheating. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. 2. Research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1992 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the physiological effect measuring technology, extracted from the achievements in the development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. In the composite physiological function measuring technology to measure stresses, improvement was made on the skin impedance measuring device of tri-electrode double-point simultaneous measuring type. A non-contact measuring device using a light sensor was developed as a spontaneous blinking detecting system. A prototype device that can measure blood pressure continuously at the temple was developed, and its usefulness was verified. In non-contact skin temperature measurement, expansion was performed on the image input type visible camera, infrared ray camera and other systems produced to date, and hardware structuring was completed. For the software, person extracting, position recognizing and attitude determining algorithms were developed, whose effectiveness was verified experimentally. A prospect was reached that in measuring stress indexing substances, the measurement can be performed non-invasively using small amount of saliva and urine. The sensitivity was enhanced 20 to 5000 times in catecholamine, and ten times in corticosteroid as much as that in the previous year. It is estimated that on-line measurement may be executed on cortisol by using saliva sample of 100 to 200 {mu} L. (NEDO)

  10. Emission behaviors of nitrous oxide from automobiles. 4th Report. Aging effect of three way catalyst on N2O mass emissions; Jidosha kara haishutsusareru asanka chisso (N2O) no haishutsu kyodo ni kansuru kenkyu. 4. Sangen shokubai no rekka ga N2O haishutsuryo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, N; Suzuki, H; Odaka, M [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Several kind of three way catalysts with different metal compositions have been developed for trial and their N2O formation behaviors before and after the durability tests have been observed. Then by comparing the N2O formation behavior between new and durability tested catalysts, N2O increase mechanism with aging has been experimentally analyzed. As results, A catalyst temperature at peak N2O formation will sift to higher side by the aging and enters in the range that is the higher percentage in use during test cycle driving. Then this is the main cause of increase in total N2O emission. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Research on variable swirl intake port for high-speed multivalve DI diesel engine. Effects of port configuration on flow characteristics and swirl generation capacity; 4 ben kogata kosoku DI diesel engine no kahen swirl kyuki port ni kansuru kenkyu. Kyuki port haichi ga ryudo tokusei to swirl seino ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, J; Ogawa, H; Tsuru, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In our previous papers, the variable swirl intake port system which can control a wide swirl ratio range (from 4 to 10) was described. This system consisted of two separate intake ports, one of them has a flow control valve for changing the swirl ratio. In this type of variable swirl system, some variations of port combination, port shape, and position can be designed. In this paper, the intake flow characteristics of various port combinations were analyzed on the basis of a steady-state air flow test and 3-dimensional computations. The results indicate that the total performance of the twin ports can be estimated from that of a single port in any kind of port combination. Some difference in flow patterns were found in a variety of port combinations even if each swirl ratio is similar. The selected port combinations in our previous study are good for a wide swirl control range. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Relationship between concentration of surfactant and pressure for droplet creation, and effect on droplet size in microchannel O/W emulsification; Maikurochaneru ni yoru O/W nyukaho ni okeru kaimen kasseizai nodo to ekiteki seisei atsuryoku no kankei, oyobi koreraga ekitekikei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakatsu, T.; Komori, H.; Oda, N.; Yonemoto, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    O/W (oil in water) emulsion is produced by micro-channel emulsification method, and the effects of surfactant concentration on the pressures at which droplet generation starts and stops are evaluated in connection with the water phase and oil phase interfacial tension. In addition, the effects of surfactant concentration and operational pressure on the droplet size are investigated by measuring the generated droplet distribution, mean droplet size, standard deviation, geometrical standard deviation, and the possibility of producing mono-dispersion emulsion whose droplet size is large than 10 micron. The breakthrough pressure and the minimum pressure for droplet generation become low with the increase of SDS (sodium lauryl sulfate) concentration. The surfactant concentration, however, is found to have no effect on the breakthrough pressure and the minimum pressure for droplet generation when the SDS concentration exceeds the critical micelle concentration. It is true also for a system added with NaCl. As regards droplet size, uniform 20{mu}m droplet is obtained irrespective of the surfactant concentration and pressure. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effects of sintering and paste-baking conditions on PTCR characteristic of (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} vacuum-sintered compact added with TiO{sub 2}(Ti) powder; TiO{sub 2}(ti) fun tenka (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} shinku shoketsutai no PTCR tokusei ni oyobosu shoketsu oyobi paste yakitsuke joken no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.; Hayashi, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1999-04-15

    The effects of sintering temperature (T{sub s}; 1,573 {approx} 1,748K) and time (t{sub s}; 0.6 {approx} 14.4ks) and paste-baking-temperature or heating temperature (T{sub b} or T{sub h}; 673 {approx} 1,273K; t{sub b} is 0.3ks) on PTCR characteristic were investigated for (Ba, Sr)TiO{sub 3} vacuum-sintered compact added with 3.9mass% TiO{sub 2}(Ti) powder of 12.5mass% TiO{sub 2}. The results obtained were as follows; (1) PTCR characteristic developed at all T{sub s} (t{sub s}=3.6ks, T{sub b}=853K). The electrical resistivity at room temperature ({rho}{sub rt}) showed a minimum value of 1.8 times 10{sup 2}ohmcenter dotcm and the {rho}{sub max}/{rho}{sub rt} showed a maximum value of about 10{sup 6} at 1,723K. (2)For all t{sub s} (T{sub s}=1,623K, T{sub b}=853K), PTCR characteristic developed. The {rho}{sub rt} showed a minimum value of 2.6 times 10{sup 3}ohmcenter dotcm at 7.2ks. (3) At T{sub b} above 823K (T{sub s}=1,623K, t{sub s}=3.6ks), PTCR characteristic developed. The {rho}{sub rt} showed a minimum value of 1.0 times 10{sup 3}ohmcenter dotcm. (4)The {rho}-T curve of (Ba, Sr)TiO{sub 3}+TiO{sub 2}(Ti) vacuum-sintered compact was affected more largely by T{sub s}, t{sub s} and T{sub b} than that of (Ba, Sr)TiO{sub 3} air-sintered compact. This was considered to be mainly due to the porous and fine gained microstructure in the former compact. (author)

  14. Report on survey on geothermal development promotion in fiscal 1999. Report on survey on environmental effects - noise and vibration (No. B-5, Busadake Area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa (soon shindo) hokokusho (No.B-5 Busadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Identification of noise and vibration levels and evaluation on environmental effects were performed in association with the excavation in the geothermal investigation well drilling point (well N11-MD-3) and the vicinity thereof in the Busadake area in Hokkaido. In the survey, noise and vibration were measured before and during the well excavation at the well drilling point and nearby four points (boundary of the drilling premises, 500-m point, Kawakita Spa and the entrance to the mountain stream of petroleum). In addition, a distance decay survey was carried out at five points in one direction from the well drilling point. The result of the noise measurement showed the value of about 30 to 50 dB before the well excavation at the drilling point and its vicinity, and about 40 to 60 dB during the excavation. The vibration was about 40 dB at the boundary of the premises during the excavation, whereas the places other than them showed the lower limit of measurement. In the distance decay of the noise, 75 dB at the 10-m point decayed to 50 dB or lower in the 200-m point, while the vibration level of 75 dB decayed to 30 dB or lower in the 100-m point. These facts lead to a conception that the noise and vibration in association with the well drilling would not give great influence on the neighboring environment. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1991 report on the results of the contract R and D of the human sense measuring application technology. Volume 2. R and D of the physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1991 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Targets of the total development is to develop technology to non-invasively/simply measure changes in physiological function for physical and mental stimuli and to develop a human sense measuring technology needed to realize 'comfortableness.' As a part of it, the following R and D were conducted in this fiscal year. As to the R and D of skin impedance measuring, measuring methods such as the conducting method and potential method were studied. Further, an experiment with a person to be tested was conducted using the experiment use electrode. And detected were skin impedance changes caused by mental strain stress which were distinguished from changes caused by external environment. As the blink reflection measuring method, the paper took up the eyelid micro-vibration method under consideration and verified effectiveness of the method. The data were acquired using the same person as tested in the above-mentioned experiment when he is not tired, and the extraction of parameters of blink reflection which change according to working loads was studied. As to the continued blood pressure measuring technology, a measuring method which gives no loads on the person tested was studied, and the measuring portion where stable output can be obtained was selected. In addition, small/lightweight continued blood pressure measuring instrument which can be used in daily life was trially manufactured and designed. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey of overseas coal import base arrangement and promotion. Effects of the expansion of coal trade by IPP on the supply/demand of general coal in Asia; 1997 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. IPP ni yoru sekitan boeki no kakudai ga Asia no ippantan jukyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In consideration of the coal situation in the Asia/Pacific region, a study was made of effects of the expansion of coal trade by IPP on supply/demand of general coal in Asia. When aggregating increases in demand of general coal for electric power use in ten Asian counties, they will be an increase of 130.75 million tons in 2005 over 1997. Fifty nine percent of it is equivalent to the increase by IPP and exceeds the demand expanded by electric utilities operators. Further, a possibility is predicted of contracts and coal quality being different from until now. However, there will be a lot of cases in which plans of constructing power plants in Asia are not so developed as expected except Japan, Korea and Taiwan, and also the effect of the currency crisis starting in Thailand largely affects. In terms of the coal supply, countries which export general coal are only China and Indonesia. Indonesian coal is expanding its production and export rapidly and remarkably. The environmental control in Asia has been tightening, and the fuel selected by IPP is mainly coal rather than natural gas. 40 refs., 94 figs., 179 tabs.

  17. Effects of Al and Mn, alone and in combination, on growth and nutrient status of red pine seedlings hydroponically grown in nutrient culture solution; Suiko saibaishita akamatsunae no seicho oyobi eiyo jotai ni taisuru Al to Mn no tandoku oyobi fukugo eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Izuta, T.; Aoki, M.; Totsuka, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1997-09-10

    Experiments have made clear the effects of Al and Mn on growth of red pine seedlings hydroponically grown. Analysis was performed on components of plants grown in culture solution into which Al and Mn were added alone or in combination. Photosynthesis velocity and dark respiration velocity of the seedlings were measured when they have fully grown. The following results were obtained: the Al addition reduces dry seedling weight, the T/R ratio (T is dry weight of a seedling above the ground and R is that under the ground) decreases as the addition amount is increased, and the photosynthesis velocity decreases; Al accumulates in roots reducing physiological function of the roots and concentrations of Ca and Mg; the dry weight decreases with increasing Mn addition, but does not affect the T/R ratio; the Mn addition reduces the photosynthesis velocity lowering chlorophyll content in needle leaves; the dark respiration velocity decreases as the Mn amount is increased, but does not affect that for trunks; Ca and Mg concentrations decrease in the trunks and roots; no significant compound effects of Al and Mn are recognized, and the effects are additive; and the concentration at which growth decrease appears is 10 ppm or higher for Al and 60 ppm or higher for Mn. 32 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Solidification of porous medium saturated with aqueous solution in a rectangular cell. ; Discussion on influence of initial concentration of solution and mean diameter of beads. Kukei sonai no suiyoeki de mitasareta takoshitsutai no gyoko. ; Shoki nodo to beads no heikin chokkei no eikyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, K [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of engineering; Okada, M [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Murakami, M [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yabushita, Y [Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-11-25

    Studies have been made for the purpose of analyzing solidification phenomenon of ground in relation to freezing construction method used in subway, water supply, and sewage constructions. Experimental studies have been carried out on solidification process of porous medium saturated with aqueous solution to discover influence of initial concentration of the solution and diameter of beads that constitute a porous medium. The experiment was performed by solidifying the porous medium sequentially from a side wall with lower temperature in a rectangular experimental tank with a height and a width of 100 mm filled with NaCl aqueous solution and beads. As a result, it was discovered that, if the initial concentration is low, the temperature difference is little between the upper part and the lower part of the experimental tank, and natural convection in the liquid-phase region is suppressed because of rising solidification temperature; the natural convection is suppressed in the liquid-phase region; and the boundary face between the mushy region and the liquid-phase region moves quickly. Further, the concentration rise in the liquid-phase region has slowed down despite that the solidification region is large enough. The smaller the mean diameter of beads, the faster the growth rate on the boundary face, hence the natural convection in the tank has been suppressed, and the growth rate on the boundary face has increased. In addition, the concentration stratification in the liquid-phase region does not expand, but is formed only on the bottom. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Solid/liquid phase change heat transfer in porous media. Effect of density inversion of water on melting process in a rectangular region; Takoshitsu sonai no ko-ekiso henka. Mizu no mitsudo gyakuten ga kukei ryoiki no yukai katei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaguchi, K [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-25

    Solid/liquid phase change in porous media has a wide relation with freezing and melting of ground bed, storage of cold heat in soil, and underground heat exchangers. This paper describes an investigation on the effect of density inversion on melting of ice in porous media by using the previously reported numerical analysis method. The high-temperature side temperature and the Darcy number were varied and investigated systematically on the ice in a porous media sealed in a rectangular container of which right hand side is maintained at elevated temperatures and the other three sides are insulated of heat. As a result, a large number of findings were obtained including the following matters: when the Darcy number is fixed at 4.01 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the high-temperature side temperature, Tw, is varied, the fluid descends along the high-temperature side because of the density inversion at Tw=4{degree}C, and forms one weak circulation that rotates clockwise; however, when the temperature reaches 16{degree}C, the circulation disappears, and a circulation rotating counterclockwise is observed, becoming identical to the case of a fluid where there is no density inversion; and change in the Nusselt number against the melting ratio, R, is the smallest at Tw=8{degree}C, and decreases monotonously with the R. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Properties of P/M forged Al-Si alloys made by premixed powders. 1. Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance; Kongoho ni yotte sakuseishita Al-Si kei shoketsu tanzo gokin no tokusei. 1. Taimamosei ni oyobosu shosho Si no bunsan jotai to ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishijima, Z.; Ichikawa, J.; Sasaki, s.; Shikata, H. [Hitachi Powdered Metals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-15

    Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance of P/M Al-Si alloys using the prealloying method and premixing method have been investigated. As a result, discretely dispersed proeutectic Si showed excellent wear resistance in compassion with uniformly dispersed one. The cause is considered to be the unclosed Si soft phase which has been preferentially worn away, consequently acting on forming oil grooves and burying worn particles. Further more the existence of the optimum size of proeutectic Si on wear resistance was confirmed. In the case of finer particles, only Al-Si alloy (pin) was warned away substantially. On the other handgun the case of larger particles, both the Al-Si alloy (pin) and the mating malarial (steel disc) were excessively warned away. It is assumed therefore that the finer proeutectic Si particles are not effective as hard particles, on the contrary, larger proeutectic Si particles increase the abrasive wear against the mating material, and those buried into the mating material initiate wear of Al-Si alloy at the same time. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Flow and mixing of gas in cylinder of a stratified charge engine with two intake valves. Effects of late closing valve timing and intake port configurations; Kyuki nibenshiki sojo kyuki engine no cylinder nai gas ryudo to kongo. Osotoji valve timing oyobi port keijo ni yoru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenphonphanich, C; Niwa, H; Ennoji, H; Iijima, T [Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A numerical analysis of the flow and mixing of rich mixture and air inducted into the cylinder through each of the two intake ports of a stratified charge engine have been carried out. Numerical calculations were performed by finite volume method for three types of the intake port configurations: inverse V type, parallel type and V type and two types of valve timing; conventional and late closing (Miller cycle). Velocity field, turbulent kinetic energy and distribution of mixture concentration in the cylinder were examined. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Thermal performance of a passive-designed dwelling unit. Annual thermal performance of two same-plan dwellings and influence of dwelling condition; Passive design sareta shugo jutaku no netsu seino ni kansuru kenkyu. Doitsu plan nijuko no nenkan netsuseino to lifestyle no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, N; Muro, K [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamata, K [Housing and Urban Development Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Measurements and analyses were made on two apartment houses which have attempted direct gain and natural ventilation. The measured houses are the houses A and B with total floor area of 130 m {sup 2}, respectively, in an apartment house of reinforced concrete structure, located in the southern area in Kanto Area. Sunlight is taken in from double glass windows in winter to store the heat in the reinforced concrete of the floor and rooms, while sunlight is shielded with the eaves and blinds in summer. The measurements were carried out on 16 points in every 30 minutes for one year. The result of the measurements may be summarized as follows: the indoor thermal environment in summer had the temperature varied between 24 and 34 degC because the air conditioner is used only infrequently; the house A attempts ventilation more positively than the house A, whereas the room temperature has become lower than 26 degC in about quarter of the whole measurement duration; and regarding the indoor thermal environment in winter, the house B had higher temperature in general, showing large variation with temperature exceeding 25 degC occasionally, which is thought because of difference in power consumption and ways of living in the building. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Study on closed pressure vessel test. Effect of heat rate, sample weight and vessel size on pressure rise due to thermal decomposition; Mippeigata atsuryoku yoki shiken ni kansuru kenkyu. Atsuryoku hassei kyodo ni oyobosu kanetsusokudo, shiryoryo oyobi youki saizu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Kenji.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering

    1999-02-28

    We have attempted to devise a new closed pressure vessel test apparatus in order to evaluate the violence of thermal decomposition of self-reactive materials and have examined some influencing factors, such as heat rate, sample weight, filling factor (sample weight/vessel size) and vessel size on Pmax (maximum pressure rise) and dP/dt (rate of pressure rise) due to their thermal decomposition. As a result, the following decreasing orders of Pmax and dP/dt were shown. Pmax: ADCA>BPZ>AIBN>TCP dP/dt: AIBN>BPZ>ADCA>TCP Moreover, Pmax was not almost influenced by heat rate, while dP/dt increased with an increase in heat rate in the case of BPZ. Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in sample weight and the degree of increase depended on the kinds of materials. In addition, it was shown that Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in vessel size at a constant filling factor. (author)

  4. Image processing analysis of combustion for D. I. diesel engine with high pressure fuel injection. ; Effects of air swirl and injection pressure. Nensho shashin no gazo shori ni yoru koatsu funsha diesel kikan no nensho kaiseki. ; Swirl oyobi funsha atsuryoku no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, I. (Japan Automobile Research Institute, Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)); Tsujimura, K.

    1994-02-25

    This paper reports an image processing analysis of combustion for a high-pressure direct injection diesel engine on the effects of air swirl and injection pressure upon combustion in the diesel engine. The paper summarizes a method to derive gas flow and turbulence strengths, and turbulent flow mixing velocity. The method derives these parameters by detecting movement of brightness unevenness on two flame photographs through utilizing the mutual correlative coefficients of image concentrations. Five types of combustion systems having different injection pressures, injection devices, and swirl ratios were used for the experiment. The result may be summarized as follows: variation in the average value of the turbulent flow mixing velocities due to difference in the swirl ratio is small in the initial phase of diffusion combustion; the difference is smaller in the case of high swirl ratio than in the case of low swirl ratio after the latter stage of the injection; the average value is larger with the higher the injection pressure during the initial stage of the combustion; after termination of the injection, the value is larger in the low pressure injection; and these trends agree with the trend in the time-based change in heat generation rates measured simultaneously. 6 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. FY 1991 report on the results of the contract R and D of the human sense measuring application technology. Volume 2. R and D of the physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1991 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu itaku kenkyu seika hokokusho. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    Targets of the total development is to develop technology to non-invasively/simply measure changes in physiological function for physical and mental stimuli and to develop a human sense measuring technology needed to realize 'comfortableness.' As a part of it, the following R and D were conducted in this fiscal year. As to the R and D of skin impedance measuring, measuring methods such as the conducting method and potential method were studied. Further, an experiment with a person to be tested was conducted using the experiment use electrode. And detected were skin impedance changes caused by mental strain stress which were distinguished from changes caused by external environment. As the blink reflection measuring method, the paper took up the eyelid micro-vibration method under consideration and verified effectiveness of the method. The data were acquired using the same person as tested in the above-mentioned experiment when he is not tired, and the extraction of parameters of blink reflection which change according to working loads was studied. As to the continued blood pressure measuring technology, a measuring method which gives no loads on the person tested was studied, and the measuring portion where stable output can be obtained was selected. In addition, small/lightweight continued blood pressure measuring instrument which can be used in daily life was trially manufactured and designed. (NEDO)

  6. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1993. 2. Research and development of physiological effect measuring technology (Part 1); 1993 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Development in fiscal 1993 of a composite physiological function measurement method to measure stresses included the development of a watch type device using the tri-electrode double-point simultaneous measuring method for skin impedance, and a device placed around a head as a blinking meter using the simplified potential method. Both were reduced largely in size and weight. They were verified to have good performance by the measurement performance experiments. For noncontact skin temperature measurement, a noncontact temperature measuring system will be developed that automatically tracks movement of the head of a human body which moves within a limited area, and continuously measure temperatures of specific positions with measurement resolution of 0.2 degree C. Image processing utilizing sensor fusion of infrared and visible images was used to have extracted successfully persons under the natural background. A technology was developed to recognize specific portions of a face (eyes and eyebrows). Developments were made on an algorithm to measure directions of a head, and an attitude controlling and measuring system using a magnetic sensor. In measuring stress index materials, a prospect was obtained to realize semi-macro measurement by collecting cortisol and catecholamine from saliva. Discussions were also given on detecting catecholamine in urine by using high-speed liquid chromatography. (NEDO)

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. System to make comprehensive evaluation of potential health effects of next generation image media; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Jisedai media seitai eikyo sogo hyoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper proposed the international standardization for the use of next generation image media by evaluating health effects of the use of next generation image media such as head mounted display and 3D monitor. A method to comprehensively evaluate health effects was studied with the design friendly to humans and standardization on safety as final targets. Themes were divided into the autonomous nervous system and the measuring system. The development was carried out of a method to evaluate the autonomous nervous function by the dynamic state of blood circulation and pupillary reflex as well as the development of portable sphygmomanometer and pupillometer. Using these developmental instruments and conventional instruments, measurement was made of blood pressure, cardiac output, respiration, pupil size, eyeball movement and focus accommodation. A possibility was suggested of obtaining the uniform elucidation also in case analytical changes of individual parameters cannot be extracted or consistency cannot be seen in the course of changes. The paper determined basic standards for the experimental use stereoscopic image, made measuring use 3D images, and collected realtime data by the overall simultaneous measuring system constructed. 109 refs., 166 figs., 18 tabs.

  8. FY 1991 report on the results of the contract R and D of the human sense measuring application technology. 2. R and D of the physiological effect measuring technology (2); 1991 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In this paper, the following were studied: (1) easy-wearing net-type brain wave sensor and multi-purpose telemeter; (2) multi-point brain wave measurement. In this fiscal year, the fundamental design and evaluation of these were conducted. In (1), conducted were the study of specifications of system and shape as fundamental design of easy-wearing net-type brain wave sensor, and the evaluation using functional works. As fundamental design of multi-purpose telemeter, studied were the detailed specifications of transmitter and receiver and the system design. In (2), as fundamental design of multi-point brain wave sensor (64 electrodes), conducted were the specifications of system and shape of 19 electrode sensors and the evaluation using functional works trially made. As fundamental design of the analyzer interface, a system was studied for taking brain wave signals of 64 channels into the analyzer by analog/digital conversion. As to the interpolation system of topography, the following were carried out: study of the optimum interpolation system for estimating the electric potential at the portion where the electrode is not installed, based on the electric potential at the portion where 64 brain wave electrodes are installed; and evaluation of the interpolation system using topography by 12-21 electrodes as the pre-stage of 64 electrodes. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1998 results of the intellectual basement project using functions of private companies (venture promotion type basement creation R and D project). Development of endocrine disrupter testing method and development of environmental assessment method; 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu ni taisuru shiken hoho kaihatsu oyobi eikyo hyoka shuho kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of assessing the risk in relation to endocrine disrupting chemicals, the following were conducted: development of testing/assessment method for endocrine disrupting chemicals, survey of the actual exposure assessment, development of measuring method for the concentration in the environment. In the development of the testing method, the following were carried out: development of a high-throughput screening method for evaluating endocrine disrupting chemicals; as screening testing method using mammals, uterotrophic assay, Hershberger assay using castrated male rats, thyroid hormone assay in pubertal rats, enhanced OECD 407 test guideline for 28-day toxicity test; study on yeast two-hybrid assay for endocrine disrupter; sex-reversal assay for suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals using S-rR strain medaka. In the development of exposure assessment method, estrogenic potency of individual nonylphenol congeners isolated from technical mixtures; determination of endocrine disrupters and related chemicals from industry and nature origin in river water and sediment; research for the flow of industrial origin chemicals; reconstruction of pollution history of chemicals using sediment cores. (NEDO)

  10. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1993. 2. Research and development of physiological effect measuring technology (Part 2); 1993 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The high-sensitivity brain wave measuring device has been given improvements in the simplified device net type brain wave sensor that has been improved in fiscal 1993, eliminating the steamy feeling in the head, giving better fitting feeling, and having cleared the target. The multiple application telemeter had the stability enhanced, making it possible to measure living organism signals such as electromyogram, electrocardiogram, eyeball movements, and respiration. To measure living organism activity and rhythm, development was made on a method to evaluate these subjects by using substitution characteristics with development of a portable monitor kept in mind. Measurement and evaluation methods were prepared on the living organism activity from the comparison of the autonomic nervous system activity derived from continuous measurement of pulse cycles with the change in spectra in the {alpha} brain wave. An intestinum rectum temperature correction filter using the number of pulses was fabricated to introduce a body temperature rhythm curve excluded of effects of the body activity. The living organism activity was evaluated comprehensively from the contrast between the daily activity variation and the circadian rhythm. Improvement of accuracy of the tympanum temperature sensor was also discussed. In developing the accelerated pulse meter, the size of the transmitter was reduced, a filter was developed to reduce obstruction signals contained in the signals, and development was begun on a personal computer based system. (NEDO)

  12. Effects of melt-temperature on limiting current density in Al electrodeposition and morphology of Al electrodeposits obtained from ambient temperature type molten salt; Joongata yoyuen kara no denki aluminium mekki no genkai denryu mitsudo oyobi denseki keitai ni oyobosu mekki ekion no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Tatano, M.; Uchida, Y. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-31

    Some of more important electrolytic solutions for Al electrodeposition are organic solvents, high-temperature type molten salts and low-temperature type molten salts having a melting point of 30{degree}C or lower, such as ethylmethylimidazolium chloride (EMIC). This study uses a molten salt of AlCl3-EMIC as the low-temperature type solution for high-speed electrodeposition. Discussed herein are the effects of melt temperature on limiting current density in Al electrodeposition and Al electrodeposit morphology. Limiting current density increases as melt temperature increases at any AlCl3 concentration used in this study. The AlCl3 concentration that gives the maximum limiting current density shifts from 64 to 67mol% at a melt temperature of 120{degree}C. A dense, smooth Al electrodeposited film results at a melt temperature of 100{degree}C or lower, but the electrodeposited grains become coarser as melt temperature increases. Melt temperature can be increased to 140{degree}C to secure a smooth electrodeposited film, showing possibility of 2 times faster electrodeposition than the conventional one. 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Study on a constant-tip-speed-ratio operation of wind power generation system. Effect of load control system on dynamic behavior; Furyoku hatsuden system no hensoku seigyo unten ni kansuru kenkyu. Fuka seigyokei ga system no rikigakuteki kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, T.; Yamaguchi, K. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Hashizume, T.; Ota, E. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1998-06-01

    The effect that the set data of the load control system in a wind power generation system exerts on the dynamic behavior of a system was investigated. The wind power generation system consists of a hybrid wind turbine with combined Darrieus and Savonius rotors, load with a generator and battery in the center, and a controller. A constant-tip-speed ratio operation that holds the circumferential speed ratio in which the power coefficient is maximized irrespective of the change in wind velocity was used to extract and convert the wind energy more effectively. In a high-wind velocity area, the system is operated at a fixed speed, and the increase in rotation is suppressed to protect the wing strength. In a large system, the response characteristics are only slightly improved by the limited load operation range and influenced rotor inertial. Power cannot be fully extracted even if the control system is changed in setting, and the applicability to the wind situation remains low. During the actual operation, the adjustment value of the control system should be set so that the output operation is satisfactorily possible in the specified load operation range, that is, the change in the instantaneous value of an effective power coefficient indicates almost flat gain characteristics in frequency characteristics. 14 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Fiscal 1999 survey for promotion of geothermal energy development. Survey report of environmental impact survey - Hot spring fluctuation (No. B-5, Musadake district); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (onsen hendo) (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Research boreholes N11-MD-3 and -4 were drilled in Shibetsu-cho, Shibetsu-gun, Hokkaido, in the period July 1999 through December 1999, and thermal water was examined at the sites in July and November 1999. For the purpose of detecting the impact of the said work on the environment, local hot springs were examined for their status before, during, and after the drilling period. Measurements were conducted in the period August 5, 1998, through December 31, 2000. It was found that no fluctuation in water temperature or yield attributable to the drilling was detected. Hot springs were examined for nine items including water temperature and pH level at four spots which were Kaiyo-dai, River Tenyu, and Otoko-yu and Onna-yu of Kawakita Hot Spring, when 23-31 measurements were performed from each of the four. (NEDO)

  15. Report on achievements of research and development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. 2. Research and development of a physiological effect measuring technology (Part 2); 1992 nendo ningen kankaku keisoku oyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. 2. Seiriteki eikyo keisoku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the physiological effect measuring technology, extracted from the achievements in the development of a technology to apply human senses to measurements in fiscal 1992. Primary prototype fabrication and evaluation were given on an easy-to-mount high-sensitivity brain wave measuring instrument. The multiple application telemeter has come close to completion excepting the integration. For multi-point brain wave measurement, analyzing device interface was completed. In measuring living organism activity and rhythm, development was made on an evaluation method that uses substituting characteristics, with a portable monitor kept in mind. The activity generated by power spectrum change in the {alpha} brain wave was compared with that in the autonomic nervous system to derive the mutual relationship therein, whereas usefulness of the pulse cycle characteristics was verified. Development was made on a method to measure and analyze the tympanum temperature rhythm that corresponds to the intestinum rectum rhythm, and the tympanum temperature was measured discretely by using an infrared sensor. Verification was given on the correlation between the circadian rhythm derived from the intestinum rectum temperature and that derived from the discrete measurement. In developing a nonrestraind accelerated pulse meter, a transmitter of the small accelerated pulse meter that can measure pulses under non-invasive and nonrestraint condition was fabricated on a trial basis, whose easiness of mounting and possibility of signal transmission were demonstrated. (NEDO)

  16. Effects of elasticity on the damping characteristics of viscous shearing damper and estimation curve for modal damping in stay cables with this type of dampers. Cable seishin'yo nensei sendangata damper no gensui fuka tokusei ni oyobosu banegosei no eikyo to sono sekkeiyo gensui hyoka kyokusen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, M. (Kawada Industries Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Shimoda, I. (Oiles Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-12-20

    Oil dampers and viscous shearing dampers have been used to control wind-induced cable vibrations of cable-stayed bridges. The damping addition efficiency in the case where only damping force of the viscous shearing damper is considered was discussed in the previous paper. In this paper, more precise estimation is done by also considering the spring elasticity of the damper. Arranging the results of an indoor excitation test on viscous shearing dampers using SA-P viscous body, an experimental equation to express the spring rigidity is derived. The spring elasticity becomes smaller with increasing temperature of viscous body, decreasing frequency, and increasing amplitude. Then, the damping addition effect is measured by installing the viscous shearing damper on the actual bridge cable, and is compared with the theoretical value resulting from the complex-eigenvalue analysis. Consequently, it is shown that the theoretical value is almost correspondent with the measured result through the analysis using equivalent coefficient of viscosity and equivalent spring constant, which are arranged in the experimental equation. Moreover, application examples of damping estimation curves for designing cables with dampers are given. 15 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. FY 1998 survey report. Survey on reduction in environmental effect of greenhouse effect gas by the transfer of environmental technology in the Asian region; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Asia chiiki ni okeru kankyo gijutsu iten ni yoru onshitsu koka gas no kankyo eikyo keigen ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Effects of the transfer of environmental technology were studied as an important policy for control of greenhouse effect gas in the Asian region. As schemes, those that were drew up by NEDO, JICA, etc. now exist and are used also in Japan. However, for the control of greenhouse effect gas emission which is expected to rapidly increase in future, it is indispensable to construct a new powerful and effective scheme in which technology transfer and fund to be given are organically connected. Especially, in the U.S., etc., the assistance of developing countries of a huge amount of money such as Japan's ODA is not extended. However, they position the environmental technology as an important strategy and is developing the assistance of developing countries by technology transfer and eco-business of private companies. Also in the eco-business field, the environment-related technology of Japanese companies is used in Asian developing countries, with expectations of its being a new business with international competitive strength. This is the subject for the whole global environment, and an important subject also for Japan which requires the creation of a new business field with international competitive strength. (NEDO)

  18. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I; Maenaka, H; Takada, A [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Measurement of ultra-micro chemical substances and measuring methods of hormone effects; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Chobiryo kagaku busshitsu no keisoku horumon eikyo sayo sokuteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Concerning the measurement system of ultra-micro hazardous chemical substances in the global environment, the paper examined the present situation of chemical substances such as dioxins, made an experimental study on the method to analyze dioxins in exhaust gas from an aspect of international consistency, and worked out a JIS draft. As to the standard measuring method of hormone effects of chemical substances, the paper developed the competitive bonding experiment system to measure bonding ability of chemical substances to homo sapiens estrogen receptor (ER). By measuring ER bonding ability of 78 kinds of chemical substances, the measuring method was developed. In the development of the assay system for detection of hormone-like compounds, the assay system with transfer activity via estrogen receptor as an index was established using cultured cells and yeast. Further, the development was made of a measuring method of receptor bonding activity of hormone-like substances. 33 refs., 151 figs., 66 tabs.

  20. Resveratrol and Endothelial Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO derived from the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS has antihypertensive, antithrombotic, anti-atherosclerotic and antiobesogenic properties. Resveratrol is a polyphenol phytoalexin with multiple cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Part of the beneficial effects of resveratrol are mediated by eNOS. Resveratrol stimulates NO production from eNOS by a number of mechanisms, including upregulation of eNOS expression, stimulation of eNOS enzymatic activity and reversal of eNOS uncoupling. In addition, by reducing oxidative stress, resveratrol prevents oxidative NO inactivation by superoxide thereby enhancing NO bioavailability. Molecular pathways underlying these effects of resveratrol involve SIRT1, AMPK, Nrf2 and estrogen receptors.

  1. On the application of subcell resolution to conservation laws with stiff source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.

    1989-11-01

    LeVeque and Yee recently investigated a one-dimensional scalar conservation law with stiff source terms modeling the reacting flow problems and discovered that for the very stiff case most of the current finite difference methods developed for non-reacting flows would produce wrong solutions when there is a propagating discontinuity. A numerical scheme, essentially nonoscillatory/subcell resolution - characteristic direction (ENO/SRCD), is proposed for solving conservation laws with stiff source terms. This scheme is a modification of Harten's ENO scheme with subcell resolution, ENO/SR. The locations of the discontinuities and the characteristic directions are essential in the design. Strang's time-splitting method is used and time evolutions are done by advancing along the characteristics. Numerical experiment using this scheme shows excellent results on the model problem of LeVeque and Yee. Comparisons of the results of ENO, ENO/SR, and ENO/SRCD are also presented

  2. Exhaled Nitric Oxide is Decreased by Exposure to the Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zudin A. Puthucheary

    2006-01-01

    or 40% oxygen, 1 ATA. In an in vitro study, nitrate/nitrite release decreased after 90 minutes HBOT in airway epithelial (A549 cells. Conclusion. HBO exposure causes a fall in eNO. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS may cause elevated eNO in patients secondary to inflammation, and inhibition of iNOS may be the mechanism of the reduction of eNO seen with HBOT.

  3. Exhaled Nitric Oxide Is Useful in Symptomatic Radioactive Pneumonia: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to defect the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO prediction value of symptomatic radioactive pneumonia (SRP. 64 cases of lung cancer or esophagus cancer, who had the primary radiotherapy (intensity-modulated radiation therapy, were included from 2015 June to 2016 January. During the following, the patients were divided: the symptomatic radiation pneumonia group (SRP, with the CTCAE v4.0 score > 2 and the asymptomatic radiation pneumonia group (ASRP, with CTCAE v4.0 score ≤ 1. All the patients were measured eNO before and at the end of thoracic radiotherapy and gain the posttherapy eNO value and the eNO ratio (posttherapy eNO value/pretherapy eNO value, then the predictive values of eNO toward SRP were measured using the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC. 17 cases were included in the SRP group and the other 47 were included in the ASRP group. The posttherapy eNO was 29.35 (19~60 bbp versus 20.646 (11~37 (P<0.001, and the ratio was 1.669 (0.61~3.5 versus 0.920 (0.35~1.5 (P<0.01 (symptomatic versus asymptomatic. ROC showed that the cutoff value of SRP was 19.5 bbp (posttherapy eNO, area under concentration-time curve (AUC = 0.879 and 1.305 (eNO ratio, AUC = 0.774, which meant that posttherapy eNO and eNO ratio were useful in finding SRP.

  4. Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with the risk of Henoch-Schönlein purpura/Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiqiang; Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zongpei

    2015-04-01

    Association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphism and Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP)/Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) risk is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between eNOS gene polymorphism and HSP/HSPN susceptibility. A predefined literature search and selection of eligible relevant studies were performed to collect data from electronic database. Three articles were identified for the analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphism and HSPN/HSP risk. eNOS G894T gene polymorphism was not associated with HSPN susceptibility and the risk of patients with HSP developing into HSPN. Interestingly, eNOS G894T T allele and GG genotype were associated with HSP susceptibility, but not the TT genotype. eNOS T786C TT genotype was associated with HSPN susceptibility, but not C allele and CC genotype. Furthermore, eNOS T786C gene polymorphism was not associated with HSP risk and the risk of patients with HSP developing into HSPN. In conclusion, eNOS T786C TT genotype was associated with and eNOS G894T T allele and GG genotype were associated with HSP susceptibility. However, more studies should be performed in the future.

  5. Posttranslational inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the transgenic sickle cell mouse penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Champion, Hunter C.; Hsu, Lewis L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction in the penis. However, the mechanism of decreased eNOS function/activation in the penis in association with SCD is not known. AIMS Our hypothesis in the present study was that eNOS is functionally inactivated in the SCD penis in association with impairments in eNOS posttranslational phosphorylation and the enzyme’s interactions with its regulatory proteins. METHODS Sickle cell transgenic (sickle) mice were used as an animal model of SCD. Wild type (WT) mice served as controls. Penes were excised at baseline for molecular studies. eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 (positive regulatory site) and Thr-495 (negative regulatory site), total eNOS, and phosphorylated AKT (upstream mediator of eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177) expressions, and eNOS interactions with heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and caveolin-1 were measured by Western blot. Constitutive NOS catalytic activity was measured by conversion of L-[14C]arginine-to-L-[14C]citrulline in the presence of calcium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Molecular mechanisms of eNOS dysfunction in the sickle mouse penis. RESULTS eNOS phosphorylated on Ser-1177, an active portion of eNOS, was decreased in the sickle mouse penis compared to WT penis. eNOS interaction with its positive protein regulator HSP90, but not with its negative protein regulator caveolin-1, and phosphorylated AKT expression, as well as constitutive NOS activity, were also decreased in the sickle mouse penis compared to WT penis. eNOS phosphorylated on Thr-495, total eNOS, HSP90, and caveolin-1 protein expressions in the penis were not affected by SCD. CONCLUSION These findings provide a molecular basis for chronically reduced eNOS function in the penis by SCD, which involves decreased eNOS phosphorylation on Ser-1177 and decreased eNOS-HSP90 interaction. PMID:21143412

  6. Requirement of phosphorylatable endothelial nitric oxide synthase at Ser-1177 for vasoinhibin-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Celina; Nuñez-Anita, Rosa Elvira; Thebault, Stéphanie; Arredondo Zamarripa, David; Jeziorsky, Michael C; Martínez de la Escalera, Gonzalo; Clapp, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide is a major vasorelaxing factor and a mediator of vasopermeability and angiogenesis. Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic prolactin fragments that include 16 K prolactin, block most eNOS-mediated vascular effects. Vasoinhibins activate protein phosphatase 2A, causing eNOS inactivation through dephosphorylation of eNOS at serine residue 1179 in bovine endothelial cells and thereby blocking vascular permeability. In this study, we examined whether human eNOS phosphorylation at S1177 (analogous to bovine S1179) influences other actions of vasoinhibins. Bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells were stably transfected with human wild-type eNOS (WT) or with phospho-mimetic (S1177D) or non-phosphorylatable (S1177A) eNOS mutants. Vasoinhibins inhibited the increases in eNOS activity, migration, and proliferation following the overexpression of WT eNOS but did not affect these responses in cells expressing S1177D and S1177A eNOS mutants. We conclude that eNOS inhibition by dephosphorylation of S1177 is fundamental for the inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation by vasoinhibins.

  7. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugusman, Azizah; Zakaria, Zaiton; Hui, Chua Kien; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: control, treatment with 180 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), treatment with 150 microg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H(2)O(2) for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  8. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Ugusman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. METHODS: HUVECs were divided into four groups: control, treatment with 180 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, treatment with 150 μg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H2O2 for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  9. Six Open Questions about the Migration of Engineered Nano-Objects from Polymer-Based Food Contact Materials: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokar, Maryam; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Löschner, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    . Current research focusing on FCMs has often reached inconsistency regarding migration of ENOs. The scope of this critical review is to give a concise overview of the most relevant aspects of the subject, and to identify and discuss the major open questions in relation to migration of ENOs from FCMs....... This includes the very fundamental questions whether ENOs can migrate from FCMs at all and what the potential release mechanisms of ENOs could be. The inconsistency of findings from experimental studies is highlighted based on the example of silver nanoparticle migration from polymer-based FCMs. Challenges...

  10. Crystal structure of enolase from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Congcong; Xu, Baokui; Liu, Xueyan; Zhang, Zhen; Su, Zhongliang

    2017-04-01

    Enolase is an important enzyme in glycolysis and various biological processes. Its dysfunction is closely associated with diseases. Here, the enolase from Drosophila melanogaster (DmENO) was purified and crystallized. A crystal of DmENO diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and belonged to space group R32. The structure was solved by molecular replacement. Like most enolases, DmENO forms a homodimer with conserved residues in the dimer interface. DmENO possesses an open conformation in this structure and contains conserved elements for catalytic activity. This work provides a structural basis for further functional and evolutionary studies of enolase.

  11. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D project on the industrial technology for the global environment. R and D of the prediction technology of environmental effects brought by CO2 ocean sequestration (Ocean survey and development of evaluation technology for CO2 sequestration ability); 1999 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo NEDO seika hokokusho. Nisankatanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu (Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO2 kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Assuming the melting and sequestration of CO2 at the intermediate depth of the sea area around Japan, study of evaluation technology of CO2 sequestration ability in ocean was studied, and the FY 1999 results were summed up. In the ocean survey, survey was conducted by ship (No.2 Hakurei-maru) mainly at typical observation points and traverse lines of long. 147 E and long. 155 E. In the survey, the following data were acquired: data on seawater density and chemical tracer, data on release of intermediate-depth/independent buoys, concentration distribution of carbonic acid base substances/nutrient salts/chlorophyll, data on the existing amount of marine organisms and primary production speed measurement experiment, data on experiment on CO2 on-board exposure to organisms in the intermediate depth of ocean, etc. In the measurement/analysis of the sediment particle flux amount, sediment traps were installed/recovered. Further, for the purpose of measuring the neutralizing effect of calcium carbonate, operation test on CaCO{sub 3} melting experimental equipment was conducted in the actual sea area. In the development of a model for evaluation of CO2 sequestration ability, carried out were the improvement of the model using the inverse method, study of the estimated accuracy using the ocean observation data, etc. (NEDO)

  12. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells (alloy-base amorphous materials, PIN layers, strains in the interface, and effects of impurities); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Usumaku taiyo denchi jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka (gokinkei amorphous zairyo pin kakuso kaimen ni okeru yugami fujunbutsu nado no eikyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, A; Oeda, H; Yamasaki, S; Hata, N; Kondo, M; Toshima, Y; Sakata, I; Ganguly, G; Suzuki, A; Kamei, T; Okushi, H; Nonaka, H; Oda, N; Katagiri, H; Ichimura, N; Kokubu, K; Nakamura, K; Sekikawa, T; Yamanaka, M [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for thin film solar cells. The study on quantitative analysis of hydrogen atoms in a plasma determines quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma of monosilane diluted with hydrogen. It is found, contrary to expectation, that quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma decreases as it is more diluted with hydrogen. The study on light-induced degradation of the thin chlorine-base amorphous silicon films confirms that the plasma CVD method with 20% of dichlorosilane gas added to monosilane gas produces the thin amorphous silicon film 3 times faster than the conventional method. The thin film has essentially the same defect density as the one prepared by the conventional method, showing good photoelectric characteristics. The thin film of chlorinated amorphous silicon has a 1 digit lower defect density than the conventional one of amorphous silicon, as revealed by the accelerated degradation test with irradiated laser light and the constant current method to determine saturated defect density. 3 figs.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the research and development to lead to gas hydrate using technology. Research and development on exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, survey and research on a method to evaluate environmental impact, and survey and research on a utilization system; 1997 nendo gas haidoreto shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansanado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The present study is intended to analyze comprehensively geophysical, geological and geochemical data, and establish a technology to estimate distribution of gas hydrate (GH) in sea areas around Japan. It is also intended to develop a high-accuracy resource amount calculating method utilizing the result of excavation of GH planned in the future. In order to achieve these goals, the following activities are performed: (1) study on a method to estimate production environment of GH deposits, (2) development of a method to estimate GH stability areas by using the crust thermal flow measuring method, and (3) study on estimation of GH distribution and wide-area potential. For the study (1), an inorganic element analyzer was introduced, and calibration of devices was performed in fiscal 1997. A survey was carried out on literatures related to distribution of inorganic elements and process of GH deposit production. In the study (2), design and trial fabrication were executed on a high-accuracy crust thermal flow measuring device, capable of long-term continuous observation. In the study (3), re-processing focusing on BSR was implemented by using the latest computer and analysis software on the data in which BSR has been confirmed in the surveys done in the past on sea areas around Japan. (NEDO)

  14. Advanced research and development of gas hydrate resources. R and D of exploration and others - R and D of excavation technologies and others - surveys/researches on methods of evaluating environmental effects - surveys/researches on application systems; Gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu / kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu / kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu / riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Gas hydrate is a clathrate compound in a gaseous molecule as the host, stable under relatively mild environments. It is deposited in the 600m or deeper sea bottoms to form the gas hydrate deposit and massively occurring in the sea areas around Japan. This deposit has been studied viewed from natural gas resources, causes for natural hazards and contribution to the global warming. This project excavates a well in the deposit, to study possibilities of the technologies for decomposing, fluidizing and lifting the hydrate as the gas source, and for establishing the natural gas transporting/mooring systems in which its characteristics are utilized. The R and D activities are directed to the 4 areas, (1) development of the exploration technologies to determine the deposit sea area, quantity and conditions, (2) development of the stable well-excavation technologies, (3) studies on the effects of gas production on the environments, and development of the system for predicting the effects, (4) and studies on the application systems. The item (3) finds out the transportation/storage system possibly more economical than the current freezing/liquefaction technologies. The item (3) has the development themes of evaluating the geohazards caused by excavation and gas production, and their effects on the ecological systems. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology to use gas hydrate as a resource (Research and development for exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and investigative research on a utilization system); 1999 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The contents of the research and development performed in the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) research and development for exploration, (2) research and development on drilling technologies, (3) investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and (4) investigative research on a utilization system. In Item (1), element analysis data are used to study a method to estimate production environment of hydrate ore beds by using an inorganic ion analyzer and a trace amount element analyzer, the crust thermal flow measuring method is used to discuss a method to analyze the hydrate stability zones together with the data of sea area exploration records, and conceptual design is made on a resource potential evaluation system. In Item (2), experiments and analytical discussions are performed on decomposition control of the gas hydrate solid-liquid interface according to such conditions for the drilling fluid as temperatures and flow rates. Elucidation is given on the initial process of bubble generation for behavior of decomposed gas bubbles. Observation and elucidation are made on two-phase flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluid. In Item (3), conceptual design is carried out on a system to detect elements of shape change in each bed due to fluid movement in a gas hydrate bed and an upper bed. In Item (4), discussions are given on the optimizing conditions for generation and dissociation of gas hydrates. Investigation is made also on a possibility of the transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  16. FY 2000 report on the results of the R and D of the prediction technology for environmental effects of CO2 ocean sequestration. Ocean survey and development of the assessment technology for capacity of CO2 sequestration; 2000 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO2 kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Assuming the dissolution/sequestration of CO2 at the medium-depth sea area around Japan (depth: 1,000-2,000m), the development was being proceeded with of the assessment technology for capacity of CO2 ocean sequestration and the prediction technology of environmental effects at the point of CO2 discharge. In FY 2000, conducted were the ocean survey and the development of assessment technology for CO2 sequestration capacity. In the investigational study, the following three were carried out: 1) survey/observation of the flow field on the line of 165 degrees of east longitude, and acquisition of various data such as the distribution of carbonic acid base substances and the speed of carbon transport; 2) study of the amount of existence of organisms and kind/composition of the medium-depth plankton at the typical observation points; 3) test/experiment actually conducted in the sea area for the experimental equipment for CaCO3 dissolution experimental equipment for studying interactions between the CO2 and CaCO3 dissolved into the medium-depth sea. As to the development of the assessment technology, carried out were the heightening of accuracy of medium-depth ocean circulation models using the inverse method already developed and the estimation of the flow field using the observation data. At the same time, the estimation of the flow field, etc. were conducted using large circulation ocean models. (NEDO)

  17. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to forecast environmental effect in association with isolation of carbon dioxide in oceans. Ocean surveys and development of a technology to evaluate CO2 separation capability; 1998 nendo nisanka tanso no kaiyo kakuri ni tomonau kankyo eikyo yosoku gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaiyo chosa oyobi CO{sub 2} kakuri noryoku hyoka gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Assuming that CO2 is dissolved and separated in the middle layer in a sea area around Japan, ocean surveys were carried out to acquire fundamental data required for development of a technology to evaluate CO2 separation capability of ocean, and for development of a technology to forecast environmental effect. In addition, using the western part of the Pacific Ocean as the object, development was performed on a numerical model to forecast behavior of CO2 in ocean in the scale of several ten years to several hundred years, and evaluate capability of CO2 separation from atmosphere. The research and development items for the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) ocean surveys, (2) model development, and (3) surveys and studies required for the ocean surveys and experiments. The survey voyage for item (1) was executed centering on the courses of traverse on 140 degree line of east longitude and 147 degree line of east longitude. The voyage surveyed densities of sea water, such data as chemical tracers, discharged mid-layer neutral buoys, carbonic acid based substances, marine living organisms, and sedimentary particles. For item (2), trial calculations were performed by using an inverse model to estimate structures of ocean flows, and discussions were given to enhance the accuracy. For item (3), design and fabrication were carried out on an equipment to experiment on-site dissolution of calcium carbonate, and a chamber for on-site experiments at deep sea bottom. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1998 annual report on the preliminary research and development of techniques for developing resources from gas-hydrate. Studies on gas-hydrate exploration, excavation techniques, methods for assessing environmental impacts, and gas hydrate handling systems; 1998 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendoken kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansanado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no kenkyu kaihatsu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This R and D project is for the preliminary studies on development of the following 4 types of techniques for developing resources from gas-hydrates (GH): (1) gas-hydrate exploration, (2) excavation techniques, (3) methods for assessing environmental impacts, and (4) gas hydrate handling systems. The FY 1988 R and D results are described. For gas-hydrate exploration, the methods for analyzing inorganic ions and trace quantities of elements, which are necessary for accurately estimating the offshore GH around Japan, are established; and case studies are conducted for methods of predicting GH deposit forming mechanisms, and stability fields of GH, based on terrestrial heat flow and seismic data. For excavation techniques, GH decomposition rate is analyzed using a laboratory system which reproduces conditions of excavation of GH layers. For methods for assessing environmental impacts, a geo-hazard predicting model is established, to study ground displacement and gas leakage sensing systems and data transmission systems to cope with the hazards. For gas hydrate handling systems, an overall system is studied, and storage and transportation systems are outlined. (NEDO)

  19. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  20. Tetrahydrobiopterin Has a Glucose-Lowering Effect by Suppressing Hepatic Gluconeogenesis in an Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase–Dependent Manner in Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudukadier, Abulizi; Fujita, Yoshihito; Obara, Akio; Ohashi, Akiko; Fukushima, Toru; Sato, Yuichi; Ogura, Masahito; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Hosokawa, Masaya; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction induces insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of eNOS that regulates eNOS activity. In the diabetic state, BH4 is oxidized to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin, which leads to eNOS dysfunction owing to eNOS uncoupling. The current study investigates the effects of BH4 on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. Single administration of BH4 lowered fasting blood glucose levels in wild-type mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and alleviated eNOS dysfunction by increasing eNOS dimerization in the liver of these mice. Liver has a critical role in glucose-lowering effects of BH4 through suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. BH4 activated AMP kinase (AMPK), and the suppressing effect of BH4 on gluconeogenesis was AMPK-dependent. In addition, the glucose-lowering effect and activation of AMPK by BH4 did not appear in mice with STZ-induced diabetes lacking eNOS. Consecutive administration of BH4 in ob/ob mice ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Taken together, BH4 suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis in an eNOS-dependent manner, and BH4 has a glucose-lowering effect as well as an insulin-sensitizing effect in diabetic mice. BH4 has potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23649519