WorldWideScience

Sample records for chitosan-coated superparamagnetic iron

  1. Synthesis optimization and characterization of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles produced for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS MNPs) were in situ synthesized by cross-linking method. In this method; during the adsorption of cationic chitosan molecules onto the surface of anionic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with electrostatic interactions, tripolyphosphate (TPP) is added for ionic cross-linking of the chitosan molecules with each other. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses. The XRD and XPS analyses proved that the synthesized iron oxide was magnetite (Fe3O4). The layer of chitosan on the magnetite surface was confirmed by FTIR. TEM results demonstrated a spherical morphology. In the synthesis, at higher NH4OH concentrations, smaller sized nanoparticles were obtained. The average diameters were generally between 2 and 8 nm for CS MNPs in TEM and between 58 and 103 nm in DLS. The average diameters of bare MNPs were found as around 18 nm both in TEM and DLS. TGA results indicated that the chitosan content of CS MNPs were between 15 and 23 % by weight. Bare and CS MNPs were superparamagnetic. These nanoparticles were found non-cytotoxic on cancer cell lines (SiHa, HeLa). The synthesized MNPs have many potential applications in biomedicine including targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic hyperthermia.

  2. Synthesis optimization and characterization of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles produced for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsoy, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeunsoy@hotmail.com [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey); Yalcin, Serap [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biological Sciences (Turkey); Khodadust, Rouhollah [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey); Gunduz, Gungor [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey); Gunduz, Ufuk, E-mail: ufukg@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biological Sciences (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    The chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS MNPs) were in situ synthesized by cross-linking method. In this method; during the adsorption of cationic chitosan molecules onto the surface of anionic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with electrostatic interactions, tripolyphosphate (TPP) is added for ionic cross-linking of the chitosan molecules with each other. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses. The XRD and XPS analyses proved that the synthesized iron oxide was magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The layer of chitosan on the magnetite surface was confirmed by FTIR. TEM results demonstrated a spherical morphology. In the synthesis, at higher NH{sub 4}OH concentrations, smaller sized nanoparticles were obtained. The average diameters were generally between 2 and 8 nm for CS MNPs in TEM and between 58 and 103 nm in DLS. The average diameters of bare MNPs were found as around 18 nm both in TEM and DLS. TGA results indicated that the chitosan content of CS MNPs were between 15 and 23 % by weight. Bare and CS MNPs were superparamagnetic. These nanoparticles were found non-cytotoxic on cancer cell lines (SiHa, HeLa). The synthesized MNPs have many potential applications in biomedicine including targeted drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic hyperthermia.

  3. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction. PMID:23827538

  4. Biocompatibility of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with osteoblast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Si-Feng Shi,1 Jing-Fu Jia,2 Xiao-Kui Guo,3 Ya-Ping Zhao,2 De-Sheng Chen,1 Yong-Yuan Guo,1 Tao Cheng,1 Xian-Long Zhang11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Bone disorders (including osteoporosis, loosening of a prosthesis, and bone infections are of great concern to the medical community and are difficult to cure. Therapies are available to treat such diseases, but all have drawbacks and are not specifically targeted to the site of disease. Chitosan is widely used in the biomedical community, including for orthopedic applications. The aim of the present study was to coat chitosan onto iron oxide nanoparticles and to determine its effect on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.Methods: Nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, zeta potential, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Uptake of nanoparticles by osteoblasts was studied by transmission electron microscopy and Prussian blue staining. Viability and proliferation of osteoblasts were measured in the presence of uncoated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles or those coated with chitosan. Lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein synthesis, and extracellular calcium deposition was studied in the presence of the nanoparticles.Results: Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles enhanced osteoblast proliferation, decreased cell membrane damage, and promoted cell differentiation, as indicated by an increase in alkaline phosphatase and extracellular calcium deposition. Chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed good compatibility with osteoblasts.Conclusion: Further research is necessary to optimize magnetic nanoparticles for the treatment of bone disease

  5. Superparamagnetic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (AMI 25) is a promising new contrast agent for imaging the reticuloendothelial-system. Iron oxide crystals possess a large magnetic susceptibility and enhance proton relaxation rates, especially transverse relaxation (T2). In order to guide the clinical utilization of this contrast media 4 patients with malignant lesions of the liver are analyzed before and after slow intravenous administration (20 μmol Fe/kg) of AMI 25. Two magnetic resonance (MR) sequences are performed at different times using 0.35 T magnet. MR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reticuloendothelial-system (particularly the liver SNR) decrease promptly. The maximum decrease in SNR (67-72 percent for the liver, 46-65 percent for the spleen, 23-41 percent for the bone marrow) is observed 3 h after injection (P<0.01). However, except the peak of contrast enhancement in T1-weighted sequence of splenic tissue, the curve describes a plateau within 30 min and 6 h, allowing a delay between injection and imaging. T2-weighted sequences give a greater contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by adding the spontaneous tumor contrast to the effect yielded by AMI 25. These results suggest that images must be acquired between 1 and 6 h after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide. (author). 18 refs.; 6 figs

  6. Superparamagnetic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the value of MR imaging of hepatic malignant tumors after injection of different concentrations of superparamagnetic iron oxide (AMI-25) at 1.5 T. Fourteen patients with pathologically proved hepatic malignant tumors were imaged on a 1.5 T magnet. T1-weighted (TR = 400 msec, TE = 20 msec) and T2-weighted (TR = 2,000 msec, TE = 40, 90 msec) sequences were obtained before and 1 hour after intravenous injection of varying concentrations of AMI-25 (10-20 μmol/kg). Signal intensity measurements were obtained from tumor, liver, and background noise. The contrast-to-noise ratio was calculated at the lesion-to-liver signal intensity difference scaled to image noise, including ghost artifacts. Statistical tests were then applied to compare the lesion-to-liver contrast before and after injection

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of highly stable diversely functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Dipsikha; Sahu, Sumanta K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Banerjee, Indranil [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Das, Manasmita [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Mishra, Debashish; Maiti, Tapas K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Pramanik, Panchanan, E-mail: dipsikha.chem@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2011-09-15

    In this article, we report the design and synthesis of a series of well-dispersed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using chitosan as a surface modifying agent to develop a potential T{sub 2} contrast probe for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and thiol functionalities were introduced on chitosan-coated magnetic probe via simple reactions with small reactive organic molecules to afford a series of biofunctionalized nanoparticles. Physico-chemical characterizations of these functionalized nanoparticles were performed by TEM, XRD, DLS, FTIR, and VSM. The colloidal stability of these functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in presence of phosphate buffer saline, high salt concentrations and different cell media for 1 week. MRI analysis of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines treated with nanoparticles elucidated that the amine-functionalized nanoparticles exhibited higher amount of signal darkening and lower T{sub 2} relaxation in comparison to the others. The cellular internalization efficacy of these functionalized SPIONs was also investigated with HeLa cancer cell line by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence microscopy and results established selectively higher internalization efficacy of amine-functionalized nanoparticles to cancer cells. These positive attributes demonstrated that these nanoconjugates can be used as a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological evaluation of highly stable diversely functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we report the design and synthesis of a series of well-dispersed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using chitosan as a surface modifying agent to develop a potential T2 contrast probe for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and thiol functionalities were introduced on chitosan-coated magnetic probe via simple reactions with small reactive organic molecules to afford a series of biofunctionalized nanoparticles. Physico-chemical characterizations of these functionalized nanoparticles were performed by TEM, XRD, DLS, FTIR, and VSM. The colloidal stability of these functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated in presence of phosphate buffer saline, high salt concentrations and different cell media for 1 week. MRI analysis of human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell lines treated with nanoparticles elucidated that the amine-functionalized nanoparticles exhibited higher amount of signal darkening and lower T2 relaxation in comparison to the others. The cellular internalization efficacy of these functionalized SPIONs was also investigated with HeLa cancer cell line by magnetically activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence microscopy and results established selectively higher internalization efficacy of amine-functionalized nanoparticles to cancer cells. These positive attributes demonstrated that these nanoconjugates can be used as a promising platform for further in vitro and in vivo biological evaluations.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with cationic chitosan and coated with silica shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowska-Łańcucka, Joanna, E-mail: lewandow@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Staszewska, Magdalena; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Kępczyński, Mariusz [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland); Romek, Marek [Department of Cytology and Histology, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Tokarz, Waldemar [Department of Solid State Physics, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Szpak, Agnieszka; Kania, Gabriela; Nowakowska, Maria [Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Krakow (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The new, facile methodology for synthesis of silica covered SPIONs is proposed. • The SPIONs was modified with cationic chitosan and coated with silica shell. • Negatively charged, rounded in shape particles of ca. 330 nm were obtained. • The product exhibits the superparamagnetic properties. • The product properties imply its potential applications in biomedicine areas. -- Abstract: Novel method for synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) modified with a cationic chitosan (CCh) and coated with a silica shell, SPION-CCh-SiO{sub 2} was developed. The process was carried out in two steps. In the first step the chitosan coated SPIONs were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous solution of CCh. In the second one, the silica shell is formed on their surfaces. The formation of SPION-CCh-SiO{sub 2} was achieved by direct decomposition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) adsorbed on a surface of SPION-CCh dispersed in aqueous phase under sonication and mechanical stirring at room temperature. The chemical composition and physicochemical properties of the materials were determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The morphology of the particles was evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Magnetic properties were confirmed using Atomic Force Microscopy/Magnetic Force Microscopy (AFM/MFM) and magnetization measurements. The resulting products are negatively charged, rounded in shape and exhibit the superparamagnetic properties what implies their potential applications in engineering and biomedicine areas.

  10. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)

    OpenAIRE

    Neenu Singh; Jenkins, Gareth J. S.; Romisa Asadi; Doak, Shareen H.

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this rev...

  11. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle clusters with different structure guide agents were synthesized by a modified solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analyses (TG), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the superparamagnetic nanoparticles guided by NaCit (sodium citrate) have high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 69.641 emu/g and low retentivity (Mr) of 0.8 emu/g. Guiding to form superparamagnetic clusters with size range of 80–110 nm, the adherent small-molecule citrate groups on the surface prevent the prefabricated ferrite crystals growing further. In contrast, the primary small crystal guided and stabilized by the PVP long-chain molecules assemble freely to larger ones and stop growing in size range of 100–150 nm, which has saturation magnetization (Ms) of 97.979 emu/g and retentivity (Mr) of 46.323 emu/g. The relevant formation mechanisms of the two types of samples are proposed at the end. The superparamagnetic ferrite clusters guided by sodium citrate are expected to be used for movement controlling of passive interference particles to avoid aggregation and the sample guided by PVP will be a candidate of nanometer wave absorbing material. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of two kinds of monodisperse iron oxide nano-particle clusters was performed via a modified one-step solvothermal method in this work. • The NaCit and PVP as different guiding agents are used to control the formation and aggregation of nano-crystals during reacting and the ripening processes. • The superparamagnetic NaCit–Fe3O4 samples have high saturation magnetization (Ms) of 69.641 emu/g and low retentivity (Mr) of 0.8 emu/g. • The relevant formation mechanisms of the two types of samples are proposed

  12. Superparamagnetic iron oxide; Clinical time-response study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandon, Yves; Heautot, J.F.; Brunet, Frederic; Carsin, Michel (Hopital Pontchaillou, Rennes (France). Departement d' Imagerie Medicale); Guyader, Dominique; Deugnier, Yves (Hopital Pontchaillou, Rennes (France). Service de Medecine Interne et Hepatologie)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (AMI 25) is a promising new contrast agent for imaging the reticuloendothelial-system. Iron oxide crystals possess a large magnetic susceptibility and enhance proton relaxation rates, especially transverse relaxation (T2). In order to guide the clinical utilization of this contrast media 4 patients with malignant lesions of the liver are analyzed before and after slow intravenous administration (20 {mu}mol Fe/kg) of AMI 25. Two magnetic resonance (MR) sequences are performed at different times using 0.35 T magnet. MR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reticuloendothelial-system (particularly the liver SNR) decrease promptly. The maximum decrease in SNR (67-72 percent for the liver, 46-65 percent for the spleen, 23-41 percent for the bone marrow) is observed 3 h after injection (P<0.01). However, except the peak of contrast enhancement in T1-weighted sequence of splenic tissue, the curve describes a plateau within 30 min and 6 h, allowing a delay between injection and imaging. T2-weighted sequences give a greater contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) by adding the spontaneous tumor contrast to the effect yielded by AMI 25. These results suggest that images must be acquired between 1 and 6 h after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide. (author). 18 refs.; 6 figs.

  13. Sentinel lymph node after intramammary injection of superparamagnetic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate enhancement (signal loss) of the axillary lymph nodes on MR lymphography after intramammary injection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Ferumoxides) for detection of the sentinel lymph node. MR lymphography was performed in a total of 11 patients with breast cancer without palpable axillary lymph node swelling before operation. Coronal and axial images were obtained before and after intramammary injection of 1.5 ml Ferumoxides adjacent to the breast tumor. In all patients, decreased intensity was recognized in the axillary lymph nodes. MR lymphography could detect the sentinel lymph node with its decreased signal intensity 20 minutes after the intramammary injection of Ferumoxides. (author)

  14. Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles with Low Chitosan Content Prepared in One-Step

    OpenAIRE

    Yolanda Osuna; Karla M. Gregorio-Jauregui; J. Gerardo Gaona-Lozano; de la Garza-Rodríguez, Iliana M.; Anna Ilyna; Enrique Díaz Barriga-Castro; Hened Saade; López, Raúl G.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP) were obtained at 50°C in a one-step method comprising coprecipitation in the presence of low chitosan content. CMNP showed high magnetization and superparamagnetism. They were composed of a core of 9.5 nm in average diameter and a very thin chitosan layer in accordance with electron microscopy measurements. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectrometry demonstrated that CMNP were obtained and those from thermogravimetric analysis allowe...

  15. Superparamagnetic resonance of annealed iron-containing borate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lithium borate glass containing a small amount of iron oxide is studied by electron magnetic resonance at room temperature after repeated annealing steps between 460 and 670 deg. C. As the anneal temperature increases, the gef=4.3 sharp line characteristic of isolated iron ions decreases in intensity and finally disappears. Simultaneously, a narrow line emerges at gef approx. 2.0, superposed with a broader one, the narrow and the broader components predominating respectively after annealing at lower and at higher temperatures. Computer simulations of spectra have been carried out, based on a model of resonance of ferromagnetic single-domain nanoparticles randomly dispersed in the devitrified glass (superparamagnetic resonance). As the anneal temperature increases, the most probable particle diameter obtained assuming a log-normal distribution of diameters increases from 2.9 to 4.7 nm showing a saturation at higher anneal temperatures, whereas the relative number of larger particles grows continuously. (author)

  16. Superparamagnetic bimetallic iron-palladium nanoalloy: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Rabia; Mazhar, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Akhtar, M Javed; Nadeem, M; Siddique, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shah, M Raza [HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Khan, Nawazish A [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mehmood, Mazhar [National Centre for Nanotechnology, PIEAS, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Butt, N M [Pakistan Science Foundation, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com

    2008-05-07

    Iron-palladium nanoalloy in the particle size range of 15-30 nm is synthesized by the relatively low temperature thermal decomposition of coprecipitated [Fe(Bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Pd(Bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} in an inert ambient of dry argon gas. The silvery black Fe-Pd alloy nanoparticles are air-stable and have been characterized by EDX-RF, XRD, AFM, TEM, magnetometry, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer and impedance spectroscopy. This Fe-Pd nanoalloy is in single phase and contains iron sites having up to 11 nearest-neighboring atoms. It is superparamagnetic in nature with high magnetic susceptibility, low coercivity and hyperfine field.

  17. Potential toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neenu Singh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION are being widely used for various biomedical applications, for example, magnetic resonance imaging, targeted delivery of drugs or genes, and in hyperthermia. Although, the potential benefits of SPION are considerable, there is a distinct need to identify any potential cellular damage associated with these nanoparticles. Besides focussing on cytotoxicity, the most commonly used determinant of toxicity as a result of exposure to SPION, this review also mentions the importance of studying the subtle cellular alterations in the form of DNA damage and oxidative stress. We review current studies and discuss how SPION, with or without different surface coating, may cause cellular perturbations including modulation of actin cytoskeleton, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis and altered cellular responses such as activation of signalling pathways and impairment of cell cycle regulation. The importance of protein–SPION interaction and various safety considerations relating to SPION exposure are also addressed.

  18. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahajuddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Wahajuddin,1,2 Sumit Arora21Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli, IndiaAbstract: A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe2O3 (maghemite or Fe3O4 (magnetite particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to

  19. Preparation of polylysine-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gao; Zhang, Baolin, E-mail: baolinzhang@ymail.com; Wang, Jun; Xie, Songbo; Li, Xuan

    2015-01-15

    Polylysine (PLL) coated iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have potential in biomedical application. In the present work PEG coated SPIONs (PEG-SPIONs) with the particle size of 9.4±1.4 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac){sub 3} in PEG, and then coated with PLL (PLL/PEG-SPIONs). The PEG-SPIONs and PLL/PEG-SPIONs were superparamagnetic with the saturation magnetization of 53 and 44 emu/g, respectively. The hydrodynamic diameter of PEG-SPIONs in deionized water was 18.8 nm, which increased to 21.3−28.2 nm after mixing with different amount of PLL. The zeta potentials of PLL/PEG-SPIONs were −8.9 − −3.4 mV which were changing with time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses indicated that PLL was attached to the PEG-SPIONs. - Highlights: ●Hydrophilic PEG-SPIONs were synthesized by a thermal decomposition approach. ●The PEG-SPIONs were successfully coated with PLL. ●PEG-SPIONs and PLL/PEG-SPIONs have small hydrodynamic sizes. ●Both PEG-SPIONs and PLL/PEG-SPIONs showed superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K.

  20. In vivo tracing of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Jing-liang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a great progress has beenmade in the management of central nervous system disease such asbrain trauma by transplantationof bonemarrow stromal cells.1 Fluorescence microscopy of host brain sections can trace and show the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs labeled with green fluorescent protein. However, in clinic we need a noninvasive approach. In vivo monitoring of magnetically labeled stem cells by routine MRI has been widely applied abroad,2,3 but according to our knowledge, there are no reports that have ever described the in vivo tracing of BMSCs labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO and transplanted for brain injuries by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI at home or abroad.

  1. Cell Labeling and Targeting with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefft, Brandon J; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Harburn, J Jonathan; Klabusay, Martin; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Sandhu, Gurpreet S

    2015-01-01

    Targeted delivery of cells and therapeutic agents would benefit a wide range of biomedical applications by concentrating the therapeutic effect at the target site while minimizing deleterious effects to off-target sites. Magnetic cell targeting is an efficient, safe, and straightforward delivery technique. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are biodegradable, biocompatible, and can be endocytosed into cells to render them responsive to magnetic fields. The synthesis process involves creating magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles followed by high-speed emulsification to form a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coating. The PLGA-magnetite SPIONs are approximately 120 nm in diameter including the approximately 10 nm diameter magnetite core. When placed in culture medium, SPIONs are naturally endocytosed by cells and stored as small clusters within cytoplasmic endosomes. These particles impart sufficient magnetic mass to the cells to allow for targeting within magnetic fields. Numerous cell sorting and targeting applications are enabled by rendering various cell types responsive to magnetic fields. SPIONs have a variety of other biomedical applications as well including use as a medical imaging contrast agent, targeted drug or gene delivery, diagnostic assays, and generation of local hyperthermia for tumor therapy or tissue soldering. PMID:26554870

  2. Cellular level loading and heating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalambur, Venkat S; Longmire, Ellen K; Bischof, John C

    2007-11-20

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) hold promise for a variety of biomedical applications due to their properties of visualization using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), heating with radio frequency (rf), and movement in an external magnetic field. In this study, the cellular loading (uptake) mechanism of dextran- and surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs by malignant prostate tumor cells (LNCaP-Pro5) has been studied, and the feasibility of traditional rf treatment and a new laser heating method was evaluated. The kinetics of cell loading was quantified using magnetophoresis and a colorimetric assay. The results showed that loading of surfactant-coated iron oxide NPs with LNCaP-Pro5 was saturable with time (at 24 h) and extracellular concentration (11 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL), indicating that the particles are taken up by an "adsorptive endocytosis" pathway. Dextran-coated NPs, however, were taken up less efficiently (1 pg Fe/cell at 0.5 mg Fe/mL). Loading did not saturate with concentration suggesting uptake by fluid-phase endocytosis. Magnetophoresis suggests that NP-loaded cells can be held using external magnetic fields in microcirculatory flow velocities in vivo or in an appropriately designed extracorporeal circuit. Loaded cells were heated using traditional rf (260A, 357 kHz) and a new laser method (532 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 0.03 J/pulse, 20 pulse/s). Iron oxide in water was found to absorb sufficiently strongly at 532 nm such that heating of individual NPs and thus loaded cells (1 pg Fe/cell) was effective (10 pg Fe/cell) and longer duration (30 min) when compared to laser to accomplish cell destruction (50% viability at 10 pg Fe/cell). Scaling calculations show that the pulsed laser method can lead to single-cell (loaded with NPs) treatments (200 degrees C temperature change at the surface of an individual NP) unlike traditional rf heating methods which can be used only for bulk tissue level treatments. In a mixture of normal and NP

  3. Bacteria-mediated precursor-dependent biosynthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide and iron sulfide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharde, Atul A; Parikh, Rasesh Y; Baidakova, Maria; Jouen, Samuel; Hannoyer, Baetrice; Enoki, Toshiaki; Prasad, B L V; Shouche, Yogesh S; Ogale, Satish; Sastry, Murali

    2008-06-01

    The bacterium Actinobacter sp. has been shown to be capable of extracellularly synthesizing iron based magnetic nanoparticles, namely maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) and greigite (Fe3S4) under ambient conditions depending on the nature of precursors used. More precisely, the bacterium synthesized maghemite when reacted with ferric chloride and iron sulfide when exposed to the aqueous solution of ferric chloride-ferrous sulfate. Challenging the bacterium with different metal ions resulted in induction of different proteins, which bring about the specific biochemical transformations in each case leading to the observed products. Maghemite and iron sulfide nanoparticles show superparamagnetic characteristics as expected. Compared to the earlier reports of magnetite and greigite synthesis by magnetotactic bacteria and iron reducing bacteria, which take place strictly under anaerobic conditions, the present procedure offers significant advancement since the reaction occurs under aerobic condition. Moreover, reaction end products can be tuned by the choice of precursors used. PMID:18454562

  4. Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles: current state and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide range of applications for superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as contrast media for MRI has emerged over the last 15 years. SPIO particles can be manufactured with different particle sizes and surface coatings. Large SPIO particles (50-150 nm) predominantly produce a signal decrease or T2-shortening and are used as contrast media for MRI of the liver and spleen. They have a high accuracy, especially in detecting liver metastases (approved for clinical use: AMI-25 (Endorem or Ferridex), SHU-555A (Resovist)). Smaller particles (about 20 nm in diameter) show a different organ distribution and have a potential for improving noninvasive lymph node assessment or characterizing vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (in clinical trials: AMI-227 [Sinerem or Combidex]). Particles with an optimized T1-relaxivity and prolonged intravascular circulation time can be used as blood pool contrast media for MR angiography. The currently investigated indications are MR angiography of the trunk, peripheral vessels, and coronary arteries (e.g., SHU-555C (Supravist), VSOP-C184). Other applications of small SPIO particles include MRI of the bone marrow and the determination of perfusion parameters in tumors or other tissues like the myocardium. SPIO particles with a modified coat can be used in socalled molecular imaging, such as receptor-directed imaging, cell labeling for in-vivo monitoring of cell migration, e.g., stem cell labeling, and labeling of gene constructs for localization in genetic therapy. In tumor therapy SPIO particles can serve as mediators for hyperthermia. SPIO is a powerful MR contrast medium with manifold applications ranging from diagnostic imaging to molecular medicine. (orig.)

  5. Improved detection of liver cancer with hepatocytes-directed superparamagnetic iron oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the use of a novel superparamagnetic MR contrast agent directed to asialoglycoprotein (ASG) receptors on hepatocytes for the detection of liver cancer. Ultrasmall (mean size, 12 nm) superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) are targeted to ASG receptors by coating particles with arabinogalactan (AG-USPIO). Hepatocyte and tumor cell receptor affinity studies, relaxation effects, and changes in tumor-liver contrast of AG-USPIO are compared to conventional iron oxide preparations (AMI-25 and USPIO) in animal models (hepatocellular and mammary adenocarcinoma) of liver cancer (N = 115 rats)

  6. Synthesis of porous superparamagnetic iron oxides from colloidal nanoparticles: Effect of calcination temperature and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanostructured iron oxides with superparamagnetism were synthesized from colloidal particles of hydrous iron oxide. The synthesis procedure involved preparation of acetone-nanoparticle composite and calcination of the composite in air or nitrogen. The effects of calcination temperature and atmosphere on the properties of the products were investigated. Powder X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectra, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption, thermal analysis and vibrating-sample magnetometry were applied to characterize the materials. The products calcined in flowing air are composed of nanoparticles, while those calcined in flowing nitrogen contain nanosheets. The former has larger specific surface areas, whereas the latter has stronger saturation magnetization in external magnetic field. Increasing calcination temperature reduced the specific surface area of the product, whereas enhanced its saturation magnetization. Furthermore, the iron oxides with superparamagnetism showed good affinity to arsenite, and therefore they could be potential adsorbents for arsenic remediation in water. - Highlights: • Nanostructured superparamagnetic iron oxides were synthesized from colloidal nanoparticles. • Calcination in air led to formation of nanoparticles. • Calcination in nitrogen led to formation of nanosheets. • The superparamagnetic materials had high adsorption capabilities for arsenite

  7. Application of factor analysis to XPS valence band of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-Ray photoelectron spectra of nano-sized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were examined with the aim to discriminate the different degree of iron oxidation. Careful analysis of the valence band regions reveals the presence of both Fe3O4 and Fe2O3. The application of factor analysis enabled us to extract the relative molar concentrations of these oxides in the nanoparticles. This is of particular interest in improving the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles whose superparamagnetic character can be optimized to obtain better contrast in images from nuclear magnetic resonance. As a result, the factor analysis allows tuning the nanoparticle synthesis conditions in order to obtain the optimal magnetic properties for imaging. Results obtained by the XPS valence band analysis were compared to the transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements.

  8. Chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report evidence for the possible application of chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The coating of nickel-ferrite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the nickel-ferrite nanoparticles by a chemical co-precipitation method. The coated nanoparticles were cylindrical in shape with an average length of 17 nm and an average width of 4.4 nm. The bonding of chitosan onto the ferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T1 and T2 relaxivities were 0.858±0.04 and 1.71±0.03 mM−1 s−1, respectively. In animal experimentation, both a 25% signal enhancement in the T1-weighted mage and a 71% signal loss in the T2-weighted image were observed. This demonstrated that chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles are suitable as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in MRI. We note that the applicability of our nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents is due to their cylindrical shape, which gives rise to both inner and outer sphere processes of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite (Ni-Fe2O4) nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous system by chemical co-precipitation. • The characterization of bare and chitosan-coated nanoparticles were performed using various analytical tools, such as TEM, FTIR, XRD, and VMS. • We evaluated the coated particles as potential T1 and T2 contrast agents for MRI by measuring T1 and T2 relaxation times as a function of iron concentration. • Both T1 and T2 effects were also observed in animal experimentation

  9. Correction: Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Correction for `Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents' by Roxanne Hachani et al., Nanoscale, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03867g.

  10. LHRH-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for breast cancer targeting and contrast enhancement in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) (LHRH-SPIONs), can be used to target breast cancer cells. They also act as contrast enhancement agents during the magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer xenografts. A combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrophotometric analysis was used in our experiments, to investigate the specific accumulation of the functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in cancer cells. The contrast enhancement of conventional T2 images obtained from the tumor tissue and of breast cancer xenograft bearing mice is shown to be much greater than that in saline controls, when the tissues were injected with LHRH-SPIONs. Magnetic anisotropy multi-CRAZED images of tissues extracted from mice injected with SPIONs were also found to have enhanced MRI contrast in breast cancer xenografts and metastases in the lungs.

  11. LHRH-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for breast cancer targeting and contrast enhancement in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, J.; Fan, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Galiana, G. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Branca, R.T. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0354 (United States); Clasen, P.L.; Ma, S. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Zhou, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Leuschner, C. [Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States); Kumar, C.S.S.R.; Hormes, J. [Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States); Otiti, T. [Department of Physics, Makerere University, Kampala (Uganda); Beye, A.C. [Department of Physics, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar (Senegal); Harmer, M.P.; Kiely, C.J. [Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Warren, W. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0354 (United States); Haataja, M.P. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials and the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2009-05-05

    This paper shows that superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) (LHRH-SPIONs), can be used to target breast cancer cells. They also act as contrast enhancement agents during the magnetic resonance imaging of breast cancer xenografts. A combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectrophotometric analysis was used in our experiments, to investigate the specific accumulation of the functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in cancer cells. The contrast enhancement of conventional T2 images obtained from the tumor tissue and of breast cancer xenograft bearing mice is shown to be much greater than that in saline controls, when the tissues were injected with LHRH-SPIONs. Magnetic anisotropy multi-CRAZED images of tissues extracted from mice injected with SPIONs were also found to have enhanced MRI contrast in breast cancer xenografts and metastases in the lungs.

  12. PREPARATION OF CHITOSAN COATED METAL AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY ADSORBENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AanTianwei; XuWeijiang; 等

    1998-01-01

    A new and an inexpensive adsorbent of chitosan coated silica for immobilized metal affinity chromatography(IMAC) was studied.After a double coating,the chitosan coated on silica beads could be up to 53.4mg/g silica beads.When pH>3.8,the metal ligand Cu2+ was chelated on the coated chitosan with a bound capacity of 14.6mg/g chitosan without introducing iminodiacetic acid(IDA).

  13. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Binding to Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle—Covalent Versus Adsorptive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Ralf P.; Zaloga, Jan; Schreiber, Eveline; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Tombácz, Etelka; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are frequently used to develop vehicles for drug delivery, hyperthermia, and photodynamic therapy and as tools used for magnetic separation and purification of proteins or for biomolecular imaging. Depending on the application, there are various possible covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of particles, each of them shows different advantages and disadvantages for drug release and activity at the desired location.

  14. Processing of superparamagnetic iron contrast agent ferucarbotran in transplanted pancreatic islets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zacharovová, K.; Berková, Z.; Jirák, D.; Herynek, V.; Vancová, Marie; Dovolilová, E.; Saudek, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), s. 485-493. ISSN 1555-4309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : magnetic resonance imaging * pancreatic islets * transplantation * superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles * ferucarbotran * β cells * diabetes * immunohistochemistry * transmission electron microscopy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2012 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cmmi.1477/full

  15. Boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle as a novel tool for adsorption of sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles has been reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by simple co-precipitation from Fe2+ and Fe3+ solution. m-Aminophenyl boronic acid was attached to iron oxide particles through 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde through C=N bond. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction have shown the formation of inverse spinel phase magnetite of both as prepared and functionalized magnetite particles. FTIR shows attachment of boronic acid-imine onto iron oxide surface through enediol group. Transmission electron microscopy shows well dispersion of boronic acid functionalized particles of size 8 ± 2 nm. Vibration sample magnetometry shows both the particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature having saturation magnetization (Ms) 52 emu/g. In this work the affinity of these boronic acid functionalized particles towards sugar binding was studied taking dextrose sugar as a model. The influence of pH and sugar concentration has been extensively investigated. The results show that such boronic acid modified superparamagnetic particles are efficient support for sugar separation having maximum sugar loading capacity (60 μg/50 μl) at pH 8.

  16. Boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle as a novel tool for adsorption of sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, S., E-mail: sasmita05@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008 (India); Panda, N. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela-769008 (India); Pramanik, P. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2009-08-31

    Synthesis of boronic acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles has been reported. Magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by simple co-precipitation from Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} solution. m-Aminophenyl boronic acid was attached to iron oxide particles through 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde through C=N bond. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction have shown the formation of inverse spinel phase magnetite of both as prepared and functionalized magnetite particles. FTIR shows attachment of boronic acid-imine onto iron oxide surface through enediol group. Transmission electron microscopy shows well dispersion of boronic acid functionalized particles of size 8 {+-} 2 nm. Vibration sample magnetometry shows both the particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature having saturation magnetization (Ms) 52 emu/g. In this work the affinity of these boronic acid functionalized particles towards sugar binding was studied taking dextrose sugar as a model. The influence of pH and sugar concentration has been extensively investigated. The results show that such boronic acid modified superparamagnetic particles are efficient support for sugar separation having maximum sugar loading capacity (60 {mu}g/50 {mu}l) at pH 8.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles thinly coated with silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of iron chloride salts with ammonia and then encapsulated with thin (∼2 nm) layers of silica. The particles have been characterized for size, diffraction pattern, surface charge, and magnetic properties. This rapid and economical synthesis has a number of industrial applications; however, the silica-coated particles have been optimized for use in medical applications such as magnetic resonance contrast agents and biosensors, and in DNA capturing, bioseparation and enzyme immobilization

  18. Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles with Low Chitosan Content Prepared in One-Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Osuna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP were obtained at 50°C in a one-step method comprising coprecipitation in the presence of low chitosan content. CMNP showed high magnetization and superparamagnetism. They were composed of a core of 9.5 nm in average diameter and a very thin chitosan layer in accordance with electron microscopy measurements. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectrometry demonstrated that CMNP were obtained and those from thermogravimetric analysis allowed to determine that they were composed of 95 wt% of magnetic nanoparticles and 5 wt% of chitosan. 67% efficacy in the Pb+2 removal test indicated that only 60% of amino groups on CMNP surface bound to Pb, probably due to some degree of nanoparticle flocculation during the redispersion. The very low weight ratio chitosan to magnetic nanoparticles obtained in this study, 0.053, and the high yield of the precipitation reactions (≈97% are noticeable.

  19. Current status of superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agents for liver magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-12-21

    Five types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), i.e. Ferumoxides (Feridex(®) IV, Berlex Laboratories), Ferucarbotran (Resovist(®), Bayer Healthcare), Ferumoxtran-10 (AMI-227 or Code-7227, Combidex(®), AMAG Pharma; Sinerem(®), Guerbet), NC100150 (Clariscan(®), Nycomed,) and (VSOP C184, Ferropharm) have been designed and clinically tested as magnetic resonance contrast agents. However, until now Resovist(®) is current available in only a few countries. The other four agents have been stopped for further development or withdrawn from the market. Another SPIO agent Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®)) is approved for the treatment of iron deficiency in adult chronic kidney disease patients. Ferumoxytol is comprised of iron oxide particles surrounded by a carbohydrate coat, and it is being explored as a potential imaging approach for evaluating lymph nodes and certain liver tumors. PMID:26715826

  20. Evaluation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed with Poly-L-Lysine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the labeling of umbilical cord vein derived mesenchymal stem cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed to a non-viral transfector agent transfector poly-L-lysine. Methods: The labeling of mesenchymal stem cells was performed using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran complexed and not complexed to poly-L-lysine. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran was incubated with poly-L-lysine in an ultrasonic sonicator at 37 deg C for 10 minutes for complex formation superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine by electrostatic interaction. Then, the mesenchymal stem cells were incubated overnight with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran. After the incubation period the mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by internalization of the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran by Prussian Blue stain. Cellular viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by cellular proliferation assay using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester method and apoptosis detection by Annexin V- Propidium Iodide assay. Results: mesenchymal stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/ dextran without poly-L-lysine not internalized efficiently the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to its low presence detected within cells. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine efficiently internalized the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to greater presence in the cells interior. The viability and apoptosis assays demonstrated that the mesenchymal stem cells labeled and not labeled respectively with the superparamagnetic iron oxide

  1. Chondroitin sulfate-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential carriers of doxorubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Neha; Anwar, Mohammed; Asfer, Mohammed; Mehdi, Syed Hassan; Rizvi, Mohammed Moshahid Alam; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees

    2016-10-20

    Chondroitin-4-sulfate (CS), a glycosaminoglycan, was used to prepare CS-capped super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, which were further employed for loading a water-soluble chemotherapeutic agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX). CS-capped SPIONs have potential biomedical application in cancer targeting. The optimized formulation had a hydrodynamic size of 91.2±0.8nm (PDI; 0.228±0.004) and zeta potential of -49.1±1.66mV. DOX was loaded onto the formulation up to 2% (w/w) by physical interaction with CS. TEM showed nano-sized particles having a core-shell structure. XRD confirmed crystal phase of iron oxide. FT-IR conceived the interaction of iron oxide with CS as bidentate chelation and also confirmed DOX loading. Vibration sample magnetometry confirmed super-paramagnetic nature of nanoparticles, with saturation magnetization of 0.238emug(-1). In vitro release profile at pH 7.4 showed that 96.67% of DOX was released within 24h (first order kinetics). MTT assay in MCF7 cells showed significantly higher (p<0.0001) cytotoxicity for DOX in SPIONs than DOX solution (IC50 values 6.294±0.4169 and 11.316±0.1102μgmL(-1), respectively). PMID:27474599

  2. Adsorption Properties of Chromium (VI by Chitosan Coated Montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahe Fan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of chromium (VI by Chitosan Coated Montmorillonite (CCM from aqueous solution was studied. To evaluate the adsorption capacity, the effects of pH, initial concentration and temperature on the adsorption were investigated. The isothermal data was applied to Langmuir linear and the Freundlich linear isotherm equation and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, ΔS were calculated according to the values of binding Langmuir constant, KL. Results indicated that the adsorption between CCM and chromium (VI was significantly physical, the negative ΔH constant at lower temperature confirmed that the more chromium (VI was adsorbed by chitosan coated montmorillonite at lower temperature. The kinetics of the sorption process of chromium (VI on chitosan coated montmorillonite were investigated using the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetics, results showed that the pseudo-second order equation model provided the best correlation with the experimental results.

  3. Low temperature synthesis, magnetic and electrical properties of iron-magnesium superparamagnetic nanoalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Rabia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mazhar, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Nadeem, Muhammad; Siddique, Muhammad [Physics Division, Pinstech, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, Raza [HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Hasanain, S. Khurshid [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-06-24

    A low temperature chemical approach which beats the miscibility barrier of Fe and Mg has been designed to synthesize Fe-Mg{sub 2} nanoalloy and tested to result nanoparticles of average 30 nm size. The nanoalloy is amorphous in nature and characterized by XPRD, AFM, magnetometery, Moessbauer and impedance spectroscopies. The result of magnetic measurement suggests the sample to be superparamagnetic as evidenced by the {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The two Mg atoms occupy different positions around iron resulting in two phase system as shown by Moessbauer and impedance spectroscopies.

  4. Toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Research strategies and implications for nanomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are one of the most versatile and safe nanoparticles in a wide variety of biomedical applications. In the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the potential adverse biological effects and safety issues associated with SPIONs, which is essential for the development of next-generation SPIONs and for continued progress in translational research. In this mini review, we summarize recent developments in toxicity studies on SPIONs, focusing on the relationship between the physicochemical properties of SPIONs and their induced toxic biological responses for a better toxicological understanding of SPIONs. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  5. Nanoencapsulation of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide into human serum albumin nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias G. Wacker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin nanoparticles have been utilized as drug delivery systems for a variety of medical applications. Since ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO are used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, their encapsulation into the protein matrix enables the synthesis of diagnostic and theranostic agents by surface modification and co-encapsulation of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The present investigation deals with the surface modification and nanoencapsulation of USPIO into an albumin matrix by using ethanolic desolvation. Particles of narrow size distribution and with a defined particle structure have been achieved.

  6. Whole tissue AC susceptibility after superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent administration in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetic AC susceptibility characterisation of rat tissues after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Endorem(R)), at the same dose as established for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement in humans, has been carried out. The measurements reveal the presence of the contrast agent as well as that of physiological ferritin in liver and spleen while no traces have been magnetically detected in heart and kidney. This preliminary work opens suggestive possibilities for future biodistribution studies of any type of magnetic carriers

  7. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Stefanie; Sommer, Anja [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Distel, Luitpold V.R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstrasse 27, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Neuhuber, Winfried [Department of Anatomy, Chair of Anatomy I, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Krankenhausstr. 9, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany); Kryschi, Carola, E-mail: kryschi@chemie.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Physical Chemistry I and ICMM, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Egerlandstr. 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  8. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with γFe2O3 and Fe3O4 structure were prepared. ► SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. ► The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. ► Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber–Weiss reaction. ► X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber–Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  9. Self-Assembled Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoclusters for Universal Cell Labeling and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhen; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shengwei; Lin, Gan; Luo, Bing; Yao, Huan; Lin, Yuchun; He, Chengyong; Liu, Gang; Lin, Zhongning

    2016-05-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have been widely used in a variety of biomedical applications, especially as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cell labeling. In this study, SPIO nanoparticles were stabilized with amphiphilic low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) in an aqueous phase to form monodispersed nanocomposites with a controlled clustering structure. The iron-based nanoclusters with a size of 115.3 ± 40.23 nm showed excellent performance on cellular uptake and cell labeling in different types of cells, moreover, which could be tracked by MRI with high sensitivity. The SPIO nanoclusters presented negligible cytotoxicity in various types of cells as detected using MTS, LDH, and flow cytometry assays. Significantly, we found that ferritin protein played an essential role in protecting stress from SPIO nanoclusters. Taken together, the self-assembly of SPIO nanoclusters with good magnetic properties provides a safe and efficient method for universal cell labeling with noninvasive MRI monitoring capability.

  10. Chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Tanveer [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan (Pakistan); Bae, Hongsub; Iqbal, Yousaf [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Ilsu, E-mail: ilrhee@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sungwook [Division of Science Education, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jaejun [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University and Hospital, Daegu 700-721 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Derac [Department of Physics, Hannam University, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-01

    We report evidence for the possible application of chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles as both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The coating of nickel-ferrite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the nickel-ferrite nanoparticles by a chemical co-precipitation method. The coated nanoparticles were cylindrical in shape with an average length of 17 nm and an average width of 4.4 nm. The bonding of chitosan onto the ferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} relaxivities were 0.858±0.04 and 1.71±0.03 mM{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively. In animal experimentation, both a 25% signal enhancement in the T{sub 1}-weighted mage and a 71% signal loss in the T{sub 2}-weighted image were observed. This demonstrated that chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles are suitable as both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} contrast agents in MRI. We note that the applicability of our nanoparticles as both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} contrast agents is due to their cylindrical shape, which gives rise to both inner and outer sphere processes of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite (Ni-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were synthesized in an aqueous system by chemical co-precipitation. • The characterization of bare and chitosan-coated nanoparticles were performed using various analytical tools, such as TEM, FTIR, XRD, and VMS. • We evaluated the coated particles as potential T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} contrast agents for MRI by measuring T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} relaxation times as a function of iron concentration. • Both T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} effects were also observed in animal experimentation.

  11. Iron overload by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles is a High Risk Factor in Cirrhosis by a Systems Toxicology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yushuang; Zhao, Mengzhu; Yang, Fang; Mao, Yang; Xie, Hang; Zhou, Qibing

    2016-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent have been widely used in magnetic resonance imaging for tumor diagnosis and theranostics. However, there has been safety concern of SPIONs with cirrhosis related to excess iron-induced oxidative stress. In this study, the impact of iron overload by SPIONs was assessed on a mouse cirrhosis model. A single dose of SPION injection at 0.5 or 5 mg Fe/kg in the cirrhosis group induced a septic shock response at 24 h with elevated serum levels of liver and kidney function markers and extended impacts over 14 days including high levels of serum cholesterols and persistent low serum iron level. In contrast, full restoration of liver functions was found in the normal group with the same dosages over time. Analysis with PCR array of the toxicity pathways revealed the high dose of SPIONs induced significant expression changes of a distinct subset of genes in the cirrhosis liver. All these results suggested that excess iron of the high dose of SPIONs might be a risk factor for cirrhosis because of the marked impacts of elevated lipid metabolism, disruption of iron homeostasis and possibly, aggravated loss of liver functions. PMID:27357559

  12. Methodology description for detection of cellular uptake of PVA coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in synovial cells of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in synoviocytes is reported. Synoviocytes were incubated for 2, 12, 24 and 48 h with 1.5 mg/ml of PVA coated SPION under the influence of magnets (12 h). Particles were well tolerated by the synoviocytes, were easily detected using the Turnbulls and Prussian blue reactions between 12 and 24 h

  13. NMR relaxation study of water dynamics in superparamagnetic iron-oxide-loaded vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Hsieh, Chu-Jung; Lin, Chao-Min; Hwang, Dennis W.

    2013-02-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have been introduced as contrast agents for clinical applications in magnetic resonance imaging. Recently, SPIO has been also used for tracking cells. However, NMR relaxation of water molecules behaves differently in a SPIO solution and SPIO-loaded cells. In this study, we used water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions to mimic cellular environments. The MR relaxation induced by the SPIO-loaded vesicles and SPIO solution indicates that T2* is sensitive to the iron concentration alone, and the behavior was very similar in both SPIO-loaded vesicles and SPIO solution. However, T2 relaxation of water in SPIO-loaded vesicles was faster than that in a SPIO solution. In addition, the contribution of water inside and outside the vesicles was clarified by replacing H2O with D2O, and water inside the vesicles was found to cause a nonlinear iron concentration dependency. The studied dilution revealed that vesicle aggregation undergoes a structural transition upon dilution by a certain amount of water. R2* relaxation is sensitive to this structural change and shows an obvious nonlinear iron concentration dependency when the SPIO loading is sufficiently high. Random walk simulations demonstrated that in the assumed model, the vesicles aggregate structures causing the differences between R2* and R2 relaxation of water in vesicles in the presence of SPIO particles.

  14. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with titanium-N,N-dialkylcarbamato coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the preparation and physical-chemical characterization of new ultrasmall iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (USPIONs) functionalized with titanium-N,N-dialkylcarbamato. The preparation was performed starting with monodispersed USPIONs covered with oleic acid, synthesized by thermal-decomposition, and subsequently functionalized with metal-carbamato by a ligand-exchange reaction. The surface and coating structure was characterized by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy on the solid powders and thermogravimetry (TG) coupled with an FT-IR detector in order to better investigate the self-assembling properties of the coating. A detailed dimensional and morphological study was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetic susceptibility curves as well as the magnetization behavior as a function of temperature were investigated on both the starting oleic-USPIONs and those covered by titanium-N,N-dialkylcarbamato. These results confirmed the superparamagnetic properties of the new nanoparticles (NPs), highlighting the quite high saturation value of the magnetization. Based on the results obtained by combining different experimental techniques, a model of the coating structure and ligand organization around the magnetic core is proposed for both NPs, i.e. the starting USPIONs covered by oleic acid and the new USPIONs functionalized by titanium-N,N-dialkylcarbamato. (paper)

  15. Stable aqueous dispersion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles protected by charged chitosan derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpak, Agnieszka; Kania, Gabriela [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Skorka, Tomasz [Polish Academy of Sciences, H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (Poland); Tokarz, Waldemar [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Solid State Physics (Poland); Zapotoczny, Szczepan, E-mail: zapotocz@chemia.uj.edu.pl; Nowakowska, Maria, E-mail: nowakows@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    This article presents the synthesis and characterization of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with ultrathin layer of anionic derivative of chitosan. The water-based fabrication involved a two-step procedure. In the first step, the nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric aqueous salt solutions with ammonia in the presence of cationic derivative of chitosan. In the second step, such prepared materials were subjected to adsorption of oppositely charged chitosan derivative which resulted in the preparation of negatively charged SPIONs. They were found to develop highly stable dispersion in water. The core size of the nanocoated SPIONs, determined using transmission electron microscopy, was measured to be slightly above 10 nm. The coated nanoparticles form aggregates with majority of them having hydrodynamic diameter below 100 nm, as measured by dynamic light scattering. Their composition and properties were studied using FTIR and thermogravimetric analyses. They exhibit magnetic properties typical for superparamagnetic material with a high saturation magnetization value of 123 {+-} 12 emu g{sup -1} Fe. Very high value of the measured r{sub 2} relaxivity, 369 {+-} 3 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}, is conducive for the potential application of the obtained SPIONs as promising contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinylimidazole-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Si-PVIm-grafted SPION)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyvinylimidazole (PVIm)-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (Si-PVIm-grafted Fe3O4 NPs) were prepared by grafting of telomere of PVIm on the SPION. The product identified as magnetite, which has an average crystallite size of 9 ± 2 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size was estimated as 10.0 ± 0.5 nm from TEM micrographs. Mean particle size is found as 8.4 ± 1.0 nm which agrees well with the values calculated from XRD patterns (9 ± 2 nm). Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analysis explained the superparamagnetic nature of the nanocomposite. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the Si-Imi is 25 % of the Si-PVIm-grafted SPION, which means an inorganic content is about 75 %. Detailed electrical and dielectric properties of the properties of the product are also presented. The conductivity of the sample increases significantly with temperature and has the value in the range of 1.14 × 10−7–1.78 × 10−4 S cm−1. Analysis of the real and imaginary parts of the permittivities indicated temperature and frequency dependency representing interfacial polarization and temperature-assisted reorganization effects.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of polyvinylimidazole-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Si-PVIm-grafted SPION)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemi, H. [Yalova University, Department of Polymer Engineering (Turkey); Soezeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute (Turkey); Senel, M.; Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Fatih University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    Polyvinylimidazole (PVIm)-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) (Si-PVIm-grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) were prepared by grafting of telomere of PVIm on the SPION. The product identified as magnetite, which has an average crystallite size of 9 {+-} 2 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size was estimated as 10.0 {+-} 0.5 nm from TEM micrographs. Mean particle size is found as 8.4 {+-} 1.0 nm which agrees well with the values calculated from XRD patterns (9 {+-} 2 nm). Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analysis explained the superparamagnetic nature of the nanocomposite. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the Si-Imi is 25 % of the Si-PVIm-grafted SPION, which means an inorganic content is about 75 %. Detailed electrical and dielectric properties of the properties of the product are also presented. The conductivity of the sample increases significantly with temperature and has the value in the range of 1.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-1.78 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1}. Analysis of the real and imaginary parts of the permittivities indicated temperature and frequency dependency representing interfacial polarization and temperature-assisted reorganization effects.

  18. Synthesis of carboxyl superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by a novel flocculation-redispersion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Changming [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kou Geng [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang Xiaoliang [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Shuhui [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Gu Hongchen [Nano Biomedicine Research Center, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: hcgu@sjtu.edu.cn; Guo Yajun [International Joint Cancer Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yjguo@smmu.edu.cn

    2009-09-15

    We report a novel flocculation-redispersion method to synthesize and purify the biocompatible superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles coated with carboxyl dextran derivative. First, USPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and flocculated to form the large clusters through bridging effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during coprecipitation process. Then the flocculated USPIO was separated and purified from the solution conveniently through magnetic sedimentation. Finally, USPIO in the clusters were released again and well dispersed through electrostatic repelling effect of citric acid with the aid of ultrasonic. The dispersed carboxyl-functionalized USPIO was conjugated with the monoclonal antibodies. And it has been proved that the antibodies anchored on USPIO still retained their bioactivity after the conjugation. These results implied that the USPIO synthesized have good potential as active targeting molecular probe in biomedical application.

  19. Synthesis of carboxyl superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by a novel flocculation-redispersion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a novel flocculation-redispersion method to synthesize and purify the biocompatible superparamagnetic ultrasmall iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles coated with carboxyl dextran derivative. First, USPIO nanoparticles were synthesized and flocculated to form the large clusters through bridging effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during coprecipitation process. Then the flocculated USPIO was separated and purified from the solution conveniently through magnetic sedimentation. Finally, USPIO in the clusters were released again and well dispersed through electrostatic repelling effect of citric acid with the aid of ultrasonic. The dispersed carboxyl-functionalized USPIO was conjugated with the monoclonal antibodies. And it has been proved that the antibodies anchored on USPIO still retained their bioactivity after the conjugation. These results implied that the USPIO synthesized have good potential as active targeting molecular probe in biomedical application.

  20. MRI with superparamagnetic iron oxide vs. double-spiral CT when identifying malignant liver lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of MRI with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and double-spiral CT in the detection of liver metastases and hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: SPIO-MRI shows the highest rate of detection and is significantly superior to native MRI and native CT. The highest rate of detection by CT is shown in the portal-venous phase of contrast; nevertheless, the rate is significantly inferior to SPIO-MRI. In general, the native phases of CT and MRI are significantly inferior to the contrast phases of both. SPIO-MRI shows a higher rate of false positive findings. Conclusion: The time-consuming and cost-intensive SPIO-MRI significantly increases the rate of detectability for malignant liver lesions compared with double-spiral CT but it also increases the rate of false positive findings. (orig./AJ)

  1. Bacterial Growth on Chitosan-Coated Polypropylene Textile

    OpenAIRE

    Erben, D; V. Hola; Jaros, J.; Rahel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerge...

  2. Effect of chitosan coating on the characteristics of DPPC liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Mohsen M; Mirhane M. Darwish

    2010-01-01

    Because it is both biocompatible and biodegradable, chitosan has been used to provide a protective capsule in new drug formulations. The present work reports on investigations into some of the physicochemical properties of chitosan-coated liposomes, including drug release rate, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential and turbidity measurement. It was found that chitosan increases liposome stability during drug release. The coating of DPPC liposomes with a chitosan layer was con...

  3. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide enhanced MR imaging for lymph node metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Mai [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Anzai, Yoshimi [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)], E-mail: anzai@u.washington.edu

    2007-12-15

    The presence of a lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors influencing therapeutic planning and prognosis in patients with malignancy. For example, a single nodal metastasis approximately halves the survival rate in patients with head and neck cancer, regardless of the location or size of the primary tumor. Currently used imaging techniques such as CT or conventional MRI are unreliable in detecting involved nodes accurately. There are few new techniques that have proven to be of value in nodal staging, and one such technique is ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agents for MRI. Administered intravenously, USPIO are phagocytosed by macrophages within lymph nodes. Homogeneous uptake of iron oxide particles in normal lymph node shortens the T2 and T2*, turning these nodes dark on post contrast images whereas malignant nodes, lacking the normal physiologic uptake, remain hyperintense on T2- and T2*-weighted images. These differences in signal intensity between normal and metastatic nodes are easily detected visually, leading to high sensitivity and specificity regardless of size or morphological features. This article will review the physiologic properties of USPIO, the technical considerations for imaging using USPIO agent, the results of various clinical trials, and other experimental agents, as well asthe future directions.

  4. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide enhanced MR imaging for lymph node metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of a lymph node metastasis is one of the most important factors influencing therapeutic planning and prognosis in patients with malignancy. For example, a single nodal metastasis approximately halves the survival rate in patients with head and neck cancer, regardless of the location or size of the primary tumor. Currently used imaging techniques such as CT or conventional MRI are unreliable in detecting involved nodes accurately. There are few new techniques that have proven to be of value in nodal staging, and one such technique is ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agents for MRI. Administered intravenously, USPIO are phagocytosed by macrophages within lymph nodes. Homogeneous uptake of iron oxide particles in normal lymph node shortens the T2 and T2*, turning these nodes dark on post contrast images whereas malignant nodes, lacking the normal physiologic uptake, remain hyperintense on T2- and T2*-weighted images. These differences in signal intensity between normal and metastatic nodes are easily detected visually, leading to high sensitivity and specificity regardless of size or morphological features. This article will review the physiologic properties of USPIO, the technical considerations for imaging using USPIO agent, the results of various clinical trials, and other experimental agents, as well asthe future directions

  5. Self-Assembled Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoclusters for Universal Cell Labeling and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhen; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Shengwei; Lin, Gan; Luo, Bing; Yao, Huan; Lin, Yuchun; He, Chengyong; Liu, Gang; Lin, Zhongning

    2016-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have been widely used in a variety of biomedical applications, especially as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cell labeling. In this study, SPIO nanoparticles were stabilized with amphiphilic low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI) in an aqueous phase to form monodispersed nanocomposites with a controlled clustering structure. The iron-based nanoclusters with a size of 115.3 ± 40.23 nm showed excellent performance on cellular uptake and cell labeling in different types of cells, moreover, which could be tracked by MRI with high sensitivity. The SPIO nanoclusters presented negligible cytotoxicity in various types of cells as detected using MTS, LDH, and flow cytometry assays. Significantly, we found that ferritin protein played an essential role in protecting stress from SPIO nanoclusters. Taken together, the self-assembly of SPIO nanoclusters with good magnetic properties provides a safe and efficient method for universal cell labeling with noninvasive MRI monitoring capability. PMID:27216601

  6. Preparation, Characterization and Tests of Incorporation in Stem Cells of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, P. S.; Britos, T. N.; Li, L. M.; Li, L. D. S.

    2015-05-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been produced and used as contrast-enhancing agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnostic use in a wide range of maladies including cardiovascular, neurological disorders, and cancer. The reasons why these SPIONs are attractive for medical purposes are based on their important and unique features. The large surface area of the nanoparticles and their manipulation through an external magnetic field are features that allow their use for carrying a large number of molecules such as biomolecules or drugs. In this scenario, the present work reports on the synthesis and characterization of SPIONs and in vitro MRI experiments to increase their capacity as probes for MRI applications on stem cells therapy. Initially, the SPIONs were prepared through the co-precipitation method using ferrous and ferric chlorides in acidic solution. The SPIONs were coated with two thiolmolecules such as mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) and cysteine (Cys) (molar ratio SPIONs:ligand = 1:20), leading to the formation of a stable aqueous dispersion of thiolated nanoparticles (SH-SPIONs). The SH-SPIONs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results showed that the SH-SPIONs have a mean diameter of 14 nm and display superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. Preliminary tests of incorporation of SH-SPIONs were evaluated stem cells. The results showed that the thiolated nanoparticles have no toxic effects for stem cells and successfully internalized and enhance the contrast in MRI.

  7. Synthesis and in vitro cellular interactions of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles with a crystalline gold shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel synthetic protocol for Fe@Au nanoparticles (NPs) has been optimized. • Surface functionalization and characterization of Fe@Au NPs. • NPs retain superparamagnetic properties after Au coating. • No toxic effects on two different cell types. • NPs suitable for theranostic applications. - Abstract: Fe@Au core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit multiple functionalities enabling their effective use in applications such as medical imaging and drug delivery. In this work, a novel synthetic method was developed and optimized for the synthesis of highly stable, monodisperse Fe@Au NPs of average diameter ∼24 nm exhibiting magneto-plasmonic characteristics. Fe@Au NPs were characterized by a wide range of experimental techniques, including scanning (transmission) electron microscopy (S(T)EM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The formed particles comprise an amorphous iron core with a crystalline Au shell of tunable thickness, and retain the superparamagnetic properties at room temperature after formation of a crystalline Au shell. After surface modification, PEGylated Fe@Au NPs were used for in vitro studies on olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). No adverse effects of the Fe@Au particles were observed post-labeling, both cell types retaining normal morphology, viability, proliferation, and motility. It can be concluded that no appreciable toxic effects on both cell types, coupled with multifunctionality and chemical stability make them ideal candidates for therapeutic as well as diagnostic applications

  8. Atherosclerotic imaging using 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxides: New possibilities for mannan-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Keiko, E-mail: keikot@belle.shiga-medac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Nitta, Norihisa, E-mail: r34nitta@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Sonoda, Akinaga, E-mail: akinagasonoda@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Otani, Hideji, E-mail: otani@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Murata, Kiyoshi, E-mail: murata@belle.shiga-med.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Shiomi, Masashi, E-mail: ieakusm@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Institute for Experimental Animals, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Tyuoku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Tabata, Yasuhiko, E-mail: yasuhiko@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Syogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nohara, Satoshi, E-mail: s-nohara@meito-sangyo.co.jp [The Nagoya Research Laboratory, Meito Sangyo Co., Ltd., 25-5 Nishibiwajima-cho, Kiyosu, Aichi 452-0067 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic techniques to compare the uptake by the rabbit atherosclerotic wall of 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, i.e. SPIO, mannan-coated SPIO (M-SPIO), ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO), and mannan-coated USPIO (M-USPIO). Materials and methods: All experimental protocols were approved by our institutional animal experimentation committee. We intravenously injected 12 Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with one of the 4 types of SPIO (0.8 mmol Fe/kg). Two other rabbits served as the control. The rabbits underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before- and 5 days after these injections; excised aortae were subjected to in vitro MRI. In the in vivo and in vitro studies we assessed the signal intensity of the vessels at identical regions of interest (ROI) and calculated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For histologic assessment we evaluated the iron-positive regions in Prussian blue-stained specimens. Results: There were significant differences in iron-positive regions where M-USPIO > USPIO, M-SPIO > SPIO, USPIO > SPIO (p < 0.05) but not between M-USPIO and M-SPIO. The difference between the pre- and post-injection SNR was significantly greater in rabbits treated with M-USPIO than USPIO and in rabbits injected with M-SPIO than SPIO (p < 0.05). On in vitro MRI scans SNR tended to be lower in M-USPIO- and M-SPIO- than USPIO- and SPIO-treated rabbits (p < 0.1). Conclusion: Histologic and imaging analysis showed that mannan-coated SPIO and USPIO particles were taken up more readily by the atherosclerotic rabbit wall than uncoated SPIO and USPIO.

  9. Theory, simulation and experimental results of the acoustic detection of magnetization changes in superparamagnetic iron oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgert Jörn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic Particle Imaging is a novel method for medical imaging. It can be used to measure the local concentration of a tracer material based on iron oxide nanoparticles. While the resulting images show the distribution of the tracer material in phantoms or anatomic structures of subjects under examination, no information about the tissue is being acquired. To expand Magnetic Particle Imaging into the detection of soft tissue properties, a new method is proposed, which detects acoustic emissions caused by magnetization changes in superparamagnetic iron oxide. Methods Starting from an introduction to the theory of acoustically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging, a comparison to magnetically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging is presented. Furthermore, an experimental setup for the detection of acoustic emissions is described, which consists of the necessary field generating components, i.e. coils and permanent magnets, as well as a calibrated microphone to perform the detection. Results The estimated detection limit of acoustic Magnetic Particle Imaging is comparable to the detection limit of magnetic resonance imaging for iron oxide nanoparticles, whereas both are inferior to the theoretical detection limit for magnetically detected Magnetic Particle Imaging. Sufficient data was acquired to perform a comparison to the simulated data. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulations. The remaining differences can be well explained. Conclusions It was possible to demonstrate the detection of acoustic emissions of magnetic tracer materials in Magnetic Particle Imaging. The processing of acoustic emission in addition to the tracer distribution acquired by magnetic detection might allow for the extraction of mechanical tissue parameters. Such parameters, like for example the velocity of sound and the attenuation caused by the tissue, might also be used to support and improve ultrasound imaging. However, the method

  10. Atherosclerotic imaging using 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxides: New possibilities for mannan-coated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histologic techniques to compare the uptake by the rabbit atherosclerotic wall of 4 types of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, i.e. SPIO, mannan-coated SPIO (M-SPIO), ultrasmall SPIO (USPIO), and mannan-coated USPIO (M-USPIO). Materials and methods: All experimental protocols were approved by our institutional animal experimentation committee. We intravenously injected 12 Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits with one of the 4 types of SPIO (0.8 mmol Fe/kg). Two other rabbits served as the control. The rabbits underwent in vivo contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before- and 5 days after these injections; excised aortae were subjected to in vitro MRI. In the in vivo and in vitro studies we assessed the signal intensity of the vessels at identical regions of interest (ROI) and calculated the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For histologic assessment we evaluated the iron-positive regions in Prussian blue-stained specimens. Results: There were significant differences in iron-positive regions where M-USPIO > USPIO, M-SPIO > SPIO, USPIO > SPIO (p < 0.05) but not between M-USPIO and M-SPIO. The difference between the pre- and post-injection SNR was significantly greater in rabbits treated with M-USPIO than USPIO and in rabbits injected with M-SPIO than SPIO (p < 0.05). On in vitro MRI scans SNR tended to be lower in M-USPIO- and M-SPIO- than USPIO- and SPIO-treated rabbits (p < 0.1). Conclusion: Histologic and imaging analysis showed that mannan-coated SPIO and USPIO particles were taken up more readily by the atherosclerotic rabbit wall than uncoated SPIO and USPIO

  11. Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Christopher A.; Mohindra, Priya; Tong, Sheng; Bao, Gang

    2015-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have the potential for use as a multimodal cancer therapy agent due to their ability to carry anticancer drugs and generate localized heat when exposed to an alternating magnetic field, resulting in combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia. To explore this potential, we synthesized SPIOs with a phospholipid-polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating, and loaded Doxorubicin (DOX) with a 30.8% w/w loading capacity when the PEG length is optimized. We found that DOX-loaded SPIOs exhibited a sustained DOX release over 72 hours where the release kinetics could be altered by the PEG length. In contrast, the heating efficiency of the SPIOs showed minimal change with the PEG length. With a core size of 14 nm, the SPIOs could generate sufficient heat to raise the local temperature to 43 °C, sufficient to trigger apoptosis in cancer cells. Further, we found that DOX-loaded SPIOs resulted in cell death comparable to free DOX, and that the combined effect of DOX and SPIO-induced hyperthermia enhanced cancer cell death in vitro. This study demonstrates the potential of using phospholipid-PEG coated SPIOs for chemotherapy-hyperthermia combinatorial cancer treatment with increased efficacy.Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have the potential for use as a multimodal cancer therapy agent due to their ability to carry anticancer drugs and generate localized heat when exposed to an alternating magnetic field, resulting in combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia. To explore this potential, we synthesized SPIOs with a phospholipid-polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating, and loaded Doxorubicin (DOX) with a 30.8% w/w loading capacity when the PEG length is optimized. We found that DOX-loaded SPIOs exhibited a sustained DOX release over 72 hours where the release kinetics could be altered by the PEG length. In contrast, the heating efficiency of the SPIOs showed minimal change with the PEG length. With a core size of 14 nm, the SPIOs could

  12. Subtle cytotoxicity and genotoxicity differences in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with various functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seong Cheol Hong1,*, Jong Ho Lee1,*, Jaewook Lee1, Hyeon Yong Kim1, Jung Youn Park2, Johann Cho3, Jaebeom Lee1, Dong-Wook Han11Department of Nanomedical Engineering, BK21 Nano Fusion Technology Division, College of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Pusan National University, 2Department of Biotechnology Research, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Busan, 3Electronic Materials Lab, Samsung Corning Precision Materials Co, Ltd, Gumi City, Gyeongsangbukdo, Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been widely utilized for the diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents and drug-delivery carriers, due to their easy transportation to targeted areas by an external magnetic field. For such biomedical applications, SPIONs must have multifunctional characteristics, including optimized size and modified surface. However, the biofunctionality and biocompatibility of SPIONs with various surface functional groups of different sizes have yet to be elucidated clearly. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SPIONs that are surfaced-modified with various functional groups of different sizes. In this study, we evaluated SPIONs with diameters of approximately 10 nm and 100~150 nm, containing different surface functional groups. SPIONs were covered with –O-groups, so-called bare SPIONs. Following this, they were modified with three different functional groups – hydroxyl (–OH, carboxylic (–COOH, and amine (–NH2 groups – by coating their surfaces with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS, TEOS-APTMS, or citrate, which imparted different surface charges and sizes to the particles. The effects of SPIONs coated with these functional groups on mitochondrial activity, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, membrane integrity

  13. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Binding to Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Covalent Versus Adsorptive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Ralf P; Zaloga, Jan; Schreiber, Eveline; Tóth, Ildikó Y; Tombácz, Etelka; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are frequently used to develop vehicles for drug delivery, hyperthermia, and photodynamic therapy and as tools used for magnetic separation and purification of proteins or for biomolecular imaging. Depending on the application, there are various possible covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of particles, each of them shows different advantages and disadvantages for drug release and activity at the desired location.Particularly important for the production of adsorptive and covalent bound drugs to nanoparticles is the pureness of the involved formulation. Especially the covalent binding strategy demands defined chemistry of the drug, which is stabilized by excess free amino acids which could reduce reaction efficiency. In this study, we therefore used tangential flow filtration (TFF) method to purify the drugs before the reaction and used the frequently applied and clinically available recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA; Actilyse(®)) as a proof of concept. We then coupled the tPA preparation to polyacrylic acid-co-maleic acid (PAM)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using an amino-reactive activated ester reaction and compared these particles to PAM-coated SPIONs with electrostatically adsorbed tPA.Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and pH-dependent electrokinetic mobility measurements, we showed that surface properties of the SPIONs were significantly greater affected after activation of the particles compared to the adsorption controls. Different in vitro assays were used to investigate the activity of tPA after coupling to the particles and purification of the ferrofluid. Covalent linkage significantly improves the reactivity and long-term stability of the conjugated SPION-tPA system compared to simple adsorption. In conclusion, we have shown an effective way to produce SPIONs with covalent and non-covalent ultra-filtrated drugs. We showed

  14. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongrac IM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Igor M Pongrac,1 Ivan Pavičić,2 Mirta Milić,2 Lada Brkič Ahmed,1 Michal Babič,3 Daniel Horák,3 Ivana Vinković Vrček,2 Srećko Gajović1 1School of Medicine, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb, 2Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia; 3Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs – uncoated, coated with D-mannose, or coated with poly-L-lysine – affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions

  15. Phosphocholine-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: defining the structure and probing in vivo applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Alessandra; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Montesarchio, Daniela; Heenan, Richard K.; Szekely, Noemi; Flori, Alessandra; Menichetti, Luca; Paduano, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are performing contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A functionalization strategy for SPIONs based on hydrophobic interactions is a versatile approach easily extendable to several kinds of inorganic nanoparticles and suitable for obtaining stable and biocompatible systems. Here we report on the original preparation of functionalized SPIONs with an 8 nm radius exploiting the hydrophobic interaction between a phosphocholine and an inner amphiphilic. With respect to other similarly functionalized SPIONs, characterized by the typical nanoparticle clustering that leads to large aggregates, our phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs are demonstrated to be monodisperse. We report the in vitro and in vivo study that proves the effective applicability of phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs as MRI contrast agents. The versatility of this functionalization approach is highlighted by introducing on the SPION surface a ruthenium-based potential antitumoral drug, named ToThyCholRu. Even if in this case we observed the formation of SPION clusters, ascribable to the presence of the amphiphilic ruthenium complex, interesting and promising antiproliferative activity points at the ToThyCholRu-decorated SPIONs as potential theranostic agents.Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are performing contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A functionalization strategy for SPIONs based on hydrophobic interactions is a versatile approach easily extendable to several kinds of inorganic nanoparticles and suitable for obtaining stable and biocompatible systems. Here we report on the original preparation of functionalized SPIONs with an 8 nm radius exploiting the hydrophobic interaction between a phosphocholine and an inner amphiphilic. With respect to other similarly functionalized SPIONs, characterized by the typical nanoparticle clustering that leads to large aggregates, our phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs are

  16. Toxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfi Barhoumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION was investigated on Chlorella vulgaris cells exposed during 72 hours to Fe3O4 (SPION-1, Co0.2Zn0.8Fe2O4 (SPION-2, or Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (SPION-3 to a range of concentrations from 12.5 to 400 μg mL−1. Under these treatments, toxicity impact was indicated by the deterioration of photochemical activities of photosynthesis, the induction of oxidative stress, and the inhibition of cell division rate. In comparison to SPION-2 and -3, exposure to SPION-1 caused the highest toxic effects on cellular division due to a stronger production of reactive oxygen species and deterioration of photochemical activity of Photosystem II. This study showed the potential source of toxicity for three SPION suspensions, having different chemical compositions, estimated by the change of different biomarkers. In this toxicological investigation, algal model C. vulgaris demonstrated to be a valuable bioindicator of SPION toxicity.

  17. Arsenate removal with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, D; Uheida, A; Pérez, G; Muhammed, M; Valiente, M

    2015-01-15

    In the present work, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) surface-coated with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (3-MPA) were prepared and their feasibility for the removal of arsenate from dilute aqueous solutions was demonstrated. The synthesized 3-MPA-coated SPION was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry (FTIR). Separation efficiency of the coated nanoparticles and the equilibrium isotherm of arsenate adsorption were investigated. The obtained results reveal the arsenate adsorption to be highly pH-dependent, and the maximum adsorption was attained in less than 60 min. The resulting increase of 3-MPA-coated SPION adsorption capacity to twice the adsorption capacity of SPION alone under the same conditions is attributed to the increase of active adsorption sites. An adsorption reaction is proposed. On the other hand, efficient recovery of arsenate from the loaded nanoparticles was achieved using nitric acid (HNO3) solution, which also provides a concentration over the original arsenate solution. PMID:25454446

  18. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrac, Igor M; Pavičić, Ivan; Milić, Mirta; Brkić Ahmed, Lada; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs – uncoated, coated with d-mannose, or coated with poly-l-lysine – affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs) as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions presented in this work highlights the need for further safety evaluations. This investigation helps to fill the knowledge gaps on the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the biocompatibility and safety of novel nanoparticles.

  19. Phosphocholine-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: defining the structure and probing in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Alessandra; Irace, Carlo; Santamaria, Rita; Montesarchio, Daniela; Heenan, Richard K; Szekely, Noemi; Flori, Alessandra; Menichetti, Luca; Paduano, Luigi

    2016-05-21

    Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are performing contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). A functionalization strategy for SPIONs based on hydrophobic interactions is a versatile approach easily extendable to several kinds of inorganic nanoparticles and suitable for obtaining stable and biocompatible systems. Here we report on the original preparation of functionalized SPIONs with an 8 nm radius exploiting the hydrophobic interaction between a phosphocholine and an inner amphiphilic. With respect to other similarly functionalized SPIONs, characterized by the typical nanoparticle clustering that leads to large aggregates, our phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs are demonstrated to be monodisperse. We report the in vitro and in vivo study that proves the effective applicability of phosphocholine-decorated SPIONs as MRI contrast agents. The versatility of this functionalization approach is highlighted by introducing on the SPION surface a ruthenium-based potential antitumoral drug, named ToThyCholRu. Even if in this case we observed the formation of SPION clusters, ascribable to the presence of the amphiphilic ruthenium complex, interesting and promising antiproliferative activity points at the ToThyCholRu-decorated SPIONs as potential theranostic agents. PMID:26751053

  20. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a dual imaging probe for targeting hepatocytes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Kim, Eun-Mi; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Park, In-Kyu; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kim, Jin Woong; Sohn, Myung-Hee

    2009-12-01

    Hepatocyte-specific targeting agents are useful for evaluation of the hepatocytic function and the monitoring of disease progress. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) bearing terminal galactose groups exhibit a high affinity for the asialoglycoprotein receptor on the hepatocyte surface. In this study, we synthesized and characterized the dual probe SPION detectable by both nuclear and MR imaging modality for specifically targeting hepatocytes in vivo. SPION with 12-nm diameter were functionalized with dopamine. Surface modification of the SPION was performed to target asialoglycoprotein receptor on hepatocytes, using lactobionic acid. Transmission electron microscope images demonstrated that SPION displayed highly uniform characteristics in terms of both particle size and shape. The X-ray diffraction pattern of SPION revealed a nanocrystal structure of magnetite. To radiolabel the magnetite with (99m)Tc, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid was conjugated to unreacted functional groups of dopamine. (99m)Tc-labeled lactobionic acid-SPION showed high accumulation in liver, with 38.43 +/- 6.45% injected dose per gram. In MR imaging, the reduction of the T(2) signal in the liver by lactobionic acid-SPION was approximately 50.8 +/- 7.3%. Competition studies and transmission electron microscope images of liver tissues demonstrated that the lactobionic acid-SPION were localized in hepatocytes. Therefore, the lactobionic acid-SPION may be used as a hepatocyte-targeted dual contrast agent for both nuclear and MR imaging. PMID:19859969

  1. Uptake and transport of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles through human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, L B; Linemann, T; Pondman, K M; Lichota, J; Kim, K S; Pieters, R J; Visser, G M; Moos, T

    2013-10-16

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) constitutes a firm physical, chemical, and immunological barrier, making the brain accessible to only a few percent of potential drugs intended for treatment inside the central nervous system. With the purpose of overcoming the restraints of the BBB by allowing the transport of drugs, siRNA, or DNA into the brain, a novel approach is to use superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as drug carriers. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of fluorescent SPIONs to pass through human brain microvascular endothelial cells facilitated by an external magnet. The ability of SPIONs to penetrate the barrier was shown to be significantly stronger in the presence of an external magnetic force in an in vitro BBB model. Hence, particles added to the luminal side of the in vitro BBB model were found in astrocytes cocultured at a remote distance on the abluminal side, indicating that particles were transported through the barrier and taken up by astrocytes. Addition of the SPIONs to the culture medium did not negatively affect the viability of the endothelial cells. The magnetic force-mediated dragging of SPIONs through BCECs may denote a novel mechanism for the delivery of drugs to the brain. PMID:23919894

  2. Dose investigation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) SH U 555 A in liver MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SH U 555 A, a new superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agent for liver MR imaging, was investigated in terms of safety and efficacy. Eighty-four patients with suspected malignant liver tumor were randomly allocated to two groups: the L dose group (8 μmol Fe/kg) and H dose group (12 μmol Fe/kg). Efficacy was qualitatively evaluated through blinded reading of the MR images. Assessment of the images revealed no consistent differences between the L and H dose groups. During the 3- to 4-day observation period, a total of 16 adverse events were observed in 11 patients: 8 patients in the L dose group and 3 patients in the H dose group. Nasal bleeding occurred in 2 of these cases in the H dose group 2 and 4 days, respectively, after injection. Although patients in the H dose group showed a significantly larger transient decrease in Coagulation Factor XI at 4-6 hr post-injection (p.i.) than patients in the L dose group, analysis of covariance revealed an estimated 6.5% difference. There was no prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) or change in Factor XI at 72-96 hr p.i. Because there were no clinically significant differences between the L and H doses, both were considered to be safe and effective. (author)

  3. Controlled aggregation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the development of molecular magnetic resonance imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for synthesizing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) multi-nanoparticle aggregates as molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is described. The approach utilizes organic acid/base interactions in the colloid to induce highly controllable nanoparticle aggregation. Monodisperse aggregates with diameters as large as 100 nm are synthesized by manipulating the interfacial surface chemistry of the SPIO nanoparticles in tetrahydrofuran solvent. Subsequent phospholipid micelle encapsulation yields micellar multi-SPIO (mmSPIO) aggregates with enhanced T2 relaxivity (368.0 s-1 mmol-1 Fe) as compared to micellar single particle SPIO (302.0 s-1 mmol-1 Fe). mmSPIO conjugated to anti-CA125 monoclonal antibodies were incubated with ovarian carcinoma cell lines to demonstrate targeted in vitro molecular MRI, resulting in a 66% shortening in T2 time for CA125 positive NIH:OVCAR-3 cells and a less than 3% change in T2 time for CA125 negative SK-OV-3 cells. The controllable aggregation of mmSPIO shows potential for the development of molecular MRI contrast agents with optimal sizes for specific diagnostic imaging applications

  4. Controlled aggregation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the development of molecular magnetic resonance imaging probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, B A; Haag, M A; Stoldt, C R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0427 (United States); Serkova, N J [Department of Anesthesiology, Biomedical MRI/MRS Cancer Center Core, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Shroyer, K R [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)], E-mail: conrad.stoldt@colorado.edu

    2008-07-02

    A method for synthesizing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) multi-nanoparticle aggregates as molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is described. The approach utilizes organic acid/base interactions in the colloid to induce highly controllable nanoparticle aggregation. Monodisperse aggregates with diameters as large as 100 nm are synthesized by manipulating the interfacial surface chemistry of the SPIO nanoparticles in tetrahydrofuran solvent. Subsequent phospholipid micelle encapsulation yields micellar multi-SPIO (mmSPIO) aggregates with enhanced T{sub 2} relaxivity (368.0 s{sup -1} mmol{sup -1} Fe) as compared to micellar single particle SPIO (302.0 s{sup -1} mmol{sup -1} Fe). mmSPIO conjugated to anti-CA125 monoclonal antibodies were incubated with ovarian carcinoma cell lines to demonstrate targeted in vitro molecular MRI, resulting in a 66% shortening in T{sub 2} time for CA125 positive NIH:OVCAR-3 cells and a less than 3% change in T{sub 2} time for CA125 negative SK-OV-3 cells. The controllable aggregation of mmSPIO shows potential for the development of molecular MRI contrast agents with optimal sizes for specific diagnostic imaging applications.

  5. Superparamagnetic iron particles: value of the T1 effect in MR diagnosis of focal liver lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the T1 effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in MR imaging of focal hepatic lesions. Method: 21 patients with 34 liver lesions (18 benign) were examined before and immediately after infusion of SPIO particles (EndoremR) with a T1-weighted GRE- and SE sequence and a double echo SE sequence at 1.5 T. Changes of lesion signal intensity and contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratio were measured in addition to a qualitative analysis of changes in liver vessel signal. Results: In all cases a marked increase of liver vessel signal intensity was observed on T1-weighted images after SPIO infusion. In contrast to malignant lesions, haemangiomas and adenomas showed significant signal changes (p1- and T2-weighted images. Highest signal changes were achieved for haemangiomas on T1-GRE images (+80%) followed by T1-SE (+41%) and T2-SE (-42%). Malignant liver lesions exhibited highest C/Ns on T2-weighted postcontrast images. Conclusion: The T1-effect of EndoremR offers no benefits in respect of detectability of malignant liver lesions. However, it is helpful in characterising haemangiomas and their differentiation from liver tumours. (orig.)

  6. Recent advances in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for in vitro and in vivo cancer nanotheranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Ganeshlenin; Maity, Dipak

    2015-12-30

    Recently superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been extensively used in cancer therapy and diagnosis (theranostics) via magnetic targeting, magnetic resonance imaging, etc. due to their remarkable magnetic properties, chemical stability, and biocompatibility. However, the magnetic properties of SPIONs are influenced by various physicochemical and synthesis parameters. So, this review mainly focuses on the influence of spin canting effects, introduced by the variations in size, shape, and organic/inorganic surface coatings, on the magnetic properties of SPIONs. This review also describes the several predominant chemical synthesis procedures and role of the synthesis parameters for monitoring the size, shape, crystallinity and composition of the SPIONs. Moreover, this review discusses about the latest developments of the inorganic materials and organic polymers for encapsulation of the SPIONs. Finally, the most recent advancements of the SPIONs and their nanopackages in combination with other imaging/therapeutic agents have been comprehensively discussed for their effective usage as in vitro and in vivo theranostic agents in cancer treatments. PMID:26520409

  7. Magnetic resonance angiography of the portal venous system enhanced by superparamagnetic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) is used for the detection of focal liver lesions. The current study examines whether the blood-pool effect of an approved substance is adequate for contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the portal venous system. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients [9 women, 6 men, mean age 57 (34-73)] were examined with a breathhold 3D-FISP sequence (TR/TE/FA; 5 ms/2 ms/25 ) at 1.5 Tesla (Vision; Siemens, Erlangen) during the last third of a half-hour Infusion of a standard dose (15 μmol Fe/kg) of AMI-25 (Endorem trademark, Guerbet Co., France). The image quality of source images and 3D reconstructions was evaluated by two examiners using a 3-point scale. Results: Large vessels (portal vein, left and right branch of the portal vein, superior mesentric vein, splenic vein) are visualized well or adequately in 80-93% of the cases, while this was achieved in only 53-60% of the small veins (vessels of the first order emptying into the superior mesenteric vein and the spleen). Venous arcades of the mesenterium are not visible by this technique. Conclusion: SPIO-supported MRA of the portal venous system yields usable results in the majority of patients. A possible indication is preinterventional angiography together with an SPIO examination for the detection of focal liver lesions. (orig.)

  8. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrac, Igor M; Pavičić, Ivan; Milić, Mirta; Brkić Ahmed, Lada; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Gajović, Srećko

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility, safety, and risk assessments of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of the highest priority in researching their application in biomedicine. One improvement in the biological properties of SPIONs may be achieved by different functionalization and surface modifications. This study aims to investigate how a different surface functionalization of SPIONs - uncoated, coated with d-mannose, or coated with poly-l-lysine - affects biocompatibility. We sought to investigate murine neural stem cells (NSCs) as important model system for regenerative medicine. To reveal the possible mechanism of toxicity of SPIONs on NSCs, levels of reactive oxygen species, intracellular glutathione, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell-membrane potential, DNA damage, and activities of SOD and GPx were examined. Even in cases where reactive oxygen species levels were significantly lowered in NSCs exposed to SPIONs, we found depleted intracellular glutathione levels, altered activities of SOD and GPx, hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, dissipated cell-membrane potential, and increased DNA damage, irrespective of the surface coating applied for SPION stabilization. Although surface coating should prevent the toxic effects of SPIONs, our results showed that all of the tested SPION types affected the NSCs similarly, indicating that mitochondrial homeostasis is their major cellular target. Despite the claimed biomedical benefits of SPIONs, the refined determination of their effects on various cellular functions presented in this work highlights the need for further safety evaluations. This investigation helps to fill the knowledge gaps on the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the biocompatibility and safety of novel nanoparticles. PMID:27217748

  9. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for direct labeling of stem cells and in vivo MRI tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saejeong J; Lewis, Bobbi; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Bissa, Ursula V; Dose, Christian; Frank, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    To develop effective stem cell therapies, it is important to track therapeutic cells non-invasively and monitor homing to areas of pathology. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate the labeling efficiency of commercially available dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, FeraTrack Direct (FTD), in various stem and immune cells; assess the cytotoxicity and tolerability of the FTD in stem cells; and monitor stem cell homing using FTD-labeled bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) in a tumor model by in vivo MRI. BMSCs, NSCs, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), T-lymphocytes, and monocytes were labeled effectively with FTD without the need for transfection agents, and Prussian blue (PB) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed intracellular uptake of the agent. The viability, proliferation, and functionality of the labeled cells were minimally or not affected after labeling. When 10(6) FTD-labeled BMSCs or NSCs were injected into C6 glioma bearing nude mice, the cells homing to the tumors were detected as hypointense regions within the tumor using 3 T clinical MRI up to 10 days post injection. Histological analysis confirmed the homing of injected cells to the tumor by the presence of PB positive cells that are not macrophages. Labeling of stem cells or immune cells with FTD was non-toxic, and should facilitate the translation of this agent to clinical trials for evaluation of trafficking of cells by MRI. PMID:26234504

  10. PSMA targeted docetaxel-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagesh, Prashanth K B; Johnson, Nia R; Boya, Vijaya K N; Chowdhury, Pallabita; Othman, Shadi F; Khalilzad-Sharghi, Vahid; Hafeez, Bilal B; Ganju, Aditya; Khan, Sheema; Behrman, Stephen W; Zafar, Nadeem; Chauhan, Subhash C; Jaggi, Meena; Yallapu, Murali M

    2016-08-01

    Docetaxel (Dtxl) is currently the most common therapeutic option for prostate cancer (PC). However, adverse side effects and problems associated with chemo-resistance limit its therapeutic outcome in clinical settings. A targeted nanoparticle system to improve its delivery to and activity at the tumor site could be an attractive strategy for PC therapy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and determine the anti-cancer efficacy of a novel docetaxel loaded, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) (J591-SPION-Dtxl) formulation for PC therapy. Our results showed the SPION-Dtxl formulation exhibits an optimal particle size and zeta potential, which can efficiently be internalized in PC cells. SPION-Dtxl exhibited potent anti-cancer efficacy via induction of the expression of apoptosis associated proteins, downregulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, and inhibition of chemo-resistance associated protein in PC cell lines. J591-SPION-Dtxl exhibited a profound uptake in C4-2 (PSMA(+)) cells compared to PC-3 (PSMA(-)) cells. A similar targeting potential was observed in ex-vivo studies in C4-2 tumors but not in PC-3 tumors, suggesting its tumor specific targeting. Overall, this study suggests that a PSMA antibody functionalized SPION-Dtxl formulation can be highly useful for targeted PC therapy. PMID:27058278

  11. A biocompatible approach to surface modification: Biodegradable polymer functionalized super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a size range of 10-20 nm were firstly prepared by the modified controlled chemical coprecipitation method from the solution of ferrous/ferric mixed salt-solution in alkaline medium. Then, the super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were covalently modified by biodegradable polymers such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(d,l-lactide) (PELA). The size and its distribution of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS). The magnetic nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV). Magnetic properties were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. And the 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of the magnetic nanoparticles. The results showed that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles functionalized by PEG and PELA possessed a mean size of 43.2 and 79.3 nm, respectively, and exhibited an excellent biocompatibility.

  12. Control of the interparticle spacing in superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle clusters by surface ligand engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Wang; Bingbing, Lin; Taipeng, Shen; Jun, Wu; Fuhua, Hao; Chunchao, Xia; Qiyong, Gong; Huiru, Tang; Bin, Song; Hua, Ai

    2016-07-01

    Polymer-mediated self-assembly of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles allows modulation of the structure of SPIO nanocrystal cluster and their magnetic properties. In this study, dopamine-functionalized polyesters (DA-polyester) were used to directly control the magnetic nanoparticle spacing and its effect on magnetic resonance relaxation properties of these clusters was investigated. Monodisperse SPIO nanocrystals with different surface coating materials (poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(lactic acid)) of different molecular weights containing dopamine (DA) structure (DA-PCL2k, DA-PCL1k, DA-PLA1k)) were prepared via ligand exchange reaction, and these nanocrystals were encapsulated inside amphiphilic polymer micelles to modulate the SPIO nanocrystal interparticle spacing. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was applied to quantify the interparticle spacing of SPIO clusters. The results demonstrated that the tailored magnetic nanoparticle clusters featured controllable interparticle spacing providing directly by the different surface coating of SPIO nanocrystals. Systematic modulation of SPIO nanocrystal interparticle spacing can regulate the saturation magnetization (M s) and T 2 relaxation of the aggregation, and lead to increased magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation properties with decreased interparticle spacing. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB933903), the National Key Technology R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2012BAI23B08), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20974065, 51173117, and 50830107).

  13. Protein corona composition of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with various physico-chemical properties and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Maurizi, Lionel; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Because of their biocompatibility and unique magnetic properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles NPs (SPIONs) are recognized as some of the most prominent agents for theranostic applications. Thus, understanding the interaction of SPIONs with biological systems is important for their safe design and efficient applications. In this study, SPIONs were coated with 2 different polymers: polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA) and dextran. The obtained NPs with different surface charges (positive, neutral, and negative) were used as a model study of the effect of surface charges and surface polymer materials on protein adsorption using a magnetic separator. We found that the PVA-coated SPIONs with negative and neutral surface charge adsorbed more serum proteins than the dextran-coated SPIONs, which resulted in higher blood circulation time for PVA-coated NPs than the dextran-coated ones. Highly abundant proteins such as serum albumin, serotransferrin, prothrombin, alpha-fetoprotein, and kininogen-1 were commonly found on both PVA- and dextran-coated SPIONs. By increasing the ionic strength, soft- and hard-corona proteins were observed on 3 types of PVA-SPIONs. However, the tightly bound proteins were observed only on negatively charged PVA-coated SPIONs after the strong protein elution. PMID:24846348

  14. Biodistribution of ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in BALB mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used for medical applications. One of their important applications is using these particles as MRI contrast agent. While various research works have been done about MRI application of USPIOs, there is limited research about their uptakes in various organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodistribution of dextran coated iron oxide NPs labelled with 99mTc in various organs via intravenous injection in Balb/c mice. The magnetite NPs were dispersed in phosphate buffered saline and SnCl2 which was used as a reduction reagent. Subsequently, the radioisotope 99mTc was mixed directly into the reaction solution. The labeling efficiency of USPIOs labeled with 99mTc, was above 99 %. Sixty mice were sacrificed at 12 different time points (From 1 min to 48 h post injections; five mice at each time). The percentage of injected dose per gram of each organ was measured by direct counting for 19 harvested organs of the mice. The biodistribution of 99mTc-USPIO in Balb/c mice showed dramatic uptake in reticuloendothelial system. Accordingly, about 75 percent of injected dose was found in spleen and liver at 15 min post injection. More than 24 % of the NPs remain in liver after 48 h post-injection and their clearance is so fast in other organs. The results suggest that USPIOs as characterized in our study can be potentially used as contrast agent in MR Imaging, distributing reticuloendothelial system specially spleen and liver. (author)

  15. MR features of mice spleen lymphocytes labeled with super-paramagnetic iron oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of labeling mice spleen lymphocytes with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and in vitro MR imaging of the labeled cells. Methods: Spleen lymphocytes of 5 mice were isolated and then labeled with SPIO of 100, 50, 25, 15, 10, 5 μg/ml, which was previously prepared with PLL. Prussian blue staining was performed to show the intracellular iron. Cell viability was compared among fresh, labeled and unlabeled cells. Different concentrations of mice spleen lymphocytes were screened using 3.0 T MR on T2WI, T2*WI and SWI sequences in vitro. Cell viability was compared using independent-sample t test between groups. The MRI values among different groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. Results: SPIO prepared with PLL could successfully label mice spleen lymphocytes, the optimum concentration of SPIO was 5 μg/ml. The Prussian blue staining showed intracellular blue spots and a labeling efficiency of(93.6 ± 2.1%. Three groups of fresh,labeled and unlabeled cells showed a Trypan blue staining result of (94.8 ± 3.1%, (88.7 ± 2.7%, and (88.9 ±3.2%, respectively; no statistically significant difference was found in cell viability between labeled and unlabeled lymphocytes (t=0.281, P>0.05); however, the cell viability of fresh cells were statistically significant higher than the labeled and unlabeled lymphocytes (t=8.125 and 7.253 respectively, P <0.05 for all). Among the T2WI,T2*WI and SWI sequences under the same concentrations of cells, the SWI sequence was the most sensitive. Conclusions: The mice spleen lymphocytes can be effectively labeled with SPIO with no impact on cell viability, and MR can be used to track these labeled cells in vitro. The SWI sequence is the most sensitive. (authors)

  16. A detailed study on the transition from the blocked to the superparamagnetic state of reduction-precipitated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K.; Bodnar, W.; Mix, T.; Schell, N.; Fulda, G.; Woodcock, T. G.; Burkel, E.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by salt-assisted solid-state chemical precipitation method with alternating fractions of the ferric iron content. The physical properties of the precipitated nanoparticles mainly consisting of magnetite were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, high energy X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. With particle sizes ranging from 16.3 nm to 2.1 nm, a gradual transition from the blocked state to the superparamagnetic state was observed. The transition was described as a dependence of the ferric iron content used during the precipitation. Composition, mean particle size, coercivity, saturation polarisation, as well as hyperfine interaction parameters and their evolution were studied systematically over the whole series of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  17. Glioma-targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug-carrying vehicles for theranostic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He-Lin; Mao, Kai-Li; Huang, Yin-Ping; Yang, Jing-Jing; Xu, Jie; Chen, Pian-Pian; Fan, Zi-Liang; Zou, Shuang; Gao, Zheng-Zheng; Yin, Jia-Yu; Xiao, Jian; Lu, Cui-Tao; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Zhao, Ying-Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticles capable of the specific delivery of therapeutics to diseased cells and the real-time imaging of these sites have the potential to improve cancer treatment through personalized therapy. In this study, we have proposed a multifunctional nanoparticle that integrate magnetic targeting, drug-carrier functionality and real-time MRI imaging capabilities in one platform for the theranostic treatment of tumors. The multifunctional nanoparticle was designed with a superparamagnetic iron oxide core and a multifunctional shell composed of PEG/PEI/polysorbate 80 (Ps 80) and was used to encapsulate DOX. DOX-loaded multifunctional nanoparticles (DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs) with a Dh of 58.0 nm, a zeta potential of 28.0 mV, and a drug loading content of 29.3% presented superior superparamagnetic properties with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 24.1 emu g-1. The cellular uptake of DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs by C6 cells under a magnetic field was significantly enhanced over that of free DOX in solution, resulting in stronger in vitro cytotoxicity. The real-time therapeutic outcome of DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs was easily monitored by MRI. Furthermore, the negative contrast enhancement effect of the nanoparticles was confirmed in glioma-bearing rats. Prussian blue staining and ex vivo DOX fluorescence assays showed that the magnetic Ps 80-SPIONs and encapsulated DOX were delivered to gliomas by imposing external magnetic fields, indicating effective magnetic targeting. Due to magnetic targeting and Ps 80-mediated endocytosis, DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs in the presence of a magnetic field led to the complete suppression of glioma growth in vivo at 28 days after treatment. The therapeutic mechanism of DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs acted by inducing apoptosis through the caspase-3 pathway. Finally, DOX@Ps 80-SPIONs' safety at therapeutic dosage was verified using pathological HE assays of the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Multifunctional SPIONs could be used as potential carriers for the

  18. Bacterial growth on chitosan-coated polypropylene textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, D; Hola, V; Jaros, J; Rahel, J

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerged into a growth medium inoculated with green fluorescein protein labelled Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After overnight incubation at 33°C, the textile was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy for bacterial enumeration and biofilm structure characterisation. In the second stage, the textile was used as a filter medium for prefiltered river water, and the pressure development on the in-flow side was measured to quantify the overall level of biofouling. In both cases, nontreated textile samples were used as a control. The results indicate that the chitosan coating exhibits antibacterial properties. The developed method is applicable for the evaluation of the ability to inhibit biofilm formation. PMID:23724330

  19. Investigation on the toxic interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been investigated for various applications in targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging. Given their clinical relevance, there is a need to understand these particles' potential cytotoxic effects and possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Using a variety of spectroscopic techniques, we investigated the interaction of SPIONs with catalase (CAT) in an aqueous environment. Catalase is an important enzyme that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, in this work, CAT served as a model protein for examining the physiological effects of SPIONs due to is function in eliminating H2O2. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy results showed that SPIONs have little effect on tryptophan residues in CAT. Data from circular dichroism (CD) and UV–vis spectroscopies showed that CAT α-helical content decreased from 32.4% to 29.1% in the presence of SPIONs. Moreover, a ca. 10% decrease in CAT activity was observed in the presence of SPIONs at a 20:1 particle:protein ratio. These results show that SPIONs can interact with proteins to alter both their structure and function. Further studies with CAT or other toxicologically relevant enzymes may be used for elucidating the mechanisms of SPION cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of SPIONs with CAT on molecular level. • The interaction mechanism was explored by multiple spectroscopic techniques. • SPIONs can loosen the skeleton of protein and increase the exposure of amide moieties in the hydrophobic pocket. • SPIONs can inhibit CAT activity and trigger conformational changes in CAT

  20. Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) MRI contrast agent for bone marrow imaging. Differentiating bone metastasis and osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explored appropriate scan timing for bone marrow imaging enhanced using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and evaluated the usefulness of SPIO in differentiating metastasis and osteomyelitis in patients. The method of this study was to determine the adequate scan timing after administration of SPIO, 5 healthy subjects were examined using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scanner. Sagittal images of their lumbar spines were obtained using short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) sequence before and 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 hours after intravenous injection of 8 μmol Fe/kg SPIO (ferucarbotran). MR signal intensities (SIs) were evaluated. Based on the results, 12 patients, five with bone metastasis and seven with vertebral osteomyelitis, were examined using the same procedure before and 3 hours after intravenous injection of ferucarbotran at the same dose. SIs of the bone metastases, osteomyelitis, and surrounding normal bone marrow were measured, and relative enhancement (RE) was calculated for each lesion. In the healthy volunteers, maximum reduction in signal was observed 3 to 24 hours (P<0.05) after administration of SPIO; thereafter and up to 48 hours, the SI gradually recovered. In the patients, the RE of the bone metastases was -12.2%, which was significantly higher than that in the osteomyelitis (- 35.0%, P<.001) and normal bone marrow (-46.6%, P<.0005). Maximum suppression of signal intensity in bone marrow was seen 3 hours after injection of ferucarbotran, the point at which ferucarbotran allows differentiation of bone metastasis from ostoemyelitis. (author)

  1. Theranostic Application of Mixed Gold and Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Micelles in Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lova; Joh, Daniel Y; Al-Zaki, Ajlan; Stangl, Melissa; Murty, Surya; Davis, James J; Baumann, Brian C; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Kaol, Gary D; Tsourkas, Andrew; Dorsey, Jay F

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most prevalent and lethal form of brain cancer in humans, has been limited in part by poor delivery of drugs through the blood-brain barrier and by unclear delineation of the extent of infiltrating tumor margins. Nanoparticles, which selectively accumulate in tumor tissue due to their leaky vasculature and the enhanced permeability and retention effect, have shown promise as both therapeutic and diagnostic agents for brain tumors. In particular, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been leveraged as T2-weighted MRI contrast agents for tumor detection and imaging; and gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been demonstrated as radiosensitizers capable of propagating electron and free radical-induced radiation damage to tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the potential applications of novel gold and SPION-loaded micelles (GSMs) coated by polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) polymer. By quantifying gh2ax DNA damage foci in glioblastoma cell lines, we tested the radiosensitizing efficacy of these GSMs, and found that GSM administration in conjunction with radiation therapy (RT) led to ~2-fold increase in density of double-stranded DNA breaks. For imaging, we used GSMs as a contrast agent for both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of stereotactically implanted GBM tumors in a mouse model, and found that MRI but not CT was sufficiently sensitive to detect and delineate tumor borders after administration and accumulation of GSMs. These results suggest that with further development and testing, GSMs may potentially be integrated into both imaging and treatment of brain tumors, serving a theranostic purpose as both an MRI-based contrast agent and a radiosensitizer. PMID:27305768

  2. Ferromagnetic resonance for the quantification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel F Gamarra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lionel F Gamarra1,2, Antonio J daCosta-Filho3, Javier B Mamani1, Rita de Cassia Ruiz4, Lorena F Pavon1, Tatiana T Sibov1, Ernanni D Vieira3, André C Silva1, Walter M Pontuschka5, Edson Amaro Jr1,21Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein, IIEPAE, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Instituto de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil; 4Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil; 5Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present work is the presentation of a quantification methodology for the control of the amount of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs administered in biological materials by means of the ferromagnetic resonance technique (FMR applied to studies both in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo study consisted in the analysis of the elimination and biodistribution kinetics of SPIONs after intravenous administration in Wistar rats. The results were corroborated by X-ray fluorescence. For the in vitro study, a quantitative analysis of the concentration of SPIONs bound to the specific AC133 monoclonal antibodies was carried out in order to detect the expression of the antigenic epitopes (CD133 in stem cells from human umbilical cord blood. In both studies FMR has proven to be an efficient technique for the SPIONs quantification per volume unit (in vivo or per labeled cell (in vitro.Keywords: quantification, FMR, ferrofluid, biodistribution, nanoparticles

  3. Adsorption of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on silica and calcium carbonate sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjee C; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Nap, Rikkert J; Whitaker, Ragnhild D; Mathiyazhagan, Vidhya; Song, Yi-Qiao; Hürlimann, Martin; Szleifer, Igal; Wong, Joyce Y

    2014-01-28

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles have the potential to be used in the characterization of porous rock formations in oil fields as a contrast agent for NMR logging because they are small enough to traverse through nanopores and enhance contrast by shortening NMR T2 relaxation time. However, successful development and application require detailed knowledge of particle stability and mobility in reservoir rocks. Because nanoparticle adsorption to sand (SiO2) and rock (often CaCO3) affects their mobility, we investigated the thermodynamic equilibrium adsorption behavior of citric acid-coated SPIO nanoparticles (CA SPIO NPs) and poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted SPIO nanoparticles (PEG SPIO NPs) on SiO2 (silica) and CaCO3 (calcium carbonate). Adsorption behavior was determined at various pH and salt conditions via chemical analysis and NMR, and the results were compared with molecular theory predictions. Most of the NPs were recovered from silica, whereas far fewer NPs were recovered from calcium carbonate because of differences in the mineral surface properties. NP adsorption increased with increasing salt concentration: this trend was qualitatively explained by molecular theory, as was the role of the PEG grafting in preventing NPs adsorption. Quantitative disagreement between the theoretical predictions and the data was due to NP aggregation, especially at high salt concentration and in the presence of calcium carbonate. Upon aggregation, NP concentrations as determined by NMR T2 were initially overestimated and subsequently corrected using the relaxation rate 1/T2, which is a function of aggregate size and fractal dimension of the aggregate. Our experimental validation of the theoretical predictions of NP adsorption to minerals in the absence of aggregation at various pH and salt conditions demonstrates that molecular theory can be used to determine interactions between NPs and relevant reservoir surfaces. Importantly, this integrated experimental and

  4. Investigation on the toxic interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with catalase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zehua [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Hongwei [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Hu, Xinxin; Song, Wei [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Rutao, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, China–America CRC for Environment and Health, Shandong Province, Shandong University, 27# Shanda South Road, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been investigated for various applications in targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging. Given their clinical relevance, there is a need to understand these particles' potential cytotoxic effects and possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity. Using a variety of spectroscopic techniques, we investigated the interaction of SPIONs with catalase (CAT) in an aqueous environment. Catalase is an important enzyme that protects cells and tissues from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, in this work, CAT served as a model protein for examining the physiological effects of SPIONs due to is function in eliminating H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy results showed that SPIONs have little effect on tryptophan residues in CAT. Data from circular dichroism (CD) and UV–vis spectroscopies showed that CAT α-helical content decreased from 32.4% to 29.1% in the presence of SPIONs. Moreover, a ca. 10% decrease in CAT activity was observed in the presence of SPIONs at a 20:1 particle:protein ratio. These results show that SPIONs can interact with proteins to alter both their structure and function. Further studies with CAT or other toxicologically relevant enzymes may be used for elucidating the mechanisms of SPION cytotoxicity. - Highlights: • This work established the binding mode of SPIONs with CAT on molecular level. • The interaction mechanism was explored by multiple spectroscopic techniques. • SPIONs can loosen the skeleton of protein and increase the exposure of amide moieties in the hydrophobic pocket. • SPIONs can inhibit CAT activity and trigger conformational changes in CAT.

  5. Study on super-paramagnetic iron oxide-enhanced liver MR imaging in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; TIAN Jian-ming; LU Jian-ping; LIU Qi; ZENG Hao; CHEN Ai-hua; TAO Wen-zhao

    2001-01-01

    To establish a curve of dosage gradient-liver signal intensity of super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in normal rats and to find an appropriate enhancement dosage. Methods: Seventy-two SD rats were randomized into 18 groups (n=4), received MR enhancement of 0, 2, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100,140, 210, 280 μmol/kg SPIO after plane examination. The signal-to-noise ratio of liver was measured to make a curve of dosage gradient-liver signal intensity. Results: (1) The signal intensity of both T1 and T2 weighted images of liver declined with the increase of SPIO. (2) T2 weighted images were more sensitive than T1 weighted images in small dosage, the ED50 of T1 and T2 weighted were 8 μmol/kg and 5 μmol/kg respectively. (3) When the dose was greater than 15 μmol/kg, the signal intensity of T1 weighted images declined more rapidly than that of T2 weighted,the effect of enhanced T1 weighted images was similar to T2 weighted ones, and its images were with nicer resolution.(4) At the dose of 40 μ mol/kg, the signal intensity of T1 weighted images approached to the background noise; at the dose of 15 μmol/kg, the signal intensity of T2 weighted images approached to the background noise. Conclusion:Good effect of T1 and T2 enhanced MR imaging can be acquired at the dose of 20 to 10 μmol/kg SPIO respectively,the best contrast-to-noise ratio is found on T2-weighted enhanced MR image.

  6. Characterization of PEI-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for transfection: Size distribution, colloidal properties and DNA interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steitz, Benedikt [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hofmann, Heinrich [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Kamau, Sarah W. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hassa, Paul O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hottiger, Michael O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Rechenberg, Brigitte von [Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Magarethe [MatSearch, Chemin Jean Pavillard 14, 1009 Pully (Switzerland); Petri-Fink, Alke [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)]. E-mail: alke.fink@epfl.ch

    2007-04-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with polyethylenimine. Here, we briefly describe the synthesis as well as DNA:PEI:SPION complexes and the characterization of the compounds according to their particle size, {zeta}-potential, morphology, DNA complexing ability, magnetic sedimentation, and colloidal stability. PEI coating of SPIONs led to colloidally stable beads even in high salt concentrations over a wide pH range. DNA plasmids and PCR products encoding for green fluorescent protein were associated with the described beads. The complexes were added to cells and exposed to permanent and pulsating magnetic fields. Presence of these magnetic fields significantly increased the transfection efficiency.

  7. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as arsenic adsorbent. Development of Nanofiber SPION Supports and Arsenic Speciation Using Synchrotron and Hyphenated Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Martín, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Los estudios que se han realizado en la presente tesis doctoral se basan en el desarrollo de una metodología de síntesis y caracterización de sistemas nanoestructurados como recurso innovador para la recuperación de arsénico en efluentes contaminados y la depuración de dichos efluentes. Estos materiales tienen como elemento común, el uso de las Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPION), con las que se han realizado diferentes estudios de adsorción para evaluar los parámetros de adsor...

  8. Characterization of PEI-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for transfection: Size distribution, colloidal properties and DNA interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with polyethylenimine. Here, we briefly describe the synthesis as well as DNA:PEI:SPION complexes and the characterization of the compounds according to their particle size, ζ-potential, morphology, DNA complexing ability, magnetic sedimentation, and colloidal stability. PEI coating of SPIONs led to colloidally stable beads even in high salt concentrations over a wide pH range. DNA plasmids and PCR products encoding for green fluorescent protein were associated with the described beads. The complexes were added to cells and exposed to permanent and pulsating magnetic fields. Presence of these magnetic fields significantly increased the transfection efficiency

  9. Characterization of PEI-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for transfection: Size distribution, colloidal properties and DNA interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steitz, Benedikt; Hofmann, Heinrich; Kamau, Sarah W.; Hassa, Paul O.; Hottiger, Michael O.; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Magarethe; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2007-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were coated with polyethylenimine. Here, we briefly describe the synthesis as well as DNA:PEI:SPION complexes and the characterization of the compounds according to their particle size, ζ-potential, morphology, DNA complexing ability, magnetic sedimentation, and colloidal stability. PEI coating of SPIONs led to colloidally stable beads even in high salt concentrations over a wide pH range. DNA plasmids and PCR products encoding for green fluorescent protein were associated with the described beads. The complexes were added to cells and exposed to permanent and pulsating magnetic fields. Presence of these magnetic fields significantly increased the transfection efficiency.

  10. Enhanced bio-compatibility of ferrofluids of self-assembled superparamagnetic iron oxide-silica core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, T N; Mary, A P Reena; Swalih, P K Anas; Kumar, D Sakthi; Makarov, D; Albrecht, M; Puthumana, Jayesh; Anas, Abdulaziz; Anantharaman, M R

    2011-03-01

    Self-assembled magnetic colloidal suspensions are sought after by material scientists owing to its huge application potential. The biomedical applications of colloidal nanoparticles necessitate that they are biocompatible, non-interacting, monodispersed and hence the synthesis of such nanostructures has great relevance in the realm of nanoscience. Silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles based ferrofluids were prepared using polyethylene glycol as carrier fluid by employing a controlled co-precipitation technique followed by a modified sol-gel synthesis. A plausible mechanism for the formation of stable suspension of SiO2-coated Iron Oxide nanoparticles with a size of about 9 nm dispersed in polyethylene glycol (PEG) is proposed. Core-shell nature of the resultant SiO2-Iron Oxide nanocomposite was verified using transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies were carried out to understand the structure and nature of chemical bonds. The result suggests that Iron Oxide exist in an isolated state inside silica matrix. Moreover, the presence of silanol bonds establishes the hydrophilic nature of silica shell confirming the formation of stable ferrofluid with PEG as carrier fluid. The magnetic characterization reveals the superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles with a rather narrow distribution of blocking temperatures. These properties are not seen in ferrofluids prepared from Iron Oxide nanoparticles without SiO2 coating. The latter suggests the successful tuning of the inter-particle interactions preventing agglomeration of nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity studies on citric acid coated water based ferrofluid and silica-coated PEG-based ferrofluid were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium chloride assay and it shows an enhanced compatibility for silica modified nanoparticles. PMID:21449334

  11. Influencing factors in the CO-precipitation process of superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles: A model based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study, presented here, focuses on the impact of synthesis parameters on the co-precipitation process of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Particle diameters between 3 and 17 nm and saturation magnetizations from 26 to 89 Am2 kg−1 were achieved by variation of iron salt concentration, reaction temperature, ratio of hydroxide ions to iron ions and ratio of Fe3+/Fe2+. All synthesis assays were conceived according to the “design of experiments” method. The results were fitted to significant models. Subsequent validation experiments could confirm the models with an accuracy>95%. The characterization of the chemical composition, as well as structural and magnetic properties was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The results reveal that the particles' saturation magnetization can be enhanced by the employment of high iron salt concentrations and a molar ratio of Fe3+/Fe2+ below 2:1. Furthermore, the particle size can be increased by higher iron salt concentrations and a hyperstoichiometric normal ratio of hydroxide ions to iron ions of 1.4:1. Overall results indicate that the saturation magnetization is directly related to the particle size. - Highlights: • We model the impact of synthesis parameters in the Massart process. • Optimization of synthesis parameters according to particle size and magnetization. • Particles are fully characterized with XRD, TEM and SQUID magnetometry

  12. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with epidermal growth factor (SPION–EGF for targeting brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevtsov MA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxim A Shevtsov,1,2 Boris P Nikolaev,3 Ludmila Y Yakovleva,3 Yaroslav Y Marchenko,3 Anatolii V Dobrodumov,4 Anastasiya L Mikhrina,5 Marina G Martynova,1 Olga A Bystrova,1 Igor V Yakovenko,2 Alexander M Ischenko31Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, 2AL Polenov Russian Scientific Research Institute of Neurosurgery, 3Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, 4Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, 5IM Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS, St Petersburg, RussiaAbstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs conjugated with recombinant human epidermal growth factor (SPION–EGF were studied as a potential agent for magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement of malignant brain tumors. Synthesized conjugates were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry. The interaction of SPION–EGF conjugates with cells was analyzed in a C6 glioma cell culture. The distribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in an orthotopic model of C6 gliomas. SPION–EGF nanosuspensions had the properties of a negative contrast agent with high coefficients of relaxation efficiency. In vitro studies of SPION–EGF nanoparticles showed high intracellular incorporation and the absence of a toxic influence on C6 cell viability and proliferation. Intravenous administration of SPION–EGF conjugates in animals provided receptor-mediated targeted delivery across the blood–brain barrier and tumor retention of the nanoparticles; this was more efficient than with unconjugated SPIONs. The accumulation of conjugates in the glioma was revealed as hypotensive zones on T2-weighted images with a twofold reduction in T2 relaxation time in comparison to unconjugated SPIONs (P<0.001. SPION

  13. The distribution and degradation of radiolabeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and quantum dots in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bargheer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 51Cr-labeled, superparamagnetic, iron oxide nanoparticles (51Cr-SPIOs and 65Zn-labeled CdSe/CdS/ZnS-quantum dots (65Zn-Qdots were prepared using an easy, on demand, exchange-labeling technique and their particokinetic parameters were studied in mice after intravenous injection. The results indicate that the application of these heterologous isotopes can be used to successfully mark the nanoparticles during initial distribution and organ uptake, although the 65Zn-label appeared not to be fully stable. As the degradation of the nanoparticles takes place, the individual transport mechanisms for the different isotopes must be carefully taken into account. Although this variation in transport paths can bring new insights with regard to the respective trace element homeostasis, it can also limit the relevance of such trace material-based approaches in nanobioscience. By monitoring 51Cr-SPIOs after oral gavage, the gastrointestinal non-absorption of intact SPIOs in a hydrophilic or lipophilic surrounding was measured in mice with such high sensitivity for the first time. After intravenous injection, polymer-coated, 65Zn-Qdots were mainly taken up by the liver and spleen, which was different from that of ionic 65ZnCl2. Following the label for 4 weeks, an indication of substantial degradation of the nanoparticles and the release of the label into the Zn pool was observed. Confocal microscopy of rat liver cryosections (prepared 2 h after intravenous injection of polymer-coated Qdots revealed a colocalization with markers for Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC, but not with hepatocytes. In J774 macrophages, fluorescent Qdots were found colocalized with lysosomal markers. After 24 h, no signs of degradation could be detected. However, after 12 weeks, no fluorescent nanoparticles could be detected in the liver cryosections, which would confirm our 65Zn data showing a substantial degradation of the polymer-coated CdSe/CdS/ZnS-Qdots in

  14. Effect of moderate electric field in the physical and transport properties of chitosan coatings

    OpenAIRE

    B.W.S. Souza; Cerqueira, M. A.; Casariego, A.; Martins, Joana; Teixeira, J.A.; Vicente, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Edible films and coatings can provide additional protection for food, while being a fully biodegradable, environmentally friendly packaging system. Preliminary works have shown that the presence of a moderate electric field during the preparation of chitosan coating solutions may influence e.g. their transport properties. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of field strength on functional properties of chitosan coatings (obtained from lobster of the Cuban coasts). Four different ...

  15. In vitro corrosion behavior and cytotoxicity property of magnesium matrix composite with chitosan coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴翌龙; 余琨; 陈良建; 陈畅; 乔雪岩; 颜阳

    2015-01-01

    Mg-6%Zn-10%β-Ca3(PO4)2 composite was prepared through powder metallurgy methods with different chitosan coatings on its surface. The properties of the chitosan coatings on the surface of Mg-6%Zn-10%β-Ca3(PO4)2 composite, such as the adhesion ability, the corrosion behavior and the cytotoxicity properties, were investigated, and the microstructure of the chitosan coating was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that chitosan coating improves the corrosion resistance of the magnesium composite specimens significantly. Mg-6%Zn-10%β-Ca3(PO4)2 composite specimens exhibit good corrosion resistance and low pH values in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C in the immersion test with 7-layer chitosan coating whose relative molecular mass is 30×104 Da. The cytotoxicity tests indicate that Mg-6%Zn-10%β-Ca3(PO4)2 with chitosan coating is nontoxic with a cytotoxicity grade of zero against L-929 cells, which is better than that of uncoated composites.

  16. Chitosan-Coated Collagen Membranes Promote Chondrocyte Adhesion, Growth, and Interleukin-6 Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Mighri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Designing scaffolds made from natural polymers may be highly attractive for tissue engineering strategies. We sought to produce and characterize chitosan-coated collagen membranes and to assess their efficacy in promoting chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and cytokine secretion. Porous collagen membranes were placed in chitosan solutions then crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapor. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR analyses showed elevated absorption at 1655 cm-1 of the carbon–nitrogen (N=C bonds formed by the reaction between the (NH2 of the chitosan and the (C=O of the glutaraldehyde. A significant peak in the amide II region revealed a significant deacetylation of the chitosan. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the chitosan-coated membranes exhibited surface variations, with pore size ranging from 20 to 50 µm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS revealed a decreased C–C groups and an increased C–N/C–O groups due to the reaction between the carbon from the collagen and the NH2 from the chitosan. Increased rigidity of these membranes was also observed when comparing the chitosan-coated and uncoated membranes at dried conditions. However, under wet conditions, the chitosan coated collagen membranes showed lower rigidity as compared to dried conditions. Of great interest, the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan-coated collagen membranes promoted chondrocyte adhesion, growth, and interleukin (IL-6 secretion. Overall results confirm the feasibility of using designed chitosan-coated collagen membranes in future applications, such as cartilage repair.

  17. The labeling of stem cells by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with PEG/PVP or PEG/PEI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gao; Ma, Weiqiong; Zhang, Baolin; Xie, Qi

    2016-05-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) co-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) (PEG/PVP-SPIONs), and PEG and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) co-modified SPIONs (PEG/PEI-SPIONs) synthesized by thermal decomposition have been used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents to label adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Efficient cell labeling was achieved after incubation with PEG/PVP-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs for 12h, and the MRI of labeled cells was evaluated. The cell viability tests showed the low cytotoxicity of PEG/PVP-SPIONs and PEG/PEI-SPIONs. The cellular iron content incubated with PEG/PVP-SPIONs at a concentration of 25μg/ml was 6.96pg/cell, the cellular iron contents incubated with PEG/PEI-SPIONs at concentrations of 12 and 25μg/ml were 20.16, 35.4pg/cell, respectively. The SPIONs were located predominantly in the intracellular vesicles. The cellular iron oxide uptake was significantly high after incubation with PEG/PEI-SPIONs as compared with the commercial iron oxide agents (Feridex, Feridex@PLL, Resovist and Resovist@PLL) reported. This work demonstrates that PEG/PEI-SPIONs are the competent agents for the labeling of ADSCs. PMID:26952437

  18. A magnetic-dependent protein corona of tailor-made superparamagnetic iron oxides alters their biological behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyao; Zhan, Xiaohui; Yang, Minggang; Yang, Qi; Xu, Xianghui; Lan, Fang; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, it is becoming increasingly evident that once nanoparticles come into contact with biological fluids, a protein corona surely forms and critically affects the biological behaviors of nanoparticles. Herein, we investigate whether the formation of protein corona on the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) is influenced by static magnetic field. Under static magnetic field, there is no obvious variation in the total amount of protein adsorption, but the proportion of adsorbed proteins significantly changes. Noticeably, certain proteins including apolipoproteins, complement system proteins and acute phase proteins, increase in the protein corona of SPIOs in the magnetic field. More importantly, the magnetic-dependent protein corona of SPIOs enhances the cellular uptake of SPIOs into the normal cell line (3T3 cells) and tumor cell line (HepG2 cells), due to increased adsorption of apolipoprotein. In addition, SPIOs with the magnetic-dependent protein corona cause high cytotoxicity to 3T3 cells and HepG2 cells. This work discloses that superparamagnetism as a key feature of SPIOs affects the composition of protein corona to a large extent, which further alters the biological behaviors of SPIOs.In recent years, it is becoming increasingly evident that once nanoparticles come into contact with biological fluids, a protein corona surely forms and critically affects the biological behaviors of nanoparticles. Herein, we investigate whether the formation of protein corona on the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) is influenced by static magnetic field. Under static magnetic field, there is no obvious variation in the total amount of protein adsorption, but the proportion of adsorbed proteins significantly changes. Noticeably, certain proteins including apolipoproteins, complement system proteins and acute phase proteins, increase in the protein corona of SPIOs in the magnetic field. More importantly, the magnetic-dependent protein

  19. Comparative Study of Images with Pathology:Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Image(MRI)of Splenic VX2 Tumor in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-yan; XU Yi-kai; WU Yuan-kui; LIU Wen-yuan; L(U) Guo-shi; CAO Guo-hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To establish a rodent model of VX2 tumor of the spleen,to analyze relationship between the change of the signal intensity on superparamagnetic iron oxide enhanced magnetic resonance image(MRI)and pathologic change to evaluate the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide enhanced MRI for detection of splenic metastases.Methods:8 rodent models of VX2 tumor of spleen were established successfully.The images were obtained before and after administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide.T1-weighted spin-echo(SE)pulse sequence with a repetition time(TR)of 450 msec,and echo time(TE)of 12 msec(TR/TE=450/12)was used.The imaging parameters Of T2-weighted SE pulse sequence were as follows:TR/TE=4000/128. Results:On plain MR scanning T1-weighted splenic VX2 tumor showed hypointensity or isointensity which approximated to the SI of splenic parenchyma.Therefore all lesions were not displayed clearly.On superparamagnetic iron oxide enhancement T2WI sequence the SI of splenic parenchyma decreased obviously with percentage of signal intensity loss(PSIL)of 55.04%,But the SI of tumor was not evidently changed with PSIL of 0.87%. Nevertheless the SNR of normal splenic parenchyma around the lesions had obvious difference(P<0.001)comparatively.Therefore the contrast between tumor and spleen increased.and tumor displayed more clearly.Moreover the contrast-to-noise(CNR)between VX2 tumor and splenic parenchyma had an evident difference before and after admininstration of superparamagnetic iron oxide(P<0.001).Conclusion:On superparamagnetic iron oxide enhancement T1WI sequence the contrast of tumor-to-spleen is poor.Therefore it is not sensitive to characterize the lesions in spleen.On superparamagnetie iron oxide enhanced T2WI the contrast degree of lesions increases obviously.Consequently, superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced T2WI MRI scanning can improve the rate of detection and characterization for lesions of spleen.

  20. Optimal labeling dose, labeling time, and magnetic resonance imaging detection limits of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticle labeled mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Hansen, Louise; Friis, Tina;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Regenerative therapy is an emerging treatment modality. To determine migration and retention of implanted cells, it is crucial to develop noninvasive tracking methods. The aim was to determine ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection limits of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron...

  1. Impact of surface coating and particle size on the uptake of small and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shigeyoshi Saito,1 Mana Tsugeno,1 Daichi Koto,1 Yuki Mori,2 Yoshichika Yoshioka,2 Satoshi Nohara,3 Kenya Murase11Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Faculty of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, 2Biofunctional Imaging Lab, Immunology Frontier Research Center (WPI-IFReC, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan; 3The Nagoya Research Laboratory, Meito Sangyo Co, Ltd, Kiyosu, Aichi, JapanPurpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using contrast agents like superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO is an extremely versatile technique to diagnose diseases and to monitor treatment. This study tested the relative importance of particle size and surface coating for the optimization of MRI contrast and labeling efficiency of macrophages migrating to remote inflammation sites.Materials and methods: We tested four SPIO and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO, alkali-treated dextran magnetite (ATDM with particle sizes of 28 and 74 nm, and carboxymethyl dextran magnetite (CMDM with particle sizes of 28 and 72 nm. Mouse macrophage RAW264 cells were incubated with SPIOs and USPIOs, and the labeling efficiency of the cells was determined by the percentage of Berlin blue-stained cells and by measuring T2 relaxation times with 11.7-T MRI. We used trypan blue staining to measure cell viability.Results: Analysis of the properties of the nanoparticles revealed that ATDM-coated 74 nm particles have a lower T2 relaxation time than the others, translating into a higher ability of MRI negative contrast agent. Among the other three candidates, CMDM-coated particles showed the highest T2 relaxation time once internalized by macrophages. Regarding labeling efficiency, ATDM coating resulted in a cellular uptake higher than CMDM coating, independent of nanoparticle size. None of these particle formulations affected macrophage viability.Conclusion: This study suggests that coating is more critical than size to optimize

  2. Preparation of biocompatible molecularly imprinted shell on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for selective depletion of bovine hemoglobin in biological sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; Zhang, Bianbian; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-05-15

    Bovine hemoglobin (BHb), as one of the high-abundance proteins, could seriously mask and hamper the analysis of low-abundance proteins in serum. To selectively deplete BHb, we design a simple and effective strategy for preparation of biocompatible molecularly imprinted shell on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles through surface imprinting technique combined with template immobilization strategy. Firstly, template proteins are immobilized on the directly aldehyde-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles through imine bonds. Then, with gelatin as functional monomer, a polymeric network molded around the immobilized template proteins is obtained. Finally, the specific cavities for BHb are fabricated after removing the template proteins. The effects of imprinting conditions were investigated and the optimal imprinting conditions are found to be 40mg of BHb, 150mg of gelatin, and 8h of polymerization time. The resultant materials exhibit good dispersion, high crystallinity, and satisfactory superparamagnetic property with a high saturation magnetization (33.43emug(-1)). The adsorption experiments show that the imprinted nanomaterials have high adsorption capacity of 93.1mgg(-1), fast equilibrium time of 35min, and satisfactory selectivity for target protein. Meanwhile, the obtained polymers could be used without obvious deterioration after six adsorption-desorption cycles. In addition, the resultant polymers are successfully applied in the selective isolation BHb from bovine blood sample, which could provide an alternative solution for the preparatory work of proteomics. PMID:26939073

  3. Hydroxy, carboxylic and amino acid functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anti-cancer studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilaveez Rehana; Azees Khan Haleel; Aziz Kalilur Rahiman

    2015-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation method and modified with different coating agents such as ascorbic acid, hexanoic acid, salicylic acid, L-arginine and L-cysteine. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various techniques such as FT IR, XRD, VSM, SEM, TEM and thermal analysis. Both bare and coated magnetites were of cubic spinel structure and spherical in shape. All the magnetite nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic behaviour with high saturated magnetization. In vitro cytotoxicity test of bare and coated nanoparticles was performed using adenocarcinoma cells, A549. Cell viability of bare and L-arginine coated magnetite nanoparticles showed IC50 value of 31.2 g/mL proving the compatibility of nanocarriers when compared to others. Hence, L-arginine coated nanoparticles were used for loading the drug paclitaxel and the observed IC50 value (7.8 g/mL) shows its potent anti-proliferative effect against A549 lung cancer cell lines. Thus, it can be speculated that the drug paclitaxel loaded L-arginine coated nanoparticles could be used as an effective drug carrier for the destruction of cancer cells.

  4. Influencing factors in the CO-precipitation process of superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles: A model based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Hans-Christian; Schwaminger, Sebastian P.; Schindler, Michael [Bioseparation Engineering Group, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 15, Garching d-85748 (Germany); Wagner, Friedrich E. [Technische Universität München, Physics Department El5, Garching d-85748 (Germany); Berensmeier, Sonja, E-mail: s.berensmeier@tum.de [Bioseparation Engineering Group, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstraße 15, Garching d-85748 (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    The study, presented here, focuses on the impact of synthesis parameters on the co-precipitation process of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Particle diameters between 3 and 17 nm and saturation magnetizations from 26 to 89 Am{sup 2} kg{sup −1} were achieved by variation of iron salt concentration, reaction temperature, ratio of hydroxide ions to iron ions and ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+}. All synthesis assays were conceived according to the “design of experiments” method. The results were fitted to significant models. Subsequent validation experiments could confirm the models with an accuracy>95%. The characterization of the chemical composition, as well as structural and magnetic properties was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The results reveal that the particles' saturation magnetization can be enhanced by the employment of high iron salt concentrations and a molar ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} below 2:1. Furthermore, the particle size can be increased by higher iron salt concentrations and a hyperstoichiometric normal ratio of hydroxide ions to iron ions of 1.4:1. Overall results indicate that the saturation magnetization is directly related to the particle size. - Highlights: • We model the impact of synthesis parameters in the Massart process. • Optimization of synthesis parameters according to particle size and magnetization. • Particles are fully characterized with XRD, TEM and SQUID magnetometry.

  5. A comparative physicochemical, morphological and magnetic study of silane-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by alkaline coprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Laura-Karina; Sacher, Edward; Yahia, L'Hocine; Laurent, Sophie; Stanicki, Dimitri

    2016-06-01

    The characterization of synthetic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION) surfaces prior to functionalization is an essential step in the prediction of their successful functionalization, and in uncovering issues that may influence their selection as magnetically targeted drug delivery vehicles (prodrugs). Here, three differently functionalized magnetite (Fe3O4) SPIONs are considered. All were identically prepared by the alkaline coprecipitation of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) salts. We use X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, time-of-flight SIMS, FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements to characterize their chemical, morphological and magnetic properties, in order to aid in determining how their surfaces differ from those prepared by Fe(CO)5 decomposition, which we have already studied, and in assessing their potential use as drug delivery carriers. PMID:26667269

  6. Mechanisms of complement activation by dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoworms in mouse versus human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Nirmal K; Mehta, Gaurav; Chao, Ying;

    2014-01-01

    mice and humans need to be fully understood. METHODS: 20 kDa dextran coated SPIO nanoworms (SPIO NW) were synthesized using Molday precipitation procedure. In vitro measurements of C3 deposition on SPIO NW using sera genetically deficient for various components of the classical pathway (CP), lectin...... the CP, but that did not affect the total level of C3 deposition on the particles. CONCLUSIONS: There were important differences and similarities in the complement activation by SPIO NW in mouse versus human sera. Understanding the mechanisms of immune recognition of nanoparticles in mouse and human......BACKGROUND: The complement system is a key component of innate immunity implicated in the neutralization and clearance of invading pathogens. Dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. However, dextran SPIO has...

  7. Development of a method for measuring blood coagulation using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and an alternating magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kenya

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for measuring blood coagulation using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The 3rd and 5th harmonic signals from SPIONs mixed with blood induced by AMF were detected using a gradiometer coil. Blood coagulation was induced artificially by adding CaCl2 solution to whole blood of sheep at various temperatures and hematocrits. We calculated the coagulation rate (k) and normalized signal intensity at infinite time (Sinf) by fitting the time course of the normalized 3rd harmonic signal to S(t)=(1-Sinf)exp(-kt)+Sinf. The k values increased significantly with increasing temperature and decreased significantly with increasing hematocrit. The Sinf values decreased significantly with increasing temperature and tended to increase with increasing hematocrit. Blood anticoagulation was induced by adding heparin to the whole blood sampled from mice. There were significant differences in both the 3rd and 5th harmonic signals between groups with and ...

  8. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles by inelastic collision via ultrasonic field: Role of colloidal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)/Silica composite nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonically irradiating colloidal suspension of silica and SPION mixture. Both silica and SPION were synthesized independently via co-precipitation and sol-gel method, respectively. Their mixtures were sonicated at different pH between 3 and 5. Electrophoresis measurement and other physicochemical analyses of the products demonstrate that at lower pH SPION was found incorporated into the silica. However, at pH greater than 4, SPION was unstable and unable to withstand the turbulence flow and shock wave from the ultrasonic field. Results suggest that the formation of the SPION/silica composite nanoparticles is strongly related to the inelastic collision induced by ultrasonic irradiation. More so, the formation the composite nanoparticles via the ultrasonic field are dependent on the zeta potential and colloidal stability of the particles

  9. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles by inelastic collision via ultrasonic field: Role of colloidal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Azlan, Abdul Aziz [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Lab, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Nano-Biotechnology Research (Malaysia); Innovation (NanoBRI), Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)/Silica composite nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonically irradiating colloidal suspension of silica and SPION mixture. Both silica and SPION were synthesized independently via co-precipitation and sol-gel method, respectively. Their mixtures were sonicated at different pH between 3 and 5. Electrophoresis measurement and other physicochemical analyses of the products demonstrate that at lower pH SPION was found incorporated into the silica. However, at pH greater than 4, SPION was unstable and unable to withstand the turbulence flow and shock wave from the ultrasonic field. Results suggest that the formation of the SPION/silica composite nanoparticles is strongly related to the inelastic collision induced by ultrasonic irradiation. More so, the formation the composite nanoparticles via the ultrasonic field are dependent on the zeta potential and colloidal stability of the particles.

  10. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles by inelastic collision via ultrasonic field: Role of colloidal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Azlan, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)/Silica composite nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonically irradiating colloidal suspension of silica and SPION mixture. Both silica and SPION were synthesized independently via co-precipitation and sol-gel method, respectively. Their mixtures were sonicated at different pH between 3 and 5. Electrophoresis measurement and other physicochemical analyses of the products demonstrate that at lower pH SPION was found incorporated into the silica. However, at pH greater than 4, SPION was unstable and unable to withstand the turbulence flow and shock wave from the ultrasonic field. Results suggest that the formation of the SPION/silica composite nanoparticles is strongly related to the inelastic collision induced by ultrasonic irradiation. More so, the formation the composite nanoparticles via the ultrasonic field are dependent on the zeta potential and colloidal stability of the particles.

  11. Application of magnetic field hyperthermia and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to HIV-1-specific T-cell cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P; Southern, Paul; Lissina, Anya; Christian, Helen C; Sewell, Andrew K; Phillips, Rodney; Pankhurst, Quentin; Frater, John

    2013-01-01

    The latent HIV-1 reservoir remains the major barrier to HIV-1 eradication. Although successful at limiting HIV replication, highly active antiretroviral therapy is unable to cure HIV infection, thus novel therapeutic strategies are needed to eliminate the virus. Magnetic field hyperthermia (MFH) generates thermoablative cytotoxic temperatures in target-cell populations, and has delivered promising outcomes in animal models, as well as in several cancer clinical trials. MFH has been proposed as a strategy to improve the killing of HIV-infected cells and for targeting the HIV latent reservoirs. We wished to determine whether MFH could be used to enhance cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) targeting of HIV-infected cells in a proof-of-concept study. Here, for the first time, we apply MFH to an infectious disease (HIV-1) using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle FeraSpin R. We attempt to improve the cytotoxic potential of T-cell receptor-transfected HIV-specific CTLs using thermotherapy, and assess superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle toxicity, uptake, and effect on cell function using more sensitive methods than previously described. FeraSpin R exhibited only limited toxicity, demonstrated efficient uptake and cell-surface attachment, and only modestly impacted T-cell function. In contrast to the cancer models, insufficient MFH was generated to enhance CTL killing of HIV-infected cells. MFH remains an exciting new technology in the field of cancer therapeutics, which, as technology improves, may have significant potential to enhance CTL function and act as an adjunctive therapy in the eradication of latently infected HIV-positive cells. PMID:23901272

  12. Doxorubicin delivered to MCF-7 cancer cells by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: effects on subcellular distribution and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical use of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by strong side effects and phenomena of cell resistance. Drug targeting by binding DOX to nanoparticles could overcome these limitations. We recently described a method to associate DOX to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in view of magnetic drug targeting (Munnier et al. in Int J Pharm 363:170–176, 2008). DOX is bound to the nanoparticle surface through a pre-formed DOX–Fe2+ complex. The DOX-loaded SPION present interesting properties in terms of drug loading and biological activity in vitro. The purpose of this study is to explore the possible mechanisms of the in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded SPION. The uptake of SPION was followed qualitatively by conventional optical microscopy after Prussian blue staining and quantitatively by iron determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The subcellular distribution of intrinsically fluorescent DOX was followed by confocal spectral imaging (CSI) and the subsequent cytotoxicity by the MTT method. We reveal modifications of DOX intracellular interactions for SPION-delivered drug and increased cytotoxicity. These results are discussed in terms of internalization route of the drug and of a potential role of iron oxide nanoparticles in the observed cytotoxicity.

  13. Effect of chitosan coating on the characteristics of DPPC liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen M. Mady

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Because it is both biocompatible and biodegradable, chitosan has been used to provide a protective capsule in new drug formulations. The present work reports on investigations into some of the physicochemical properties of chitosan-coated liposomes, including drug release rate, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, zeta potential and turbidity measurement. It was found that chitosan increases liposome stability during drug release. The coating of DPPC liposomes with a chitosan layer was confirmed by electron microscopy and the zeta potential of liposomes. The coating of liposomes by chitosan resulted in a marginal increase in the size of the liposomes, adding a layer of (92 ± 27.1 nm. The liposomal zeta potential was found to be increasingly positive as chitosan concentration increased from 0.1% to 0.3% (w/v, before stabilising at a relatively constant value. Turbidity studies revealed that the coating of DPPC liposomes with chitosan did not significantly modify the main phase transition temperature of DPPC at examined chitosan concentrations. The appropriate combination of liposomal and chitosan characteristics may produce liposomes with specific, prolonged and controlled release.

  14. Superparamagnetic iron oxide/chitosan core/shells for hyperthermia application: Improved colloidal stability and biocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, R.M.; Shete, P.B.; Thorat, N.D.; Otari, S.V. [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D.Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, MS (India); Barick, K.C.; Prasad, A.; Ningthoujam, R.S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, MS (India); Tiwale, B.M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D.Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, MS (India); Pawar, S.H., E-mail: pawar_s_h@yahoo.com [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, D.Y. Patil University, Kolhapur 416006, MS (India)

    2014-04-15

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are of great interest due to their potential biomedical applications. In the present investigation, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by alkaline precipitation using ferrous chloride as the sole source. An amphiphilic polyelectrolyte with the property of biocompatibility and functional carboxyl groups was used as a stabilizer to prepare a well-dispersed suspension of superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The final material composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and chitosan (CH) shell was produced. The amino groups of CH coated on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were further cross linked using glutaraldehyde (GLD) for stable coating. FTIR spectra, XPS and TGA confirmed the coating of CH/GLD on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. XRD patterns indicate the pure phase Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a spinel structure. The nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature with saturation magnetization values for bare and coated nanoparticles which were 51.68 emu/g and 48.60 emu/g, respectively. Zeta potential values showed higher colloidal stability of coated nanoparticles than the bare one. Cytotoxicity study up to 2 mg mL{sup −1} concentration showed no drastic change in cell viability of nanoparticles after coating. Also, coated nanoparticles showed increased SAR value, making them suitable for hyperthermia therapy application. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized from FeCl{sub 2} as the sole source by alkaline precipitation. • Coating of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was done with chitosan by simple ultrasonication. • Chitosan cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. • High colloidal stability was observed. • Increased SAR value and least cytotoxicity were observed.

  15. Superparamagnetic iron oxide/chitosan core/shells for hyperthermia application: Improved colloidal stability and biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are of great interest due to their potential biomedical applications. In the present investigation, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by alkaline precipitation using ferrous chloride as the sole source. An amphiphilic polyelectrolyte with the property of biocompatibility and functional carboxyl groups was used as a stabilizer to prepare a well-dispersed suspension of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The final material composed of Fe3O4 core and chitosan (CH) shell was produced. The amino groups of CH coated on Fe3O4 nanoparticles were further cross linked using glutaraldehyde (GLD) for stable coating. FTIR spectra, XPS and TGA confirmed the coating of CH/GLD on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. XRD patterns indicate the pure phase Fe3O4 with a spinel structure. The nanoparticles were superparamagnetic at room temperature with saturation magnetization values for bare and coated nanoparticles which were 51.68 emu/g and 48.60 emu/g, respectively. Zeta potential values showed higher colloidal stability of coated nanoparticles than the bare one. Cytotoxicity study up to 2 mg mL−1 concentration showed no drastic change in cell viability of nanoparticles after coating. Also, coated nanoparticles showed increased SAR value, making them suitable for hyperthermia therapy application. - Highlights: • Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized from FeCl2 as the sole source by alkaline precipitation. • Coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was done with chitosan by simple ultrasonication. • Chitosan cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. • High colloidal stability was observed. • Increased SAR value and least cytotoxicity were observed

  16. Superparamagnetic iron oxide coated on the surface of cellulose nanospheres for the rapid removal of textile dye under mild condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yunfeng; Qin, Zongyi; Liu, Yannan; Cheng, Miao; Qian, Pengfei; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Meifang

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic composite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by anchoring iron oxide (Fe3O4) on the surface of carboxyl cellulose nanospheres through a facile chemical co-precipitation method. The as-prepared MNPs were characterized by atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurement, thermal gravity analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry. These MNPs were of a generally spherical shape with a narrow size distribution, and exhibited superparamagnetic behaviors with high saturation magnetization. High efficient removal of Navy blue in aqueous solution was demonstrated at room temperature in a Fenton-like system containing the MNPs and H2O2, which benefited from small particle size, large surface area, high chemical activity, and good dispersibility of the MNPs. The removal efficiency of Navy blue induced by the MNPs prepared at a weight ratio of cellulose to iron of 1:2 were 90.6% at the first minute of the degradation reaction, and 98.0% for 5 min. Furthermore, these MNPs could be efficiently recycled and reused by using an external magnetic field. The approach presented in this paper promotes the use of renewable natural resources as templates for the preparation and stabilization of various inorganic nanomaterials for the purpose of catalysis, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical and other potential applications.

  17. In Vivo Serial Evaluation of Super-Paramagnetic Iron-Oxide Labeled Stem Cells by Off-Resonance Positive Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Cunningham, Charles H.; Noguchi, Ken-ichiro; Chen, Ian Y.; Weissman, Irving L.; Yeung, Alan C.; Robbins, Robert C.; Yang, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a diagnostic modality to track iron-oxide labeled stem cells. This study investigates whether an off-resonance (OR) pulse sequence designed to generate positive contrast at 1.5-Tesla can assess location, quantity and viability of delivered stem cells in vivo. Using mouse embryonic stem cell transfected with luciferase reporter gene (luc-mESC), multimodality validation of OR signal was conducted to determine whether engraftment parameters of superparamagnetic iron-oxide labeled luc-mESC (SPIO-luc-mESC) could be determined after cell transplantation into the mouse hind limb. A significant increase in signal- and contrast-to-noise of the SPIO-luc-mESC was achieved by OR technique when compared to GRE sequence. A significant correlation between the quantity of SPIO-luc-mESC and OR signal was observed immediately after transplantation (R2=0.74, p<0.05). The assessment of transplanted cell viability by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) showed significant increase of luciferase activities by day 16 while MRI signal showed no difference. No significant correlation between BLI and MRI signals of cell viability was observed. In conclusion, using off-resonance sequence, the precise localization and quantitation of SPIO-labeled stem cells in both space and time were possible. However, off-resonance sequence did not allow evaluation of cell viability. PMID:19030159

  18. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for MR imaging of pancreatic cancer: Potential for early diagnosis through targeted strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongjie; Yan, Yuzhong; Zou, Qi; Chen, Jie; Li, Chunsheng

    2016-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)-based magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful, noninvasive tool in biomedical imaging. The recent embedding of SPIO in nanoencapsulations that had different controllable surface properties has now made it possible to use SPIO in the imaging of metabolic processes. The two major issues to realize maximized and selective SPIO cancer targeting are the minimization of macrophage uptake and the preferential binding to cancerous cells over healthy neighbor cells. The utility of SPIO has been shown in clinical applications using a series of marketed SPION-based contrast agents. Applications have ranged from detecting inflammatory diseases to the specific identification of cell surface markers expressed on tumors. This review focuses on iron-oxide-based nanoparticles, to include the physiochemical properties of SPION surface engineering and its synthetic methods as well as SPIO imaging applications and specifically targeted SPIO conjugates (e.g. targeted probes) for labeling cancerous, cell-surface molecules. As a specific application of this technology, we discuss its use in the imaging of pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma in addition to its potential for use in early diagnosis through targeted strategies. PMID:26663873

  19. Determination of blood circulation times of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by T2* relaxometry using ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Warmuth, Carsten; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2015-11-01

    Blood circulation is an important determinant of the biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Here we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on the use of ultrafast echo times (UTE) for the noninvasive determination of blood half-lives at high particle concentrations, when conventional pulse sequences fail to produce a useful MR signal. Four differently coated iron oxide nanoparticles were administered intravenously at a dose of 500 μmol Fe/kg bodyweight and UTE images of C57BL/6 mice were acquired on a 1-T ICON scanner (Bruker). T2* relaxometry was done by acquiring UTE images with echo times of 0.1, 0.8 and 1.6 ms. Blood circulation time was then determined by fitting an exponential curve to the time course of the measured relaxation rates. Circulation time was shortest for particles coated with malic acid (t1/2=23 min) and longest for particles coated with tartaric acid (t1/2=63 min). UTE-based T2* relaxometry allows noninvasive determination of blood circulation time and is especially useful when high particle concentrations are present. PMID:26119420

  20. Contact activation of kallikrein-kinin system by superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simberg, Dmitri; Zhang, Wan-Ming; Merkulov, Sergei; McCrae, Keith; Park, Ji-Ho; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2009-01-01

    Previously we reported that plasma kallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen attach to the surface of dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) through the incompletely covered iron oxide core (Simberg et al., Biomaterials, 2009). Here we show that SPIONs also activate kallikrein-kinin system in vitro and in vivo. The serine protease activity of kallikrein was stably associated with SPIONs and could be detected on the nanoparticles even after extensive washing steps. The enzymatic activity was not detectable in kininogen-deficient and Factor XII-deficient plasma. The enzymatic activation could be blocked by precoating SPIONs with histidine-rich Domain 5 (D5) of kininogen. Importantly, the kallikrein activity was detectable in plasma of SPION-injected, but not of D5/SPION-injected mice. Tumor-targeted SPIONs when injected into kininogen-deficient and control mice, produced high levels of vascular clotting in tumors, suggesting that kallikrein activation is not responsible for the nanoparticle-induced thrombosis. These data could help in understanding the toxicity of nanomaterials and could be used in designing nanoparticles with controlled enzymatic activity. PMID:19508879

  1. Size-controlled synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and their surface coating by gold for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, H.; Simchi, A.; Imani, M.; Costa, B. F. O.

    2012-11-01

    The size mono-dispersity, saturation magnetization, and surface chemistry of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are recognized as critical factors for efficient biomedical applications. Here, we performed modified water-in-oil inverse nano-emulsion procedure for preparation of stable colloidal superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) with high saturation magnetization. To achieve mono-dispersed SPIONs, optimization process was probed on several important factors including molar ratio of iron salts [Fe3+ and Fe2+], the concentration of ammonium hydroxide as reducing agent, and molar ratio of water to surfactant. The biocompatibility of the obtained NPs, at various concentrations, was evaluated via MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and the results showed that the NPs were non-toxic at concentrations <0.1 mg/mL. Surface functionalization was performed by conformal coating of the NPs with a thin shell of gold (˜4 nm) through chemical reduction of attached gold salts at the surface of the SPIONs. The Fe3O4 core/Au shell particles demonstrate strong plasmon resonance absorption and can be separated from solution using an external magnetic field. Experimental data from both physical and chemical determinations of the changes in particle size, surface plasmon resonance optical band, phase components, core-shell surface composition, and magnetic properties have confirmed the formation of the mono-dispersed core-shell nanostructure.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of glutathione- and PEG-glutathione-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for nitric oxide delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. C.; Seabra, A. B.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Haddad, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), with appropriate surface coatings, are commonly used for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery. For the successful application of SPIONs, it is necessary that the nanoparticles have well-defined morphological, structural and magnetic characteristics, in addition to high stability and biocompatibility in biological environments. The present work is focused on the synthesis and characterization of SPIONs, which were prepared using the co-precipitation method and have great potential for drug delivery. The surfaces of the SPIONs were functionalized with the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form GSH-SPIONs and PEG-GSH-SPIONs. The structural, morphological, magnetic properties and the cytotoxicity of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized using different techniques. The results showed that the nanoparticles have a mean diameter of 10 nm in the solid state and are superparamagnetic at room temperature. No cytotoxicity was observed for either nanoparticle (up to 500 μg L-1) on mouse normal fibroblasts (3T3 cell line) or acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat cell line) after 24 h of incubation. Free thiol groups (SH) on the surfaces of GSH-SPIONs and PEG-GSH-SPIONs were nitrosated, leading to the formation of S-nitrosated SPIONs, which act as a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The amounts of NO released from GSNO-SPIONs and PEG-GSNO-SPIONs were (124.0 ± 1.0) μmol and (33.2 ± 5.1) μmol of NO per gram, respectively. This study highlights the successful capping of the SPION surfaces with antioxidant GSH and biocompatible PEG, which improved the dispersion and biocompatibility of the NPs in aqueous/biological environments, thereby enhancing the potential uses of SPIONs as drug delivery systems, such as a NO donor vehicle, in biomedical applications.

  3. Manganese iron oxide superparamagnetic powder by mechanochemical processing. Nanoparticles functionalization and dispersion in a nanofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellusci, M., E-mail: mariangela.bellusci@enea.it; Aliotta, C. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Dipartimento di Chimica e Technologia dei Materiali (Italy); Fiorani, D. [ISM-CNR, Area della Ricerca (Italy); La Barbera, A.; Padella, F. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Dipartimento di Chimica e Technologia dei Materiali (Italy); Peddis, D. [ISM-CNR, Area della Ricerca (Italy); Pilloni, M. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Dipartimento di Chimica e Technologia dei Materiali (Italy); Secci, D. [Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco (Italy)

    2012-06-15

    Manganese ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using a High-Energy Ball-Milling mechanochemical method. After 1 h of milling, the process produces a material consisting of single crystalline domain nanoparticles having a diameter of about 8 nm. Chemical properties of the synthesized powders allow an easy functionalization with citric acid. Both as-obtained and functionalized samples show superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature, and the functionalized powder is stably dispersible in aqueous media at physiological pH. The average hydrodynamic diameter is equal to {approx}60 nm. Nanoparticles obtained by the reported High-Energy Ball-Milling method can be synthesized with high yield and low costs and can be successfully utilized in ferrofluids development for biomedical applications.

  4. A simple way to obtain high saturation magnetization for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized in air atmosphere: Optimization by experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan

    2016-07-01

    Orthogonal design technique was applied to obtain superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with high saturation magnetization, Ms. Synthesis of the nanoparticles were done in air atmosphere according to the orthogonal table L934. Magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer. Structural analysis of the nanoparticles was also carried out by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After the analysis of magnetic data, the optimized experimental parameters were determined as [Fe+2]/[Fe+3]=6/6, iron ion concentration=1500 mM, base concentration=6.7 M and reaction time=2 min. Magnetic results showed that the synthesis carried out according to the optimized conditions gave the highest Ms of 69.83 emu/g for the nanoparticles synthesized in air atmosphere. Magnetic measurements at 10 K and 300 K showed the sample is superparamagnetic at room temperature. Structural analysis by XRD, FTIR and selected area electron diffraction showed that the sample had the inverse spinel crystal structure of iron oxide. The particle size of the optimized sample determined from the TEM image is 7.0±2.2 nm. The results indicated that the Ms of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can be optimized by experimental design with the suitable choice of the synthesis parameters.

  5. Increased cellular uptake of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into malignant cells by an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijic, Sara; Scancar, Janez; Romih, Rok; Cemazar, Maja; Bregar, Vladimir B; Znidarsic, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor

    2010-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as delivery systems for different therapeutics including nucleic acids for magnetofection-mediated gene therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and trafficking pathways of the custom-synthesized SPIONs for their potential use in magnetofection. Custom-synthesized SPIONs were tested for size, shape, crystalline composition and magnetic behavior using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and magnetometer. SPIONs were dispersed in different aqueous media to obtain ferrofluids, which were tested for pH and stability using a pH meter and zetameter. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTS and clonogenic assays. Cellular uptake and trafficking pathways were qualitatively evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SPIONs were composed of an iron oxide core with a diameter of 8-9 nm, coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of silica. SPIONs, dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution, resulted in a stable ferrofluid at physiological pH for several months. SPIONs were not cytotoxic in a broad range of concentrations and were readily internalized into different cells by endocytosis. Exposure to neodymium-iron-boron magnets significantly increased the cellular uptake of SPIONs, predominantly into malignant cells. The prepared SPIONs displayed adequate physicochemical and biomedical properties for potential use in magnetofection. Their cellular uptake was dependent on the cell type, and their accumulation within the cells was dependent on the duration of exposure to an external magnetic field. PMID:20602230

  6. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles: synthesis by thermal decomposition of iron(III) glucuronate and application in magnetic resonance imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patsula, Vitalii; Kosinová, L.; Lovrić, M.; Ferhatovic Hamzic, L.; Rabyk, Mariia; Konefal, Rafal; Paruzel, Aleksandra; Šlouf, Miroslav; Herynek, V.; Gajović, S.; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2016), s. 7238-7247. ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316120 - GLOWBRAIN Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : superparamagnetic * nanoparticles * iron oxide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 6.723, year: 2014

  7. Intracellular trafficking of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with TAT peptide: 3-dimensional electron tomography analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Baiju G.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mizuki, Toru; Hanajiri, Tatsuro [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Maekawa, Toru, E-mail: maekawa@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the intracellular localisation of TAT-SPIONs using 3-D electron tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D images of TAT-SPIONs in a cell are clearly shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of TAT-SPIONs from endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm is clearly shown. -- Abstract: Internalisation of nanoparticles conjugated with cell penetrating peptides is a promising approach to various drug delivery applications. Cell penetrating peptides such as transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptides derived from HIV-1 proteins are effective intracellular delivery vectors for a wide range of nanoparticles and pharmaceutical agents thanks to their amicable ability to enter cells and minimum cytotoxicity. Although different mechanisms of intracellular uptake and localisation have been proposed for TAT conjugated nanoparticles, it is necessary to visualise the particles on a 3-D plane in order to investigate the actual intracellular uptake and localisation. Here, we study the intracellular localisation and trafficking of TAT peptide conjugated superparamagnetic ion oxide nanoparticles (TAT-SPIONs) using 3-D electron tomography. 3-D tomograms clearly show the location of TAT-SPIONs in a cell and their slow release from the endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm. The present methodology may well be utilised for further investigations of the behaviours of nanoparticles in cells and eventually for the development of nano drug delivery systems.

  8. Extending Shelf Life of Chilled Pork by Combination of Chitosan Coating With Spice Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Xiufang; KONG Baohua

    2008-01-01

    The effects of spices (cinnamon, rosemary, clove) extracts and chitosan on microbiological growth, drip loss, color, and lipid oxidation of fresh chilled meat stored for 28 days at 4"C were investigated. There were four treatments: control, coated with spices(cimmamon 1.5g·L-1+rosemary 1.5·L-1+colve 1.0 g·L-1),coated with 0.5% chitosan,coated with spices and chitosan.Chitosan coating resulted in significant inhibition of microbial growth (P<0.05), while the lowest microbial counts were obtained in the samples containing both chitosan and spices, indicating a possible synergistic effect. Chitosan and its combinations with spices also showed the most intense antioxidative effect when compared to the controls (P<0.05). Meanwhile, chitosan coating could decrease water loss and keep better color of chilled meat. The combined spice extracts and chitosan coating could effectively extend the shelf life of chilled meat.

  9. Hypoglycemic efficacy of chitosan-coated insulin liposomes after oral administration in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-hong WU; Qi-neng PING; Yi WEI; Jia-ming LAI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the hypoglycemic efficacy of insulin liposomes coated by chitosan with different molecular weights and concentrations after oral administration in mice. METHODS: Insulin-liposomes were prepared by reversed-phase evaporation. Chitosan coating was carried out by incubation of the liposomal suspensions with the chitosan solution. The hypoglycemic efficacies of chitosan-coated insulin liposomes were investigated by monitoring the blood glucose level using the glucose oxidase method after oral administration to healthy mice. RESULTS:In all the insulin liposomes, the insulin liposomes coated by 0.2 % chitosan (M. 1000 kDa) showed a better hypoglycemic efficacy as compared with the other liposomes coated by chitosan. The minimum blood glucose level was 15.1%±6.0 % of the initial (n=6). The hypoglycemic efficacy lasted for 4 h after oral administration to mice.CONCLUSION: Chitosan-coated liposomes could reduce tryptic digestion on insulin, and enhance enteral absorption of insulin. The molecular weights and concentrations of chitosan had significant effects on hypoglycemic efficacy of chitosan-coated insulin liposomes after oral administration to healthy mice.

  10. Kinetic of Adsorption of Urea Nitrogen onto Chitosan Coated Dialdehyde Cellulose under Catalysis of Immobilized Urease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu Pei LIANG; Ya Qing FENG; Zhi Yan LIANG; Shu Xian MENG

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption of urea nitrogen onto chitosan coated dialdehyde cellulose (CDAC)under catalysis of immobilized urease in gelatin membrane (IE) was studied in batch system. The pseudo first-order and second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data, and the rate constants were evaluated. The experimental data fitted well to the second-order kinetic model.

  11. Charge effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on their surface functionalization by photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diverse applications of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in the chemical and biomedical industry depend on their surface properties. In this paper, we investigate the effect of initial surface charge (bare, positively and negatively charged SPIONs) on the resulting physicochemical properties of the particles following treatment through photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition (PICVD). Transmission electron microscopy shows a nanometric polymer coating on the SPIONs and contact angle measurements with water demonstrate that their surface became non-polar following functionalization using PICVD. FTIR and XPS data confirm the change in the chemical composition of the treated SPIONs. Indeed, XPS data reveal an initial charge-dependent increase in the surface oxygen content in the case of treated SPIONs. The O/C percentage ratios of the bare SPIONs increase from 1.7 to 1.9 after PICVD treatment, and decrease from 1.7 to 0.7 in the case of negatively charged SPIONs. The ratio remains unchanged for positively charged SPIONs (1.7). This indicates that bare and negatively charged SPIONs showed opposite preference for the oxygen or carbon attachment to their surface during their surface treatment. These results reveal that both the surface charge and stereochemical effects have determinant roles in the polymeric coating of SPIONs with PICVD. Our findings suggest that this technique is appropriate for the treatment of nanoparticles.Graphical Abstract

  12. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles exert different cytotoxic effects on cells grown in monolayer cell culture versus as multicellular spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theumer, Anja; Gräfe, Christine; Bähring, Franziska [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Bergemann, Christian [Chemicell GmbH, Eresburgstrasse 22–23, 12103 Berlin (Germany); Hochhaus, Andreas [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany); Clement, Joachim H., E-mail: joachim.clement@med.uni-jena.de [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jena University Hospital, Erlanger Allee 101, 07747 Jena (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with human blood–brain barrier-forming endothelial cells (HBMEC) in two-dimensional cell monolayers as well as in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. The precise nanoparticle localisation and the influence of the NP on the cellular viability and the intracellular Akt signalling were studied in detail. Long-term effects of different polymer-coated nanoparticles (neutral fluidMAG-D, anionic fluidMAG-CMX and cationic fluidMAG-PEI) and the corresponding free polymers on cellular viability of HBMEC were investigated by real time cell analysis studies. Nanoparticles exert distinct effects on HBMEC depending on the nanoparticles' surface charge and concentration, duration of incubation and cellular context. The most severe effects were caused by PEI-coated nanoparticles. Concentrations above 25 µg/ml led to increased amounts of dead cells in monolayer culture as well as in multicellular spheroids. On the level of intracellular signalling, context-dependent differences were observed. Monolayer cultures responded on nanoparticle incubation with an increase in Akt phosphorylation whereas spheroids on the whole show a decreased Akt activity. This might be due to the differential penetration and distribution of PEI-coated nanoparticles.

  13. Pulmonary toxicity and kinetic study of Cy5.5-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in the development of nanotechnology and devices now make it possible to accurately deliver drugs or genes to the lung. Magnetic nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents, thermal therapy for cancer, and be made to concentrate to target sites through an external magnetic field. However, these advantages may also become problematic when taking into account safety and toxicological factors. This study demonstrated the pulmonary toxicity and kinetic profile of anti-biofouling polymer coated, Cy5.5-conjugated thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) by optical imaging. Negatively charged, 36 nm-sized, Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION was prepared for optical imaging probe. Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION was intratracheally instilled into the lung by a non-surgical method. Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION slightly induced pulmonary inflammation. The instilled nanoparticles were distributed mainly in the lung and excreted in the urine via glomerular filtration. Urinary excretion was peaked at 3 h after instillation. No toxicity was found under the concentration of 1.8 mg/kg and the half-lives of nanoparticles in the lung and urine were estimated to be about 14.4 ± 0.54 h and 24.7 ± 1.02 h, respectively. Although further studies are required, our results showed that Cy5.5-conjugated TCL-SPION can be a good candidate for use in pulmonary delivery vehicles and diagnostic probes.

  14. Nanobarcoded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine: Quantitative studies of cell-nanoparticle interactions by scanning image cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Trisha; Leary, James F

    2016-02-01

    Oligonucleotide-functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) are promising agents for nanomedicine, but the potential in vitro nanotoxicity that may arise from such conjugates has yet to be evaluated in a dose response manner. Since nanomedicine functions on the single-cell level, measurements of nanotoxicity should also be performed as such. In vitro single-cell nanotoxicity assays based on scanning image cytometry are used to study a specific type of oligo-functionalized NP, "nanobarcoded" superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (NB-SPIONs). The selected panel of single-cell assays measures well-known modes of nanotoxicity-apoptosis, necrosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell number. Using these assays, the cytotoxicity of two sizes of NB-SPIONs (10 nm and 30 nm core size) was compared to the parent NP, carboxylated SPIONs (COOH-SPIONs). The results suggest that the conjugated NB confers a biocompatible coating that protects against cytotoxicity at very high SPION doses, but both NB- and COOH-SPIONs of either size generally have low in vitro cytotoxicity at physiologically relevant doses. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:26013098

  15. Study on the clinical significance of superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI for diagnosis of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic capability of superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MRI (SPIO-MRI) in detecting metastatic liver lesions was compared with those of conventional methods, in order to investigate the usefulness of SPIO-MRI. One hundred ninety eight patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer, treated between 1987 and 1999, were entered into the study. With regard to diagnostic accuracy by imaging techniques, the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were respectively determined to be 75.3% and 97.3% for US, 77.6% and 96.4% for CT, 96.4% and 83.1% for CTAP, and 84.4% and 100.0% for SPIO-MRI. Although CTAP reported 14 pseudolesions, they were all determined to not be metastatic lesions on SPIO-MRI, resulting in a low PPV with CTAP, but a satisfactorily high PPV with SPIO-MRI. The diagnostic sensitivity in detecting small metastatic liver lesions, with a diameter of 2 cm or less, decreased in CT and US, but it remained at a satisfactory level in CTAP and SPIO-MRI. Tumor diameters measured on SPIO-MRI very closely corresponded with actual values, and tumor morphology was also accurately demonstrated with SPIO-MRI. (author)

  16. Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mi Kyung; Park, Jinho; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Moon, Woo Kyung; Jon, Sangyong

    2010-10-01

    We report multifunctional nanoparticles that are capable of cancer targeting and simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy. The nanoparticles are composed of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide ligand bioconjugated thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) that enable loading of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox). The cyclic RGD-conjugated TCL-SPION (cRGD_TCL-SPION) had a mean hydrodynamic size of 34 ± 8 nm with approximately 0.39 wt% of cyclic RGD attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. The cRGD_TCL-SPION exhibited preferential binding towards target cancer cells (U87MG, integrin αvβ3 +) when analyzed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. When Dox was loaded onto the polymeric coating layers of cRGD_TCL-SPION via ionic interaction, the resulting Dox-loaded cRGD_TCL-SPION (Dox@cRGD_TCL-SPION) showed much higher cytotoxicity in U87MG cells than Dox@TCL-SPION lacking cRGD (IC50 value of 0.02 µM versus 0.12 µM). These results suggest that Dox@cRGD_TCL-SPION has potential for use as an integrin-targeted, combined imaging and therapeutic agent.

  17. The preliminary study of immune superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the detection of lung cancer in magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinyuan; Song, Yuanqing; Song, Nijia; Li, Jiehua; Yang, Lie; Li, Yuan; Tan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    To improve the sensitive and specific detection of metastasis of lung cancer, this study fabricated immune superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) used in magnetic resonance (MR) immumoimaging. These SPIONs were coated with oleic acid and carboxymethyl dextran, and then conjugated to mouse anti-CD44v6 monoclonal antibody. The physicochemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles without monoclonal antibody were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sizes of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering measurements (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Coated nanoparticles could well disperse in water with low dosage of CMD as the Fe/CMD ratio is 1/1 and 2/1 (w/w). Importantly, these SPIONs have relatively high saturation magnetization, as measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). They could efficiently become the transversal relaxation times (T2) contrast agent to improve detection limit through measured in vitro magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and actively target human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells in vitro cell culture. Thus, these immune SPIONs are potentially useful for lung tumor-targeting diagnosis. PMID:26649917

  18. Targeting EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells using Cetuximab-immunomicelles loaded with doxorubicin and superparamagnetic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a cellular transmembrane receptor, plays a key role in cell proliferation and is linked to a poor prognosis in various human cancers. In this study, we constructed Cetuximab-immunomicelles in which the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody was linked to poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG–PCL) nanomicelles that were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO). The specific interactions between EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells (A431) and immunomicelles were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry. Furthermore, the capacity of transporting SPIO into tumor cells using these immunomicelles was evaluated with a 1.5 T clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. It was found that the acquired MRI T2 signal intensity of A431 cells that were treated with the SPIO-loaded and antibody-functionalized micelles decreased significantly. Using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, we also demonstrated that the immunomicelles inhibited cell proliferation more effectively than their nontargeting counterparts. Our results suggest that Cetuximab-immunomicelles are a useful delivery vehicle for DOX and SPIO to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro and that Cetuximab-immunomicelles can serve as a MRI-visible and targeted drug delivery agent for better tumor imaging and therapy.

  19. In vitro molecular magnetic resonance imaging detection and measurement of apoptosis using superparamagnetic iron oxide + antibody as ligands for nucleosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research in cell biology as well as oncology research has focused on apoptosis or programmed cell death as a means of quantifying the induced effects of treatment. A hallmark of late-stage apoptosis is nuclear fragmentation in which DNA is degraded to release nucleosomes with their associated histones. In this work, a method was developed for detecting and measuring nucleosome concentration in vitro with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The indirect procedure used a commercially available secondary antibody-superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle complex as a contrast agent that bound to primary antibodies against nucleosomal histones H4, H2A and H2B. Using a multiple-echo spin-echo sequence on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner, significant T2 relaxation enhancement as a function of in vitro nucleosomal concentration was measured. In addition, clustering or aggregation of the contrast agent was demonstrated with its associated enhancement in T2 effects. The T2 clustering enhancement showed a complex dependence on relative concentrations of nucleosomes, primary antibody and secondary antibody + SPIO. The technique supports the feasibility of using MRI measurements of nucleosome concentration in blood as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive tool in the management of cancer. (paper)

  20. Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Mi Kyung; Park, Jinho; Jon, Sangyong [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 261 Chemdangwagi-ro, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong Yeon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Jeonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, 160 Ilsim-ri, Hwasun-eup, Jeonnam 519-809 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: syjon@gist.ac.kr [Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    We report multifunctional nanoparticles that are capable of cancer targeting and simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy. The nanoparticles are composed of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide ligand bioconjugated thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) that enable loading of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox). The cyclic RGD-conjugated TCL-SPION (cRGD{sub T}CL-SPION) had a mean hydrodynamic size of 34 {+-} 8 nm with approximately 0.39 wt% of cyclic RGD attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. The cRGD{sub T}CL-SPION exhibited preferential binding towards target cancer cells (U87MG, integrin {alpha}{sub v{beta}3} +) when analyzed by T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. When Dox was loaded onto the polymeric coating layers of cRGD{sub T}CL-SPION via ionic interaction, the resulting Dox-loaded cRGD{sub T}CL-SPION (Dox-cRGD{sub T}CL-SPION) showed much higher cytotoxicity in U87MG cells than Dox-TCL-SPION lacking cRGD (IC{sub 50} value of 0.02 {mu}M versus 0.12 {mu}M). These results suggest that Dox-cRGD{sub T}CL-SPION has potential for use as an integrin-targeted, combined imaging and therapeutic agent.

  1. Controllable labelling of stem cells with a novel superparamagnetic iron oxide-loaded cationic nanovesicle for MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the feasibility of highly efficient and controllable stem cell labelling for cellular MRI. A new class of cationic, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION)-loaded nanovesicles was synthesised to label rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells without secondary transfection agents. The optimal labelling conditions and controllability were assessed, and the effect of labelling on cell viability, proliferation activity and multilineage differentiation was determined. In 18 rats, focal ischaemic cerebral injury was induced and the rats randomly injected with 1 x 106 cells labelled with 0-, 8- or 20-mV nanovesicles (n = 6 each). In vivo MRI was performed to follow grafted cells in contralateral striata, and results were correlated with histology. Optimal cell labelling conditions involved a concentration of 3.15 μg Fe/mL nanovesicles with 20-mV positive charge and 1-h incubation time. Labelling efficiency showed linear change with an increase in the electric potentials of nanovesicles. Labelling did not affect cell viability, proliferation activity or multilineage differentiation capacity. The distribution and migration of labelled cells could be detected by MRI. Histology confirmed that grafted cells retained the label and remained viable. Stem cells can be effectively and safely labelled with cationic, SPION-loaded nanovesicles in a controllable way for cellular MRI. (orig.)

  2. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles exert different cytotoxic effects on cells grown in monolayer cell culture versus as multicellular spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with human blood–brain barrier-forming endothelial cells (HBMEC) in two-dimensional cell monolayers as well as in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids. The precise nanoparticle localisation and the influence of the NP on the cellular viability and the intracellular Akt signalling were studied in detail. Long-term effects of different polymer-coated nanoparticles (neutral fluidMAG-D, anionic fluidMAG-CMX and cationic fluidMAG-PEI) and the corresponding free polymers on cellular viability of HBMEC were investigated by real time cell analysis studies. Nanoparticles exert distinct effects on HBMEC depending on the nanoparticles' surface charge and concentration, duration of incubation and cellular context. The most severe effects were caused by PEI-coated nanoparticles. Concentrations above 25 µg/ml led to increased amounts of dead cells in monolayer culture as well as in multicellular spheroids. On the level of intracellular signalling, context-dependent differences were observed. Monolayer cultures responded on nanoparticle incubation with an increase in Akt phosphorylation whereas spheroids on the whole show a decreased Akt activity. This might be due to the differential penetration and distribution of PEI-coated nanoparticles

  3. Charge effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on their surface functionalization by photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javanbakht, Taraneh [Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Department of Chemical Engineering (Canada); Laurent, Sophie; Stanicki, Dimitri [University of Mons, Laboratory of NMR and Molecular Imaging (Belgium); Raphael, Wendell; Tavares, Jason Robert, E-mail: jason.tavares@polymtl.ca [Ecole Polytechnique of Montreal, Department of Chemical Engineering (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Diverse applications of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in the chemical and biomedical industry depend on their surface properties. In this paper, we investigate the effect of initial surface charge (bare, positively and negatively charged SPIONs) on the resulting physicochemical properties of the particles following treatment through photo-initiated chemical vapour deposition (PICVD). Transmission electron microscopy shows a nanometric polymer coating on the SPIONs and contact angle measurements with water demonstrate that their surface became non-polar following functionalization using PICVD. FTIR and XPS data confirm the change in the chemical composition of the treated SPIONs. Indeed, XPS data reveal an initial charge-dependent increase in the surface oxygen content in the case of treated SPIONs. The O/C percentage ratios of the bare SPIONs increase from 1.7 to 1.9 after PICVD treatment, and decrease from 1.7 to 0.7 in the case of negatively charged SPIONs. The ratio remains unchanged for positively charged SPIONs (1.7). This indicates that bare and negatively charged SPIONs showed opposite preference for the oxygen or carbon attachment to their surface during their surface treatment. These results reveal that both the surface charge and stereochemical effects have determinant roles in the polymeric coating of SPIONs with PICVD. Our findings suggest that this technique is appropriate for the treatment of nanoparticles.Graphical Abstract.

  4. A mathematical model of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle magnetic behavior to guide the design of novel nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) exhibit unique magnetic properties that make them highly efficacious as MR imaging contrast agents and laboratory diagnostic tools. The complexity of SPION magnetic behavior and the multiple parameters affecting this behavior complicate attempts at fabricating particles suited for a particular purpose. A mathematical model of SPION magnetic properties derived from experimental relationships and first principles can be an effective design tool for predicting particle behavior before materials are fabricated. Here, a novel model of SPION magnetic properties is described, using particle size and applied magnetic field as the primary variable inputs. The model is capable of predicting particle susceptibility and non-linear particle magnetization as well as describing the vector magnetic field produced by a single particle in an applied field. Magnetization values produced by the model agree with recent experimental measurements of particle magnetizations. The model is used to predict the complex magnetic behavior of clustered magnetic particles in simulated in vivo environment; specifically, interactions between the clusters and water molecules. The model shows that larger particles exhibit more linear magnetic behavior and stronger magnetization and that clusters of smaller particles allow for more numerous SPION–water molecule interactions and more uniform cluster magnetizations.

  5. NMR-based metabonomic analyses of the effects of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) on macrophage metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabonomic changes in murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line induced by ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been investigated, by analyzing both the cells and culture media, using high-resolution NMR in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods. Upon treatment with USPIO, macrophage cells showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, essential amino acids such as valine, isoleucine, and choline metabolites together with an increase of glycerophospholipids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, glycine, and glutamate. Such cellular responses to USPIO were also detectable in compositional changes of cell media, showing an obvious depletion of the primary nutrition molecules, such as glucose and amino acids and the production of end-products of glycolysis, such as pyruvate, acetate, and lactate and intermediates of TCA cycle such as succinate and citrate. At 48 h treatment, there was a differential response to incubation with USPIO in both cell metabonome and medium components, indicating that USPIO are phagocytosed and released by macrophages. Furthermore, information on cell membrane modification can be derived from the changes in choline-like metabolites. These results not only suggest that NMR-based metabonomic methods have sufficient sensitivity to identify the metabolic consequences of murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line response to USPIO in vitro, but also provide useful information on the effects of USPIO on cellular metabolism.

  6. Characterization of Free and Porous Silicon-Encapsulated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Platforms for the Development of Theranostic Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Lundquist

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tracking vaccine components from the site of injection to their destination in lymphatic tissue, and simultaneously monitoring immune effects, sheds light on the influence of vaccine components on particle and immune cell trafficking and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we create a hybrid particle vaccine platform comprised of porous silicon (pSi and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs. The impact of nanoparticle size and mode of presentation on magnetic resonance contrast enhancement are examined. SPION-enhanced relaxivity increased as the core diameter of the nanoparticle increased, while encapsulation of SPIONs within a pSi matrix had only minor effects on T2 and no significant effect on T2* relaxation. Following intravenous injection of single and hybrid particles, there was an increase in negative contrast in the spleen, with changes in contrast being slightly greater for free compared to silicon encapsulated SPIONs. Incubation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC with pSi microparticles loaded with SPIONs, SIINFEKL peptide, and lipopolysaccharide stimulated immune cell interactions and interferon gamma production in OT-1 TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells. Overall, the hybrid particle platform enabled presentation of a complex payload that was traceable, stimulated functional T cell and BMDC interactions, and resolved in cellular activation of T cells in response to a specific antigen.

  7. Integrin-targeting thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for combined cancer imaging and drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report multifunctional nanoparticles that are capable of cancer targeting and simultaneous cancer imaging and therapy. The nanoparticles are composed of cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (cRGD) peptide ligand bioconjugated thermally cross-linked superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (TCL-SPION) that enable loading of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox). The cyclic RGD-conjugated TCL-SPION (cRGDTCL-SPION) had a mean hydrodynamic size of 34 ± 8 nm with approximately 0.39 wt% of cyclic RGD attached to the surface of the nanoparticles. The cRGDTCL-SPION exhibited preferential binding towards target cancer cells (U87MG, integrin αvβ3 +) when analyzed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. When Dox was loaded onto the polymeric coating layers of cRGDTCL-SPION via ionic interaction, the resulting Dox-loaded cRGDTCL-SPION (Dox-cRGDTCL-SPION) showed much higher cytotoxicity in U87MG cells than Dox-TCL-SPION lacking cRGD (IC50 value of 0.02 μM versus 0.12 μM). These results suggest that Dox-cRGDTCL-SPION has potential for use as an integrin-targeted, combined imaging and therapeutic agent.

  8. NMR-based metabonomic analyses of the effects of ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) on macrophage metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China); Zhao Jing [China Institute of Atomic Energy (China); Hao Fuhua [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China); Chen Chang [Institute of Biophysics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) (Singapore); Tang, Huiru, E-mail: huiru.tang@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics (China)

    2011-05-15

    The metabonomic changes in murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line induced by ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been investigated, by analyzing both the cells and culture media, using high-resolution NMR in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods. Upon treatment with USPIO, macrophage cells showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, essential amino acids such as valine, isoleucine, and choline metabolites together with an increase of glycerophospholipids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, glycine, and glutamate. Such cellular responses to USPIO were also detectable in compositional changes of cell media, showing an obvious depletion of the primary nutrition molecules, such as glucose and amino acids and the production of end-products of glycolysis, such as pyruvate, acetate, and lactate and intermediates of TCA cycle such as succinate and citrate. At 48 h treatment, there was a differential response to incubation with USPIO in both cell metabonome and medium components, indicating that USPIO are phagocytosed and released by macrophages. Furthermore, information on cell membrane modification can be derived from the changes in choline-like metabolites. These results not only suggest that NMR-based metabonomic methods have sufficient sensitivity to identify the metabolic consequences of murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line response to USPIO in vitro, but also provide useful information on the effects of USPIO on cellular metabolism.

  9. Integrity of 111In-radiolabeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Iron-oxide nanoparticles can act as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while radiolabeling the same platform with nuclear medicine isotopes allows imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), modalities that offer better quantification. For successful translation of these multifunctional imaging platforms to clinical use, it is imperative to evaluate the degree to which the association between radioactive label and iron oxide core remains intact in vivo. Methods: We prepared iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized by oleic acid and phospholipids which were further radiolabeled with 59Fe, 14C-oleic acid, and 111In. Results: Mouse biodistributions showed 111In preferentially localized in reticuloendothelial organs, liver, spleen and bone. However, there were greater levels of 59Fe than 111In in liver and spleen, but lower levels of 14C. Conclusions: While there is some degree of dissociation between the 111In labeled component of the nanoparticle and the iron oxide core, there is extensive dissociation of the oleic acid component

  10. Magnetic properties of novel superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoclusters and their peculiarity under annealing treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marin; Kralj, Slavko; Jagodic, Marko; Hanzel, Darko; Makovec, Darko

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present the magnetic properties of novel superparamagnetic iNANOvative™|silica nanoparticle clusters. A TEM analysis showed that these nanoparticle clusters, approximately 80 nm in size, contained an assembly of maghemite nanoparticles in the core and an amorphous silica shell. The maghemite nanoparticles in the core were approximately 10 nm in size, whereas the uniform silica shell was approximately 15-nm thick. The number of magnetic nanoparticles that were densely packed in the core of the single nanocluster was estimated to be approximately 67, resulting in a high magnetic moment for the single nanocluster of mnc ∼ 1.2 × 106μB. This magnetic property of the nanoparticle cluster is advantageous for its easy manipulation using an external magnetic field, for example, in biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, or for magnetic separation in biotechnology. The magnetic properties of the iNANOvative™|silica nanoparticle clusters were systematically studied, with a special focus on the influence of the magnetic interactions between the nanoparticles in the core. For comparison, the nanoparticle clusters were annealed for 3 h at 300 °C in air. The annealing had no influence on the nanoparticles' size and phase; however, it had a unique effect on the magnetic properties, i.e., a decrease of the blocking temperature and a weakening of the inter-particle interactions. We believe that this surprising observation is related to the thermal decomposition of the organic surfactant on the surfaces of the nanoparticles' at the high annealing temperatures, which resulted in the formation of amorphous carbon inside the nanocluster.

  11. Value of Functionalized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Temporal Lobe Epilepsy on MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although active targeting of drugs using a magnetic-targeted drug delivery system (MTDS with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs is a very effective treatment approach for tumors and other illnesses, successful results of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE are unprecedented. A hallmark in the neuropathology of TLE is brain inflammation, in particular the activation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β induced by activated glial cells, which has been considered a new mechanistic target for treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the functionalized SPIONs with anti-IL-1β monoclonal antibody (mAb attached to render MRI diagnoses and simultaneously provide targeted therapy with the neutralization of IL-1β overexpressed in epileptogenic zone of an acute rat model of TLE. Experimental Design. The anti-IL-1β mAb-SPIONs were studied in vivo versus plain SPIONs and saline. Lithium-chloride pilocarpine-induced TLE models (n=60 were followed by Western blot, Perl’s iron staining, Nissl staining, and immunofluorescent double-label staining after MRI examination. Results. The magnetic anti-IL-1β mAb-SPION administered intravenously, which crossed the BBB and was concentrated in the astrocytes and neurons in epileptogenic tissues, rendered these tissues visible on MRI and simultaneously delivered anti-IL-1β mAb to the epileptogenic focus. Conclusions. Our study provides the first evidence that the novel approach enhanced accumulation and the therapeutic effect of anti-IL-1β mAb by MTDS using SPIONs.

  12. The effect of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] molar ratio and iron salts concentration on the properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in the water/ethanol/toluene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we developed a convenient one-pot method with sodium oleate as both the surfactant and precipitant to synthesize pure magnetite nanoparticles in the water/ethanol/toluene system. The initial molar ratio of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] and the concentration of iron salts were changed in order to systematically investigate their influences on the chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles, such as the crystal structure, morphology, particle sizes, dispersion and magnetism. Samples were determined by XRD, XPS, FTIR, DLS, and VSM. The oleate coating steadily existed on the surface of the nanoparticles to profit them of excellent monodispersibility and stability in non-polar solvents with very narrow size distribution and extremely approximate mean diameters of ∼7 nm. Particles consisted mainly of magnetite with a little or no maghemite phase with the molar ratio of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] decreasing from 2:1 to 1:1, but they all exhibited superparamagnetism at room temperature. After the optimization, pure magnetite nanoparticles could be prepared with the saturation magnetization successfully increasing to 75 emu/g(Fe), when the molar ratio of [Fe3+]/[Fe2+] was 1.5:1 and the concentration of iron precursors was 95 mM.

  13. Dependence of corneal keratocyte adhesion, spreading, and integrin β1 expression on deacetylated chitosan coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Chin; Chou, Shih-Feng; Lai, Jui-Yang; Cho, Ching-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2016-06-01

    This study reports, for the first time, the regulation of corneal keratocyte adhesion, spreading, morphology, and integrin gene expression on chitosan coating due to the effects of deacetylation. The degree of deacetylation (DD) in chitosan materials was confirmed by elemental analysis, gel permeation chromatography, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In this study, chitosan samples with the same molecular weight level but varying DD (74.1±0.5%, 84.4±0.7%, and 94.2±0.5%) were obtained by heat-alkaline treatment under a nitrogen atmosphere. For higher DD groups, the biopolymer carried abundant amino groups since the deacetylation process removed larger amount of acetyl groups from the chitosan molecules. Results showed that the mechanical stability and crystallinity of the chitosan coatings significantly increased with increasing DD value. Fibronectin adsorption, keratocyte adhesion, and cell spreading exhibited a positive correlation with DD due to the chemical functionality of polysaccharides (bearing acetyl and amino groups) and increase of substrate stiffness and crystallinity. In particular, when adhered to chitosan coatings with a DD value of 74.1%, the keratocytes appeared to be fibroblastic, elongated, and spindle shape, indicating a loss of their characteristic dendritic morphology. Furthermore, the gene expression of integrin β1 (i.e., a cell-matrix adhesion molecule) was significantly up-regulated on the chitosan coatings with higher DD, which supports favorable attachment of corneal keratocytes. Our findings suggest that DD-mediated physicochemical properties of chitosan coatings greatly affect cell-substrate crosstalk during corneal keratocyte cultivation. PMID:27040214

  14. Surfactant free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for stable ferrofluids in physiological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, K; Straßer, M; Granath, T; Dembski, S; Sextl, G

    2015-02-18

    A process is reported to obtain a nanoparticle sol from co-precipitated iron oxide particles without using any surfactant. The sol - a true ferrofluid - is not only stable over a wide range of pH but also in physiological solutions. This is a decisive step towards biomedical applications where nanoparticle agglomeration could so far only be prevented by using unwanted surfactants. PMID:25580829

  15. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g-1). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM-1 s-1 and 185.58 mM-1 s-1 respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high

  16. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2016-02-14

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g(-1)). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM(-1) s(-1) and 185.58 mM(-1) s(-1) respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed. PMID:26460932

  17. Studies of the magnetic field intensity on the synthesis of chitosan-coated magnetite nanocomposites by co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan-coated magnetite nanocomposites (Fe3O4/CS) were prepared under different external magnetic field by co-precipitation method. The effects of the magnetic field intensity on phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties of the Fe3O4/CS nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the intensity of the magnetic field in the co-precipitation reaction process did not result in the phase composition change of the magnetic chitosan but improved the crystallinity of magnetite. The morphology of Fe3O4/CS nanocomposites was greatly changed by the magnetic field. It was varied from random spherical particles to chain-like cluster structure and rod-like cluster structure with the magnetic field intensity increased in the synthetic process. The VSM results indicated that all the products had excellent superparamagnetic properties regardless of the presence or the absence of the magnetic field, and the saturation magnetization values of the Fe3O4/CS nanocomposites were significantly improved by the magnetic field. - Highlights: ► Fe3O4/chitosan nanocomposites were synthesized under the different external magnetic fields. ► Magnetite assembled along the direction of lines of magnetic force in the co-precipitation process. ► Fe3O4/chitosan presented chain-like cluster structures at 0.25 T and rod-like cluster structures at 0.35 T.

  18. Evaluation of lymph node metastases of breast cancer using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: We assessed the utility of enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) in the evaluation of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast cancer. Study design: MR examination of the axilla was performed before and 24-36 h after USPIO administration for patients with stage II or III breast cancer. Diagnostic performance was compared using size criteria (metastasis was defined when short axis diameter >5 or >10 mm) or morphologic criteria on conventional MRI, the combined study of USPIO precontrast and postcontrast images, and USPIO postcontrast study alone. Results: A total of 622 nodes (503 metastatic and 119 nonmetastatic nodes) were dissected from 33 patients. The results of conventional MRI for nodes >5 mm were 59.1% sensitivity, 86.7% specificity, and 80.4% overall accuracy. Results for nodes >10 mm were 15.7% sensitivity, 99.2% specificity, and 80.2% overall accuracy. Results based on morphology were 36.5% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity, and 81.0% overall accuracy. The results of the combined study of USPIO precontrast and postcontrast images were 86.4% sensitivity, 97.5% specificity, 91.1% positive predictive value, 96.1% negative predictive value, and 95.0% overall accuracy. The results of USPIO postcontrast images alone were 84.7% sensitivity, 96.8% specificity, and 94.0% overall accuracy. Patient-based results of postcontrast USPIO study alone were 100.0% sensitivity, 80.0% specificity, and 93.9% overall accuracy. Conclusions: USPIO postcontrast study alone was useful in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast cancer

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on neuronal and glial cells. Evaluation of nanoparticle interference with viability tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carla; Brandão, Fátima; Bessa, Maria João; Costa, Solange; Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Kiliç, Gözde; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Quaresma, Pedro; Pereira, Eulália; Pásaro, Eduardo; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2016-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have attracted great interest for use in several biomedical fields. In general, they are considered biocompatible, but little is known of their effects on the human nervous system. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of two ION (magnetite), coated with silica and oleic acid, previously determining the possible interference of the ION with the methodological procedures to assure the reliability of the results obtained. Human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y and glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to different concentrations of ION (5-300 µg ml(-1) ), prepared in complete and serum-free cell culture medium for three exposure times (3, 6 and 24 h). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by means of the MTT, neutral red uptake and alamar blue assays. Characterization of the main physical-chemical properties of the ION tested was also performed. Results demonstrated that both ION could significantly alter absorbance readings. To reduce these interferences, protocols were modified by introducing additional washing steps and cell-free systems. Significant decreases in cell viability were observed for both cell lines in specific conditions by all assays. In general, oleic acid-coated ION were less cytotoxic than silica-coated ION; besides, a serum-protective effect was observed for both ION studied and cell lines. These results contribute to increase the knowledge of the potential harmful effects of ION on the human nervous system. Understanding these effects is essential to establish satisfactory regulatory policies on the safe use of magnetite nanoparticles in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26212026

  20. PEGylation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle for drug delivery applications with decreased toxicity: an in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Suma [Manipal University, Department of Radiation Biology & Toxicology, School of Life Sciences (India); Mutalik, Srinivas [Manipal University, Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India); Rai, Sharada [Manipal University, Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College (India); Udupa, Nayanabhirama [Manipal University, Director - Research (Health Sciences) (India); Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com, E-mail: rao.satish@manipal.edu [Manipal University, Department of Radiation Biology & Toxicology, School of Life Sciences (India)

    2015-10-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are evolving as a mainstay across various applications in the field of Science and Technology. SPIONs have enticed attention on the grounds of their unique physicochemical properties as well as potential applications in magnetic hyperthermia, immunoassays, as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging and targeted drug delivery among others. Toward this goal, we synthesized SPIONs by chemical co-precipitation and PEGylated it. PEGylated SPIONs (PS) were studied for its detailed in vivo toxicity profile, in view of further surface engineering for its clinical applications. The intravenous LD{sub 50(14)} of the PS was ascertained as 508.16 ± 41.52 mg/kg b wt. Histopathology of the vital organs of the animals injected with acute toxic doses showed pathological changes in spleen, lung, liver, and kidney. Accumulation of SPION was found in the aforementioned organs as confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Further, 1/10th dose of LD{sub 50(14)} of PS and the Bare SPION (BS) was used to analyze a detailed toxicity profile, including genotoxicity (micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberration assays), organ-specific toxicity (a detailed serum biochemical analysis), and also determination of oxidative stress. The results of toxicity profile indicated no significant toxicity due to systemic exposure of PS. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis confirmed the accumulation of SPION majorly in lungs, liver spleen, and kidneys. The present study thus indicated an optimal dose of PS which could be used for surface modification for targeted drug delivery applications with least toxicity.

  1. Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Taraneh; Laurent, Sophie; Stanicki, Dimitri; Wilkinson, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on the biological activity of a bacterial biofilm (Streptococcus mutans). Our hypothesis was that the diffusion of the SPIONs into biofilms would depend on their surface properties, which in turn would largely be determined by their surface functionality. Bare, positively charged and negatively charged SPIONs, with hydrodynamic diameters of 14.6 ± 1.4 nm, 20.4 ± 1.3 nm and 21.2 ± 1.6 nm were evaluated. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) measurements were used to confirm that carboxylic functional groups predominated on the negatively charged SPIONS, whereas amine functional groups predominated on the positively charged particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the morphology and sizes of SPIONs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EPM measurements indicated that the surfaces of the SPIONs were covered with biomolecules following their incubation with the biofilm. Bare SPIONs killed bacteria less than the positively charged SPIONs at the highest exposure concentrations, but the toxicity of the bare and positively charged SPIONs was the same for lower SPION concentrations. The positively charged SPIONs were more effective in killing bacteria than the negatively charged ones. Nonetheless, electrophoretic mobilities of all three SPIONs (negative, bare and positively charged) became more negative following incubation with the (negatively-charged) biofilm. Therefore, while the surface charge of SPIONS was important in determining their biological activity, the initial surface charge was not constant in the presence of the biofilm, leading eventually to SPIONS with fairly similar surface charges in situ. The study nonetheless suggests that the surface characteristics of the SPIONS is an important parameter controlling the efficiency of antimicrobial agents. The analysis of the CFU/mL values

  2. Optimized labeling of bone marrow mesenchymal cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and in vivo visualization by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spray David C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising addition to traditional treatments for a number of diseases. However, harnessing the therapeutic potential of stem cells requires an understanding of their fate in vivo. Non-invasive cell tracking can provide knowledge about mechanisms responsible for functional improvement of host tissue. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs have been used to label and visualize various cell types with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In this study we performed experiments designed to investigate the biological properties, including proliferation, viability and differentiation capacity of mesenchymal cells (MSCs labeled with clinically approved SPIONs. Results Rat and mouse MSCs were isolated, cultured, and incubated with dextran-covered SPIONs (ferumoxide alone or with poly-L-lysine (PLL or protamine chlorhydrate for 4 or 24 hrs. Labeling efficiency was evaluated by dextran immunocytochemistry and MRI. Cell proliferation and viability were evaluated in vitro with Ki67 immunocytochemistry and live/dead assays. Ferumoxide-labeled MSCs could be induced to differentiate to adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. We analyzed ferumoxide retention in MSCs with or without mitomycin C pretreatment. Approximately 95% MSCs were labeled when incubated with ferumoxide for 4 or 24 hrs in the presence of PLL or protamine, whereas labeling of MSCs incubated with ferumoxide alone was poor. Proliferative capacity was maintained in MSCs incubated with ferumoxide and PLL for 4 hrs, however, after 24 hrs it was reduced. MSCs incubated with ferumoxide and protamine were efficiently visualized by MRI; they maintained proliferation and viability for up to 7 days and remained competent to differentiate. After 21 days MSCs pretreated with mitomycin C still showed a large number of ferumoxide-labeled cells. Conclusions The efficient and long lasting uptake and retention of SPIONs by MSCs using a protocol

  3. PEGylation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle for drug delivery applications with decreased toxicity: an in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are evolving as a mainstay across various applications in the field of Science and Technology. SPIONs have enticed attention on the grounds of their unique physicochemical properties as well as potential applications in magnetic hyperthermia, immunoassays, as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging and targeted drug delivery among others. Toward this goal, we synthesized SPIONs by chemical co-precipitation and PEGylated it. PEGylated SPIONs (PS) were studied for its detailed in vivo toxicity profile, in view of further surface engineering for its clinical applications. The intravenous LD50(14) of the PS was ascertained as 508.16 ± 41.52 mg/kg b wt. Histopathology of the vital organs of the animals injected with acute toxic doses showed pathological changes in spleen, lung, liver, and kidney. Accumulation of SPION was found in the aforementioned organs as confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Further, 1/10th dose of LD50(14) of PS and the Bare SPION (BS) was used to analyze a detailed toxicity profile, including genotoxicity (micronuclei formation and chromosomal aberration assays), organ-specific toxicity (a detailed serum biochemical analysis), and also determination of oxidative stress. The results of toxicity profile indicated no significant toxicity due to systemic exposure of PS. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis confirmed the accumulation of SPION majorly in lungs, liver spleen, and kidneys. The present study thus indicated an optimal dose of PS which could be used for surface modification for targeted drug delivery applications with least toxicity

  4. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianghua [Department of Physics, Fujian Key Laboratory of Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu Huili; Zhang Limin [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Bhakoo, Kishore [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR) 138667 (Singapore); Lu Lehui, E-mail: jianghua.feng@hotmail.com, E-mail: jianghua.feng@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary {alpha}-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary {alpha}-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies ({beta}-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of

  5. An insight into the metabolic responses of ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide using metabonomic analysis of biofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary α-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary α-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle

  6. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles label human bone marrow and umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yan; Zhang De-qing; Chen Le; Wang Jian; Zhang Xue; Hou Yan; Bi Xiao-juan; Yang Rong; Hu An-hua

    2012-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Nowadays, it is becoming more and more important to optimize safety of human derived cel s, label cel s efficiently and track cel s after cel s transplantation both in basic research and clinic application. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cel viability, labeling efficiency and imaging effect of the T2* weight image (WI) magnetic resonance (MR) between the human bone marrow and umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s labeled with the superparamaganetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as wel as to optimize their treatment efficiency. METHODS: The third generation of human bone marrow and umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s were cultured, and labeled with 5-30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ and protamine sulfate. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The viability of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cel s was similar with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s (P >0.05). There was no significant difference of labeling rate between the bone marrow msenchymal stem cel s labeled with 5-30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ(P >0.05); while there was significant difference of labeling rate between the umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s labeled with 5 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ and 20 and 30 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ(P <0.05); the positive labeling rate of umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cel s was lower than that of bone marrow msenchymal stem cel s after labeled with 10 mg/L FeridexⅣ(P <0.05). When two sources of cel s were labeled with Feridex Ⅳ more than 2 mg/L, the iron oxide particles were found in the cel suspension and could not be removed by elution and filtration. The signal intensity from 3.0T MR GRE T2*WI scan was decreased with the increasing of Feridex Ⅳ concentration in both cel types. It is safe and effective to label the two tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cel s with 10 mg/L Feridex Ⅳ-protamine sulfate complex, and can be observed with T2*WI MR.

  7. On the accessibility of surface-bound drugs on magnetic nanoparticles. Encapsulation of drugs loaded on modified dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide by β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Natesan; Yousuf, Sameena; Israel, Enoch V M V; Paulraj, Mosae Selvakumar; Dhanaraj, Premnath

    2016-05-01

    We report the loading of drugs on aminoethylaminodextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, their superparamagnetic behavior, loading of drugs on them, and the β-cyclodextrin-complex formation of the drugs on the surface of the nanoparticles. The magnetic behavior is studied using vibrating sample magnetometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to analyze the elemental composition of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy shows ordered structures of drug-loaded nanoparticles. UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are used to study the binding of the surface-loaded drugs to β-cyclodextrin. All of the drugs form 1:1 host-guest complexes. The iodide ion quenching of fluorescence of free- and iron oxide-attached drugs are compared. The binding strengths of the iron oxide surface-loaded drugs-β-cyclodextrin binding are smaller than those of the free drugs. PMID:26895504

  8. The inhibitory effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (Ferucarbotran) on osteogenic differentiation and its signaling mechanism in human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are very useful for monitoring cell trafficking in vivo and distinguish whether cellular regeneration originated from an exogenous cell source, which is a key issue for developing successful stem cell therapies. However, the impact of SPIO labeling on stem cell behavior remains uncertain. Here, we show the inhibitory effect of Ferucarbotran, an ionic SPIO, on osteogenic differentiation and its signaling mechanism in human mesenchymal stem cells. Ferucarbotran caused a dose-dependent inhibition of osteogenic differentiation, abolished the differentiation at high concentration, promoted cell migration, and activated the signaling molecules, β-catenin, a cancer/testis antigen, SSX, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). An iron chelator, desferrioxamine, suppressed all the above Ferucarbotran-induced actions, demonstrating an important role of free iron in the inhibition of osteogenic differentiation that is mediated by the promotion of cell mobilization, involving the activation of a specific signaling pathway.

  9. Evaluation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed with Poly-L-Lysine; Avaliacao da marcacao de celulas-tronco mesenquimais de cordao umbilical com nanoparticulas superparamagneticas de oxido de ferro recobertas com Dextran e complexadas a Poli-L-Lisina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Mamani, Javier Bustamante; Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Cardenas, Walter Humberto; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel, E-mail: tatianats@einstein.br [Instituto do Cerebro - InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miyaki, Liza Aya Mabuchi [Faculdade de Enfermagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto [Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Daniela Mara de [Universidade de Brasilia - UnB, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the labeling of umbilical cord vein derived mesenchymal stem cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed to a non-viral transfector agent transfector poly-L-lysine. Methods: The labeling of mesenchymal stem cells was performed using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran complexed and not complexed to poly-L-lysine. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran was incubated with poly-L-lysine in an ultrasonic sonicator at 37 deg C for 10 minutes for complex formation superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine by electrostatic interaction. Then, the mesenchymal stem cells were incubated overnight with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran. After the incubation period the mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by internalization of the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran by Prussian Blue stain. Cellular viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by cellular proliferation assay using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester method and apoptosis detection by Annexin V- Propidium Iodide assay. Results: mesenchymal stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/ dextran without poly-L-lysine not internalized efficiently the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to its low presence detected within cells. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine efficiently internalized the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to greater presence in the cells interior. The viability and apoptosis assays demonstrated that the mesenchymal stem cells labeled and not labeled respectively with the superparamagnetic iron oxide

  10. Carvacrol affects interfacial, structural and transfer properties of chitosan coatings applied onto polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Mia; Brachais, Claire-Hélène; Sčetar, Mario; Voilley, Andrée; Galić, Kata; Couvercelle, Jean-Pierre; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2013-08-14

    Different chitosan coating solutions were tested with the aim of investigating their adhesion and wettability onto polyethylene film to improve packaging performance and provide antimicrobial properties. Surface wetting kinetics was monitored by contact angle measurements. Addition of ethanol and carvacrol improved wettability and adhesion of the thin chitosan layer. Structure, water vapour, O2, CO2 and air permeabilities of self supported chitosan films and coated polyethylene were determined. The formation of a thin chitosan layer on polyethylene improved gas barrier properties decreasing the Permeability Coefficient for oxygen and carbon dioxide ( [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] ) from 100 to 10,000 times. Presence of carvacrol in the chitosan coating layer increased [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and Pair by a factor of ten. Moreover, it influenced film microstructure. However chitosan was shown to be good gas barrier film in the dry state. PMID:23769540

  11. Effect of moderate electric fields in the permeation properties of chitosan coatings

    OpenAIRE

    B.W.S. Souza; Cerqueira, M. A.; Casariego, A.; Lima, A. M. P.; Teixeira, J.A.; Vicente, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Edible films and coatings can provide additional protection for food, while being a fully biodegradable, environmentally friendly packaging system. Preliminary works have shown that the presence of a moderate electric field during the preparation of chitosan coating solutions may influence e.g. their transport properties. If such effect is confirmed, moderate electric fields could be used to tailor edible films and coatings for specific applications. The aim of this work was to determine the ...

  12. Preparation of Chitosan-coated Nylon Membranes and their Application as Affinity Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei SHI; Feng Bao ZHANG; Guo Liang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Chitosan-coated nylon membranes which possess a large number of reactive groups of-CH2OH and -NH2 were prepared by coupling chitosan onto the nylon membrane. Then polylysine as ligand was also immobilized onto the composite membranes by 1, l′-carbonyldiimidazole activation to prepare affinity membranes for bilirubin adsorption. The results showed that these membranes exhibited high binding affinity capacities for bilirubin and the adsorption isotherm fitted the Freundlich model well.

  13. Preparation and in vitro studies of MRI-specific superparamagnetic iron oxide antiGPC3 probe for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2012-08-01

    nanoparticles were found in the HL-7702 cells. All of the HepG2, SMMC-7721, and HeLa cells incubated with antiGPC3-USPIO, antiAFP-USPIO, or USPIO nanoparticles were able to shorten the T1 and T2 values in agar solution, especially the T2 images of HepG2 cells incubated with antiGPC3-USPIO probes.Conclusion: AntiGPC3-USPIO probes can be utilized as a specific magnetic resonance targeting contrast agent for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner, the optimal time for imaging HepG2 cells was around 2–4 hours after incubation with antiGPC3-USPIO probes.Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells, superparamagnetic iron oxide antiGPC3-USPIO probe

  14. Non-invasive detection of liver fibrosis: Is superparamagnetic iron oxide particle-enhanced MR imaging a contributive technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MR imaging to detect liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease and to compare the findings with histopathological data. Sixty-seven patients with chronic hepatitis (n=58) or focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH; n=9) were studied using a 1.5-T MR system. The protocol included proton density-weighted, T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) and fast SE (FSE) sequences before and after SPIO administration and T2*-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) sequences after SPIO. Pre- and post-contrast T2-weighted and T2*-weighted sequences were retrospectively evaluated by three independent observers for evidence of non-tumor hypersignal intensities. Three liver patterns were considered: thick reticulations; thin reticulations; and/or multiple areas of hypersignal intensities. Unenhanced or enhanced patterns were compared with histopathological specimens, which had been obtained by percutaneous biopsy of the right lobe within a maximum of 12 months of MR examination. Liver fibrosis was histologically graded using a five-level scale (F0-F4), according to the METAVIR classification. Histopathology demonstrated significant fibrosis (F2-F4) in 57 patients, non-significant fibrosis in 1 patient (F1), and normal liver surrounding FNH in 9 patients (F0). After SPIO administration, at least one pattern of non-tumor hypersignal intensities was seen in 43 (76%) of the 57 patients with F≥2 with good agreement (kappa=0.68) compared with 2 (20%) of the 10 F0/1 patients (p<0.01). Attenuated non-homogeneous liver-signal intensities with persistent thick reticulations, thin reticulations, or multiple areas of hypersignals were observed in, respectively, 30, 52, and 56% of patients with F≥2 with moderate agreement (kappa=0.51). Before SPIO, MR images were positive in 21 of 57 (37%) F≥2 and zero F0/1 patients. Post-contrast proton-density-weighted and T2*-weighted GRE were the most sensitive

  15. Diffusion and clearance of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles infused into the rat striatum studied by MRI and histochemical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F H; Yoshitake, T; Kehr, J [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kim, D K [Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, S M; Muhammed, M [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bjelke, B, E-mail: Jan.Kehr@ki.se [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-07

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate, by MRI and histochemical techniques, the diffusion and clearance abilities of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with dextran (Dextran-SPION) and gold (Au-SPION) following their local infusions into the rat brain. In separate groups of anesthetized rats, the Dextran-SPION and Au-SPION were infused at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 {mu}g Fe/0.5 {mu}l and at the flow rate of 0.5 {mu}l min{sup -1} into the left and right striata, respectively. Repetitive T2-weighted spin-echo MRI scans were performed at time intervals of 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, and one, two and eight weeks after inoculation. Following infusion of Dextran-SPION (0.1 {mu}g and 1 {mu}g Fe), the maximal distribution volume was observed at about 12-24 h after inoculation and two weeks later the Fe signals were undetectable for the lower dose. On the other hand, Au-SPION remained tightly localized in the closest vicinity of the infusion site as revealed by unchanged MRI signal intensities and strong histochemical staining of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions in the corresponding brain slices. Immunohistochemical staining of astrocytic and microglial reactions revealed that there were no marked differences in GFAP, VIM or OX-42 labeling observed between the nanoparticle types, however the astrocytic reaction was more pronounced in rats receiving nanoparticles compared to the control (aCSF-infused) rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that the viral-sized Dextran-SPION were able to diffuse freely through the interstitial space of the brain being progressively cleared out from the infusion site within two weeks. Thus, Dextran-SPION could be beneficially used in MRI-guided diagnostic applications such as in experimental oncology or as labels and carriers for targeted drug delivery, whereas Au-SPION could be used for labeling and tracking the transplanted stem cells in experimental MRI.

  16. Sensitivity of Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging in Detecting Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is extremely sensitive in the detection of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle-labeled cells. However, no study has compared molecular imaging for stem cell detection using SWI and other MRI pulse sequences. This study aims to assess the sensitivity of SWI in detecting SPIO nanoparticle-labeled, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SPIO-hMSCs) compared with that of T2- and T2*-weighted imaging (T2WI and T2*WI, respectively) in a phantom and in vivo study in rats. A phantom was prepared with various cell concentrations. In one normal rat, SPIO-hMSCs were implanted directly through burr holes into both caudate putamens, while in three rats without and six rats with photothrombotic infarction, 2.5 × 105/ml SPIO-hMSCs were infused into the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA). T2WI, T2*WI, and SWI findings were compared for dark regions representing SPIO-hMSCs. SWI and T2*WI detected 15 µL of 13 SPIO-hMSCs/µL and 15 µL of 27 SPIO-hMSCs/µL in the phantom, respectively and 3 µL of 333 SPIO-hMSCs/µL and 3 µL of 167 SPIO-hMSCs/µL in the normal rat brain (direct implantation). In the normal rat brain (ICA infusion), one of the three cases showed numerous foci of dark regions dispersed throughout the brain on T2*WI and SWI. Dark regions surrounded the infarcts in all six infracted rat brains. The dark region was most prominent on SWI, followed by T2*WI and T2WI in all six rats (P = 0.002). Implanted SPIO-hMSCs were confirmed using Prussian blue staining. SWI is the most sensitive in the detection of SPIO-hMSCs, with the dark regions representing SPIO-hMSCs being more prominent on SWI than on T2*WI and T2WI

  17. Studying the effect of particle size and coating type on the blood kinetics of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohi F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Farnoosh Roohi, Jessica Lohrke, Andreas Ide, Gunnar Schütz, Katrin DasslerMR and CT Contrast Media Research, Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, GermanyPurpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, one of the most powerful imaging techniques available, usually requires the use of an on-demand designed contrast agent to fully exploit its potential. The blood kinetics of the contrast agent represent an important factor that needs to be considered depending on the objective of the medical examination. For particulate contrast agents, such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs, the key parameters are particle size and characteristics of the coating material. In this study we analyzed the effect of these two properties independently and systematically on the magnetic behavior and blood half-life of SPIOs.Methods: Eleven different SPIOs were synthesized for this study. In the first set (a, seven carboxydextran (CDX-coated SPIOs of different sizes (19–86 nm were obtained by fractionating a broadly size-distributed CDX–SPIO. The second set (b contained three SPIOs of identical size (50 nm that were stabilized with different coating materials, polyacrylic acid (PAA, polyethylene glycol, and starch. Furthermore, small PAA–SPIOs (20 nm were synthesized to gain a global insight into the effects of particle size vs coating characteristics. Saturation magnetization and proton relaxivity were determined to represent the magnetic and imaging properties. The blood half-life was analyzed in rats using MRI, time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.Results: By changing the particle size without modifying any other parameters, the relaxivity r2 increased with increasing mean particle diameter. However, the blood half-life was shorter for larger particles. The effect of the coating material on magnetic properties was less pronounced, but it had a strong influence on blood kinetics depending on the

  18. Polyglycerol-grafted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: highly efficient MRI contrast agent for liver and kidney imaging and potential scaffold for cellular and molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalani, Nasser; Fattahi, Hassan; Laurent, Sophie; Burtea, Carmen; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

    2012-01-01

    Polyglycerol as a water-soluble and biocompatible hyperbranched polymer was covalently grafted on the surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. With this aim, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation in aqueous media, then the surface of nanoparticles was modified to introduce the reactive groups on the surface of nanoparticles. After that, polyglycerol was grafted on the surface of nanoparticles by ring-opening anionic polymerization of glycidol using n-bulyllithium as initiator. The magnetometry, relaxometry and phantom MRI experiments of this highly stable ferrofluid showed its high potential as a negative MRI contrast agent. Calculated r(1) and r(2) relaxivities at different magnetic fields were higher than the values reported for commercially available iron oxide contrast agents. The in vivo MRI studies showed that, after intravenous injection into mice, the particles produced a strong negative contrast in liver and kidneys, which persisted for 80 min (in liver) to 110 min (in kidneys). The negative contrast of the liver and kidneys weakened over the time, suggesting that polyglycerol coating renders the nanoparticles stealth and possibly optimal for renal excretion. PMID:22434631

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Bombesin-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging of breast cancer using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The targeted delivery of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent may facilitate their accumulation in cancer cells and enhance the sensitivity of MR imaging. In this study, SPIONs coated with dextran (DSPIONs) were conjugated with bombesin (BBN) to produce a targeting contrast agent for detection of breast cancer using MRI. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer analyses indicated the formation of dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6.0 ± 0.5 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the conjugation of the BBN with the DSPIONs. A stability study proved the high optical stability of DSPION–BBN in human blood serum. DSPION–BBN biocompatibility was confirmed by cytotoxicity evaluation. A binding study showed the targeting ability of DSPION–BBN to bind to T47D breast cancer cells overexpressing gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. T2-weighted and T2*-weighted color map MR images were acquired. The MRI study indicated that the DSPION–BBN possessed good diagnostic ability as a GRP-specific contrast agent, with appropriate signal reduction in T2*-weighted color map MR images in mice with breast tumors. (paper)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Bombesin-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as a targeted contrast agent for imaging of breast cancer using MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Atefeh; Salouti, Mojtaba; Farjami Shayesteh, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Bitarafan Rajabi, Ahmad; Boustani, Komail; Nahardani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The targeted delivery of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent may facilitate their accumulation in cancer cells and enhance the sensitivity of MR imaging. In this study, SPIONs coated with dextran (DSPIONs) were conjugated with bombesin (BBN) to produce a targeting contrast agent for detection of breast cancer using MRI. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer analyses indicated the formation of dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with an average size of 6.0 ± 0.5 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the conjugation of the BBN with the DSPIONs. A stability study proved the high optical stability of DSPION-BBN in human blood serum. DSPION-BBN biocompatibility was confirmed by cytotoxicity evaluation. A binding study showed the targeting ability of DSPION-BBN to bind to T47D breast cancer cells overexpressing gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors. T2-weighted and T2*-weighted color map MR images were acquired. The MRI study indicated that the DSPION-BBN possessed good diagnostic ability as a GRP-specific contrast agent, with appropriate signal reduction in T2*-weighted color map MR images in mice with breast tumors.

  1. Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles Prepared in One-Step by Precipitation in a High-Aqueous Phase Content Reverse Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Pineda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP were prepared in one-step by precipitation in a high-aqueous phase content reverse microemulsion in the presence of chitosan. The high-aqueous phase concentration led to productivities close to 0.49 g CMNP/100 g microemulsion; much higher than those characteristic of precipitation in reverse microemulsions for preparing magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles present a narrow particle size distribution with an average diameter of 4.5 nm; appearing to be formed of a single crystallite; furthermore they present superparamagnetism and high magnetization values; close to 49 emu/g. Characterization of CMNP suggests that chitosan is present as a non-homogeneous very thin layer; which explains the slight reduction in the magnetization value of CMNP in comparison with that of uncoated magnetic nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles show high heavy ion removal capability; as demonstrated by their use in the treatment of Pb2+ aqueous solutions; from which lead ions were completely removed within 10 min.

  2. Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles prepared in one-step by precipitation in a high-aqueous phase content reverse microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, María Guadalupe; Torres, Silvia; López, Luis Valencia; Enríquez-Medrano, Francisco Javier; de León, Ramón Díaz; Fernández, Salvador; Saade, Hened; López, Raúl Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP) were prepared in one-step by precipitation in a high-aqueous phase content reverse microemulsion in the presence of chitosan. The high-aqueous phase concentration led to productivities close to 0.49 g CMNP/100 g microemulsion; much higher than those characteristic of precipitation in reverse microemulsions for preparing magnetic nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticles present a narrow particle size distribution with an average diameter of 4.5 nm; appearing to be formed of a single crystallite; furthermore they present superparamagnetism and high magnetization values; close to 49 emu/g. Characterization of CMNP suggests that chitosan is present as a non-homogeneous very thin layer; which explains the slight reduction in the magnetization value of CMNP in comparison with that of uncoated magnetic nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles show high heavy ion removal capability; as demonstrated by their use in the treatment of Pb2+ aqueous solutions; from which lead ions were completely removed within 10 min. PMID:24991759

  3. Nanocluster of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with poly (dopamine) for magnetic field-targeting, highly sensitive MRI and photothermal cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming; Zhang, Da; Zeng, Yongyi; Wu, Lingjie; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a core-shell nanocomposite of clusters of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with poly(dopamine) (SPION clusters@PDA) is fabricated as a magnetic field-directed theranostic agent that combines the capabilities of highly sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photothermal cancer therapy. The highly concentrated SPION cluster core is suitable for sensitive MRI due to its superparamagnetic properties, and the poly(dopamine) coating layer can induce cancer cell death under near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation because of the photothermal conversion ability of PDA. MRI scanning reveals that the nanocomposite has relatively high r2 and r2* relaxivities, and the r2* values are nearly threefold higher than the r2 values because of the clustering of the SPIONs in the nanocomposite core. Due to the rapid response to magnetic field gradients, enhanced cellular uptake of our nanocomposite mediated by an external magnetic field can be achieved, thus producing significantly enhanced local photothermal killing efficiency against cancer cells under NIR irritation.

  4. Efficient arsenic(V) and arsenic(III) removal from acidic solutions with Novel Forager Sponge-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, D; Pérez, G; Valiente, M

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide variety of arsenic decontamination processes being adsorption processes the most efficient. In this concern, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have been proposed as an appropriate system to improve arsenic adsorption from acidic wastewater. The number of mines, the amount of ore processed, and thus the amount of mine (acid) wastewaters have been rapidly increased in recent decades. For this reason, arsenic removal from contaminated water is an important goal to accomplish environmental regulations. It is noteworthy that aggregation of these nanoparticles has been detected as the main difficulty, hindering the promising adsorption. In order to overcome this drawback, it is proposed a system to avoid aggregation based on nanoparticles dispersion into an appropriate supporting material. To this purpose, SPION have been fixed on a cellulosic sponge achieving a decrease of the aggregation state, an increase of the active centers, and consequently, arsenic adsorption increases. Experimental results report a lower aggregation of supported SPION over sponge than the observed in the non supported nanoparticles. At this point, a remarkable improvement in the sponge system adsorption capacity is observed in comparison with superparamagnetic nanoparticles in suspension, reaching adsorption capacities about 2.1 mmol As/g SPION and 12.1 mmol As/g SPION for arsenite and arsenate, respectively at pH 3.8. Then, the developed system not only amends the aggregation problem but also keep their nanoproperties intact, making the system a suitable one for arsenic removal in acidic wastewater treatment. PMID:25982936

  5. Chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tanveer; Bae, Hongsub; Iqbal, Yousaf; Rhee, Ilsu; Hong, Sungwook; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jaejun; Sohn, Derac

    2015-05-01

    We report evidence for the possible application of chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The coating of nickel-ferrite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the nickel-ferrite nanoparticles by a chemical co-precipitation method. The coated nanoparticles were cylindrical in shape with an average length of 17 nm and an average width of 4.4 nm. The bonding of chitosan onto the ferrite nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The T1 and T2 relaxivities were 0.858±0.04 and 1.71±0.03 mM-1 s-1, respectively. In animal experimentation, both a 25% signal enhancement in the T1-weighted mage and a 71% signal loss in the T2-weighted image were observed. This demonstrated that chitosan-coated nickel-ferrite nanoparticles are suitable as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in MRI. We note that the applicability of our nanoparticles as both T1 and T2 contrast agents is due to their cylindrical shape, which gives rise to both inner and outer sphere processes of nanoparticles.

  6. Chitosan coating of copper nanoparticles reduces in vitro toxicity and increases inflammation in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their potential for a variety of applications, copper nanoparticles induce very strong inflammatory responses and cellular toxicity following aerosolized delivery. Coating metallic nanoparticles with polysaccharides, such as biocompatible and antimicrobial chitosan, has the potential to reduce this toxicity. In this study, copper nanoparticles were coated with chitosan using a newly developed and facile method. The presence of coating was confirmed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, rhodamine tagging of chitosan followed by confocal fluorescence imaging of coated particles and observed increases in particle size and zeta potential. Further physical and chemical characteristics were evaluated using dissolution and x-ray diffraction studies. The chitosan coating was shown to significantly reduce the toxicity of copper nanoparticles after 24 and 52 h and the generation of reactive oxygen species as assayed by DHE oxidation after 24 h in vitro. Conversely, inflammatory response, measured using the number of white blood cells, total protein, and cytokines/chemokines in the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice exposed to chitosan coated versus uncoated copper nanoparticles, was shown to increase, as was the concentration of copper ions. These results suggest that coating metal nanoparticles with mucoadhesive polysaccharides (e.g. chitosan) could increase their potential for use in controlled release of copper ions to cells, but will result in a higher inflammatory response if administered via the lung. (paper)

  7. Bcl-2-functionalized ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with amphiphilic polymer enhance the labeling efficiency of islets for detection by magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang B

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bin Yang,1 Haolei Cai,1 Wenjie Qin,1 Bo Zhang,1 Chuanxin Zhai,2 Biao Jiang,3 Yulian Wu1 1Department of Surgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Lab of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Based on their versatile, biocompatible properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO or ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO nanoparticles are utilized for detecting and tracing cells or tumors in vivo. Here, we developed an innoxious and concise synthesis approach for a novel B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2 monoclonal antibody-functionalized USPIO nanoparticle coated with an amphiphilic polymer (carboxylated polyethylene glycol monooleyl ether [OE-PEG-COOH]. These nanoparticles can be effectively internalized by beta cells and label primary islet cells, at relatively low iron concentration. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of these products were investigated by comparison with the commercial USPIO product, FeraSpin™ S. We also assessed the safe dosage range of the product. Although some cases showed a hypointensity change at the site of transplant, a strong magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was detectable by a clinical MRI scanner, at field strength of 3.0 Tesla, in vivo, and the iron deposition/attached in islets was confirmed by Prussian blue and immunohistochemistry staining. It is noteworthy that based on our synthesis approach, in future, we could exchange the Bcl-2 with other probes that would be more specific for the targeted cells and that would have better labeling specificity in vivo. The combined results point to the promising potential of the novel Bcl-2-functionalized PEG-USPIO as a molecular imaging agent for in vivo

  8. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of activated hepatic stellate cells with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide targeting integrin αvβ3 for staging liver fibrosis in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang C

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caiyuan Zhang,1,* Huanhuan Liu,1,* Yanfen Cui,1,* Xiaoming Li,1 Zhongyang Zhang,1 Yong Zhang,2 Dengbin Wang1 1Department of Radiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2MR Advanced Application and Research Center, GE Healthcare China, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To evaluate the expression level of integrin αvβ3 on activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs at different stages of liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in rat model and the feasibility to stage liver fibrosis by using molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD peptide modified ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (USPIO specifically targeting integrin αvβ3.Materials and methods: All experiments received approval from our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 subjects each, and intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 for either 3, 6, or 9 weeks. Controls (n=10 received pure olive oil. The change in T2* relaxation rate (ΔR2* pre- and postintravenous administration of RGD-USPIO or naked USPIO was measured by 3.0T clinical MRI and compared by one-way analysis of variance or the Student’s t-test. The relationship between expression level of integrin αvβ3 and liver fibrotic degree was evaluated by Spearman’s ranked correlation.Results: Activated HSCs were confirmed to be the main cell types expressing integrin αvβ3 during liver fibrogenesis. The protein level of integrin αv and β3 subunit expressed on activated HSCs was upregulated and correlated well with the progression of liver fibrosis (r=0.954, P<0.001; r=0.931, P<0.001, respectively. After injection of RGD-USPIO, there is significant difference in ΔR2* among rats treated with 0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks of CCl4 (P<0.001. The accumulation of iron particles in fibrotic liver specimen is

  9. Effect of Chitosan Coating on the Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System Response of Strawberry Fruit during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Petriccione

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of chitosan fruit coating to delay the qualitative and nutraceutical traits of three strawberry cultivars, namely “Candonga”, “Jonica” and “Sabrina”, as well as the effects of chitosan on antioxidant enzymes were evaluated. The fruits were coated with 1% and 2% chitosan solution and stored at 2 °C for nine days. Samples were taken every three days. Physico-chemical (weight loss, soluble solid content and titratable acidity and nutraceutical (total polyphenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant capacity properties along with the enzymatic activity (catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX and lipoxygenase (LOX were evaluated. Chitosan treatment significantly reduced water loss and delayed the qualitative changes in color, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in dose- and cultivar-dependent manners. Additionally, changes in the total polyphenol, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant capacity of chitosan-coated strawberry fruits were delayed. Chitosan coating enhanced the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, preventing flesh browning and reducing membrane damage. A global view of the responses of the three strawberry cultivars to chitosan coating and storage temperature was obtained using principal component analysis. Chitosan-coated fruit exhibited a slower rate of deterioration, compared to uncoated fruit in all tested cultivars.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled exosomes from stem cells: a new method to obtain labeled exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Alice; Bonafede, Roberta; Bontempi, Pietro; Scambi, Ilaria; Schiaffino, Lorenzo; Benati, Donatella; Malatesta, Manuela; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina; Mariotti, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent findings indicate that the beneficial effects of adipose stem cells (ASCs), reported in several neurodegenerative experimental models, could be due to their paracrine activity mediated by the release of exosomes. The aim of this study was the development and validation of an innovative exosome-labeling protocol that allows to visualize them with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods At first, ASCs were labeled using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO, 4–6 nm), and optimal parameters to label ASCs in terms of cell viability, labeling efficiency, iron content, and magnetic resonance (MR) image contrast were investigated. Exosomes were then isolated from labeled ASCs using a standard isolation protocol. The efficiency of exosome labeling was assessed by acquiring MR images in vitro and in vivo as well as by determining their iron content. Transmission electron microscopy images and histological analysis were performed to validate the results obtained. Results By using optimized experimental parameters for ASC labeling (200 µg Fe/mL of USPIO and 72 hours of incubation), it was possible to label 100% of the cells, while their viability remained comparable to unlabeled cells; the detection limit of MR images was of 102 and 2.5×103 ASCs in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Exosomes isolated from previously labeled ASCs retain nanoparticles, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy images. The detection limit by MRI was 3 µg and 5 µg of exosomes in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion We report a new approach for labeling of exosomes by USPIO that allows detection by MRI while preserving their morphology and physiological characteristics. PMID:27330291

  11. Targeted therapy for human hepatic carcinoma cells using folate-functionalized polymeric micelles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide and sorafenib in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lei Zhang,1 Faming Gong,2 Fang Zhang,3 Jing Ma,1 Peidong Zhang,1 Jun Shen3 1Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, 2PCFM Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of targeted folate-functionalized micelles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs and sorafenib on human hepatic carcinoma (HepG2 cells in vitro, and to observe the feasibility of surveillance of this targeting therapeutic effect by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Sorafenib and SPIONs were loaded into polymeric micelles. The targeted nanocarrier was synthesized by functionalizing the micelles with folate. Folate-free micelles loaded with sorafenib and SPIONs were used as control (nontargeted micelles. Uptake of the nanocarrier by cells was assessed using Prussian blue staining after 1 hour of incubation with the polymeric micelles. The inhibitory effect of the targeted micelles on HepG2 cell proliferation at various concentrations of sorafenib was assessed in vitro using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay and apoptotic analysis using flow cytometry. Magnetic resonance imaging using a clinical 1.5 T scanner was performed to detect changes in the signal intensity of cells after incubation with the targeted micelles. Results: Prussian blue staining showed significantly more intracellular SPIONs in cells incubated with the targeted micelles than those incubated with nontargeted micelles. The MTT assay showed that the average inhibitory ratio in the targeted group was significantly higher than that in the nontargeted group (38.13% versus 22.54%, P = 0.028. The mean apoptotic rate in the targeted cells, nontargeted cells, and untreated cells was 17.01%, 11.04%, and 7.89%, respectively. The apoptotic rate in the

  12. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  13. Surface modification of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles with calcium salt of poly(γ-glutamic acid) as coating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface-modified magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized by co-precipitation of aqueous solution of ferrous and ferric salts (molar ratio 1:2) upon adding a base followed by calcium salt of poly(γ-glutamic acid) (Ca-γ-PGA) for uniform coating on the surface of MNPs. Both uncoated and Ca-γ-PGA-coated MNPs were characterized using various techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and vibrating sample magnetometric (VSM) studies. Compared with bare MNPs, the IR spectra of coated MNPs showed characteristic peaks of γ-PGA, implying the γ-PGA coating on MNPs did occur. The TEM images depicted an average size of 8-10 nm for bare MNPs and 14 nm for coated MNPs, with their shape being spherical in nature. In the presence of applied magnetic field, a superparamagnetic behavior was observed at room temperature for both bare and Ca-γ-PGA-coated MNPs, with no magnetism left upon magnetic-field removal.

  14. Aggregation resistant zwitterated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising for biomedical applications since they can be directed toward the organ of interest using an external magnetic field. They are also good contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and have potential for the treatment of malignant tumors (i.e., hyperthermia). Therefore, there is a need to produce stable, non-aggregating superparamagnetic nanomaterials that can withstand the in vivo environment. In this work, the colloidal stability of a dispersion of iron oxide NPs was enhanced by functionalizing them with a short zwitterionic siloxane shell in aqueous media. The stabilization procedure yields superparamagnetic nanomaterials, ca. 10 nm in diameter, with saturation magnetization of about 54 emu/g that resist aggregation at physiological salt concentration, temperature, and pH. The loading of the zwitterionic shell was established with diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. X-ray and electron diffraction verified the starting magnetite phase, and that no change in phase occurred on surface functionalization.

  15. Functional recoveries of sciatic nerve regeneration by combining chitosan-coated conduit and neurosphere cells induced from adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yuan-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ju; Huang, Tzu-Chieh; Fan, Shih-Chen; Wang, Duo-Hsiang; Chen, Jia-Jin Jason; Wu, Chia-Ching; Lin, Sheng-Che

    2014-02-01

    Suboptimal repair occurs in a peripheral nerve gap, which can be partially restored by bridging the gap with various biosynthetic conduits or cell-based therapy. In this study, we developed a combination of chitosan coating approach to induce neurosphere cells from human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) on chitosan-coated plate and then applied these cells to the interior of a chitosan-coated silicone tube to bridge a 10-mm gap in a rat sciatic nerve. Myelin sheath degeneration and glial scar formation were discovered in the nerve bridged by the silicone conduit. By using a single treatment of chitosan-coated conduit or neurosphere cell therapy, the nerve gap was partially recovered after 6 weeks of surgery. Substantial improvements in nerve regeneration were achieved by combining neurosphere cells and chitosan-coated conduit based on the increase of myelinated axons density and myelin thickness, gastrocnemius muscle weight and muscle fiber diameter, and step and stride lengths from gait analysis. High expressions of interleukin-1β and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 in the intra-neural scarring caused by using silicone conduits revealed that the inflammatory mechanism can be inhibited when the conduit is coated with chitosan. This study demonstrated that the chitosan-coated surface performs multiple functions that can be used to induce neurosphere cells from ASCs and to facilitate nerve regeneration in combination with a cells-assisted coated conduit. PMID:24360575

  16. Accuracy of preoperative prediction of microinvasion of portal vein in hepatocellular carcinoma using superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography during hepatic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim was to diagnose microinvasion of the portal vein in hepatocellular carcinoma from preoperative radiological findings and to construct a scoring system. Forty-seven patients (38 men and 9 women; median age, 66.8 years) who underwent hepatic resections for hepatocellular carcinoma were selected retrospectively. Microscopically, 22 had portal vein invasion (PVI) and 25 had no PVI. All patients were examined preoperatively with superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography during hepatic angiography (CTHA). Perilesional enhancement on T1-weighted imaging, tumorous arterioportal (AP) shunt, and corona enhancement (contrast enhancement of the adjacent liver appearing in the late phase of CTHA) were assessed. Relative risk for PVI in terms of clinical and tumor characteristics was also assessed. The relative contribution to PVI was determined by the coefficient of a stepwise logistic regression. Each variable was given a score relative to the coefficient. On univariate analysis, distortion of corona, tumorous AP shunt, and tumor size indicated a higher prevalence of PVI. The PVI predictive score was calculated as: total score= (maximum size in cm) + (T1 ring; +=1, -=0) + (tumorous AP shunt; +=3, -=0) + (distortion of corona; +=10, -=0). The PVI (+) group score was four times that of the PVI (-) group (16 vs 4). At a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 82%, 84%, and 86%. Distortion of corona, tumorous AP shunt, and tumor size are good predictors of the risk of PVI. This scoring system is simple and worth using clinically. (author)

  17. Radio-immunoconjugated, Dox-loaded, surface-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a bioprobe for breast cancer tumor theranostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, we develop dual modality molecular imaging and also radio-immunotherapy (RIT) bioprobes, in the form of modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) conjugated to radiolabeled antibodies, for PET and MRI of HER2 expressing cancers as well as a PH sensitive drug carrier by embedded an anticancer agent for cancer therapeutic applications. The bioprobes were developed by conjugating 64Cu labeled trastuzumab (herceptin) and rituximab (Anti CD-20) antibodies to modified SPIONs. The SPIONs were modified with carboxymethyl chitosan and functionalized with acrylic acid (AA). Also, with the purpose of identifying more effective bifunctional chelator (BFC), we compared the properties of novel BFC, p-NO2-Bn-PCTA with the commonly used DOTA-NHS for radio-immunoconjugate preparations. Moreover, a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin, was then loaded onto engineered nanoparticles for targeted intracellular drug delivery and selective cancer cell killing. Resulting radio-immunoconjugated-SPIONs were evaluated for molecular imaging and effective targeting of the HER2+ receptors in SKBR3 cell lines and breast tumor bearing Balb/C mice. Therefore, our biocompatible SPIONs could serve as a promising multifunctional theranostics nanoplatform in dual modality imaging guided RIT of HER2 overexpressing cancer applicable to drug delivery and controlled drug release for trigger both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. (author)

  18. UTE-ΔR2 -ΔR2 * combined MR whole-brain angiogram using dual-contrast superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H S; Jin, S H; Cho, J H; Han, S H; Lee, D K; Cho, H

    2016-06-01

    The ability to visualize whole-brain vasculature is important for quantitative in vivo investigation of vascular malfunctions in cerebral small vessel diseases, including cancer, stroke and neurodegeneration. Transverse relaxation-based ΔR2 and ΔR2 * MR angiography (MRA) provides improved vessel-tissue contrast in animal deep brain with the aid of intravascular contrast agents; however, it is susceptible to orientation dependence, air-tissue interface artifacts and vessel size overestimation. Dual-mode MRA acquisition with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) provides a unique opportunity to systematically compare and synergistically combine both longitudinal (R1 ) and transverse (ΔR2 and ΔR2 *) relaxation-based MRA. Through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and MRA experiments in normal and tumor-bearing animals with intravascular SPION, we show that ultrashort TE (UTE) MRA acquires well-defined vascularization on the brain surface, minimizing air-tissue artifacts, and combined ΔR2 and ΔR2 * MRA simultaneously improves the sensitivity to intracortical penetrating vessels and reduces vessel size overestimation. Consequently, UTE-ΔR2 -ΔR2 * combined MRA complements the shortcomings of individual angiograms and provides a strategy to synergistically merge longitudinal and transverse relaxation effects to generate more robust in vivo whole-brain micro-MRA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27061076

  19. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle attachment on array of micro test tubes and microbeakers formed on p-type silicon substrate for biosensor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Sufi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A uniformly distributed array of micro test tubes and microbeakers is formed on a p-type silicon substrate with tunable cross-section and distance of separation by anodic etching of the silicon wafer in N, N-dimethylformamide and hydrofluoric acid, which essentially leads to the formation of macroporous silicon templates. A reasonable control over the dimensions of the structures could be achieved by tailoring the formation parameters, primarily the wafer resistivity. For a micro test tube, the cross-section (i.e., the pore size as well as the distance of separation between two adjacent test tubes (i.e., inter-pore distance is typically approximately 1 μm, whereas, for a microbeaker the pore size exceeds 1.5 μm and the inter-pore distance could be less than 100 nm. We successfully synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, with average particle size approximately 20 nm and attached them on the porous silicon chip surface as well as on the pore walls. Such SPION-coated arrays of micro test tubes and microbeakers are potential candidates for biosensors because of the biocompatibility of both silicon and SPIONs. As acquisition of data via microarray is an essential attribute of high throughput bio-sensing, the proposed nanostructured array may be a promising step in this direction.

  20. MR Imaging of activated hepatic stellate cells in liver injured by CCl4 of rats with integrin-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate the feasibility of the ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) modified by cyclo (Arg-Gly-Asp-Try-Cys) peptide (c(RGDyC)-USPIO) for targeting hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). A c(RGDyC)-USPIO probe was prepared by conjugating c(RGDyC) with USPIO through a thiol-maleinide interaction. The specificity of c(RGDyC)-USPIO for HSCs was investigated in vitro. In vivo, normal and fibrosis rats were treated with either c(RGDyC)-USPIO or USPIO, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the rats performed after administration of the probes for 4 h. The T2 relaxation times changes before and after probe injection were analyzed and the locations of probes in normal or injured mice were identified histologically. The hydrodynamic size of c(RGDyC)-USPIO was 13 ± 3 nm. HSCs took up more specific probes than plain ones. The reduction of T2 relaxation times in fibrosis rat by c(RGDyC)-USPIO was much greater than that by USPIO (P vβ3 integrins was feasible using a clinical 1.5-Tesla MR system. (orig.)

  1. Poly (dopamine) coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocluster for noninvasive labeling, tracking, and targeted delivery of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Naishun; Wu, Ming; Pan, Fan; Lin, Jiumao; Li, Zuanfang; Zhang, Da; Wang, Yingchao; Zheng, Youshi; Peng, Jun; Liu, Xiaolong; Liu, Jingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Tracking and monitoring of cells in vivo after transplantation can provide crucial information for stem cell therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with contrast agents is believed to be an effective and non-invasive technique for cell tracking in living bodies. However, commercial superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) applied to label cells suffer from shortages such as potential toxicity, low labeling efficiency, and low contrast enhancing. Herein, the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were efficiently labeled with SPIONs coated with poly (dopamine) (SPIONs cluster@PDA), without affecting their viability, proliferation, apoptosis, surface marker expression, as well as their self-renew ability and multi-differentiation potential. The labeled cells transplanted into the mice through tail intravenous injection exhibited a negative enhancement of the MRI signal in the damaged liver-induced by carbon tetrachloride, and subsequently these homed ADSCs with SPIONs cluster@PDA labeling exhibited excellent repair effects to the damaged liver. Moreover, the enhanced target-homing to tissue of interest and repair effects of SPIONs cluster@PDA-labeled ADSCs could be achieved by use of external magnetic field in the excisional skin wound mice model. Therefore, we provide a facile, safe, noninvasive and sensitive method for external magnetic field targeted delivery and MRI based tracking of transplanted cells in vivo.

  2. Hollow superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoshells as a hydrophobic anticancer drug carrier: intracelluar pH-dependent drug release and enhanced cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Yuan, Jing; Leung, Ken Cham-Fai; Lee, Siu-Fung; Sham, Kathy W. Y.; Cheng, Christopher H. K.; Au, Doris W. T.; Teng, Gao-Jun; Ahuja, Anil T.; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.

    2012-08-01

    With curcumin and doxorubicin (DOX) base as model drugs, intracellular delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs by hollow structured superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoshells (hydrodynamic diameter: 191.9 +/- 2.6 nm) was studied in glioblastoma U-87 MG cells. SPIO nanoshell-based encapsulation provided a stable aqueous dispersion of the curcumin. After the SPIO nanoshells were internalized by U-87 MG cells, they localized at the acidic compartments of endosomes and lysosomes. In endosome/lysosome-mimicking buffers with a pH of 4.5-5.5, pH-dependent drug release was observed from curcumin or DOX loaded SPIO nanoshells (curcumin/SPIO or DOX/SPIO). Compared with the free drug, the intracellular curcumin content delivered via curcumin/SPIO was 30 fold higher. Increased intracellular drug content for DOX base delivered via DOX/SPIO was also confirmed, along with a fast intracellular DOX release that was attributed to its protonation in the acidic environment. DOX/SPIO enhanced caspase-3 activity by twofold compared with free DOX base. The concentration that induced 50% cytotoxic effect (CC50) was 0.05 +/- 0.03 μg ml-1 for DOX/SPIO, while it was 0.13 +/- 0.02 μg ml-1 for free DOX base. These results suggested SPIO nanoshells might be a promising intracellular carrier for hydrophobic anticancer drugs.

  3. Focal hepatic lesions. Differentiation of malignant tumours and benign lesions by means of combination non-enhanced MR imaging and superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to differentiate malignant tumors from benign lesions by clarifying the characteristic signal-intensity pattern of each lesion using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO). SPIO-enhanced MRI was performed using a 1.5-T system in 49 patients who had 117 focal hepatic lesions (39 metastatic tumors, 37 hepatocellular carcinomas, 28 cysts, 13 hemangiomas). The combined approach used SPIO-enhanced and non-enhanced short TE T1-weighted gradient echo (GRE) images, and SPIO-enhanced long TE GRE images. These lesions were presented to two readers who were asked to assess the characteristics of the lesions using a five-point confidence scale according to a flowchart. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed for evaluation. The Az values of the two readers were 0.909 and 0.969, and the κ value was 0.7540. Combined analysis with SPIO-enhanced and non-enhanced short TE T1-weighted GRE images together with SPIO-enhanced long TE GRE images was useful to characterize focal hepatic lesions. (author)

  4. Specific targeting of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE1 by C225-conjugated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles with magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongbo Lin; Chunli Chen; Guangyuaa Hu; Qi Mei; Hong Qiu; Guoxian Long; Guoqing Hu

    2011-01-01

    An accurate definition of clinical target volume (CTV) is essential for the application of radiotherapy in nasopharvngeai carcinoma (NPC) treatment. A novel epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting contrast agent (C225-USPIO) was designed by conjugating ultrasmail superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles with cetuximab (C225), to non-invasively define the CTV of tumor. The immunobinding activity of C225-USPIO to NPC cell line CNEI was confirmed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The time-dependent accumulation of C225-USPIO in CNE1 cells was evaluated using Prussian blue staining. Targeted internalization and subcellular localization of C225-USPIO was confirmed by transmission electron microscope. The results indicated that C225-USPIO specifically bound to EGFR on the surface of CNEI cells and was taken up into the cell. The uptake of C225-USPIO by CNE1 cells increased significantly with time, when compared with human IgG-USPIO. In addition, 4.7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that C225-USPIO had a capacity to accumulate in the CNE1 cells, with a resultant marked decrease in MRI T2-weighted signal intensity over time. These findings imply that C225-USPIO has the potential as an MRI contrast agent and can be employed to non-invasively detect early-stage NPC with EGFR overexpression. This provides sufficient theoretical basis for commencing in vivo experiments with the compound.

  5. The preliminary study of molecular imaging of colorectal cancer cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide-based MR targeting probe containing vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To develop a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-based MR probe containing vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) to investigate their biological and chemical properties and targeting effect of colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Methods: The anti-VEGF-SPIO probe was fabricated with VEGF antibody and SPIO through chemical method. Its biological and chemical properties and reflexivity were tested with SDS-PAGE and MRL The SW620 cells incubated with anti-VEGF-SPIO probe for 30, 60 and 90 minutes respectively and compared with marrow mesenchymal stem cell at 37 degree C. The comparison among groups was conducted by using analysis of variance and LSD-t test. The MRI results were confirmed by the Prussian blue staining. The comparison among groups was performed by analysis of variance and factorial experiment. Results: SPIO-based MR probe containing VEGF was successfully contributed and isolated. The reflexivity of anti-VEGF-SPIO probe was 0.0426 x 106 mol/s. The immunofluorescence and prussia blue stain proved high expression of VEGF in SW620 cells. Anti-VEGF-SPIO probe and SW620 cellscombined at 37 degree C in vitro MRI proved the SW620 cells incubated with anti-VEGF-SPIO probe appeared hypointense on T2WI and T2* WI. MR signal were 392 ± 7, 91 ± 8, 264 ± 10 for 30, 60 and 90 minutes respectively, which were statistically different from that before incubation 679 ± 12 (F=4735.489, P0.05). Conclusion: Nanoscale iron particles containing the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor molecular probe can evaluate tumor angiogenesis at the receptor level, which provides a new way of the tumor angiogenesis diagnosis and anti-angiogenesis therapy. (authors)

  6. Magnetic resonance tracking of transplanted microglia labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles in the brain of normal rat and Alzheimer's disease model rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the methods of labeling exogenous microglia with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, and to monitor the labeled cells after transplantation into the normal rat and Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rat with MR scanning. Methods: Microglia was labeled with SPIO particles by using transfection agent, hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E). Then the microglias which were labeled with SPIO were injected into the internal carotid artery of normal rat (n5) and AD model rat (n=5). Three days after transplantation, follow-up serial T2*-weighted gradient-echo MR imaging was performed at 7.0T MRI system. MR images were correlated with histological findings. Results: In the brain of normal rat, the labeled microglias were demonstrated as several dotty signal intensity decrease on T2*-weighted MR images. The dotty spots were sporadic around the brain. Histological analysis showed that most prussian blue staining-positive cells were well correlated with the area where a signal intensity decrease was observed in MRI. MR could detect the signal intensity change caused by a few labeled cells. In the brain of AD model rat, MR scan showed a well-defined hypointensity area in the region of Aβ42 injection. Signal intensity decrease was not obvious in the region of saline injection. The number of iron-positive cells (454 ± 47)/mm2 at sites of Aβ42 injection was much higher than that (83 ± 13)/mm2 of saline injection (P<0.05). Conclusion: MR can be used as a non-invasive means of detecting transplanted labeled microglia in vivo, with the potential for future clinical application in cell therapy of AD. (authors)

  7. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidized Ti surface modified with hydrothermal treatment and chitosan coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupane, Madhav Prasad; Park, Il Song, E-mail: ilsong@jbnu.ac.kr; Lee, Min Ho, E-mail: mh@jbnu.ac.kr

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the surface modification of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) by a composite/multilayer coating approach for biomedical applications. CP-Ti samples were treated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently some of the samples were coated with chitosan (Chi) by dip coating method, while others were subjected to hydrothermal treatment (HT) followed by chitosan coating. The MAO, MAO/Chi, and MAO/HT/Chi coated Ti were characterized and their characteristics were compared with CP-Ti. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the structural and morphological characteristics. The average surface roughness was determined using a surface profilometer. The corrosion resistance of untreated and surface modified Ti in commercial saline at 298 K was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test. The results indicated that the chitosan coating is very well integrated with the MAO and MAO/HT coating by physically interlocking itself with the coated layer and almost sealed all the pores. The surface roughness of hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated MAO film was superior evidently to that with other sample groups. The corrosion studies demonstrated that the MAO, hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated sample enhanced the corrosion resistance of titanium. The result indicates that fabrication of hydrothermally treated MAO surface coatings with chitosan is a significant approach to protect the titanium from corrosion, hence enhancing the potential use of titanium as bio-implants. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidized (MAO) and hydrothermally treated (HT) Ti surfaces are coated with chitosan (Chi). • The MAO/HT/Chi surface exhibits pores sealing and enhanced the surface roughness. • The MAO/HT/Chi surface significantly increase the corrosion resistance. • The MAO/HT/Chi can be a potential surface of titanium for bio-implants.

  8. A fiber optic biosensor for the detection of cholesterol levels based on chitosan coated long period grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, C. Bobby; Libish, T. M.; Kaushalkumar, B.; Vivek, V.; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2016-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor for the measurement of total cholesterol is designed and developed. The developed chitosan coated long period grating (LPG) sensor shows a sensitivity of 5.025×106 pm·mL/g in the measurement range of the sensor. The sensor also shows a linear response in the measured range of cholesterol levels, which is highly desirable for exploitation as a commercial cholesterol sensor.

  9. Surface characterization and corrosion behavior of micro-arc oxidized Ti surface modified with hydrothermal treatment and chitosan coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we describe the surface modification of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) by a composite/multilayer coating approach for biomedical applications. CP-Ti samples were treated by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently some of the samples were coated with chitosan (Chi) by dip coating method, while others were subjected to hydrothermal treatment (HT) followed by chitosan coating. The MAO, MAO/Chi, and MAO/HT/Chi coated Ti were characterized and their characteristics were compared with CP-Ti. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the structural and morphological characteristics. The average surface roughness was determined using a surface profilometer. The corrosion resistance of untreated and surface modified Ti in commercial saline at 298 K was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization test. The results indicated that the chitosan coating is very well integrated with the MAO and MAO/HT coating by physically interlocking itself with the coated layer and almost sealed all the pores. The surface roughness of hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated MAO film was superior evidently to that with other sample groups. The corrosion studies demonstrated that the MAO, hydrothermally treated and chitosan coated sample enhanced the corrosion resistance of titanium. The result indicates that fabrication of hydrothermally treated MAO surface coatings with chitosan is a significant approach to protect the titanium from corrosion, hence enhancing the potential use of titanium as bio-implants. - Highlights: • Micro-arc oxidized (MAO) and hydrothermally treated (HT) Ti surfaces are coated with chitosan (Chi). • The MAO/HT/Chi surface exhibits pores sealing and enhanced the surface roughness. • The MAO/HT/Chi surface significantly increase the corrosion resistance. • The MAO/HT/Chi can be a potential surface of titanium for bio-implants

  10. Relationships between surface roughness/stiffness of chitosan coatings and fabrication of corneal keratocyte spheroids: Effect of degree of deacetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shih-Feng; Lai, Jui-Yang; Cho, Ching-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2016-06-01

    Fabrication of the cell spheroids from corneal keratocytes has important implications to the advance in tissue engineering while stimulation from the interface of a biopolymer coating has the ability to modulate this event. This study aims to investigate the dependence of keratocyte migration, proliferation, and differentiation on the surface roughness/stiffness of the chitosan coatings through modifications by degree of deacetylation (DD). After a series of deacetylation process, chitosan coatings with increasing DD exhibited significantly decreased surface roughness and increased surface stiffness. Relationships between the behaviors of rabbit corneal keratocytes (RCKs) and biopolymer coatings with varying DDs (between 75% and 96%) were also found during in vitro cultivation. Both the surface roughness increase and stiffness decrease could lead to enhanced cell migration, which is the main driving force for the early stage spheroid formation on chitosan substrates (e.g., within 8h). With these stimulations from the substrate interfaces, the size and morphology of RCK spheroids were greatly affected by the DD of chitosan. When fabricated on a lowered DD of chitosan material, the spheroids had a larger size with abundant extracellular matrix produced around the cells. At a later stage of spheroid cultivation (e.g., 5 days), significantly higher amount of RCKs on chitosan coatings was noted with increasing DD, indicating the substrate interface effects on cell proliferation. The keratocan expression of RCK spheroids grown on a lowered DD of chitosan was up-regulated, suggesting that both the surface roughness increase and stiffness decrease may facilitate the microenvironment for preservation of cellular phenotype. Overall, our work contributes to the scientific understanding of the keratocyte behaviors and spheroid fabrications in response to DD-mediated surface roughness/stiffness of chitosan coatings. PMID:26945162

  11. Analytical characteristics and application of novel chitosan coated magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient drug delivery system for ciprofloxacin. Enhanced drug release kinetics by low-frequency ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminia, Samira; Shamsipur, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2016-09-10

    A pH-responsive drug carrier based on chitosan coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CS-Fe3O4) for prolonged antibiotic release in a controlled manner is reported. As an antibiotic drug model, ciprofloxacin was loaded onto the nanocarrier via H-bonding interactions. The nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The particle size of CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were found to lie in the range of 30-80nm. The analytical characteristics of the designed system were thoroughly investigated. The in vitro drug loading at pH 4.8 and release kinetics at pH 7.4 studies revealed that the drug delivery system can take 99% of ciprofloxacin load and quantitatively release the drug over a sustained period of 5 days. The release kinetics study indicated that the system follows a zero order kinetics via a diffusion-controlled mechanism. These results indicated that CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential for use as controlled antibiotic delivery systems through oral administration by avoiding the drug release in the highly acidic gastric fluid region of the stomach. Furthermore, the ability of low-frequency ultrasound in fast release of the encapsulated drug in less than 60min from the CS-Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a controlled manner was confirmed. PMID:27497305

  12. Specific Targeting of Breast Tumor by Octreotide-Conjugated Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Particles Using a Clinical 3.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Targeted magnetic resonance contrast agents have enabled the imaging of biological processes in vivo, and current insights have opened up new perspectives for the monitoring and diagnosis of many diseases. Purpose: To develop a contrast agent for targeting somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) expressed on breast cancer cells, and to evaluate the detection capabilities of a molecular probe using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in an in vivo mouse model of breast carcinoma. Material and Methods: Octreotide (OCT) was conjugated with polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by an ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-mediated reaction. Prussian blue staining for intracellular iron, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cellular MR imaging in vitro were performed on labeled MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Twenty-four mice bearing tumors were divided into two groups: 1) study group with injection of OCT-USPIOs (n=12); 2) control group with injection of USPIOs (n=12). Tumors were monitored in vivo using a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner before and after injection of contrast agents, and the findings were correlated with the histopathological findings. Results: OCT-USPIOs were shown to specifically bind to MCF-7 cells and did not affect proliferation and viability of the cells labeled. T2 value of the cells labeled with OCT-USPIOs in vitro was 56.465±13.147 ms, while those of the cells cultured with USPIOs and gelatin/phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) gel alone were 75.435±16.171 ms and 85.950±22.352 ms, respectively (P<0.05). Signal intensity of the tumor gradually decreased, and its T2 value reached a minimum of approximately 24.49% 6 hours after injection of OCT-USPIOs in vivo, compared to a minimum of 21.89% after 2 hours in the control group. Iron depositions were visualized as blue particles in tumor 6 hours after injection of OCT-USPIOs, while no blue particles were observed

  13. Specific Targeting of Breast Tumor by Octreotide-Conjugated Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Particles Using a Clinical 3.0-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xubin Li; Xiangke Du; Tianlong Huo; Xia Liu; Sen Zhang; Fei Yuan (Dept. of Radiology, Peking Univ. People' s Hospital, Beijing (China))

    2009-07-15

    Background: Targeted magnetic resonance contrast agents have enabled the imaging of biological processes in vivo, and current insights have opened up new perspectives for the monitoring and diagnosis of many diseases. Purpose: To develop a contrast agent for targeting somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) expressed on breast cancer cells, and to evaluate the detection capabilities of a molecular probe using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in an in vivo mouse model of breast carcinoma. Material and Methods: Octreotide (OCT) was conjugated with polyethylene glycol-coated ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles by an ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-mediated reaction. Prussian blue staining for intracellular iron, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cellular MR imaging in vitro were performed on labeled MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Twenty-four mice bearing tumors were divided into two groups: 1) study group with injection of OCT-USPIOs (n=12); 2) control group with injection of USPIOs (n=12). Tumors were monitored in vivo using a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner before and after injection of contrast agents, and the findings were correlated with the histopathological findings. Results: OCT-USPIOs were shown to specifically bind to MCF-7 cells and did not affect proliferation and viability of the cells labeled. T2 value of the cells labeled with OCT-USPIOs in vitro was 56.465+-13.147 ms, while those of the cells cultured with USPIOs and gelatin/phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) gel alone were 75.435+-16.171 ms and 85.950+-22.352 ms, respectively (P<0.05). Signal intensity of the tumor gradually decreased, and its T2 value reached a minimum of approximately 24.49% 6 hours after injection of OCT-USPIOs in vivo, compared to a minimum of 21.89% after 2 hours in the control group. Iron depositions were visualized as blue particles in tumor 6 hours after injection of OCT-USPIOs, while no blue particles were observed

  14. Biocompatibility of chitosan-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with osteoblast cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shi S.; Jia J; Guo X; Zhao Y; Chen D; Guo Y; Cheng T.; Zhang X

    2012-01-01

    Si-Feng Shi,1 Jing-Fu Jia,2 Xiao-Kui Guo,3 Ya-Ping Zhao,2 De-Sheng Chen,1 Yong-Yuan Guo,1 Tao Cheng,1 Xian-Long Zhang11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Bone disorders (including osteoporosis, loosening of a prosthesis, and bone infections) are of great co...

  15. Dose-response of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeling on mesenchymal stem cells chondrogenic differentiation: a multi-scale in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Roeder

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this work was the development of successful cell therapy techniques for cartilage engineering. This will depend on the ability to monitor non-invasively transplanted cells, especially mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs that are promising candidates to regenerate damaged tissues. METHODS: MSCs were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO. We examined the effects of long-term labeling, possible toxicological consequences and the possible influence of progressive concentrations of SPIO on chondrogenic differentiation capacity. RESULTS: No influence of various SPIO concentrations was noted on human bone marrow MSC viability or proliferation. We demonstrated long-term (4 weeks in vitro retention of SPIO by human bone marrow MSCs seeded in collagenic sponges under TGF-β1 chondrogenic conditions, detectable by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and histology. Chondrogenic differentiation was demonstrated by molecular and histological analysis of labeled and unlabeled cells. Chondrogenic gene expression (COL2A2, ACAN, SOX9, COL10, COMP was significantly altered in a dose-dependent manner in labeled cells, as were GAG and type II collagen staining. As expected, SPIO induced a dramatic decrease of MRI T2 values of sponges at 7T and 3T, even at low concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: This study clearly demonstrates (1 long-term in vitro MSC traceability using SPIO and MRI and (2 a deleterious dose-dependence of SPIO on TGF-β1 driven chondrogenesis in collagen sponges. Low concentrations (12.5-25 µg Fe/mL seem the best compromise to optimize both chondrogenesis and MRI labeling.

  16. Preparation and characterization of chitosan-Polyethylene glycol-polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as carrier system: Drug loading and in vitro drug release study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabha, G; Raj, V

    2016-05-01

    In the present research work, the anticancer drug "curcumin" is loaded with Chitosan (CS)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (CS-PEG-PVP) polymer nanocomposites coated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3 O4 ) nanoparticles. The system can be used for targeted and controlled drug delivery of anticancer drugs with reduced side effects and greater efficiency. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Curcumin drug-loaded Fe3 O4 -CS, Fe3 O4 -CS- PEG and Fe3 O4 -CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles exhibited the mean particle size in the range of 183 - 390 nm with a zeta potential value of 26 mV-41 mV as measured using Malvern Zetasizer. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity and in-vitro drug release behaviour of curcumin drug-loaded Fe3 O4 -CS, Fe3 O4 -CS-PEG, and Fe3 O4 -CS-PEG-PVP nanoparticles were studied using UV spectrophotometer. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the prepared nanoparticles using MTT assay was also studied. The curcumin drug release was examined at different pH medium (4.5 and 7.4) and temperature (37°C and 45°C), and it was proved that the drug release depends upon the pH medium and temperature in addition to the nature of matrix. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 808-816, 2016. PMID:26996397

  17. Mitoxantrone-loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as drug carriers for cancer therapy: Uptake and toxicity in primary human tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicha, Iwona; Scheffler, Laura; Ebenau, Astrid; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2016-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are in use for many clinical diagnostic and experimental therapeutic applications, for example, for targeted drug delivery. To analyze the cellular responses to mitoxantrone-carrying SPIONs (SPION-MTO), and to the drug released from SPIONs, we used an in vitro system that allows comparison of primary human cells with different endocytotic capacities, namely, epithelial cells from proximal and distal parts of the nephron. SPIONs were selectively and rapidly internalized by proximal tubular cells with high endocytotic potential, but not by distal tubular cells. Uptake did not affect cell viability or morphology. In both cell types, free MTO (10-100 nM) induced double-strand DNA breaks and senescence, cell hypertrophy and reduced cell proliferation. However, cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, cytoskeletal structures or polarity of the cells were not affected. Interestingly, a comparable response was also observed upon treatment with SPION-MTO and was independent of uptake of the particles. The effect of SPION-MTO on cells which did not internalize particles was primarily related to the release of MTO from drug-coated particles upon incubation in serum-containing cell growth medium. In conclusion, we show that whereas the uptake of SPIONs does not affect cellular functions or viability, the toxicity of drug-loaded SPIONs depends essentially on the type of drug bound to nanoparticles. Due to the relatively low systemic toxicity of MTO, the effects of MTO-SPIONs on human tubular cells were moderate, but they may become clinically relevant when more nephrotoxic drugs are bound to SPIONs. PMID:26468004

  18. The potential use of novel chitosan-coated deformable liposomes in an ocular drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongdan; Pan, Hao; Li, Panpan; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xin; Pan, Weisan; Yuan, Yue

    2016-07-01

    In this study, novel chitosan-coated deformable liposomes (DL-CS) were proposed as an ocular drug delivery system to prolong pre-corneal retention, and improve transcorneal penetration and absorption. Flurbiprofen-loaded deformable liposomes (FP-DL) were prepared by a modified ethanol injection method and then coated with chitosan. Both DL and DL-CS exhibited a homogeneous particle size distribution, high encapsulation efficiency and good stability. After coating with 0.1% CS, the zeta potential was shifted from negative to positive. The apparent permeability coefficient of FP-DL-0.1% CS evaluated using isolated rabbit corneas was 1.29-, 1.95- and 4.59- fold greater than that of uncoated FP-DL, conventional liposomes and FP solution (P<0.01), respectively. The in vivo pre-corneal retention time and elimination dynamics were assessed using gamma scintigraphy technology. The area under the remaining activity-time of FP-DL-0.1% CS was prolonged 2.84- and 1.53-fold compared with that of the FP solution and FP-DL groups, respectively. Moreover, the ocular irritation test in vivo revealed that DL-0.1% CS produced no ocular damage or abnormal clinical signs. These results indicate that DL-CS appears to be a novel ophthalmic drug delivery strategy with the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional eye drops. PMID:27037783

  19. Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Rifat Emrah [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, 8 Clarkson Ave, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States); Wallace, Kenneth N. [Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States); Andreescu, Silvana, E-mail: eandrees@clarkson.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, 8 Clarkson Ave, Potsdam, NY 136995810 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Graphical abstract: Chitosan coated fiber electrodes are sensitive to serotonin detection while rejecting physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences. - Abstract: We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of chitosan on the microelectrode surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 1.6 nM serotonin with a sensitivity of 5.12 nA/{mu}M, a linear range from 2 to 100 nM and a reproducibility of 6.5% for n = 6 electrodes were obtained. Chitosan modified microelectrodes selectively measure serotonin in presence of physiological levels of ascorbic acid. In vivo measurements were performed to measure concentration of serotonin in the live embryonic zebrafish intestine. The sensor quantifies in vivo intestinal levels of serotonin while successfully rejecting ascorbic acid interferences. We demonstrate that chitosan can be used as an effective coating to reject ascorbic acid interferences at carbon fiber microelectrodes, as an alternative to Nafion, and that chitosan modified microelectrodes are reliable tools for in vivo monitoring of changes in neurotransmitter levels.

  20. Adsorption of indium(III) ions from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated bentonite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calagui, Mary Jane C. [College of Engineering, Cagayan State University, Cagayan Valley 3500 (Philippines); School of Graduate Studies, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1800 (Philippines); Senoro, Delia B. [School of Graduate Studies, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1800 (Philippines); Kan, Chi-Chuan [Institute of Hot Spring Industrial, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China); Salvacion, Jonathan W.L. [School of Graduate Studies, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1800 (Philippines); Futalan, Cybelle Morales [Operations Department, Frontier Oil Corporation, Makati City 1229 (Philippines); Wan, Meng-Wei, E-mail: peterwan@mail.chna.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 71710, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • A more acidic pH causes a decrease in adsorption capacity. • The kinetic data follow the pseudo-second order equation. • Equilibrium data correlated well with Langmuir isotherm. • Removal of indium is a spontaneous and endothermic process. - Abstract: Batch adsorption study was utilized in evaluating the potential suitability of chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB) as an adsorbent in the removal of indium ions from aqueous solution. The percentage (%) removal and adsorption capacity of indium(III) were examined as a function of solution pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The experimental data were fitted with several isotherm models, where the equilibrium data was best described by Langmuir isotherm. The mean energy (E) value was found in the range of 1–8 kJ/mol, indicating that the governing type of adsorption of indium(III) onto CCB is essentially physical. Thermodynamic parameters, including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy indicated that the indium(III) ions adsorption onto CCB was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 278–318 K. The kinetics was evaluated utilizing the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption kinetics of indium(III) best fits the pseudo-second order (R{sup 2} > 0.99), which implies that chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step.

  1. Adsorption of indium(III) ions from aqueous solution using chitosan-coated bentonite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A more acidic pH causes a decrease in adsorption capacity. • The kinetic data follow the pseudo-second order equation. • Equilibrium data correlated well with Langmuir isotherm. • Removal of indium is a spontaneous and endothermic process. - Abstract: Batch adsorption study was utilized in evaluating the potential suitability of chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB) as an adsorbent in the removal of indium ions from aqueous solution. The percentage (%) removal and adsorption capacity of indium(III) were examined as a function of solution pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The experimental data were fitted with several isotherm models, where the equilibrium data was best described by Langmuir isotherm. The mean energy (E) value was found in the range of 1–8 kJ/mol, indicating that the governing type of adsorption of indium(III) onto CCB is essentially physical. Thermodynamic parameters, including Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy indicated that the indium(III) ions adsorption onto CCB was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 278–318 K. The kinetics was evaluated utilizing the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption kinetics of indium(III) best fits the pseudo-second order (R2 > 0.99), which implies that chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step

  2. Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Chitosan coated fiber electrodes are sensitive to serotonin detection while rejecting physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences. - Abstract: We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of chitosan on the microelectrode surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 1.6 nM serotonin with a sensitivity of 5.12 nA/μM, a linear range from 2 to 100 nM and a reproducibility of 6.5% for n = 6 electrodes were obtained. Chitosan modified microelectrodes selectively measure serotonin in presence of physiological levels of ascorbic acid. In vivo measurements were performed to measure concentration of serotonin in the live embryonic zebrafish intestine. The sensor quantifies in vivo intestinal levels of serotonin while successfully rejecting ascorbic acid interferences. We demonstrate that chitosan can be used as an effective coating to reject ascorbic acid interferences at carbon fiber microelectrodes, as an alternative to Nafion, and that chitosan modified microelectrodes are reliable tools for in vivo monitoring of changes in neurotransmitter levels.

  3. Chitosan-coated anisotropic silver nanoparticles as a SERS substrate for single-molecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a technique that has become widely used for identifying and providing structural information about molecular species in low concentration. There is an ongoing interest in finding optimum particle size, shape and spatial distribution for optimizing the SERS substrates and pushing the sensitivity toward the single-molecule detection limit. This work reports the design of a novel, biocompatible SERS substrate based on small clusters of anisotropic silver nanoparticles embedded in a film of chitosan biopolymer. The SERS efficiency of the biocompatible film is assessed by employing Raman imaging and spectroscopy of adenine, a significant biological molecule. By combining atomic force microscopy with SERS imaging we find that the chitosan matrix enables the formation of small clusters of silver nanoparticles, with junctions and gaps that greatly enhance the Raman intensities of the adsorbed molecules. The study demonstrates that chitosan-coated anisotropic silver nanoparticle clusters are sensitive enough to be implemented as effective plasmonic substrates for SERS detection of nonresonant analytes at the single-molecule level. (paper)

  4. In vivo tracing of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplanted for traumatic brain injury by susceptibility weighted imaging in a rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jing-liang; YANG Yun-jun; LI Hua-li; WANG Juan; WANG Mei-hao; ZHANG Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To label rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in vitro, and to monitor the survival and location of these labeled BMSCs in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) by susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)sequence.Methods:BMSCs were cultured in vitro and then labeled with SPIO. Totally 24 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 4 groups: Groups A-D (n=6 for each group). Moderate TBI models of all the rats were developed in the left hemisphere following Feeney's method. Group A was the experimental group and stereotaxic transplantation of BMSCs labeled with SPIO into the region nearby the contusion was conducted in this group 24 hours after TBI modeling. The other three groups were control groups with transplantation of SPIO, unlabeled BMSCs and injection of nutrient solution respectively conducted in Groups B, C and D at the same time. Monitoring of these SPIO-labeled BMSCs by SWI was performed one day,one week and three weeks after implantation.Results: Numerous BMSCs were successfully labeled with SPIO. They were positive for Prussian blue staining and intracytoplasm positive blue stained particles were found under a microscope (×200). Scattered little iron particles were observed in the vesicles by electron microscopy (×5000). MRI of the transplantation sites of the left hemisphere demonstrated a low signal intensity on magnitude images,phase images and SWI images for all the test rats in Group A, and the lesion in the left parietal cortex demonstrated a semicircular low intensity on SWI images, which clearly showed the distribution and migration of BMSCs in the first and third weeks. For Group B, a low signal intensity by MRI was only observed on the first day but undetected during the following examination. No signals were observed in Groups C and D at any time points.Conclusion:SWI sequence in vivo can consecutively and noninvasively trace and demonstrate the

  5. Polyvalent integrin antagonist-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for triggering apoptosis in human leukemia cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integrin family members are the main mediators of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and active as intra- and extracellular signaling molecules in a variety of processes. They bind to their ligands by interacting with short amino acid sequences, that is, RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequence. RGD sequences have been used to enhance cell binding to artificial surfaces, so RGD mimics have been used to block integrin binding to its ligand. Integrin–ligand interactions are dependent on divalent cations, and Mg2+ provide higher-affinity binding to ligand for many integrins. In this study, we have designed new integrin antagonists using methacryloyl amidoaspartic acid (MAASP) monomer-conjugated silanized super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, the size of the nanoparticles was verified with an average size of 32.6 nm) and poly(MAASP-co-EDMA) shell-decorated silanized SPIONs. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe uptake of modified SPIONs into the cells, including receptor-mediated endocytosis. Our aim is to bind these modified SPIONs to the integrin-mediated aspartic acid ends of MAASP monomers and block integrin binding to their ligand.

  6. Polyvalent integrin antagonist-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for triggering apoptosis in human leukemia cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Say, R Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I dvan, E-mail: rsay@anadolu.edu.tr [Anadolu Universitesi, Kimya Boeluemue, Fen Fakueltesi (Turkey); Yazar, Suzan [Sanovel Pharmaceutical Company (Turkey); Ugur, Alper; Huer, Deniz [Anadolu Universitesi, Kimya Boeluemue, Fen Fakueltesi (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry (Turkey); Ersoez, Arzu [Anadolu Universitesi, Kimya Boeluemue, Fen Fakueltesi (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    Integrin family members are the main mediators of cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and active as intra- and extracellular signaling molecules in a variety of processes. They bind to their ligands by interacting with short amino acid sequences, that is, RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequence. RGD sequences have been used to enhance cell binding to artificial surfaces, so RGD mimics have been used to block integrin binding to its ligand. Integrin-ligand interactions are dependent on divalent cations, and Mg{sup 2+} provide higher-affinity binding to ligand for many integrins. In this study, we have designed new integrin antagonists using methacryloyl amidoaspartic acid (MAASP) monomer-conjugated silanized super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, the size of the nanoparticles was verified with an average size of 32.6 nm) and poly(MAASP-co-EDMA) shell-decorated silanized SPIONs. Several mechanisms have been proposed to describe uptake of modified SPIONs into the cells, including receptor-mediated endocytosis. Our aim is to bind these modified SPIONs to the integrin-mediated aspartic acid ends of MAASP monomers and block integrin binding to their ligand.

  7. Chitosan Coated Textiles May Improve Atopic Dermatitis Severity by Modulating Skin Staphylococcal Profile: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cristina; Soares, Jose; Tavaria, Freni; Duarte, Ana; Correia, Osvaldo; Sokhatska, Oksana; Severo, Milton; Silva, Diana; Pintado, Manuela; Delgado, Luis; Moreira, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients may benefit from using textiles coated with skin microbiome–modulating compounds. Chitosan, a natural biopolymer with immunomodulatory and antimicrobial properties, has been considered potentially useful. Objective This randomized controlled trial assessed the clinical utility of chitosan-coated garment use in AD. Methods Of the 102 patients screened, 78 adult and adolescents were randomly allocated to overnight use of chitosan-coated or uncoated cotton long-sleeved pyjama tops and pants for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was change in disease severity assessed by Scoring Atopic dermatitis index (SCORAD). Other outcomes were changes in quality of life, pruritus and sleep loss, days with need for rescue medication, number of flares and controlled weeks, and adverse events. Changes in total staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus skin counts were also assessed. Comparisons were made using analysis of variance supplemented by repeated measures analysis for the primary outcome. Interaction term between time and intervention was used to compare time trends between groups. Results Chitosan group improved SCORAD from baseline in 43.8%, (95%CI: 30.9 to 55.9), P = 0.01, placebo group in 16.5% (-21.6 to 54.6); P = 0.02 with no significant differences between groups; Dermatology Quality of life Index Score significantly improved in chitosan group (P = 0.02) and a significant increase of skin Coagulase negative Staphylococci (P = 0.02) was seen. Conclusions Chitosan coated textiles may impact on disease severity by modulating skin staphylococcal profile. Moreover, a potential effect in quality of life may be considered. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01597817 PMID:26618557

  8. Quality Prediction of Eggs Treated in Combination with Gamma Irradiation and Chitosan Coating Using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to determine the method and predict the optimum conditions for egg quality stored for 7 days when combination treatments of irradiation and chitosan coating were applied using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was chosen for the RSM in this study and the factors were irradiation dose (0~2 kGy) and concentration of chitosan coating material (0~2%). Performance of the irradiation and chitosan coating were evaluated by analyzing the egg quality and functional property factors. The predicted maximum level of Haugh units and foaming ability calculated by a developed model were 74.19 at 0 kGy of irradiation with coating by 0.96% chitosan solution and 50.83 mm at 2.0 kGy with 1.01%, respectively. The predicted minimum value of foam stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value were 2.97 mm at 0.39 kGy with 0.21% and 0.54 mg malonaldehyde/kg egg yolk at 0 kGy with 0.90% of chitosan solution, respectively. Results clearly showed that gamma irradiation negatively affected the Haugh unit and TBARS but positively affected the foaming capacity. The estimated value from the developed model by RSM was verified by no statistical difference with observed value. Therefore, RSM can be a good tool for optimization and prediction of egg quality when 2 or more treatments are combined. However, one should decide the target quality first to achieve a successful implementation of this technology

  9. One-step fabrication of biocompatible chitosan-coated ZnS and ZnS:Mn2+ quantum dots via a γ-radiation route

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Shu-quan; Kang, Bin; Dai, Yao-dong; Zhang, Hong-xu; Chen, Da

    2011-01-01

    Biocompatible chitosan-coated ZnS quantum dots [CS-ZnS QDs] and chitosan-coated ZnS:Mn2+ quantum dots [CS-ZnS:Mn2+ QDs] were successfully fabricated via a convenient one-step γ-radiation route. The as-obtained QDs were around 5 nm in diameter with excellent water-solubility. These QDs emitting strong visible blue or orange light under UV excitation were successfully used as labels for PANC-1 cells. The cell experiments revealed that CS-ZnS and CS-ZnS:Mn2+ QDs showed low cytotoxicity and good ...

  10. Cardiac magnetic resonance angiography using blood-pool contrast agents. Comparison of citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles with gadofosveset trisodium in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) with gadofosveset trisodium as blood pool contrast agents for cardiac magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) in pigs. Materials and Methods: Animal experiments were approved by the responsible authority. 10 CMRA-like examinations were performed at 1.5 T after administration of VSOP (0.06 mmol Fe/kg; 5 examinations) and gadofosveset trisodium (0.03 mmol Gd/kg; 5 examinations). The CMRA protocol included ECG-gated inversion-recovery-prepared T1-weighted gradient echo imaging (IR-GRE; one slice) and ECG-gated inversion recovery prepared steady state free precession imaging (IR SSFP; one slice) before and 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after injection. At each time point, three different inversion times (TI; 200 msec, 300 msec, and 400 msec) were applied. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between blood and myocardium were calculated and compared using mixed linear models. Results: No significant differences of CNR were found between IR-GRE and IR SSFP. At 3 and 5 min after contrast agent administration, VSOP showed a significantly higher CNR than gadofosveset trisodium when TI of 200 msec and 300 msec were applied (TI of 200 msec at 3 min: 8.2 ± 0.7 vs. 5.4 ± 0.7; TI of 200 msec at 5 min: 7.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.5 ± 0.8; TI of 300 msec at 3 min: 11.7 ± 0.7 vs. 8.8 ± 0.8; TI of 300 msec at 5 min: 11.4 ± 0.7 vs. 8.0 ± 0.8; p < 0.05). Moreover, significant differences in favor of VSOP were found for all time points from 10 to 40 min irrespective of TI (p < 0.05). Conclusion: VSOP has superior blood-pool properties compared to gadofosveset trisodium resulting in prolonged improvement of CNR on CMRA. (orig.)

  11. Cardiac magnetic resonance angiography using blood-pool contrast agents. Comparison of citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles with gadofosveset trisodium in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, J.; Taupitz, M.; Schellenberger, E.A.; Warmuth, C.; Wagner, S.; Kaufels, N.; Wagner, M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Fahlenkamp, U.L. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To compare citrate-coated very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) with gadofosveset trisodium as blood pool contrast agents for cardiac magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) in pigs. Materials and Methods: Animal experiments were approved by the responsible authority. 10 CMRA-like examinations were performed at 1.5 T after administration of VSOP (0.06 mmol Fe/kg; 5 examinations) and gadofosveset trisodium (0.03 mmol Gd/kg; 5 examinations). The CMRA protocol included ECG-gated inversion-recovery-prepared T1-weighted gradient echo imaging (IR-GRE; one slice) and ECG-gated inversion recovery prepared steady state free precession imaging (IR SSFP; one slice) before and 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min after injection. At each time point, three different inversion times (TI; 200 msec, 300 msec, and 400 msec) were applied. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) between blood and myocardium were calculated and compared using mixed linear models. Results: No significant differences of CNR were found between IR-GRE and IR SSFP. At 3 and 5 min after contrast agent administration, VSOP showed a significantly higher CNR than gadofosveset trisodium when TI of 200 msec and 300 msec were applied (TI of 200 msec at 3 min: 8.2 {+-} 0.7 vs. 5.4 {+-} 0.7; TI of 200 msec at 5 min: 7.9 {+-} 0.7 vs. 3.5 {+-} 0.8; TI of 300 msec at 3 min: 11.7 {+-} 0.7 vs. 8.8 {+-} 0.8; TI of 300 msec at 5 min: 11.4 {+-} 0.7 vs. 8.0 {+-} 0.8; p < 0.05). Moreover, significant differences in favor of VSOP were found for all time points from 10 to 40 min irrespective of TI (p < 0.05). Conclusion: VSOP has superior blood-pool properties compared to gadofosveset trisodium resulting in prolonged improvement of CNR on CMRA. (orig.)

  12. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles mediated 131I-hVEGF siRNA inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver tumor and is the most difficult human malignancy to treat. In this study, we sought to develop an integrative approach in which real-time tumor monitoring, gene therapy, and internal radiotherapy can be performed simultaneously. This was achieved through targeting HCC with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) carrying small interfering RNA with radiolabled iodine 131 (131I) against the human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF). hVEGF siRNA was labeled with 131I by the Bolton-Hunter method and conjugated to SilenceMag, a type of SPIOs. 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was then subcutaneously injected into nude mice with HCC tumors exposed to an external magnetic field (EMF). The biodistribution and cytotoxicity of 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was assessed by SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies and blood kinetics analysis. The body weight and tumor size of nude mice bearing HCC were measured daily for the 4-week duration of the experiment. 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag was successfully labeled; with a satisfactory radiochemical purity (>80%) and biological activity in vitro. External application of an EMF successfully attracted and retained more 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag in HCC tumors as shown by SPECT, MRI and biodistribution studies. The tumors treated with 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag grew nearly 50% slower in the presence of EMF than those without EMF and the control. Immunohistochemical assay confirmed that the tumor targeted by 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag guided by an EMF had a lower VEGF protein level compared to that without EMF exposure and the control. EMF-guided 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag exhibited an antitumor effect. The synergic therapy of 131I-hVEGF siRNA/SilenceMag might be a promising future treatment option against HCC with the dual functional properties of tumor therapy and imaging

  13. Chondroitin sulfate-polyethylenimine copolymer-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient magneto-gene carrier for microRNA-encoding plasmid DNA delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Lun; Chou, Han-Lin; Liao, Zi-Xian; Huang, Shih-Jer; Ke, Jyun-Han; Liu, Yu-Sheng; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Wang, Li-Fang

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNA-128 (miR-128) is an attractive therapeutic molecule with powerful glioblastoma regulation properties. However, miR-128 lacks biological stability and leads to poor delivery efficacy in clinical applications. In our previous study, we demonstrated two effective transgene carriers, including polyethylenimine (PEI)-decorated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as well as chemically-conjugated chondroitin sulfate-PEI copolymers (CPs). In this contribution, we report optimized conditions for coating CPs onto the surfaces of SPIONs, forming CPIOs, for magneto-gene delivery systems. The optimized weight ratio of the CPs and SPIONs is 2 : 1, which resulted in the formation of a stable particle as a good transgene carrier. The hydrodynamic diameter of the CPIOs is ~136 nm. The gel electrophoresis results demonstrate that the weight ratio of CPIO/DNA required to completely encapsulate pDNA is >=3. The in vitro tests of CPIO/DNA were done in 293 T, CRL5802, and U87-MG cells in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. The magnetofection efficiency of CPIO/DNA was measured in the three cell lines with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS). CPIO/DNA exhibited remarkably improved gene expression in the presence of the magnetic field and 10% FBS as compared with a gold non-viral standard, PEI/DNA, and a commercial magnetofection reagent, PolyMag/DNA. In addition, CPIO/DNA showed less cytotoxicity than PEI/DNA and PolyMag/DNA against the three cell lines. The transfection efficiency of the magnetoplex improved significantly with an assisted magnetic field. In miR-128 delivery, a microRNA plate array and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to demonstrate that CPIO/pMIRNA-128 indeed expresses more miR-128 with the assisted magnetic field than without. In a biodistribution test, CPIO/Cy5-DNA showed higher accumulation at the tumor site where an external magnet is placed nearby.MicroRNA-128 (miR-128) is an attractive therapeutic molecule

  14. The in vitro and in vivo experimental study of long-circulating superparamagnetic iron oxide liposome nanoparticles as novel MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate pharmacodynamics of prepared long-circulating superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) liposomes. Methods: Control and experimental groups were established after adding SPIO or long-circulating SPIO liposomes as agents. (1) Macrophages experiment in vitro: the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell strains were recovered, cultured and seeded in the culture plate at a density of 2.5 × 105 cells/well until they reached 80%-90% confluence. The intracellular Fe uptake of control and experimental group cells were quantified by Ferrozine assay after incubation with different concentrations of drugs. Factorial design analysis of variance was used as statistics method. Prussian blue staining method was used to detect staining of experimental cells. (2) Drug biodistribution in mice: C57BL/6J (n=6) were classified into blank control group (n=2), control group (n=2) and experimental group (n= 2). Saline, SPIO and long circulating SPIO were injected via the tail vein in the blank control group, control group and experimental group respectively. Then distribution of drugs in the body was observed by pathological examination. (3) MR imaging of tumor-bearing nude mice: 20 BALB/c nude mice bearing lung cancer models were established and classified into control group and experimental group. After administration of drugs, all animals underwent MR scanning. Signal intensities of livers and tumors were measured, SNR-time dynamic curves were drew. Covariance analysis was used to compare post-enhanced SNR at the 12th hour. (4) Cytotoxicity studies (MTT) : cytotoxicity of both drugs on human liver cell line HL-7702 was studied, and statistically analyzed using factorial design analysis of variance. Results: (1) Macrophages experiment in vitro: The nanoparticle uptake by macrophage cells evaluated by ferrozine assay showed the uptake of blank SPIO was higher than long-circulating SPIO liposomes. Compared with the blank control group, there was strong blue staining in the macrophages

  15. Effect of the addition CNTs on performance of CaP/chitosan/coating deposited on magnesium alloy by electrophoretic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wen, Zhaohui; Zhao, Meng; Li, Guozhong; Dai, Changsong

    2016-01-01

    CaP/chitosan/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was prepared via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by conversion in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The bonding between the layer and the substrate was studied by an automatic scratch instrument. The phase compositions and microstructures of the composite coatings were determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The element concentration and gentamicin concentration were respectively determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) test and ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV). The cell counting kit (CCK) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of samples to SaOS-2 cells. The results showed that a few CNTs with their original tubular morphology could be found in the CaP/chitosan coating and they were beneficial for the crystal growth of phosphate and improvement of the coating bonding when the addition amount of CNTs in 500 ml of electrophoretic solution was from 0.05 g to 0.125 g. The loading amount of gentamicin increased and the releasing speed of gentamicin decreased after CNTs was added into the CaP/chitosan coating for immersion loading and EPD loading. The cell viability of Mg based CaP/chitosan/CNTs was higher than that of Mg based CaP/chitosan from 16 days to 90 days. PMID:26478396

  16. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles stabilized by polymerized PEGylated coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with polymerized PEGylated bilayers were prepared. Bilayers composed of 10-undecenoic acid (UD) inner and UDPEG (PEG ester of UD) outer layers are resistant to aggregation after γ-irradiation. Various methods of coating were developed to prepare small (60-100nm) and ultrasmall (20-35nm) particles without size separation processes

  17. Electrolytic deposition of calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on titanium alloy: Growth kinetics and influence of current density, acetic acid, and chitosan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiawei; Apeldoorn, van Aart; Groot, de Klaas

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytically deposited calcium phosphate/chitosan coating demonstrated good bone marrow stromal cell attachment. The aim of this study was to understand the coating's growth kinetics as well as the effects of current density, acetic acid, and chitosan on the coating's formation. The scanning ele

  18. Ionizing radiation improves glioma-specific targeting of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with cmHsp70.1 monoclonal antibodies (SPION-cmHsp70.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A.; Nikolaev, Boris P.; Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A.; Yakovleva, Ludmila Y.; Marchenko, Yaroslav Y.; Parr, Marina A.; Rolich, Valerij I.; Mikhrina, Anastasiya L.; Dobrodumov, Anatolii V.; Pitkin, Emil; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    The stress-inducible 72 kDa heat shock protein Hsp70 is known to be expressed on the membrane of highly aggressive tumor cells including high-grade gliomas, but not on the corresponding normal cells. Membrane Hsp70 (mHsp70) is rapidly internalized into tumor cells and thus targeting of mHsp70 might provide a promising strategy for theranostics. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are contrast negative agents that are used for the detection of tumors with MRI. Herein, we conjugated the Hsp70-specific antibody (cmHsp70.1) which is known to recognize mHsp70 to superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles to assess tumor-specific targeting before and after ionizing irradiation. In vitro experiments demonstrated the selectivity of SPION-cmHsp70.1 conjugates to free and mHsp70 in different tumor cell types (C6 glioblastoma, K562 leukemia, HeLa cervix carcinoma) in a dose-dependent manner. High-resolution MRI (11 T) on T2-weighted images showed the retention of the conjugates in the C6 glioma model. Accumulation of SPION-cmHsp70.1 nanoparticles in the glioma resulted in a nearly 2-fold drop of values in comparison to non-conjugated SPIONs. Biodistribution analysis using NLR-M2 measurements showed a 7-fold increase in the tumor-to-background (normal brain) uptake ratio of SPION-cmHsp70.1 conjugates in glioma-bearing rats in comparison to SPIONs. This accumulation within Hsp70-positive glioma was further enhanced after a single dose (10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Elevated accumulation of the magnetic conjugates in the tumor due to radiosensitization proves the combination of radiotherapy and application of Hsp70-targeted agents in brain tumors.The stress-inducible 72 kDa heat shock protein Hsp70 is known to be expressed on the membrane of highly aggressive tumor cells including high-grade gliomas, but not on the corresponding normal cells. Membrane Hsp70 (mHsp70) is rapidly internalized into tumor cells and thus targeting of mHsp70 might provide a promising strategy

  19. Preparation and characterization of a novel pH-response dietary fiber: chitosan-coated konjac glucomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoguo; Li, Jing; Jin, Weiping; Geng, Xiaopeng; Xu, Wei; Ye, Ting; Lei, Jieqiong; Li, Bin; Wang, Ling

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a kind of novel pH-response dietary fiber from chitosan-coated konjac glucomannan (KGM) powders (KGM/Chitosan or K/C powders) by a physical grind method. The K/C powders were selectively soluble in aqueous solutions of different pH. Meanwhile, the coated chitosan could largely decrease the viscosity of KGM in neutral condition, which is the main limitation for KGM application in food industry. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), swelling ability and rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the performance of K/C powders. K/C powders exhibited much higher viscosity and swelling ability in acidic condition than in neutral condition. Therefore, this study will extend the application of KGM in food industry and in other pH-specific applications as well. PMID:25498602

  20. Improvement of the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat peeled shrimps (Penaeus vannamei) by the use of chitosan coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Granda, Ximena; Fernández-Pan, Idoya; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi; Maté, Juan I

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan coatings incorporated with 0.5% of oregano and thyme EO were applied onto ready-to-eat peeled shrimp tails and packed under MAP conditions. The growth of naturally present spoilage microorganisms was evaluated for 12days during chilled storage (4°C). Coatings containing thyme EO were more effective in inhibiting the microbial species studied, specially lactic acid and psychrotrophic bacteria. As carrier of EOs, chitosan was more effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria present in peeled shrimps than the direct application of an oil-water (O/W) emulsion. Finally, results from sensory analysis showed that the sensorial quality was affected by the chitosan-thyme coatings despite characteristics like firmness and colour were kept. The present work demonstrates the effectiveness of chitosan enriched coatings, offering a promising alternative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogen microorganisms on peeled shrimps during refrigeration storage. PMID:27315588

  1. Long-acting inhalable chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles containing hydrophobically modified exendin-4 for treating type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Changkyu Lee,1 Ji Su Choi,1 Insoo Kim,1 Kyung Taek Oh,2 Eun Seong Lee,3 Eun-Seok Park,1 Kang Choon Lee,1 Yu Seok Youn11School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Division of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon-si, Republic of KoreaAbstract: Inhalable glycol chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles containing palmitic acid-modified exendin-4 (Pal-Ex4 (chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized. The surface morphology, particle size, and zeta potential of chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were investigated, and the adsorption and cytotoxicity of chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were evaluated in human lung epithelial cells (A549. Finally, the lung deposition characteristics and hypoglycemia caused by chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were evaluated after pulmonary administration in imprinting control region (ICR and type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Results showed that chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs were spherical, compact and had a diameter of ~700 nm and a positive surface charge of +28.5 mV. Chitosan-coated PLGA NPs were adsorbed onto A549 cells much more so than non-coated PLGA NPs. Pal-Ex4 release from chitosan-coated PLGA NPs was delayed by as much as 1.5 days as compared with chitosan-coated Ex4 PLGA NPs. In addition, chitosan-coated PLGA NPs remained in the lungs for ~72 hours after pulmonary administration, whereas most non-coated PLGA NPs were lost at 8 hours after administration. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic efficacy of inhaled chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs was 3.1-fold greater than that of chitosan Ex4 PLGA NPs in db/db mice. The authors believe chitosan Pal-Ex4 PLGA NPs have considerable potential as a long-acting inhalation delivery system for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.Keywords: chitosan-coating, PLGA nanoparticles, inhalation, exendin-4, type 2 diabetes

  2. Microencapsulation of Probiotics by Calcium Alginate-gelatinized Starch with Chitosan Coating and Evaluation of Survival in Simulated Human Gastro-intestinal Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravi Zanjani, Mohammad Ali; Ghiassi Tarzi, Babak; Sharifan, Anousheh; Mohammadi, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Microencapsulation as one of the most modern methods has considerable effects on probiotic survival. In this study Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 39392) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 29521) were encapsulated using calcium alginate-gelatinized starch, chitosan coating and inulin via emulsion technique, and were incubated in simulated gastric juice (along with pepsin, pH=1.5) and simulated intestinal juice (along with pancreatin and bile salts, pH = 8) for 2 hours at 37 oC. The morphology and si...

  3. Thermodynamic Insights and Conceptual Design of Skin-Sensitive Chitosan Coated Ceramide/PLGA Nanodrug for Regeneration of Stratum Corneum on Atopic Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Myung; Yoon, Gwang Heum; Lee, Hoo Chul; Jung, Moon Hee; Yu, Sun Il; Yeon, Seung Ju; Min, Seul Ki; Kwon, Yeo Seon; Hwang, Jin Ha; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex skin disease primarily characterized by psoriasis of the stratum corneum. AD drugs have usually been used in acidic and hydrophilic solvents to supply moisture and prevent lipid defects. Ceramide is a typical treatment agent to regenerate the stratum corneum and relieve symptoms of AD. However, ceramide has limitation on direct use for skin because of its low dispersion properties in hydrophilic phase and side effects at excessive treatment. In this study, ceramide imbedded PLGA nanoparticles were developed with chitosan coating (Chi-PLGA/Cer) to overcome this problem. The chitosan coating enhanced initial adherence to the skin and prevented the initial burst of ceramide, but was degraded by the weakly acidic nature of skin, resulting in controlled release of ceramide with additional driving force of the squeezed PLGA nanoparticles. Additionally, the coating kinetics of chitosan were controlled by manipulating the reaction conditions and then mathematically modeled. The Chi-PLGA/Cer was not found to be cytotoxic and ceramide release was controlled by pH, temperature, and chitosan coating. Finally, Chi-PLGA/Cer was demonstrated to be effective at stratum corneum regeneration in a rat AD model. Overall, the results presented herein indicated that Chi-PLGA/Cer is a novel nanodrug for treatment of AD. PMID:26666701

  4. Superparamagnetism of transition metal nanoparticles in conducting polymer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic properties of transition metal (cobalt, iron, nickel, manganese, chromium) nanoparticles prepared by ion-exchange method in the perfluorinated sulfo-cation polymeric membrane (MF-4SK) have been investigated. While manganese and chromium in MF-4SK exhibited paramagnetic properties, cobalt, iron and nickel particles showed superparamagnetic behaviors. Our experimental evidence suggests that cobalt, iron and nickel nanoparticles in the polymer film obey a single-domain theory

  5. Surface functionalization of chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles for covalent immobilization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel and efficient immobilization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH, EC1.1.1.1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been developed by using the surface functionalization of chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4/KCTS) as support. The magnetic Fe3O4/KCTS nanoparticles were prepared by binding chitosan alpha-ketoglutaric acid (KCTS) onto the surface of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Later, covalent immobilization of YADH was attempted onto the Fe3O4/KCTS nanoparticles. The effect of various preparation conditions on the immobilized YADH process such as immobilization time, enzyme concentration and pH was investigated. The influence of pH and temperature on the activity of the free and immobilized YADH using phenylglyoxylic acid as substrate has also been studied. The optimum reaction temperature and pH value for the enzymatic conversion catalyzed by the immobilized YADH were 30 oC and 7.4, respectively. Compared to the free enzyme, the immobilized YADH retained 65% of its original activity and exhibited significant thermal stability and good durability.

  6. Influence of Chitosan Coating on Mechanical Stability of Biopolymer Carriers with Probiotic Starter Culture in Fermented Whey Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša S. Obradović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical stability of biopolymer carriers and cell viability with addition of chitosan coating during fermentation process and product storage. Dairy starter culture (1% (w/v was diluted in whey and mixed with sodium alginate solution and the beads were made using extrusion technique. The mechanical stability of coated and uncoated beads, the release behavior, and the viability of encapsulated probiotic dairy starter culture in fermented whey beverages were analyzed. The mechanical properties of the beads were determined according to force-displacement and engineering stress-strain curves obtained after compression testing. It was observed that addition of chitosan as a coating on the beads as well as the fermentation process increased the elastic modulus of the calcium alginate-whey beads and cell survival. The current study revealed that the coating did not significantly improve the viability of probiotics during the fermentation but had an important influence on preservation of the strength of the carrier during storage. Our results indicate that whey-based substrate has positive effect on the mechanical stability of biopolymer beads with encapsulated probiotics.

  7. Dual contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the liver with superparamagnetic iron oxide followed by gadolinium for lesion detection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: Iron oxide contrast agents are useful for lesion detection, and extracellular gadolinium chelates are advocated for lesion characterization. We undertook a study to determine if dual contrast enhanced liver imaging with sequential use of ferumoxides particles and gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA can be performed in the same imaging protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients underwent dual contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver for evaluation of known/suspected focal lesions which included, metastases (n = 5), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC;n = 3), cholangiocharcinoma(n = 1) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH;n = 3). Pre- and post-iron oxide T1-weighted gradient recalled echo (GRE) and T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences were obtained, followed by post-Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg) multi-phase dynamic T1-weighted out-of-phase GRE imaging. Images were analysed in a blinded fashion by three experts using a three-point scoring system for lesion conspicuity on pre- and post-iron oxide T1 images as well as for reader's confidence in characterizing liver lesions on post Gd-DTPA T1 images. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference in lesion conspicuity was observed on pre- and post-iron oxide T1-GRE images in this small study cohort. The presence of iron oxide did not appreciably diminish image quality of post-gadolinium sequences and did not prevent characterization of liver lesions. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that characterization of focal liver lesion with Gd-enhanced liver MRI is still possible following iron oxide enhanced imaging. Kubaska, S. et al. (2001)

  8. Detection of hepatic metastases by superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging: prospective comparison between 1.5-T and 3.0-T images in the same patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T and 1.5 T for detection of hepatic metastases. A total of 28 patients (18 men, 10 women; mean age, 61 years) with 80 hepatic metastases were prospectively examined by SPIO-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T and 1.5 T. T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images, T2*-weighted GRE images and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE) images were acquired. The tumour-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the lesions was calculated. Three observers independently reviewed each image. Image artefacts and overall image quality were analysed, sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of hepatic metastases were calculated, and diagnostic accuracy using the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) method was evaluated. The tumour-to-liver CNRs were significantly higher at 3.0 T. Chemical shift and motion artefact were more severe, and overall image quality was worse on T2-weighted fast SE images at 3.0 T. Overall image quality of the two systems was similar on T1-weighted GRE images and T2*-weighted GRE images. Sensitivity and area under the ROC curve for the 3.0-T image sets were significantly higher. SPIO-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T provided better diagnostic performance for detection of hepatic metastases than 1.5 T. (orig.)

  9. Detection of hepatic metastases by superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced MR imaging: prospective comparison between 1.5-T and 3.0-T images in the same patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Miyake, Mototaka; Sakurada, Aine; Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Tsurusaki, Masakatsu [National Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); National Cancer Center Hospital, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, Chuo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 3.0 T and 1.5 T for detection of hepatic metastases. A total of 28 patients (18 men, 10 women; mean age, 61 years) with 80 hepatic metastases were prospectively examined by SPIO-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T and 1.5 T. T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE) images, T2*-weighted GRE images and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (SE) images were acquired. The tumour-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the lesions was calculated. Three observers independently reviewed each image. Image artefacts and overall image quality were analysed, sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of hepatic metastases were calculated, and diagnostic accuracy using the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) method was evaluated. The tumour-to-liver CNRs were significantly higher at 3.0 T. Chemical shift and motion artefact were more severe, and overall image quality was worse on T2-weighted fast SE images at 3.0 T. Overall image quality of the two systems was similar on T1-weighted GRE images and T2*-weighted GRE images. Sensitivity and area under the ROC curve for the 3.0-T image sets were significantly higher. SPIO-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0 T provided better diagnostic performance for detection of hepatic metastases than 1.5 T. (orig.)

  10. Brain tumor magnetic targeting and biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles linked with 70-kDa heat shock protein study by nonlinear longitudinal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A.; Nikolaev, Boris P.; Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A.; Yakovleva, Ludmila Y.; Dobrodumov, Anatolii V.; Marchenko, Yaroslav Y.; Margulis, Boris A.; Pitkin, Emil; Guzhova, Irina V.

    2015-08-01

    Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION-Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M2). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T2-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION-Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M2 measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors.

  11. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles: Synthesis by Thermal Decomposition of Iron(III) Glucuronate and Application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsula, Vitalii; Kosinová, Lucie; Lovrić, Marija; Ferhatovic Hamzić, Lejla; Rabyk, Mariia; Konefal, Rafal; Paruzel, Aleksandra; Šlouf, Miroslav; Herynek, Vít; Gajović, Srećko; Horák, Daniel

    2016-03-23

    Monodisperse superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with oleic acid were prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(III) glucuronate. The shape, size, and particle size distribution were controlled by varying the reaction parameters, such as the reaction temperature, concentration of the stabilizer, and type of high-boiling-point solvents. Magnetite particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and magnetometer measurements. The particle coating was analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. To make the Fe3O4 nanoparticles dispersible in water, the particle surface was modified with α-carboxyl-ω-bis(ethane-2,1-diyl)phosphonic acid-terminated poly(3-O-methacryloyl-α-D-glucopyranose) (PMG-P). For future practical biomedical applications, nontoxicity plays a key role, and the PMG-P&Fe3O4 nanoparticles were tested on rat mesenchymal stem cells to determine the particle toxicity and their ability to label the cells. MR relaxometry confirmed that the PMG-P&Fe3O4 nanoparticles had high relaxivity but rather low cellular uptake. Nevertheless, the labeled cells still provided visible contrast enhancement in the magnetic resonance image. In addition, the cell viability was not compromised by the nanoparticles. Therefore, the PMG-P&Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the potential to be used in biomedical applications, especially as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26928653

  12. Brain tumor magnetic targeting and biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles linked with 70-kDa heat shock protein study by nonlinear longitudinal response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION–Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M2). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T2-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION–Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M2 measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: • Second-harmonic nonlinear magnetic response is used for biodistribution analysis. • NLR-M2 ensures high sensibility in detection of SPIONs in tissue. • SPION–Hsp70 conjugates effectively target the glioma

  13. Evaluation of engraftment of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled mesenchymal stem cells using three-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging in photo thrombotic cerebral infarction models of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Jae Hyun; Kwak, Byung Kook; Jung, Ji Sung; Park, Se Rah [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate engraftment by visualizing the location of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) three-dimensionally in photothrombotic cerebral infarction (PTCI) models of rats. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an agarose block containing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled hBM-MSCs was performed using a 3.0-T MRI, T2-(T2WI), T2{sup *}-(T2{sup *}WI), and susceptibility-weighted images (SWI). PTCI was induced in 6 rats, and 2.5 x 10(5) SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs were infused through the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA group) or tail vein (IV group). MRI was performed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after stem cell injection. Dark signal regions were confirmed using histology. Three-dimensional MRI reconstruction was performed using the clinical workflow solution to evaluate the engraftment of hBM-MSCs. Volumetric analysis of the engraftment was also performed. The volumes of SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs in the phantom MRI were 129.3, 68.4, and 25.9 microL using SWI, T2{sup *}WI, and T2WI, respectively. SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs appeared on day 1 after injection, encircling the cerebral infarction from the ventral side. Dark signal regions matched iron positive cells and human origin (positive) cells. The volume of the engraftment was larger in the ICA group on days 1, 3, and 7, after stem cell injection (p < 0.05 on SWI). SWI was the most sensitive MRI pulse sequence (p < 0.05). The volume of infarction decreased until day 14. The engraftment of SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs can be visualized and evaluated three-dimensionally in PTCI models of rats. The engraftment volume was larger in the ICA group than IV group on early stage within one week.

  14. Evaluation of engraftment of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled mesenchymal stem cells using three-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging in photo thrombotic cerebral infarction models of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate engraftment by visualizing the location of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) three-dimensionally in photothrombotic cerebral infarction (PTCI) models of rats. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of an agarose block containing superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled hBM-MSCs was performed using a 3.0-T MRI, T2-(T2WI), T2*-(T2*WI), and susceptibility-weighted images (SWI). PTCI was induced in 6 rats, and 2.5 x 10(5) SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs were infused through the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA group) or tail vein (IV group). MRI was performed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after stem cell injection. Dark signal regions were confirmed using histology. Three-dimensional MRI reconstruction was performed using the clinical workflow solution to evaluate the engraftment of hBM-MSCs. Volumetric analysis of the engraftment was also performed. The volumes of SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs in the phantom MRI were 129.3, 68.4, and 25.9 microL using SWI, T2*WI, and T2WI, respectively. SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs appeared on day 1 after injection, encircling the cerebral infarction from the ventral side. Dark signal regions matched iron positive cells and human origin (positive) cells. The volume of the engraftment was larger in the ICA group on days 1, 3, and 7, after stem cell injection (p < 0.05 on SWI). SWI was the most sensitive MRI pulse sequence (p < 0.05). The volume of infarction decreased until day 14. The engraftment of SPIO-labeled hBM-MSCs can be visualized and evaluated three-dimensionally in PTCI models of rats. The engraftment volume was larger in the ICA group than IV group on early stage within one week.

  15. Brain tumor magnetic targeting and biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles linked with 70-kDa heat shock protein study by nonlinear longitudinal response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevtsov, Maxim A., E-mail: shevtsov-max@mail.ru [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); A.L. Polenov Russian Research Scientific Institute of Neurosurgery, Mayakovsky str. 12, St. Petersburg 191014 (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, Boris P. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Ryzhov, Vyacheslav A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Yakovleva, Ludmila Y. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Dobrodumov, Anatolii V. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Bolshoi pr. 31, St. Petersburg 199004 (Russian Federation); Marchenko, Yaroslav Y. [Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, Pudozhskaya str. 12, St. Petersburg 197110 (Russian Federation); Margulis, Boris A. [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation); Pitkin, Emil [The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 3730 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Guzhova, Irina V. [Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Tikhoretsky Ave. 4, St. Petersburg 194064 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Brain tumor targeting efficiency and biodistribution of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with heat shock protein Hsp70 (SPION–Hsp70) were evaluated in experimental glioma model. Synthesized conjugates were characterized using the method of longitudinal nonlinear response of magnetic nanoparticles to a weak ac magnetic field with measurements of second harmonic of magnetization (NLR-M{sub 2}). Cellular interaction of magnetic conjugates was analyzed in 9L glioma cell culture. The biodistribution of the nanoparticles and their accumulation in tumors was assessed by the latter approach as well. The efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates for contrast enhancement in the orthotopic model of 9L glioma was assessed by MR imaging (11 T). Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with Hsp70 had the relaxivity properties of the MR-negative contrast agents. Morphological observation and cell viability test demonstrated good biocompatibility of Hsp70-conjugates. Analysis of the T{sub 2}-weighted MR scans in tumor-bearing rats demonstrated the high efficacy of Hsp70-conjugates in contrast enhancement of the glioma in comparison to non-conjugated nanoparticles. High contrast enhancement of the glioma was provided by the accumulation of the SPION–Hsp70 particles in the glioma tissue (as shown by the histological assay). Biodistribution analysis by NLR-M{sub 2} measurements evidenced the many-fold increase (~40) in the tumor-to-normal brain uptake ratio in the Hsp70-conjugates treated animals. Biodistribution pattern of Hsp70-decorated nanoparticles differed from that of non-conjugated SPIONs. Coating of the magnetic nanoparticles with Hsp70 protein enhances the tumor-targeting ability of the conjugates that could be applied in the MR imaging of the malignant brain tumors. - Highlights: • Second-harmonic nonlinear magnetic response is used for biodistribution analysis. • NLR-M{sub 2} ensures high sensibility in detection of SPIONs in tissue. • SPION–Hsp70 conjugates

  16. Chitosan-coated boron nitride nanospheres enhance delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and induction of cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Huijie Zhang,1,2 Song Chen,3 Chunyi Zhi,4 Tomohiko Yamazaki,1,2 Nobutaka Hanagata1,2,5 1Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Biomaterials Unit, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 5Nanotechnology Innovation Station, Ibaraki, Japan Background: Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate Toll-like receptor 9, leading to induction of proinflammatory cytokines, which play an important role in induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive immune responses. Previously, we have used boron nitride nanospheres (BNNS as a carrier for delivery of unmodified CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to activate Toll-like receptor 9. However, because CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and BNNS are both negatively charged, electrostatic repulsion between them is likely to reduce the loading of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides onto BNNS. Therefore, the efficiency of uptake of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides is also limited and does not result in induction of a robust cytokine response. To ameliorate these problems, we developed a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide delivery system using chitosan-coated BNNS as a carrier. Methods: To facilitate attachment of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides onto the BNNS and improve their loading capacity, we prepared positively charged BNNS by coating them with chitosan preparations of three different molecular weights and used them as carriers for delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Results: The zeta potentials of the BNNS-CS complexes were positive, and chitosan coating improved their dispersity and stability in aqueous solution compared with BNNS. The positive charge of the BNNS-CS complexes greatly improved the loading capacity and cellular uptake efficiency of Cp

  17. Sustained Release of Prindopril Erbumine from Its Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Dorniani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan-prindopril erbumine was accomplished and confirmed by X-ray diffraction, TEM, magnetic measurements, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopic studies. X-ray diffraction and TEM results demonstrated that the magnetic nanoparticles were pure iron oxide phase, having a spherical shape with a mean diameter of 6 nm, compared to 15 nm after coating with chitosan-prindopril erbumine (FCPE. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study shows that the coating of iron oxide nanoparticles takes place due to the presence of some bands that were emerging after the coating process, which belong to the prindopril erbumine (PE. The thermal stability of the PE in an FCPE nanocomposite was remarkably enhanced. The release study showed that around 89% of PE could be released within about 93 hours by a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4, which was found to be of sustained manner governed by first order kinetic. Compared to the control (untreated, cell viability study in 3T3 cells at 72 h post exposure to both the nanoparticles and the pure drug was found to be sustained above 80% using different doses.

  18. Are superparamagnetic spins classical?

    OpenAIRE

    Garanin, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Effective giant spins of magnetic nanoparticles are considered classically in the conventional theory of superparamagnetism based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Langevin equation. However, microscopic calculations for a large spin with uniaxial anisotropy, coupled to the lattice via the simplest generic mechanism, show that the results of the conventional theory are not reproduced in the limit S ->\\infty. In particular, the prefactor Gamma_0 in the Arrhenius escape rate over the barrier Gamma =Gamma_...

  19. Design and preliminary assessment of 99mTc-labeled ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide-conjugated bevacizumab for single photon emission computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a very high incidence and mortality. Early diagnosis and timely treatments are therefore required to improve the quality of life and survival rate of HCC patients. Here, we developed a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-based multimodality imaging agent for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and used it to assess HCC mice and explore the combinative value of CT/MRI-based morphological imaging and SPECT functional imaging. HCC targeting with 125I-labeled bevacizumab monoclonal antibody (mAb) was examined using SPECT/CT in HepG2 tumor-bearing mice after intravenous mAb injection. Based on this, an integrated, bimodal, VEGF-targeted, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO)-conjugated 99mTc-labeled bevacizumab mAb was synthesized to increase tumor penetration and accumulations. The in vivo pharmacokinetics and HepG2 tumor targeting were explored through in vivo planar imaging and SPECT/CT using a mouse model of HepG2 liver cancer. The specificity of the radiolabeled nanoparticles for HepG2 HCC was verified using in vitro immunohistochemistry and Prussian blue staining. With diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid as a bifunctional chelating agent, USPIO-bevacizumab achieved a 99mTc labeling efficiency of >90 %. The in vivo imaging results also exhibited the targeting of USPIO on HepG2 HCC. The specificity of these results was confirmed using in vitro immunohistochemistry and Prussian blue staining. Our preliminary findings showed the potential of USPIO as an imaging agent for the SPECT/MRI of HepG2 HCC. (author)

  20. Enhanced healing of rat calvarial defects with sulfated chitosan-coated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/bone morphogenetic protein 2 scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Shen, Gang; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Shaoyi; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiuli; Ye, Dongxia; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Jiang, Xinquan

    2012-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), which are widely used in bone regeneration, possess good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity and have been demonstrated to be candidate carriers for bone growth factors. However, limited release of growth factors from CPCs and slow degradation of the materials are not desirable for certain clinical applications. Previous studies have shown that calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) from CPCs presents more rapid degradation rate than CPCs. In this study, a hybrid growth factor delivery system was prepared by using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) loaded CDHA porous scaffold with sulfated chitosan (SCS) coating for improved release profile. We tested the BMP-2 release characteristic of CDHA/BMP-2/SCS composite in vitro and its ability to repair rat calvarial bone defects. A higher percentage of BMP-2 was released when sulfated chitosan coating was present compared with CDHA/BMP-2 group. Eight weeks postoperation, the repaired crania were evaluated by microcomputed tomography, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis, and immunohistochemistry. CDHA/BMP-2/SCS group promoted the most extensive new bone formation than CDHA/BMP-2 and CDHA groups. Our observations suggest that sulfated chitosan coating could enhance the release profile of CDHA/BMP-2 composite in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The hybrid CDHA/BMP-2/SCS system is a promising growth factor delivery strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:21830854

  1. Theranostic MUC-1 aptamer targeted gold coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal therapy of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhdarzadeh, Morteza; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Saei, Amir Ata; Varnamkhasti, Behrang Shiri; Omidi, Yadollah; Fateh, Mohsen; Ghavami, Mahdi; Shanehsazzadeh, Saeed; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2016-07-01

    Favorable physiochemical properties and the capability to accommodate targeting moieties make superparamegnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) popular theranostic agents. In this study, we engineered SPIONs for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photothermal therapy of colon cancer cells. SPIONs were synthesized by microemulsion method and were then coated with gold to reduce their cytotoxicity and to confer photothermal capabilities. Subsequently, the NPs were conjugated with thiol modified MUC-1 aptamers. The resulting NPs were spherical, monodisperse and about 19nm in size, as shown by differential light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the successful gold coating. MTT results showed that Au@SPIONs have insignificant cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 10-100μg/ml (P>0.05) and that NPs covered with protein corona exerted lower cytotoxicity than bare NPs. Furthermore, confocal microscopy confirmed the higher uptake of aptamer-Au@SPIONs in comparison with non-targeted SPIONs. MR imaging revealed that SPIONs produced significant contrast enhancement in vitro and they could be exploited as contrast agents. Finally, cells treated with aptamer-Au@SPIONs exhibited a higher death rate compared to control cells upon exposure to near infrared light (NIR). In conclusion, MUC1-aptamer targeted Au@SPIONs could serve as promising theranostic agents for simultaneous MR imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer cells. PMID:27015647

  2. The Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide with iRGD Peptide on the Labeling of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Dong Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The iRGD peptide loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor targeting and tissue penetration was developed for targeted tumor therapy and ultrasensitive MR imaging. Binding of iRGD, a tumor homing peptide, is mediated by integrins, which are widely expressed on the surface of cells. Several types of small molecular drugs and nanoparticles can be transfected into cells with the help of iRGD peptide. Thus, we postulate that SPIO nanoparticles, which have good biocompatibility, can also be transfected into cells using iRGD. Despite the many kinds of cell labeling studies that have been performed with SPIO nanoparticles and RGD peptide or its analogues, only a few have applied SPIO nanoparticles with iRGD peptide in pancreatic cancer cells. This paper reports our preliminary findings regarding the effect of iRGD peptide (CRGDK/RGPD/EC combined with SPIO on the labeling of pancreatic cancer cells. The results suggest that SPIO with iRGD peptide can enhance the positive labeling rate of cells and the uptake of SPIO. Optimal functionalization was achieved with the appropriate concentration or concentration range of SPIO and iRGD peptide. This study describes a simple and economical protocol to label panc-1 cells using SPIO in combination with iRGD peptide and may provide a useful method to improve the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer imaging.

  3. Determination of Conjugation Efficiency of Antibodies and Proteins to the Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method based on capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE/LIF) was developed for determination of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameters of 100 nm) functionalized with molecules containing primary amino groups. The magnetic nanoparticles with carboxylic or aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane groups at their surface were conjugated to the model proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA; streptavidin or goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G, IgG) using carbodiimide as a zero-length cross-linker.The nanoparticle-protein conjugates (hydrodynamic diameter 163-194 nm) were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde reagent and separated by CE/LIF with a helium-cadmium laser (excitation at 442 nm, emission at 488 nm). The separations were carried out by using a fused-silica capillary (effective length 48 cm, inner diameter 75 um) and 100 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.2), the potential was 30 kV. The detection limit for BSA-conjugate was 1.3 pg/10 nl, i.e. about 20 amol. The present method provides an efficient and fast tool for sensitive determination of the efficacy of biomolecular functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles. The CE/LIF technique requires only negligible sample volumes for analysis, which is especially suitable for controlling the process of preparation of functionalized nanoparticles with unique properties aimed to be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes

  4. Superparamagnetic nanotraps containing MIP based mimic lipase for biotransformations uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nanoparticle comprises a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle core conjugated with trimethoxylsilyl propylmethacrylate (TMSPM) and methacryloylamido serine (MASE), methacryloylamido histidine (MAH), methacryloylamido glutamic acid (MAGA) monomers, and p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) which is a substrate of lipase as a template molecule, which enables the creation of lipase active region. The resulting hybrid superparamagnetic nanotraps are magnetically separable, highly active, and stable under harsh conditions. In this study, the advantages of high selectivity of molecular imprinting technique have used to get mimic lipase for the synthesis of methyl jasmonate and methyl oleate.

  5. Superparamagnetic iron oxide--loaded poly(lactic acid)-D-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate copolymer nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashant, Chandrasekharan; Dipak, Maity; Yang, Chang-Tong; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Jun, Ding; Feng, Si-Shen

    2010-07-01

    We developed a strategy to formulate supraparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) in nanoparticles (NPs) of biodegradable copolymer made up of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and d-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) for medical imaging by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high contrast and low side effects. The IOs-loaded PLA-TPGS NPs (IOs-PNPs) were prepared by the single emulsion method and the nanoprecipitation method. Effects of the process parameters such as the emulsifier concentration, IOs loading in the nanoparticles, and the solvent to non-solvent ratio on the IOs distribution within the polymeric matrix were investigated and the formulation was then optimized. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed direct visual evidence for the well dispersed distribution of the IOs within the NPs. We further investigated the biocompatibility and cellular uptake of the IOs-PNPs in vitro with MCF-7 breast cancer cells and NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast in close comparison with the commercial IOs imaging agent Resovist. MRI imaging was further carried out to investigate the biodistribution of the IOs formulated in the IOs-PNPs, especially in the liver to understand the liver clearance process, which was also made in close comparison with Resovist. We found that the PLA-TPGS NPs formulation at the clinically approved dose of 0.8 mg Fe/kg could be cleared within 24 h in comparison with several weeks for Resovist. Xenograft tumor model MRI confirmed the advantages of the IOs-PNPs formulation versus Resovist through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect of the tumor vasculature. PMID:20434210

  6. A primary study on the phagocytic activity of Kupffer cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles enhanced MR imaging in a rat nonalcoholic steatohepatitis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of using superparamgnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as MRI contrast agent to assess rat nonalcoholic steatohepatitis Kupffer cells (KC) function. Methods: Twenty male SD rats were randomly divided into A and B groups, group A (n=10) was the experimental group fed high fat diet, group B (n=10) was the control group fed normal diet. After 8 weeks, plain MR and SPIO enhanced MR were performed in all the rats. Blood lipids were measured, and HE and Perl's blue staining in all livers specimen was done. The related results of the staining were analyzed with t test. Results: Group A TC and TG levels [(6.58 ± 1.25) and (1.53 ± 0.23) mmol/L respectively] were significantly higher than group B[(1.64 ± 0.22) and (0.55 ± 0.14) mmol/L respectively] (t=11.716 and 11.588, P1WI, ad statistically significant differences (t=-18.451 and -16.240, P2WI, T2WI and T1WI (t=10.745, 19.800, 39.168 and 92.785, P<0.01). Typical histological hepatic lesions of NASH were observed in group A, Perl's staining-positive particles in group A (2.33 ± 0.50) were fewer than in group B (4) (t=-10.000, P<0.01). Conclusion: The high-fat diet induced model of SD rats was close to the human NASH and was easy to establish. Clinical application of SPIO enhanced MR successfullly assessed the phagocytic activity of KC in the study, and it suggested that the pathogenesis of NASH was related to the decreased phagocytic activity of KC. (authors)

  7. In situ preparation of high relaxivity iron oxide nanoparticles by coating with chitosan: A potential MRI contrast agent useful for cell tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Z.-T.; Wang, J.-F. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Kuo, H.-Y.; Shen, C.-R. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute and Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-J. [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Yen, T.-C., E-mail: yen1110@adm.cgmh.org.t [Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    Iron oxide nanocrystals are of considerable interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology because of their nanoscale dimensions, nontoxic nature, and superior magnetic properties. Colloidal solutions of magnetic nanoparticles (ferrofluids) with a high magnetite content are highly desirable for most molecular imaging applications. In this paper, we present a method for in situ coating of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) with chitosan in order to increase the content of magnetite. Iron chloride salts (Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}) were directly coprecipitated inside a porous matrix of chitosan by Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation in an aqueous solution of acetic acid. Following sonication, iron oxide nanoparticles were formed inside the chitosan matrix at a pH value of 9.5 and a temperature of 50 deg. C. The [Fe{sup 3+}]:[Fe{sup 2+}]:[NH{sub 4}OH] molar ratio was 1.6:1:15.8. The final ferrofluid was formed with a pH adjustment to approximately 2.0/3.0, alongside with the addition of mannitol and lactic acid. We subsequently characterized the particle size, the zeta potential, the iron concentration, the magnetic contrast, and the cellular uptake of our ferrofluid. Results showed a z-average diameter of 87.2 nm, a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.251, a zeta potential of 47.9 mV, and an iron concentration of 10.4 mg Fe/mL. The MRI parameters included an R1 value of 22.0 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}, an R2 value of 202.6 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and a R2/R1 ratio of 9.2. An uptake of the ferrofluid by mouse macrophages was observed. Altogether, our data show that Co-60 gamma-ray radiation on solid chitosan may improve chitosan coating of iron oxide nanoparticles and tackle its aqueous solubility at pH 7. Additionally, our methodology allowed to obtain a ferrofluid with a higher content of magnetite and a fairly unimodal distribution of monodisperse clusters. Finally, MRI and cell experiments demonstrated the potential usefulness of this product as a potential MRI contrast agent that might

  8. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo investigation of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for intestinal delivery of exendin-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mengshu Wang,1* Yong Zhang,1* Jiao Feng,1 Tiejun Gu,1 Qingguang Dong,1 Xu Yang,2 Yanan Sun,1 Yongge Wu,1 Yan Chen,1 Wei Kong1 1National Engineering Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine, College of Life Science, Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China; 2BCHT Biopharm Co, Ltd, Changchun, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Exendin-4 is an incretin mimetic agent approved for type 2 diabetes treatment. However, the required frequent injections restrict its clinical application. Here, the potential use of chitosan-coated poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (CS-PLGA nanoparticles was investigated for intestinal delivery of exendin-4.Methods and results: Nanoparticles were prepared using a modified water–oil–water (w/o/w emulsion solvent-evaporation method, followed by coating with chitosan. The physical properties, particle size, and cell toxicity of the nanoparticles were examined. The cellular uptake mechanism and transmembrane permeability were performed in Madin-Darby canine kidney-cell monolayers. Furthermore, in vivo intraduodenal administration of exendin-4-loaded nanoparticles was carried out in rats. The PLGA nanoparticle coating with chitosan led to a significant change in zeta potential, from negative to positive, accompanied by an increase in particle size of ~30 nm. Increases in both the molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of chitosan resulted in an observable increase in zeta potential but no apparent change in the particle size of ~300 nm. Both unmodified PLGA and chitosan-coated nanoparticles showed only slight cytotoxicity. Use of different temperatures and energy depletion suggested that the cellular uptake of both types of nanoparticles was energy-dependent. Further investigation revealed that the uptake of PLGA nanoparticles occurred via caveolin-mediated endocytosis and that of CS-PLGA nanoparticles involved both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis

  9. Longitudinal MRI contrast enhanced monitoring of early tumour development with manganese chloride (MnCl2) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) in a CT1258 based in vivo model of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell lines represent a key tool in cancer research allowing the generation of neoplasias which resemble initial tumours in in-vivo animal models. The characterisation of early tumour development is of major interest in order to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic agents. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based in-vivo characterisation allows visualisation and characterisation of tumour development in early stages prior to manual palpation. Contrast agents for MRI such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) and manganese chloride (MnCl2) represent powerful tools for the in-vivo characterisation of early stage tumours. In this experimental study, we labelled prostate cancer cells with MnCl2 or SPIOs in vitro and used 1 T MRI for tracing labelled cells in-vitro and 7 T MRI for tracking in an in-vivo animal model. Labelling of prostate cancer cells CT1258 was established in-vitro with MnCl2 and SPIOs. In-vitro detection of labelled cells in an agar phantom was carried out through 1 T MRI while in-vivo detection was performed using 7 T MRI after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of labelled cells into NOD-Scid mice (n = 20). The animals were scanned in regular intervals until euthanization. The respective tumour volumes were analysed and corresponding tumour masses were subjected to histologic examination. MnCl2in-vitro labelling resulted in no significant metabolic effects on proliferation and cell vitality. In-vitro detection-limit accounted 105 cells for MnCl2 as well as for SPIOs labelling. In-vivo 7 T MRI scans allowed detection of 103 and 104 cells. In-vivo MnCl2 labelled cells were detectable from days 4–16 while SPIO labelling allowed detection until 4 days after s.c. injection. MnCl2 labelled cells were highly tumourigenic in NOD-Scid mice and the tumour volume development was characterised in a time dependent manner. The amount of injected cells correlated with tumour size development and disease progression. Histological analysis of the induced

  10. Superparamagnetic iron oxide polyacrylic acid coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles do not affect kidney function but cause acute effect on the cardiovascular function in healthy mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iversen, Nina K., E-mail: nina.iversen@biology.au.dk [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University (Denmark); Frische, Sebastian [Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University (Denmark); Thomsen, Karen [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University (Denmark); Laustsen, Christoffer; Pedersen, Michael [MR Research Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus University (Denmark); Hansen, Pernille B.L.; Bie, Peter [Cardiovascular and Renal Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark (Denmark); Fresnais, Jérome [Physicochimie des Electrolytes, Colloïdes et Sciences Analytiques (PECSA) UMR 7195 CNRS-UPMC-ESPCI, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Berret, Jean-Francois [Matière et Systèmes Complexes, UMR 7057 CNRS Université Denis Diderot Paris-VII, Bâtiment Condorcet, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris (France); Baatrup, Erik [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University (Denmark); Wang, Tobias [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    This study describes the distribution of intravenously injected polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (10 mg kg{sup −1}) at the organ, cellular and subcellular levels in healthy BALB/cJ mice and in parallel addresses the effects of NP injection on kidney function, blood pressure and vascular contractility. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed accumulation of NPs in the liver within 1 h after intravenous infusion, accommodated by intracellular uptake in endothelial and Kupffer cells with subsequent intracellular uptake in renal cells, particularly the cytoplasm of the proximal tubule, in podocytes and mesangial cells. The renofunctional effects of NPs were evaluated by arterial acid–base status and measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after instrumentation with chronically indwelling catheters. Arterial pH was 7.46 ± 0.02 and 7.41 ± 0.02 in mice 0.5 h after injections of saline or NP, and did not change over the next 12 h. In addition, the injections of NP did not affect arterial PCO{sub 2} or [HCO{sub 3}{sup −}] either. Twenty-four and 96 h after NP injections, the GFR averaged 0.35 ± 0.04 and 0.35 ± 0.01 ml min{sup −1} g{sup −1}, respectively, values which were statistically comparable with controls (0.29 ± 0.02 and 0.33 ± 0.1 ml{sup –1} min{sup –1} 25 g{sup –1}). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) decreased 12–24 h after NP injections (111.1 ± 11.5 vs 123.0 ± 6.1 min{sup −1}) associated with a decreased contractility of small mesenteric arteries revealed by myography to characterize endothelial function. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that accumulation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles does not affect kidney function in healthy mice but temporarily decreases blood pressure. -- Highlights: ► PAA coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were injected intravenously into healthy mice. ► We examine the distribution and physiological effects of

  11. Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood

  12. Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin-Özgüven, Mine; Karadağ, Ayşe; Duman, Şeyma; Özkal, Burak; Özçelik, Beraat

    2016-06-15

    Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH. PMID:26868567

  13. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  14. Structure and superparamagnetic behaviour of magnetite nanoparticles in cellulose beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles were obtained starting from a mixture of iron(II) and iron(III) solutions in a preset total iron concentration from 0.04 to 0.8 mol l-1 with ammonia at 25 and 70 oC. The regeneration of cellulose from viscose produces micrometrical spherical cellulose beads in which synthetic magnetite were embedded. The characterization of cellulose-magnetite beads by X-ray diffraction, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy and magnetic measurement is reported. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the higher is the total iron concentration and temperature the higher is the crystal size of the magnetite obtained. Transmission Electron Microscopy studies of cellulose-magnetite beads revealed the distribution of magnetite nanoparticles inside pores of hundred nanometers. Magnetite as well as the cellulose-magnetite composites exhibit superparamagnetic characteristics. Field cooling and zero field cooling magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the superparamagnetic behaviour and the blocking temperature for the magnetite with a mean size of 12.5 nm, which is 200 K.

  15. Magnetic characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles pulled through model membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Allison L; Wassel, Ronald A; Mondalek, Fadee; Chen, Kejian; Dormer, Kenneth J; Richard D. Kopke

    2007-01-01

    Background To quantitatively compare in-vitro and in vivo membrane transport studies of targeted delivery, one needs characterization of the magnetically-induced mobility of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Flux densities, gradients, and nanoparticle properties were measured in order to quantify the magnetic force on the SPION in both an artificial cochlear round window membrane (RWM) model and the guinea pig RWM. Methods Three-dimensional maps were created for flux density...

  16. Synthesis and surface modification of deagglomerated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Lesniak, Christoph P.; Schiestel, Thomas; Nass, Rüdiger; Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1997-01-01

    A method for the preparation of aminosilane coated, chemically stable, agglomerate-free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ferrites, e.g. Fe3O4 and gamma-Fe2O3) has been developed. These nanocomposite particles posess core-shell structure. The well crystallized core particles are prepared by precipitation from aqueous salt solutions (primary particle size 10 nm). The surface modification of the weakly agglomerated core particles with aminiosilane (e.g. gamma-aminopropyl-triethoxysila...

  17. Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced drug transport in cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Brandt, Yekaterina I.; Rivera, Antonio C.; Cook, Nathaniel C.; Plumley, John B.; Withers, Nathan J.; Kopciuch, Michael; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Huber, Dale L.; Smyth, Hugh D.; Osinski, Marek

    2012-10-01

    Iron oxide colloidal nanoparticles (ferrofluids) are investigated for application in the treatment of cystic fibrosis lung infections, the leading cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. We investigate the use of iron oxide nanoparticles to increase the effectiveness of administering antibiotics through aerosol inhalation using two mechanisms: directed particle movement in the presence of an inhomogeneous static external magnetic field and magnetic hyperthermia. Magnetic hyperthermia is an effective method for decreasing the viscosity of the mucus and biofilm, thereby enhancing drug, immune cell, and antibody penetration to the affected area. Iron oxide nanoparticles of various sizes and morphologies were synthesized and tested for specific losses (heating power). Nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic size range exhibited excellent heating power. Additionally, iron oxide / zinc selenide core/shell nanoparticles were prepared, in order to enable imaging of the iron oxide nanoparticles. We also report on synthesis and characterization of MnSe/ZnSeS alloyed quantum dots.

  18. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seafood, and foods that contain vitamin C , like citrus fruits, strawberries, sweet peppers, tomatoes, and broccoli. What ... diets. What are some effects of iron on health? Scientists are studying iron to understand how it ...

  19. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the role of ferrous iron in diabetes pathophysiology has been revived by recent evidence of iron as an important determinant of pancreatic islet inflammation and as a biomarker of diabetes risk and mortality. The iron metabolism in the β-cell is complex. Excess free iron is toxic......, but at the same time, iron is required for normal β-cell function and thereby glucose homeostasis. In the pathogenesis of diabetes, iron generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by participating in the Fenton chemistry, which can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis. The aim of this review is to...... present and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation...

  20. Transcutaneous iontophoretic delivery of STAT3 siRNA using layer-by-layer chitosan coated gold nanoparticles to treat melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labala, Suman; Jose, Anup; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2016-10-01

    Overexpression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein prevents apoptosis and enhances proliferation of melanocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using layer-by-layer assembled gold nanoparticles (LbL-AuNP) as a carrier for iontophoretic delivery of STAT3 siRNA to treat melanoma. Chitosan coated AuNP (AuNP-CS) were prepared by direct reduction of HAuCl4 in the presence of chitosan. The AuNP-CS were then sequentially layered with siRNA and chitosan to form AuNP-CS/siRNA/CS. STAT3 siRNA replaced with scrambled siRNA or sodium alginate were used as controls. The average particle size and zeta-potential of the prepared LbL-AuNP were 150±10nm (PDI: 0.41±0.06) and 35±6mV, respectively. In vitro studies in B16F10 murine melanoma cells showed that AuNP-CS/siRNA/CS inhibited the cell growth by 49.0±0.6% and 66.0±0.2% at 0.25nM and 0.5nM STAT3 siRNA concentration, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry studies showed a time dependent cell uptake of the LbL-AuNP up to 120min. Clathrin mediated endocytosis was found to be the predominant cell uptake mechanism for LbL-AuNP. STAT3 siRNA loaded LbL-AuNP reduced the STAT3 protein expression by 47.3% in B16F10 cells. Similarly, apoptosis assay showed 29% and 44% of early and late apoptotic events, respectively after treatment with STAT3 siRNA loaded LbL-AuNP. Confocal microscope and skin cryosections showed that application of 0.47mA/cm(2) of anodal iontophoresis enhanced the skin penetration of LbL-AuNP to reach viable epidermis. In conclusion, layer-by-layer chitosan coated AuNP can be developed as a carrier for iontophoretic delivery of STAT3 siRNA to treat melanoma. PMID:27318964

  1. In vitro study on apoptotic cell death by effective magnetic hyperthermia with chitosan-coated MnFe2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yunok; Lee, Nohyun; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely investigated as a hyperthermic agent for cancer treatment. In this study, thermally responsive Chitosan-coated MnFe2O4 (Chitosan-MnFe2O4) nanoparticles were developed to conduct localized magnetic hyperthermia for cancer treatment. Hydrophobic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized via thermal decomposition and modified with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) for further conjugation of chitosan. Chitosan-MnFe2O4 nanoparticles exhibited high magnetization and excellent biocompatibility along with low cell cytotoxicity. During magnetic hyperthermia treatment (MHT) with Chitosan-MnFe2O4 on MDA-MB 231 cancer cells, the targeted therapeutic temperature was achieved by directly controlling the strength of the external AC magnetic fields. In vitro Chitosan-MnFe2O4-assisted MHT at 42 °C led to drastic and irreversible changes in cell morphology and eventual cellular death in association with the induction of apoptosis through heat dissipation from the excited magnetic nanoparticles. Therefore, the Chitosan-MnFe2O4 nanoparticles with high biocompatibility and thermal capability can be an effective nano-mediated agent for MHT on cancer.

  2. Competitive Fixed-Bed Adsorption of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from Aqueous Solution Using Chitosan-Coated Bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed-bed adsorption studies using chitosan-coated bentonite (CCB as adsorbent media were investigated for the simultaneous adsorption of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from a multimetal system. The effects of operational parameters such as bed height, flow rate, and initial concentration on the length of mass transfer zone, breakthrough time, exhaustion time, and adsorption capacity at breakthrough were evaluated. With increasing bed height and decreasing flow rate and initial concentration, the breakthrough and exhaustion time were observed to favorably increase. Moreover, the adsorption capacity at breakthrough was observed to increase with decreasing initial concentration and flow rate and increasing bed height. The maximum adsorption capacity at breakthrough of 13.49 mg/g for Pb(II, 12.14 mg/g for Cu(II, and 10.29 mg/g for Ni(II was attained at an initial influent concentration of 200 mg/L, bed height of 2.0 cm, and flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Adsorption data were fitted with Adams-Bohart, Thomas, and Yoon-Nelson models. Experimental breakthrough curves were observed to be in good agreement (R2>0.85 and E%<50% with the predicted curves generated by the kinetic models. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of CCB in the removal of Pb(II, Cu(II, and Ni(II from a ternary metal solution.

  3. 壳聚糖处理对辣椒保鲜效果的研究%Effect of Chitosan Coating on Freshness-keeping of Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代小梅; 凌莉; 姜丽; 郁志芳

    2015-01-01

    以“苏椒5号”为试材,研究了(15±5)℃贮藏条件下0.5%,1%,1.5%低分子壳聚糖(CTS)溶液涂膜处理对辣椒保鲜效果的影响。结果表明:与对照辣椒果实相比,低分子壳聚糖处理能显著抑制贮藏期间辣椒的呼吸作用,降低辣椒的腐烂率和失重率,保持表皮绿色较高的叶绿素含量,减缓 Vc 的损失,维持较高POD活性。比较三种浓度的效果,以1.5%壳聚糖处理的效果最好。%The experiment is carried out to investigate the effect of chitosan on postharvest physiology and quality of pepper (Sujiao 5).Peppers are dipped into chitosan (0.5%,1%,1.5% respectively) and then stored at (1 5 ± 5 )℃,the results demonstrate that chitosan coating could slow down the respiratory rate effectively and inhibit the loss of decay and weight,maintain epidermal green,keep higher content of chlorophyll and Vc,and POD activity of peppers.Among all concentration,1 .5% is the best.

  4. Labeling of human mesenchymal stem cell: Comparison between paramagnetic and superparamagnetic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung-Yi; Tai, Ming-Fong; Chen, Shin-Tai; Wang, Yi-Ting; Chen, Ya-Fang; Hsiao, Jong-Kai; Wang, Jaw-Lin; Liu, Hon-Man

    2009-04-01

    Paramagnetic and superparamagnetic substances are used to trace stem cell in living organisms under magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared paramagnetic and superparamagnetic substance for their labeling efficiency by using clinically widely used gadolinium chelates and iron oxide nanoparticles. Without the aid of transfection agent, human mesenchymal stem cells were labeled with each agent separately in different concentration and the optimized concentration was determined by maintaining same cell viability as unlabeled cells. Iron oxide nanoparticle labeling has a detecting threshold of 12 500 cells in vitro, while gadolinium chelates labeling could be detected for at least 50 000 cells. In life animal study, we found there is an eightfold sensitivity in cells labeled with iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles; however, the magnetic susceptibility artifact would obscure the detail of adjacent anatomical structures. We conclude that labeling stem cells with superparamagnetic substance is more efficacious. However, the cells labeled by superparamagnetic nanoparticles might interfere with the interpretation of anatomical structure. These findings would be beneficial to applications of magnetic substances toward stem cell biology and tissue engineering.

  5. Investigation of magnetically enhanced swelling behaviour of superparamagnetic starch nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Bajpai; Sweta Likhitkar

    2013-02-01

    The present study follows a novel strategy for the preparation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles of cross-linked starch impregnated homogeneously with nanosized iron oxide. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction and magnetization studies. The size of the magnetic polymeric particles was found to lie in the range of 20–80 nm, and they exhibited superparamagnetic properties. The particles were allowed to swell in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and the influence of factors such as chemical composition of nanoparticles, pH and temperature of the swelling bath and applied magnetic field was investigated on the water intake capacity of the nanoparticles. The prepared nanoparticles showed potential to provide a possible option for controlled and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, applying external magnetic field.

  6. 蛛网膜下腔移植磁标骨髓间充质干细胞治疗脊髓损伤**☆%Subarachnoid space transplantation of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞平; 李健丁; 刘强; 双卫兵; 解军

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Transplantation of stem cel s can rebuild the structure and function of injured central nervous system, and has attracted wide attention in recent years. OBJECTIVE:To explore the effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s labeled by superparamagnetic iron oxide on the recovery of neurological function in rabbits with spinal cord injury. METHODS:Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s were isolated from rabbits, and cultivated in vitro using the density gradient centrifugation and the adherence in vitro separation. Passage 3 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide at 24 hours before use. Rabbit spinal cord injury models were made and the micro tubes were inserted into subarachnoid space. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups.Rabbits from the group A were injected with superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s via subarachnoid spaces. Rabbits from the group B received transplan tation of unlabeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s. Rabbits from the group C were injected with PBS and served as controls. At 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after cel transplantation, the recovery of neurological function was calculated by BBB scoring in al groups and the pathological tissue slices of spinal cord injury was examined. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The BBB scores in the groups A and V were significantly higher than those in the group C (P0.05). At 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days fol owing cel transplantation, Prussian blue staining of tissue sections showed cel s containing blue iron particles in the area of spinal cord injury. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s transplanted via subarachnoid space could migrate to the area of spinal cord injury, which thereby improved neurological function.%  背景:干细胞移植可以重建中枢神经系统的结构和功能,近年来引起了广泛的关注。目的:探讨超顺磁性氧化铁标记骨髓间充质干细胞对兔脊髓损伤神经

  7. 壳聚糖包衣对油菜种子萌发及幼苗耐盐性影响%Effect of Chitosan Coating on Seed Germination and Salt-tolerance of Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳君; 王美燕; 黄荣荣

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Brassica napus L. seeds was treated by different concentrations of chitosan coating and the effect on rape seed germination and seedling salinity tolerance at different concentrations of salt stress on seed germination was studied. The germination potential, germination rate, biomass (fresh weight, dry weight, root length, shoot length) were measured, and the chlorophyll content, contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar were analyzed. The results showed that chitosan coating could increase germination potential, germination rate, biomass, salt-tolerance index of rapeseed seedling, chlorophyll content, contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar. The promotion effect of 0. 25 g · L-1 chitosan coating on seed germination was better, and 0. 50 g · L-1 of chitosan coating could increase the salt tolerance of rape seedling better.%以不同浓度的壳聚糖对油菜种子进行包衣处理,考察其对油菜种子萌发及幼苗耐盐性的影响,并在不同盐浓度胁迫条件下对种子萌发时的发芽势、发芽率、生物量(鲜重、干重、根长、芽长)等指标进行测定,同时分析油菜幼苗叶绿素含量、可溶性蛋白及可溶性糖含量的变化.结果表明,一定浓度的壳聚糖包衣处理可提高油菜种子发芽率、发芽势、生物量、幼苗的耐盐指数、叶绿素含量、可溶性蛋白及可溶性糖的含量,其中浓度为0.25g·L-1壳聚糖包衣处理对油菜种子萌发的促进效果较好,而浓度为0.50g·L-1壳聚糖包衣处理对提高油菜幼苗耐盐性具有较好的促进作用.

  8. The ability of streptomycin-loaded chitosan-coated magnetic nanocomposites to possess antimicrobial and antituberculosis activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Zowalaty ME

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,1,2 Samer Hassan Hussein Al Ali,3,4 Mohamed I Husseiny,2,5 Benjamin M Geilich,6,7 Thomas J Webster,7,8 Mohd Zobir Hussein9 1Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; 3Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 4Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, Amman, Jordan; 5Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA; 6Department of Bioengineering, 7Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 8Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 9Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology; Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs were synthesized by the coprecipitation of Fe2+ and Fe3+ iron salts in alkali media. MNPs were coated by chitosan (CS to produce CS-MNPs. Streptomycin (Strep was loaded onto the surface of CS-MNPs to form a Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite. MNPs, CS-MNPs, and the nanocomposites were subsequently characterized using X-ray diffraction and were evaluated for their antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of the as-synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated using different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For the first time, it was found that the nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against the tested microorganisms (albeit with a more pronounced effect against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria, and thus, should be further studied as a novel nano-antibiotic for numerous antimicrobial and antituberculosis applications. Moreover, since these nanoparticle bacteria fighters are magnetic, one can easily

  9. Expression of Superparamagnetic Particles on FORC Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, A. M.; Kumari, M.; Crippa, F.; Petri-Fink, A.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of superparamagnetic (SP) particles in natural materials provides information on processes that lead to the new formation or dissolution of iron oxides. SP particles express themselves on first-order reversal curve (FORC) diagrams as a distribution centered near the origin of the diagram. Pike et al. (2001, GJI, 145, 721) demonstrated that thermal relaxation produces an upward shift in the FORC distribution, and attributed this to a pause encountered at each reversal field. In this study we examine the relationship between this upward shift and particles size on two sets of synthetic iron oxide nanoparticles. One set of coated magnetite particles have well-constrained particles size with 9, 16 and 20 nm as their diameter. A second set from the FeraSpin™ Series, consisting of FeraSpinXS, M and XL, were evaluated. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that the first set of samples is exclusively magnetite, whereas the FeraSpin samples contain predominantly magnetite with some degree of oxidation. Samples from both sets show that the upward shift of the FORC distribution at the origin increases with decreasing particle size. The amount of shift in the FeraSpin series is less when compared to the samples from the first set. This is attributed to the effect of interaction that counteracts the effect of thermal relaxation behavior of the SP particles. The FeraSpin series also shows a broader FORC distribution on the vertical axis that appears to be related to non-saturation of the hysteresis curve at maximum applied field. This non-saturation behavior can be due to spins of very fine particles or oxidation to hematite. AC susceptibility at low temperature indicates that particle interaction may affect the effective magnetic particle size. Our results suggest that the FORC distribution in pure SP particle systems provides information on the particle size distribution or oxidation, which can be further evaluated with low temperature techniques.

  10. Chitosan-coated ferrite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles as a T2 contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles coated with biocompatible chitosan were synthesized for use as an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agent. The coating was performed simultaneously with the synthesis of the ferrite nanoparticles. A dynamic light-scattering spectrometer (DLS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to measure the average diameter of the coated nanoparticles, which was 67.0 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements showed strong bonding of the chitosan molecules to the surfaces of the ferrite nanoparticles. The spin-lattice (T1) and the spin-spin (T2) relaxation times of the nuclear spins (hydrogen protons) in aqueous solutions of various concentrations of coated ferrite nanoparticles were determined using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer. Using these data, we found that the T1 and the T2 relaxivities of the nuclear spins in aqueous solutions of ferrite nanoparticles were 0.00291 and 0.0691 ppm-1sec-1, respectively. In particular, the value of the T2 relaxivity was much larger than that of the commercial contrast agent GD-DTPA (gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid). A 31.7% intensity loss in the T2 image of a rabbit liver was observed after injecting the aqueous solution of coated nanoparticles into the rabbit, which shows that our coated ferrite nanoparticles can be used as a T2 MRI contrast agent.

  11. Effect of Chitosan Coating on Comprehensive Quality of Green Pepper During Storage%壳聚糖涂膜对贮藏青椒综合品质影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忆冬; 翟金兰; 杨艳彬; 常方

    2012-01-01

    以不同配方的壳聚糖保鲜剂对辣椒进行涂膜,贮藏于9℃,测定其失水率、腐烂率、Vc及叶绿素含量,根据正交试验确定最有利于保持辣椒综合品质的壳聚糖溶液配方.试验结果表明,当壳聚糖浓度1.5%,吐温20浓度0.005%,1,2-丙二醇浓度4%,pH值4.8时可最大程度地延缓辣椒综合品质的下降,延长贮藏时间.%The pepper was used as material and treated with the chitosan coating. The pepper was put into storage at 9℃. The effects of different chitosan coating formulas selected through orthogonal experiment on the weight-loss ratio, decay index, the content of Vitamin C and chlorophyl as well as senescence index and ratio of commodity in the fresh pepper were studied. The results showed that the optimal formula of chitosan complex film was 0.15% chitosan, 0.005% tween-20,4% 1,2-Propanediol and pH 4.8. They could maintain the quality and prolong the storage life of green pepper.

  12. Differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions by means of MRI and application of the superparamagnetic contrast agent ENDOREM trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a phase III/III-B trial the specific contrast enhancement of benign liver tumors, especially FNH and adenoma, versus malignant liver tumors, such as HCC and metastases (colorectal and endocrine tumors) was evaluated using the superparamagnetic iron oxide ENDOREM trademark. The following conclusions were drawn from the results: The use of superparamagnetic iron oxide ENDOREMcircledR allows differentiation of benign and malignant liver tumors on the basis of contrast enhancement, existence and specific enhancement of capsule or scar. In vitro correlation show some limitations of in vivo MRI. (orig./VHE)

  13. Computational study on superparamagnetic hyperthermia with biocompatible SPIONs to destroy the cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caizer, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superparamagnetic hyperthermia (SPMHT) appears nowadays as the most promising method of the future, non-invasive and with low toxicity, for destroys the cancer cells through the magnetic relaxation in superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In our research we focused on finding the optimal conditions using a 3D computational study to obtain a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) by the magnetic relaxation in Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which give the most pronounced SAR and with low toxicity on cells. The effect of the diameter of the nanoparticles, frequency and amplitude of external alternating magnetic field and the thickness of biological coating of nanoparticles in the case of their encapsulation in biocompatible membranes, like liposomes (Ls) and cyclodextrins (CDs), on Néel-Brown magnetic relaxation and maximum SAR, are presented and discussed in this paper, within the biological admitted limit.

  14. Computational study on superparamagnetic hyperthermia with biocompatible SPIONs to destroy the cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic hyperthermia (SPMHT) appears nowadays as the most promising method of the future, non-invasive and with low toxicity, for destroys the cancer cells through the magnetic relaxation in superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In our research we focused on finding the optimal conditions using a 3D computational study to obtain a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) by the magnetic relaxation in Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3 superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which give the most pronounced SAR and with low toxicity on cells. The effect of the diameter of the nanoparticles, frequency and amplitude of external alternating magnetic field and the thickness of biological coating of nanoparticles in the case of their encapsulation in biocompatible membranes, like liposomes (Ls) and cyclodextrins (CDs), on Néel-Brown magnetic relaxation and maximum SAR, are presented and discussed in this paper, within the biological admitted limit

  15. Superparamagnetic nanoplatforms for theragnostic applications: a structural investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Aoun, Bachir; Li, Tao; Sun, Chengjun; Ren, Yang

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic nanoplatforms are being developed for use in bioassays, diagnosis, therapy and nano-organocatalysis. The nanoparticle has two essential roles: to act as a probe owing to its specific magnetic properties and to carry on its surface antitumoral molecules, precursor groups for the covalent coupling of biological recognition molecules, or small organic catalysts such as amino acids and alkaloids. The nanoplatforms consist of a superparamagnetic iron oxide core and different coatings for surface passivation and stabilization. We report recent results obtained at the Advanced Photon Source on three kinds of nanoplatforms, differing in their coating molecules: shape and size determination by small-angle X-ray scattering, distribution of valences and chemical environments of the iron ions deduced from X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements, and atomic structures determined by x-ray diffraction.

  16. Design and construction of polymerized-chitosan coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles and its application for hydrophobic drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yongling [Key Laboratory for Liquid–solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Shen, Shirley Z. [Materials Science and Engineering, CSIRO, Highett Vic 3190 (Australia); Sun, Huadong [College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qing Dao 266555 (China); Sun, Kangning, E-mail: sunkangning@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu, Futian, E-mail: mse_liuft@ujn.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Qi, Yushi; Yan, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel hydrogel, chitosan (CS) crosslinked carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) polymer modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized for delivering hydrophobic anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (CS-CDpoly-MNPs). Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin being grafted on the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (CDpoly-MNPs) contributed to an enhancement of adsorption capacities because of the inclusion abilities of its hydrophobic cavity with insoluble anticancer drugs through host–guest interactions. Experimental results indicated that the amounts of crosslinking agent and bonding times played a crucial role in determining morphology features of the hybrid nanocarriers. The nanocarriers exhibited a high loading efficiency (44.7 ± 1.8%) with a high saturation magnetization of 43.8 emu/g. UV–Vis spectroscopy results showed that anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) could be successfully included into the cavities of the covalently linked CDpoly-MNPs. Moreover, the free carboxymethyl groups could enhance the bonding interactions between the covalently linked CDpoly-MNPs and anticancer drugs. In vitro release studies revealed that the release behaviors of CS-CDpoly-MNPs carriers were pH dependent and demonstrated a swelling and diffusion controlled release. A lower pH value led to swelling effect and electrostatic repulsion contributing to the protonation amine impact of NH{sub 3}{sup +}, and thus resulted in a higher release rate of 5-Fu. The mechanism of 5-Fu encapsulated into the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was tentatively proposed. - Graphical abstract: A novel nanocarrier, chitosan-coated magnetic drug carrier nanoparticle (CS-CDpoly-MNPs) is fabricated for the delivery of insoluble anticancer drug by grafting CM-β-CD onto the magnetite surface. The grafting of CM-dextrins onto the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystal clusters can markedly increase the loading capacity of 5-Fu by virtue of CM-dextrins/5-Fu inclusion complex

  17. Design and construction of polymerized-chitosan coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and its application for hydrophobic drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a novel hydrogel, chitosan (CS) crosslinked carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) polymer modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized for delivering hydrophobic anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (CS-CDpoly-MNPs). Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin being grafted on the Fe3O4 nanoparticles (CDpoly-MNPs) contributed to an enhancement of adsorption capacities because of the inclusion abilities of its hydrophobic cavity with insoluble anticancer drugs through host–guest interactions. Experimental results indicated that the amounts of crosslinking agent and bonding times played a crucial role in determining morphology features of the hybrid nanocarriers. The nanocarriers exhibited a high loading efficiency (44.7 ± 1.8%) with a high saturation magnetization of 43.8 emu/g. UV–Vis spectroscopy results showed that anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) could be successfully included into the cavities of the covalently linked CDpoly-MNPs. Moreover, the free carboxymethyl groups could enhance the bonding interactions between the covalently linked CDpoly-MNPs and anticancer drugs. In vitro release studies revealed that the release behaviors of CS-CDpoly-MNPs carriers were pH dependent and demonstrated a swelling and diffusion controlled release. A lower pH value led to swelling effect and electrostatic repulsion contributing to the protonation amine impact of NH3+, and thus resulted in a higher release rate of 5-Fu. The mechanism of 5-Fu encapsulated into the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was tentatively proposed. - Graphical abstract: A novel nanocarrier, chitosan-coated magnetic drug carrier nanoparticle (CS-CDpoly-MNPs) is fabricated for the delivery of insoluble anticancer drug by grafting CM-β-CD onto the magnetite surface. The grafting of CM-dextrins onto the surface of Fe3O4 nanocrystal clusters can markedly increase the loading capacity of 5-Fu by virtue of CM-dextrins/5-Fu inclusion complex formation. The release of 5-Fu from nanocomposite

  18. ROS-induced toxicity: exposure of 3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7 cells to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results in cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Hui-Chen, E-mail: d93548008@ntu.edu.tw; Chen, Chung-Ming, E-mail: chung@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Hsieh, Wen-Yuan, E-mail: hsiehw@itri.org.tw [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Biomedical Technology and Device Research Labs (China); Chen, Ching-Yun, E-mail: chingyun523@gmail.com; Liu, Chia-Ching, E-mail: d95548005@ntu.edu.tw; Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China)

    2015-02-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, SPIO) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging enhancers for years. However, bio-safety issues concerning nanoparticles remain largely unexplored. Of particular concern is the possible cellular impact of nanoparticles during SPIO uptake and subsequent oxidative stress. SPIO causes cell death by apoptosis via a little understood mitochondrial pathway. To more closely examine this process, three kinds of cells—3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7—were treated with SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (SPIO-PEG) and monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using cytotoxicity evaluation, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Annexin V assay. TEM revealed that SPIO-PEG nanoparticles surrounded the cellular endosome membrane, creating a bulge in the endosome. Compared to 3T3 cells, greater numbers of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles infiltrated the mitochondria of RAW264.7 and MCF7 cells. SPIO-PEG residency is associated with boosted ROS, with elevated levels of mitochondrial activity, and advancement of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that a polynomial model demonstrates a better fit than a linear model in MCF7, implying that cytotoxicity may have alternative impacts on cell death at different concentrations. Thus, we believe that MCF7 cell death results from the apoptosis pathway triggered by mitochondria, and we find lower cytotoxicity in 3T3. We propose that optimal levels of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles lead to increased levels of ROS and a resulting oxidative stress environment which will kill only cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This finding has great potential for use in cancer therapies in the future.

  19. ROS-induced toxicity: exposure of 3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7 cells to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results in cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, SPIO) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging enhancers for years. However, bio-safety issues concerning nanoparticles remain largely unexplored. Of particular concern is the possible cellular impact of nanoparticles during SPIO uptake and subsequent oxidative stress. SPIO causes cell death by apoptosis via a little understood mitochondrial pathway. To more closely examine this process, three kinds of cells—3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7—were treated with SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (SPIO-PEG) and monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using cytotoxicity evaluation, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Annexin V assay. TEM revealed that SPIO-PEG nanoparticles surrounded the cellular endosome membrane, creating a bulge in the endosome. Compared to 3T3 cells, greater numbers of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles infiltrated the mitochondria of RAW264.7 and MCF7 cells. SPIO-PEG residency is associated with boosted ROS, with elevated levels of mitochondrial activity, and advancement of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that a polynomial model demonstrates a better fit than a linear model in MCF7, implying that cytotoxicity may have alternative impacts on cell death at different concentrations. Thus, we believe that MCF7 cell death results from the apoptosis pathway triggered by mitochondria, and we find lower cytotoxicity in 3T3. We propose that optimal levels of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles lead to increased levels of ROS and a resulting oxidative stress environment which will kill only cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This finding has great potential for use in cancer therapies in the future

  20. Iron nanoparticles grown in a carbon arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.; du Marchie van Voorthuysen, E.; Szymanski, K.; Boom, G.; Verwerft, M.; Jonkman, H.; Niesen, L. [Kijksuniversitet Groningen (Netherlands). Materials Science Centre

    1996-02-01

    Iron particles, encapsulated by graphite layers, were produced by means of the Kratschmer arc discharge method in an iron pentacarbonyl atmosphere. The Moessbauer effect is dominated by the vibration of the particles as a whole. Superparamagnetism is dominant for iron oxide particles. No endohedral iron fullerenes were observed, contrary to a previous report.

  1. Iron nanoparticles grown in a carbon arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron particles, encapsulated by graphite layers, were produced by means of the Kratschmer arc discharge method in an iron pentacarbonyl atmosphere. The Moessbauer effect is dominated by the vibration of the particles as a whole. Superparamagnetism is dominant for iron oxide particles. No endohedral iron fullerenes were observed, contrary to a previous report

  2. Magnetostructural study of iron sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic and structural analyses have been performed on an iron sucrose complex used as a haematinic agent. The system contains two-line ferrihydrite particles of about 5 nm that are superparamagnetic above approximately 50 K. The observed low-temperature magnetic dynamics of this compound is closer to simple models than in the case of other iron-containing drugs for intravenous use like iron dextran

  3. Study of the interactivity between mercury and cellular system labeled with carboxymethyl chitosan-coated quantum dots and its application in a real-time in-situ detection of mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenyu; Zhou, Peijiang; Zhu, Honghao

    2015-03-01

    In this study, canine kidney cells (MDCK) are fluorescently labeled by carboxymethyl chitosan-coated CdTe quantum dots to obtain a stable fluorescence. Fluorescently labeled MDCK cells are incubated with Hg2+ and passed flow cytometer to measure the mean fluorescence intensity, which shows [Hg2+] has a prominent quenching ability on the cells' fluorescence. The dose-dependent relation can be described by Stern-Volmer equation at the concentration range of 5-70 μg/L [Hg2+]. This method can be employed to determine the concentration of Hg2+ in living cells by measuring the changes in fluorescence of the cellular system. The results show a relative standard deviation of 7.16% (n = 11) and a recovery rate ranging from 92% to 103%, indicating a promising prospect of application on real-time in-situ analysis of [Hg2+] and its cytotoxic effects.

  4. Parametric characterizations in superparamagnetic latex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seda Beyaz; Hakan Kockar; Taner Tanrisever

    2014-05-01

    The effect of synthesis parameters on the production of superparamagnetic latex, which are magnetite nanoparticles covered with a poly(methyl methacrylate) layer, were studied. The synthesis method was based on the developed route of emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization. Under this study, effects of the monomer and initiator concentrations, the amount of magnetic sol, the stirring rate and the adding rate of the magnetic sol on the properties of synthesized latexes were investigated. The characterizations were performed by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, a dynamic light scattering, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a gel permeation chromatography. The results showed that the monomer concentration was found to be the most effective parameter on latex stability. As the initiator amount and the stirring rate increased, saturation magnetization and average molecular weight decreased due to the reactions occurring between surfaces of magnetite nanoparticles and initiator fragments. On increasing amount of magnetic sol, the saturation magnetization and polymer molecular weight increased but the size of nanospheres was unchanged because of the ions in magnetic sol. It was seen that the desired size and magnetic properties of the latex could be obtained since the parameters were found to have substantial impact on their properties.

  5. Magnetic susceptibility artifacts with superparamagnetic gastrointestinal contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on superparamagnetic gastrointestinal contrast agents for MR imaging which have limited effectiveness because of magnetic susceptibility artifacts and image distortion. The authors hypothesize that these artifacts can be circumvented by optimizing the concentration and viscosity of the formulation. Phantom and canine studies (n = 39) were performed with a new superparamagnetic agent (WIN 39996, Sterling Drug). A 250 μg of iron per milliliter aqueous suspension was diluted from 10% - 100% wt/wt (10% increments). Viscosity varied from 1 to 600 CPS (150 CPS increments) using Xanthan gum. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T with spin-echo (TR/TE 300/15 and 2,000/35,70 with fat saturation) and gradient-echo sequences (25-40/13/30 degrees), initially and after 1 hour of gravitational settling. All concentrations at 1 CPS caused susceptibility artifacts. For 150-600 CPS formulations, 50% - 60% wt/wt concentrations yielded good negative contrast with the same susceptibility changes as air in vitro, and no susceptibility artifacts seen in vivo, even with gradient-echo and fat-saturated sequences, up to 1 hour. Higher concentrations produced artifacts; lower concentrations provided insufficient negative contrast

  6. Splenic red pulp macrophages are intrinsically superparamagnetic and contaminate magnetic cell isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Franken; Marika Klein; Marina Spasova; Anna Elsukova; Ulf Wiedwald; Meike Welz; Percy Knolle; Michael Farle; Andreas Limmer; Christian Kurts

    2015-01-01

    A main function of splenic red pulp macrophages is the degradation of damaged or aged erythrocytes. Here we show that these macrophages accumulate ferrimagnetic iron oxides that render them intrinsically superparamagnetic. Consequently, these cells routinely contaminate splenic cell isolates obtained with the use of MCS, a technique that has been widely used in immunological research for decades. These contaminations can profoundly alter experimental results. In mice deficient for the transcr...

  7. Monodisperse superparamagnetic nanoparticles by thermolysis of Fe(III) oleate and mandelate complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patsula, Vitalii; Petrovský, Eduard; Kovářová, Jana; Konefal, Rafal; Horák, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 9 (2014), s. 2097-2110. ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0381; GA MŠk 7E12053 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : superparamagnetic * nanoparticles * iron oxide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (GFU-E) Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  8. Formation of Magnetite Nanoparticles at Low Temperature: From Superparamagnetic to Stable Single Domain Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Jens; Bertinetti, Luca; Widdrat, Marc; Hirt, Ann M.; Faivre, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The room temperature co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric iron under alkaline conditions typically yields superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles below a size of 20 nm. We show that at pH  =  9 this method can be tuned to grow larger particles with single stable domain magnetic (> 20–30 nm) or even multi-domain behavior (> 80 nm). The crystal growth kinetics resembles surprisingly observations of magnetite crystal formation in magnetotactic bacteria. The physicochemical parameters require...

  9. Relaxometry imaging of superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles at ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Amit; Schmid-Lorch, Dominik; Häberle, Thomas; Reinhard, Friedemann; Zappe, Andrea; Slota, Michael; Bogani, Lapo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    We present a novel technique to image superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via their fluctuating magnetic fields. The detection is based on the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond, which allows optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements on its electron spin structure. In combination with an atomic-force-microscope, this atomic-sized color center maps ambient magnetic fields in a wide frequency range from DC up to several GHz, while retaining a high spatial resolution in the sub-nanometer range. We demonstrate imaging of single 10 nm sized magnetite nanoparticles using this spin noise detection technique. By fitting simulations (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) to the data, we are able to infer additional information on such a particle and its dynamics, like the attempt frequency and the anisotropy constant. This is of high interest to the proposed application of magnetite nanoparticles as an alternative MRI contrast agent or to the field of particle-aided tumor hyperthermia.

  10. Superparamagnetic particles as an oral MR imaging contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new superparamagnetic oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent has been developed that reduces the signal from the bowel due to T2 shortening. The contrast agent consists of monodisperse resin carrier particles with a diameter of approximately 3.5 μm and containing 20% magnetic iron oxide. The contrast agent produced a satisfactory lowering of the signal intensity with different spin-echo sequences at a dose of 0.1-1.0g of particles in 1,000 mL of water; and lower doses were needed with gradient-echo and phase-contrast sequences. In an examination of 25 volunteers and patients with malignant lymphoma, the depiction of normal and pathologic structures was enhanced after administration of the contrast medium

  11. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-inclusion microbubbles for ultrasound contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Li, Ling; Li, Yixin; Chen, Zhongping; Wu, Junru; Gu, Ning

    2008-11-01

    We have developed a new type of ultrasound (US) contrast agent, consisting of a gas core, a layer of superparamagnetic iron oxide Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SPIO) and an oil in water outermost layer. The newly developed US contrast agent microbubbles have a mean diameter of 760 nm with a polydisperity index (PI) of 0.699. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that they have the following advantages compared to gas-encapsulated microbbubbles without SPIO inclusion: (1) they provide better contrast for US images; (2) the SPIO-inclusion microbubbles generate a higher backscattering signal; the mean grey scale is 97.9, which is 38.6 higher than that of microbubbles without SPIO; and (3) since SPIO can also serve as a contrast agent of magnetic resonance images (MRI) in vitro, they can be potentially used as contrast agents for double-modality (MRI and US) clinical studies.

  12. Superparamagnetic photocurable nanocomposite for the fabrication of microcantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suter, M; Ergeneman, O; Zürcher, J; Schmid, Silvan; Camenzind, A; Nelson, B J; Hierold, C

    2011-01-01

    We present a photocurable polymer composite with superparamagnetic characteristics for the fabrication of microcantilevers. Uniform distribution and low particle agglomeration (......We present a photocurable polymer composite with superparamagnetic characteristics for the fabrication of microcantilevers. Uniform distribution and low particle agglomeration (...

  13. Thin Polymer Layers with Superparamagnetic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Trommer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic particles were widely used in medical applications as well as for magnetic sensors and actuators. Generally, the size of the particles is in the range of 10–20 nm. To use such particles in large-scale applications, a simple processing as well as the use of commercially available particles is required. Therefore superparamagnetic nanoparticles available on the market were incorporated in flexible polymer films and the magnetic properties of the films were investigated. At ambient temperature no significant hysteresis was observed, indicating the superparamagnetic properties. Films containing up to 25% nanoparticles were prepared. The films show a saturation magnetization of 13.8 Am2/kg and a coercivity of 7 Oe at ambient temperature.

  14. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Nathan

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a magnetic nanoparticle conjugate that can potentially serve as both a contrast enhancement agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as a drug carrier in controlled drug release, targeted for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. In this work, we developed a unique method to synthesize well-dispersed 10-nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) without using chemical surfactants. This approach is especially advantageous for subsequent surface modification of nanoparticles with functional coatings. To target the SPION for cancer cells in vivo to facilitate MRI contrast enhancement of tumors, we immobilized folic acid on the particle surface. Folic acid is a low molecular weight growth factor over-expressed on many forms of cancer. The covalent immobilization of folic acid to the nanoparticle surface was characterized with FTIR and the intracellular uptake of the folic acid nanoparticles was visualized with scanning confocal microscopy. To use SPION for controlled drug release, we immobilized methotrexate (MTX), a chemotherapeutic drug, to the nanoparticle surface. MTX-modified nanoparticles have several combined advantages including real-time monitoring of drug delivery using MRI, higher intracellular concentrations of methotrexate that increase cellular cytotoxicity, and reduced non-specific uptake by healthy cells within the body. We successfully conducted drug release experiments demonstrating that MTX was released under low pH conditions that mimic the intracellular conditions in the lysozome. To assess cellular cytotoxicity, we tested MTX-nanoparticle conjugates in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and glioma cells (9L), and showed that the drug efficacy of MTX-nanoparticle conjugates was similar to that of free MTX. To improve nanoparticle circulation time and intracellular uptake, we developed a novel bifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) SAM capable of

  15. Iron oxide-based nanomagnets in nanomedicine: fabrication and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Meng Lin; Hyung-Hwan Kim; Hyuck Kim; Mamoun Muhammed; Do Kyung Kim

    2010-01-01

    Iron oxide-based nanomagnets have attracted a great deal of attention in nanomedicine over the past decade. Down to the nanoscale, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can only be magnetized in the presence of an external magnetic field, which makes them capable of forming stable colloids in a physio-biological medium. Their superparamagnetic property, together with other intrinsic properties, such as low cytotoxicity, colloidal stability, and bioactive molecule conjugation capability, ...

  16. Magnetic Force Microscopy of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Tanya M.

    In recent years, both synthetic as well as naturally occurring superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNs) have become increasingly important in biomedicine. For instance, iron deposits in many pathological tissues are known to contain an accumulation of the superparamagnetic protein, ferritin. Additionally, man-made SPNs have found biomedical applications ranging from cell-tagging in vitro to contrast agents for in vivo diagnostic imaging. Despite the widespread use and occurrence of SPNs, detection and characterization of their magnetic properties, especially at the single-particle level and/or in biological samples, remains a challenge. Magnetic signals arising from SPNs can be complicated by factors such as spatial distribution, magnetic anisotropy, particle aggregation and magnetic dipolar interaction, thereby confounding their analysis. Techniques that can detect SPNs at the single particle level are therefore highly desirable. The goal of this thesis was to develop an analytical microscopy technique, namely magnetic force microscopy (MFM), to detect and spatially localize synthetic and natural SPNs for biomedical applications. We aimed to (1) increase MFM sensitivity to detect SPNs at the single-particle level and (2) quantify and spatially localize iron-ligated proteins (ferritin) in vitro and in biological samples using MFM. Two approaches were employed to improve MFM sensitivity. First, we showed how exploitation of magnetic anisotropy could produce a higher, more uniform MFM signal from single SPNs. Second, we showed how an increase in probe magnetic moment increased both the magnitude and range up to which the MFM signal could be detected from a single SPN. We further showed how MFM could enable accurate quantitative estimation of ferritin content in ferritin-apoferritin mixtures. Finally, we demonstrated how MFM could be used to detect iron/ferritin in serum and animal tissue with spatial resolution and sensitivity surpassing that obtained using

  17. Iron nanoparticles grown in a carbon arc discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.L.; du Marchie van Voorthuysen, E.H.; Szymanski, K.; Boom, G; Verwerft, M.G M; Jonkman, H.T.; Niesen, L

    1996-01-01

    Iron particles, encapsulated by graphite layers, were produced by means of the Kratschmer are discharge method in an iron pentacarbonyl atmosphere. The Mossbauer effect is dominated by the vibration of the particles as a whole. Superparamagnetism is dominant for iron oxide particles. No endohedral i

  18. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley; Svedlindh, P.; Jonsson, G.T.; Garcia-Palacios, J.L.; Lazaro, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies with...

  19. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  20. Splenic red pulp macrophages are intrinsically superparamagnetic and contaminate magnetic cell isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Lars; Klein, Marika; Spasova, Marina; Elsukova, Anna; Wiedwald, Ulf; Welz, Meike; Knolle, Percy; Farle, Michael; Limmer, Andreas; Kurts, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A main function of splenic red pulp macrophages is the degradation of damaged or aged erythrocytes. Here we show that these macrophages accumulate ferrimagnetic iron oxides that render them intrinsically superparamagnetic. Consequently, these cells routinely contaminate splenic cell isolates obtained with the use of MCS, a technique that has been widely used in immunological research for decades. These contaminations can profoundly alter experimental results. In mice deficient for the transcription factor SpiC, which lack red pulp macrophages, liver Kupffer cells take over the task of erythrocyte degradation and become superparamagnetic. We describe a simple additional magnetic separation step that avoids this problem and substantially improves purity of magnetic cell isolates from the spleen. PMID:26260698

  1. Synthesis of superparamagnetic particles with tunable morphologies: the role of nanoparticle-nanoparticle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, James J; Platt, Mark; Kilinc, Devrim; Lee, Gil

    2013-02-26

    Superparamagnetic microparticles are extensively used in the purification of biomolecules due to the speed and ease of magnetic separation. It is desirable that the microparticles used in biological affinity separations have both high surface area and high magnetic mobility to facilitate a high binding capacity of target biomolecules and their rapid removal from solution, respectively. Scaling laws for conventional spherical superparamagnetic microparticles are such that increasing the microparticle specific surface area results in a significant decrease in the magnetic mobility. More favorable combinations of these key parameters can be found if alternative microparticle morphologies are developed for use in affinity separations. Emulsion-templated self-assembly of iron oxide nanoparticles into microparticles using oil-in-water emulsions was carried out using a modified Couette shear mixer with separate inlet ports for the oil and aqueous phases, enabling high throughput microparticle synthesis. By controlling the dissolved nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle surface activity at the droplet interfaces, the resulting microparticles were tuned to spherical, dimpled, or crumpled morphologies. The specific binding capacity and magnetic mobility of each type of microparticle were measured by a peroxidase-based colorimetric assay and by their magnetic field-induced motion in a viscous fluid, respectively. Superparamagnetic microparticles with dimpled and crumpled morphologies were found to have higher specific binding capacities compared to spherical microparticles, while maintaining high magnetic field velocities due to their high iron oxide content. Superparamagnetic microparticles with these novel morphologies would make excellent tools for affinity-based bioseparations where binding capacity and magnetic mobility are key factors. PMID:23373513

  2. Effects of Superparamagnetic Iron-oxide Particles-Labeling on the Multidiffentiation of Rabbit Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Vitro%超顺磁性氧化铁标记对骨髓间充质干细胞多向分化诱导的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金旭红; 杨柳; 张寿; 段小军; 王富友; 谭洪波

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to label rabbit bone derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with superpara-magnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) and to study the effects of magnetic labeling on the multi-differentiation of BMSCs. Rabbit BMSCs were isolated, purified, expanded, then coincubated with SPIOC25 μg/ml) complexed to prota-mine sulfate (Pro) transfection agents overnight. Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to show intracellular iron. Cell differentiation was evaluated. Both labeled and unlabeled BMSCs were subjected to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation to assess their differentiation capacity for 21 d. Osteogenic cells were stained with alizarin red to reveal calcium deposition, adipogenic cells were stained with oil red-O'respectively. Chondrogenic cells stained with Safranin-O, glycosamino glycans, and type II collagen production was assessed by standard immunohistochemistry. Cell with immunohistochemistry staining were detected by polarized light microscopy and analysed by Image-Pro Plus software. The results showed that intracytoplasmic nanoparti-cles were stained with Prussian blue and observed by transmission electron microscopy clearly except the unlabeled control. As compared with the nonlabeled cells, it showed no statistically significant difference on the differentiation of the labeled BMSCs. And the differentiation of the labeled cells were unaffected by the endosomal incorporation of SPIO. In summary, BMSCs can be labeled with SPIO without significant change in cell multi-differentiation capacity.%研究兔骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)经超顺磁性氧化铁(SPIO)标记后,体外成骨、成脂及成软骨诱导能力的变化.体外贴壁培养和扩增兔BMSCs,采用SPIO(25μg/ml)联合硫酸鱼精蛋白转染剂标记兔BMSCs,分别采用适宜的成骨、成脂及成软骨诱导培养液对磁标记BMSCs进行体外定向诱导培养3周,诱导过程中观察细胞形态学变化.3

  3. In vivo tracing of superparamagnetic iron oxide-labeled

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Jing-liang; YANG Yun-jun; Li, Hua-Li; Wang, Juan; WANG Mei-hao; Zhang, Yong

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a great progress has beenmade in the management of central nervous system disease such asbrain trauma by transplantationof bonemarrow stromal cells.1 Fluorescence microscopy of host brain sections can trace and show the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) labeled with green fluorescent protein. However, in clinic we need a noninvasive approach. In vivo monitoring of magnetically labeled stem cells by routine MRI ...

  4. Effects of irradiation-degradated chitosan coating on quality and shelf-life of the fruits of Shatang Mandarin, Fortunella Margariat (LOUR) swingle and Lycopersicon Esculentum MILL. var. cerasiforme alef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of irradiation-degradated chiotosan of different molecular weight on weight loss, rotting rate, total acid, soluble solid content, and ascorbic acid in Shatang mandarin, Fortunella margarita (lour) Swingle, and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme Alef during storage were investigated. The result showed that, compared to control, all chitosan treatment could significantly reduce weight loss and rotting rate, and maintain the content of total acid, soluble solid, and ascorbic acid. After 18 days of storage, treatment of chitosan with molecular weight of 6.6 x 104 Da showed the highest capability of decreasing the rotting rate in S. mandarin, F. margarita, L. esculentum by 71.11%, 66.01% and 70.22%, respectively; increasing total acid by 55.60%, 36.75% and 36.68%, soluble solid content by 49.06%, 25.75% and 49.46%, and ascorbic acid by 42.80%, 41.65% and 51.70%, respectively. Accordingly, irradiation-degradated chitosan coating could effectively prevent the rotting rate and preserve the quality of the three kinds of fruit during storage and thus prolong their shelf life to 18 days. (authors)

  5. Superparamagnetic response of zinc ferrite incrusted nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Incrusted nanoparticles are found at the surface of ZnFe2O4 microparticles. • Magnetic contribution of nano and microparticles are analyzed by different models. • Langevin model is used to calculate the nanoparticles-superparamagnetic diameter. • Susceptibility and Langevin analysis and calculations agree with experimental data. - Abstract: Zinc ferrite is synthesized via mechano-activation, followed by thermal treatment. Spinel ZnFe2O4 single phase is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. SEM micrographs show large particles with average particle size 〈Dpart〉 = 1 μm, with particles in intimate contact. However, TEM micrographs show incrusted nanocrystallites at the particles surface, with average nanocrystallite size calculated as 〈Dinc〉 ≈ 5 nm. The blocking temperature at 118 K in the ZFC–FC curves indicates the presence of a superparamagnetic response which is attributable to the incrusted nanocrystallites. Moreover, the hysteresis loops show the coexistence of superpara- and paramagnetic responses. The former is observable at the low field region; meanwhile, the second one is responsible of the lack of saturation at high field region. This last behavior is related to a paramagnetic contribution coming from well-ordered crystalline microdomains. The hysteresis loops are analyzed by means of two different models. The first one is the susceptibility model used to examine separately the para- and superparamagnetic contributions. The fittings with the theoretical model confirm the presence of the above mentioned magnetic contributions. Finally, using the Langevin-based model, the average superparamagnetic diameter 〈DSPM〉 is calculated. The obtained value 〈DSPM〉 = 4.7 nm (∼5 nm) is consistent with the average nanocrystallite size observed by TEM

  6. Superparamagnetic response of zinc ferrite incrusted nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Maldonado, K.L., E-mail: liliana.lopez.maldonado@gmail.com [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Del Charro 450 norte, 32310 Ciudad Juárez (Mexico); Presa, P. de la, E-mail: pmpresa@ucm.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (UCM-ADIF-CSIC), PO Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Dpto. Física de Materiales, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Betancourt, I., E-mail: israelb@unam.mx [Departamento de Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Farias Mancilla, J.R., E-mail: rurik.farias@uacj.mx [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Del Charro 450 norte, 32310 Ciudad Juárez (Mexico); Matutes Aquino, J.A., E-mail: jose.matutes@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Hernando, A., E-mail: antonio.hernando@externos.adif.es [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (UCM-ADIF-CSIC), PO Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas (Spain); Dpto. Física de Materiales, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Incrusted nanoparticles are found at the surface of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} microparticles. • Magnetic contribution of nano and microparticles are analyzed by different models. • Langevin model is used to calculate the nanoparticles-superparamagnetic diameter. • Susceptibility and Langevin analysis and calculations agree with experimental data. - Abstract: Zinc ferrite is synthesized via mechano-activation, followed by thermal treatment. Spinel ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} single phase is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. SEM micrographs show large particles with average particle size 〈D{sub part}〉 = 1 μm, with particles in intimate contact. However, TEM micrographs show incrusted nanocrystallites at the particles surface, with average nanocrystallite size calculated as 〈D{sub inc}〉 ≈ 5 nm. The blocking temperature at 118 K in the ZFC–FC curves indicates the presence of a superparamagnetic response which is attributable to the incrusted nanocrystallites. Moreover, the hysteresis loops show the coexistence of superpara- and paramagnetic responses. The former is observable at the low field region; meanwhile, the second one is responsible of the lack of saturation at high field region. This last behavior is related to a paramagnetic contribution coming from well-ordered crystalline microdomains. The hysteresis loops are analyzed by means of two different models. The first one is the susceptibility model used to examine separately the para- and superparamagnetic contributions. The fittings with the theoretical model confirm the presence of the above mentioned magnetic contributions. Finally, using the Langevin-based model, the average superparamagnetic diameter 〈D{sub SPM}〉 is calculated. The obtained value 〈D{sub SPM}〉 = 4.7 nm (∼5 nm) is consistent with the average nanocrystallite size observed by TEM.

  7. In vitro removal of toxic heavy metals by poly(γ-glutamic acid)-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin-Huei

    2012-01-01

    Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen University, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Chelation therapy involving organic chelators for treatment of heavy metal intoxication can cause cardiac arrest, kidney overload, mineral deficiency, and anemia.Methods: In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) modified with an edible biopolymer poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) were synthesized by coprecipitation...

  8. Super-paramagnetic nanoparticles synthesis in a thermal plasma reactor assisted by magnetic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaya, R.; Puerta, J.; Martín, P.

    2015-03-01

    The present work is a study of the synthesis of super-paramagnetic particles. A preliminary study based on thermodynamic diagrams of Gibbs free energy minimization, was performed with the CSIRO Thermochemical System. In this way, the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles from precursor powder of ore iron in a thermal reactor, was performed. Then the process was simulated mathematically using magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic equations, in order to predict the synthesis process. A cylindrical reactor assisted by magnetic mirrors was used. The peak intensity of 0.1 tesla (1000 Gauss) was measured at the end of the solenoid. A PlazjetTM 105/15 thermal plasma torch was used. The precursor powder was iron oxide and the plasma gas, nitrogen. The magnetite powder was magnetized whit rare-earth super-magnets, alloy of neodymium-iron boron (NdFeB) grade N-42. The synthesized nanoparticles diameters was measured with a scanning electron microscope LECO and the permanent magnetization with a YOKOGAWA gauss meter, model 325i. Our experimental results show that it is possible the synthesis of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles in thermal plasma reactors.

  9. Effects of magnetic dipolar interactions on the specific time constant in superparamagnetic nanoparticle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, N.; Schinteie, G.; Bartha, C.; Palade, P.; Vekas, L.; Kuncser, V.

    2016-07-01

    A quantitative treatment of the effects of magnetic mutual interactions on the specific absorption rate of a superparamagnetic system of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid is reported. The nanoparticle concentration of the considered ferrofluid samples varied from a very low (0.005) to a medium (0.16) value of the volume fraction, whereas the amplitude of the exciting AC magnetic field ranged from 14–35 kA m‑1. It was proved that a direct effect of the interparticle interactions resides in the regime of the modified superparamagnetism, dealing, besides the usual increase in the anisotropy energy barrier per nanoparticle, with the decrease in the specific time constant {τ0} of the relaxation law, usually considered as a material constant. Consequently, the increase in the specific absorption rate versus the volume fraction is significantly diminished in the presence of the interparticle interactions compared to the case of non-interacting superparamagnetic nanoparticles, with direct influence on the magnetic hyperthermia efficiency.

  10. Formation of magnetite nanoparticles at low temperature: from superparamagnetic to stable single domain particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumgartner

    Full Text Available The room temperature co-precipitation of ferrous and ferric iron under alkaline conditions typically yields superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles below a size of 20 nm. We show that at pH  =  9 this method can be tuned to grow larger particles with single stable domain magnetic (> 20-30 nm or even multi-domain behavior (> 80 nm. The crystal growth kinetics resembles surprisingly observations of magnetite crystal formation in magnetotactic bacteria. The physicochemical parameters required for mineralization in these organisms are unknown, therefore this study provides insight into which conditions could possibly prevail in the biomineralizing vesicle compartments (magnetosomes of these bacteria.

  11. Intrinsically superparamagnetic Fe-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles positively influence osteoblast-like cell behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panseri Silvia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been progressively explored for their potential in biomedical applications and in particular as a contrast agent for diagnostic imaging, for magnetic drug delivery and more recently for tissue engineering applications. Considering the importance of having safe MNPs for such applications, and the essential role of iron in bone remodelling, this study developed and analysed novel biocompatible and bioreabsorbable superparamagnetic nanoparticles, that avoid the use of poorly tolerated magnetite based nanoparticles, for bone tissue engineering applications. Results MNPs were obtained by doping hydroxyapatite (HA with Fe ions, by directly substituting Fe2+ and Fe3+ into the HA structure yielding superparamagnetic bioactive phase. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of increasing concentrations (2000 μg/ml; 1000 μg/ml; 500 μg/ml; 200 μg/ml of FeHA MNPs in vitro using Saos-2 human osteoblast-like cells cultured for 1, 3 and 7 days with and without the exposure to a static magnetic field of 320 mT. Results demonstrated not only a comparable osteoblast viability and morphology, but increased in cell proliferation, when compared to a commercially available Ha nanoparticles, even with the highest dose used. Furthermore, FeHA MNPs exposure to the static magnetic field resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation throughout the experimental period, and higher osteoblast activity. In vivo preliminary results demonstrated good biocompatibility of FeHA superparamagnetic material four weeks after implantation into a critical size lesion of the rabbit condyle. Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that these novel FeHA MNPs may be particularly relevant for strategies of bone tissue regeneration and open new perspectives for the application of a static magnetic field in a clinical setting of bone replacement, either for diagnostic imaging or

  12. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley; Svedlindh, P.; Jonsson, G.T.; Garcia-Palacios, J.L.; Lazaro, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies with...... temperature in accordance with Ni el's expression, tau = tau(0) exp (KV/kT) with tau(0) = (1.0 +/- 0.5) x 10(-10) s and K = (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(5) J m(-3). (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Magnetic resonance in superparamagnetic zinc ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jitendra Pal Singh; Gagan Dixit; R C Srivastava; Hemant Kumar; H M Agrawal; Prem Chand

    2013-08-01

    In the present work, we have synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles by nitrate method. Presence of almost zero value of coercivity and remanence in the hysteresis of these samples shows the superparamagnetic nature at room temperature. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy performed on these samples in the temperature range 120–300 K indicates the systematic variation of the line-shapes of the spectra with temperature. Both gvalue and peak-to-peak linewidth decrease with increase in temperature. The variation of g-values and peak-topeak linewidth with temperature has been fitted with existing models and we observed different values of activation energies of the spins for both the samples.

  14. Preparation of thermocleavable conjugates based on ansamitocin and superparamagnetic nanostructured particles by a chemobiosynthetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Lena; Knobloch, Tobias; Buchholz, Jessica; Hartwig, Jan; Möller, Lena; Seidel, Katja; Collisi, Wera; Sasse, Florenz; Kirschning, Andreas

    2014-12-22

    A combination of mutasynthesis, precursor-directed biosynthesis and semisynthesis provides access to new ansamitocin derivatives including new nanostructured particle-drug conjugates. These conjugates are based on the toxin ansamitocin and superparamagnetic iron oxide-silica core shell particles. New ansamitocin derivatives that are functionalized either with alkynyl- or azido groups in the ester side chain at C-3 are attached to nanostructured iron oxide core-silica shell particles. Upon exposure to an oscillating electromagnetic field these conjugates heat up and the ansamitocin derivatives are released by a retro-Diels-Alder reaction. For example, one ansamitocin derivative exerts strong antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines in the lower nanomolar range while the corresponding nanostructured particle-drug conjugate is not toxic. Therefore, these new conjugates can serve as dormant toxins that can be employed simultaneously in hyperthermia and chemotherapy when external inductive heating is applied. PMID:25346489

  15. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  16. Superparamagnetic particles as possible contrast agents for NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of 'magneto-pharmaceuticals' plays an important role in the extension of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for diagnostic medicine. Fundamental investigations leading to the new area of NMR contrast agents are considered. Superparamagnetic particles represent a new class of NMR contrast agents that usually referred to as T2 or T*2 contrast agents as opposed to T1 agents, such as paramagnetic chelates. Another novelty presented by superparamagnetic agents is their specific distribution. The synthesis and the transverse R2 and longitudinal R1 relaxivity measurements of some ferro-, ferri- and superparamagnetic particles suspensions are presented. (authors)

  17. Development and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (Part 1): Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Contrast agents, such as iron oxide, enhance MR images by altering the relaxation times of tissues in which the agent is present. They can also be used to label targeted molecular imaging probes. Unfortunately, no molecular imaging probe is currently available on the clinical MRI market. A promising platform for MRI contrast agent development is nanotechnology, where superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS) are tailored for MR contrast enhancement, and/or for molecular imaging. SPI...

  18. Magnetic manipulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a microfluidic system for drug delivery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiotis, L.; Theodorakos, I.; Samothrakitis, S.; Papazoglou, S.; Zergioti, I.; Raptis, Y. S.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS), have attracted major interest, due to their small size and unique magnetic properties, for drug delivery applications. In this context, iron oxide nanoparticles of magnetite (Fe3O4) (150 nm magnetic core diameter), were used as drug carriers, aiming to form a magnetically controlled nano-platform. The navigation capabilities of the iron oxide nanoparticles in a microfluidic channel were investigated by simulating the magnetic field and the magnetic force applied on the magnetic nanoparticles inside a microfluidic chip. The simulations have been performed using finite element method (ANSY'S software). The optimum setup which intends to simulate the magnetic navigation of the nanoparticles, by the use of MRI-type fields, in the human circulatory system, consists of two parallel permanent magnets to produce a homogeneous magnetic field, in order to ensure the maximum magnetization of the magnetic nanoparticles, an electromagnet for the induction of the magnetic gradients and the creation of the magnetic force and a microfluidic setup so as to simulate the blood flow inside the human blood vessels. The magnetization of the superparamagnetic nanoparticles and the consequent magnetic torque developed by the two permanent magnets, together with the mutual interactions between the magnetized nanoparticles lead to the creation of rhabdoid aggregates in the direction of the homogeneous field. Additionally, the magnetic gradients introduced by the operation of the electromagnet are capable of directing the aggregates, as a whole, to the desired direction. By removing the magnetic fields, the aggregates are disrupted, due to the super paramagnetic nature of the nanoparticles, avoiding thus the formation of undesired thrombosis.

  19. Magnetic resonance tracking of endothelial progenitor cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron ox-ide homing to the site of hepatoma%超顺磁性氧化铁纳米粒子标记内皮祖细胞靶向肝癌的MR实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦筱莉; 范海健; 牡丹; 余德才; 杨军; 朱斌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To track the migration and incorporation of intravenously injected, magneti⁃cally labeled endothelial progenitor cells ( EPCs) from mouse bone marrow into the blood vessels in a rapid⁃ly growing HCC model by microMR (7.0 T). Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Com⁃mittee on Animal Research. H22 hepatic ascitic cancer cells was directly injected into the left liver lobe of BALB/c nude mice ( n=15) . EPCs derived from bone marrow of C57BL/6 mice were isolated and cultured. The third passage EPCs were collected and labeled with 25 μg/ml superparamagnetic iron oxide ( SPIO) and poly⁃l⁃lysine (PLL) complex (SPIO⁃PLL). MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the difference of growth curve and apoptosis between labeled and unlabeled EPCs. EPCs labeled with SPIO⁃PLL were injected into mice via tail vein in experiment group (on the 3rd day after establishing HCC model) (n=15) and control group (n=6). The signal changes of tumor (the 1st, 3rd and 7th day after transplantation) were observed by microMR. Prussian blue staining and immunohistochemistry staining of CD31 were per⁃formed. MRI findings were confirmed by histomorphology. Two⁃sample t test was used to analyze the data. Results Single tumor was showed in the liver of all mice 3 d after establishing models. Labeling with SPIO⁃PLL at a concentration of 25μg/ml did not alter cell growth curve ( measured by MTT assay;t=0.281, P>0.05) and cell apoptosis (analyzed by flow cytometry). The apoptosis rates of SPIO⁃PLL labeled and un⁃labled EPCs were (12.31±1.43)% and (11.57±1.24)% in early stage, and (0.55±0.07)% and (0.49± 0�05)% in late stage. No significant differences were observed between them (t=0.967, 1.060; both P>0�05) . Migration and incorporation of transplanted and labeled cells into tumor were documented with in vivo microMR as low signal intensity at the tumor periphery as early as the 3rd day after EPCs administration in preformed tumors (4

  20. Iron and Iron Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Melike Sezgin Evim; Birol Baytan; Adalet Meral Güneş

    2012-01-01

    Iron is an essential element for almost all living organisms except some bacteria. A great number of new articles related to the iron metabolism have been published in recent years explaining new findings. Hepsidine, a peptide hormon, that is recently found, regulates iron methabolism by effecting iron absorbsion from gut, secreting iron from hepatic store and flows iron from macrophages. Hepsidin blockes to effluxe iron from cells by bounding to ferroportin and by inducing ferroportin destru...

  1. A novel approach to oral iron delivery using ferrous sulphate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariwala, M Gulrez; Elsaid, Naba; Jackson, Timothy L; Corral López, Francisco; Farnaud, Sebastien; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Renshaw, Derek

    2013-11-18

    Iron (Fe) loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN's) were formulated using stearic acid and iron absorption was evaluated in vitro using the cell line Caco-2 with intracellular ferritin formation as a marker of iron absorption. Iron loading was optimised at 1% Fe (w/w) lipid since an inverse relation was observed between initial iron concentration and SLN iron incorporation efficiency. Chitosan (Chi) was included to prepare chitosan coated SLN's. Particle size analysis revealed a sub-micron size range (300.3±31.75 nm to 495.1±80.42 nm), with chitosan containing particles having the largest dimensions. As expected, chitosan (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4% w/v) conferred a net positive charge on the particle surface in a concentration dependent manner. For iron absorption experiments equal doses of Fe (20 μM) from selected formulations (SLN-FeA and SLN-Fe-ChiB) were added to Caco-2 cells and intracellular ferritin protein concentrations determined. Caco-2 iron absorption from SLN-FeA (583.98±40.83 ng/mg cell protein) and chitosan containing SLN-Fe-ChiB (642.77±29.37 ng/mg cell protein) were 13.42% and 24.9% greater than that from ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) reference (514.66±20.43 ng/mg cell protein) (p≤0.05). We demonstrate for the first time preparation, characterisation and superior iron absorption in vitro from SLN's, suggesting the potential of these formulations as a novel system for oral iron delivery. PMID:24012860

  2. Superparamagnetism and dynamic transverse susceptibility in magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinu, L.; Srikanth, H.; O'Connor, C. J.

    2000-03-01

    Dynamic transverse susceptibility (\\chi _T) measurements yield important information about spin dynamics in magnetic materials. They also provide a very sensitive and unique way to probe the magnetic anisotropy in novel systems like nanoparticles. We have developed a resonant method based on a tunnel-diode oscillator (TDO) operating at around 5 MHz to accurately measure the variation in dynamic transverse susceptibility over a wide range in temperature (5K to 300K) and static magnetic fields (0 to 9 T). Our experiments on magnetic nanoparticles (γ -Fe_2O_3/Ag nanocomposites), synthesized using reverse-micelle technique, reveal singular peaks in the low temperature transverse susceptibility at characteristic anisotropy fields (± 400 Oe). As the temperature is increased, the peaks evolve from being asymmetric to symmetric and eventually disappear at high temperatures well into the superparamagnetic regime. For the first time, we have mapped the complete variation of \\chi T in the H-T plane. We have also theoretically analyzed our results based on coherent rotation and find good agreement with a two-level model developed by us that includes thermal relaxation effects. This work is supported by DARPA through grant No. MDA 972-97-1-003

  3. Superparamagnetic magnetization equation in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equation for the dependence of magnetization on magnetic field in the case of two-dimensional (base plane) anisotropy has been derived. The resulting equation is expressed as an infinite series of modified Bessel functions, unlike the elementary function expressions that are applicable to the one-dimensional (axially anisotropic) and three-dimensional (isotropic) cases. Nevertheless, in the low-field limit, the series can be effectively truncated to give an approximate solution, while, in the high-field limit, an alternative expression has been derived which represents the limiting function as the field strength tends to infinity. The resulting expressions can be used to describe the superparamagnetic magnetization and susceptibility as a function of magnetic field in situations where the magnetic moments are constrained to lie in a plane, with no preferred direction within the plane. This can therefore be applied to two-dimensional structures, such as magnetic thin films, where magnetostatic energy confines the moments to the plane of the film, or to three-dimensional structures with planar magnetocrystalline anisotropy. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Direct synthesis of water dispersible superparamagnetic TGA capped FePt nanoparticles: One pot, one shot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped hydrophilic fcc-FePt magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were directly synthesized by a facile one pot polyol method. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) was used to functionalize the nanoparticles by incorporating thiol group onto the surface. It helped in the preparation of highly stable dispersions of nanoparticles with spherical morphology. A possible formation mechanism for these FePt MNPs, depending on the role of TGA, was proposed. The as-prepared FePt MNPs possessed a face centered cubic structure with an average size of 6 ± 1 nm and superparamagnetic property at room temperature. MRI study showed that these MNPs exhibited a transverse relaxivity of ∼600 mg−1 ml s−1, superior to that of reported iron oxide nanoparticles. - Highlights: • One pot synthesis of TGA capped hydrophilic FePt superparamagnetic nanoparticles. • Role of TGA molecules in the formation of FePt nanoparticles. • EDX reveals the equiatomic ratio of Fe and Pt atoms in FePt nanoparticles. • The HR-TEM exhibits spherical nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution. • High transverse relaxivity suggesting as potential MRI contrast agent

  5. Magnetic and relaxometric properties of polyethylenimine-coated superparamagnetic MRI contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel systems to be employed as superparamagnetic contrast agents (CA) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been synthesized. These compounds are composed of an iron oxide magnetic core coated by polyethylenimine (PEI) or carboxylated polyethylenimine (PEI-COOH). The aim of the present work was to prepare and study new nanostructured systems (with better or at least comparable relaxivities, R1 and R2, with respect to the commercial ones) with controlled, almost monodisperse average dimensions and shape, as candidates for molecular targeting. By means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements we determined the average diameter, of the order of 200 nm, and the shape of the particles. The superparamagnetic behavior was assessed by SQUID measurements. From X-ray data the estimated average diameters of the magnetic cores were found to be ∼5.8 nm for PEI-COOH60 and ∼20 nm for the compound named PEI25. By NMR-dispersion (NMRD), we found that PEI-COOH60 presents R1 and R2 relaxivities slightly lower than Endorem. The experimental results suggest that these novel compounds can be used as MRI CA

  6. Preparation and properties of poly(acrylic acid) oligomer stabilized superparamagnetic ferrofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Lung; Lee, Chia-Fen; Chiu, Wen-Yen

    2005-11-15

    Ferrofluids, which are stable dispersions of magnetic particles, behave as liquids that have strong magnetic properties. Nanoparticles of magnetite with a mean diameter of 10-15 nm, which are in the range of superparamagnetism, are usually prepared by the traditional method of co-precipitation from ferrous and ferric electrolyte solution. When diluted, the ferrofluid dispersions are not stable if anionic or cationic surfactants are used as the stabilizer. This work presents an efficient way to prepare a stable aqueous nanomagnetite dispersion. A stable ferrofluid containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles was synthesized via co-precipitation in the presence of poly(acrylic acid) oligomer. The mechanism, microstructure, and properties of the ferrofluid were investigated. The results indicate that the PAA oligomers promoted the nucleation and inhibited the growth of the magnetic iron oxide, and the average diameter of each individual Fe3O4 particle was smaller than 10 nm. In addition, the PAA oligomers provided both electrostatic and steric repulsion against particle aggregation, and the stability of dispersions could be controlled by adjusting the pH value of solution. A small amount of Fe2O3 was found in the nanoparticles but the superparamagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles was not affected. PMID:16009367

  7. Synthesis of superparamagnetic silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjot; Chudasama, Bhupendra

    2015-05-01

    Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with silica are widely researched for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, tissue repair, cell separation, hyperthermia, drug delivery, etc. In this article synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and their coating with SiO2 is reported. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and it was coated with silica by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. XRD, FTIR, TEM and VSM techniques were used to characterize bare and coated nanoparticles. Results indicated that the average size of SPIONS was 8.4 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of silica coated SPIONS were identical to that of SPIONS confirming the inner spinal structure of SPIONS. FTIR results confirmed the binding of silica with the magnetite and the formation of the silica shell around the magnetite core. Magnetic properties of SPIONS and silica coated SPIONS are determined by VSM. They are superparamagnetic. The major conclusion drawn from this study is that the synthesis route yields stable, non-aggregated magnetite-silica core-shell nanostructures with tailored morphology and excellent magnetic properties.

  8. Synthesis of superparamagnetic silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with silica are widely researched for biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, tissue repair, cell separation, hyperthermia, drug delivery, etc. In this article synthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and their coating with SiO2 is reported. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation and it was coated with silica by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. XRD, FTIR, TEM and VSM techniques were used to characterize bare and coated nanoparticles. Results indicated that the average size of SPIONS was 8.4 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of silica coated SPIONS were identical to that of SPIONS confirming the inner spinal structure of SPIONS. FTIR results confirmed the binding of silica with the magnetite and the formation of the silica shell around the magnetite core. Magnetic properties of SPIONS and silica coated SPIONS are determined by VSM. They are superparamagnetic. The major conclusion drawn from this study is that the synthesis route yields stable, non-aggregated magnetite-silica core-shell nanostructures with tailored morphology and excellent magnetic properties

  9. Facile Synthesis of Radial-Like Macroporous Superparamagnetic Chitosan Spheres with In-Situ Co-Precipitation and Gelation of Ferro-Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chih-Hui; Wang, Chih-Yu; HUANG, KENG-SHIANG; Yeh, Chen-Sheng; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Wang, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ming-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous chitosan spheres encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile and effective one-step fabrication process. Ferro-gels containing ferrous cations, ferric cations and chitosan were dropped into a sodium hydroxide solution through a syringe pump. In addition, a sodium hydroxide solution was employed for both gelation (chitosan) and co-precipitation (ferrous cations and ferric cations) of the ferro-gels. The results showed that the in-situ co-pr...

  10. On the magnetic field architecture required to capture superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a microcapillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic field required for the capture of superparamagnetic nanoparticles flowing in a microcapillary array under a constant pressure regime was investigated in vitro. It was found that the nanoparticles were captured in locations that varied significantly in magnetic field strength, and that the location of capture was strongly related to the net volumetric flow through the microcapillary array. A hypothesis is presented to explain these data in which the magnetic field of the trapping Neodymium Iron Boron (NdFeB) block magnet is divided into two zones that act differently on the nanoparticles. In the first 'steering zone', nanoparticles are moved closer to the capillary wall where they can be captured downstream in the second 'capture zone'. This hypothesis can be used in the future to design magnetic field shapes for more effective particle capture at higher flow rates with lower field strengths.

  11. SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF SUPERPARAMAGNETIC Y-Fe2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Kotsyubynsky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Method of nanodispersed y-Fe2O3 synthesis by thermal decomposition of iron citrate is proposed. The investigations of obtained oxides crystal­line and magnetic structures are done. Nanodispersed y-Fe2O3 with sizes of coherent scattering regions about 4-7 nm was is only one phase after gel sintering at 200, 250 and 300оС; the particles of synthesized materials are in a state of magnetic ordering and in superparamagnetic state. The influence of mag­netic dipole interparticles interaction on parameters of Moss­bauer spectra is observed. The phenomenological mo­del of the differences between nanodispersed y-Fe2O3 magnetic micro­structures ob­tained after annealing at different tem­pe­ra­tu­res is presented.

  12. Biophysical studies on chitosan-coated liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Mohsen M; Darwish, Mirhane M; Khalil, Safaa; Khalil, Wafaa M

    2009-10-01

    Liposomes have been used as delivery vehicles for stabilizing drugs, overcoming barriers to cellular and tissue uptake, and for directing their contents toward specific sites in vivo. Chitosan is a biological macromolecule derived from crustacean shells and has several emerging applications in drug development, obesity control, and tissue engineering. In the present work, the interaction between chitosan and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential, solubilization using the nonionic detergent octylglucoside (OG), as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The coating of DPPC liposomes by a chitosan layer was confirmed by electron microscope images and the zeta potential of liposomes. Coating of liposome by chitosan resulted in an increase in liposomal size by addition of a layer of 92 +/- 27.1 nm. The liposomal zeta potential became increasingly positive as chitosan concentration increased from 0.1 to 0.3% w/v, then it held at a relatively constant value. The amount of detergent needed to completely solubilize the liposomal membrane was increased after coating of liposomes with chitosan, indicating an increased membrane resistance to the detergent and hence a change in the natural membrane permeation properties. In the analysis of FTIR spectra of DPPC, the symmetric and antisymmetric CH(2) (at 2,800-3,000 cm(-1)) bands and the C=O (at 1,740 cm(-1)) stretching band were investigated in the absence and presence of the chitosan. It was concluded that appropriate combining of the liposomal and chitosan characteristics might be utilized for the improvement of the therapeutic efficacy of liposomes as a drug delivery system. PMID:19649627

  13. Iron and Cobalt-based magnetic fluids produced by inert gas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron and cobalt nanoparticle fluids have been prepared by inert-gas condensation into an oil/surfactant mixture. Superparamagnetic iron fluids (mean particle size=11.6±0.4 nm) and ferromagnetic cobalt fluids (mean particle size=51.6±3.4 nm) produced by this technique are promising candidates for magnetic targeting and hyperthermia applications

  14. Manipulation and tracking of superparamagnetic nanoparticles using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetic fields in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the tracking and delivery of chemotherapeutics bound to superparamagnetic nanoparticles offers a promising method for the non-invasive treatment of inoperable tumours. Here we demonstrate that superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles fabricated by an easily scalable method can be driven and tracked in real time at high velocities in vitro using MRI hardware. Force balance calculations are consistent with the magnetic properties of individual 10 nm diameter particles that move collectively as micron sized agglomerates with hydrodynamic diameter similar to that inferred from zero-magnetic-field dynamic light scattering measurements

  15. Cancer detection based on Raman spectra super-paramagnetic clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Guizar-Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zerega, Brenda Esmeralda; Juárez-López, Héctor Alfonso; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor; Gallegos-Infante, Luis Armando; González-Silva, Ricardo Armando; Espinoza-Padilla, Pedro Basilio; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The clustering of Raman spectra of serum sample is analyzed using the super-paramagnetic clustering technique based in the Potts spin model. We investigated the clustering of biochemical networks by using Raman data that define edge lengths in the network, and where the interactions are functions of the Raman spectra's individual band intensities. For this study, we used two groups of 58 and 102 control Raman spectra and the intensities of 160, 150 and 42 Raman spectra of serum samples from breast and cervical cancer and leukemia patients, respectively. The spectra were collected from patients from different hospitals from Mexico. By using super-paramagnetic clustering technique, we identified the most natural and compact clusters allowing us to discriminate the control and cancer patients. A special interest was the leukemia case where its nearly hierarchical observed structure allowed the identification of the patients's leukemia type. The goal of this study is to apply a model of statistical physics, as the super-paramagnetic, to find these natural clusters that allow us to design a cancer detection method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of super-paramagnetic clustering in the discipline of spectroscopy where it is used for classification of spectra.

  16. Superparamagnetic colloid suspensions: Water magnetic relaxation and clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrite superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions shorten the nuclear magnetic relaxation of water protons. For transverse relaxation, that effect is enhanced when agglomeration of elementary SPM cores occurs, because of an increase of the secular part of the transverse relaxivity. On the contrary, clustering weakens the T1-shortening, in agreement with the prediction of a new model for diffusion

  17. Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles: one-pot synthesis, biofunctionalization and toxicity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariti, A.; Desai, P.; Maddirala, S. K. Y.; Ercal, N.; Katti, K. V.; Liang, X.; Nath, M.

    2014-09-01

    Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles have been synthesized using a single step hot-injection precipitation method. The synthesis involved using Fe(CO)5 as iron precursor and HAuCl4 as gold precursor in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid. Oleylamine helps in reducing Au3+ to Au0 seeds which simultaneously oxidizes Fe(0) to form Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles. Triton® X-100 was employed as a highly viscous solvent to prevent agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Detailed characterization of these nanoparticles was performed by using x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Mössbauer and magnetometry studies. To evaluate these nanoparticles’ applicability in biomedical applications, L-cysteine was attached to the Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was tested using CHO cells by employing MTS assay. L-cysteine modified Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were qualitatively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy; and quantitatively using acid ninhydrin assay. Investigations reveal that that this approach yields Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles with an average particle size of 80 nm. Mössbauer studies indicated the presence of Fe in Fe3+ in A and B sites (tetrahedral and octahedral, respectively) and Fe2+ in B sites (octahedral). Magnetic measurements also indicated that these nanoparticles were superparamagnetic in nature due to Fe3O4 region. The saturation magnetization for the bifunctional nanoparticles was observed to be ˜74 emu g-1, which is significantly higher than the previously reported Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Mössbauer studies indicated that there was no significant Fe(0) impurity that could be responsible for the superparamagnetic nature of these nanoparticles. None of the investigations showed any presence of other impurities such as Fe2O3 and FeOOH. These Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional

  18. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles modified with glycol chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj, Tsung-Yu Tsai and Bing-Huei Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron salts in alkali media followed by coating with glycol chitosan (GC-coated IONPs. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. Comparison of Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data of bare and GC-coated IONPs confirmed the presence of GC coating on IONPs. Magnetization curves showed that both bare and GC-coated IONPs are superparamagnetic and have saturation magnetizations of 70.3 and 59.8 emu g−1, respectively. The IONP size was measured as ~8–9 nm by transmission electron microscopy, and their crystal structure was assigned to magnetite from x-ray diffraction patterns. Both bare and GC-coated IONPs inhibited the growths of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Salmonella enteritidis SE 01 bacteria better than the antibiotics linezolid and cefaclor, as evaluated by the agar dilution assay. GC-coated IONPs showed higher potency against E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 10832 than bare IONPs. Given their biocompatibility and antibacterial properties, GC-coated IONPs are a potential nanomaterial for in vivo applications.

  19. Research on the Effect of Chitosan Coating Enriched with Clove Oil on the Quality of Cherry Tomatoes%壳聚糖丁香精油生物涂膜保鲜剂对圣女果品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮光伟; 邢亚阁; 许青莲; 张丽珠

    2014-01-01

    将壳聚糖丁香精油涂膜保鲜剂用于圣女果贮藏保鲜,果实在8℃条件下贮藏12 d,对照组果实失重率、腐烂率、可滴定酸含量、Vc含量、PPO活性和感官评价分别为6.45%、17.3%、0.33%、4.36 mg/100g、9.87 U/g和3.80分,而经壳聚糖丁香精油涂膜保鲜剂处理的样品分别为3.12%、4.7%、0.53%、5.93mg/100g、14.87U/g 和6.7分。结果表明,壳聚糖丁香生物保鲜剂可有效抑制鲜圣女果果实的腐烂,较好地保持果实品质,一定程度上可延长货架期。%The application of chitosan coating enriched clove oil in the quality of cherry tomato was investigated .After stored at 8° C for 15 days, the weight loss ratio, decay ratio, vitamin C content, tritatable acidity content, PPO activity and sensory acceptability scores for control samples were 36.45%、17.3%、0.33%,4.36mg/100g、9.87U/g and 3.80 scores,respectively, which were 3.12%, 4.7%、0.53%、5.93mg/100g、14.87U/g and 6.7 scores for the samples treated by chitosan -oil coating respectively .The combined treatment of chitosan coating and clove oil showed lowest microbial growth and could keep the quality of cherry tomato .The shelf life of cherry tomato was extended .

  20. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles as targeted probes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenjie; Sun, Shouheng

    2009-08-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have been attractive for medical diagnostics and therapeutics due to their unique magnetic properties and their ability to interact with various biomolecules of interest. The solution phase based chemical synthesis provides a near precise control on NP size, and monodisperse magnetic NPs with standard deviation in diameter of less than 10% are now routinely available. Upon controlled surface functionalization and coupling with fragments of DNA strands, proteins, peptides or antibodies, these NPs can be well-dispersed in biological solutions and used for drug delivery, magnetic separation, magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement and magnetic fluid hyperthermia. This Perspective reviews the common syntheses and controlled surface functionalization of monodisperse Fe(3)O(4)-based superparamagnetic NPs. It further outlines the exciting application potentials of these NPs in magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery. PMID:20449070

  1. Superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads toward food safety insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads (SPM-NIBs) based on conjugation of superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with specific antibodies have been developed toward food safety insurance. The resultant SPM-NIBs exhibits excellent colloidal stability and reversible magnetic response. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is a main foodborne pathogenes from contaminated seafood, can be separated specifically and efficiently by the resultant SPM-NIBs. The results of bacteria separation demonstrate that the SPM-NIBs have a higher specific activity and sensitivity toward V. parahaemolyticus. About 80 % of V. parahaemolyticus cells can be captured when the concentration of the broth reaches 103 CFU/mL. Thus, the SPM-NIBs can effectively enhance the efficiency for target bacteria inspections by shortening the period of culture time. This work holds the promise of development of general technique to prepare effective SPM-NIBs toward food safety inspections and other bio-related applications for target analyte separation and collection

  2. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SUPERPARAMAGNETIC FUNCTIONAL POLYMERIC MICROPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianqiao Liu; Huizhou Liu; Jianmin Xing; Yueping Guan; Zhiya Ma; Guobin Shan; Chengli Yang

    2003-01-01

    Superparamagnetic poly(styrene-divinylbenzene-glycidyl methacrylate) (Pst-DVB-GMA) microparticles were prepared via a modified suspension polymerization process. A magnetic fluid was first prepared by a chemical co-precipitation method. Then magnetic microparticles were produced by mixing the monomers and the magnetic fluid with water in the presence of a stabilizer poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) to form a suspension, and finally benzoyl peroxide was added to initiate the co-polymerization. The morphology and magnetic properties of the microparticles were examined by TEM and VSM. The spherically shaped microparticles, with a size range of 4 to 7 μm, showed distinct superparamagnetic characteristics. XRD was used to investigate the structure of the magnetite particles dispersed in the polymer matrix. The microparticles with epoxy groups on their surface can be applied directly to the separation of biomolecules.

  3. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles as targeted probes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications†

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chenjie; Sun, Shouheng

    2009-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) have been attractive for medical diagnostics and therapeutics due to their unique magnetic properties and their ability to interact with various biomolecules of interest. The solution phase based chemical synthesis provides a near precise control on NP size, and monodisperse magnetic NPs with standard deviation in diameter of less than 10% are now routinely available. Upon controlled surface functionalization and coupling with fragments of DNA strands, pr...

  4. Selective manipulation of superparamagnetic beads by a magnetic microchip

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a magnetic microchip (MMC) is presented, to first trap and then selectively manipulate individual, superparamagnetic beads (SPBs) to another trapping site. Trapping sites are realized through soft magnetic micro disks made of Ni80Fe20, and SPB motion is controlled by current-carrying, tapered, conducting lines made of Au. The MMC was realized using standard microfabrication techniques and provides a cheap and versatile platform for microfluidic systems for cell manipulation. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Design of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles for Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI)

    OpenAIRE

    Pong, Philip W. T.; Cheung Hoi Leung; Pui To Lai; Yimeng Du

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a promising medical imaging technique producing quantitative images of the distribution of tracer materials (superparamagnetic nanoparticles) without interference from the anatomical background of the imaging objects (either phantoms or lab animals). Theoretically, the MPI platform can image with relatively high temporal and spatial resolution and sensitivity. In practice, the quality of the MPI images hinges on both the applied magnetic field and the proper...

  6. Magnetophoretic velocities of superparamagnetic particles, agglomerates and complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study into the magnetically induced mobility of four types of superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) was conducted using a video camera, an inverted light microscope and ImageJ tracking software. The objective is to improve the understanding of how SMP-capture assays perform by measuring mobilities of SMPs, when aggregated together or attached to non-magnetic beads (NMB). The magnetically induced velocities of self-assembled SMP chains were measured and found to meet the proposed models. A study into the zeta potential of the SMPs was completed to determine a scenario for maximal electrostatic interactions and efficient capture of the SMPs to a target. SMPs were bound to biotinylated NMBs, representing attachment to a disease biomarker. The drift velocity of SMP chains and SMP–NMB complexes in a gradient magnetic field was compared. It is expected that the observable changes to the magnetophoretic mobility of SMPs attached to a disease biomarker will lead to new biosensor technology. - Highlights: • Analysis of the magnetically induced drift velocity of superparamagnetic particles. • Zeta potential of superparamagnetic particles and non-magnetic particles found. • Drift velocity of single particles, chains and complexes determined experimentally. • Magnetic drift velocities of chains and complexes predicted by simple models

  7. Magnetophoretic velocities of superparamagnetic particles, agglomerates and complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Naomi, E-mail: naomi.wise@eng.ox.ac.uk [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Grob, Tim [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kindom (United Kingdom); Morten, Karl [Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford, The Women Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian; Sheard, Steve [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, United Kindom (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    A study into the magnetically induced mobility of four types of superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) was conducted using a video camera, an inverted light microscope and ImageJ tracking software. The objective is to improve the understanding of how SMP-capture assays perform by measuring mobilities of SMPs, when aggregated together or attached to non-magnetic beads (NMB). The magnetically induced velocities of self-assembled SMP chains were measured and found to meet the proposed models. A study into the zeta potential of the SMPs was completed to determine a scenario for maximal electrostatic interactions and efficient capture of the SMPs to a target. SMPs were bound to biotinylated NMBs, representing attachment to a disease biomarker. The drift velocity of SMP chains and SMP–NMB complexes in a gradient magnetic field was compared. It is expected that the observable changes to the magnetophoretic mobility of SMPs attached to a disease biomarker will lead to new biosensor technology. - Highlights: • Analysis of the magnetically induced drift velocity of superparamagnetic particles. • Zeta potential of superparamagnetic particles and non-magnetic particles found. • Drift velocity of single particles, chains and complexes determined experimentally. • Magnetic drift velocities of chains and complexes predicted by simple models.

  8. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming, E-mail: mingliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: zye@sfu.ca; Ren, Wei, E-mail: mingliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: zye@sfu.ca [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing [Energy Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Ye, Zuo-Guang, E-mail: mingliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: zye@sfu.ca [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education and International Center for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Chemistry and 4D LABS, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  9. Effects of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticle Clusters on the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Higashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR method is widely used for the reproduction and amplification of specific DNA segments, and a novel PCR method using nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles has recently been reported. This paper reports on the effects of superparamagnetic nanoparticles on PCR amplification without an external magnetic field, and clarifies the mechanism behind the effects of superparamagnetic particle clusters on PCR efficiency by estimating the structures of such clusters in PCR. It was found that superparamagnetic nanoparticles tend to inhibit PCR amplification depending on the structure of the magnetic nanoparticle clusters. The paper also clarifies that Taq polymerase is captured in the spaces formed among magnetic nanoparticle clusters, and that it is captured more efficiently as a result of their motion from heat treatment in PCR thermal cycles. Consequently, Taq polymerase that should be used in PCR is reduced in the PCR solution. These outcomes will be applied to novel PCR techniques using magnetic particles in an external magnetic field.

  10. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe3O4 thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H2/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe2O3 sample is reduced to Fe3O4 phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications

  11. Generation of superparamagnetic liposomes revealed as highly efficient MRI contrast agents for in vivo imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Marie-Sophie; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Ménager, Christine; Clément, Olivier; Barratt, Gillian; Grabielle-Madelmont, Cécile; Gazeau, Florence; Cabuil, Valérie; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2005-08-01

    Maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) nanocrystals stable at neutral pH and in isotonic aqueous media were synthesized and encapsulated within large unilamellar vesicles of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) and distearoyl-SN-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(poly(ethylene glycol))-2000] (DSPE-PEG(2000), 5 mol %), formed by film hydration coupled with sequential extrusion. The nonentrapped particles were removed by flash gel exclusion chromatography. The magnetic-fluid-loaded liposomes (MFLs) were homogeneous in size (195 +/- 33 hydrodynamic diameters from quasi-elastic light scattering). Iron loading was varied from 35 up to 167 Fe(III)/lipid mol %. Physical and superparamagnetic characteristics of the iron oxide particles were preserved after liposome encapsulation as shown by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and magnetization curve recording. In biological media, MFLs were highly stable and avoided ferrofluid flocculation while being nontoxic toward the J774 macrophage cell line. Moreover, steric stabilization ensured by PEG-surface-grafting significantly reduced liposome association with the macrophages. The ratios of the transversal (r2) and longitudinal (r1) magnetic resonance (MR) relaxivities of water protons in MFL dispersions (6 < r2/r1 < 18) ranked them among the best T2 contrast agents, the higher iron loading the better the T2 contrast enhancement. Magnetophoresis demonstrated the possible guidance of MFLs by applying a magnetic field gradient. Mouse MR imaging assessed MFLs efficiency as contrast agents in vivo: MR angiography performed 24 h after intravenous injection of the contrast agent provided the first direct evidence of the stealthiness of PEG-ylated magnetic-fluid-loaded liposomes. PMID:16045355

  12. One-pot synthesis of amphiphilic superparamagnetic FePt nanoparticles and magnetic resonance imaging in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Hong; Zhang Jingjing; Tian Qiwei; Hu He [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Fang Yong [No.3 People' s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Wu Huixia [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Yang Shiping, E-mail: shipingy@shnu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Monodispersed amphiphilic FePt nanoparticles with the diameter of about 4 nm were synthesized by high temperature pyrolysis of iron(III) acetylacetonate and platinum(II) acetylacetonate. Their amphiphilicity is contributed to the tetraethylene glycol (TEG) and oleic acid (OA) on the surface, which is confirmed by FTIR and XPS spectra. They provide a superparamagnetic property with the saturation magnetization (Ms) of about 25 emu/g and the transverse relaxivity (r{sub 2}) of about 122.6 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1} in aqueous solutions. Furthermore, FePt nanoparticles show low cytotoxicity in living cells. They can be uptaken by HeLa cells effectively and result in the obvious decrease of T{sub 2} relaxation time after internalization.

  13. Fluorescent labelling of DNA on superparamagnetic nanoparticles by a perylene bisimide derivative for cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N,N′-Bis[tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PBI-TRIS), nonfluorescent dye was used to fluorescent labelling of DNA. For this aim, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized to provide a suitable surface for binding of DNA. Amine functionalized nanoparticles showed a high immobilization capacity (82.70%) at 25 mg of nanoparticle concentration for Calf thymus DNA. Binding capacity of PBI-TRIS to DNA-SPION was also found as 1.93 μM on 25 mg of nanoparticles by using UV–vis spectroscopy. Binding of PBI-TRIS to DNA onto nanoparticles was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The confocal images of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION and breast cells were taken at 488 and 561.7 nm of excitation wavelengths. Cell image was also compared with a commercial dye, DAPI at 403.7 nm of excitation wavelength. Results showed that PBI-TRIS can be used for cell staining. - Highlights: • Functionalized SPIONs were synthesized and treated with DNA. • The binding of PBI-TRIS with DNA was studied. • The image of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION was detected by a confocal microscope

  14. Preparation of monodisperse, superparamagnetic, luminescent, and multifunctional PGMA microspheres with amino-groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG WeiCai; ZHANG Qi; ZHANG BingBo; LI DeNa; DONG XiaoQing; ZHANG Lei; CHANG Jin

    2008-01-01

    Micron-sized, monodisperse, superparamagnetic, luminescent composite poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres with functional amino-groups were successfully synthesized in this study. The process of preparation was as follows: preparation of monodisperse poly(glycidyl methacrylate) mi-crospheres by dispersion polymerization method; modification of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) micro-spheres with ethylene diamine to form amino-groups; impregnation of iron ions (Fe2+ and Fe3+) inside the microspheres and subsequently precipitating them with ammonium hydroxide to form magnetite (Fe3O,4>) nanoparticles within the polymer microspheres; infusion of CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) into magnetic polymer microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to char-acterize surface morphology and size distribution of composite microspheres. The average size of mi-crospheres was 1.42μm with a size variation of 3.8%, The composite microspheres were bright enough and easily observed using a conventional fluorescence microscope, The composite microspheres were easily separated from solution by magnetic decantation using a permanent magnet. The new multi-functional composite microspheres are promising to be used in a variety of bioanalytical assays in-volving luminescence detection and magnetic separation.

  15. Fluorescent labelling of DNA on superparamagnetic nanoparticles by a perylene bisimide derivative for cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltas, Esra, E-mail: maltasesra@gmail.com [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Malkondu, Sait [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Uyar, Pembegul [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Konya (Turkey); Ozmen, Mustafa [Selcuk University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2015-03-01

    N,N′-Bis[tris-(2-aminoethyl) amine]-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PBI-TRIS), nonfluorescent dye was used to fluorescent labelling of DNA. For this aim, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTS) modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were synthesized to provide a suitable surface for binding of DNA. Amine functionalized nanoparticles showed a high immobilization capacity (82.70%) at 25 mg of nanoparticle concentration for Calf thymus DNA. Binding capacity of PBI-TRIS to DNA-SPION was also found as 1.93 μM on 25 mg of nanoparticles by using UV–vis spectroscopy. Binding of PBI-TRIS to DNA onto nanoparticles was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The confocal images of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION and breast cells were taken at 488 and 561.7 nm of excitation wavelengths. Cell image was also compared with a commercial dye, DAPI at 403.7 nm of excitation wavelength. Results showed that PBI-TRIS can be used for cell staining. - Highlights: • Functionalized SPIONs were synthesized and treated with DNA. • The binding of PBI-TRIS with DNA was studied. • The image of PBI-TRIS labelled DNA-SPION was detected by a confocal microscope.

  16. A new superparamagnetic ion oxide for MRI. Clinical results in the evaluation of malignant liver lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical tolerability and diagnostic value of Resovist as a new superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast medium was studied in 30 patients with malignant focal liver lesions (28 metastases, 2 HCC) within a phase II multicenter study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 1.0 Tesla with T1-weighted FLASH- und T2-weighted spin echo sequences before and following intravenous injection of Resovist at three different dose groups (4, 8 and 16 μmol Fe/kg). Liver signal intensity was significantly reduced on post-contrast images, while malignant focal liver lesions showed no signal changes. Resovist improved tumor liver contrast and lesion-conspicuity, especially for lesions smaller than 1 cm. The dose of 8 μmol Fe/kg was sufficient to achieve diagnostic tumor-liver contrast. Compared to images directly after injection, the number of detected lesions did not improve until 70 min later. There were no significant changes in vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure) or laboratory values until 72 h postinjection. (orig.)

  17. Core-shell-corona doxorubicin-loaded superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkina, A; Abakumov, M; Grinenko, N; Abakumov, A; Skorikov, A; Mironova, E; Davydova, G; Majouga, A G; Nukolova, N; Kabanov, A; Chekhonin, V

    2015-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are successfully used as contrast agents in magnetic-resonance imaging. They can be easily functionalized for drug delivery functions, demonstrating great potential for both imaging and therapeutic applications. Here we developed new pH-responsive theranostic core-shell-corona nanoparticles consisting of superparamagentic Fe3O4 core that displays high T2 relaxivity, bovine serum albumin (BSA) shell that binds anticancer drug, doxorubicin (Dox) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) corona that increases stability and biocompatibility. The nanoparticles were produced by adsorption of the BSA shell onto the Fe3O4 core followed by crosslinking of the protein layer and subsequent grafting of the PEG corona using monoamino-terminated PEG via carbodiimide chemistry. The hydrodynamic diameter, zeta-potential, composition and T2 relaxivity of the resulting nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, thermogravimetric analysis and T2-relaxometry. Nanoparticles were shown to absorb Dox molecules, possibly through a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The loading capacity (LC) of the nanoparticles was 8 wt.%. The Dox loaded nanoparticles release the drug at a higher rate at pH 5.5 compared to pH 7.4 and display similar cytotoxicity against C6 and HEK293 cells as the free Dox. PMID:26595387

  18. Self-assembled superparamagnetic nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents— A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hong-Ying; Wu, Chang-Qiang; Li, Dan-Yang; Ai, Hua

    2015-12-01

    Recent progress of the preparation and applications of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) clusters as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes is reviewed with regard to their applications in labeling and tracking cells in vivo, in diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases and tumors, and in drug delivery systems. Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), especially SPIO nanoparticles, have long been used as MRI contrast agents and as an advantageous nanoplatform for drug delivery, taking advantage of their unique magnetic properties and ability to function at the molecular and cellular levels. Due to advances in nanotechnology, various means to control SPIO NPs’ size, composition, magnetization and relaxivity have been developed, as well as ways to usefully modify their surface. Recently, self-assembly of SPIO NP clusters in particulate carriers—such as polymeric micelles, vesicles, liposomes, and layer-by-layer (LbL) capsules—have been widely studied for application as ultrasensitive MRI probes, owing to their remarkably high spin-spin (T2) relaxivity and convenience for further functionalization. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB933903), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20974065, 51173117, and 50830107), and the Scientific Research Start-up Fund of Kunming University of Science and Technology (Grant No. KKSY201305089).

  19. Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH): Cancer treatment with AC magnetic field induced excitation of biocompatible superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Andreas; Scholz, Regina; Wust, Peter; Fähling, Horst; Felix, Roland

    1999-07-01

    The story of hyperthermia with small particles in AC magnetic fields started in the late 1950s, but most of the studies were unfortunately conducted with inadequate animal systems, inexact thermometry and poor AC magnetic field parameters, so that any clinical implication was far behind the horizon. More than three decades later, it was found, that colloidal dispersions of superparamagnetic (subdomain) iron oxide nanoparticles exhibit an extraordinary specific absorption rate (SAR [ W/ g]), which is much higher at clinically tolerable H 0 f combinations in comparison to hysteresis heating of larger multidomain particles. This was the renaissance of a cancer treatment method, which has gained more and more attention in the last few years. Due to the increasing number of randomized clinical trials preferentially in Europe with conventional E-field hyperthermia systems, the general medical and physical experience in hyperthermia application is also rapidly growing. Taking this increasing clinical experience carefully into account together with the huge amount of new biological data on heat response of cells and tissues, the approach of magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is nowadays more promising than ever before. The present contribution reviews the current state of the art and some of the future perspectives supported by advanced methods of the so-called nanotechnology.

  20. Production of superparamagnetic nanobiocatalysts for green chemistry applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Christoph A; Ammann, Erik M; Schäffer, Andreas; Shahgaldian, Patrick; Corvini, Philippe F-X

    2016-08-01

    Immobilization of enzymes on solid supports is a convenient method for increasing enzymatic stability and enabling enzyme reuse. In the present work, a sorption-assisted surface conjugation method was developed and optimized to immobilize enzymes on the surface of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. An oxidative enzyme, i.e., laccase from Trametes versicolor was used as model enzyme. The immobilization method consists of the production of superparamagnetic nanoparticles by co-precipitation of FeCl2 and FeCl3. Subsequently, the particle surface is modified with an organosilane containing an amino group. Next, the enzymes are adsorbed on the particle surface before a cross-linking agent, i.e., glutaraldehyde is added which links the amino groups on the particle surface with the amino groups of the enzymes and leads to internal cross-linking of the enzymes as well. The method was optimized using response surface methodology regarding optimal enzyme and glutaraldehyde amounts, pH, and reaction times. Results allowed formulation of biocatalysts having high specific enzymatic activity and improved stability. The biocatalysts showed considerably higher stability compared with the dissolved enzymes over a pH range from 3 to 9 and in the presence of several chemical denaturants. To demonstrate the reusability of the immobilized enzymes, they were applied as catalysts for the production of a phenoxazinone dye. Virtually, 100 % of the precursor was transformed to the dye in each of the ten conducted reaction cycles while on average 84.5 % of the enzymatic activity present at the beginning of a reaction cycle was retained after each cycle highlighting the considerable potential of superparamagnetic biocatalysts for application in industrial processes. PMID:27106914

  1. Preparation and characterization of an iron oxide-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite for potential bone cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Murugesan Sneha, Nachiappan Meenakshi Sundaram Department of Biomedical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India Abstract: Recently, multifunctional magnetic nanostructures have been found to have potential applications in biomedical and tissue engineering. Iron oxide nanoparticles are biocompatible and have distinctive magnetic properties that allow their use in vivo for drug delivery and hyperthermia, and as T2 contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Hydroxyapatite is used frequently due to its well-known biocompatibility, bioactivity, and lack of toxicity, so a combination of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite materials could be useful because hydroxyapatite has better bone-bonding ability. In this study, we prepared nanocomposites of iron oxide and hydroxyapatite and analyzed their physicochemical properties. The results suggest that these composites have superparamagnetic as well as biocompatible properties. This type of material architecture would be well suited for bone cancer therapy and other biomedical applications. Keywords: iron oxide, hydroxyapatite, nanocomposite, superparamagnetic, bone cancer

  2. On-chip manipulation of continuous picoliter-volume superparamagnetic droplets using a magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Liang, Qionglin; Ma, Sai; Mu, Xuan; Hu, Ping; Wang, Yiming; Luo, Guoan

    2009-10-21

    A microfluidic device for generating monodisperse superparamagnetic droplets and rapidly manipulating desired droplets into designated sub-microchannels by an external magnetic force is described. Superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method. They are well dispersed in the water-phase to form a superparamagnetic fluid that is sheared into picoliter-volume monodisperse superparamagnetic droplets by the oil-phase in a T-junction PDMS microchannel. Superparamagnetic droplets always flow into sub-microchannel 1 due only to laminar flow without a magnetic field. But they are deflected from the direction of laminar flow by a perpendicular magnetic field. The results show that the deflection is proportional to the magnetic field gradient and magnetic nanoparticle concentration, and it is closely related to the magnet position. The observed experimental results make a good match with theoretical analysis. Single or bulk superparamagnetic droplets are successfully manipulated into the designated sub-microchannels 2 and 3 respectively, only by changing the positions of the magnet. Relatively high efficiency is obtained with more than 10 superparamagnetic droplets precisely manipulated per second. This simple and robust apparatus has wide applications in high throughput drug delivery/screening, immunoassay, cell research and synthesis of magnetic microparticles due to good biological compatibility and monodispersity of superparamagnetic droplets. PMID:19789755

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopic determination of chemical state of iron in bauxite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical state of iron contained in several kinds of bauxite, which are utilized as a raw material in the aluminum industry in Japan, were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The main compounds of iron were identified from the results, which showed variations of the Moessbauer absorption spectra with calcination and measuring temperature. Although the absorption intensities of the spectra differed significantly, major species identified were paramagnetic or superparamagnetic α-Fe2O3 in all of these bauxite samples. The superparamagnetic α-Fe2O3 was found mainly in the gibbsite-type bauxite, but not in the boehmite/gibbsite-type or the boehmite-type bauxite. The Moessbauer absorption spectra of red mud and its calcined products were also given. (author)

  4. Antimicrobial activity of iron oxide nanoparticle upon modulation of nanoparticle-bacteria interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakha, Manoranjan; Pal, Sweta; Samantarrai, Devyani; Panigrahi, Tapan K.; Mallick, Bairagi C.; Pramanik, Krishna; Mallick, Bibekanand; Jha, Suman

    2015-10-01

    Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface potential (n-IONP) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Positively charged chitosan molecule coating was used to reverse the surface potential of n-IONP, i.e. positive surface potential IONP (p-IONP). The comparative data from fourier transform infrared spectroscope, XRD, and zeta potential analyzer indicated the successful coating of IONP surface with chitosan molecule. Additionally, the nanocrystals obtained were found to have spherical size with 10-20 nm diameter. The BacLight fluorescence assay, bacterial growth kinetic and colony forming unit studies indicated that n-IONP (antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, coating with chitosan molecule resulted significant increase in antimicrobial propensity of IONP. Additionally, the assay to study reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated relatively higher ROS production upon p-IONP treatment of the bacteria. The data, altogether, indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity.

  5. Iron overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral found in many over-the-counter supplements. Iron overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ... This can be by accident or on purpose. Iron overdose is especially dangerous for children. A severe ...

  6. Interacting superparamagnetic nanoparticles in the Cu–1%Co single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental and theoretical magnetic studies performed for the Cu–1%Co single crystal containing the magnetic Co nanoparticles embedded in the non-magnetic Cu matrix are presented and discussed. The shape of the hysteresis loop measured at room temperature was analysed within the frame of the interacting superparamagnetic particles formalism. The original theoretical model was improved, taking into account the response of each nanoparticle to the mean interaction field. To check the validity of the applied theory, the theoretical magnetization curve was calculated and compared with the experimental data. Additionally, the apparent size distribution of the Co nanoparticles was determined. To obtain the true size distribution of the Co nanoparticles, the scaling procedure including the relation between the interaction field and the characteristic temperature was applied. The result of the scaling was compared with the Co nanoparticles size distribution known from the previous TEM analysis leading to satisfactory agreement between both sets of data. - Highlights: ► We study the magnetic interactions between Co nanoparticles in the non-magnetic Cu matrix. ► We use the interacting superparamagnetic particles model and calculate the magnetization curve. ► The true nanoparticles size distribution is determined. ► The scaling procedure related to the interaction field is introduced. ► Good correlation between the theoretical and experimental data validates the applied model

  7. Superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads toward food safety insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuefeng [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (China); Zhang, Lei; Zeng, Jing, E-mail: zengj@bjciq.gov.cn [Beijing Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau (China); Gao, Yan, E-mail: gaoyan@nanoctr.cn; Tang, Zhiyong [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (China)

    2013-07-15

    In this work, superparamagnetic nano-immunobeads (SPM-NIBs) based on conjugation of superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with specific antibodies have been developed toward food safety insurance. The resultant SPM-NIBs exhibits excellent colloidal stability and reversible magnetic response. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is a main foodborne pathogenes from contaminated seafood, can be separated specifically and efficiently by the resultant SPM-NIBs. The results of bacteria separation demonstrate that the SPM-NIBs have a higher specific activity and sensitivity toward V. parahaemolyticus. About 80 % of V. parahaemolyticus cells can be captured when the concentration of the broth reaches 10{sup 3} CFU/mL. Thus, the SPM-NIBs can effectively enhance the efficiency for target bacteria inspections by shortening the period of culture time. This work holds the promise of development of general technique to prepare effective SPM-NIBs toward food safety inspections and other bio-related applications for target analyte separation and collection.

  8. Moessbauer effect study f environmental iron pollution of air and water at regions near Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy has been applied for identification of the different phases of iron (with their relative abundance) containing particles in atmosphere aerosol and water pollution from Helwan, Turrah, and Shoubra Elkheima regions. Measurements were performed at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. It was possible to identify the different iron forms in each case and to estimate the particle size of the superparamagnetic iron containing aerosol particles. The Moessbauer technique allowed to suggest the possible source of iron pollutant in each region. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Facile synthesis of radial-like macroporous superparamagnetic chitosan spheres with in-situ co-precipitation and gelation of ferro-gels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hui Yang

    Full Text Available Macroporous chitosan spheres encapsulating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile and effective one-step fabrication process. Ferro-gels containing ferrous cations, ferric cations and chitosan were dropped into a sodium hydroxide solution through a syringe pump. In addition, a sodium hydroxide solution was employed for both gelation (chitosan and co-precipitation (ferrous cations and ferric cations of the ferro-gels. The results showed that the in-situ co-precipitation of ferro-ions gave rise to a radial morphology with non-spheroid macro pores (large cavities inside the chitosan spheres. The particle size of iron oxide can be adjusted from 2.5 nm to 5.4 nm by tuning the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectra, the synthesized nanoparticles were illustrated as Fe(3O(4 nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared macroporous chitosan spheres presented a super-paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature with a saturation magnetization value as high as ca. 18 emu/g. The cytotoxicity was estimated using cell viability by incubating doses (0∼1000 µg/mL of the macroporous chitosan spheres. The result showed good viability (above 80% with alginate chitosan particles below 1000 µg/mL, indicating that macroporous chitosan spheres were potentially useful for biomedical applications in the future.

  10. Experimental study of the biological properties of 188Re-Hepama-1 biologic superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate a new biologic-superparamagnetic nanoparticles's characteristics of immunological activity, biological distributing in vivo, targeting and inhibiting tumor effect. Methods: The experimental group 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and control groups, including 188ReO4-, 188Re-Hepama-1, and 188Re-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were set up. The distributions were measured after injection 4 h and 24 h by caudal vein of Kuming mice. The magnetic targeting experiments in vivo were clone with and without magnetic field in liver after injection in New Zealand rabbit. The inhibiting tumor effect on hepatic cancer cell lines SMMC-7721 of the above four 188Re labeled products were measured by mono nuclear cell direct cytotoxicity assay method. Results: After injection 4 h and 24 h by vein, the liver taking was highest in group 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The radiative activity in liver in magnetism zoo was higher than in non magnetism zoo in 188Re- Hepama-1-superparamagnetic nanoparticles after applying magnetic field in left lobe of liver, and the ratio of in magnetism zoo to non magnetism zoo was 1.87. And the half effective inhibition radioactive concentrations (IC50) in 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles was one forth of 188ReO4-. Conclusion: 188Re- Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles showed its fine stability in intro, good immunological activity and significant liver target. (authors)

  11. Super-paramagnetic clustering of yeast gene expression profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Getz, G; Domany, E; Zhang, M Q

    2000-01-01

    High-density DNA arrays, used to monitor gene expression at a genomic scale, have produced vast amounts of information which require the development of efficient computational methods to analyze them. The important first step is to extract the fundamental patterns of gene expression inherent in the data. This paper describes the application of a novel clustering algorithm, Super-Paramagnetic Clustering (SPC) to analysis of gene expression profiles that were generated recently during a study of the yeast cell cycle. SPC was used to organize genes into biologically relevant clusters that are suggestive for their co-regulation. Some of the advantages of SPC are its robustness against noise and initialization, a clear signature of cluster formation and splitting, and an unsupervised self-organized determination of the number of clusters at each resolution. Our analysis revealed interesting correlated behavior of several groups of genes which has not been previously identified.

  12. Mössbauer spectra and superparamagnetism of europium sulfide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mössbauer spectra of 151Eu in 20 nm nanoparticles of EuS were measured at several temperatures. The samples were found to contain up to 30% of Eu3+, which suggests that surface oxidation of the nanostructures penetrated farther than the ∼12% of atomic sites on the outermost surface of the nanoparticles. Below the Curie temperature, Tc = 16.6 K, the spectra showed line broadening due to superparamagnetic fluctuations with an average Mössbauer blocking temperature TBM of about 16 K. Below 10 K, the spectrum became a fully split magnetic hyperfine pattern with an effective field of 29.9 T at 5 K. The spectra were compared with those of bulk ferromagnetic EuS. This approach provides considerable information about the composition of oxygen-sensitive nanoscale materials. (paper)

  13. Superparamagnetic bead interactions with functionalized surfaces characterized by an immunomicroarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-resistive sensors capable of detecting superparamagnetic micro-/nano-sized beads are promising alternatives to standard diagnostic assays based on absorbance or fluorescence and streptavidin-functionalized beads are widely used as an integral part of these sensors. Here we have developed an...... SiO2 performed better than polyethylene glycol-modified surfaces Two beads, Masterbeads and M-280 beads, were found to give superior results compared with other bead types. Antibody/ antigen interactions, Illustrated by C-reactive protein, were best performed with Masterbeads The results provide...... important information concerning the surface binding properties of streptavidin-functionalized beads and the immunomicroarray can be used when optimizing the performance of bead-based biosensors....

  14. Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Malaescu, I

    2000-01-01

    Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.

  15. Activity of an enzyme immobilized on superparamagnetic particles in a rotational magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuki, Toru; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Nagaoka, Yutaka [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Tadamasa [Shimadzu GLC Ltd., Phenomenex Support Centre, Tokyo 110-0016 (Japan); Morimoto, Hisao; Usami, Ron [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Maekawa, Toru, E-mail: maekawa@toyonet.toyo.ac.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    We immobilize {alpha}-amylase extracted from Bacillus Iicheniformis on the surfaces of superparamagnetic particles and investigate the effect of a rotational magnetic field on the enzyme's activity. We find that the activity of the enzyme molecules immobilized on superparamagnetic particles increases in the rotational magnetic field and reaches maximum at a certain frequency. We clarify the effect of the cluster structures formed by the superparamagnetic particles on the activity. Enzyme reactions are enhanced even in a tiny volume of solution using the present method, which is very important for the development of efficient micro reactors and micro total analysis systems ({mu}-TAS).

  16. Shape-controlled anisotropy of superparamagnetic micro-/nanohelices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshansky, Alexander M.; Morozov, Konstantin I.; Rubinstein, Boris Y.

    2016-07-01

    Micro-/nanopropellers can be actuated remotely by a rotating magnetic field and steered at high precision through various fluidic environments. Recent progress comprises microfabrication of superparamagnetic microhelices not possessing remanent magnetization, but rather magnetized by an applied magnetic field. In this article we present a numerical approach for computing, from first principles, the effective susceptibility of polarizable helical micro-/nanopropellers. We show that nanopropeller geometry, in particular, filament cross-section elongation and orientation, play a central role in determining its magnetic anisotropy and polarizability. The numerical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the previously reported experiments, showing that tight polarizable helices are propulsive. The numerical results are also supported by the approximate slender-body theory. Finally, we propose a semi-quantitative energy criterion to rank polarizable helices with different geometries of the filament by their propulsive capacity and also estimate their maximal propulsion speed.Micro-/nanopropellers can be actuated remotely by a rotating magnetic field and steered at high precision through various fluidic environments. Recent progress comprises microfabrication of superparamagnetic microhelices not possessing remanent magnetization, but rather magnetized by an applied magnetic field. In this article we present a numerical approach for computing, from first principles, the effective susceptibility of polarizable helical micro-/nanopropellers. We show that nanopropeller geometry, in particular, filament cross-section elongation and orientation, play a central role in determining its magnetic anisotropy and polarizability. The numerical predictions are in qualitative agreement with the previously reported experiments, showing that tight polarizable helices are propulsive. The numerical results are also supported by the approximate slender-body theory. Finally, we

  17. Multifunctional core–shell nanoparticles: superparamagnetic, mesoporous, and thermosensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifunctional core–shell composite nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed by the combination of three functionalities into one entity, which is composed of a single Fe3O4 NP as the magnetic core, mesoporous silica (mSiO2) with cavities as the sandwiched layer, and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylamide) (P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)) copolymer as the outer shell. The mSiO2-coated Fe3O4 NPs (Fe3O4-mSiO2) are monodisperse and the particle sizes were varied from 25 to 95 nm by precisely controlling the thickness of mSiO2-coating layer. The P(NIPAAm-co-AAm) were then grown onto surface-initiator-modified Fe3O4-mSiO2 NPs through free radical polymerization. These core–shell composite NPs (designated as Fe3O4-mSiO2-P(NIPAAm-co-AAm)) were found to be superparamagnetic with high r2 relaxivity. To manipulate the phase transition behavior of these thermosensitive polymer-coated NPs for future in vivo applications, the characteristic lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was subtly tuned by adjusting the composition of the monomers to be around the human body temperature (i.e. 37 °C), from ca. 34 to ca. 42 °C. The thermal response of the core–shell composite NPs to the external magnetic field was also demonstrated. Owing to their multiple functionality characteristics, these porous superparamagnetic and thermosensitive NPs may prove valuable for simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), temperature-controlled drug release, and temperature-programed magnetic targeting and separation applications.

  18. In vitro removal of toxic heavy metals by poly(γ-glutamic acid-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbaraj BS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baskaran Stephen Inbaraj,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen University, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Chelation therapy involving organic chelators for treatment of heavy metal intoxication can cause cardiac arrest, kidney overload, mineral deficiency, and anemia.Methods: In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs modified with an edible biopolymer poly(γ-glutamic acid (PGA were synthesized by coprecipitation method, characterized and evaluated for their removal efficiency of heavy metals from a metal solution, and simulated gastrointestinal fluid (SGIF.Results: Instrumental characterization of bare- and PGA-SPIONs revealed 7% coating of PGA on SPIONs with a spherical shape and an iron oxide spinel structure belonging to magnetite. The particle sizes as determined from transmission electron microscopy images were 8.5 and 11.7 nm for bare- and PGA-SPIONs, respectively, while the magnetization values were 70.3 and 61.5 emu/g. Upon coating with PGA, the zeta potentials were shifted from positive to negative at most of the environmental pH (3–8 and biological pH (1–8, implying good dispersion in aqueous suspension and favorable conditions for heavy metal removal. Batch studies showed rapid removal of lead and cadmium with the kinetic rates estimated by pseudo-second-order model being 0.212 and 0.424 g/mg•min, respectively. A maximum removal occurred in the pH range 4–8 in deionized water and 5–8 in SGIF corresponding to most gastrointestinal pH except for the stomach. Addition of different ionic strengths (0.001–1 M sodium acetate and essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and K did not show any marked influence on lead removal by PGA-SPIONs, but significantly reduced the binding of cadmium. Compared to deionized water, the lead removal from SGIF was high at all pH with the Langmuir monolayer removal capacity being 98.70 mg/g for the former and 147.71 mg/g for the

  19. Acid and reduction stimulated logic "and"-type combinational release mode achieved in DOX-loaded superparamagnetic nanogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Meifang; Xue, Yanan; Chen, Lidi; Xia, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Long, Sihui; Huang, Shiwen; Yu, Faquan

    2016-08-01

    A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release. However, either pH7.4/10mM (GSH) or pH5.0 alone induced much low release. This verified the typical logic "and"-type combinationally stimulated release mode. In vitro cytotoxicity tests clearly illustrated the effective selectivity of killing the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with IC50 of 1.01μg/mL and the human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with IC50 of 1.57μg/mL but significantly low cytotoxicity to the cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells (Vero). CLSM presented the internationalization of the nanogel into cytoplasm and nuclei with time. In vivo investigation revealed that the selective intratumoral accumulation and antitumor efficacy were considerably advantageous over free DOX whereas low systemic toxicity exhibited up-regulated security as compared to free DOX. Overall, the DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel with enhanced antitumor efficacy and down-regulated adverse effect was a promising nanoplatform for the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy. PMID:27157762

  20. Photosensitizer decorated iron oxide nanoparticles: bimodal agent for combined hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhimou; Xu, Keming; Zhang, Bei; Xu, Bing; Zhang, Xixiang; Chang, Chi K.

    2006-02-01

    As the PDT effect may be enhanced by localized hyperthermia (HT), it would be logical to find a single agent that could bring about these two modalities at precisely the target site for synergism. Since highly localized HT can be induced by magnetic field excitation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles, we report here the design and synthesis of photosensitizer-decorated iron oxide nanoparticles and their tumoricidal effect. Thus, a porphyrin is covalently anchored on the iron oxide nanoparticle via dihydroxybenzene which binds tightly on the surface of the nanoparticle by M-O bond. The morphology of the resultant nanoparticle was studied to show that the crystallinality is not changed and the nanoparticle remains superparamagnetic at room temperature. The conjugate is also strongly fluorescent indicating that the iron oxide hardly affects the optical properties of the surface bound porphyrin moieties. The conjugate is readily taken by cancer cell (Hela cell line) and is able to trigger apoptosis after excitation by light.

  1. Post-transplant processing of superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles used for islet labeling and MR detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zacharovová, K.; Berková, Z.; Herynek, V.; Girman, P.; Koblas, T.; Pektorová, L.; Mindlová, M.; Vávrová, E.; Vancová, Marie; Nebesářová, Jana; Dovolilová, E.; Bobek, V.; Saudek, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2009), s. 425-426. ISSN 0908-665X. [Joint Meeting of the International Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association / International Xenotransplantation Association. 12.10.2009-16.10.2009, Venice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : nanoparticles * ferucarbotran Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  2. Optimal activation of carboxyl-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles bioconjugated with antibody using orthogonal array design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Xiaoqang; Zhang, Yu; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong; Tang, Meng; Liu, Hui

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to bioconjugate anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody on the surface of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and to optimize the activated conditions of bioconjugation. Anti-EMMPRIN monoclonal antibody bioconjugated carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles were performed through a coupling strategy of EDC and sulfo-NHS. The procedure was comprised of two steps by activation of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and conjugation with monoclonal antibody. The optimal activated parameters of bioconjugation were evaluated by single factor design and orthogonal array design. SDS-PAGE analysis and Bradford assay was used for testing and verifying the efficiency of activated conditions obtained from orthogonal array. The results show that pH value, temperature and reaction time were important factors that influence bioconjugated efficiency. The activated parameters with pH value 6.2, temperature 25 degrees C and reaction time 30 min were obviously optimal for activation of carboxyl-SPIO nanoparticles and conjugation with monoclonal EMMPEIN antibody. This coupling strategy for anti-EMMPRIN mAb bioconjugated on SPIO nanoparticles was efficient, and may be further applied in the fields of medical or biological practices. PMID:24266206

  3. Viability of rat and human stromal cells after labeling wirh superparamagnetic iron-oxide nenoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Glogarová, Kateřina; Herynek, V.; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, Supplement 1 (2006), s. 203-203. ISSN 1465-3249. [ ISCT 2006. 04.05.2006-07.05.2006, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0021620803; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1594; GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Stromal cells Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  4. Use of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide in lymph node MR imaging in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A macrophage-specific magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent allows the detection of small and otherwise undetectable lymph node metastases in patients with prostate cancer. This has an important clinical impact, as the diagnosis will be more precise and less invasive to obtain. Subsequently, this will reduce morbidity and health care costs. However, thorough knowledge of sequence parameters and planes, lymph node anatomy, appearance of normal and abnormal nodes, is essential when using this technique. This will be elaborated in this review

  5. Efficacy of superparamagnetic iron oxide in MR imaging in liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied 61 rats with implanted liver cancer. Magnetites were tested at five different dosages (5-100μmol Fe/kg body weight [bw]). In vitro studies were carried out at 0.47 T and 2.0 T; MR imaging was performed at 2.0 T. At 0.47 T and at 2.0 T, the median effective dose (ED50) for T2 relaxation times of liver was about 5 μmol Fe/kg bw. In MR imaging, the ED50 for signal intensity of liver was about 5 μmol Fe/kg bw with the mixed T1-/T2-weighted sequence and 10 μmol Fe/kg bw with a T2-weighted gradient-echo sequence. Optimal liver/tumor contrast (SD/N) was achieved with a dosage of 20 μmol Fe/kg bw in both sequences. The authors have compared 14 different sequences. The best postcontrast SD/N was found in moderately T1-weighted images

  6. D-mannose coating of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles enhances labeling of neural stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Regul, J.; Pongrac, I.; Dobrivojevic, M.; Babič, Michal; Šlouf, Miroslav; Brkic, L.; Horák, Daniel; Gajovic, S.

    Zagreb : University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Croatian Institute for Brain Research , 2015. s. 62. [GlowBrain Workshop "Visualization of molecular markers in the brain ". 29.01.2015-31.01.2015, Zagreb] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316120 - GLOWBRAIN Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanoparticles * biomedicine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  7. Covalent immobilization of invertase on PAMAM-dendrimer modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzun, K.; Cevik, E.; Senel, M., E-mail: msenel@fatih.edu.t [Fatih University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Soezeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Fatih University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Abasiyanik, M. F. [Fatih University, Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering (Turkey); Toprak, M. S. [Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Department of Functional Materials (Sweden)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was synthesized on the surface of superparamagnetite nanoparticles to enhance invertase immobilization. The amount of immobilized enzyme on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times (i.e., 250%) as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane. Maximum reaction rate (V{sub max}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) were determined for the free and immobilized enzymes. Various characteristics of immobilized invertase such as; the temperature activity, thermal stability, operational stability, and storage stability were evaluated and results revealed that stability of the enzyme is improved upon immobilization.

  8. Assessing the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Hofmann, Heinrich; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has become a key word of public interest, since people realized the social and economic power of nanotechnology development. Nanotechnology has already become part of our daily life, and it will have an as yet unknown technological impact because it concerns all aspects of human life from novel building materials to electronics, cosmetics, pharmaceutics, and medicine.1 In recent years, engineered nanoparticles started to become the most important components in nanotechnology. T...

  9. Evaluation of radiogallium-labeled, folate-embedded superparamagnetic nanoparticles in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Leila Hosseini-Salekdeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Elevated expression of the folate receptor (FR occurs in many human malignancies. Thus, folate targeting is widely utilized in drug delivery purposes specially using nano-radioactive agents. Aims: In this work, we report production and biological evaluation of gallium-67 labeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, embedded by folic acid ( 67 Ga-SPION-folate complex especially in tumor-bearing mice for tumor imaging studies. Settings and Design: The structure of SPION-folate was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and foureir transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analyses. The radiolabeled SPION-folate formation was confirmed by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC. Tumor induction was performed by the use of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon injection in rodents as reported previously. Materials and Methods: [ 67 Ga]-SPION-folate was shown to possess a particle size of ≈5-10 nm using instrumental methods followed by ITLC test. Biocompatibility of the compound was investigated using an 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay followed by stability tests and tumor accumulation studies in fibrosarcoma-bearing mice after subcutaneous (s.c. application. Statistical Analysis Used: All values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (mean ± SD and the data were compared using Student t-test. Statistical significance was defined as P95% radiochemical purity. Biodistribution studies demonstrated tumor:blood, tumor:bone and tumor:muscle ratios of 4.23, 4.98 and 11.54 respectively after 24 h. Conclusions: Due to the nano-scale size and high-penetrative property of the developed folate-containing nano-complex, this system can be an interesting drug delivery modality with therapeutic applications and folate receptor-targeting behavior, while possessing paramagnetic properties for thermotherapy.

  10. Heating in the MRI environment due to superparamagnetic fluid suspensions in a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon-Murphy, P.; Wald, L. L.; Adalsteinsson, E.; Zahn, M.

    2010-03-01

    In the presence of alternating-sinusoidal or rotating magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles will act to realign their magnetic moment with the applied magnetic field. The realignment is characterized by the nanoparticle's time constant, τ. As the magnetic field frequency is increased, the nanoparticle's magnetic moment lags the applied magnetic field at a constant angle for a given frequency, Ω, in rad/s. Associated with this misalignment is a power dissipation that increases the bulk magnetic fluid's temperature which has been utilized as a method of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, particularly suited for cancer in low-perfusion tissue (e.g., breast) where temperature increases of between 4 and 7 degree Centigrade above the ambient in vivo temperature cause tumor hyperthermia. This work examines the rise in the magnetic fluid's temperature in the MRI environment which is characterized by a large DC field, B0. Theoretical analysis and simulation is used to predict the effect of both alternating-sinusoidal and rotating magnetic fields transverse to B0. Results are presented for the expected temperature increase in small tumors (approximately 1 cm radius) over an appropriate range of magnetic fluid concentrations (0.002-0.01 solid volume fraction) and nanoparticle radii (1-10 nm). The results indicate that significant heating can take place, even in low-field MRI systems where magnetic fluid saturation is not significant, with careful selection of the rotating or sinusoidal field parameters (field frequency and amplitude). The work indicates that it may be feasible to combine low-field MRI with a magnetic hyperthermia system using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  11. Heating in the MRI environment due to superparamagnetic fluid suspensions in a rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of alternating-sinusoidal or rotating magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles will act to realign their magnetic moment with the applied magnetic field. The realignment is characterized by the nanoparticle's time constant, τ. As the magnetic field frequency is increased, the nanoparticle's magnetic moment lags the applied magnetic field at a constant angle for a given frequency, Ω, in rad/s. Associated with this misalignment is a power dissipation that increases the bulk magnetic fluid's temperature which has been utilized as a method of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, particularly suited for cancer in low-perfusion tissue (e.g., breast) where temperature increases of between 4 and 7 degree Centigrade above the ambient in vivo temperature cause tumor hyperthermia. This work examines the rise in the magnetic fluid's temperature in the MRI environment which is characterized by a large DC field, B0. Theoretical analysis and simulation is used to predict the effect of both alternating-sinusoidal and rotating magnetic fields transverse to B0. Results are presented for the expected temperature increase in small tumors (approximately 1 cm radius) over an appropriate range of magnetic fluid concentrations (0.002-0.01 solid volume fraction) and nanoparticle radii (1-10 nm). The results indicate that significant heating can take place, even in low-field MRI systems where magnetic fluid saturation is not significant, with careful selection of the rotating or sinusoidal field parameters (field frequency and amplitude). The work indicates that it may be feasible to combine low-field MRI with a magnetic hyperthermia system using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Dextran-coated superparamagnetic nanoparticles as potential cancer drug carriers in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingli; Li, Houli; Luo, Zhiyi; Kong, Jian; Wan, Yinsheng; Zheng, Lemin; Zhang, Qinlu; Niu, Hongxin; Vermorken, Alphons; van de Ven, Wim; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xikun; Li, Fuqiang; Guo, Lili; Cui, Yali

    2015-06-01

    Dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (DSPIONs) have gained considerable interest, because of their biocompatibility and biosafety in clinics. Doxorubicin (Dox), a widely used chemotherapeutic drug, always has limited applications in clinical therapy due to its serious side effects of dose-limiting irreversible cardiotoxicity and myelo suppression. Herein, DSPIONs were synthesized and developed as magnetic carriers for doxorubicin. The Dox-DSPION conjugates were evaluated in the in vitro test of Dox release, which showed pH-dependence with the highest release percentage of 50.3% at pH 5.0 and the lowest release percentage of 11.8% in a physiological environment. The cytotoxicity of DSPIONs and Dox-DSPIONs evaluated by the MTT assay indicated that DSPIONs had no cytotoxicity and the conjugates had significantly reduced the toxicity (IC50 = 1.36 μg mL-1) compared to free Dox (IC50 = 0.533 μg mL-1). Furthermore, confocal microscopic data of cell uptake suggest that less cytotoxicity of Dox-DSPIONs may be attributed to the cellular internalization of the conjugates and sustainable release of Dox from the formulation in the cytoplasm. More importantly, the results from the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model test under an external magnetic field showed that the conjugates had approximately twice the anti-tumor activity and two and a half times the animal survival rate, respectively, compared to free Dox. Collectively, our data have demonstrated that Dox-DSPIONs have less toxicity with better antitumor effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo applications, suggesting that the conjugates have potential to be developed into chemo-therapeutic formulations.

  13. Heating in the MRI environment due to superparamagnetic fluid suspensions in a rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantillon-Murphy, P., E-mail: padraig@mit.ed [Department of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Wald, L.L., E-mail: wald@nmr.mgh.harvard.ed [MGH-HST Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States); Adalsteinsson, E., E-mail: elfar@mit.ed [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); MGH-HST Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States); Zahn, M., E-mail: zahn@mit.ed [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-03-15

    In the presence of alternating-sinusoidal or rotating magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles will act to realign their magnetic moment with the applied magnetic field. The realignment is characterized by the nanoparticle's time constant, tau. As the magnetic field frequency is increased, the nanoparticle's magnetic moment lags the applied magnetic field at a constant angle for a given frequency, OMEGA, in rad/s. Associated with this misalignment is a power dissipation that increases the bulk magnetic fluid's temperature which has been utilized as a method of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, particularly suited for cancer in low-perfusion tissue (e.g., breast) where temperature increases of between 4 and 7 degree Centigrade above the ambient in vivo temperature cause tumor hyperthermia. This work examines the rise in the magnetic fluid's temperature in the MRI environment which is characterized by a large DC field, B{sub 0}. Theoretical analysis and simulation is used to predict the effect of both alternating-sinusoidal and rotating magnetic fields transverse to B{sub 0}. Results are presented for the expected temperature increase in small tumors (approximately 1 cm radius) over an appropriate range of magnetic fluid concentrations (0.002-0.01 solid volume fraction) and nanoparticle radii (1-10 nm). The results indicate that significant heating can take place, even in low-field MRI systems where magnetic fluid saturation is not significant, with careful selection of the rotating or sinusoidal field parameters (field frequency and amplitude). The work indicates that it may be feasible to combine low-field MRI with a magnetic hyperthermia system using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

  14. Superparamagnetic adsorbents for high-gradient magnetic fishing of lectins out of legume extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Dalkiær, M.; Hubbuch, Jürgen;

    2004-01-01

    This work presents the development, testing, and application in high-gradient magnetic fishing of superparamagnetic supports for adsorption of lectins. Various approaches were examined to produce affinity, mixed mode, and hydrophobic charge induction type adsorbents. In clean monocomponent system...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of superhydrophobic and superparamagnetic film based on maghemite–polystyrene composite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Maghemite nanoparticles were coated with silica. ► Polystyrene was grafted onto the surface of silica coated maghemite. ► The rough surface shows superhydrophobic and superparamagnetic properties. - Abstract: We combine two abilities: the superhydrophobicity of lotus leaf and the magnetic property of γ-Fe2O3. A superhydrophobic and superparamagnetic polystyrene/silica/maghemite (PS/SiO2/γ-Fe2O3 (PSVSF)) film was prepared by a three-step chemical procedure at mild conditions. The products exhibited superhydrophobicity and superparamagnetism after coating and modifying. Because PS and SiO2 supplied the low surface energy and roughness, respectively. In addition, the classic and a modified Cassie–Baxter relation were applied on the PSVSF films to verify the superhydrophobic performance. It indicates that the obtained superhydrophobic and superparamagnetic films are promising materials for numerous potential applications fields, including aerospace, electronic, biomedical, martial and defense-related areas.

  16. Magnetic properties of iron minerals produced by natural iron- and manganese-reducing groundwater bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kondratyeva, Lubov M.; Golubeva, Evgeniya M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Hori, Rie S.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the contribution of biogenic magnetic particles into sedimentary assemblages is a current challenge in palaeomagnetism. It has been demonstrated recently that magnetic particles produced through biologically controlled mineralization processes, such as magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria, contribute to the recording of natural remanent magnetization in marine and lacustrian sediments. Contributions from other, biologically induced, mineralization types, which are known from multiple laboratory experiments to include magnetic minerals, remain largely unknown. Here, we report magnetic properties of iron minerals formed by a community of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria isolated from a natural groundwater deposit during a 2 yr long incubation experiment. The main iron phases of the biomineralized mass are lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite, each of which has environmental significance. Unlike the majority of the previous studies that reported superparamagnetic grain size, and thus no remanence carrying capacity of biologically induced magnetite, hysteresis and first-order reversal curves measurements in our study have not detected significant superparamagnetic contribution. The biomineralized mass, instead, contains a mixture of single-domain to pseudo-single-domain and multidomain magnetite particles that are capable of carrying a stable chemical remanent magnetization. Isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition parameters and first-order reversal curves signatures of the biomineralized samples deviate from previously proposed criteria for the distinction of extracellular (biologically induced) magnetic particles in mixtures. Given its potential significance as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization, environmental requirements, distribution in nature and the efficiency in the geomagnetic field recording by biologically induced mineralization need comprehensive investigation.

  17. Magnetic properties of iron minerals produced by natural iron- and manganese-reducing groundwater bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kondratyeva, Lubov M.; Golubeva, Evgeniya M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Hori, Rie S.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the contribution of biogenic magnetic particles into sedimentary assemblages is a current challenge in paleomagnetism. It has been demonstrated recently that magnetic particles produced through biologically controlled mineralization processes, such as magnetosomes from magnetotactic bacteria, contribute to the recording of natural remanent magnetization in marine and lacustrian sediments. Contributions from other, biologically induced, mineralization types, which are known from multiple laboratory experiments to include magnetic minerals, remain largely unknown. Here, we report magnetic properties of iron minerals formed by a community of iron- and manganese-reducing bacteria isolated from a natural groundwater deposit during a two year long incubation experiment. The main iron phases of the biomineralized mass are lepidocrocite, goethite and magnetite, each of which has environmental significance. Unlike the majority of the previous studies that reported superparamagnetic grain size, and thus no remanence carrying capacity of biologically induced magnetite, hysteresis and first order reversal curves measurements in our study have not detected significant superparamagnetic contribution. The biomineralized mass, instead, contains a mixture of single-domain to pseudo-single-domain and multi-domain magnetite particles that are capable of carrying a stable chemical remanent magnetization. Isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition parameters and first order reversal curves signatures of the biomineralized samples deviate from previously proposed criteria for the distinction of extracellular (biologically induced) magnetic particles in mixtures. Given its potential significance as a carrier of natural remanent magnetization, environmental requirements, distribution in nature and the efficiency in the geomagnetic field recording by biologically induced mineralization need comprehensive investigation.

  18. Iron Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug called an iron chelator to remove excess iron from your body because of transfusion-dependent anemias. Be sure to talk with your doctor about the potential benefits and risks of using these drugs. Previous Article ...

  19. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    OpenAIRE

    Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins enc...

  20. Magnetic study of iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) of 3.8, 5 and 8 nm have been infiltrated into the pores of porous silicon. The aim is to create a superparamagnetic (SPM) nanocomposite system with maximized magnetic moment. Therefore the particle size versus the superparamagnetic behaviour has been figured out. The blocking temperature TB which indicates the transition between SPM behaviour and blocked state is not only dependent on the particle size but also the magnetic interactions between them which can be varied by the distance between the particles. Thus a modification, on the one hand of the pore-loading and on the other hand of the porous silicon morphology results in a composite material with a desired TB. Because both materials, the mesoporous silicon matrices as well as the Fe3O4-NPs offer low toxicity the system is a promising candidate for biomedical applications as e.g. magnetic field guided drug delivery. (author)

  1. Real-time tracking of superparamagnetic nanoparticle self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffalovic, P; Majkova, E; Chitu, L; Jergel, M; Luby, S; Capek, I; Satka, A; Timmann, A; Roth, S V

    2008-12-01

    The spontaneous self-assembly process of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in a fast-drying colloidal drop is observed in real time. The grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) technique is employed for an in situ tracking of the reciprocal space, with a 3 ms delay time between subsequent frames delivered by a new generation of X-ray cameras. A focused synchrotron beam and sophisticated sample oscillations make it possible to relate the dynamic reciprocal to direct space features and to localize the self-assembly. In particular, no nanoparticle ordering is found inside the evaporating drop and near-surface region down to a drop thickness of 90 microm. Scanning through the shrinking drop-contact line indicates the start of self-assembly near the drop three-phase interface, in accord with theoretical predictions. The results obtained have direct implications for establishing the self-assembly process as a routine technological step in the preparation of new nanostructures. PMID:19003821

  2. Superparamagnetic-oil-filled nanocapsules of a ternary graft copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lei; Liu, Feng; Lin, Shudong; Hu, Jiwen; Liu, Guojun; Yang, Yang; Tu, Yuanyuan; Hou, Chengmin; Li, Fei; Hu, Meilong; Luo, Hongsheng

    2014-04-15

    Stearic and oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were dispersed in decahydronaphthalene (DN). This oil phase was dispersed in water using ternary graft copolymer poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-graft-[polystyrene-ran-(methoxy polyethylene glycol)-ran-poly(2-cinnamoyloxyethyl methacrylate)] or PGMA-g-(PS-r-MPEG-r-PCEMA) to yield capsules. The walls of these capsules were composed of PCEMA chains that were soluble in neither water nor DN, and the DN-soluble PS chains stretched into the droplet phase and the water-soluble MPEG chains extended into the aqueous phase. Structurally stable capsules were prepared by photolyzing the capsules with UV light to cross-link the PCEMA layer. Both the magnetite particles and the magnetite-containing capsules were superparamagnetic. The sizes of the capsules increased as they were loaded with more magnetite nanoparticles, reaching a maximal loading of ~0.5 mg of ligated magnetite nanoparticles per mg of copolymer. But the radii of the capsules were always oil-filled polymer nanocapsules--was prepared. The more heavily loaded capsules were readily captured by a magnet and could be redispersed via shaking. Although the cross-linked capsules survived this capturing and redispersing treatment many times, the un-cross-linked capsules ruptured after four cycles. These results suggest the potential to tailor-make capsules with tunable wall stability for magnetically controlled release applications. PMID:24684287

  3. Visualization of superparamagnetic dynamics in magnetic topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Ella O; Young, Andrea F; Richardella, Anthony; Cuppens, Jo; Naren, H R; Anahory, Yonathan; Meltzer, Alexander Y; Kandala, Abhinav; Kempinger, Susan; Myasoedov, Yuri; Huber, Martin E; Samarth, Nitin; Zeldov, Eli

    2015-11-01

    Quantized Hall conductance is a generic feature of two-dimensional electronic systems with broken time reversal symmetry. In the quantum anomalous Hall state recently discovered in magnetic topological insulators, time reversal symmetry is believed to be broken by long-range ferromagnetic order, with quantized resistance observed even at zero external magnetic field. We use scanning nanoSQUID (nano-superconducting quantum interference device) magnetic imaging to provide a direct visualization of the dynamics of the quantum phase transition between the two anomalous Hall plateaus in a Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin film. Contrary to naive expectations based on macroscopic magnetometry, our measurements reveal a superparamagnetic state formed by weakly interacting magnetic domains with a characteristic size of a few tens of nanometers. The magnetic phase transition occurs through random reversals of these local moments, which drive the electronic Hall plateau transition. Surprisingly, we find that the electronic system can, in turn, drive the dynamics of the magnetic system, revealing a subtle interplay between the two coupled quantum phase transitions. PMID:26601138

  4. Crystal structure of superparamagnetic Mg0.2Ca0.8Fe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powders of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Mg0.2Ca0.8Fe2O4) were prepared by a sol–gel method using ethylene glycol and nitrates of Fe, Ca and Mg as starting materials. Those powders were heat treated at different temperatures (573, 673, 773 and 873 K). In order to evaluate the effect of the heat treatment temperature on the nanoferrites properties, X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used. It was found that the reaction products exhibit nanometric sizes and superparamagnetic behavior. It is also demonstrated that, as the heat treatment temperature increases, the particle size and the saturation magnetization of the nanoferrites are increased. - Highlights: • Mg0.2Ca0.8Fe2O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. • Particle average sizes of Ca–Mg ferrites were within the range of 8–25 nm. • The nanoferrite treated at 873 K showed a stoichiometry close to Mg0.2Ca0.8Fe2O4. • The heat treatment temperature has a strong effect on the crystal structure. • These nanoparticles are potential materials for magnetic hyperthermia

  5. Magnetic birefringence of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles stabilised by sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetically induced optical birefringence is used to investigate pharmaceutically important iron-sucrose aqueous suspensions. XRD and TEM measurements of the system of oxyhydroxide particles stabilised by sucrose have shown that this system contains iron oxyhydroxide in the form of 2-5 nm particles. The mineral form of the iron-core is suggested to be akaganeite. Anisotropy of the optical polarizability and magnetic susceptibility of akaganeite nanoparticles are calculated. The permanent dipole moment obtained for the nanoparticles studied was found to be negligible, in agreement with the characteristic superparamagnetic behaviour of the magnetic nanoparticles observed at room temperature. The Neel temperature of these nanoparticles is estimated as below 276 K. The results obtained are discussed against a background of the earlier studies of similar nanoscale systems. - Research highlights: → Polysaccharides iron complex, important in pharmaceutical applications, was studied by magnetic birefringence. → Magnetic and optical properties of the akaganeite core has been obtained. The superparamagnetic behaviour of the core has been confirmed. → The experiment suggests that the Neel temperature of these nanoparticles should be set below 276 K. The results show the importance of the magneto-optical method in recognition of magnetic properties of biologically important substances.

  6. Magnetic behavior of iron-modified MCM-41 correlated with clustering processes from the wet impregnation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Natalia I.; Elías, Verónica R.; Winkler, Elin; Pozo-López, Gabriela; Oliva, Marcos I.; Eimer, Griselda A.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic MCM-41 type mesoporous silica materials were synthetized and modified with different iron loadings by the wet impregnation method. The evolution of iron speciation, depending on the metal loading and associated with a particular magnetic behavior was investigated by M vs. H curves, FC-ZFC curves, EPR spectroscopy and other complementary techniques such as SEM, TEM, and chemisorption of pyridine followed by FT-IR studies. A superparamagnetic contribution was larger for the lower loadings suggesting the high dispersion of very small sized iron nanospecies. However, this contribution decreased with increasing metal loading due to the growth of magnetically blocked nanoparticles (hematite) on the outer surface. Finally, a bimodal size distribution for the superparamagnetic nanospecies could be inferred; then the anisotropy constant for this phase and the corresponding nanospecies sizes were estimated.

  7. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  8. Magnetite (Fe3O4)-filled carbon nanofibers as electro-conducting/superparamagnetic nanohybrids and their multifunctional polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mild-temperature, nonchemical technique is used to produce a nanohybrid multifunctional (electro-conducting and magnetic) powder material by intercalating iron oxide nanoparticles in large aspect ratio, open-ended, hollow-core carbon nanofibers (CNFs). Single-crystal, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (10 nm average diameter) filled the CNF internal cavity (diameter <100 nm) after successive steps starting with dispersion of CNFs and magnetite nanoparticles in aqueous or organic solvents, sequencing or combining sonication-assisted capillary imbibition and concentration-driven diffusion, and finally drying at mild temperatures. The influence of several process parameters—such as sonication type and duration, concentration of solids dispersed in solvent, CNF-to-nanoparticle mass ratio, and drying temperature—on intercalation efficiency (evaluated in terms of particle packing in the CNF cavity) was studied using electron microscopy. The magnetic CNF powder was used as a low-concentration filler in poly(methyl methacrylate) to demonstrate thin free-standing polymer films with simultaneous magnetic and electro-conducting properties. Such films could be implemented in sensors, optoelectromagnetic devices, or electromagnetic interference shields

  9. Superparamagnetic Ironoxide Nanoparticles via Ligand Exchange Reactions: Organic 1,2-Diols as Versatile Building Blocks for Surface Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sachsenhofer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A method for the preparation of ligand-covered superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via exchange reactions is described. 1,2-diol-ligands are used to provide a stable binding of the terminally modified organic ligands onto the surface of γ-Fe2O3-nanoparticles (r∼4 nm. The 1,2-diol-ligands are equipped with variable terminal functional groups (i.e., hydrogen bonding moieties, azido- bromo-, fluorescent moieties and can be easily prepared via osmium tetroxide-catalyzed 1,2-dihydroxylation reactions of the corresponding terminal alkenes. Starting from octylamine-covered Î��-Fe2O3-nanoparticles, ligand exchange was effected at 50∘C over 24–48 hours, whereupon complete ligand exchange is taking place as proven by thermogravimetric (TGA- and IR-spectroscopic measurements. A detailed kinetic analysis of the ligand exchange reaction was performed via TGA analysis, demonstrating a complete ligand exchange after 24 hours. The method offers a simple approach for the generation of various γ-Fe2O3-nanoparticles with functional organic shells in a one-step procedure.

  10. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles and their conjuntion with water soluble polymers for biomedical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with suitable bio-compatible substances have been used in biomedicine, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tissue engineering, and hyperthermia and drug delivery. In this study, we describe the synthesis of SPION and its surface modification for in-vitro experiments. The particle diameter and structure were estimated by FESEM, TEM, XRD analyses. The saturation magnetization was characterized. SPION with a mean size of 12 nm have been prepared under N2 atmosphere, with support of natural polymeric starch, by controlling chemical coprecipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts ratios of Fe2+ and Fe3+. The surface of SPION-nanoparticles was treated with a coordinatable agent for higher dispersion ability in water and remaining the superparamagnetic behavior. The prepared iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with starch, dextran, PEG or MPEG to extend the application potential in the quite different engineering field of nano biomedicine.

  11. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles and their conjuntion with water soluble polymers for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Thanh Huong; Lam Thi Kieu Giang; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Le Quoc Minh [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: nthuong@ims.vast.ac.vn

    2009-09-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) coated with suitable bio-compatible substances have been used in biomedicine, particularly in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tissue engineering, and hyperthermia and drug delivery. In this study, we describe the synthesis of SPION and its surface modification for in-vitro experiments. The particle diameter and structure were estimated by FESEM, TEM, XRD analyses. The saturation magnetization was characterized. SPION with a mean size of 12 nm have been prepared under N{sub 2} atmosphere, with support of natural polymeric starch, by controlling chemical coprecipitation of magnetite phase from aqueous solutions containing suitable salts ratios of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The surface of SPION-nanoparticles was treated with a coordinatable agent for higher dispersion ability in water and remaining the superparamagnetic behavior. The prepared iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with starch, dextran, PEG or MPEG to extend the application potential in the quite different engineering field of nano biomedicine.

  12. Cationic polycarbonate-grafted superparamagnetic nanoparticles with synergistic dual-modality antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lu; Xu, Jinbao; Sun, Yimin; Fang, Zheng; Chan-Park, Mary B; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-05-26

    We report a new class of antimicrobial nanomaterials with biodegradable cationic polycarbonates grafted on superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Our results have shown that end-functionalized cationic polycarbonates, synthesized by organocatalytic ring opening polymerization, can be grafted onto superparamagnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles via ligand exchange. In comparison with the individual building blocks, the core-shell hybrid nanoparticles led to improved antimicrobial activities in two ways: first, the cationic polycarbonates in a brush form afforded a greater charge density than that of free polymer chains, resulting in stronger interactions with bacterial surfaces. Second, the structural integration of the "soft" polycarbonate shell and the "hard" superparamagnetic core in the hybrid nanoparticles brings about a synergistic action of membrane disruption by the cationic shell and magnetic hyperthermia by the nanoparticle core. The combination of two physical killing mechanisms holds great promise in fighting against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. PMID:26906640

  13. Iron deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Morten; Bosselmann, Helle; Gaborit, Freja;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both iron deficiency (ID) and cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with a poor outcome in heart failure (HF). The relationship between different cardiovascular biomarkers and ID is unknown, and the true prevalence of ID in an outpatient HF clinic is probably overlooked. OBJECTIVES...... understand iron metabolism in elderly HF patients....

  14. The association between the antineoplastic drug daunomycin and iron. evidence for polynuclear aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzanke, B. F.; Bill, E.; Winkler, H.; Trautwein, A. X.

    1992-04-01

    In contrast to literature data, at millimolar iron and daunomycin (DN) concentrations no solitary Fe(DN)3 complexes are formed in appreciable amounts. The Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis revealed severe dependencies on temperature and on the metal ligand ratio. Two species can be discerned: exchange-coupled polynuclear aggregates, which are magnetically highly anisotropic and another superparamagnetic system, exhibiting much less magnetic anisotropy. The cooperative phenomena observed are attributed to stacking effects of daunomycin.

  15. T1-MRI Fluorescent Iron Oxide Nanoparticles by Microwave Assisted Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Riju Bhavesh; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana V; Jesús Ruiz-Cabello; Fernando Herranz

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have long been studied as a T2 contrast agent in MRI due to their superparamagnetic behavior. T1-based positive contrast, being much more favorable for clinical application due to brighter and more accurate signaling is, however, still limited to gadolinium- or manganese-based imaging tools. Though being the only available commercial positive-contrast agents, they lack an efficient argument when it comes to biological toxicity and their circulatory half-life in blood....

  16. Improved functionalization of oleic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Maarten; Brullot, Ward; Luong, Thien Tai; Geukens, Nick; Gils, Ann; Verbiest, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can provide multiple benefits for biomedical applications in aqueous environments such as magnetic separation or magnetic resonance imaging. To increase the colloidal stability and allow subsequent reactions, the introduction of hydrophilic functional groups onto the particles’ surface is essential. During this process, the original coating is exchanged by preferably covalently bonded ligands such as trialkoxysilanes. The duration of the silane excha...

  17. The association between the antineoplastic drug daunomycin and iron. Evidence for polynuclear aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to literature data, at millimolar iron and daunomycin (DN) concentrations no solitary Fe(DN)3 complexes are formed in appreciable amounts. The Moessbauer spectroscopic analysis revealed severe dependencies on temperature and on the metal ligand ratio. Two species can be discerned: exchange-coupled polynuclear aggregates, which are magnetically highly anisotropic and another superparamagnetic system, exhibiting much less magnetic anisotropy. The cooperative phenomena observed are attributed to stacking effects of daunomycin. (orig.)

  18. Polymer/Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Composites—A Straight Forward and Scalable Synthesis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Sommertune; Abhilash Sugunan; Anwar Ahniyaz; Rebecca Stjernberg Bejhed; Anna Sarwe; Christer Johansson; Christoph Balceris; Frank Ludwig; Oliver Posth; Andrea Fornara

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle systems can be divided into single-core nanoparticles (with only one magnetic core per particle) and magnetic multi-core nanoparticles (with several magnetic cores per particle). Here, we report multi-core nanoparticle synthesis based on a controlled precipitation process within a well-defined oil in water emulsion to trap the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) in a range of polymer matrices of choice, such as poly(styrene), poly(lactid acid), poly(methyl...

  19. Laser-driven synthesis and magnetic properties of iron nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles of iron have been prepared by laser-driven decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl vapor. In this method, an infrared laser rapidly heats a dilute mixture of precursor vapors to decompose the precursor and initiate particle nucleation. It was found that when using SF6 as a photosensitizer during the synthesis, ferrous fluoride (FeF2) was produced as an undesired byproduct in the product powder. The particle size, composition, and crystalline structure have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results of magnetization measurements for small iron nanoparticles (about 5 nm diameter) are also presented, showing superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and a blocking temperature near 125 K

  20. Synthesis and Properties of MPEG-Coated Superparamagnetic Magnetite Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Xueli Cao; Baolin Zhang; Fangyuan Zhao; Lingyun Feng

    2012-01-01

    The magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of iron(III) acetylacetonate in methoxy polyethylene glycol, which was used as solvent, reducing agent, and modifying agent in the reaction. The morphologies and phase compositions of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The surface coating of the nanoparticles was recognized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Magnetic properties were meas...

  1. Fractionation of whey proteins with high-capacity superparamagnetic ion-exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, S.F.L.; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine...... aldehydes bound up to 337 mg g(-1) with a dissociation constant of 0.042 muM. The latter anion-exchanger was selected for studies of whey protein fractionation. In these, crude bovine whey was treated with a superparamagnetic cation-exchanger to adsorb basic protein species, and the supernatant arising from...

  2. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for enhanced magnetic resonance and multimodal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikma, Elise Ann Schultz

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for noninvasive tomographic imaging of biological systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. Superparamagnetic (SPM) nanoparticles have emerged as highly effective MR contrast agents due to their biocompatibility, ease of surface modification and magnetic properties. Conventional nanoparticle contrast agents suffer from difficult synthetic reproducibility, polydisperse sizes and weak magnetism. Numerous synthetic techniques and nanoparticle formulations have been developed to overcome these barriers. However, there are still major limitations in the development of new nanoparticle-based probes for MR and multimodal imaging including low signal amplification and absence of biochemical reporters. To address these issues, a set of multimodal (T2/optical) and dual contrast (T1/T2) nanoparticle probes has been developed. Their unique magnetic properties and imaging capabilities were thoroughly explored. An enzyme-activatable contrast agent is currently being developed as an innovative means for early in vivo detection of cancer at the cellular level. Multimodal probes function by combining the strengths of multiple imaging techniques into a single agent. Co-registration of data obtained by multiple imaging modalities validates the data, enhancing its quality and reliability. A series of T2/optical probes were successfully synthesized by attachment of a fluorescent dye to the surface of different types of nanoparticles. The multimodal nanoparticles generated sufficient MR and fluorescence signal to image transplanted islets in vivo. Dual contrast T1/T2 imaging probes were designed to overcome disadvantages inherent in the individual T1 and T2 components. A class of T1/T2 agents was developed consisting of a gadolinium (III) complex (DTPA chelate or DO3A macrocycle) conjugated to a biocompatible silica-coated metal oxide nanoparticle through a disulfide linker. The disulfide linker has the ability to be reduced

  3. Restoration of segmental bone defects by using chitosan-coated pressed calcium sulfate pellet com-bined with rhBMP-2%壳聚糖包衣加压硫酸钙片复合重组人骨形态发生蛋白-2修复兔节段性骨缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔旭; 张伯勋

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of calcium sulfate pellets made by different methods in repair of segmental radial defect of rabbits. Methods Eighty white New Zealand rabbits were sub-jected to defects of middle part of the left radial bone and divided into four groups according to repair ma-terials: control group (Group A, implanted with no artificial bone substitute), uncoated pressed calcium sulfate pellets (Group B), coated pressed calcium sulfate pellets (Group C) and coated pressed calcium sulfate pellets combined with rhBMP-2 (Group D). Histologic examination and biological test were done at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after operation. The data were processed with mono-factor variance analysis. Re-sults New bone formation was found on the defected bone in Group D and Group C, with better in Group D. The bone strength test showed that the anti-bending strength was (39.6±1.7) % in Group C and (47.5±2.1) % in Group D, which were higher than (21.3±2.7) % in Group A and (23.6±3.3) % in Group B, with higher anti-bending strength in Group D than that in Group C (F = 125.3 ,P <0.01). Conclusions For restoration of segmental bone defects, chitosan-coated pressed calcium sulfate pellet shows relatively high density and slightly slow resorption, which closely coincides with the growth rate of new bone. The coated pellet combined with rhBMP-2 can enhance its osteogeneais in restoring segmental Done defects.%目的 比较不同方法 制备的硫酸钙片修复兔桡骨节段性骨缺损的效果. 方法 新西兰大白兔80只随机数字表法分为A、B、C、D组,造成左桡骨中段骨缺损,采用三种经不同方法 制备的硫酸钙片修复.A组:空白对照组;B组:加压方法 制备的硫酸钙组;C组:壳聚糖包衣的加压硫酸钙组;D组:壳聚糖包衣的复合重组人骨形态发生蛋白-2(rhBMP-2)加压硫酸钙组.术后4,8,12周进行组织学检查和生物力学测试,实验数据采用单因素方差分析. 结果 D组、C组骨缺损愈合,而

  4. Chitosan coated cotton gauze for antibacterial water filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Franco; Periolatto, Monica; Vineis, Claudia; Varesano, Alessio

    2014-03-15

    Communicable diseases can be transmitted by contaminated water. Water decontamination process is fundamental to eliminate microorganisms. In this work, cotton gauzes were coated with chitosan using an UV-curing process or cationized by introduction of quaternary ammonium groups and tested, in static and dynamic conditions, as water filter for biological disinfection against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Both materials showed good antibacterial activity, in static assessment, instead in dynamic conditions, chitosan treated gauze showed a high antimicrobial efficiency in few seconds of contact time. This composite could be a good candidate for application as biological filter. PMID:24528721

  5. Arc-Discharge Synthesis of Iron Encapsulated in Carbon Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chaitoglou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to improve the protection against the oxidation that usually appears in core@shell nanoparticles. Spherical iron nanoparticles coated with a carbon shell were obtained by a modified arc-discharge reactor, which permits controlling the diameter of the iron core and the carbon shell of the particles. Oxidized iron nanoparticles involve a loss of the magnetic characteristics and also changes in the chemical properties. Our nanoparticles show superparamagnetic behavior and high magnetic saturation owing to the high purity α-Fe of core and to the high core sealing, provided by the carbon shell. A liquid iron precursor was injected in the plasma spot dragged by an inert gas flow. A fixed arc-discharge current of 40 A was used to secure a stable discharge, and several samples were produced at different conditions. Transmission electron microscopy indicated an iron core diameter between 5 and 9 nm. Selected area electron diffraction provided evidences of a highly crystalline and dense iron core. The magnetic properties were studied up to 5 K temperature using a superconducting quantum interference device. The results reveal a superparamagnetic behaviour, a narrow size distribution (σg=1.22, and an average diameter of 6 nm for nanoparticles having a blocking temperature near 40 K.

  6. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis and surface coating techniques for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are the most popular magnetic nanoparticles used in biomedical applications due to their low cost, low toxicity, and unique magnetic property. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, including magnetite (Fe3O4) and maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), usually exhibit a superparamagnetic property as their size goes smaller than 20 nm, which are often denoted as superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and utilized for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapy, and etc. This review article gives a brief introduction on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in terms of their fundamentals of magnetism, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and drug delivery, as well as the synthesis approaches, surface coating, and application examples from recent key literatures. Because the quality and surface chemistry play important roles in biomedical applications, our review focuses on the synthesis approaches and surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles. We aim to provide a detailed introduction to readers who are new to this field, helping them to choose suitable synthesis methods and to optimize the surface chemistry of iron oxide nanoparticles for their interests. (topical review — magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  7. Vapour phase approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis from solid precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mandeep; Ulbrich, Pavel; Prokopec, Vadym [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Pavel [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 120 00 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Šantavá, Eva [Institute of Physics ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Štěpánek, František, E-mail: Frantisek.Stepanek@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2013-04-15

    A new non-solution mediated approach to the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles directly from solid FeCl{sub 2} salt precursors has been developed. The method is rapid, simple and scalable. The structural properties and the phase of the resulting iron oxide particles has been determined by a range of methods including XRD, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and the phase is shown to be maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The magnetic properties of the iron oxide particles have been measured using SQUID, confirming superparamagnetic behaviour of the powder and a saturation magnetization of 53.0 emu g{sup −1} at 300 K. Aqueous dispersions at increasing concentrations were prepared and their heating rate under a 400 kHz alternating magnetic field measured. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of the iron oxide was found to be 84.8 W g{sup −1}, which makes the material suitable for the formulation of ferrofluids or ferrogels with RF heating properties. - Graphical Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by a novel vapour phase approach. Highlights: ► Novel vapour phase (non-solvent) approach for iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis. ► Attractive alternative approach to the present co-precipitation method. ► Better magnetic properties with high coercivity of nanoparticles. ► A high specific absorption rate (SAR) for hyperthermia applications.

  8. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4); however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94%(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2), deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe(sub 3)O(sub 4). No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for(chi)-Fe(sub 5)C(sub 2) and(epsilon)(prime)-Fe(sub 2.2)C

  9. Iron (III) sulfide particles produced by a polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron(III) sulfide Fe2S3 particles were produced using a polyol method. Although pyrrhotite Fe1−xS appeared together with Fe2S3, the relative yield of Fe2S3 changed when the concentration of reagents in the oleylamine changed. Mössbauer spectra of the particles showed superparamagnetic doublets due to Fe2S3 at 293 K, along with a hyperfine magnetic splitting of H = 24.7 T at 6 K. XRD patterns of the Fe2S3 suggested a structure similar to that of greigite Fe3S4

  10. Iron (III) sulfide particles produced by a polyol method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryo; Kubono, Ippei; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Iron(III) sulfide Fe2S3 particles were produced using a polyol method. Although pyrrhotite Fe1-xS appeared together with Fe2S3, the relative yield of Fe2S3 changed when the concentration of reagents in the oleylamine changed. Mössbauer spectra of the particles showed superparamagnetic doublets due to Fe2S3 at 293 K, along with a hyperfine magnetic splitting of H = 24.7 T at 6 K. XRD patterns of the Fe2S3 suggested a structure similar to that of greigite Fe3S4.

  11. On the origin of superparamagnetic minerals of tropical soils and their impact on landmine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger; Altfelder, Sven

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of soils is mainly determined by their content of ferrimagnetic minerals whereas titanomagnetite, magnetite and maghemite being the most important ones. Titanomagnetite and magnetite are of magmatic origin, i.e. they crystallise during cooling of iron-rich magma and are part of many igneous rocks. Maghemite and sometimes magnetite are of pedogenic origin. They develop by crystallisation of dissolved iron during soil forming processes. Ferrimagnetic minerals that are smaller than some tens of nanometres are superparamagnetic (SP) and show frequency dependent susceptibility. SP minerals crystallise if magma cools down rapidly (e.g. volcanic magmas, glasses and ashes) and are frequently formed during pedogenesis. In order to investigate the origin and formation of SP minerals in tropical soils, we analyse magnetic properties of 594 samples from the entire tropics comprising the whole range of weathering states from unweathered rock to highly weathered soil. Tropical soils are subject to intense chemical weathering and are rich in ferrimagnetic and in particular SP minerals. The process leading to a high content of these minerals is either residual enrichment due to their weathering resistance or neo-formation. In this study we focus on the frequency dependent susceptibility (absolute and relative) of the samples and classify it according to the parent material and alteration. We observe that • within each parent-material group, rock material shows in general lower susceptibility and absolute frequency dependence than soil material • ultrabasic and basic/intermediate rocks and soils developed from these rocks show high absolute frequency dependent susceptibility and, in contrast, acid rocks and sediments show lower absolute frequency dependence • absolute frequency dependence increases from unweathered rock to weathered rock, and from subsoil to topsoil material within every group of parent material • relative frequency dependence rises

  12. Effect of Inter-Particle Interactions on the Superparamagnetic Relaxation Time in Ferrofluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen; Svedlindh, P.

    The influence of dipolar interactions in a frozen ferrofluid consisting of maghemite particles has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range from 60 to 200 K. Four samples with volume concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 17.7 % have been investigated. The superparamagnetic...

  13. The correlation between superparamagnetic blocking temperatures and peak temperatures obtained from ac magnetization measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Mørup, Steen

    2008-01-01

    We study the correlation between the superparamagnetic blocking temperature TB and the peak positions Tp observed in ac magnetization measurements for nanoparticles of different classes of magnetic materials. In general, Tp=α+βTB . The parameters α and β are different for the in-phase (χ') and out...

  14. Effect of Inter-Particle Interactions on the Superparamagnetic Relaxation Time in Ferrofluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen; Svedlindh, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of dipolar interactions in a frozen ferrofluid consisting of maghemite particles has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in the temperature range from 60 to 200 K. Four samples with volume concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 17.7 % have been investigated. The superparamagnetic...

  15. Native iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Charles Kent

    2015-01-01

    We live in an oxidized world: oxygen makes up 22 percent of the atmosphere and by reacting with organic matter produces most of our energy, including the energy our bodies use to function: breathe, think, move, etc. It has not always been thus. Originally the Earth, in common with most of the Solar...... System, was reduced. The oxidized outer layers of the Earth have formed by two processes. Firstly, water is decomposed to oxygen and hydrogen by solar radiation in the upper parts of the atmosphere, the light hydrogen diffusing to space, leaving oxygen behind. Secondly, plants, over the course of...... situation unique in the Solar System. In such a world, iron metal is unstable and, as we all know, oxidizes to the ferric iron compounds we call 'rust'. If we require iron metal it must be produced at high temperatures by reacting iron ore, usually a mixture of ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) oxides (Fe2O3...

  16. METABOLISM OF IRON STORES

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Remarkable progress was recently achieved in the studies on molecular regulators of iron metabolism. Among the main regulators, storage iron, iron absorption, erythropoiesis and hepcidin interact in keeping iron homeostasis. Diseases with gene-mutations resulting in iron overload, iron deficiency, and local iron deposition have been introduced in relation to the regulators of storage iron metabolism. On the other hand, the research on storage iron metabolism has not advanced since th...

  17. Magneto-induced stress enhancing effect in a colloidal suspension of paramagnetic and superparamagnetic particles dispersed in a ferrofluid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taixiang; Gong, Xinglong; Xu, Yangguang; Xuan, Shouhu

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-induced stress and relative microstructure in a colloidal suspension of paramagnetic and superparamagnetic particles dispersed in a ferrofluid medium is studied using particle-level dynamics simulation. It shows that the stress perpendicular to the direction of an external uniaxial magnetic field can be strongly enhanced by increasing the ratio of paramagnetic particles to approaching that of superparamagnetic particles. The magnetic field-induced net-like or embedded chain-like microstructures formed by paramagnetic and superparamagnetic particles contribute to this stress enhancing effect. PMID:24837318

  18. Synthesis and characterization of L-carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of Fe3O4 (magnetite) in the presence of L-carnosine. → FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. → Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. → The synthesized amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles might be applied to cell separation, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. - Abstract: L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of iron oxide in the presence of L-carnosine. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 8 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM by log-normal fitting was ∼11 nm. FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. CCIO NPs showed superparamagnetic charactersitic at room temperature. The magnetic core size of superparamagnetic CCIO NPs was found slightly smaller than the size obtained from TEM, due to the presence of magnetically dead layer. Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The low value of saturation magnetization compared to the bulk magnetite has been explained by spin canting. LDH activity tests showed slight cytotoxicity of high dose of CCIO NPs. The ac conductivity of CCIO NPs was found to be greater than that of carnosine and the effective conduction mechanism was found as correlated barrier hopping (CBH). dc activation energy of the product at

  19. Synthesis and characterization of L-carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durmus, Z. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Kavas, H. [Department of Physics, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Baykal, A., E-mail: hbaykal@fatih.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Sozeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute, PO Box 54, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Alpsoy, L. [Department of Biology, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Celik, S.U. [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, B. Cekmece, 34500 Istanbul (Turkey); Toprak, M.S. [Department of Functional Materials, Royal Institute of Technology, SE16440 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite) in the presence of L-carnosine. > FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. > Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. > The synthesized amino acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles might be applied to cell separation, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. - Abstract: L-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of iron oxide in the presence of L-carnosine. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 8 nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM by log-normal fitting was {approx}11 nm. FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. CCIO NPs showed superparamagnetic charactersitic at room temperature. The magnetic core size of superparamagnetic CCIO NPs was found slightly smaller than the size obtained from TEM, due to the presence of magnetically dead layer. Magnetization measurements revealed that L-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The low value of saturation magnetization compared to the bulk magnetite has been explained by spin canting. LDH activity tests showed slight cytotoxicity of high dose of CCIO NPs. The ac conductivity of CCIO NPs was found to be greater than that of carnosine and the effective conduction mechanism was found as correlated barrier hopping (CBH). dc activation energy of the

  20. In vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging with chlorotoxin-conjugated superparamagnetic nanoprobes for targeting hepatocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhu; Xiao, En-Hua; Kang, Zhen; Zeng, Wen-Bin; Tan, Hui-Long; Li, Hua-Bing; Bian, Du-Jun; Shang, Quan-Liang

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the in vitro and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of chlorotoxin (CTX)-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoprobes. CTX-conjugated nanoprobes were composed of SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and conjugated with CTX. The nanoprobes were termed SPIO-PEG-CTX. MRI of the SPIO and SPIO-PEG-CTX solutions at a different concentration was performed with a 3.0-T MRI scanner (Philips Achieva 3.0T X Series; Phillips Healthcare, The Netherlands). Rabbit VX2 hepatocarcinoma was established by a traditional laparotomy method (injection of the tumor particles into the liver using a 15G syringe needle) following approval by the institutional animal care and use committee. Contrast-enhanced MRI of VX2 rabbits (n=8) was performed using the same MRI scanner with SPIO‑PEG-CTX solutions as the contrast agent. Data were analyzed with calibration curve and a paired t-test. The SPIO-PEG-CTX nanoparticles were successfully prepared. With increasing concentrations of the solutions, the MRI signal intensity was increased at T1WI, but decreased at T2WI, which were the same as that for SPIO. Rabbit VX2 carcinoma appeared as a low MRI signal at T1WI, and high at T2WI. After injection of the contrast agent, the MRI signal of carcinoma was decreased relative to that before injection at T2WI (1,161±331.5 vs. 1,346±300.5; P=0.0040.05). The SPIO-PEG-CTX nanoparticles showed MRI negative enhancement at T2WI and a targeting effect in liver cancer, which provides the theoretical basis for further study of the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26934940

  1. Acid monolayer functionalized iron oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenberry, Myles

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle functionalization is an area of intensely active research, with applications across disciplines such as biomedical science and heterogeneous catalysis. This work demonstrates the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles with a quasi-monolayer of 11-sulfoundecanoic acid, 10-phosphono-1-decanesulfonic acid, and 11-aminoundecanoic acid. The carboxylic and phosphonic moieties form bonds to the iron oxide particle core, while the sulfonic acid groups face outward where they are available for catalysis. The particles were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), potentiometric titration, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The sulfonic acid functionalized particles were used to catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose at 80° and starch at 130°, showing a higher activity per acid site than the traditional solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15, and comparing well against results reported in the literature for sulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silicas. In sucrose catalysis reactions, the phosphonic-sulfonic nanoparticles (PSNPs) were seen to be incompletely recovered by an external magnetic field, while the carboxylic-sulfonic nanoparticles (CSNPs) showed a trend of increasing activity over the first four recycle runs. Between the two sulfonic ligands, the phosphonates produced a more tightly packed monolayer, which corresponded to a higher sulfonic acid loading, lower agglomeration, lower recoverability through application of an external magnetic field, and higher activity per acid site for the hydrolysis of starch. Functionalizations with 11-aminoundecanoic acid resulted in some amine groups binding to the surfaces of iron oxide nanoparticles. This amine binding is commonly ignored in iron oxide

  2. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron and ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have enough iron in your body. Low iron levels usually are due to blood loss, poor diet, ... iron supplements and multivitamins to improve her iron levels. Susan also made changes to her diet, such ...

  4. New findings about iron oxide nanoparticles and their different effects on murine primary brain cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert J; Wagner S; Kiwit J; Bräuer AU; Glumm J

    2015-01-01

    Jenni Neubert,1 Susanne Wagner,2 Jürgen Kiwit,3 Anja U Bräuer,1,* Jana Glumm1,3,* 1Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Center for Anatomy, 2Institute for Radiology, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, 3Clinic for Neurosurgery, HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Berlin, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The physicochemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) enable their application in the diagnostics and ...

  5. Specific loading of porous silicon with iron oxide nanoparticles to achieve different blocking temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) of 8 nm have been infiltrated into the pores of porous silicon. The aim is to create a superparamagnetic (SPM) nanocomposite system with maximized magnetic moment. Therefore the particle–particle distance versus the superparamagnetic behavior has been figured out. The blocking temperature TB which indicates the transition between SPM behavior and blocked state is not only dependent on the particle size but also on the magnetic interactions between them which can be varied by the distance between the particles. Thus a modification, on the one hand of the pore-loading and on the other hand of the porous silicon morphology results in a composite material with a desired TB. Because both materials, the mesoporous silicon matrices as well as the Fe3O4-NPs offer low toxicity the system is a promising candidate for biomedical applications as e.g. magnetic field guided drug delivery. - Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles within porous silicon. • Different concentrations of the particle solution have been used. • Investigation of the blocking temperature of the nanocomposite. • Influence of the particle–particle interaction by different fabrication parameters

  6. Performance of bidisperse magnetorheological fluids utilizing superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, S. A. N.; Mazlan, S. A.; Samin, P. M.; Idris, A.; Ubaidillah

    2016-02-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids consisted of micron-size particles generally often faces the instability problem due to the large density mismatch between the large particulate matter and continuous oil medium. Recently, researches have been conducted on the advantages of bidisperse MR fluids that is a mixture of micron and nano-sized magnetic particles. In this work, laboratory prepared maghemite nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) with average size of 9 nm were incorporated to the MR fluids comprising carbonyl iron (CI) to reduce the sedimentation rate of the MR fluids. Three different fluids with the same solid concentration of 80.98% have been prepared to contain 5 and 10% substitution of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles to the CI particles and the monodisperse CI particles for comparison purpose. The sedimentation rate was measured by optical tracking of the interface between the carrier liquid and particle suspension that formed in the fluids over time. The rheological properties of the bidisperse MR fluids were investigated using the rheometer with a parallel-plate measuring cell under the different applied magnetic fields and shear rates. The results indicated that the sedimentation rate was reduced considerably. Moreover, by replacing only 5% of CI particles with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the yield stress was increased. The formation of heterogeneous aggregates was considered to improve the stability of the fluids and easier building of well-arranged field-induced structures. Therefore, the MR fluids performances were improved in general.

  7. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoi, Kuan Hoon; Chia, Chin-Hua, E-mail: chia@ukm.edu.my; Zakaria, Sarani [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Chiu, Wee Siong [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature.

  8. Shape control of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles under different chain length of reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the effect of using reducing agents with different chain-length on the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles by thermal decomposition of iron (III) acetylacetonate in 1-octadecene. This modification allows us to control the shape of nanoparticles into spherical and cubic iron oxide nanoparticles. The highly monodisperse 14 nm spherical nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-dodecanediol and average 14 nm edge-length cubic iron oxide nanoparticles are obtained under 1,2-tetradecanediol. The structural characterization such as transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows similar properties between two particles with different shapes. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) shows no significant difference between spherical and cubic nanoparticles, which are 36 emu/g and 37 emu/g respectively and superparamagnetic in nature

  9. Fibroporous polytetrafluoroethylene modified with iron nanoparticles: Structure and electronic and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'kov, A. Yu.; Suzdalev, I. P.; Maksimov, Yu. V.; Nikitin, L. N.; Naumkin, A. V.; Abramchuk, S. S.; Tolstopyatov, E. M.; Grakovich, P. N.

    2013-06-01

    A method for synthesizing iron-containing nanocomposite based on fibroporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is described. Fibroporous PTFE obtained under the radiation of a CO2 laser on block PTFE is modified in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc CO2) to form micro- and nanoporous structures. Porous fluoropolymer is treated with a solution of bis(toluene)iron(0) obtained by metal-vapor synthesis (MVS). The composition and structure of iron-containing fluoropolymer is studied by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Fe nanoparticles with an average size of 9 nm, consisting of ˜30% FeO and ˜70% Fe3+, are registered in the sample. Fe0 nanoparticles are stabilized in fluoropolymer pores and are coated with nanoparticles of nonstoichiometric iron oxides that have superparamagnetic properties.

  10. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the 'iron-polymer' interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data

  11. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I.; Shapkin, Alexey A.; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R.; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V.; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu.; Kazakov, Alexander P.; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-10-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the "iron-polymer" interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  12. Study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chistyakova, Nataliya I., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Shapkin, Alexey A., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Sirazhdinov, Ruslan R., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Gubaidulina, Tatiana V., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kiseleva, Tatiana Yu., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Kazakov, Alexander P., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru; Rusakov, Vyacheslav S., E-mail: nchistyakova@yandex.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie gory, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-27

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction study of nanocomposites based on iron oxides and pectin (PC) was carried out involving magnetization measurements. The concentrations of PC in nanocomposites varied from 0 to 10%. Mössbauer investigations of nanocomposites were carried out in the temperature range from 5 to 300 K. Many-state superparamagnetic relaxation model was used for spectra fitting. The magnetization, M(T,H), was measured in the temperature interval of 80-300 K and magnetic field up to 10 kOe. Formation of the 'iron-polymer' interface was not observed. Particle sizes were estimated using the Mössbauer and X-ray powder diffraction data.

  13. Iron homeostasis and nutritional iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Elizabeth C

    2011-04-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins encoded in iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA. The noncoding IRE-mRNA structures bind protein repressors, IRP1 or 2, during iron deficiency. Integration of the IRE-RNA in translation regulators (near the cap) or turnover elements (after the coding region) increases iron uptake (DMT1/TRF1) or decreases iron storage/efflux (FTN/FPN) when IRP binds. An antioxidant response element in FTN DNA binds Bach1, a heme-sensitive transcription factor that coordinates expression among antioxidant response proteins like FTN, thioredoxin reductase, and quinone reductase. FTN, an antioxidant because Fe(2+) and O(2) (reactive oxygen species generators) are consumed to make iron mineral, is also a nutritional iron concentrate that is an efficiently absorbed, nonheme source of <