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Sample records for chiroptera

  1. Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Geder Paulo Herrmann; Franciele Camila Luchese; Vanessa Daniele Mottin

    2005-01-01

    Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera) no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera) in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  2. Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  3. Ecological and Economic Importance of Bats (Order Chiroptera)

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    Kasso, Mohammed; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra

    2013-01-01

    Order Chiroptera is the second most diverse and abundant order of mammals with great physiological and ecological diversity. They play important ecological roles as prey and predator, arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, pollination, material and nutrient distribution, and recycle. They have great advantage and disadvantage in economic terms. The economic benefits obtained from bats include biological pest control, plant pollination, seed dispersal, guano mining, bush meat and medicine, aes...

  4. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Part 10. Bat fauna of Iran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Faizolahi, K.; Andreas, M.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter; Ashrafi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, 3-4 (2012), s. 163-562. ISSN 1211-376X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Chiroptera * Iran * Middle East * Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danna; Qian, Kenan; Storey, Kenneth B; Hu, Yizhong; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), is a circular molecule of 17,038 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNAs genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and one D-loop region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of the H-strand is 63.2% with individual nucleotides comprising T 29.8%, C 23.4%, A 33.3%, and G 13.5%. In BI and ML trees, we found M. lucifugus is a sister clade to M. brandtii, Myotis is a sister clade to Murina, and Pipistrellus is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI, >100% in ML). The monophyly of Myotis, Murina, and Plecotus is well supported (1.00 in BI, 100% in ML). PMID:26057009

  6. [Chiroptera and zoonosis: an emerging problem on all five continents].

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    Hance, P; Garnotel, E; Morillon, M

    2006-04-01

    Zoonosis is the cause of the vast majority of emerging diseases. Bats that occupy the second place in the mammal class play an important role. Whether they belong to the microchiroptera suborder or to the megachiroptera suborder, bats on all five continents have been implicated in transmission of numerous pathogens including not only viruses such as Lyssavirus (e.g. rabies), Hepanivirus (e.g. Hendra and Nipah virus) and recently coronavirus (e.g. SARS-like coronavirus and Ebola virus) but also fungus such as histoplasmosis. By modifying environmental conditions and encroaching on their biotope, human intervention has probably contributed to the introduction of chiropteras into an epidemiologic chain in which they previously had no place, thus promoting the emergence of new pathogens. PMID:16775933

  7. Gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order Chiroptera.

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    Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip

    2016-02-01

    Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested. PMID:26681450

  8. Chiroptera (Mammalia) del yacimiento del Mioceno medio de Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, España)

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    Sesé, C.

    1986-01-01

    The Chiroptera from Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, Spain), an Upper Aragonian karstic site, are described in this report. The faunal list of Chiroptera is as follows: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis and one chiropter, indeterminate family, different to the mentioned species. This fauna is typical of karstic sites and allows to compare it with those of other sites of the Miocene and Pliocene of west Europe and north Africa.
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  9. New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the greater false vampire bat Megaderma lyra (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tereba, A.; Čížková, Dagmar; Sundari, A. A.; Rajan, K. E.; Bogdanowicz, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2011), s. 749-751. ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Chiroptera * Megaderma lyra * Microsatellites * Polymorphism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.485, year: 2011

  10. A New Species of Horseshoe Bat of the Genus Rhinolophus from China (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

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    Wu, Yi; MOTOKAWA, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.

  11. Comparative systematic value between dental and external: Skeletal features in western european chiroptera

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    Sevilla, Paloma; López Martínez, Nieves

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic characters in biosystematics have low variability and congruent distribution. In mammals they are mainly external and skeletal features. The distribution of diagnostic and non-diagnostic characters often shows a poor degree of congruence. Dental characters of isolated teeth of 21 recent species of bats (Chiroptera) have been chosen and ¡malyzed to compare with the distribution of external and ske1etal diagnostic characters. The degree of congruence of these ...

  12. Chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats – evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Volleth, Marianne; Gollahon, Lauren S; Fu, Beiyuan; Cheng, William; Ng, Bee L.; Yang, Fengtang; Baker, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromos...

  13. Comparative Aspects Of The Morphogenesis And Morphology Of The Wing Membranes Of Bats (Chiroptera) And Flying Lemurs (Dermoptera)

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    Kovalyova I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The heterogeneity of formation of different areas in the wing membrane of Chiroptera and Dermoptera was established. The web between metacarpals and digits (chiropatagium) was formed by the mesenchyme which initially formed the forelimb rudiment. The plagiopatagium and propatagium were formed by proliferation of the trunk mesenchymal cells.

  14. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Graciolli; Alexsander Araújo Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae). Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934), Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographic...

  15. Ecologia molecular de Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera : Phyllostomidae) no Parque Estadual de Campinhos, Paraná, Brasil

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    Costa, Pollyana Patrício

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Dentre mais de mil espécies de morcegos registradas mundialmente, a Subfamília Desmodontinae (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), endêmica da região Neotropical, contempla as três espécies de morcegos hematófagos conhecidas: Diaemus youngi, Diphylla ecaudata e Desmodus rotundus. Assim, este capítulo tem como objetivo descrever as características gerais, ecologia, comportamento alimentar e reprodutivo de D. rotundus já descritos na literatura. O morcego-vampiro-comum (D. rotundus) é a espécie...

  16. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isai Jorge de Castro; Claudia Regina Silva; Arley José Silveira Da Costa; Ana Carolina Moreira Martins

    2011-01-01

    Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae). Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phy...

  17. Complete sequences of eastern water bat, Myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) mitogenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondria genome sequences of myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) were first identified in the present study. The sequences were obtained from the four individuals and composition of nucleotide AT and GC was about 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. The lengths of mitogenomes were ranged from 17 296 to 17 299 bp. Total 51 variable sites were observed in the four mitogenomes and 38 sites were singleton polymorphic sites. Phylogenic study revealed that the species would have relatively closed evolutionary distance with m. macrodactylus rather than other species in the genus, myotis. Present study will provide important genomic materials supporting confirmation of taxon of species called bats, which is included in one of the largest orders among the mammals. PMID:26332748

  18. Bird and chiroptera inventories in Quebec : efficiency of a tried and tested method; Les inventaires d'oiseaux et de chiropteres au Quebec : l'efficacite d'une methode eprouvee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental monitoring at wind turbine arrays is needed before, during and after project development. Pesca Environmental evaluates the impact of proposed wind turbine arrays on birds and chiroptera by examining their migration patterns through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. In order to complete a feasibility study, spring migration patterns of birds and chiroptera must be documented and characterized. In addition to building an inventory of birds and chiroptera, Pesca examines bird behaviour and flight patterns and nesting locations. figs.

  19. Il Vespertilio mustacchino Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae nuova specie per la Calabria

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    Dino Scaravelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae new species for Calabria region, southern Italy A young male of whiskered bat Myotis mystacinus, dead the 13 July of 1995 in the building of Ecology Department, University of Calabria, in Rende (Cosenza, was found during the taxonomic revision of the bats in the Theriological Collection of "Museo di Storia Naturale della Calabria ed Orto Botanico" of the University of Calabria. This is the southern most sighting of the species in Italy. The bat checklist of the Calabria region includes now 21 species.

  20. Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) Challenge a Recent Origin of Extant Neotropical Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation. PMID:26865275

  1. The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat, Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was determined. The mitogenome of M. leucogaster is 16,723 bp in length with a total base composition of 32.8% A, 27.5% T, 25.3% C and 14.4% G. All the protein-coding genes (total length of 11,404 bp) were encoded in H-strand except for ND6 in L-strand. Total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1508 bp varying from 62 bp (tRNA(Ser(AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Gln)). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes were 972 and 1558 bp in length, respectively. The D-loop region was 1383 bp in length and included 54 copies of 6 bp tandem repeat (ACGCAT). PMID:25423531

  2. Karyotypic evolution and phylogenetic relationships in the order Chiroptera as revealed by G-banding comparison and chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species. PMID:17310301

  3. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  4. Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Costa Rica, Panama and western Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Velazco; Bruce Patterson

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Central America and western South America are described using molecular and morphological data. The two new species, which occur in Costa Rica and Panama and in western Ecuador, were previously confused with S. ludovici, and S. lilium and S. luisi, respectively. Sturnira now includes 22 described species, making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.

  5. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

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    Kwang Bae Yoon; Yung Chul Park

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitogenome (NC_021119) of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119). Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  6. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Kwang Bae Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  7. First description of multivalent ring structures in eutherian mammalian meiosis: new chromosomal characterization of Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César

    2016-08-01

    Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria. PMID:27300547

  8. Record of Brandt’s bat Myotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845 in Piedmont (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae

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    Roberto Toffoli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Ritrovamento del Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845 in Piemonte (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae Viene riportata la cattura con mist-net di 5 maschi adulti di Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii, nell’agosto 2005, nei pressi dell’abitato di Devero (Baceno, VB, a 1827 metri d’altitudine, nel Parco Naturale Alpe Veglia e Alpe Devero. Tale dato rappresenta la prima segnalazione certa della specie in Piemonte. L’identificazione è stata effettuata sulla base delle caratteristiche dentarie e del pene. Sono fornite indicazioni sulle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione ottenuti dopo il rilascio degli individui.

  9. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

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    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.

  10. A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera:   Phyllostomidae) from the Guianan Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Lim, Burton K

    2014-01-01

    A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) from the Guianan Shield is described based on molecular and morphological data. Previously confused with P. helleri and P. recifinus, the new taxon is currently known from only Guyana and Suriname and is most closely related to P. recifinus from eastern Brazil and not to the two sympatric species (P. fusciventris and P. incarum) also recently recognized as distinct from P. helleri. Morphometrically the new taxon overlaps with the smaller species of the genus (P. angustirostris, P. brachycephalus, P. fusciventris, P. helleri, P. incarum, and P. matapalensis), but forms a different cluster from the larger P. recifinus. Morphologically the new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of external and craniodental characteristics. Platyrrhinus now includes 21 species making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae. PMID:24870671

  11. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.Ectoparasitos de morcegos (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, com a descrição de uma nova espécie de Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae do Brasil. Os poucos dados sobre ectoparasitismo em morcegos furipterídeos são restritos a moscas (Streblidae. Somente três espécies de estreblídeos eram conhecidas antes desse trabalho: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. Outra espécie de Synthesiostrebla é descrita aqui aumentando a distribuição geográfica do gênero para o lado leste dos Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. foi encontrada sobre Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 no sudeste do Brasil. Região anterior do corpo, asa, tergito 7, epiprocto e genitália masculina são ilustrados e uma chave de identificação para fêmeas também é apresentada.

  12. Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903) (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae) on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Arzua; Pedro Marcos Linardi; Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2002-01-01

    The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903), had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824). Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present ...

  13. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.

  14. Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903 (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae, from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arzua

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903, had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present record represents the meridional limit of geographic distribution for the infestation on M. nigricans.

  15. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera from Syria

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    Adwan Shehab

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.

  16. Karyotype evolution in Rhinolophus bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) illuminated by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers. PMID:17899409

  17. 河南西峡云华溶洞翼手目动物的调查%Preliminary Research of Chiroptera in Yunhua Karst Cave of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁子安; 刘冰许; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    In October 2001 and September 2010, the chiropteni in Yunhua Karat Care of Henan Province was investigated. The results showed that chiroptera in this area belong to 4 families, 4 genera and 7 species. Among them, 4 species (57.1%) were Oriental realm spe cies, and 3 species (42.9% ) were cosmopolitan species. According to the present status of chiroptera resources in Yunhua Karat Cave, de tailed countermeasures for bat protection were put forward.%2001年10月和2010年9月,对河南省西峡县云华洞翼手目动物进行了调查.通过标本采集、鉴定分类,初步查明该溶洞分布翼手目动物共7种,隶属4科4属.其中,东洋界种4种,占总数的57.1%;广布种3种,占总数的42.9%.此外,根据蝙蝠资源的现状,提出了具体的保护建议.

  18. Chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats – evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Conclusion Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of

  19. 广西翼手目动物布氏球果蝠新记录%A New Record of Sphaerias blanfordi of Chiroptera in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志营; 卢贞燕; 梁显堂

    2011-01-01

    One male specimen of Sphaerias blanfordi was collected in Guangxi Jinzhongshan National Natural Reserve in November 2010. It is a new record of Chiroptera in Guangxi,and the specimen was deposited in Museum of Guangxi Jinzhongshan National Natural Reserve.%2010年11月,在广西金钟山黑颈长尾雉国家级自然保护区采获1号雄性布氏球果蝠标本,为广西翼手目动物的新记录.标本保存于广西金钟山黑颈长尾雉国家级自然保护区管理局标本室.

  20. Research advancs in chemical communication among Chiroptera animals%翼手目动物化学通讯研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐占辉; 盛连喜; 张树义; 曹敏

    2005-01-01

    哺乳动物使用化学信息来判别周围环境状况或相互交流是普遍存在的现象,这种信息接受与交流方式与其他方式相比较具有很多的优点,与其他通讯方式的结合使用也可更大程度地提高信息接受与通讯的准确性.翼手目(Chiroptera)动物也存在着化学通讯这种信息交流的方式,化学信号在翼手目动物导航定位、探测和辨别食物资源、种内识别、母婴辨认等方面起着重要的作用.

  1. Harem size and male mating mating tactics in Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1994 and 2008, we studied the structure of harems in Nyctalus leisleri and factors that determine their size by monitoring 90 bat-boxes placed in a beech forest in the natural reserve Pian degli Ontani (Tuscany, northern Italy. The number of females in the harem positively correlated with the number of males defending a harem. The number of males in the mating area did not significantly influence harem size, whilst we found a significant correlation between the variance in harem size and mean harem size. This may be explained by the existence of an uneven aggregation favouring few males. A strong relation was found between males’ age (estimated by teeth wear and mean harem size.
    Riassunto Dimensioni dell'harem e tattiche riproduttive dei maschi di Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae. Sono presentati i risultati di uno studio sulla struttura dell'harem in Nyctalus leisleri e sui fattori che ne determinano la dimensione. Tra il 1994 e il 2008, sono stati monitorati 90 rifugi artificiali (bat-box per pipistrelli collocati in una faggeta della Riserva Statale di Pian degli Ontani (Pistoia, Toscana. Il numero di femmine presenti nel harem è risultato positivamente correlato con il numero di maschi presenti nell’area di accoppiamento. Il numero di maschi presenti non influenza la dimensione media dell'harem mentre una significativa correlazione positiva è stata evidenziata tra il valore della varianza delle dimensioni dell'harem e la sua dimensione media. Tale relazione suggerisce che le femmine tendono ad aggregarsi, favorendo i maschi più competitivi. Infine è stato evidenziato un modello generale dove sia i maschi giovani sia quelli ad età più avanzata (stimata in base all’usura dei denti hanno minor capacità di formare harem con un numero elevato di femmine.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4445

  2. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: orders Didelphimorpha through Chiroptera (Excluding Rodentia) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  3. Suitability of DNA extracted from archival specimens of fruit-eating bats of the genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae for polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Pinzan Scatena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.

  4. Dieta de morcegos filostomídeos (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em fragmento urbano do Instituto São Vicente, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Mariana Pires Veiga Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos (Chiroptera, devido à sua diversidade e abundância exercem um importante papel ecológico para o ecossistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reportar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros capturados nos fragmentos do Instituto São Vicente, zona urbana do município de Campo Grande, MS. As coletas ocorreram entre setembro de 2011 e Junho de 2012, sendo realizadas com o auxílio de redes-de-neblina. Foram realizadas 154 capturas, com ocorrência de 10 espécies representantes de três famílias, sendo predominantes as espécies frugívoras. Dentre as capturas foram obtidas 41 amostras fecais, onde se verificou a presença de polpa, vestígios de artrópodes e sementes. O recurso mais utilizado por quirópteros foram plantas pioneiras, constatado através do predomínio de sementes da espécie Cecropia pachystachya, consumida em maior intensidade por Artibeus lituratus. Os resultados ressaltam a importância destes animais no ambiente, em especial no processo de regeneração dessas áreas através da dispersão de sementes.

  5. ANÁLISE HISTOMORFOLÓGICA E HISTOMORFOMÉTRICA DO TECIDO ÓSSEO MADURO DE Glossophaga soricina (PHYLLOSTOMIDAE:CHIROPTERA

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    Cibele Leandro da Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue has different models of vascularization, cellular distribution, mineralization and remodeling among mammals species. A variety of dietary habits associated with the mode of locomotion and habitat required from bats the establishment of different flying styles and some skeletal adaptations. This study aimed at examining the microscopic characteristics of mature bone tissue of Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera. Twelve animals of both genders were used, in which the right humerus were dissected, weighed, decalcified and submitted to routine histological processing. Semi-serial cuts of 5 micrometers were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E., picrosirius red and silver nitrate 50%. The histological preparations were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Lacunae density was significantly higher in humerus of females when compared to males (33.96 x 27.80, p = 0.02. Microscopic analysis indicated the presence of parallel collagen fibers distributed in the bone matrix. Lacunes presented various shapes and canaliculi are well distributed and individualized. Few Havers systems and canals were observed. The mature bone tissue of the humerus Glossophaga soricina share microscopic features with other mammals, however, differences in the structural organization are peculiar to this species.

  6. Flight metabolism in relation to speed in Chiroptera: testing the U-shape paradigm in the short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat. PMID:23430989

  7. 翼手目(蝙蝠)适应性进化分子机制的研究进展%Advances on molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera (bats)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁运鹏; 于黎

    2015-01-01

    作为哺乳动物第二大目的翼手目(Chiroptera;俗称蝙蝠)在飞行能力、回声定位与听觉系统、食性、冬眠、免疫防御等诸多方面表现出显著而独特的适应性进化,是研究生物对环境适应性进化分子机制的热点模型之一。文章综述了翼手目适应性进化分子机制的研究进展,特别是近年来在基因组水平上开展的相关研究,显示出更为复杂的分子进化模式和功能分化。随着越来越多的翼手目物种基因组数据的产生,将有望揭示新的进化机制,并为后续的功能实验奠定基础,促进人们对翼手目这一类群的认识和了解,同时也为系统认识动物适应性进化分子机制做出贡献。%As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encoun-tered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chirop-tera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.

  8. Dados ecológicos dos quirópteros da Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoá, Santa Catarina, Brasil Ecological data of Chiroptera from Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoá, Santa Cantarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.

  9. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge

    1964-01-01

    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species. A

  10. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

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    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  11. Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    Ana Maria Rui

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838

  12. Bats (CHIROPTERA) and their zoogeographic distribution characteristics in the Qinling and Daba Mountain Ranges%秦岭和大巴山区翼手类及其动物地理分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家炎; 裴俊峰

    2011-01-01

    There have been different ideas over whether or not the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges are part of the dividing line in Central China between the Palaearctic realm and the Oriental realm in the zoogeographical distribution of animals. Our predecessors have tried to prove this hypothesis from the perspectives of different disciplines by conducting surveys of birds, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and some mammals. The authors have carried out 3 major collections of bat ( CHIROPTERA) specimens in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges since 1964. Over 2 000 obtained specimens were I-dentified and classified as 32 species belonging to 4 families and 4 subfamilies. The analytical results indicate that 23 species belong to the Oriental realm, accounting for 71. 8% of the total, and 9 belong to the Palaearctic realm, accounting for 28. 2%. These species are all seen in every Chinese zoogeographic region and their frequencies range as follows: Central China region, Southwest China region, South China region, North China region, Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region, and Qinghai-Xizang region. Some of China' s endemic genera and species, including monotypic ones, also are distributed in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges. The authors believe that bats are a class affected by climate, topography, and vegetation , and their geographic distribution is relatively sensitive and therefore restricted. According to the regional composition and distribution characteristics of bats in the Qinling and Daba ranges, the Oriental realm is limited to the northern slopes of Qinling range while the Palaearctic realm gradually declines in number from the southern slopes of Qinling range to the northern slopes of Daba range. There is a gradual transition for bats between the two realms in the southern slopes of the Qinling range and the northern slopes of Daba range, demonstrating that this is a transitional region for bats. All this further proves that the view is correct to consider the Qinling

  13. The identity of Myotis punensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Moratelli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently twelve species of Myotis Kaup, 1829 (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae are recognized from South America, with several other named taxa regarded as synonyms, among them Myotis punensis J.A. Allen, 1914. This name was first regarded as a junior synonym of Myotis albescens (É. Geoffroy, 1806 and subsequently of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. To address the taxonomic status of the holotype of M. punensis, we compared it to all South American species in the genus. The fringe of hairs on the trailing edge of the uropatagium, the fur color, and external and skull dimensions all suggest M. punensis should be treated as a junior synonym of M. albescens

  14. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a

  15. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America. PMID:24912354

  16. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During seve...

  17. Registros de Choeronycteris mexicana (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Chiapas Records of Choeronycteris mexicana (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Chiapas

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Riechers-Pérez; Roberto Vidal-López

    2009-01-01

    Se confirma la presencia del murciélago trompudo mexicano (Choeronycteris mexicana) en Chiapas. Los 5 ejemplares examinados de esta especie fueron capturados en 3 localidades del Parque Nacional Cañón del Sumidero y constituyen los primeros registros verificados que demuestran su presencia en la Depresión Central de Chiapas, lo que evidencia una distribución continua de México hasta Centro América.We confirm the presence of the Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana) in Chiapas. Fi...

  18. Relationships within phylogeny of vespertilionid bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolinay, M.; Martínková, Natália

    Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2013 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 56-57 ISBN 978-80-87189-14-6. [Zoologické dny. 07.02.2013-08.02.2013, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  19. Karyotype of three Lonchophylla species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Brunna; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Aguieiras,Marcia; Souza, Renan de França; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Geise,Lena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50,...

  20. A new species of Lonchophylla Thomas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja V., L.; Gardner, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.

  1. Karyotype of three Lonchophylla species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Brunna; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Aguieiras, Marcia; Souza, Renan de França; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Geise, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50, in both Lonchophylla bokermanni and Lonchophylla peracchii. We observed that the karyotypes were also cytogenetically similar when we compared the studied species with other species within the same genus. It is therefore not possible to differentiate the species using only karyotypes with conventional staining. However, this information increases the knowledge of the genus and can be one more important character for a better phylogenetic comprehension of this taxon. PMID:27186341

  2. Some new records of bats from Morocco (Chiroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Konečný, Adam; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2010), s. 151-166. ISSN 0024-7774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * North Africa * Western Sahara * distribution * echolocation * Maghreb Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. First record of Myotis albescens ( Chiroptera , Vespertilionidae ) in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Moratelli; Maël Dewynter; Marguerite Delaval; François Catzeflis; Manuel Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis albescens occurs from Mexico southward to Uruguay and Argentina. The species is known for all South American countries except French Guiana and Chile. New information Based on one specimen recently collected in French Guiana we fill part of the gap in the distribution of the species in South America. Myotis albescens occurs in the Guiana Shield with other four congeners, from which it can be distinguished by external and skull traits. As an aid to future identificat...

  4. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nyctalus noctula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kenan; Yu, Danna; Cheng, Hongyi; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Nyctalus noctula is a circular molecule of 17,478 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and a D-loop region. The overall A + T content of the H-strand is 61.4% (A 32.0%, T 29.4%, C 24.1% and G 14.5%). Among the 13 protein-coding genes, most of them begin with ATG as the start codon except for ND5 with ATA and ND2 and ND3 with ATT. ND1 and ND2 genes terminate with TAG as the stop codon, Cyt b ends with AGA, COIII, ND3 and ND4 genes end with an incomplete stop codon (T- -) and the other protein-coding genes end with TAA. In Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) trees, we found that N. noctula is a sister clade to Pipistrellus abramus, and (Nyctalus + Pipistrellus) is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI and 100% in ML). PMID:26000936

  6. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham

    2007-12-01

    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  7. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  8. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.

  9. The status of Vespertilio borbonicus E. Geoffroy, 1803 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result, Sc

  10. Taxonomic revision of the genus Asellia (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Reiter, A.

    Vilnius: Gamtos tyrimu centras, 2011 - (Hutson, A.; Lina, P.). s. 51-52 ISBN 978-9986-443-55-1. [European Bat Research Symposium /12./. 22.08.2011-26.08.2011, Vilnius] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. A key to the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    C. Srinivasulu; Racey, Paul A.; Shahroukh Mistry

    2010-01-01

    A checklist and dichotomous key to 128 species of bats known from South Asia including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives is provided. Character matrices for families, genera and species are also included. This article also briefly reviews their distribution (both physiographic and country-wise), status and main identification characters

  12. Presence of Plecotus macrobullaris (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Garin, Inazio; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Aihartza, J. R.; Goiti, Urtzi; Juste, Javier

    2003-01-01

    In July 2002, several bats of the genus Plecotus (Geoffroy, 1818) were captured at two localities of ‘Ordesa y Monte Perdido’ National Park (Central Pyrenees, Spain). They showed external characters that appeared intermediate between those of P. auritus and P. austriacus. Morphometric and genetic analysis have revealed that these long-eared bats should be ascribed to the recently recognized species P. macrobullaris. This study extends the distribution of this new species, whose western ...

  13. Karyotypic variation in rhinolophid and hipposiderid bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koubínová, D.; Sreepada, K. S.; Koubek, Petr; Zima, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2010), s. 393-400. ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chromosomal evolution * karyosystematics * Robertsonian translocations Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2010

  14. Estudios mastozoológicos colombianos, i chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Barriga Bonilla, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the systematic and zoogeographical knowledge of the Colombian mammals. Three species of bats (Artibeus concolor, Chiroderma trinitatum gorgasi and Todarida laticaudata) are recorded by first time from this country Artibeus concolor (a species known up to date by three specimens recorded in the literature, two of them apparently lost) is redescribed on the bases of six specimens collected in the vicinity of Mitú, Vaupés, The species is closely related to the symp...

  15. A key to the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera of South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Srinivasulu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A checklist and dichotomous key to 128 species of bats known from South Asia including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives is provided. Character matrices for families, genera and species are also included. This article also briefly reviews their distribution (both physiographic and country-wise, status and main identification characters

  16. First record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae from Brazil Primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 from Brazil is reported here. An adult male was caught with a mist net in a barn located within an Araucaria pine forest in the municipality of Passos Maia, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil (26º46'48"S and 52º03'34"W. This record extends the distribution of this species in South America. Morphological and taxonomic notes of this species are described as well.O primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 o Brasil é aqui reportado. Um macho adulto foi coletado com rede de neblina (em abrigo artificial nos domínios da Floresta com Araucária, no Município de Passos Maia, Estado de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil (26º46'48"S e 52º03'34"W. Este registro amplia a distribuição da própria espécie na América do Sul. Aspectos morfológicos e taxonômicos desta espécie são também descritos.

  17. Two new records of Chiroptera in Guangdong Province%广东省蝙蝠(Chiroptera)二新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 彭洪源

    2005-01-01

    我们于2002年5月5日在广东省和平县、2003年5月20日在广东省肇庆鼎湖山,采集到一批蝙蝠标本,其中三叶小蹄蝠Aselliscus stoliczkanus和金管鼻蝠Murina aurala为广东省新记录,报道如下。

  18. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКОГО РАЗНООБРАЗИЯ ПОПУЛЯЦИЙ EPTESICUS NILSSONII (CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE), ЗИМУЮЩИХ В ИСКУССТВЕННЫХ ПОДЗЕМЕЛЬЯХ САМАРСКОЙ ЛУКИ

    OpenAIRE

    Баишев, Ф.; Смирнов, Д.; Вехник, В.

    2014-01-01

    Изучение генетическое разнообразие популяций Eptesicus nilssonii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), на зимовке в искусственных подземельях Самарской Луки. Используя метод ISSR-PCR анализа изучено генетическое разнообразие и определен уровень генетической дифференциации популяций в E. nilssonii, в условиях Жигулевских гор. В ходе анализа выяснилось, что популяции рукокрылых, характеризуются относительно высоким уровнем генетического разнообразия (R95=68,1%). Для отдельных групп населения рукокрыл...

  19. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  20. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi; Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856); Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842); Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856); Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838); Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767); Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823); Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mor...

  1. Morcegos do Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Serra da Tiririca State Parke Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.

  2. Morcegos da Fazenda Monte Alegre, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Monte Alegre Farm, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio R. dos Reis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of bats species from Monte Alegre Farm is presented. One hundred and two bats of 14 species belonging to Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were colected. Remarks about reproduction and feeding habits are included.

  3. Diversidade de morcegos (Chiroptera, Mammalia em fragmentos florestais no estado do Paraná, Brasil Diversity of bats (Chiroptera, Mammalia in forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelio Roberto dos Reis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The bay of the Tibagi river, a place which goes through quick environmental alterations, has three forest fragments: the "Floresta Nacional do Irati" (3.572 ha, the "Reserva Biológica da Klabin" (11.116 ha and the "Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy" (680 ha. Here, Myotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806 and Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 can be found, these are threatened bats, and three species, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866, which are presumably threatened. Using the same effort of capture in the three places, it was stated that the "Floresta Nacional do Irati" with low vegetation diversity, showed nine species of bats. The "Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy", although it's five times smaller, fifteen species. We came to the conclusion that a big reserve, without good conditions would house a lower number of species. A small reserve with adequate resources and great vegetation diversity presents a higher number of niches, housing a higher number of species.

  4. Morcegos da Fazenda Monte Alegre, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Monte Alegre Farm, Telêmaco Borba, Paraná (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Nélio R. dos Reis; Adriano L. Peracchi; Margareth L. Sekiama

    1999-01-01

    A survey of bats species from Monte Alegre Farm is presented. One hundred and two bats of 14 species belonging to Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae were colected. Remarks about reproduction and feeding habits are included.

  5. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis; Adriano L. Peracchi; Maria K. Onuki

    1993-01-01

    Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  6. Ocorrência de Chiroderma doriae Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Estado de Sergipe, Brasil Occurence of Chiroderma doriae Thomas, (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in Sergipe State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson S. Mikalauskas; Ricardo Moratelli; Adriano L. Peracchi

    2006-01-01

    O registro de Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 no nordeste do Brasil é aqui relatado baseado em um espécime macho adulto coletado durante inventário da quirópterofauna da Estação Ecológica Serra de Itabaiana, Estado de Sergipe.The occurrence of Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 in northeastern Brazil is reported here based on an adult male caught in mist net during a chiropteran survey at the Estação Ecológica Serra da Itabaiana, a fragment of Atlantic Forest in State of Sergipe.

  7. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  8. Morcegos do Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Serra da Tiririca State Parke Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira; Adriano L. Peracchi

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.

  9. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando C. Passos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.

  10. Frugivoria em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil Frugivory in bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) at the Intervales State Park, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando C. Passos; Wesley R. Silva; Wagner A. Pedro; Marcela R. Bonin

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2%) were frugivorous. The total number of ...

  11. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  12. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (Chiroptera: Myzopodidae) endemic to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of the endotheliomonochorial type. There was a single layer of trophoblast cells. The cells of the maternal endothelium were large and basophilic, contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and rested on an irregular basement membrane. Blunt projections of endometrium extended into the placental disk and clusters of large cells occurred between the endometrial stroma and labyrinth. At the margins of the disk folds of trophoblast occurred and at the cranial end they formed an haemophagous region. The folds lateral to the disk included some peculiar tubular-appearing structures. There was a persistent yolk sac containing large endodermal cells around a largely collapsed lumen. Several features of placentation, such as the interhaemal barrier and the haemophagous region, are consistent with an association of Myzopodidae with Emballonuridae. No support was found for alternative hypotheses that include Myzopodidae in the noctilionoid or vespertilionoid lineages. PMID:18374977

  13. Comparación de la morfología alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae, representantes de dos diferentes patrones de vuelo Comparison of the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae as representatives of two flight patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO CANALS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available La morfología alar de los quirópteros se encuentra relacionada por una parte con la biomecánica y energética del vuelo y por otra parte con aspectos ecológicos y conductuales (i.e., patrón de vuelo, conducta de forrajeo y selección de hábitat y de presas. En este trabajo se compara la morfometría alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, representantes de diferentes patrones de vuelo, buscando compromisos entre la morfometría alar y aspectos ecológicos y conductuales. Nuestros resultados muestran que T. brasiliensis es un murciélago más robusto, de mayor envergadura, pero con un área alar similar a la de M. chiloensis. Esta última especie tiene una menor variabilidad en su masa y área cortical del húmero, que probablemente se encuentre relacionada con restricciones mecánicas y energéticas impuestas por su diseño. Descontando el efecto de la masa se detectaron diferencias en el diámetro externo y diámetro medular del húmero con una similar área cortical. El húmero de T. brasiliensis es un hueso de similar longitud, más ancho y con un menor grosor cortical que el de M. chiloensis, lo que está relacionado con una mayor resistencia a las fuerzas de flexión y torsión. Las características alares son consistentes con los modos de vida de cada murciélago: vuelos lentos, cortos y maniobrables en zonas arbustivas de M. chiloensis y vuelo veloz y de grandes distancias en espacios abiertos de T. brasiliensisWing morphology is related by one hand to biomechanical properties and energetics of flying, and on the other hand to ecological and behavioral aspects of flying, such as flight pattern, foraging behavior, habitat selection and size of prey. In this work we compare the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, as representatives of two flight patterns, and looking for trade-offs between wing morphology, ecology and behavior. Our results showed that T. brasiliensis is larger and with higher wing span than M. chiloensis, although the wing area does not differ between these bats. The latter species showed a smaller variability in body mass and cortical area of humerus, probably related with mechanic and energetic constraints. Without size effect, there were differences in the external diameter and medullar diameter of humerus, but with a similar cortical area. The humerus of T. brasiliensis is a bone of similar length, wider and with smaller cortical thickness than in M. chiloensis, which is related to a higher resistance to bending and torsional forces. The wing shape found in each bat is in agree with the life mode: slow, short and manoeuvrable flight in wooded zones of M. chiloensis and fast and long distance flight in open areas of T. brasiliensis

  14. TAXONOMÍA DEL GÉNERO Phyllostomus (CHIROPTERA: PHYLLOSTOMIDAE EN COLOMBIA

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    Miguel E. Rodríguez-Posada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de las poblaciones colombianas de las especies del género Phyllostomus es importante para entender la taxonomía y distribución del género. Se ha propuesto que la cordillera de los Andes en Colombia funciona como barrera para el flujo de genes entre las subespecies de P. discolor. Además, algunas poblaciones colombianas de Phyllostomus hastatus fueron nombradas subespecies y sinonimizadas hace más de 60 años, y existe confusión en la separación y distribución de P. elongatus y P. latifolius. En este trabajo se analizó la variación morfométrica y morfológica entre y dentro de las especies de Phyllostomus en Colombia. Los resultados muestran que P. discolor presenta dimorfismo sexual secundario, pero no variación geográfica entre las poblaciones de cada lado de la vertiente oriental de los Andes; P. discolor puede ser monotípica o la zona de contacto entre las dos subespecies reconocidas no se halla en Colombia. Existen dos grupos morfométricos de P. hastatus, uno corresponde a las poblaciones distribuidas al occidente de la vertiente oriental de los Andes y corresponde a P. hastatus panamensis y otro a las poblaciones distribuidas al oriente de los Andes que corresponden a la forma nominal. Phyllostomus elongatus y P. latifolius se diferencian entre sí morfométrica y morfológicamente. Los registros de estas dos especies para la región pacífica deben ser revisados.

  15. TAXONOMÍA DEL GÉNERO Phyllostomus (CHIROPTERA: PHYLLOSTOMIDAE) EN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel E. RODRÍGUEZ-POSADA; Pedro Sánchez-Palomino

    2009-01-01

    El análisis de las poblaciones colombianas de las especies del género Phyllostomus es importante para entender la taxonomía y distribución del género. Se ha propuesto que la cordillera de los Andes en Colombia funciona como barrera para el flujo de genes entre las subespecies de P. discolor. Además, algunas poblaciones colombianas de Phyllostomus hastatus fueron nombradas subespecies y sinonimizadas hace más de 60 años, y existe confusión en la separación y distribución de P. elongatus y P. l...

  16. Emended diagnosis of Xeronycteris vieirai (Mammalia: Chiroptera, with the first record of polyodontia for the genus

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    Marcelo R. Nogueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga-endemic nectar-feeding bat, Xeronycteris vieirai Gregorin & Ditchfield, 2005 was described based on four specimens. Since then, only two additional specimens have been reported in the literature. Examination of a new specimen that closely agrees with the original description but presents two additional upper premolars, led us to review the type series of this taxon. Our analysis provided support to the recognition of the new specimen as a X. vieirai with supernumerary teeth and revealed new diagnostic characters that can help in the field identification of this species. Xeronycteris vieirai presents tricolored dorsal fur, entirely naked forearm, connection of the base of the spear of the noseleaf with the upper limit of the horseshoe with a marked ridge, and chin with simple dermal pads and a relatively slight cleft. Additional new characters described here include anterior zygomatic arches reduced and not extending laterally and upward with respect to upper toothrow, basioccipital pits deep and separated by a high and thin bone septum, and mandible with a pronounced ridge at anterior symphysis. We propose an emended diagnosis based on morphological characters and provide a rectification on the original notation related to the holotype.

  17. Evolution of nectarivory in phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825, Chiroptera: Mammalia)

    OpenAIRE

    von Helversen Otto; Datzmann Thomas; Mayer Frieder

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional ...

  18. Evolution of nectarivory in phyllostomid bats (Phyllostomidae Gray, 1825, Chiroptera: Mammalia

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    von Helversen Otto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats.

  19. Habitat use and movements of Glossophaga soricina and Lonchophylla dekeyseri (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a Neotropical savannah

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmilla M.S. Aguiar; Enrico Bernard; Machado, Ricardo B.

    2014-01-01

    The greatest current threat to terrestrial fauna is continuous and severe landscape modification that destroys and degrades animal habitats. This rapid and severe modification has threatened species, local biological communities, and the ecological services that they provide, such as seed dispersal, insect predation, and pollination. Bats are important pollinators of the Cerrado (woodland savanna) because of their role in the life cycles of many plant species. However, there is little informa...

  20. Morcegos do Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná (Chiroptera, Mammalia

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    Margareth Lumy Sekiama

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available lt's presented a survey of bat species from Parque Nacional do Iguaçu, Paraná State, it has a area of 170.086,76 ha, located in west ofthe Paraná State. A total of 1403 individuais belonging to 26 species were registred.

  1. Microsatellites loci reveal heterozygosis and population structure in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. PMID:25102648

  2. Behavior of an albino vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Uieda

    2001-01-01

    Albinism in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffrey, 1810) was already reported for seven individuals, six of them did in Brazil. Although this species is relatively easy to keep in captivity and many studies with normally pigmented bats were did under laboratory conditions, no reports on detailed observations of captive albino vampire bats were found in literature. This paper reports some behavioral observation of a single albino female D. rotundus kept in captivity in Brazil b...

  3. A new genus and species of false vampire (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae) from peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisook, Pipat; Prajakjitr, Amorn; Karapan, Sunate; Francis, Charles M; Bates, Paul J J

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and associated species of false vampire, family Megadermatidae, are described based on three specimens from Bala Forest, Narathiwat Province, peninsular Thailand. The new taxon is characterised by a unique combination of distinctive dental, cranial, and external characters, some of which are shared with exclusively African genera and some with Asian genera. These characters are comparable to, or exceed in number, those differentiating currently recognised genera in the family Megadermatidae. They include the absence of a first upper premolar; greatly enlarged upper canine without an anterolingual cingular cusp but with a robust posterolingual cusp; unmodified upper first molar with the preparacrista subequal in length to the postmetacrista, the metastyle not reduced and situated labially; robust lower canine without an anterolingual cusp; the first lower premolar enlarged, equal to or larger than the second lower premolar. In the skull, there is a pronounced rostral depression but no well developed frontal shield with preorbital and/or postorbital processes; the coronoid process is greatly enlarged in each half mandible. Externally, the body size is relatively large and the posterior noseleaf is rounded. The baculum has a robust shaft and two short prongs-the bacula of all five other species of megadermatid are illustrated for the first time; extraordinarily, those of Macroderma gigas and Megaderma lyra comprise two separate bones. DNA barcoding indicate a genetic divergence of about 20 percent (sequence divergence in the mitochondrial gene CO1) between the new genus and species of Megaderma and Cardioderma. Currently, despite numerous bat surveys in peninsular Thailand, the new genus is only known from Bala Forest. The small area of this forest and the very low capture rate suggest that the new species may be extremely rare. Its natural history is little known, although its robust dental and cranial features when coupled with chance observations of its feeding behaviour, suggest it may specialise in eating large beetles. Its conservation status is considered to be at risk owing to the rapid loss of forest habitat in much of the Thai-Malay peninsula. PMID:25781844

  4. Die ontogenetische Entwicklung des Gebisses beim Grossen mausohr (Myotis Myotis, Chiroptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míšek, Ivan; Witter, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 89, - (2002), s. 1-6. ISSN 0043-535X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP304/01/P021; GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : large mouse-eared * odontogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.258, year: 2002

  5. On a collection of bats (Chiroptera) from Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig

    1999-01-01

    The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...

  6. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet. PMID:24824435

  7. Miocene Fossils Reveal Ancient Roots for New Zealand's Endemic Mystacina (Chiroptera) and Its Rainforest Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Suzanne J; Lee, Daphne E; Worthy, Trevor H; Archer, Michael; Worthy, Jennifer P; Tennyson, Alan J D; Salisbury, Steven W; Scofield, R Paul; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Lindqvist, Jon K

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina. PMID:26083758

  8. Komunitas Kelelawar (Ordo Chiroptera di Beberapa Gua Karst Gunung Kendeng Kabupaten Pati Jawa Tengah

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    Kamal Tamasuki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The existance of bats in cave type with diverge managerial system are influenced abundance and species bats. This research was conducted from January to June 2012 that counting abundance and to identify bats at Gunung Kendeng Karst Area Pati Central Java. The bats were collected by using mist net and stalk net at flying track surrounding cave’s mouth of Pancur Cave, Serut Cave, Bandung Cave, Pawon Cave, Larangan Cave and Gantung Cave. Bats abundance at Pancur Cave amount  ±  484 bats, Serut Cave amount ± 1233 bats, Bandung Cave amount ± 715 bats, Pawon Cave amount ± 392 bats, Larangan Cave ± 23 bats and Gantung Cave ± 5 bats. The six species were collected from this research, such as Cyanopterus horsfieldii, Hipposederos larvatus, Hipposideros bicolor, Rhinolophus affinis, Murina suilla dan Miniopterus australis. The analyst result is used Diversity Index of Shannon-Wiennner showed the highest diversity at Pancur Cave (H=0,35054 and the lowest at Gantung Cave (H=0,13633. Similarity index of shannon Evenness is showed the highest similarity at Pancur Cave (E=0,50572 and the lowest at Larangan Cave (E=0. Domination index of simpson is showed the highest domination at Pancur Cave (C=0,06805  and the lowest at Gantung Cave (C=0,00189. Hipposederos larvatus and Miniopterus australis are species that common and often founded during this research.

  9. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

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    Krizler C. Tanalgo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves.  Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade.  Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community. 

  10. Notes on the lesser white-lined bat, Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae, from southeastern Brazil

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    Marcelo R. Nogueira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.

  11. Population size and natural history of Mariana fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  12. 中国翼手目研究进展%Recent Researches on Chiroptera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴; 齐敦武; 胡锦矗

    2004-01-01

    蝙蝠在中国的种类丰富,共有7科30属120种.本文主要从蝙蝠种类、生态学、生理和生化、遗传学和分子生物学5个方面对中国翼手目的研究现状和进展作了论述,分析了存在的问题,并对研究方向进行了展望.

  13. Infestation of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) on Molossus molossus (Chiroptera) in Southestern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Esbérard

    2001-01-01

    The infestation of Rhynchopsyllus pulex on the bat Molossus molossus was observed using mist-nets opened between constructions in the Primatological Center, in Guapimirim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  14. Preliminary Cluster Analysis For Several Representatives Of Genus Kerivoula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Noor Haliza; Abdullah, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to use cluster analysis on morphometric parameters within the genus Kerivoula to produce a dendrogram and to determine the suitability of this method to describe the relationship among species within this genus. A total of 15 adult male individuals from genus Kerivoula taken from sampling trips around Borneo and specimens kept at the zoological museum of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak were examined. A total of 27 characters using dental, skull and external body measurements were recorded. Clustering analysis illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships between the species of this genus. It has clearly separated each species from each other despite the overlapping of measurements of some species within the genus. Cluster analysis provides an alternative approach to make a preliminary identification of a species.

  15. Systematics of the Platyrrhinus helleri species complex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), with descriptions of two new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Patterson, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Platyrrhinus is a diverse genus of small to large phyllostomid bats characterized by a comparatively narrow uropatagium thickly fringed with hair, a white dorsal stripe, comparatively large inner upper incisors that are convergent at the tips, and three upper and three lower molars. Eighteen species are currently recognized, the majority occurring in the Andes. Molecular, morphological, and morphometric analyses of specimens formerly identified as Platyrrhinus helleri support recognition of Platyrrhinus incarum as a separate species and reveal the presence of two species from western and northern South America that we describe herein as new (Platyrrhinus angustirostris sp. nov. from eastern Colombia and Ecuador, north-eastern Peru, and Venezuela and Platyrrhinus fusciventris sp. nov. from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, northern Brazil, eastern Ecuador, and southern Venezuela). These two new species are sister taxa and, in turn, sister to Platyrrhinus incarum.

  16. A taxonomic revision of the Yasuni Round-eared bat, Lophostoma yasuni (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, M Alejandra; Chávez, Daniel; Burneo, Santiago F

    2016-01-01

    The Yasuni Round-eared bat, Lophostoma yasuni, was described in 2004 by morphological analysis of the holotype, the only specimen attributed to this taxon to date. A molecular analysis using cytochrome-b sequences and a new morpholo-gical analysis that includes the holotype of L. yasuni and two specimens of L. carrikeri from near the type locality of L. yasuni were carried out. The new molecular and morphological evidence places L. yasuni within the clade of L. carrikeri. We propose that L. yasuni should therefore be considered as a synonym of L. carrikeri. An emended diagnosis for L. carrikeri extending ranges of craniodental measurements for this species is presented. PMID:27395128

  17. Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae parasito intestinal de Carollia perspicillata L. (Chiroptera en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Velez

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape of the body and the vitelline lobes and in the length of the ceca. The ventral cleft is considered to be an important generic character which can be used to unit all the species of both genera in the single genus, Nudacotyle.

  18. Aspects of ecomorphology in the five European horseshoe bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in the area of sympatry

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Several ecomorphological aspects in the European horseshoe bats were studied. The analysis of the data allows to draw some conclusions about possible niche separating parameters. The thesis consists of seven parts, details can be found in the abstracts of each chapter. Verschiedene ökomorphologische Aspekte der europäischen Hufeisennasen-Fledermäuse wurden untersucht. Die Auswertung der Daten erlaubt Rückschlüsse auf mögliche Parameter, die eine Nischentrennung ermöglichen. Die Arbeit best...

  19. The effects of castration followed testosterone supplementation in prostatic complex of Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-06-01

    The prostatic complex (ventral and dorsal regions) of Artibeus planirostris exhibits seasonal variations throughout the year. Circulating testosterone was correlated with prostate weight, showing an increase from autumn to summer, with the highest peak in summer corresponding to the largest breeding season. This indicates that the level of serum testosterone influences variations in both testicular and prostatic weights. Serum testosterone levels seem to be closely related to the different responses of these glands throughout the year. The castration (consequent suppression of testosterone) and subsequent hormone supplementation may elucidate the relationship of these two glandular types with testosterone. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of castration and the testosterone supplementation in the male prostatic complex of A. planirostris. The results indicated that both prostatic regions were affected by the ablation of testosterone, presenting a decrease in cell proliferation and an increase in apoptosis. Similarly, the prostate was responsive to hormonal supplementation, having a recovery of the active morphophysiological pattern with testosterone supplementation. However, data have shown that the ventral region was more sensitive to changes in testosterone than the dorsal, presenting greater cell renewal. PMID:27032910

  20. A morphological analysis of the skull size and shape of Kerivoulinae (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Truong; Motokawa, Masaharu; Oshida, Tatsuo; Endo, Hideki

    2016-02-01

    Southeast Asia is a region of high biodiversity, containing species of plants and animals that are yet to be discovered. In this region, bats of the subfamily Kerivoulinae are widespread and diverse with six species recorded in Vietnam. However, the taxonomy of the Kerivoulinae in Asia is complicated. In our study, we used diagnostic characters and multivariate analysis to determine morphological differences between the genera Kerivoula and Phoniscus. We showed that the two genera are distinguishable by the size of second upper incisors, the shape of skull, nasal sinus, canines, second upper and lower premolars. In addition, the two genera can be osteometrically separated by measurements of the braincase height, interorbital width and shape of anterior palatal emargination. Our data clearly revealed the morphological variations in the skull shape of Kerivoula hardwickii in Vietnam. This suggests a possible separation into three morphotypes, representing cryptic species supported by statistical differences with wide variation in skull shape, size and teeth. These results demonstrated Kerivoula hardwickii can be separated three subspecies, and the result will serve as the basis for the future assessment and classification of this group in Southeast Asia. PMID:26346743

  1. Frugivory by phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a restored area in Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.

  2. Echolocation calls of Myotis frater (Chiroptera: Hipposi- deridae) during search flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Echolocation calls of Myotis frater emitted during the search phase consist of brief frequency-modulated pulses. The sound signals are comprised of three harmonics of which the first one is of the highest intensity and occurs in all echolocation calls. The frequency of this fundamental harmonic ranges from 110.8 to 50.2 kHz, and its duration is about 3.5 ms. The second and the third harmonics are relatively weak, occurring in 50.0% and 25.0% of echolocation calls respectively, with frequencies ranging from 138.4 to 116.6 kHz for the second harmonic and from 193.6 to 170.8 kHz for the third harmonic. We presume that, according to the echolocation call features, Myotis frater probably forages the insects on the ground of complex environments.

  3. A Close Relationship of Chiroptera with Eulipotyphla (Core Insectivora) Suggested by Four Mitochondrial Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Onuma, Michiko; Cao, Ying; Hasegawa, Masami; Kusakabe, Shinichi

    2000-01-01

    We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes from three insectivoran species (Japanese mole, shrew mole and musk shrew) and one chiropteran species(Japanese pipistrelles) and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene from a chiropteran species. The phylogenetic relationship of core Insectivora or Eulipotyphla among major Eutherian orders was examined for these genes. A total evaluation of the maximum likelihood analyses of the four genes suggests that Chiropt...

  4. A new species of Lophostoma d'Orbigny, 1836 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new species of Lophostoma from Panama, which we name L. kalkoae. This new species resembles L. carrikeri and L. yasuni in possessing a white venter, but is distinguishable from both by external and cranial characteristics. The new species is similar in size to L. carrikeri and L. schulzi. Lophostoma sp. nov. can be most easily recognized by its combination of white venter, postauricular patches connected by a thin line of pale hair to the white fur on the chest, elongated clitoris and swollen labia, less strongly developed lateral projection of mastoid processes, well-marked indentation on the lingual cingulum of the upper canine, well-developed P3, well-developed posterior lingual cusp on the cingulum of P4, and parastyle absent on M1 and M2. We present a dichotomous key for the genus Lophostoma and a map showing all the localities where white-bellied Lophostoma have been recorded.

  5. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of a Chinese rufous horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu

    2016-09-01

    There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen. PMID:25740216

  7. Systematics of Vampyressa melissa Thomas, 1926 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), with descriptions of two new species of Vampyressa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Valéria da C.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Velazco, Paúl M.

    2014-01-01

    Vampyressa melissa is a poorly known phyllostomid bat listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Since its description in 1926, fewer than 40 V. melissa have been reported in the literature, and less than half of these may have been correctly identified. During revisionary studies of Vampyressa, we uncovered two previously unrecognized species related to V. melissa, all associated with higher elevation habitats (>1400 m), one from the Andes of Colombia (Vampyressa sinchi, new species) and the other from western Panama (Vampyressa elisabethae, new species) revealing that V. melissa, as traditionally defined, is a composite of at least three species. In this paper, we provide a restricted diagnosis for the genus Vampyressa, an emended diagnosis of V. melissa, and descriptions of the two new species. The separation of these frugivorous bats, previously identified as V. melissa, into three isolated upper-elevation species, each having restricted distributions further highlights their fragile conservation status.

  8. Records of seven small mammal species (Insectivora, Chiroptera new to the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L Rautenbach

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.

  9. Mitochondrial genome of the black flying fox, Pteropus alecto (Chiroptera: Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of black flying fox, Pteropus alecto, with the sequence length of 16,739 bp for the first time. The mitogenome contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition was A (33.1%), G (14.5%), C (27.2%) and T (25.2%), indicating that the percentage of A and T (58.3%) was higher than that of G and C. Most of these genes were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic information to study the evolution of bats. PMID:24438271

  10. Temporal variation in the organization of a Neotropical assemblage of leaf-nosed bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Mello, Marco Aurelio

    2009-03-01

    In the present study, I described the organization of a Neotropical bat assemblage, and tested whether this organization was variable in time. In an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil bats were captured monthly with mist nets over 4 years, and individuals were classified into guilds. I analyzed only leaf-nosed bats, and observed that guilds of fruit-eating bats dominated the assemblage. This pattern was repeated across months and years. However, among frugivores, canopy and understory guilds peaked during different months, but in both cases during the rainy season, while variation among habitat-opportunistic species was not explained by rainfall. The most reliable ecological service delivered by phyllostomid bats in the area is seed dispersal, although other services may be also important in particular seasons. My results suggest that the observed patterns of temporal species turnover are related to the abundance of preferred food items.

  11. Relaxed evolution in the tyrosine aminotransferase gene tat in old world fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.

  12. 我国蝙蝠研究近况%Recent researches on chiroptera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁子安; 李远香

    2005-01-01

    中国蝙蝠共有7科30属120种.通过对区系分类、生态、回声定位、核型分析、生理生化、蝙蝠携带的寄生虫和病毒六个方面的综述,分析了存在的问题,提出了保护对策,并对研究方向进行了展望.

  13. The chiggerflea Hectopsylla pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae as an ectoparasite of free-tailed bats (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Lins Luz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.

  14. Foraging range movements of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.

  15. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  16. Karyotypic analyses of twenty-one species of molossid bats (Molossidae: Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.

  17. Gene organization and characterization of the complete mitogenome of Hypsugo alaschanicus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Park, Y C

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome of Hypsugo alaschanicus (Vespertilionidae) to provide more data for comparative mitogenomics of the genus Hypsugo. The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is a circular molecule of 17,300 bp, consisting of a control region and a typically conserved set of 37 vertebrate genes containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is AT-biased, with a nucleotide composition of 34.1 A, 30.9 T, 22.4 C, and 12.6% G. In the 13 mitochondrial PCGs of H. alaschanicus, the start codon ATG is used in all PCGs, except Nd2 and Nd3 (which use ATT), and Nd5 (which uses ATA). Eight PCGs (Nd1, Cox1, Cox2, Atp8, Atp6, Nd4L, Nd5, and Nd6) use TAA as the stop codon, while the stop codon AGA occurs only in Cytb. Incomplete stop codons (T--) are used in the other four PCGs (Cox3, Nd2, Nd3, and Nd4). These findings contribute to our understanding of the nucleotide composition and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes of the genus Hypsugo, and provide more data for comparative mitogenomics and higher phylogeny in the family Vespertilionidae. PMID:26662427

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat Vespertilio sinensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. PMID:24660937

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) from Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lifen; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We present a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Rhinolophus sinicus sinicus from Central China and provide its annotation, as well as showed the phylogenetic relationship and mitogenomic variation with other published mitochondrial genomes of congeneric bat species. Our results revealed a relatively high mitogenomic variation between two R. s. sinucus from Central and East China, which is similar to interspecific divergence level. PMID:26057010

  20. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  1. The Egyptian fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in the Palaearctic: Geographical variation and taxonomic status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Hulva, P.; Horáček, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 6 (2012), s. 1230-1244. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rousettus * morphometrics * mtDNA * taxonomy * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  2. Variation of mitochondrial DNA in the Hipposideros caffer complex (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) and its taxonomic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallo, Peter; Guillén-Servent, A.; Benda, P.; Pires, D. B.; Koubek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2008), s. 193-206. ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : leaf-nosed bats * Africa * cryptic species * cytochrome b * molecular systematics * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.825, year: 2008

  3. The activity time of the lesser bamboo bat, Tylonycteris pachypus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Li-Biao Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The activity time of the lesser bamboo bat, Tylonycteris pachypus (Temminck, 1840, was investigated at two observation locations in southern China: Longzhou and Guiping. Two bouts of activity (post dusk and predawn, with an intervening period of night roosting at diurnal roosts, were identified. The period of activity within each bout was usually less than 30 minutes. The activity periods of individuals belonging to the Longzhou population right after dusk and just before dawn lasted longer than those of the the Guiping population. We also found that the nocturnal emergence time of T. pachypus from the Longzhou population happened earlier than in the Guiping population. These findings indicate that the activity time of T. pachypus was quite short at night, and that different locations may affect the nocturnal activity rhythm of this species.

  4. Population dynamics of the bat Dermanura tolteca (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in a tropical forest in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    José Luís García-García; Antonio Santos-Moreno; Arisbe Rodríguez-Alamilla

    2010-01-01

    The fruit-eating bat, Dermanura tolteca, has a broad geographic distribution in Mexico and it is a very important seed dispersal of Neotropical plants. Nonetheless, information on the biology of this bat species is scarce, especially with regard to demography. We studied some ecological aspects and population dynamics of D. tolteca from Southeastern Mexican State of Oaxaca. The study was conducted in a perennial tropical forest, over a period of 80 nights, a sampling effort of 73 200 mist-net...

  5. Comparative morphology of the tongue in free-tailed bats (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Gregorin Renato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive and comparative studies on tongue of nineteen Molossidae, one Mystacinidae, and four Vespertilionidae bats species were carried out. Analysis was restricted to the external morphology, covering general shape of the tongue and its papillae. Types of papillae and their distribution presented considerable intergeneric variation, considering the strictly insectivorous feeding habits of these bats. Distribution of the data of tongue morphology is analyzed and compared with the phylogenetic schemes proposed previously and comments about evolutionary relationships among taxa were done.

  6. Genetic analysis on three South Indian sympatric hipposiderid bats (Chiroptera, Hipposideridae

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    Kanagaraj, C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.

  7. Temporal distribution of five bat species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Panga Reserve, south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner A. Pedro

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Data about activity patterns, hourly and monthly, on five phyllostomid bats, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Camilla perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroyi, 1810, studied over a one year period at the Panga Ecological Reserve, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil, are reported and discussed.

  8. Genetic analysis on three South Indian sympatric hipposiderid bats (Chiroptera, Hipposideridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagaraj, C; Marimuthu, G.; Emmanuvel Rajan, K.

    2010-01-01

    In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used...

  9. Effects of moonlight on the capturability of frugivorous phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae at different time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. R. Mello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.

  10. Comparative morphology of the tongue in free-tailed bats (Chiroptera, Molossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorin Renato

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive and comparative studies on tongue of nineteen Molossidae, one Mystacinidae, and four Vespertilionidae bats species were carried out. Analysis was restricted to the external morphology, covering general shape of the tongue and its papillae. Types of papillae and their distribution presented considerable intergeneric variation, considering the strictly insectivorous feeding habits of these bats. Distribution of the data of tongue morphology is analyzed and compared with the phylogen...

  11. Temporal distribution of five bat species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Panga Reserve, south-eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner A Pedro; Valdir A. Taddei

    2002-01-01

    Data about activity patterns, hourly and monthly, on five phyllostomid bats, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766), Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818), Camilla perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758), Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810) and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroyi, 1810), studied over a one year period at the Panga Ecological Reserve, Uberlandia, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil, are reported and discussed.

  12. Placentation in the Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica (Chiroptera: Nycteridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J;

    2009-01-01

    Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteris...... placenta is endotheliochorial with a single layer of cytotrophoblast, the arborizing pattern of the maternal vessels and especially the extraordinary major placental artery differs from the placenta of the emballonurid bats to which this family is considered to be most closely related. The major placental...... other bat species. The paraplacenta is extensive with abundant fetal vessels underlying cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast layers, fronting on an endometrium that largely lacks uterine epithelial cells but has large decidual cells and is poorly vascularized. The placenta of Nycteris lacks a...

  13. Rabies virus in Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

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    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.

  14. Diet, activity and reproduction of bat species (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bernard

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet, activity and reproductive patterns of several species of bats were investigated in primary forests of Central Amazon. Between August 1996 and August 1997, using mist nets set both at canopy and understorey levels, 936 bats, belonging to 51 species, 31 genera and 6 families were captured. Fecal samples from 35 species were examined, with four food categories and 25 food items identified. Time of captures indicate a wide variation, but the major part of the species presented a peak of activity around the first hour after sunset. Three reproductive peaks were observed: October-November; January-February; and July-August, but reproductive patterns varied among the families. The structure of the bat fauna in Manaus is similar to other sites in the Amazon and Central America, the main common points being: a a high diversity of bat species, usually more than 40 species representing 6-8 families; b 3-4 very common and geographically widespread species; c most species are represented by a few captures; d frugivorous species dominate the fauna and insectivorous species are less often captured; and e most species cluster in 2-3 guilds, dominated by small (< 12 g species.

  15. Diet composition of Myotis myotis (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in western Poland: results of fecal analyses

    OpenAIRE

    GRACLIK, Agnieszka; Wasielewski, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    The diet of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis) was investigated by analysis of 900 droppings taken from 8 different bat colonies in western Poland. Three taxonomic orders (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera) and representatives of 2 other groups of arthropods (Chilopoda: Lithobiidae and Arachnida: Araneae) were identified in the droppings. Coleoptera was the most abundant prey found in fecal samples in all seasons. Study sites differed significantly in the composition of prey, which p...

  16. The Natural History of the Egyptian Fruit Bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, in Turkey (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    ALBAYRAK, İrfan; AŞAN, Nursel; YORULMAZ, Tarkan

    2008-01-01

    Aspects of the ecology, karyology, and taxonomic status of the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, in the Mediterranean region of Turkey were investigated based on 41 specimens obtained between 1977 and 2003. Distribution, external and cranial morphometrics, pelage coloration, baculum morphology, karyology, colony size, roosting and feeding ecology, and conservation and management issues were recorded. The fruit bat in Turkey is represented by the nominate subspecies, R. a. aegyptiacus...

  17. Diet, activity and reproduction of bat species (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bernard

    2002-01-01

    The diet, activity and reproductive patterns of several species of bats were investigated in primary forests of Central Amazon. Between August 1996 and August 1997, using mist nets set both at canopy and understorey levels, 936 bats, belonging to 51 species, 31 genera and 6 families were captured. Fecal samples from 35 species were examined, with four food categories and 25 food items identified. Time of captures indicate a wide variation, but the major part of the species presented a peak of...

  18. Notes on some specimens of the genus Plecotus Geoffroy, 1818 (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Dulić, B.

    1963-01-01

    In 1912, MILLER united all the West European bats with very long ears joined across the forehead and with 36 teeth into one species, Plecotus auritus (LINNAEUS, 1758). By doing so he followed BLASIUS (1857), DOBSON (1878) and TROUESSART (1910). This situation, one species without subspecies, remaine

  19. Phenotypic convergence in genetically distinct lineages of a Rhinolophus species complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera.

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    David S Jacobs

    Full Text Available Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes.

  20. Karyotypes of three species of molossid bats (Molossidae, Chiroptera) from India and western Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sreepada, K. S.; Koubínová, D.; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Zima, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-357. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : bats * karyotype evolution * chromosome banding Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/4/347-357_MS1427.pdf

  1. Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae) parasito intestinal de Carollia perspicillata L. (Chiroptera) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda Velez; Vernon Thatcher

    1990-01-01

    Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae) is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape o...

  2. Biogeographical karyotypic variation of Rhinophylla fischerae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae suggests the occurrence of cryptic species

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    A Gomes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhinophylla Peters, 1865 (Carolliinae: Phyllostomidae comprises three species: R. pumilio Peters, 1865, R. fischerae Carter, 1966 and R. alethina Handley, 1966. Only the first two species have been cytogenetically studied to date. Previous studies on specimens of Rhinophylla fischerae from two populations from East of Andes (Colombia showed the karyotype with 2n=34 and FN=56. In this paper, we report the results of cytogenetic analysis of six specimens of Rhinophylla fischerae from Brazil. Probably chromosomal differences can be found among the populations because of the geographic distance. Metaphase chromosomes were obtained in the field by direct extraction of bone marrow. The metaphases were analyzed by conventional staining, G- and C-banding, NOR-staining and FISH with telomeric probes. Rhinophylla fischerae has 2n=38 and Fundamental Number FN=68, with small amounts of constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of the chromosomes and the long arm of pair 16. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using telomeric probes did not show any interstitial sequences. Hybridization with human 18S and 28S rDNA probes and silver staining revealed the presence of Nucleolar Organizer Regions at the long arms of pairs 16 and 18. The pattern of G-banding showed that this population had a huge chromosome variation compared with previous studies on specimens of Rhinophylla fischerae. The chromosomal differences among populations that have been morphologically classified as R. fischerae suggest that this species should be considered a cryptic species complex, and that the populations from different geographical regions analyzed to date should be considered species of this complex, where the chromosomal rearrangements had key importance.

  3. Phylogenetic position of the giant house bat Scotophilus nigrita (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallo, Peter; Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Koubek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2015), s. 225-231. ISSN 0025-1461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P624; GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cranial morphometrics * cytochrome b * phylogeny * zinc finger protein Y Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.681, year: 2014

  4. Comparación de la morfología alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) y Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), representantes de dos diferentes patrones de vuelo Comparison of the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) and Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) as representatives of two flight patterns

    OpenAIRE

    MAURICIO CANALS; JOSÉ IRIARTE-DÍAZ; RICARDO OLIVARES; F. Fernando Novoa

    2001-01-01

    La morfología alar de los quirópteros se encuentra relacionada por una parte con la biomecánica y energética del vuelo y por otra parte con aspectos ecológicos y conductuales (i.e., patrón de vuelo, conducta de forrajeo y selección de hábitat y de presas). En este trabajo se compara la morfometría alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae) y Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae), representantes de diferentes patrones de vuelo, buscando compromisos entre la morfometría alar y aspectos ecológico...

  5. A new species of Torrestrongylus (Trichostrongylidae, Anoplostrongylinae) from Macrotus waterhousii (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Galindo-García, María Guadalupe; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín

    2015-01-01

    A new species of nematode, Torrestrongylus tetradorsalis n. sp., is described herein, based on specimens recovered from the small intestine of the leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus waterhousii, from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The new species is included in Torrestrongylus because it features a bursa of the type 3 – 2, a divided cephalic vesicle with an anterior half in the shape of an umbrella, and a posterior widened half. The new species can be distinguished from the only other congener T. torrei Pérez-Vigueras, 1935 by four key features: first, by the absence of cervical alae in both males and females; second, by the relatively longer second half of the cephalic cap; third, by the configuration of the dorsal ray, that does not have a medial terminal ray, and finally, by the structure of the spicules. This is the second species in the genus, previously known from bats of the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae in Cuba, and now in Mexico. PMID:26514594

  6. Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae) of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in an Atlantic Forest area, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L

    2013-11-01

    We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort. PMID:24789402

  7. Una nueva especie colombiana del género diclidurus (mammalia: chiroptera): diclidurus ingens

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Camacho, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Hace algún tiempo el doctor Jorge Boshell Manrique capturó un ejemplar de murciélago del género Diclidurus cuyos caracteres indican que aparentemente corresponde a una especie previamente no descrita. Por primera vez se registra así la presencia de este género en Colombia, del cual se reconocen actualmente otras dos especies:  D. albus (1), cuya distribución conocida comprende las Guayanas y el Brasil (Estados de Amazonas, Baía y Espirito Santo), y D. virgo (2) repartida a través de Guatemala...

  8. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (chiroptera: myzopodidae) endemic to madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...

  9. A Study on the Breeding Biology of Some Bat Species in Turkey (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDEMİR, Nursel AŞAN; ALBAYRAK, İrfan

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on the records of gestation and lactation periods of 17 bat species (Rousettus aegyptiacus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, R. blasii, Myotis myotis, M. blythii, M. emarginatus, M. nattereri, M. mystacinus, M. capaccinii, Eptesicus serotinus, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, P. savii, Plecotus auritus, and Miniopterus schreibersii) caught from various localities in Turkey and of the development stages of embryos belonging to Myotis species. It ...

  10. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.

  11. The Adamello-Brenta Natural Park bat community (Mammalia, Chiroptera): distribution and population status

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Chirichella; Sabrina Mattiroli; Mosè Nodari; Damiano Preatoni; Lucas Wauters; Guido Tosi; Adriano Martinoli

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Bats were censused in the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (Trentino, central Italian Alps) in May-September 1999 and 2000, by mist-netting and roost surveys. In all, 90 sites (19 caves, 50 buildings and 21 foraging sites), over an area of about 618 km², were checked. The bat species distribution in both the Park and the surrounding areas was obtained by using field data, museum records and literature information. A total of 19 species was recorded:...

  12. The Adamello-Brenta Natural Park bat community (Mammalia, Chiroptera: distribution and population status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Chirichella

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bats were censused in the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park (Trentino, central Italian Alps in May-September 1999 and 2000, by mist-netting and roost surveys. In all, 90 sites (19 caves, 50 buildings and 21 foraging sites, over an area of about 618 km², were checked. The bat species distribution in both the Park and the surrounding areas was obtained by using field data, museum records and literature information. A total of 19 species was recorded: of these, one (Myotis bechsteinii was known from a museum collection and 18 were recorded in the field (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis blythii, M. daubentonii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus kuhlii, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus nilssonii, E. serotinus, Vespertilio murinus, Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus alpinus, P. auritus. Local distribution, habitat use and body size parameters of the species were studied, and selection of roosts and foraging sites by the bat community was analysed with logistic regression. The conservation status of the bat community is also discussed. We document the third record of breeding by Pipistrellus nathusii and the fourth Eptesicus (Amblyotus nilssonii nursery in Italy, as well as the first roosting sites of the recently described Plecotus alpinus. Riassunto Comunità di Chirotteri e status delle popolazioni nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Trentino-Alto Adige Vengono presentati i risultati di una serie di monitoraggi, effettuati con tecniche differenti (principalmente catture con reti mist-net ed esplorazione dei siti di rifugio dal 1999 al 2000. Tali indagini hanno permesso di raccogliere dati originali sulla distribuzione e sullo status della chirotterofauna, ai quali sono state affiancate ulteriori informazioni derivanti dalla letteratura recente e da studi di collezioni museali, al fine di definire un quadro di sintesi aggiornato ed esaustivo della distribuzione dei Chirotteri nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (Trentino-Alto Adige. Complessivamente sono stati esaminati distribuzione e status di 19 specie tra cui 18 (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, Myotis blythii, M. daubentonii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus, M. nattereri, Pipistrellus kuhlii, P. nathusii, P. pipistrellus, Nyctalus leisleri, Hypsugo savii, Eptesicus nilssonii, E. serotinus, Vespertilio murinus, Barbastella barbastellus, Plecotus alpinus, P. auritus rilevate direttamente mediante il monitoraggio di 90 siti (19 grotte, 50 edifici e 21 stazioni di cattura in campo aperto rappresentativi di una superficie complessiva di circa 618 km², ed una, Myotis bechsteinii, rilevata da informazioni derivanti da collezioni museali. Vengono presentate informazioni concernenti il quadro distributivo locale, la selezione dell'habitat ed alcuni parametri biometrici per la comunità di chirotteri del Parco. Vengono inoltre esposte considerazioni su status e conservazione delle specie nell'area esaminata. In aggiunta, vengono riportate: la terza segnalazione per l'Italia di riproduzione di Pipistrellus nathusii, la quarta colonia riproduttiva nota per l'Italia di Eptesicus (Amblyotus nilssonii e la prima segnalazione di colonie della nuova specie Plecotus alpinus.

  13. Rhinolophoidea (Chiroptera, Mammalia) from the Upper Oligocene of Carrascosa del Campo (Central Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma

    1990-01-01

    For the first time in Spain, an Oligocene bat fauna is described from thee alluvial locality of Carrascosa del Campo. Four species are present: two belong to Hipposideros (Pseudorhinolophus) another to Rhinolophus and a fourth one to Megadenna. Three new species are described : Hipposideros (Pseudorhinolophus) minor nov. sp., Hipposideros (Pseudorhinolophus) conquensis nov. sp. and Megaderma lopezae nov. sp .. Hipposideros (Ps.) minor nov. sp. is closely relaled to Hipposideros (P...

  14. The structure and dynamics of a rhinolophid bat community of Latium (Central Italy) (Chiroptera)

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    Pierangelo Crucitti; Marco Andreini; Roberto Morelli; Giovanni Rotella

    1998-01-01

    Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys) in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy) from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abu...

  15. The Bats of the Eastern Black Sea Region in Turkey (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

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    ALBAYRAK, İrfan

    2003-01-01

    The study was carried out on 89 specimens representing 11 bat species, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, Myotis brandtii, M. bechsteinii, M. myotis, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Nyctalus leisleri, Plecotus auritus and Miniopterus schreibersii. The specimens were collected from the eastern Black Sea region between the 1992 and 1994. Some ecological features of the species and their localities are presented in this study.

  16. Habitat use and movements of Glossophaga soricina and Lonchophylla dekeyseri (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in a Neotropical savannah

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    Ludmilla M.S. Aguiar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The greatest current threat to terrestrial fauna is continuous and severe landscape modification that destroys and degrades animal habitats. This rapid and severe modification has threatened species, local biological communities, and the ecological services that they provide, such as seed dispersal, insect predation, and pollination. Bats are important pollinators of the Cerrado (woodland savanna because of their role in the life cycles of many plant species. However, there is little information about how these bat species are being affected by habitat loss and fragmentation. We used radio-tracking to estimate the home ranges of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1776 and Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983. The home range of G. soricina varies from 430 to 890 ha. They combine shortrange flights of up to 500 m to nearby areas with longer flights of 2 to 3 km that take them away from their core areas. The maximum flight distance tracked for L. dekeyseri was 3.8 km, and its home range varies from 564 to 640 ha. The average distance travelled by this species was 1.3 km. Our data suggest that G. soricina and L. dekeyseri are able to explore the fragmented landscape of the Central Brazilian Cerrado and that they are likely to survive in the short- to medium-term. The natural dispersal ability of these two species may enable them to compensate for continued human disturbance in the region.

  17. Observations on the North African serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus isabellinus (Temminck, 1840) (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, D.L.

    1963-01-01

    Eptesicus isabellinus was originally described as Vespertilio isabellinus by Temminck (1840, p. 205, pl. 52 figs. 1, 2) from a series of specimens obtained by J. F. H. Clifford Cocq van Breugel in the vicinity of Tripoli, Libya. Unfortunately Temminck's original description did not include any crani

  18. [Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) from Yurubí National Park, Venezuela: taxonomic list and community study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; García, Franger J; Ochoa, José

    2011-12-01

    Bats represent a key component in the dynamics of many terrestrial ecosystems, and one of the groups of mammals with the highest levels of diversification in the Neotropics. Here we describe the results of a study of the bat fauna from Yurubí National Park (mountain area in Northern Venezuela), that includes a taxonomic list and the characterization of some community attributes in forested areas. Data was collected from zoological collections and diversified sampling methods from February to July of 2009 in an altitudinal gradient (100-1 500m), with three principal ecological units: semideciduous, evergreen and cloud forests. We recorded 64 species grouped in five families (63% of the bats known from La Cordillera de la Costa), of which Phyllostomidae was the dominant taxa (42 species; 66% of total), followed by Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae. The community with the highest taxonomic diversification was found in the lowest elevation range, while the lowest number of species was found at the highest range. Eleven trophic guilds were identified; the insectivorous guild was the richest, whereas the frugivorous was the most abundant. Our results allow us to indicate these forest ecosystems have an appropriate conservation status, taking into account the presence of a relatively high proportion of species from the subfamily Phyllostominae, as well as the presence of other species with conservation priorities. All these aspects, and the fact that this represents a reservoir of the biological diversity of the forest ecosystems of La Cordillera de la Costa, make this protected area of an essential conservation value, in a highly endangered bioregion by neighboring socio-economic growth. PMID:22208091

  19. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat Diversity (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from Aporé-Sucuriú's complex, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo O Bordignon

    2006-01-01

    Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA). Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) e Artib...

  20. Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat Diversity (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Aporé-Sucuriú's complex, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.

  1. Quirópteros da Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia: Chiroptera) Bats from Tinguá Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia: Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho reúne os resultados de um levantamento de quirópteros conduzido na Reserva Biológica (REBIO) do Tinguá, Nova Iguaçu, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizadas 31 noites de coletas, em 14 sítios situados em altitudes de 65 a 1270 m. As coletas foram realizadas com redes "mist-nets", armadas ao nível do solo, em trilhas ou clareiras, em frente a plantas em floração ou frutificação, próximo a construções e cavidades naturais, sobre riachos e corpos d'água ...

  2. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Angelika Bredt; Wilson Uieda; Edvard Dias Magalhães

    1999-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae...

  3. Novo registros de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Amazonas e Pará, Brasil Newrecords of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from Amazonas and Pará States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Species of batflies of bats from Amazonas and Pará, Brazil are reported. Eleven species of Streblidae and three of Nycteribiidae were found on nine species of bats, belonging to seven genera. Pseudostrebla greenwelli Wenzel, 1996, Trichobius affinis Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius silvicolae Wenzel, 1976, and Hershkovitzia inaequalis Theodor, 1967 were collected for the first time in Brazil. Strebla consocia Wenzel, 1966, Strebla galindoi Wenzel, 1966, Trichobius dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, 1998, and Trichobius joblingi Wenzel, 1966 are new records for state of Amazonas. Noctiliostrebla maai Wenzel, 1966, Basilia dubia Guimarães & D'Andretta, 1956, and Basilia ferruginea Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 are new records for state of Pará.

  4. Observação da visita de morcegos (Chiroptera às flores de Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns Observation of visit of bats (Chiroptera to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. Pereira da Silva

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The visit of two species of bats to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav. A. Robyns was observed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro during the period of may and july of 1989. The flowers of this vegetal species present attributions in accordance to the Syndrome of Chiropterophily and receive the visit of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas. 1766 and Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas. 1767. Glossophaga soricina has morfological caracteristes for nectarivory, Phyllostomus hastatus is omnivorous and starts its visils soon after the anthesis. That bats present landing behaviour during the visit.

  5. Levantamento preliminar dos morcegos do Parque Nacional de Ubajara (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Ceará, Brasil Preliminary survey of the Bats from Ubajara National Park (Mammalia-Chiroptera, Ceara, Brazil

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    Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey of bats species from the Ubajara National Park is presented. One hundred sixty two bats from 14 species were collected. Comments about reproduction of the captured species are included.

  6. Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea em morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Sreblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea on bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    Full Text Available A survey of the Streblidae batflies on the phyllostomid bats was conducted in the northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1997. Hundred thirty three streblids were collected on 44 parasited hosts. Eleven species of batflies (Trichobius dugesii Townsend, 1891, T. tiptoni Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius sp., Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, M. proxima (Séguy, 1926, Exastinion clovisi (Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Paraeuctenodes longipes Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, 1966, A. caudiferae Wenzel, 1976 and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907 were found on six species of phyllostomid bats (Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818 and A. geoffroyi Gray, 1838. All records are new for the Rio Grande do Sul and Anastrebla caudiferae is firstly recorded in Brazil. Differences in the batflies community composition in Artibeus fimbriatus and A. lituratus are discussed.

  7. Partição de recursos alimentares entre quatro espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Partition of food resources among four species of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    Marília Feleciano Muller

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil in three different areas: a primary forest, a disturbed primary forest and an open area. Within 207 hours of capture, 990 individuals were collected, 939 of them being fruit-eating bats. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 were the four most collected species in a total of 899 individuals. A. lituratus was found in greater number in all the areas, showing significant variation in relation to the size of the forests. The partition of food resources among the four most collected species was known through the analysis of their feces. The coexixtence of these species can be explained by their investing in different foods or their diverging time activity.

  8. Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in the Ponta Grossa region, Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brazil Morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) na região de Ponta Grossa, Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cibele M. V. Zanon; Nélio R. dos Reis

    2007-01-01

    The diet, reproduction and activity time of bat species found in Ponta Grossa county, Campos Gerais region, were studied. Collections were conducted in four forest fragments, during 272 hours, on 48 m² of nets and roosting sites; the total capture effort was 1.52.10³ h.m². Eight species (247 individuals) were registered: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818), Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810), Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810) (Phyllostomidae); Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819), Eumopsaur...

  9. Ocorrência de Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil Occurrence of Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    2003-01-01

    The first occurrence of phyllostomid bat Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, 1896 in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil is reported. An adult female was caught with mist net in the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, an AtlanticForest area in West Zone of Rio de Janeiro city, in July 9th, 1996. Morphological aspects of this species are discussed. Measurements obtained for the specimen are also provided.

  10. Primer registro de una colonia de Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Baja California, México First record of a Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) colony in Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo A. Guevara-Carrizales; Roberto Martínez-Gallardo; Arnulfo Moreno-Valdez

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se registra por primera vez una colonia del murciélago filostomido Leptonycteris curasoae para Baja California, México, que también constituye la segunda localidad en el estado donde se registra esta especie.We report the first record of a colony of the phillostomid bat Leptonycteris curasoae for Baja California, Mexico. This region represents the second locality reported for this species in the state.

  11. Geographic distribution's ampliation of Chiroderma doriae Thomas (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in Brazil Ampliação da distribuição geográfica de Chiroderma doriae Thomas (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo O Bordignon

    2005-01-01

    The geographic distribution ampliation of Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 is related in this note with a new record from Corumba City, in pantanal ecossistem of Mato Grosso do Sul State. This record extend the geographic range of C. doriae over 630 km westward in Brazil from literature last reccord.Nesta nota é relatada a ampliação da distribuição geográfica de Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891 com um registro inédito na cidade de Corumbá, na região do Pantanal do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Es...

  12. Primeiro registro da família Furipteridae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil First record of the family Furipteridae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) for the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    André Pol; Marcelo R. Nogueira; Adriano L. Peracchi

    2003-01-01

    Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828), the only species in the family Furipteridae known to occur in the Brazilian territory, is reported for the first time in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The single specimen obtained was found alone in its diurnal roost in a cavity formed among large granite blocks in a well-preserved Atlantic Forest area. Morphometric data obtained from this specimen are within the known range documented for the species.

  13. Ocorrência de Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil Occurrence of Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil

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    Daniela Dias

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The first occurrence of phyllostomid bat Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, 1896 in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil is reported. An adult female was caught with mist net in the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, an AtlanticForest area in West Zone of Rio de Janeiro city, in July 9th, 1996. Morphological aspects of this species are discussed. Measurements obtained for the specimen are also provided.

  14. Levantamento preliminar dos morcegos do Parque Nacional de Ubajara (Mammalia, Chiroptera), Ceará, Brasil Preliminary survey of the Bats from Ubajara National Park (Mammalia-Chiroptera), Ceara, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva; Patrícia Gonçalves Guedes; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    2001-01-01

    A preliminary survey of bats species from the Ubajara National Park is presented. One hundred sixty two bats from 14 species were collected. Comments about reproduction of the captured species are included.

  15. Observação da visita de morcegos (Chiroptera) às flores de Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns Observation of visit of bats (Chiroptera) to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley S. Pereira da Silva; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi

    1995-01-01

    The visit of two species of bats to the flowers of Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Cav.) A. Robyns was observed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro during the period of may and july of 1989. The flowers of this vegetal species present attributions in accordance to the Syndrome of Chiropterophily and receive the visit of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas. 1766) and Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas. 1767). Glossophaga soricina has morfological caracteristes for nectarivory, Phyllostomus hastat...

  16. Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Marcelo Oscar Bordignon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.

  17. Nota sobre a biologia de Cinomops abrasus (Temminck) (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Molossidae) no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Notes on the biology of the Cinomops abrasus (Temminck), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Molossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. L. Esbérard; Helena G Bergallo

    2005-01-01

    São aqui apresentados dados sobre a biologia de Cinomops abrasus (Temminck, 1826) com base em 36 exemplares capturados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil, entre 1993 e 1997, em quatro diferentes localidades.Data on Cinomops abrasus (Temminck, 1826) biology are presented, from 36 animals captured in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil, between 1993 and 1997, from four different localities.

  18. Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal

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    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.

  19. Status taxonômico e distribucional do complexo Eumops bonariensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no sul do Brasil Distibutional and taxonomic status of the Eumops bonariensis species complex (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in southern Brazil

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    Itiberê P. Bernardi; João M. D. Miranda; Fernando C. Passos

    2009-01-01

    The taxonomic status and the geographical distribution of the specimens from southern Brazil previously identified as members of the Eumops bonariensis (Peters, 1874) species complex are here reviewed based on specimens deposited in collections of the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The results of an investigation of diagnostic morphological characters and a multivariate morphometrics analysis suggest the recognition of two forms, E. bonariensis and E. patagonicus Thomas, 1924, thus a...

  20. Ecología y reproducción del murciélago Centurio senex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en Oaxaca, México Ecology and reproduction of the bat Centurio senex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Antonio Santos-Moreno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El murciélago Centurio senex es una especie con distribución geográfica amplia, pero su abundancia es típicamente baja en los sitios donde se le ha registrado, por lo que se le considera una especie rara, y muchos de sus aspectos ecológicos y reproductivos derivan de observaciones ocasionales. En este estudio se documentan la proporción de sexos, la estructura de edades, el patrón reproductivo y su relación con el régimen de lluvias, los patrones de actividad diaria y la variación sexual secundaria en peso y longitud del antebrazo de una población de C. senex estudiada por 16 meses en un paisaje heterogéneo en la sierra Juárez de Oaxaca, México.Wrinke-faced bat Centurio senex is a species with wide geographical distribution, but in those places where it has been recorded, its abundance is typically low, therefore it is considered a rare species and many ecological and reproductive aspects are anecdotic or derived from casual observations. In this study, we report some ecological data, such as sex ratio, age structure, reproductive pattern and its relation with rainfall, patterns of daily activity, as well as secondary sexual variation in weight and length of forearm of a population of C. senex studied for 16 months in a heterogeneous landscape in the Sierra Juárez of Oaxaca, Mexico.

  1. First record of the ghost bat Diclidurus scutatus Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Emballonuridae in São Paulo city, Brazil Primeiro relato do morcego-fantasma Diclidurus scutatus Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Emballonuridae na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Miriam M. Sodré

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of their habits (fly high and harbor on palm leaves, there are few records of the ghost bat Diclidurus scutatus Peters, 1869. In Brazil, this species is known only from Northern region and this paper describes its first occurrence in Southeastern region. The ghost bat was found died on the window sill of a 9th floor apartment of a residential building in the urban area in the city of São Paulo, São Paulo State. Probably this bat must live at Serra da Cantareira, one of the Atlantic forest fragment nearby São Paulo city.Devido aos seus hábitos de voar alto e se abrigar em folhas de palmeiras, há poucos registros na literatura sobre o morcego Diclidurus scutatus Peters, 1869. No Brasil, essa espécie é conhecida somente na região Norte e o presente estudo descreve sua primeira ocorrência na região Sudeste. O morcego foi encontrado morto no parapeito da janela de um apartamento do nono andar, em um edifício residencial, na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, estado de São Paulo. Provavelmente esse morcego devia viver na Serra da Cantareira, um fragmento da mata Atlântica, próximo da cidade de São Paulo.

  2. Estructura social y composición temporal en una colonia de Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) Social structure and temporal composition in a colony of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae)

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    Jorge Ortega; Beatriz Hernández-Chávez; Areli Rizo-Aguilar; José Antonio Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Poco se conoce acerca de la estructura social de los molósidos en el Neotrópico. En este estudio se observó durante 4 periodos (2006/2007) la distribución espacial y la variación temporal de una colonia de Nyctinomops laticaudatus en el Palacio del Gobernador de la zona arqueológica de Uxmal en Yucatán. Se observaron 66 cavidades ocupadas por grupos mixtos de estos animales. Los grupos mixtos se conservaron todo el año, pero los individuos cambiaron de sitio de percha y de asociación de un gr...

  3. First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil Primeiro registro de Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitando um morcego-de-cauda-livre (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil

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    Luiz Antonio Costa Gomes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse (Chirodiscidae for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37% were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair.O presente estudo registra a ocorrência de Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse pela primeira vez no Brasil, bem como seus sítios de infecção em Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Foram capturados 38 morcegos com redes-de-neblina, dispostas próximas a uma residência da "Mars Center for Cocoa Science" no Sul da Bahia, dos quais 14 (37% estavam parasitados por P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes foi observada parasitando M. rufus em pelos evidentemente maiores que os demais distribuídos pelo corpo do morcego, onde se pôde observar até três parasitos em um único pelo.

  4. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed after november 1994, probably due to the urbanization process. Special attention should be given to eight of the surveyed caves in any plan made for the conservation of cave bats in the Distrito Federal area. These caves host a high bat diversity (six or more species and also shelter two rare and one endemic bat species.

  5. Quirópteros da Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia: Chiroptera Bats from Tinguá Biological Reserve, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia: Chiroptera

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    Daniela Dias

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho reúne os resultados de um levantamento de quirópteros conduzido na Reserva Biológica (REBIO do Tinguá, Nova Iguaçu, estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foram realizadas 31 noites de coletas, em 14 sítios situados em altitudes de 65 a 1270 m. As coletas foram realizadas com redes "mist-nets", armadas ao nível do solo, em trilhas ou clareiras, em frente a plantas em floração ou frutificação, próximo a construções e cavidades naturais, sobre riachos e corpos d'água ou perto desses. Um total de 655 indivíduos foi capturado. Vinte e oito espécies de morcegos, distribuídas em quatro famílias, Emballonuridae (duas espécies, Phyllostomidae (19 espécies, Vespertilionidae (cinco espécies e Molossidae (duas espécies são assinaladas para a Reserva. Destacam-se os registros de Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901 e Myotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806, que constam como vulneráveis na "Lista das Espécies Brasileiras Ameaçadas de Extinção". Para cada espécie, uma medida externa (comprimento de antebraço e 13 medidas cranianas foram estudadas. As medidas de machos e fêmeas são tratadas separadamente. Comentários taxonômicos são fornecidos para todas as espécies.Here we describe the bat community found at the Tinguá Biological Reserve, Nova Iguaçu County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Captures at 14 sites included a total of 31 nights at altitudes from 65 to 1270 m. Bats were captured in nets at ground level in forest trails and clearings, near flowering and fruiting trees, buildings, natural cavities and over streams. The reserve is species rich, with 28 species in 655 captures. Four families were found: Emballonuridae (two species, Phyllostomidae (19, Vespertilionidae (five and Molossidae (two. Three species are especially important for being considered vulnerable in the Brazilian Threatened Species List: Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901 and Myotis ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806. Forearm length and 13 cranial measurements were studied for each species. The measurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Taxonomic comments for each species are provided.

  6. Estructura social y composición temporal en una colonia de Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae Social structure and temporal composition in a colony of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

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    Jorge Ortega

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Poco se conoce acerca de la estructura social de los molósidos en el Neotrópico. En este estudio se observó durante 4 periodos (2006/2007 la distribución espacial y la variación temporal de una colonia de Nyctinomops laticaudatus en el Palacio del Gobernador de la zona arqueológica de Uxmal en Yucatán. Se observaron 66 cavidades ocupadas por grupos mixtos de estos animales. Los grupos mixtos se conservaron todo el año, pero los individuos cambiaron de sitio de percha y de asociación de un grupo a otro. Esta estructura sugiere una organización promiscua. Durante los 2 años de observación sólo se identificaron adultos dentro de las cavidades, mientras que los juveniles y recién nacidos perchaban fuera de éstas. Los periodos de descanso fueron los más comunes en la colonia, pero también se observaron cópulas y visitas de individuos en los sitios de percha. Estos grupos de N. laticaudatus se caracterizan por un bajo grado de cohesividad entre sus diferentes miembros.Little is known about the social structure of the molossid bats in the Neotropics. During 4 observational periods (2006/2007, we studied the spatial distribution and temporal variation of a colony of Nyctinomops laticaudatus inside the Governor's Palace at the Archeological Zone of Uxmal, Yucatán, Mexico. We surveyed 66 roosting cavities consisting of mixed groups of males and females. This particular association (mixed groups occurred throughout the study, but bats shifted group membership by moving continuously from one group to another. Because of this pattern, we were unable to describe a unique social structure and we proposed a promiscuous system for the species. During the 2 year study, we identified only adult bats inside cavities, while newborns were observed roosting outside cavities in adjacent walls. Resting was the most common activity inside cavities, but visits and copulations were also recorded. In groups of Nyctinomops laticaudatus both sexes are presented and differ with other bats due to their lower degree of cohesiveness.

  7. Observações da dieta de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) em duas áreas do sul do Brasil Diet observations of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in two areas of southern Brazil

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    Fernando C. Passos; Gustavo Graciolli

    2004-01-01

    Este estudo foi realizado no Parque Nacional de Superagüi (PNS) e na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural de Volta Velha (RPPN), ambas áreas de Mata Atlântica, nos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil. Morcegos foram capturados em redes de neblina e amostras fecais foram coletadas para análise da dieta. As sementes encontradas em cada amostra foram identificadas em laboratório por meio de lupa. Cento e trinta e sete exemplares de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818) foram cap...

  8. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

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    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  9. Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera in the Ponta Grossa region, Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brazil Morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera na região de Ponta Grossa, Campos Gerais, Paraná, Brasil

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    Cibele M. V. Zanon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diet, reproduction and activity time of bat species found in Ponta Grossa county, Campos Gerais region, were studied. Collections were conducted in four forest fragments, during 272 hours, on 48 m² of nets and roosting sites; the total capture effort was 1.52.10³ h.m². Eight species (247 individuals were registered: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis (Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, and Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. The Phyllostomidae family was the most frequently captured. Solanaceae, Moraceae, Piperaceae, and Rosaceae were found in the diet of frugivores; six orders of insects and the class Arachnida were found in the diets of insectivores. Pregnant females were found in September and October and lactating ones in November and December. The collection peak was reached in the second hour-and-a-half. Preservation of the regional forested and altered areas is required for survival of the local chiropterofauna.Estudou-se as espécies de morcegos presentes em Ponta Grossa, na região dos Campos Gerais, Paraná, com o objetivo de conhecer seus aspectos ecológicos básicos (dieta, reprodução e horário de atividade. Realizou-se coletas em quatro fragmentos florestais, onde foram empregadas 272 horas de esforço com 48 m² de redes, e em locais de repouso, totalizando um esforço de captura de 1,52.10³ h.m². Registrou-se 247 indivíduos, de oito espécies: Artibeuslituratus (Olfers, 1818, Sturniralilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Desmodusrotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Phyllostomidae; Tadaridabrasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, Eumopsauripendulus (Shaw, 1800 (Molossidae; Eptesicusbrasiliensis(Shaw, 1800, Myotisnigricans (Schinz, 1821, Histiotusvelatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 (Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae foi a família mais capturada. Solanaceae, Moraceae, Piperaceae e Rosaceae fizeram parte da dieta dos frugívoros; constatou-se seis ordens de insetos e a classe Arachnida na dieta dos insetívoros. Fêmeas grávidas foram encontradas nos meses de setembro e outubro; as lactantes, em novembro e dezembro. O maior pico de captura ocorreu na segunda hora e meia de coleta. Faz-se necessário preservar as áreas florestadas, mesmo as já alteradas, pois estas são importantes para a sobrevivência da quiropterofauna local.

  10. Primeiro registro de Myotis riparius Handley (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil First record of Myotis riparius Handley (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

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    Daniela Dias

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, é registrada a primeira ocorrência do morcego vespertilionídeo MyotisripariusHandley, 1960 no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Sete exemplares dessa espécie foram capturados com redes de espera ("mist nets" na Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, uma área de Mata Atlântica no Município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Aspectos taxonômicos dessa espécie são discutidos e medidas obtidas para os exemplares são fornecidas.In this paper, the first occurrence of the vespertilionid bat MyotisripariusHandley, 1960 in the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil is reported. Seven specimens were caught with mist nets in the Reserva Biologica do Tinguá, an Atlantic Forest area in the Nova Iguaçu County, Rio de Janeiro state. Taxonomic aspects of this species are discussed. Measurements obtained for the specimens are also provided.

  11. Ecología y reproducción del murciélago Centurio senex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Oaxaca, México Ecology and reproduction of the bat Centurio senex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Santos-Moreno; José Luís García-García; Arisbe Rodríguez-Alamilla

    2010-01-01

    El murciélago Centurio senex es una especie con distribución geográfica amplia, pero su abundancia es típicamente baja en los sitios donde se le ha registrado, por lo que se le considera una especie rara, y muchos de sus aspectos ecológicos y reproductivos derivan de observaciones ocasionales. En este estudio se documentan la proporción de sexos, la estructura de edades, el patrón reproductivo y su relación con el régimen de lluvias, los patrones de actividad diaria y la variación sexual secu...

  12. Geographic distribution and morphological variation in Mimon bennettii (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Distribuição geográfica e variação morfológica em Mimon bennettii (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    Renato Gregorin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied discrete and quantitative data from 88 specimens of the subgenus Mimon previously identified as Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 and M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 from diverse parts of their range. Our data indicate that specimens of Mimon bennetii in Brazil presented geographic variation in morphometrical characters and mosaic variation in qualitative traits. Specimens from the Cerrado biome collected in Brazilian states like Piaui, Tocantins, and Goiás have longer forearms than those distributed in the Atlantic and Amazon forested domains. Based on morphometrics, as showed by t-tests, specimens of M. bennettii from the Brazilian Cerrado resemble phenetically more with M. cozumelae than the M. bennettii from Atlantic Forest. Characters presently used to diagnosis M. cozumelae also were also recorded to M. bennettii in diverse parts of Brazil, making that validity of M. cozumelae questionable based on this kind of traits. This research also updated the geographic distribution to the M. bennettii in Brazil.Foi analisada a morfologia quantitativa e qualitativa de 88 espécimes do subgênero Mimon previamente identificados como Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 e M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 de diversas localidades dentro de sua distribuição. Os dados indicam que os espécimes de Mimon bennetii no Brasil apresentam variação geográfica nos caracteres morfométricos e em mosaico nos qualitativos. Espécimes do bioma Cerrado provenientes dos estados brasileiros do Piauí, Tocantins e Goiás têm antebraço mais longo que os indivíduos dos domínios da Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica. Com base na morfometria aplicando teste t-Student, os espécimes de M. bennettii do Cerrado lembram fenéticamente mais M. cozumelae que M. bennettii da Floresta Atlântica. Os caracteres morfológicos atualmente empregados para diagnosticar M. cozumelae também foram registrados para M. bennettii em diversas áreas do Brasil, tornando a validade de M. cozumelae questionável nesses tipos de caracteres. O presente artigo também atualiza a distribuição geográfica de M. bennettii no Brazil.

  13. Diversidad de frutos que consumen tres especies de murciélagos (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la selva lacandona, Chiapas, México Diversity of fruits consumed by three species of bats (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico

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    Alinka Olea-Wagner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio amplía el conocimiento de los hábitos alimentarios de 3 especies de murciélagos frugívoros como dispersores de semillas en 2 localidades de la selva alta perennifolia en la zona sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules (REBIMA, y dentro del Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. Se estimó la abundancia relativa de Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium, así como la diversidad y categoría sucesional de los frutos que consumen estas 3 especies en ambas localidades, mediante la identificación de semillas en las excretas. La división de especies vegetales por categoría sucesional mostró que A. lituratus y C. perspicillata consumen frutos tanto de especies pioneras como de especies persistentes, mientras que S. lilium únicamente se alimenta de especies pioneras. Durante la época seca A. lituratus y C. perspicillata presentaron una mayor diversidad y riqueza de especies consumidas dentro de la REBIMA, en tanto que en la época de lluvia mostraron mayor diversidad y riqueza dentro de PDLG; es decir, la diversidad de semillas colectadas por ambos dispersores responde a la época anual. S. lilium presentó mayor riqueza y diversidad dentro de PDLG a lo largo del muestreo indicando preferencia por frutos establecidos en estadios tempranos en la sucesión vegetal.This study examined the feeding habits of three species of frugivorous bats in relation to their role as seed dispersers in two localities, one in a Neotropical rainforest area in the southern part of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (REBIMA, and the other in Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. We estimated the relative abundance of Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. We determined the diversity and the successional category of fruits consumed by these species in both localities through the identification of seeds in their feces. The plant species diversity based on successional category showed that A. lituratus and C. perspicillata consume fruits of pioneer species as well as persistent species, while S. lilium only feeds on pioneer species. During the dry season A. lituratus and C. perspicillata had higher diversity and richness values of plant species consumed at REBIMA, whereas in the wet season they showed higher diversity and richness at PDLG, indicating that the diversity of seeds collected by both dispersers changes with the time of year. S. lilium presented higher diversity and richness values of plant species consumed at PDLG throughout the year study, indicating preference for fruits from early stages of plant succession.

  14. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from the Caatinga of Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae)

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    Moratelli, Ricardo; Dias, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla inexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of L. inexpectata have been misidentified as L. mordax; but L. inexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to L. dekeyseri. We have found L. inexpectata in the Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil; L. mordax along the eastern border of the Caating...

  15. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla , from the Caatinga of Brazil ( Chiroptera , Phyllostomidae )

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    Ricardo Moratelli; Daniela Dias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe Lonchophylla inexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of Lonchophylla inexpectata have been misidentified as Lonchophylla mordax ; but Lonchophylla inexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to Lonchophylla dekeyseri . We have found Lonchophylla inexpectata in the Caatinga of North-east...

  16. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from the Caatinga of Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratelli, Ricardo; Dias, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    We describe Lonchophyllainexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of Lonchophyllainexpectata have been misidentified as Lonchophyllamordax; but Lonchophyllainexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to Lonchophylladekeyseri. We have found Lonchophyllainexpectata in the Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil; Lonchophyllamordax along the eastern border of the Caatinga and in the Atlantic Forest-Caatinga ecotone in North-eastern Brazil; and Lonchophylladekeyseri in the Cerrado of Mid-western Brazil, in the Brazilian Cerrado-Caatinga ecotone, and as far west as the Cerrado of Bolivia. PMID:26261433

  17. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from the Caatinga of Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    Ricardo Moratelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe Lonchophylla inexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of L. inexpectata have been misidentified as L. mordax; but L. inexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to L. dekeyseri. We have found L. inexpectata in the Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil; L. mordax along the eastern border of the Caatinga and in the Atlantic Forest–Caatinga ecotone in North-eastern Brazil; and L. dekeyseri in the Cerrado of Mid-western Brazil, in the Brazilian Cerrado–Caatinga ecotone, and as far west as the Cerrado of Bolivia.

  18. A new species of Lonchophylla (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, with comments on L. bokermanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo L; Moratelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We examined Brazilian species of the nectar-feeding bats genus Lonchophylla (Phyllostomidae, Lonchophyllinae) to clarify the identity of Lonchophylla bokermanni and to determine the distribution of this and other species of Lonchophylla in eastern Brazil. As a result, we have found sufficient differences between Cerrado populations (including the type locality of L. bokermanni) and populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil,which warrant the treatment of the Atlantic Forest populations as a separate and new species. We describe this new species here as Lonchophylla peracchii, sp. nov. The new species appears to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest, whereas L. bokermanni is found only in Cerrado habitats. PMID:26171531

  19. Taxonomy of the genus Otonycteris (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Plecotini) as inferred from morphological and mtDNA data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2010), s. 83-102. ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Otonycteris * morphology * morphometry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2010

  20. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Part 8. Bats of Jordan: fauna, ecology, echolocation, ectoparasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Lučan, R. K.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Andreas, M.; Bačkor, P.; Bohnenstengel, T.; Eid, E. K.; Ševčík, M.; Vallo, Peter; Amr, Z. S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 74, 3-4 (2010), s. 185-353. ISSN 1211-376X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Middle East * Jordan * Arabia * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. Descriptive ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea associated with vampire bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the cerrado of Central Brazil

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    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ectoparasitic bat flies of three phyllostomid vampire bat species. Bats were collected monthly from April 2004-March 2005 in caves within the Cafuringa Environmental Protection Area in the Federal District of Brazil. A total of 1,259 specimens from six species in the Streblidae family were collected from 332 bats. High host affinity from the sampled bat fly species and high prevalence of bat flies confirms the primary fly-host associations (Strebla wiedemanni, Trichobius parasiticus and Trichobius furmani with Desmodus, Trichobius diaemi and Strebla diaemi with Diaemus and T. furmani with Diphylla. Male flies outnumbered females in several associations. Some of the observed associations (e.g., Strebla mirabilis with Desmodus and S. mirabilis, Trichobius uniformis and S. wiedemanni with Diphylla were inconclusive and the causes of the associations were unclear. There are several explanations for these associations, including (i accidental contamination during sampling, (ii simultaneous capture of several host species in the same net or (iii genuine, but rare, ecological associations. Although various species of vampire bats share roosts, have similar feeding habits and are close phylogenetic relatives, they generally do not share ectoparasitic streblid bat flies. T. diaemi and S. diaemi associations with Diaemus youngi have not been previously reported in this region.

  2. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species:...

  3. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for Rhinophylla pumilio. PMID:24260663

  4. Characteristics of complete mitogenome of the lesser short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus brachyotis (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-05-01

    We describe the characteristics of complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis in this article. The complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis is 16,701 bp long with a total base composition of 32.4% A, 25.7% T, 27.7% C and 14.2% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (11,408 bp), (KM659865) two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes (2,539 bp), 22 tRNA genes (1518 bp) and one control region (1239 bp). PMID:25418628

  5. Contribuição ao conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva de Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Marta Elena Fabián

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of 179 specimens of Molossus molossus in Ceará, Brazil, showed morphological and functional ovarian asymmetry in adult females, with the right side more developed. Blastocyst implantation occurred also in the right uterine horn. Active male testicles were bigger (x = 5,38mm than inactive ones (x = 3,25mm. Pregnancy with subsequent offspring was found in March-April and November, during the wet season.

  6. Repetitive transpositions of mitochondrial DNA sequences to the nucleus during the radiation of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang

    2016-05-01

    Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. PMID:26809101

  7. A craniometric comparison of Holocene populations of Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817) and M. brandtii (Eversmann, 1845) (Chiroptera, Mammalia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rybář, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of about four hundred skulls of Myotis mystacinus and M. brandtii of the Holocene age from the Záskočie Cave (Central Slovakia). A review of criteria for species determination is presented, including a new criterion concerning the morphology of P4 roots

  8. Case report of a new pathogenic variant of Aspergillus fumigates isolated from Hipposideros cervinus (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae in Sarawak, Malaysia

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    S.S.J. Seelan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009 was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.

  9. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil. PMID:26982558

  10. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis: Molossidae, Chiroptera) at high altitude: Links to migratory insect populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Existing information on the activity of bats in the aerosphere is restricted almost exclusively to altitudes that are within a few tens of meters above the ground. We report a total of 50.2 hrs of ultrasonic recordings made using radiomicrophone bat detectors suspended from free-floating helium bal...

  11. Revision of Afro-Malagasy Otomops (Chiroptera: Molossidae) with the description of a new Afro-Arabian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Taryn M C; Richards, Leigh R; Taylor, Peter J; Napier, Melanie C; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    The paucity of data for the molossid bat Otomops throughout its range has hindered our ability to resolve the number of Otomops species present within the Afro-Malagasy region (including the Arabian Peninsula). This paper employed an integrative approach by combining morphometric (cranial morphology) and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome b and D-loop sequences, nuclear intron sequences and microsatellites) data to identify the number of Otomops taxa occurring in the Afro-Malagasy region. Three taxa were identified, two of which could be assigned to existing species, i.e. O. martiensseni and O. madagascariensis. The third taxon, previously recognised as O. martiensseni (Matschie 1897), is described herein as a new species, Otomops harrisoni sp. nov., and can be differentiated from O. martiensseni s.s. based on both molecular and morphometric data. Locality data of specimens belonging to O. harrisoni suggest that its distribution range extends from the Arabian Peninsula through to Eritrea and south to Ethiopia and Kenya. PMID:26701463

  12. Preparation method of chromosomes in chiroptera%翼手类动物染色体的制备方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余燕; 马金友; 孙瑞

    2006-01-01

    采用"取骨髓-蒸汽固定法"制备翼手类动物染色体,与细胞培养法相比,大大减少了实验开支;与"取骨髓-空气干燥法"相比,实验的成功率大大提高,减少了材料的用量,从而有利于对蝙蝠资源的保护.

  13. Redescrição de Litomosoides brasiliensis Almeida, 1936 (Nematoda: Filariidae Parasito de Anoura caudifera (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourão Elizabeth D

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the surface topography added details regarding the disposition of male caudal papillae, spicules and area rugosa apart from vulva and oral aperture. The occurrence of this nematode in the state of Amapá represents a new geographical distribution.

  14. 重庆市8种翼手类新纪录%Eight new records of Chiroptera in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少英; 冉江洪; 吴毅; 林强; 刘世昌; 孙志宇

    2003-01-01

    @@ 重庆市系1997年新成立的直辖市.1996~1997年作者对重庆市巴南区、长寿县、涪陵区、武隆县、石柱县、丰都县、万州区、忠县、开县、云阳县、奉节县、巫山县、巫溪县等13县(区)的翼手类进行了专项调查.共调查68个洞穴,在35个洞穴有翼手类栖息,采集了216号标本,经鉴定发现8种翼手类属重庆市新纪录.简报如下.

  15. Filling data gaps on the diversity and distribution of Amazonian bats (Chiroptera: the case of Amapá, easternmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. M. Martins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the second most bat species-rich country in the world, but the information on its species diversity, occurrence and distribution is still heterogeneous and fragmented. None of the Brazilian biomes are well surveyed for bats, but this situation is more critical in Amazonia, an area covering nearly 2/3 of the country. Here we provide updated information on the bats of Amapá, once a data gap in the diversity and distribution of bats in the easternmost Amazonia, and the Guiana Shield as well. Rapid biological assessments (5,551 mistnet.hours were conducted in conservation units and areas of concern, resulting in 1,695 captures, 59 species, 36 genera and six families for the State. New records for the state and for the Guiana Shield area are reported. With our records, 82 species of bats are currently known in Amapá, filling a gap in the knowledge of bat fauna in the Amazon River's delta region.

  16. OCCURRENCE OF BAT FLIES (DIPTERA, HIPPOBOSCOIDEA IN DESMONDUS RODUNTUS (MAMMALIA, CHIROPTERA IN ZONA DA MATA, MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight the importance of these agents that are restricted parasites of bats and could be responsible for transmission of the rabies virus between them. It is also worth emphasizing the importance of assessing the distribution of these parasites of bats according to the climatic conditions of a given site, because these elements are essential to limit the distribution of these parasites. The presence of parasites in animals presents itself as an important element for understanding the mechanisms that are configured in the control of population of a given agent. The present study aimed to record the occurrence of flies in vampire bats in the Forest of Minas Gerais State.

  17. OCCURRENCE OF BAT FLIES (DIPTERA, HIPPOBOSCOIDEA) IN DESMONDUS RODUNTUS (MAMMALIA, CHIROPTERA) IN ZONA DA MATA, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Dias; L. H. P. Pulga; J. V. Araujo; Ferreira, W. S.

    2014-01-01

    Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight ...

  18. Species list of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) of Santarém area, Pará State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico Bernard

    2001-01-01

    Despite its enormous area, diversity of habitat, and bat species, studies in the Brazilian Amazon represent just a small portion of the bat research in the South América. Consequently, the distribution of the major part of the bat species in the Brazilian Amazon remains incompletely documented. Conservation strategies involving bat species in the Brazilian Amazon may be difficult without more information about geographic distribution, status, roost, food preferences, and reproduction of the s...

  19. Species list of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of Santarém area, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bernard

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its enormous area, diversity of habitat, and bat species, studies in the Brazilian Amazon represent just a small portion of the bat research in the South América. Consequently, the distribution of the major part of the bat species in the Brazilian Amazon remains incompletely documented. Conservation strategies involving bat species in the Brazilian Amazon may be difficult without more information about geographic distribution, status, roost, food preferences, and reproduction of the species. Here is presented an updated list of species of bats of Alter do Chão, and complete this list with data from the nearby Amazon National Park, providing a list of bats in the Santarém area. This list includes at least 55 species of bats, representing 34 genera, and 7 families. The higher taxonomic composition of bat fauna of Santarérn area is similar to other areas sampled in the Brazilian Amazon, with a high proportion of frugivores, but the number of aerial insectivores is lower, probably due the use of mist nets as the principal sampling method.

  20. Roost and hunting site fidelity of female and juvenile Daubenton's bat Myotis daubentonii (Kuhl, 1871) (Chiroptera: vespertilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kapfer, Géraldine; Rigot, Thibaud; Holsbeek, Ludovic; Aron, Serge

    2008-01-01

    We investigated roosting and hunting site fidelity of Daubenton's bats Myotis daubentonii (Kuhl, 1817) in the Forêt de Soignes, an old-stand forest dominated by 150-200-year-old beeches, during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Roosting behaviour and hunting activity over ponds of adult females and juveniles were monitored using radio-telemetry. Eighteen roosts were located, all in natural cavities. The bats occupied a limited number of trees located in a specific and small roosting area. This ro...

  1. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

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    Don Buden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July and pregnant females (July suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus p. pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.

  2. Filling data gaps on the diversity and distribution of Amazonian bats (Chiroptera): the case of Amapá, easternmost Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana C. M. Martins; Enrico Bernard; Renato Gregorin; Wanuyze A. S. da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Brazil is the second most bat species-rich country in the world, but the information on its species diversity, occurrence and distribution is still heterogeneous and fragmented. None of the Brazilian biomes are well surveyed for bats, but this situation is more critical in Amazonia, an area covering nearly 2/3 of the country. Here we provide updated information on the bats of Amapá, once a data gap in the diversity and distribution of bats in the easternmost Amazonia, and the Guiana Shield as...

  3. Molecular architecture of Pipistrellus pipistrellus/Pipistrellus pygmaeus complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): further cryptic species and Mediterranean origin of the divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulva, Pavel; Horácek, Ivan; Strelkov, Petr P; Benda, Petr

    2004-09-01

    Previous genetic analyses have demonstrated that two phonic types of one of the most common European bats, the Common pipistrelle, belong to distinct species, although they are almost identical morphologically (45 kHz Pipistrellus pipistrellus and 55 kHz Pipistrellus pygmaeus). To reconstruct the history of the species complex and explain the codistribution of both forms in Europe and the Mediterranean, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on a 402-bp portion of the cytochrome b gene. Particular attention was paid to the eastern and southern parts of the range where no data were available. We found further distinctive allopatric haplotypes from Libya and Morocco. The difference of about 6-7% described in the Libyan population suggests the occurrence of a new species in the southern Mediterranean. The species status of Moroccan population is also discussed. The phylogeographic patterns obtained and analysis of fossil records support the hypothesis of expansion of both species into Europe from the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. The allopatric speciation model fits our data best. The paleobiographic scenario envisaged is corroborated also by molecular clock estimations and correlations with Late Neogene environmental changes in the Mediterranean region which ended with the Messinian salinity crisis. PMID:15288073

  4. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern. Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of R. pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to R. pumilio (pair 15. However, two chromosomes of M. crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for R. pumilio.

  5. Desmodus Rotundus (Chiroptera: Phillostomidae como vector y reservorio de Tripanosoma evansi y Tripanosoma equiperdum en América Latina

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    José Andrés Rojas Chaves.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisión bibliográfica trata acerca del papel que juega el murciélago vampiro (Desmodus rotundus, como vector mecánico y reservorio de Tripanosoma evansi y T. equiperdum en América Latina.

  6. Nuclear introns outperform mitochondrial DNA in inter-specific phylogenetic reconstruction: Lessons from horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S

    2016-04-01

    Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mtDNA introgression. We demonstrated that by using just two introns one can recover a better supported species tree than when using the mtDNA alone, despite the shorter overall length of the combined introns. Additionally, when combining any single intron with mtDNA, we showed that the result is highly similar to the mtDNA gene tree and far from the true species tree and therefore this approach should be avoided. We caution against the indiscriminate use of mtDNA in phylogenetic studies and advocate for pilot studies to select nuclear introns. The selection of marker type and number is a crucial step that is best based on critical examination of preliminary or previously published data. Based on our findings and previous publications, we recommend the following markers to recover phylogenetic relationships between recently diverged taxa (<20 My) in bats and other mammals: ACOX2, COPS7A, BGN, ROGDI and STAT5A. PMID:26826601

  7. Cranial and mandibular shape variation in the genus Carollia (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Colombia: biogeographic patterns and morphological modularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aguirre, Camilo; Pérez-Torres, Jairo; Wilson, Laura A B

    2015-01-01

    Neotropical bats of the genus Carollia are widely studied due to their abundance, distribution and relevance for ecosystems. However, the ecomorphological boundaries of these species are poorly differentiated, and consequently correspondence between their geographic distribution, ecological plasticity and morphological variation remains unclear. In this study, patterns of cranial and mandibular morphological variation were assessed for Carollia brevicauda, C. castanea and C. perspicillata from Colombia. Using geometric morphometrics, morphological variation was examined with respect to: differences in intraspecific variation, morphological modularity and integration, and biogeographic patterns. Patterns of intraspecific variation were different for each species in both cranial and mandibular morphology, with functional differences apparent according to diet. Cranial modularity varied between species whereas mandibular modularity did not. High cranial and mandibular correlation reflects Cranium-Mandible integration as a functional unit. Similarity between the biogeographic patterns in C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata indicates that the Andes do not act as a barrier but rather as an independent region, isolating the morphology of Andean populations of larger-bodied species. The biogeographic pattern for C. castanea was not associated with the physiography of the Andes, suggesting that large body size does not benefit C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata in maintaining homogeneous morphologies among populations. PMID:26413433

  8. Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of an urban park in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Carlos E.L. Esbérard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some bat species are able to adapt to urban areas, where they find food and roosts. Despite the high number of parks in Brazilian cities, they did not yet raise the interest of most zoologists, except for some surveys of birds and butterflies. The objectives of the present study were: (i to inventory the bat species of Quinta da Boa Vista (QBV, a large (25 ha urban park centrally located in densely populated Rio de Janeiro, which is Brazil's second largest metropolis; (ii to compare the species richness observed in roosts with the richness recorded through mist netting in flight routes and near fruiting fig trees; and (iii to analyze recaptures of bats marked in this park and recaptured in other sites and vice-versa. Sampling totaled 104 sampling nights resulting in 3,256 captures (including 133 recaptures between April 1989 and December 2004. We also sampled roosts and received some specimens from park visitors and city workers. We documented 21 bat species, predominantly large frugivores. The number of expected species for this park was 24.0 ± 4.6, and the total sampled represented 87.5% of the expected. The recapture of bats marked in surrounding forest fragments and in QBV shows the importance of urban parks for the maintenance of bat diversity. Inspection of roosts produced two species that had not been captured with other methods. Sampling near fruiting fig trees did not differ in terms of richness from sampling carried out far from these trees or during their non-fruiting periods.

  9. Thumb-pads up-a new species of thick-thumbed bat from Sumatra (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Glischropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia

    2015-01-01

    To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra. PMID:26249952

  10. Frugivoria de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae e seus efeitos na germinação das sementes

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    Therys Midori Sato

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos frugívoros são componentes fundamentais na manutenção e regeneração de florestas tropicais, pois ao se alimentarem, promovem a mobilidade das sementes dos frutos em que se alimentaram. Muito se discute sobre os efeitos da passagem das sementes no trato digestivo dos morcegos sobre a taxa e velocidade de germinação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros na Estação Experimental de Itirapina para descobrir quais utilizam significativamente os frutos de Cecropia pachystachya. Foi testada a importância dos quirópteros na dispersão e germinação desta espécie de planta. Para isso, os morcegos foram capturados no período de agosto de 2005 a julho de 2006, suas fezes foram recolhidas e as sementes de C. pachystachya separadas. Os testes de germinação foram feitos para duas espécies de morcegos, Artibeus liuratus e Platyrrhinus lineatus, e suas taxas de germinação comparadas com amostras de sementes coletadas da planta (controle. Foram feitos cinco repetições com 30 sementes em cada gerbox para cada teste. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras germinadoras " Mangelsdorf" , com temperatura de 25°C, luminosidade e umidade constante por 40 dias. Houve uma alta porcentagem de germinação das sementes encontradas em A. lituratus (79,3% e não diferiu estatisticamente das sementes controle (76%. Esses resultados foram superiores a P. lineatus (52%. Em relação ao Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, esse resultado foi semelhante, sendo 2,73 para A. lituratus, 2,66 para o controle e 1,80 para P. lineatus. Com esse resultado, tem-se que a passagem das sementes de C. pachystachya pelos morcegos não aumentou a porcentagem, nem a velocidade de germinação delas, quando comparado com o controle, sendo até menor para P. lineatus. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que, o efeito da passagem do trato digestivo dos morcegos na germinação pode sofrer influências que ainda precisam ser estudadas, mas não há como negar o beneficio da dispersão das sementes de C. pachystachya promovida por quatro espécies de morcegos no local estudado.Frugivorous bats are fundamental components in the maintenance and regeneration of tropical forests since they promote the mobility of the fruit seeds. There are controversies about the effects of the seed passage through the bat gut in the germination tax and speed. The goal of this work was to investigate the diet of frugivorous bat species at Estação Experimental de Itirapina to find out which species significantly use the fruits of the pioneer plants species Cecropia pachystachya. It was tested the importance of bats on the spread and germination of seeds from this plant species. For that, the bats were captured in the period from August 2005 to July 2006, their feces were collected and the seeds of C. pachystachya separated. The germination tests were made for two bat species, Artibeus liuratus and Platyrrhinus lineatus, and were compared with seeds collected directly from the plant (control. Five repetitions were made with 30 seeds in each gerbox for each test. The tests were conducted in " Mangelsdorf" germinators chambers, with temperature of 25°C, luminosity and constant humidity for 40 days. There was a high germination percentage of the seeds found in A. lituratus (79,3%, and it did not differ statistically from the seeds control (76%. These results were superior from P. lineatus (52%. Regarding the Germination Speed Index (IVG, the results were similar, being 2,73 for A. lituratus, 2,66 for the control seeds and 1,80 for P. lineatus. It was concluded that the passage of the seeds of C. pachystachya through the bats gut did not increase the percentage or the speed of germination, when compared with the control seeds, being smaller for P. lineatus. With the results obtained, it was concluded that the effects of the bats’ gut passage in the germination still needs further studies but the benefits of seed dispersion of C. pachystachya promoted by four bat species in the studied place cannot be refused.

  11. Predation of Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766 (Chiroptera: Molossidae by Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002 (Anura: Bufonidae in the Caatinga, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication is to report, through a fortuitous event, the predation of the bat Molossus molossus by the toad Rhinella jimi, on 29 May 2003 in the Caatinga, municipality of Orocó, state of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil.

  12. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human activities are endangering the future adaptability in natural ecosystems, which promotes the disappearance of low adaptive potential species. PMID:22990822

  13. Hidden diversity in bent-winged bats (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae) of the Western Palaearctic and adjacent regions: implications for taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrámek, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Benda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 1 (2013), s. 165-190. ISSN 0024-4082 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/0888 Keywords : Arabia * bent-winged bats * cryptic species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.658, year: 2013

  14. [Molecular epidemiology of rabies epizootics in Colombia, 1994-2002: evidence of human and canine rabies associated with chiroptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, Andrés; Nuñez, Constanza; García, Clemencia; Boshell, Jorge

    2003-03-01

    Three urban rabies outbreaks have been reported in Colombia during the last two decades, one of which is ongoing in the Caribbean region (northern Colombia). The earlier outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in Arauca (eastern Colombia) and in the Central region, ending in 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among rabies viruses isolated from the three areas were based on a comparison of cDNA fragments coding for the endodomain of protein G and a fragment of L protein obtained by RT-PCR. The sequenced amplicons which included the G-L intergenic region contained 902 base pairs. Phylogenetic analysis showed three distinct groups of viruses. Colombian genetic variant I viruses were isolated only from Arauca and the Central region, but are now apparently extinct. Colombian genetic variant II viruses were isolated in the Caribbean region and are still being transmitted in that area. The third group of bat rabies variants were isolated from two insectivorous bats, three domestic dogs and a human. This associates bat rabies virus with rabies in Colombian dogs and humans, and indicates bats to be a rabies reservoir of public health significance. PMID:12696396

  15. Regionally and climatically restricted patterns of distribution of genetic diversity in a migratory bat species, Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Çoraman Emrah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.

  16. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (Barbastella barbastellus, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

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    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The bats roosted under loose bark in 20 of 27 trees, i.e. more frequently than expected (Χ² test, P < 0.05. B. barbastellus preferred cavities at a greater height (median roost height = 10.1 m, n = 22; median random cavity height = 4.5 m, n = 30; Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01. Most roosts faced south (63.6% south facing: 91-270 degrees; 36.4% north facing: 271-90 degrees, n = 22; Χ² test, P < 0.05. A logistic regression model including cavity type, height above ground and direction faced was significant (P <0.01 and all variables were important for selection. B. barbastellus is probably unable to find suitable roosting sites where intensive and non-selective logging is conducted: areas of ancient woodland should be protected to ensure optimal roosting conditions. In roosting areas, felling operations should be avoided as far as possible; in logged areas, selective timber harvesting protocols preserving dead trees and a significant fraction of mature trees should be adopted. We are indebted to the Nando Peretti Foundation and the Parco Nazionale d?Abruzzo Lazio e Molise for funding our work.

  17. Structure of a bat assemblage (Mammalia, Chiroptera in Serra do Caraça Reserve, South-east Brazil

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    Falcão Fábio de C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.

  18. A new species of nectar-feeding bat, genus Lonchophylla, from western Colombia and western Ecuador (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.

    2007-01-01

    The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.

  19. Karyotypic Evolution in Malagasy Flying Foxes (Pteropodidae, Chiroptera) and Their Hipposiderid Relatives as Determined by Comparative Chromosome Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Goodman, Steven M; Taylor, Peter J; Schoeman, M Corrie; Yang, Fengtang; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Pteropodidae and Hipposideridae are 2 of the 9 chiropteran families that occur on Madagascar. Despite major advancements in the systematic study of the island's bat fauna, few karyotypic data exist for endemic species. We utilized G- and C-banding in combination with chromosome painting with Myotismyotis probes to establish a genome-wide homology among Malagasy species belonging to the families Pteropodidae (Pteropus rufus 2n = 38; Rousettus madagascariensis, 2n = 36), Hipposideridae (Hipposideros commersoni s.s., 2n = 52), and a single South African representative of the Rhinolophidae (Rhinolophus clivosus, 2n = 58). Painting probes of M. myotis detected 26, 28, 28, and 29 regions of homology in R. madagascariensis, P. rufus, H. commersoni s.s, and R. clivosus, respectively. Translocations, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions were responsible for karyotypic differences amongst the Malagasy pteropodids. Comparative chromosome painting revealed a novel pericentric inversion on P. rufus chromosome 4. Chromosomal characters suggest a close evolutionary relationship between Rousettus and Pteropus. H. commersoni s.s. shared several chromosomal characters with extralimital congeners but did not exhibit 2 chromosomal synapomorphies proposed for Hipposideridae. This study provides further insight into the ancestral karyotypes of pteropodid and hipposiderid bats and corroborates certain molecular phylogenetic hypotheses. PMID:27256929

  20. Description of a new tick species, Ixodes collaris n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), from bats (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae, Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő

    2016-01-01

    Background In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Findings Ixodid bat ticks (two female...

  1. The karyotype and 5S rRNA genes from Spanish individuals of the bat species Rhinolophus hipposideros (Rhinolophidae; Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerma, Eva; Acosta, Manuel J; Barragán, Maria José L; Martínez, Sergio; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Bullejos, Mónica; Sánchez, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    The karyotype of individuals of the species Rhinolophus hipposideros from Spain present a chromosome number of 2n = 54 (NFa = 62). The described karyotype for these specimens is very similar to another previously described in individual from Bulgaria. However, the presence of one additional pair of autosomal acrocentric chromosomes in the Bulgarian karyotype and the differences in X chromosome morphology indicated that we have described a new karyotype variant in this species. In addition, we have analyzed several clones of 1.4 and 1 kb of a PstI repeated DNA sequence from the genome of R. hipposideros. The repeated sequence included a region with high identity with the 5S rDNA genes and flanking regions, with no homology with GenBank sequences. Search for polymerase III regulatory elements demonstrated the presence of type I promoter elements (A-box, Intermediate Element and C-box) in the 5S rDNA region. In addition, upstream regulatory elements, as a D-box and Sp1 binding sequences, were present in flanking regions. All data indicated that the cloned repeated sequences are the functional rDNA genes from this species. Finally, FISH demonstrated the presence of rDNA in nine chromosome pairs, which is surprising as most mammals have only one carrier chromosome pair. PMID:18066670

  2. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Adwan Shehab; Inrahim Mamkhair; Zuhair Amr

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...

  3. Evidence for two karyotypic variants of the lesser horseshoe bat ( Rhinolophus hipposideros , Chiroptera, Mammalia) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volleth, M; Biedermann, M; Schorcht, W; Heller, K-G

    2013-01-01

    Three different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 54, 56 and 58) have been reported in the lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros. Asia Minor and the Middle East are inhabited by R. hipposideros specimens with 58 chromosomes. In Europe, specimens with 56 chromosomes have been recorded from several localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy and Greece. Up to now, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and possibly from Switzerland. With the record of 54 chromosomes in specimens from Germany presented here, the distributional area of this variant is expanded into Central Europe. According to the cytogenetic data presently available, we presume that the European R. hipposideros population is divided into a western form (from Spain to Germany) with a 2n = 54 karyotype and an eastern form (from the Czech Republic to Greece) with a 2n = 56 karyotype. This study presents banded karyotypes for the 2n = 54 and 2n = 56 variants for the first time. In addition, chromosomal arm homology to the vespertilionid bat species Myotis myotis revealed by chromosome painting is reported. Whether the variants could represent separate species is also discussed. PMID:23635426

  4. Morfología lingual del murciélago pscívoro Noctilio leporinus (Chiroptera: Nctilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Elizalde Arellano; Esther Ur\\u00EDa Galicia; Juan Carlos L\\u00F3pez Vidal

    2004-01-01

    Se analizó la anatomía e histología de la lengua de Noctilio leporinus cuyo hábito alimentario es principalmente piscívoro. El objetivo fue verificar la presencia de alguna estructura particular que pudiera estar asociada a este tipo de alimentación. La superficie lingual presenta tres tipos de papilas linguales: filiformes, fungiformes y circunvaladas. Histológicamente los dos últimos tipos de papilas poseen botones gustativos. Las papilas circunvaladas están asociadas a las glándulas serosa...

  5. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, Paul R.; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zepeda-Mendoza, Marie Lisandra; Razgour, Orly; Jones, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the pote...

  6. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, Paul R.; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zepeda-Mendoza, Marie; Razgour, Orly; Jones, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Background: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the pote...

  7. Characters and phylogenetic relationships of nectar-feeding bats, with descriptions of new Lonchophylla from western South America (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Lonchophyllini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.

  8. Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae) and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) suggests that they do not

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species) cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one spe...

  9. Parallel evolution of the glycogen synthase 1 (muscle) gene Gys1 between Old World and New World fruit bats (Order: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-10-01

    Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection. PMID:25001420

  10. RAPD Analysis of Seven Vespertilionid Bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Henan Province%河南省蝙蝠科7种蝙蝠的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余燕; 马金友; 王艳梅; 牛红星

    2007-01-01

    为了解蝙蝠科种间亲缘关系,采用随机引物对河南省蝙蝠科7种蝙蝠进行DNA多态性研究,从20个随机引物中优化出12个引物对基因组DNA进行扩增,共扩增出223条DNA谱带,平均每个引物扩增出18.6条谱带.RAPD聚类结果表明,种间亲缘关系较远,种内亲缘关系较近.对同种蝙蝠而言,同一地理区域的蝙蝠个体之间分化较小,不同地理区域的蝙蝠个体之间分化较大.同时对鼠耳蝠属和长翼蝠亚科的分类地位也进行了讨论.

  11. 贵州两种菊头蝠核型分析%Karyology of two species of the Rhinolophus ( Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) From Guizhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学平; 谷晓明

    2007-01-01

    采用常规骨髓细胞空气干燥法,分析了贵州两种菊头蝠的核型,大耳菊头蝠2n=62,30对常染色体均为端着丝粒染色体.其中第13对常染色体的端部带有1次缢痕.X染色体为大型亚端着丝粒染色体,Y染色体为端着丝粒染色体.染色体臂数(FN)为60.马铁菊头蝠2n=58,常染色体由2对小型的中部着丝粒染色体,26对端着丝粒染色体组成.X染色体为亚端着丝粒染色体,Y染色体为小型端着丝粒染色体,染色体臂数(FN)为60.马铁菊头蝠的核型为国内首次报道.

  12. A preliminary survey on species diversity of chiroptera in Hainan island%海南岛翼手目物种多样性的初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱斌良; 朱光剑; 李德伟; 洪体玉; 张信文

    2008-01-01

    2007年7-9月,采用野外调查的方法,对海南岛翼手目物种多样性进行了初步的调查.共采集到样本4科7属15种,占海南岛翼手目记录种类的58%,中国翼手目种类的12%,具有比较高的翼手目多样性,其Shannon-Weiner指数(H')为2.095 6,Pielou指数(J)为0.773 8.在所采集的翼手目中,洞穴型蝙蝠占优势,有12种,占样本总种数的80%,其Shannon-Weiner指数和Pielou指数分别为1.933 7和0.714 1.采集到大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)为中国特有种,犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)被列入,中蹄蝠(Hipposideros larvatus)和普通长翼蝠(Minioppterus schreibersi)被列入中的易危(VU)种,大菊头蝠(Rhinolophusluctus)、中菊头蝠(R.affinis)和犬蝠被列入的近危(NT)种,几乎符合易危(VU)种.最后对区系分布及栖息类型,物种多样性指数、均匀度指数作出讨论,并提出对翼手目物种的保护建议.

  13. A New Record of Chiroptera in Qinghai Province: Vespertilio sinensis%青海省翼手目类一新纪录——东方蝙蝠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文靖; 曲家鹏; 陈晓澄

    2009-01-01

    2008年11月21日于青海省西宁市红十字医院外科大楼三楼内捕获蝙蝠一只,经鉴定为东方蝙蝠Vespertilio sinensis Peters,1880,是青海省的新纪录,现报道如下,

  14. 澳门翼手类物种多样性调查%A recent survey of bat diversity (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Macau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继展; 谭梁静; 杨剑; 陈毅; 刘奇; 沈琪琦; 徐敏贞; 邓耀民; 张礼标

    2013-01-01

    2009~2012年,对澳门翼手目(蝙蝠)物种多样性进行了调查.结果共捕捉到10个物种,属5科8属,其中包括澳门原来记载的2个物种,即蹄蝠科的大蹄蝠(Hipposideros armiger)和蝙蝠科的东亚伏翼(Pipistrellus abramus);本研究新增加8个物种,即狐蝠科的犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)和棕果蝠(Rousettus leschenaulti),鞘尾蝠科的黑髯墓蝠(Taphozous melanopogon),菊头蝠科的菲菊头蝠(Rhinolophus pusillus),以及蝙蝠科的大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti、普通伏翼(P.pipistrellus)、普通长翼蝠(Miniopterus schreibersi)和南长翼蝠(M.pusillus).另外,通过野外录音和分析,并与已发表物种声音特征比较核对,发现菊头蝠科和蹄蝠科各一种,前者可能是泰国菊头蝠(R.siamensis)或者中菊头蝠(R.affinis),后者可能是果树蹄蝠(H pomona)或者三叶蹄蝠(Aselliscus stoliczkanus).本文对已捕捉10种蝙蝠的分布、形态特征和回声定位叫声特征进行报道,同时对其种群数量和保护现状进行了讨论.保护蝙蝠栖息生境(洞穴、古老建筑和蒲葵树等)对保护澳门蝙蝠物种多样性至关重要.

  15. Insectivora and Chiroptera Animals Excavated in Wushan Lanjiazhai Site%巫山蓝家寨遗址发现食虫目和翼手目动物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武仙竹; 邹后曦; 黄秒斌

    2014-01-01

    2012年巫山蓝家寨遗址考古发掘中,获得距今2 400多年前春秋时期的喜马拉雅水麝鼢(Chim marogale himalayicus)、小臭鼢(Suncus etruscus)、微尾鼢(Anourosorex squamipes)、白腹管鼻蝠(Murina leucogaster)等骨骼标本.这些骨骼标本的鉴定和研究反映出春秋时期三峡地区属于南亚热带气候,水土保持良好,有繁茂的森林环境;当时遗址古居民食物资源丰富,但人类居室及室内卫生条件等比较落后;古遗址人类居住点的室内环境比较阴暗、潮湿,并且有多种昆虫、食虫目动物等与人类伴栖.蓝家寨遗址食虫目(Insectivora)、翼手目(Chirortera)动物骨骼研究,为分析三峡地区春秋时期古环境、古居民生活与居住条件、三峡地区环境演变等提供了重要资料;同时,上述动物骨骼标本也是首次在中国新石器时代以后古文化遗址中被发现.该项工作为今后开展动物考古中的小哺乳动物研究,提供了可靠的标本观测数据,并且在鉴定标准及工作方法等方面为今后的工作提供了重要参考.

  16. Molecular Evolution of the Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-Derived 2)-Like 2 Gene Nrf2 in Old World Fruit Bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Di; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet. PMID:26735303

  17. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beloto Bertola

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  18. Uma nova espécie de Strebla Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera, Streblidae, Streblinae sobre Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Glossophaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciolli Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Strebla Wiedemann, S. carvalhoi sp. nov., collected, on Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818 from Southern of Brazil, is described. Drawings of the postvertex, occipital plates, gonopods and tergite VII are provided.

  19. Myotis formosus,A Record New of Chiroptera in Chongqing and Liaoning%在重庆和辽宁发现绯鼠耳蝠Myotis formosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗键; 高红英

    2006-01-01

    在重庆市奉节县天坑地缝自然保护区和沙坪坝区城区及辽宁省桓仁县老秃顶子山自然保护区发现绯鼠耳蝠[Myotis formosus (Hodgson , 1835)] 5只,为重庆市及辽宁省翼手目新记录.

  20. Estrutura da comunidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therys M. Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturnas de captura de morcegos com 4 a 12 redes-de-neblina dispostas a cada sessão. Nesse período, foram capturados 720 indivíduos de 16 espécies de morcegos dos quais 13 pertencem à família Phyllostomidae, duas à Vespertilionidae e uma à Molossidae. A curva cumulativa de espécies atingiu o equilíbrio, no qual apenas espécies raras são acrescentadas. Cinco espécies (Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina e Sturnira lilium representaram 80% dos morcegos capturados na Estação Experimental, onde se alimentavam de frutos de plantas pioneiras, tais como Cecropia pachystachya, Solanum spp. e Piper spp. A prevalência do vírus rábico foi zero na amostragem das 10 espécies analisadas. Apesar de estar muito modificada, a Estação Experimental de Itirapina pode ser uma importante área de abrigo e alimento para os morcegos e tem potencial de atuar como corredor entre áreas de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica.

  1. 广东7种蝙蝠的核型研究%Karyology of seven species of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 原田正史

    2006-01-01

    对采集于广东的4科7种蝙蝠进行了核型分析,它们的核型分别是:犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx) 2n=34, FN=58;印度假吸血蝠(Megaderma lyra)2n=54, FN=104;大耳双色蹄蝠(Hipposideros pomona)2n=32, FN=60; 中蹄蝠(H.larvatus) 2n=32, FN=60;大卫鼠耳蝠(Myotis davidii) 2n=46, FN=52;大黄蝠(Scotophilus heathi) 2n=36, FN=54;南长翼蝠(Miniopterus australis)2n=46, FN=50.其中大耳双色蹄蝠和大卫鼠耳蝠的核型为首次报道,犬蝠、印度假吸血蝠、中蹄蝠、大黄蝠和南长翼蝠的核型为中国第一次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 7 species of bats that represent 4 families collected during field studies in Guangdong, China. The species investigated here were Cynopterus sphinx (2n=34, FN=58), Megaderma lyra (2n=54, FN=104), Hipposideros pomona (2n=32, FN=60), H.larvatus (2n=32, FN=60), Myotis davidii (2n=46, FN=52), Scotophilus heathi (2n=36, FN=54), Miniopterus australis (2n=46, FN=50). Hipposideros pomona and Myotis davidii were karyotyped for the first time. In addition, karyotypes of Cynopterus sphinx, Megaderma lyra, Hipposideros larvatus, Scotophilus heathi, and Miniopterus australis had not been previously reported in China.

  2. 江西省翼手目新记录-绯鼠耳蝠%A new record of the chiroptera in Jiangxi Province—Myotis formosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江廷磊; 冯江; 孙克萍; 赵云蛟; 张桢珍

    2007-01-01

    绯鼠耳蝠(Myotis formosus)采自江西吉安井冈山市梨坪村石燕洞(26°35′99″N,114°12′46″E)。该地区年平均气温14℃,年均降雨量1865mnl,属中亚热带湿润性气候。当地日落时间19:20。该地植被覆盖率高达70%以上,生物资源丰富,主要以毛竹(Phyllostachys hterocycla)、杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)和木荷(Schima Superba)为主,其中毛竹为优势种群。在江西发现绯鼠耳蝠的分布,丰富了该物种在中国的分布,为进一步的研究和保护提供基本依据。

  3. A New Chiroptera Record in Guangxi,China:Murina aurata%广西翼手目一新纪录——金管鼻蝠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李友邦; Neil M.Furey; 韦龙韬

    2010-01-01

    2009年11月,在广西西北部木论国家级自然保护区小洞丹洞穴中采到一翼手目标本,经鉴定为金管鼻蝠Murina aurata,是广西翼手目新纪录.目前,在木论自然保护区的18个洞穴调查中,只在该洞发现有分布.标本现保存于广西师范大学生物多样性标本馆.

  4. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 ( Chiroptera : Hipposideridae ) from south India

    OpenAIRE

    Harpreet Kaur; Srinivasulu Chelmala; Bhargavi Srinivasulu; Tariq Shah; Gundena Devender; Aditya Srinivasulu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this sp...

  5. Do fly parasites of bats and their hosts coevolve?speciation in Trichobius phyllostomae group (Diptera, Streblidae and their hosts (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae suggests that they do not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.

  6. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is ...

  7. 翼手目动物的特殊生殖策略:精子贮存%Sperm Storage, a Peculiar Reproductive Strategy in Chiroptera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绪生; 张树义; 梁冰

    2002-01-01

    介绍了精子贮存现象在翼手目动物中的分布、产生的原因、精子贮存的部位、贮存后的受精能力、精子长期贮存的机制及贮存过程中的免疫问题,并对将来的研究方向进行了展望.

  8. Further study on karyology of bats ( Mammalia: Chiroptera) from Sichuan, China%四川蝙蝠核型的进一步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 原田正史; 石红艳; 刘昊

    2006-01-01

    报道了含中国特有种大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)在内的、四川地区6种蝙蝠的核型.菊头蝠科2种,即大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis),核型为2n=62,FN=60;云南菊头蝠(R.yunanensis),核型较为特殊,2n=46,FN=60.蹄蝠科1种,即普氏蹄蝠(Hipposideros pratti),核型为2n=32,FN=60;蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属3种,即中华鼠耳蝠(Myotis chinensis),核型为2n=44,FN=50;大足鼠耳蝠为2n=44,FN=52;西南鼠耳蝠(M.altarium)为2n=44,FN=50.其中大耳菊头蝠的核型为首次报道,云南菊头蝠的核型为中国第1次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 6 species of bats that represent 3 families collected in Sichuan, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus macrotis (2n = 62, FN =60), R. yunanensis (2n =46, FN =60), Hipposideros pratti (2n =32, FN =60), Myotis chinensis (2n =44, FN =50), M. ricketti (2n =44, FN =52) and M. altarium (2n =44, FN =50). R.macrotis was karyotyped for the first time, and karyotype of R. yunanensis had not been previously reported in China.

  9. Dispersal behaviour of the lesser flat-headed bat, Tylonycteris pachypus ( Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)%扁颅蝠的扩散行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礼标; 洪体玉; 韦力; 朱光剑; 张光良; 巩艳艳; 杨剑; 胡慧建

    2011-01-01

    我们于2002 ~ 2007年在广西龙州县和宁明县采用标记重捕法对扁颅蝠的扩散行为进行研究,共标记669只(成体316只,亚成体353只;雌雄分别为293只和376只),重捕到139只(重捕率20.8%).结果表明,大部分扁颅蝠雌雄后代在性成熟前发生扩散,其亚成体扩散率无性别差异(雄性82.2%,雌性66.7%;P>0.05).对成年雌雄两性扩散率(雄性76.5%,雌性58.5%)的分析亦未见性别差异(P>0.05),但亚成体和成体合并结果显示雄蝠扩散率(80.7%)高于雌蝠(62.3%,P<0.01).此外,我们还测量了扩散的距离,雄性后代的扩散距离(787.5±26.980 m,n=37)比雌性(517.4±25.308 m,n=24)远(P<0.01);在出现扩散的61只后代中,仅有一只(0.7%)雄性亚成体扩散到其它的竹林,其余个体均在出生竹林内的不同竹筒之间进行扩散.

  10. 广州市区翼手类物种多样性的研究%Study on species diversity of Chiroptera in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴毅; 张成菊; 梁智文; 易祖盛

    2007-01-01

    2004年5月至2006年4月对广州市区内翼手类的物种多样性进行了调查.结果表明,广州市区有犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)、东亚伏翼(Pipistrellus abramus)、中华山蝠(Nyctalus velutinus)、扁颅蝠(Tylonycteris pachypus)、小黄蝠(Scotophilus kuhlii)、大黄蝠(Scotophilus heathii)、彩蝠(Kerivoula picta)等7种翼手类物种.分析了广州市区内翼手类的物种组成、区系特点和分布特征,其中东洋界种类占优势(71.42%),小黄蝠为优势种,东亚伏翼分布最广泛.

  11. A NEW RECORD GENUS MEGAEROPS AND ITS TWO SPECIES OF BAT IN CHINA(CHIROPTERA, PTEROPODIDAE)%中国翼手类一属、种新纪录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆; 蒋学龙; 李松; 王应祥

    2006-01-01

    记述了采自中国云南西部和西北部的无尾果蝠属Megaerops及其两个种:泰国无尾果蝠M.niphanae和无尾果蝠M.ecaudatus为翼手类中国属、种薪纪录.标本收藏于中国科学院昆明动物研究所.

  12. Records of two bat species (Chiroptera: Molossidae) found dead in barbed-wire fences in the northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Crasso Paulo Bosco Breviglieri

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, there are descriptions of cases in which bats are found dead due to human actions. The main records are related to the influence of barbed-wire fences, electrical nets, pesticides, and wind turbines. In Brazil, these data are poorly explored and deserve more attention from researchers and government agencies. This note aims to describe two records of bats (Molossus molossus and Molossus rufus) found dead in barbed-wire fences, in the northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. Furthermor...

  13. Records of two bat species (Chiroptera: Molossidae found dead in barbed-wire fences in the northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasso Paulo Bosco Breviglieri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, there are descriptions of cases in which bats are found dead due to human actions. The main records are related to the influence of barbed-wire fences, electrical nets, pesticides, and wind turbines. In Brazil, these data are poorly explored and deserve more attention from researchers and government agencies. This note aims to describe two records of bats (Molossus molossus and Molossus rufus found dead in barbed-wire fences, in the northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. Furthermore, it briefly discusses the possible relation between this kind of accident and closeness of barbed-wire fences to foraging or shelter areas for these species.

  14. The reassessment of the threatened status of the Indian endemic Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargavi Srinivasulu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994, endemic to Kolar District, Karnataka, India was listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its restricted distribution and continuing decline in the quality of its habitat. The species has not been sighted or collected since its initial collection in the years 1983 and 1985 wherein eight individuals were collected from Therahalli and 41 individuals were collected from Hanumanhalli, respectively. Based on recent observations and collections from the type locality, we provide information about its distribution, threats, phylogenetic position and conservation status. We also provide an updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List categories.

  15. HOW DO WE IDENTIFY MICRONYCTERIS (SCHIZONYCETRIS SANBORNI SIMMONS, 1996 (CHIROPTERA, PHYLLOSTOMIDAE RELIABLY AND WHERE WE CAN FIND THIS SPECIES IN BRAZIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON FEIJÓ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronycteris is divided into four subgenera, Micronycteris, Leuconycteris, Xenoctenes, and Schizonycteris. The latter includes Micronycteris (Schizonycteris minuta, Micronycteris (S. schmidtorum, Micronycteris (S. sanborni and Micronycteris (S. yatesi. Little is known of the biology of M. (S. sanborni, which is widely distributed in the dry forests of South America, but is known from only few sites. The scarcity of records of M. sanborni appears to be at least partly related to the difficulty of differentiating this species from the other members of the subgenus Schizonycteris. The present study identifies the key traits that distinguish this species from other Schizonycteris, reviews the geographic distribution of the species, and presents some notes on breeding patterns. Six new localities are presented for M. sanborni, and are analyzed together with those available in the literature, providing new insights into ecological and zoogeographic patterns. A number of the diagnostic features established by Simmons (1996 in the description of M. sanborni proved to have little taxonomic value, especially for the differentiation of M. minuta and M. yatesi, which it closely resembles. The primary external difference is the pure white color of the ventral pelage and the proportion of the white base (2/3-4/5 of the dorsal hair in M. sanborni, in contrast with dirty white or pale gray and a much shorter white base of the dorsal hair in the other species. A number of cranial traits are also important. The distributional data now indicate that M. sanborni occurs mainly in mesic and open areas, including disturbed habitats, in the Caatinga scrublands and the Cerrado savannas of northeastern Brazil, especially in areas with rocky outcrops. Micronycteris sanborni appears to be monoestrous, with births coinciding with the rainy season.

  16. Datos biométricos de cinco especies de murciélagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) de la Región de Murcia (SE España)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisón Gil, Fulgencio

    2012-01-01

    En los murciélagos, las medidas alares son elementos clave para identificar las especies y tienen serias implicaciones en su ecología. No obstante, dichas medidas pueden sufrir variaciones geográficas en el rango de distribución de las especies y en otros casos, puede existir un marcado dimorfismo sexual. En este trabajo se aportan las medidas alares de 5 especies de murciélagos de la Región de Murcia, con un total de 312 individuos analizados. Los resultados confirman qu...

  17. NUEVOS REGISTROS Y COMENTARIOS SOBRE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DEL MURCIÉLAGO BLANCO COMÚN Diclidurus albus (CHIROPTERA: EMBALLONURIDAE) EN ECUADOR

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Moscoso; Diego G. Tirira

    2009-01-01

    Presentamos nuevos registros del murciélago blanco común (Diclidurus albus) en el Ecuador occidental. Se indican seis nuevas observaciones correspondientes a las provincias de Manabí (cinco registros) y Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas (uno); dos de estos registros constituyen los primeros en manglar para la especie y cinco de ellos son los más próximos al mar que se hayan documentado. La presente nota analiza la cronología de registros y discute sobre la distribución de la especie.

  18. The first record of Scotozous dormer Dobson, 1875 from Nepal with new locality records of Pipistrellus coromandra (Gray, 1838 and P. tennis (Temminck, 1840 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thapa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2008 and September 2010, faunal surveys were carried out by the first author in Paschim Kusaha V.D.C. (Village Development Committee in the buffer zone of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in south-eastern Nepal. The surveys resulted in the collection of three species of vespertilionid bats, which included the first record from Nepal of Dormer’s Pipistrelle Scotozous dormeri Dobson, 1875. A brief description is given of the external, cranial, and dental characters of each of the three species collected and the bacula of Pipistrellus coromandra and P. tenuis are illustrated.

  19. A new evolutionary lineage from West Africa amends phylogeny of the lesser mouse-tailed bat Rhinopoma hardwickii s.l. (Chiroptera: Rhinopomatidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vallo, Peter; Benda, P.; Uhrin, M.; Srinivasulu, C.; Reiter, A.; Červený, J.; Koubek, Petr

    Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2014 - (Bryja, J.; Drozd, P.). s. 212-213 ISBN 978-80-87189-16-0. [Zoologické dny. 06.02.2014-07.02.2014, Ostrava] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.35.0026 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  20. The diet of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Brünnich. 1782 (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae in Myanmar - conflicts with local people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sein Sein Win

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages.  It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves.  Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed.  Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers.  Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers. 

  1. Estrutura da comunidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Therys M. Sato; Maria Carolina de Carvalho-Ricardo; Wilson Uieda; Fernando C. Passos

    2015-01-01

    A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturn...

  2. Taxonomic revision of the genus Triaenops (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) with description of a new species from southern Arabia and definitions of a new genus and tribe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-45. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * morphological analysis * genetic analysis * cytochrome b * Middle East * Afrotropics * Madagascar Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2009

  3. A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided. PMID:17294915

  4. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus R Beguelini

    Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.

  5. Conservation of the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros Bechstein, 1800) (Mammalia : Chiroptera) in Belgium. A case study of feeding habitat requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Motte, G.; Libois, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the habitat use of the last important Belgian colony of Rhinolophus hipposideros, Bechstein, 1800, one of the most endangered bat species in Europe. During 71 evenings from April to August 1998, ultrasound detection was performed and, in late August, a female horseshoe bat was caught and fitted with a radio transmitter. The results showed that hedgerows and woodlands with bushes and coppice are key foraging habitats. They also highlight the importance of...

  6. Discovery of new colonies of the rare Wroughton’s Free-tailed Bat Otomops wroughtoni (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Molossidae in Meghalaya, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ruedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Otomops wroughtoni is an extremely rare molossid bat, known so far by a single breeding colony in southwestern India and two single individuals recorded in Meghalaya and Cambodia.  We report here the discovery of three new roosts located in large karstic caves of the Jaintia Hills, in southeastern Meghalaya.  Visual counts indicate that at least 90 individuals occupied these new roosts in February 2014, which doubles the known world population of this species.  The new populations of Wroughton’s Free-tailed Bats from the Jaintia Hills have considerable value for the conservation of this elusive species.  Although these bats are protected under national laws, their cave roosts and hunting habitats are subjected to severe and ongoing degradation.  A protection plan that would include more extensive surveys and a strict conservation of these caves should be implemented rapidly to mitigate these threats. 

  7. Preliminary analysis of population genetics of Myotis punicus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in the maltese islands: implications for its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Baron

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By combining cellulose acetate allozyme electrophoresis with a non-lethal sampling technique, it was possible to undertake a preliminary study of the population structure of Myotis punicus Felten, 1977 in the Maltese Islands. Since previous local ecological studies indicated declining numbers, it was considered important to undertake a combinatorial study including molecular genetic techniques. Twelve sites spread around the Maltese Islands were investigated and a total of 36 individuals found in four of these sites were sampled over a period of 6 months. The use of 4mm biopsy punches (a non-lethal method was adopted to obtain tissue for analysis. Morphometric data was also collected involving measurements of forearm length, ear length, tragus length, wing-span and weight. Comparison of average values for these measurements between the sexes (using chi-square at p = 0.05 gave an indication of sexual dimorphism, with females being the larger sex. A recapture rate of 19% was achieved in this study. Nei’s (1978 Genetic Identity (I showed values from 0.954 to 0.686, while Genetic Distance (D values ranged from 0 to 0.047. The results obtained in this study indicate that the population on the Maltese Islands is as yet a single panmictic unit, even though the overall FST value of 0.272 indicates that these sites are approaching the threshold beyond which there will be isolated mating systems.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-21.1-4453

  8. Effect of heat wave on the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae population from Purulia District of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Dey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of heat wave on the behavior and population count of Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus from a roosting colony occupying a Tamarind tree Tamarindus indica at Simla Village of Purulia District of West Bengal, India during the period from March 2010 to July 2010.  A total population comprising 250 individuals, recorded in March 2010, came down to 80 by June 2010.  Information obtained from local villagers affirmed that the roosting bat colony from the present study location was a century old and had no apparent conflicts with villagers; moreover, it was protected with reverence.  However, soaring day temperatures (with a maximum of up to 480C, recorded during May and June 2010 alongside drought were the major threats that the population faced and mass die-offs caused the population to decline during the hotter months.  Continuous fanning and belly-soaking were common behavioural features recorded during the summer months.  However, death rate due to hyperthermia and dehydration was uncommonly high. 

  9. O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelio Roberto dos Reis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.

  10. Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae = Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Anghinoni Bocchese

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Osmorcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceirodividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quandocomparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espéciefrugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmenteem áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experimentbeing divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The treatment with pH = 3 wasstatistically the same as the group without treatment and the as experimental group with the seeds taken of the excrements, indicating an approximated value to the stomach acids of this frugivorous species. Artibeus lituratus can be considered a germination velocity inducer for seeds of this plant species, showing the ecological importance of these frugivorous bats in the natural environment support in areas of Brazilian savannas (Cerrado.

  11. Ocorrência de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Records of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from the cerrado of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

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    Gustavo Graciolli

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Nycteribiidae and eigth species of Streblidae were collected from Brasília. Basilia anceps Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; B. hughscotti Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; Megistopoda aranea (Coquillet, 1899; M. proxima (Séguy, 1926 and Neotrichobius delicatus (Machado-Allison, 1966 are collected for the first time at the Federal District.

  12. Ocorrência de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae) de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera) no cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Records of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from the cerrado of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Graciolli; Ludmilla S. Aguiar

    2002-01-01

    Two species of Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Nycteribiidae) and eigth species of Streblidae were collected from Brasília. Basilia anceps Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; B. hughscotti Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; Megistopoda aranea (Coquillet, 1899); M. proxima (Séguy, 1926) and Neotrichobius delicatus (Machado-Allison, 1966) are collected for the first time at the Federal District.

  13. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in Guaratuba Bay.

  14. 中国大陆菊头蝠科一新纪录——单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros,Andersen 1905 Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)%New record of Formosan lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus monoceros Andersen 1905 Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) in Mainland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江; 杨天友

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2008年7月至2009年2月在贵州省松桃县进行翼手目动物生物多样性研究中,于平头乡埁字村仙人洞(北纬28°01'20.5",东经109°05'22.8",海拔582 m),获得一号菊头蝠标本,经鉴定为单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros Andersen,1905).

  15. Aspectos da história natural de Mimon bennettii (Gray na Escarpa Devoniana, Estado do Paraná, Brasil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Notes on the natural history of Mimon bennettii (Gray in the Devonian Scarp, State of Paraná, Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

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    João M. D. Miranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de sua ampla distribuição, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 é uma espécie pouco conhecida. Cinco indivíduos foram capturados com redes de neblina no Distrito do Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W e quatro no Distrito de São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W ambos no Município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. As áreas encontram-se nos domínios da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, e na região da Escarpa Devoniana. Além do registro de dois novos pontos de ocorrência de uma espécie pouco amostrada no Estado, este trabalho também apresenta alguns dados sobre a biologia reprodutiva e utilização de abrigo diurno por M. bennettii.Despite its broad geographical distribution, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 is a poorly studied species. Five individuals were captured using mist nets in the District of Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W and four in the District of São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W, both in the Municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. These areas are located within the domain of the Araucaria Pine Forest, in the region of the Devonian Scarp. In addition to the record of two new points of occurrence of this poorly know species in the State of Paraná, this study also reports on data on reproductive biology and use of daily roost by M. bennettii.

  16. Inventários biológicos rápidos de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em três unidades de conservação do Amapá, Brasil Rapid biological surveys of bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera in three conservation units in Amapá, Brazil

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    Ana C. M. Martins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com alta diversidade biológica e elevado grau de preservação, a porção norte da Bacia Amazônica, e em especial o Estado do Amapá, são ainda relativamente pouco conhecidos em relação à sua fauna e flora. Estudos apontam que o Amapá possui regiões classificadas como de alta ou muito alta importância para a realização de inventários de fauna na Amazônia Brasileira, havendo ainda grandes lacunas na realização destas amostragens. De forma a suprir parte destas necessidades, três das principais unidades de conservação do Estado, o Parque Nacional Montanhas do Tumucumaque, a Floresta Nacional do Amapá, e a Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Rio Iratapuru, foram recentemente amostrados para diferentes grupos biológicos. São apresentados aqui os resultados de inventários de morcegos provenientes de quatro expedições a estas unidades. Após um esforço de 1730,5 rede.horas, quatro inventários registraram 858 capturas, de 51 espécies pertencentes a 36 gêneros e seis famílias. Destas, 25 espécies representam primeiras ocorrências para o Estado, elevando-se para 73 o número de espécies de morcegos registradas no Amapá.With a high biological diversity and good status of preservation, the northern part of the Amazon Basin, and specially the State of Amapá, have their fauna and flora poorly studied. Studies pointed that Amapá has several areas classified as highest priority for faunal inventories in the Amazon Basin, but even that few studies have been conducted. In order to fulfill part of these knowledge gaps, three of the most important conservation units in the State, namely the Tumucumaque Mountains National Park, the Amapá National Forest and the Rio Iratapuru Sustainable Development Reserve, were studied for different biological groups. The results of four bat surveys in these conservation units are presented here. With a sampling effort of 1730.5 mistnet.hours, 858 bats were recorded, belonging to 51 species, 36 genus and six families. At least 25 of these species are first records for the State, elevating to 73 the number of bat species already recorded in Amapá.

  17. Morcegos da região sul do Brasil: análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies, novos registros e atualizações nomenclaturais (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from southern Brazil: comparative analysis of species richness, new records and nomenclatural update (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Fernando C. Passos

    Full Text Available Uma análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies de morcegos da Região Sul do Brasil é apresentada, assim como análises de similaridades entre estados. O estado do Paraná apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos, com 64 espécies, seguido por Santa Catarina com 46 e pelo Rio Grande do Sul com 40. A família Phyllostomidae influencia fortemente este padrão de riqueza. As distribuições geográficas de Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1851 e Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823 são ampliadas até o Paraná, estabelecendo um novo limite sul de distribuição dessas espécies e da família Thyropteridae. Além disso, Myotis dinellii Thomas, 1902 foi registrado pela primeira vez no Brasil, em Santa Catarina e no Rio Grande do Sul, estabelecendo um novo limite leste para sua distribuição. Ainda, é ampliada a distribuição de Eptesicus taddeii Miranda, Bernardi & Passos, 2006 a partir de seu primeiro registro no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Uma lista atualizada dos morcegos dos estados sul-brasileiros é apresentada bem como algumas adequações nomenclaturais. É enfatizada a importância do emprego de maiores esforços de campo para levantamentos da quiropterofauna, que assim podem contribuir para medidas de conservação embasadas em inventariamentos e coleções científicas representativas.A comparative analysis of the patterns of bat species richness in southern Brazil is presented, as well as similarity analyses among states. The highest richness of bat species is found in the state of Paraná, with 64 species, followed by Santa Catarina with 46, and Rio Grande do Sul, with 40. The family Phyllostomidae plays an important role in determining this pattern. The geographical distributions of Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1851 and Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823 are expanded to the state of Paraná, establishing a new southern limit for these species and for Thyropteridae. In addition Myotis dinellii Thomas, 1901 is first recorded in Brazil, in Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, establishing a new eastern limit for this species. The distribution of Eptesicus taddeii Miranda, Bernardi & Passos, 2006 is extended by a new record in Rio Grande do Sul. An updated list of bats for the southern Brazilian states is presented with few nomenclatural adjustments. The importance of more intensive field efforts to survey the chiropterofauna is highlighted as a way to improve conservation efforts based on representative surveys and scientific collections.

  18. A dieta dos morcegos frugívoros (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) de um pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual do sul do Brasil The diet of fruit-eating bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in a small Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnant in south Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Bos Mikich

    2002-01-01

    The diet of some leaf-nosed frugivorous bats - Artibeus Leach, 1821, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) and Sturnira lilium (e. Geoffroy, 1810) - was studied for nine consecutive months through faecal analysis of individuais captured with mist-nets in a small forest remnant of Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis revealed that Artibeus spp. exhibited preference for fruits of Ficus spp. and Carollia perspicillata for those of Piper spp., which is in accordance with the results of previous s...

  19. A dieta dos morcegos frugívoros (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae de um pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual do sul do Brasil The diet of fruit-eating bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in a small Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnant in south Brazil

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    Sandra Bos Mikich

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some leaf-nosed frugivorous bats - Artibeus Leach, 1821, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (e. Geoffroy, 1810 - was studied for nine consecutive months through faecal analysis of individuais captured with mist-nets in a small forest remnant of Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis revealed that Artibeus spp. exhibited preference for fruits of Ficus spp. and Carollia perspicillata for those of Piper spp., which is in accordance with the results of previous studies. But contrary to what was expected, fruit of Solanum spp. were not found for the diet of Sturnira lilium in spite of their high availabilily (16 species in the study area and their known relationship with this bat genus. The species of consumed fruit belonged to several plant life forms (trees, bushes, and lianas and occurred in several habitais. This result emphasizes the importance of keeping habitat diversity, especially in small isolated reserves. Most consumed fruits were green, in agreement with the chiropterochoric syndrome, but ali seeds were small due to limitations of the sampling method. Fruit species abundance in the study area did not seem to have influenced their consumption, but intra-specific fruit availability did so, since most fruits were consumed within their intra-annual peak of availability.

  20. Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates

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    Ana M. Rui

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats, the prevalence and mean intensity of fly infestation were determined during the different seasons of the year and in relation to the sex and age of their hosts. From four species of bats (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810, were collected 118 specimens of bat flies belonging to seven species (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 and Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Low infestation rates were found in A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus and S. lilium and there were a tendency for the bats to be more parasited in summer and autumn, probably related to the seasonal temperatures in the region studied because such temperatures affect the reproductive and mortality rates of the ectoparasites. For A. lituratus, the age or sex of the host did not affect the infestation rates by P. longicrus. Although the age or sex of S. lilium did not, in general, affect the rate of infestation by M. proxima, juvenile S. lilium appeared to be more frequently parasitized by M. proxima than did adult bats. The data indicate that there are no behavioral differences linked to the age and sex of the species of phyllostomid bats studied which favor or disfavor infestation by Streblidae.

  1. Ejemplares tipo de mamíferos en colecciones cubanas

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos García, Ignacio; Borroto Páez, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Se brinda información sobre los ejemplares tipo (50 holotipos y sus paratipos) de mamíferos (Xenarthra, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Primates, Carnivora, Sirenia y Rodentia) depositados en siete colecciones cubanas. En las fichas de los holotipos se incluye la información de la descripción original y además se hacen actualizaciones y correcciones sobre este material. Information on the type specimens (50 holotypes and their paratypes) of mammals (Xenarthra, Insectivora, Chiroptera, Primates, C...

  2. 亚洲南部球果蝠Sphaerias blanfordi(Thomas,1891)的亚种分化%Subspecies differentiation for Blanford's fruit bat,Sphaerias blanfordi(Pteropodidae,Chiroptera)in southern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆; 蒋学龙; 王应祥

    2008-01-01

    球果蝠Sphaerias blanfordi(Thomas,1891)是亚洲南部喜马拉雅-印度支那地区的特有种,甚为罕见而少有报道.曾被认为是单型种,几乎无雄性特征的描述.蔡桂全和张遁治(1980)根据采自西藏东南部墨脱的2只雄性标本订了一亚种一墨脱亚种Sphaerias blanfordi motuoensis,其主要特征是颈下侧有一对灰黄色的圆形毛斑.中国科学院昆明动物研究所先后在云南西北部高黎贡山地区采获25号标本(9♂♂,16♀♀),发现球果蝠两性在外形上有明显的性别差异,雄性的颈下侧有一对圆形、灰黄色的刷状毛斑,但雌性均无;对比墨脱标本,认为墨脱亚种的鉴别特征不可靠,亚种不能成立.Lunde(2003)曾报道采自越南北部Mt.Tay Con Linh Ⅱ地区的43号标本,其前臂长和上犬齿外宽明显与印度、缅甸和云南西北部高黎贡山地区的标本不同,可能是真正的地理亚种.

  3. К ФАУНЕ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (CHIROPTERA) ТАМБОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Орлов, Максим; Лада, Георгий

    2013-01-01

    Приводятся новые оригинальные сведения о видовом составе и распространении рукокрылых Тамбовской области, полученные в результате полевых исследований 2009–2010 гг. Указаны первые конкретные места находок ночницы Наттерера ( Myotis nattereri ), малой вечерницы ( Nyctalus leisleri ) и нетопыря-карлика ( Pipistrellus pipistrellus ) в регионе, а также новые точки обитания других видов....

  4. Karyotypic evolution in family Hipposideridae(Chiroptera,Mammalia)revealed by comparative chromosome painting,G-and C-banding%蹄蝠科的核型进化:比较染色体涂色、G带和C带分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀光; 王金焕; 苏伟婷; 王应祥; 杨凤堂; 佴文惠

    2010-01-01

    与其姐妹科(菊头蝠科)相比,蹄蝠科的细胞遗传学研究较少.迄今为止,仅少数蹄蝠科几个物种有高分辨率的G带核型报道,且有关该科核型进化的大多数结论都是基于常规Giemsa染色研究而得.该研究利用三叶小蹄蝠的染色体特异探针,通过比较染色体涂色、G和C显带,建立了5种蹄蝠的染色体同源性图谱,并探讨了它们同源染色体间的G和C带异同.结果表明:罗伯逊易位、臂内倒位以及异染色质的扩增可能是蹄蝠科物种核型进化的主要机制.通过对这5种蹄蝠物种及其外群物种之间的同源染色体片段的比较分析,作者推测蹄蝠科的祖先核型并不像先前认为的全由端着丝粒染色体组成,而应该含有中着丝粒染色体.

  5. Analysis of environmental factors on geographical distribution of Chinese chiroptera%中国翼手目地理分布的环境因子影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉春; 蒙以航; 张利存; 叶青

    2005-01-01

    利用地理信息系统提取了中国翼手目90个物种已知地理分布点的环境因子数据,并利用主成分分析和逐步回归分析研究了这些环境因子对中国翼手目动物地理分布和种数密度分布的影响程度.结果表明,按其影响程度大小,影响中国翼手目动物地理分布的连续型环境因子依次为年平均气温、大于零度日数、一月份平均气温、无霜期日数、年降雨量、年平均相对湿度、七月份平均气温、海拔高度和年日照时数,其中年日照时数和海拔高度为负影响;影响翼手目种数密度分布的决定环境因子是年降雨量,但年平均气温也有明显作用.作者认为,气候因子影响翼手目动物地理分布的机制是限制性因子的作用,主要受冬眠和活动及摄食时间长短的限制,而种数密度分布则决定于环境资源的丰富度,即主要受到由降雨量决定的食物种类多少的影响.另外,对类别环境因子的研究表明:植被类型对翼手目的种数分布没有明显影响;具有多洞穴特点的喀斯特和火山熔岩地貌具有较多的翼手目种类,但红层地貌由于分布于南方和分散分布的特点而具有最高的翼手目种数密度[动物学报 51(3):413-422,2005].

  6. 广东省大陆翼手目动物区系与地理区划%A Study on the Fauna and Geographic Distribution of Chiroptera in Continent of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐剑; 邹佩贞; 温彩燕; 陈建荣; 吴毅

    2002-01-01

    广东省大陆翼手目动物共有37种,隶属6科15属,根据中国动物地理区划,按照模糊聚类分析初步划分大陆翼手目动物为四个地理省,即粤北山地省、粤东低山丘陵省、粤西山地丘陵省、沿海台地平原省,翼手目物种分布表现了明显的热带--亚热带过渡性,大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis)、水鼠耳蝠(Myotis daubentoni)为广东省新纪录种.

  7. Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea sobre morcegos filostomídeos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em cavernas do Distrito Federal Brasil Streblid batflies (Diptera, Streblidae on phyllostomid bats from eaves in Distrito Federal Brazil

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    Gustavo Graciolli

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of streblid batflies on phyllostomid bats was carried out from caves in Distrito Federal, Brazil during 1997 and 1998. Thirteen species were found on eight species of bats. Two species of batflies, Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel, 1966 and T. propinquus Wenzel, 1976, are new records for Brazil.

  8. Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil

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    Fernando Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.

  9. TWO SPECIES OF BATS (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE) NEWLY RECORDED FROM NAN AO ISLAND, GUANGDONG%广东省南澳岛2种蝙蝠的首次发现及描述

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    LAZELL James; 卢文华; 刘少英; 庆宁

    2008-01-01

    南澳岛位于我国广东省东缘闽粤交界处,北回归线横贯全岛.南澳岛的主体自侏罗纪起就一直出露于海平面之上,因此在生物地理和生态研究中具有其特殊的价值.本文首次报道了2种南澳的蝙蝠,常见的东亚伏翼Pipistrellus abramus和不常见的灰伏翼P. (Hypsuga) pulveratus,进行了形态描述和分布区系的分析.

  10. 海南、贵州和四川三省翼手类新纪录——褐扁颅蝠%New record of Tylonycteris robustula(Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)from Hainan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礼标; 朱光剑; 于冬梅; 叶建平; 张伟; 洪体玉; 谭敏

    2008-01-01

    上世纪90年代之后国内对翼手目动物的调查和研究取得较为突出的成就,发现3种蝙蝠新种(Zhanget al.,2007;Fenget al.,2008;Wuetal.,2008),5种中国新纪录(何晓瑞和杨白仑,1991;赵辉华等,2002;吴毅等,2004;张礼标等,2004。2005;张劲硕等,2005;冯庆等,2006),

  11. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil

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    João Eduardo Cavalcanti Brito

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redesneblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus blossevillii totaling 193 specimens. One Molossus rufus individual was found dead on the ground. Fruits pertaining to the families Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. and Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum and Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago and Piper sp. and Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya and Cecropia sp. made part of the diet of the captured bat species.

  12. 普通长翼蝠食性结构及其回声定位与体型特征%Dietary composition, echolocation pulses and morphological measurements of the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus (Chiroptera: Vespertilioninae)

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    胡开良; 韦力; 朱滕滕; 王绪中; 张礼标

    2011-01-01

    在普通长翼蝠(Miniopterus fuliginosus)的捕食区内用灯诱法和网捕法调查潜在食物(昆虫)种类; 用粪便分析法鉴定普通长翼蝠的食物组成,发现其主要捕食体型较大的鳞翅目和鞘翅目昆虫,体积百分比分别为55%和38%.普通长翼蝠具有相对狭长的翼,翼展比为6.94 ± 0.13;翼载为(9.85 ± 0.83)N/m2,相对较大.飞行状态下普通长翼蝠的回声定位叫声为调频下扫型,声脉冲时程为(1.45 ± 0.06)ms,脉冲间隔为(63.08 ± 21.55)ms,主频较低,为(44.50 ± 2.26)kHz.研究表明,普通长翼蝠的形态特征和回声定位特征与其捕食行为有着密切的联系.%We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%,by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58 ± 0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85 ± 0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M.fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45 ± 0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08 ± 21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50 ± 2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.

  13. Cluster analysis on the distribution patterns of Chiroptera in Hainan island%海南岛翼手类地理分布格局的聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德伟; 尹锋; 曾玉; 张园; 张信文

    2010-01-01

    2007年7月~2008年7月,对海南岛翼手类动物进行了物种多样性调查.按照和Simmons的分类系统进行分类,结合考察标本记录,整理调查结果和文献资料.统计海南岛翼手类动物计37种,隶属于2亚目7科(包括采集标本,计16种,隶属于2亚目4科).依据分布型对其组成成分进行分析,结果表明海南岛翼手类动物东洋界种类相对较多,反映出强烈的华南区的特征;岛屿的影响表现在亚种分化和缺乏某些大陆类群.依物种组成时分布区进行聚类分析,结果呈现明显的四阶现象.根据物种多样性组成和聚类分析结果,可以认为以乐东、东方和陵水为主要区域范围的尖峰岭和吊罗山两大山系是目前统计海南岛翼手类物种分布的热点区.

  14. A New Record of the Chiroptera in Shandong Province——Tadarida teniotis%山东省翼手目一新纪录——宽耳犬吻蝠

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    由玉岩; 刘森; 王磊; 江廷磊; 冯江

    2009-01-01

    在山东省济南市长清区张夏镇发现宽耳犬吻蝠(Tadarida teniotis).本文详细描述了5只蝙蝠的形态特征,并与安徽、台湾、非洲和云南样本的体型及头骨参数进行了比较.宽耳犬吻蝠为山东省新纪录.

  15. 海南岛马鞍岭火山口地区翼手目物种多样性%Species Diversity of Chiroptera in Ma'anling Volcano Area, Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉春; 陈忠; 龙育儒; 周锋; 钟友仁

    2006-01-01

    马鞍岭火山口为海南岛的重要农业区和旅游地,为了解该地区的动物资源,2004年我们对该地区的翼手目种类进行了调查.结果显示,马鞍岭火山口地区共有翼手目动物10种,隶属4科7属,占海南岛已知翼手目种类(31种)的32.3%,具有较高的翼手目物种多样性,其香农-维纳指数为2.734、均匀性指数为0.823、辛普森指数为0.817.本文还分析了马鞍岭火山口地区翼手目的区系特点,并对其物种的多样性和分布特征进行了讨论.

  16. The status quo and prospect of application for phallic morphology on Chiroptera taxonomy%阴茎形态学在翼手目分类问题上的应用现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文华; 吴毅; 陈忠; 李玉春

    2007-01-01

    在概述中国蝙蝠的分类状况和存在的问题的基础上,对蝙蝠阴茎形态学特别是阴茎骨形态学应用于哺乳动物分类的研究现状进行了分析,介绍了常用的阴茎形态研究方法,提出使用阴茎形态学指标进一步完善中国蝙蝠分类特别是种级水平的分类.

  17. The Chiroptera Species Diversity in Eastern of Songtao,Guizhou Province%贵州省松桃县东部地区翼手目物种多样性

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    周江; 杨天友

    2010-01-01

    2008年7月至2009年2月,对贵州省松桃县东部地区的14个镇(乡)47洞穴翼手目的种类、数量、分布及生境进行调查研究.通过标本的采集、鉴定,确定该地区共有翼手目动物3科14种,其中2种为待定种;爪哇伏翼(Pipistrellus javanicus)、棒茎伏翼(P.paterculus)、单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros)3种在贵州省首次发现,其中单角菊头蝠是在中国大陆首次发现.另外,还对该地区蝙蝠的冬眠行为、对冬眠地的选择以及栖息环境的受胁现状进行了初步调查,发现不同种类蝙蝠的冬眠行为是不一样的;同时发现,洞外捕食生境的不同会造成洞穴内分布翼手目种类的不同.

  18. Morcegos do Estado do Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera: riqueza de espécies, distribuição e síntese do conhecimento atual

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    Michel Miretzki

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo sintetiza o conhecimento atual sobre a riqueza e distribuição das espécies de morcegos ocorrentes no Estado do Paraná, Brazil, bem como, determina áreas prioritárias para novos inventários. Os dados analisados foram obtidos da coleção do Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia - MHNCI (em Curitiba e de um extenso levantamento bibliográfico. Foram registradas 53 espécies de cinco famílias: Phyllostomidae apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies (25; 47% do total, seguida por Molossidae (13; 24%, Vespertilionidae (12; 22%, Noctilionidae (2; 4% e Emballonuridae (1; 2,5%. Os resultados indicaram a ocorrência de apenas 55% das espécies do Bioma Floresta Atlântica e o predomínio relativo de vespertilionídeos e molossídeos sobre os filostomídeos. Estes resultados revelam uma fauna empobrecida em número de espécies e ressaltam o caráter subtropical da região ocupada pelo Paraná. A distribuição das espécies não se mostra homogênea, ocorrendo diferenças significativas entre as composições de espécies nas três principais formações florestais do Estado. A Floresta Estacional Semidecidual destaca-se pela maior riqueza de espécies (39; 74% e o maior número de exclusivas (10. Em seguida esta a Floresta Ombrófila Mista ou Floresta com Araucária (36; 68% sendo seis exclusivas e, por fim, a Floresta Ombrófila Densa (= Floresta Atlântica s.s. com 33 espécies (62% e somente três exclusivas. O grau de conhecimento foi estimado a partir do Método dos Quadrantes em um gradil de 30' latitude x 30' de longitude, obtendo-se 93 quadrículas. Desse total, 53% (49 quadrículas não apresentaram nenhuma ocorrência de morcegos e a média de espécies por quadrícula foi de 3,4, riqueza muito abaixo da considerada como satisfatória para o Estado, que é de 24 espécies. Somente três quadrículas ultrapassaram e estimativa satisfatória: duas na região leste (Curitiba e uma ao norte (Londrina. Aproximadamente 2/3 do território paranaense foi considerado como insuficientemente conhecido e classificado como "áreas de altíssima prioridade" para novos levantamentos, por apresentar uma fauna inferior a 11 espécies.This study is a summary of the present knowledge on the existence and distribution of the bat species occurring in the State of Paraná, Brazil, identifying areas for additional surveys. The analysed data was obtained from the collection belonging to the Capão da Imbuia Natural History Museum (Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, MHNCI in Curitiba, and from a bibliographical update. Fifty-three species in 5 families were identified the Phyllostomidae present the highest abundance of species (25; 47% in total followed by the Molossidae (13; 24%, Vespertilionidae (12; 23%, Noctilionidae (2; 4%, and Emballonuridae (1; 2%. The results indicate that only 55% of the species belong to the Biome of the Atlantic Forest and that there is a relative predominance of vespertilionids and molossids over phyllostomids. These results reveal an impoverished fauna confirming the subtropical character of the Paraná region. The distribution of the species is irregular. Significant differences occur between the species compositions in the three principal forest formations of Paraná. The Semideciduous seazonal Forest contains the highest abundance (39; 74% and the highest number of exclusive species (10. It is followed by the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest or Araucaria Forest (36; 68%, with 6 exclusive species, and finally by the Dense Ombrophylous Forest (= Atlantic Forest sensu stricto with 33 species (62% of which only 3 are exclusive. The degree of knowledge was estimated with the Method of Squares. The area was subdivided using a grid drawn at intervals of 30' longitude and 30' latitude, forming 93 small squares. Of these, 53% (49 small squares do not contain any bats and the average per square is 3.4 species, much less than the 24 species that would be considered satisfactory for Paraná. Only three small squares reach this amount: two surveys done in the eastern (Curitiba and one in the northern (Londrina regions. Approximately two-third of the territory of Paraná can be considered poorly explored and must be classified as areas requiring additional surveys, since only 11 bat species have been identified so far.

  19. The first record of Scotozous dormer Dobson, 1875 from Nepal with new locality records of Pipistrellus coromandra (Gray, 1838) and P. tennis (Temminck, 1840) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

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    Thapa, S; Subedi, P.; N. B. Singh; M.J. Pearch

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2008 and September 2010, faunal surveys were carried out by the first author in Paschim Kusaha V.D.C. (Village Development Committee) in the buffer zone of Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve in south-eastern Nepal. The surveys resulted in the collection of three species of vespertilionid bats, which included the first record from Nepal of Dormer’s Pipistrelle Scotozous dormeri Dobson, 1875. A brief description is given of the external, cranial, and dental characters of each of t...

  20. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

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    Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar; Yasmine Antonini

    2008-01-01

    We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847) by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence), Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7), Diptera, Hemip...

  1. Diet of two sympatric insectivores bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in the Cerrado of Central Brazil Dieta de duas espécies simpátricas de morcegos insetívoros no Cerrado do Brasil Central

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    Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das famílias Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae e Saturniidae confirma o potencial dos morcegos como agentes de controle biológicos de pragas em ecossistemas agrícolas.

  2. Control of the urban pigeon Columba livia population and the preservation of common swift Apus apus and bats Chiroptera during the restoration of the Ghirlandina tower in the city of Modena (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferri, M.; Ferraresi, M.; Gelati, A.; Zannetti, G.; Domenichini, A.; Ravizza, L.; Cadignani, R.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the excessive abundance of the urban pigeon Columba livia population in the city of Modena has been solved thanks to the cooperation between the Modena Municipal authority and the Local Veterinary Service (AUSL). They have followed an integrated program that contains the following points: use of an oral veterinary licensed drug (Ovistop®, ACME, 1997-2002) in order to limit the pigeons fertility; use of architectural devices in order to limit the access of the pigeons in private...

  3. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat Plecotus austriacus (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (Plecotus auritus e Orecchione meridionale (Plecotus austriacus nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di Plecotus auritus e P. austriacus. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno P. auritus è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. P. austriacus è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  4. Los murciélagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) del término municipal de Yecla (Región de Murcia, SE España): distribución y estado de conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Óscar; Castaño, Julián; Carpena, Francisco José; Ortuño, Antinio; Rico, Fernando; Sánchez, Inmaculada; Lisón Gil, Fulgencio

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se aportan 42 citas (en cuadrículas UTM de 10x10 km) de quirópteros para el municipio de Yecla (SE España). Se han identificado 14 especies de murciélagos y se amplía la distribución de algunas especies raras. Los muestreos se realizaron entre 2011-2014 empleando diferentes metodologías. En total se realizaron 19 visitas a refugios potenciales, 59 puntos de escucha y 5 sesiones de fototrampeo. Las especies con mayor número de citas son Pipistrellus pipistr...

  5. Relación de los ensambles de murciélagos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) y el uso de la tierra en el noreste de la región pampeana de Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La transformación de los ecosistemas es preocupante ya que la existencia del hombre como especie depende de los servicios que éstos nos brindan. Existe una estrecha relación entre la biodiversidad y la provisión de servicios ecosistémicos, por lo tanto el cambio en la diversidad biológica, indicativo del grado de impacto de las actividades humanas en los ecosistemas, repercute directamente en los servicios. Las variaciones de los ensambles de murciélagos pueden ser utilizadas como indicadores...

  6. Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879 Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristine Vicente

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Os morcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceiro dividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quando comparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espécie frugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmente em áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experiment being divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The treatment with pH = 3 was statistically the same as the group without treatment and the as experimental group with the seeds taken of the excrements, indicating an approximated value to the stomach acids of this frugivorous species. Artibeus lituratus can be considered a germination velocity inducer for seeds of this plant species, showing the ecological importance of these frugivorous bats in the natural environment support in areas of Brazilian savannas (Cerrado.

  7. Abrigos diurnos, composição de colônias, dimorfismo sexual e reprodução do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Diurnal roosts, colony composition, sexual size dimorphism and reproduction of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo Novaes Gomes; Wilson Uieda

    2004-01-01

    Embora informações acerca da composição das colônias do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810) sejam importantes para o controle de suas populações, poucos estudos a esse respeito foram desenvolvidos no Brasil. São apresentadas aqui informações obtidas de colônias de D. rotundus encontradas em 12 abrigos diurnos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1999 e 2000. Em geral, os abrigos naturais e artificiais não possuíam grandes dimensões e estruturalmente variaram entre si. O for...

  8. Selection of buildings as maternity roosts by greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berková, Hana; Pokorný, M.; Zukal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2014), s. 1011-1017. ISSN 0022-2372 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * habitat * linear landscape elements * maternity roosts * Moravian Karst * Myotis myotis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2014

  9. Wax Ester Analysis of Bats Suffering from White Nose Syndrome in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Viden, I.; Nováková, Alena; Bandouchová, H.; Sigler, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 7 (2015), s. 633-645. ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chiroptera * High-resolution atmospheric pressure chemical ionization analysis * Pseudogymnoascus destructans Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2014

  10. New discoveries on the ecology and echolocation of the heart-nosed bat Cardioderma cor with a contribution to the phylogeny of Megadermatidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňuch, P.; Aghová, Tatiana; Meheretu, Y.; Šumbera, R.; Bryja, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2015), s. 53-57. ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : acoustics * Chiroptera * eastern Africa * evolutionary radiation * roosts Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.612, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15627020.2015.1021711

  11. Calculation of Head Related Transfer Functions of bats using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads...

  12. The oldest African bat from the early Eocene of El Kohol (Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha

    2011-05-01

    The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.

  13. Atlas van de Nederlandse vleermuizen 1970-1984, alsmede een vergelijking met vroegere gegevens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    The present distribution of bats (Chiroptera) in The Netherlands is documented and discussed. For each species a map is given illustrating the distribution before and after 1970. Where available, data are presented on migration, population trends, nursing colonies, roosts and hibernation sites, repr

  14. Bats as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution: history and prospect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.; Bandouchová, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2015), s. 220-227. ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bioaccumulation * Chiroptera * Heavy metals * Metalloids * Review Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.478, year: 2014

  15. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turner, G. G.; Meteyer, C. U.; Barton, H.; Gumbs, J. F.; Reeder, D. M.; Overton, B.; Bandouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2014), s. 566-573. ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * Chiroptera * dermatomycosis * fungal infection * ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2014

  16. Molecular Phylogenetcs among Six Species of Bats ( Chiroptera: Vespertilionoidae)Based on Partial mtCOI DNA Sequences%基于部分线粒体细胞色素氧化酶亚基Ⅰ(mtCOI)DNA 序列的6种蝙蝠(翼手目:蝙蝠科)的分子系统进化关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何淑艳; 敖磊; 李娜; 谷晓明

    2007-01-01

    对贵州5种蝙蝠科蝙蝠的部分线粒体细胞色素氧化酶亚基Ⅰ DNA序列进行了测定,并结合从Genbank获得的爪哇伏翼的相应序列,以Pteropus dasymallus,P.scapulatus,Rousettus aegyptiacus为外群,运用贝叶斯法(Bayesian),最大似然法(Maximum Likelihood,ML)分析了这6种蝙蝠科蝙蝠的分子系统进化关系.结果表明:在贝叶斯,ML树中,这6种蝙蝠科的蝙蝠可分为3个分支:亚洲长翼蝠是第1个独立出来的分支;白腹管鼻蝠是继亚洲长翼蝠之后第2个分离出来的分支;第3个分支又分为两支,一支由大鼠耳蝠和小鼠耳蝠组成,另一支由南蝠和爪哇伏翼组成,支持将这4种蝙蝠同归于蝙蝠亚科的结论,从一定程度上否定了鼠耳蝠属和管鼻蝠亚科之间的姐妹类群关系,也不支持将鼠耳属提升为亚科.

  17. 海南属种新纪录——中华山蝠的回声定位信号、栖息地及序列分析%Echolocation Call, Roost and ND 1 Sequence Analysis of New Record of Nyctalus plancyi (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) on Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光剑; 韩乃坚; 洪体玉; 谭敏; 于冬梅; 张礼标

    2008-01-01

    2007年11月,在海南岛脊椎动物调查过程中,于南部陵水黎族自治县一处电线杆内捕到1只雄性蝙蝠标本,通过形态特征和线粒体DNA ND1基因序列鉴定,确认为蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae)山蝠属(Nyctalus)的中华山蝠(N.plancyi),该属、该种均为海南省翼手目新纪录.其主频为33-34kHz,脉冲持续1.3-1.9ms;栖息于电线杆内;与四川中华山蝠DQ435074的ND1一致度达到99%.

  18. Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351 Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Gazarini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redes-neblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp. , Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007 to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus blossevillii totaling 193 specimens. One Molossus rufus individual was found dead on the ground. Fruits pertaining to the families Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. and Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum and Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago and Piper sp. and Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya and Cecropia sp. made part of the diet of the captured bat species.

  19. Reproductive seasonality of the Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus) at the northern limits of its distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lučan, R. K.; Bartonička, T.; Benda, P.; Bilgin, R.; Jedlička, Petr; Nicolaou, H.; Reiter, A.; Shohdi, W. M.; Šálek, Martin; Řeřucha, Šimon; Uhrin, M.; Abi-Said, M.; Horáček, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2014), s. 1036-1042. ISSN 0022-2372 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601110905; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0054; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * desert * Mediterranean * phenology * Pteropodidae * reproduction * reproductive pattern Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2014

  20. Zoonotisches Potenzial neu entdeckter Orthohepadnaviren aus Fledermäusen und die Charakterisierung der Virus-Rezeptor Interaktionen des Hepatitis B Virus

    OpenAIRE

    König, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Das Hepatitis-B-Virus (HBV) des Menschen ist der Erreger der Hepatitis B und ein Vertreter der viralen Familie der Hepadnaviridae, die sich durch einen engen Wirts- und Organtropismus auszeichnet. Die Avihepadnaviren infizieren jeweils einzelne Vogelarten, während die Orthohepadnaviren ihre Wirte innerhalb der Säugetiere haben. Erst 2013 wurden weitere Orthohepadnavirusarten entdeckt, nun überraschenderweise in verschiedenen Spezies der Säugetierordnung Chiroptera (Fledertiere). Dazu gehören ...

  1. Characterizing Pneumocystis in the Lungs of Bats: Understanding Pneumocystis Evolution and the Spread of Pneumocystis Organisms in Mammal Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Haroon; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile-Marie; Derouiche, Sandra; Taylor, Maria-Lucia; Pottier, Muriel; Carreto-Binaghi, Laura-Helena; González-González, Antonio E.; Courpon, Aurore; Barriel, Véronique; Guillot, Jacques; Chabé, Magali; Suarez-Alvarez, Roberto O.; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Bats belong to a wide variety of species and occupy diversified habitats, from cities to the countryside. Their different diets (i.e., nectarivore, frugivore, insectivore, hematophage) lead Chiroptera to colonize a range of ecological niches. These flying mammals exert an undisputable impact on both ecosystems and circulation of pathogens that they harbor. Pneumocystis species are recognized as major opportunistic fungal pathogens which cause life-threatening pneumonia in severely immunocompr...

  2. Adaptive Evolution of the Myo6 Gene in Old World Fruit Bats (Family: Pteropodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specializ...

  3. Phylogenetic Positions of Insectivora in Eutheria Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit II Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Onuma, Michiko; Kusakabe, Tadashi; Kusakabe, Shinichi

    1998-01-01

    For the elucidation of the phylogenetic position of insectivora in eutheria, we have sequenced the cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene of mitochondria for three insectivoran species [musk shrew (Suncus murinus), shrew mole (Urotrichus talpoides), Japanese mole (Mogera wogura)] and analyzed these amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining (NJ) method and maximum likelihood (ML) method. NJ analysis shows polyphyly of Insectivora and Chiroptera. Assuming that each of Primates, Ferungulat...

  4. Checklist of the Helminth Parasites of South American Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, CP; Gibson, DI

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2001-2015 Magnolia Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The attached file is the published version of the article. Although the Chiroptera represents a significant proportion (c.20%) of the mammalian fauna and South America has the highest diversity of bat species, only a...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowski, P. T.; Drexler, J. F.; Kallies, R.; Lickova, M; Bokorova, S.; Mananga, G. D.; Szemes, T.; Leroy, Eric; Kruger, D H; Drosten, C.; Klempa, B.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Ph...

  6. Atlas van de Nederlandse vleermuizen 1970-1984, alsmede een vergelijking met vroegere gegevens

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    The present distribution of bats (Chiroptera) in The Netherlands is documented and discussed. For each species a map is given illustrating the distribution before and after 1970. Where available, data are presented on migration, population trends, nursing colonies, roosts and hibernation sites, reproduction, and other data such as foraging behaviour, etc. Each chapter dealing with a particular species is followed by an English summary, to which the reader is referred for further information. ...

  7. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: evidence of virulent skin invasion for bats under natural conditions, Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bandouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Berková, Hana; Brichta, J.; Černý, J.; Kováčová, V.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Köllner, B.; Kulich, P.; Martínková, Natália; Řehák, Z.; Tumer, G. G.; Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-5. ISSN 1865-1674 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : white-nose syndrome * Chiroptera * transmission electron microscopy * ultraviolet light diagnostics * morbidity * mortality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.944, year: 2014

  8. Olfactory discrimination between two cryptic species of bats Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartonička, T.; Kaňuch, Peter; Bímová, Barbora; Bryja, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2010), s. 175-182. ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : olfactory signal * species-specific recognition * pipistrelles * Vespertilionidae * Chiroptera Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2010 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/59/3/1_ms_1551.pdf

  9. The evolution of the social brain: anthropoid primates contrast with other vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, Susanne; Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2007-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis argues that large brains have arisen over evolutionary time as a response to the social and ecological conflicts inherent in group living. We test predictions arising from the hypothesis using comparative data from birds and four mammalian orders (Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Chiroptera and Primates) and show that, across all non-primate taxa, relative brain size is principally related to pairbonding, but with enduring stable relationships in primates. We argue that th...

  10. Ecology of an exceptional roost: energetic benefits could explain why the bat Lophostoma silvicolum roosts in active termite nests.

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmann, D K N; Kalko, E. K. V.; Kerth, G.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to create shelters that provide protection from the environment is widespread among animals. However, in spite of the central role roosts play in the life of bats (Chiroptera), only a few species have developed the ability to make their own refuges, one of them being the Neotropical Lophostoma silvicolum. This bat creates and inhabits cavities in active arboreal nests of the termite Nasutitermes corniger. We measured temperature in cavities inside active and dead termite nests, an...

  11. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, A

    2012-01-01

    Bats (order Chiroptera) form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 M...

  12. Quaternary fauna of bats in Spain: Paleoecologic and biogeographic interest

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma

    1989-01-01

    The study of fossil bat material collected in Quaternary localities in Spain has yielded interesting information on the characteristics of this fauna during the Pleistocene and Holocene in Spain. Out of the 25 species of Chiroptera actually living in Spain, 15 have been detected from the Middle Pleistocene onwards: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. euryale, R. mehelyi, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. bechsteini, M. nattereri, M. emarginatus, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus ser...

  13. Notes on the Mammals Found in Kazdağı National Park and Its Environs

    OpenAIRE

    Nuri YİĞİT; DEMİRSOY, Ali; Ahmet KARATAŞ; ÖZKURT, Şakir; ÇOLAK, Ercüment

    2006-01-01

    The present study is based on species collected and observed in Kazdağı National Park and its surroundings. Field collections yielded 40 mammal species from 6 orders: Insectivora (4), Chiroptera (14), Lagomorpha (1), Rodentia (11), Carnivora (8), and Artiodactyla (2), Of the species recorded in this study, 6 were new records from north-west Anatolia: Sorex volnuchini, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Myotis emarginatus, Eptesicus serotinus, Hypsugo savii, and Microtus subterraneus.

  14. Effetti dell'esperienza sullo sviluppo del comportamento sociale nei chirotteri antropofili

    OpenAIRE

    ANCILLOTTO, LEONARDO

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at clarifying the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of stable social units in bats (Chiroptera), a characteristic shared by most species of this group of mammals, by investigating the effects of the early social environment, i.e. pursuing the hypothesis that imprinting-like influences on the development of social behaviour exist and may have a profound impact on the social lives of bats. First I present an overview on bats' social behaviour and...

  15. Экология рукокрылых (Chiroptera, vespertilioni-dae) Себежского национального парка (Псковская область)

    OpenAIRE

    Никулин, Алексей; Чистяков, Дмитрий

    2010-01-01

    В 1999-2000 гг., 2007 и 2008 гг. проводилось изучение особенностей распространения и трофической биологии рукокрылых в Себежском национальном парке, расположенном на юго-западе Псковской области. В результате исследований выявлено 7 видов летучих мышей, характерных для данной территории: Myotis daubentonii, Myotis dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula, Pipistrellus nathusii, Eptesicus nilssonii, Vespertilio murinus, Plecotus auritus. Полученные в ходе работ данные о биотопической приуроченности видов с...

  16. Research advances and conservation strategy on Nyctalus velutinus%中华山蝠的研究进展及保护对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红艳; 吴毅; 胡锦矗

    2000-01-01

    @@ 中华山蝠(Nyctalus velutinus)(或称绒山蝠),属翼手目(Chiroptera),蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae),山蝠属(Nyctalus),是我国特有的种类.广泛分布于中国南部,喜栖于建筑物的天花板、梁柱、瓦缝等处.有关中华山蝠的研究80年代才开始,迄今为止发表有关论文仅6篇.

  17. Neurologic amebiasis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Nicholas A; Ali, Ibne; Higbie, Christine; Jackson, Jonathan; Pirie, Gordon; Bauer, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    A 4-5-month-old intact male Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) was presented to the Baton Rouge Zoo's veterinary hospital with an acute onset of obtundation that was diagnosed with amebic encephalitis. Histologic examination revealed numerous amebic trophozoites within necrotic foci, affecting the occipital cerebrum and surrounding the mesencephalic aqueduct. The etiologic agent, Balamuthia mandrillaris, was determined by multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and indirect fluorescent antibody test. The current report documented a case of amebic encephalitis within the order Chiroptera. PMID:26762405

  18. PENELITIAN SEROLOGIS JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS PADA BABI DAN KELELAWAR DI SINTANG, KALIMANTAN BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Winoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serological surveys of pigs (Sus scrofa and bats (Chiroptera were conducted in Sin tang over 3 subdistricts (Kayanhulu, Kayanhilir, Kotabaru during the period of 17 July to 2 August 1994. Blood samples were collected fron 68 pigs and 157 bats and tested for JEV antibody. Antibody to JEV were found in 39 (57% pig sera and 24 (15.3% bat sera using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. This study gives more information on the geographic and host distribution of JEV in Indonesia, and increased knowledge about potential risk of JEV to public health.

  19. PENELITIAN SEROLOGIS JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS PADA BABI DAN KELELAWAR DI SINTANG, KALIMANTAN BARAT

    OpenAIRE

    I. Winoto; Graham, R.R.; Ima Nurisa; S. Hartati; C. Ma'roef

    2012-01-01

    Serological surveys of pigs (Sus scrofa) and bats (Chiroptera) were conducted in Sin tang over 3 subdistricts (Kayanhulu, Kayanhilir, Kotabaru) during the period of 17 July to 2 August 1994. Blood samples were collected fron 68 pigs and 157 bats and tested for JEV antibody. Antibody to JEV were found in 39 (57%) pig sera and 24 (15.3%) bat sera using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. This study gives more information on the geographic and host distribution of JEV in Indonesia, and incr...

  20. Nova saznanja o šišmišima kao nosiocima novootkrivenih virusa

    OpenAIRE

    Calisher, C. H.

    2006-01-01

    Šišmiši (red Chiroptera, podred Megachiroptera – (»leteće lisice«) i Microchiroptera) su mnogobrojni, raznoliki sisavci koji se nalaze na svim kontinentima svijeta osim Antarktika. Iako šišmiši imaju korisnu ulogu u prirodi, mnogi se hrane insektima, brojne vrste šišmiša su danas ugrožene. Karakteristike ovih sisavaca uključuju određenu prehranu i život u kolonijama ili samostalno, mogućnost letenja, cikličke migracije i svakodnevno tipično letenje, sposobnost ulaska u stanje mirovanja (torpo...

  1. Fox- and raccoon-dog–associated rabies outbreaks in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye; Liu; Shoufeng; Zhang; Jinghui; Zhao; Fei; Zhang; Nan; Li; Hai; Lian; Wurengege; Shiyu; Guo; Rongliang; Hu

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Rabies is a generally fatal disease caused by the rabies virus(RABV),and is transmitted mainly by Carnivora and Chiroptera(Fooks A R,et al.,2014;Tao X,et al.,2013).In China,stray dogs and some wild animals(e.g.,Chinese ferret badgers,foxes,and raccoon dogs)are the principal reservoirs for RABV(Hu R L,et al.,2009).Historically,rabies in wild foxes and raccoon dogs(Nyctereutes procyonoides)was recorded in the early

  2. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  3. ВИДОВОЙ СОСТАВ И ОСОБЕННОСТИ РАСПРОСТРАНЕНИЯ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (CHIROPTERA: MAMMALIA) НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ УЛЬЯНОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Безруков, В.; Смирнов, Д.

    2012-01-01

    Представлены результаты исследований рукокрылых Ульяновской области, проведенные в период с конца 19го по начало 21го века. Подтверждено обитание 11 видов рукокрылых и еще три вида отмечены впервые ( M. aurascens, P. kuhlii и E. serotinus ). В работе приводятся места и обстоятельства находок рукокрылых, и делается количественная их оценка. По показателям встречаемости и относительному обилию все рукокрылые разделены на группы. Широко распространённые и многочисленные виды : P. nathusii, M. da...

  4. ОЦЕНКА α-РАЗНООБРАЗИЯ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (CHIROPTERA) БРЯНСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ НА ОСНОВЕ ДАННЫХ РЕГИСТРАЦИИ ИХ УЛЬТРАЗВУКОВЫХ СИГНАЛОВ

    OpenAIRE

    Горбачев, А.; Прокофьев, И.

    2013-01-01

    Произведена оценка α-разнообразия рукокрылых Брянской области с помощью индекса Шенона-Уивера. Для сбора акустических данных было заложено 17 трансект в 2009-2012 гг. Всего были зарегистрированы сигналы 15 видов

  5. ФАУНА И ЭКОЛОГО-БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (CHIROPTERA) ХАНТЫ-МАНСИЙСКОГО АВТОНОМНОГО ОКРУГА

    OpenAIRE

    Берников, К.; Стариков, В.

    2009-01-01

    В работе представлено современное состояние хироптерофауны Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа. На основе анализа результатов исследований, проведенных авторами в течение пяти лет, и литературных источников выявлены особенности распространения, экологии и биологии летучих мышей исследуемой территории....

  6. ФАУНА, РАСПРОСТРАНЕНИЕ И ЛАНДШАФТНАЯ ПРИУРОЧЕННОСТЬ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (MAMMALIA: CHIROPTERA) РЕСПУБЛИКИ БАШКОРТОСТАН

    OpenAIRE

    Курмаева, Н.; Смирнов, Д.; Ильин, В.

    2012-01-01

    В работе приводятся сведения по распространению 12 видов рукокрылых на территории республики Башкортостан. Показаны особенности их размещения и биологии.

  7. Lista de los mamíferos de la cuenca del río Orinoco

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Pérez, Arnaldo; Beltrán, Marisol; Díaz-Pulido, Angélica Paola; Trujillo, Fernando; Mantilla-Meluk, Hugo; Herrera, Olga; Alfonso, Andrés Felipe; Payán, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    Se consolida un listado binacional de la mastofauna reportada para toda la cuenca del río Orinoco, constituido por 318 especies que se distribuyen en 12 órdenes, 40 familias y 156 géneros. Esta diversidad representa el 76,8% de la mastofauna venezolana y el 68,7% de la colombiana. El orden Chiroptera es el más representativo con 150 especies (47,5%), seguido por los roedores con 77 especies (24,4%). La región de la Guayana es la más diversa, mientras que en la región deltaica se presentó el m...

  8. Marsupial, insectivore, and chiropteran anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, G W

    2001-01-01

    This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described. PMID:11217462

  9. Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), alpha-tocopherol and lipid levels in plasma of captive wild mammals and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, F J; Uehlein-Harrell, S; von Hegel, G; Wiesner, H

    1991-02-01

    Vitamin A (retinol and retinyl esters), vitamin E and lipids were determined in a wide variety of wild mammals and birds held in captivity. In mammals plasma levels of vitamin A were generally below 500 ng/ml and those of vitamin E were highly variable (0.1-2 micrograms/ml). In primates, vitamin E levels were 3 to 8 micrograms/ml. Whereas in Marsupialia, Chiroptera, primates, Rodentia, Proboscidea, Sirenia, Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla only retinol was found, retinyl esters (basically retinol palmitate/oleate) represented 10 to 50% of the total plasma vitamin A in some birds of the order Ciconiiformes and Falconiformes. Retinol levels in birds were higher compared to mammals (500-2,000 ng/ml). The same was true for lipids as well as for vitamin E levels (1-26 micrograms/ml) in the plasma of birds. PMID:1905864

  10. 西南鼠耳蝠广东新纪录及其核型%A new record of Myotis altarium and its karyotype in Guangdong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕均; 邓柏生; 李玉春; 龚粤宁; 本川雅治; 原田正史; 新宅勇太; 吴毅

    2010-01-01

    @@ 西南鼠耳蝠(Myotis altarium Thomas,1911),因峨眉山为其模式产地,又称峨眉鼠耳蝠或者四川鼠耳蝠.隶属于翼手目(Chiroptera)蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae)鼠耳蝠属(Myotis),主要分布于我国大陆南部,其分布区可延伸到泰国北部(Blood and McFarlane,1988),可能还分布到越南(Borissenko and Kurskop,2003).在我国,仅刘少英等(2003)将其作为重庆蝙蝠分布新纪录进行了报道.

  11. Paleontology and paleoecology of guano deposits in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widga, Chris; Colburn, Mona

    2015-05-01

    Bat guano deposits are common in the Mammoth Cave system (Kentucky, USA). Paleontological remains associated with these deposits are important records of local landscape changes. Recent excavations in the cave suggest that vertebrate remains in most of these deposits are dominated by Chiroptera. Although no extinct fauna were identified, the presence of a large roost of Tadarida brasiliensis in the Chief City section is beyond the northern extent of its current range suggesting that this deposit dates to an undetermined interglacial period. Stable isotope analyses of Tadarida-associated guano indicate a C3 prey signature characteristic of forested habitat. This was unexpected since this species is typically associated with open environments. Further ecomorphological analysis of wing shape trends in interglacial, Holocene, and historic-aged assemblages indicate that interglacial faunas are dominated by fast-flying, open-space taxa (T. brasiliensis) while late Holocene and Historic assemblages contain more taxa that utilized closed forest or forest gaps.

  12. Comparison of full-waveform, single-photon sensitive, and discrete analog LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Angela M.; Runyon, Scott C.; Olsen, Richard C.

    2015-05-01

    Full-waveform LiDAR data from an AHAB Chiroptera I system with 515 nm and 1032 nm lasers (~10 pts/m2), single-photon sensitive data from the Sigma Space HRQLS system with a 532 nm laser (~19 pts/m2), and discrete analog data from an Optech Orion C200 system (~88 pts/m2) were collected from aerial platforms over Monterey, CA, USA in fall 2012 and fall 2013. The study area contains residential neighborhoods, forested regions, inland lakes, and the Pacific Ocean near-shore environment. Significant ground truth in the form of GPS measurements and terrestrial LiDAR scans enable the LiDAR data to be compared in terms of measurement precision and degree of tree canopy penetration, as well as comparisons of derived raster products.

  13. 印度假吸血蝠捕食鼠耳蝠%Indian False Vampire Bat Feeding on Myotis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礼标; 张伟; 张树义

    2007-01-01

    2004年12月10日,在广西南宁地区马山县金伦洞捕到2只雄性印度假吸血蝠(Megaderma lyra: Megadermatidae, Chiroptera),分析其中的胃容物,发现有蝙蝠的残遗物,包括牙齿、后足、骨骼、毛发(棕黄色);未发现昆虫残遗物.通过对残遗物中牙齿(上颌齿式:2.1.3.3)的鉴定,与蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属(Myotis)的齿式一致,因此确定印度假吸血蝠捕食了鼠耳蝠属的蝙蝠.

  14. Mating System and Strategy of Reproduction in Fruit Bats%果蝠的婚配制度及繁殖策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐占辉; 盛连喜; 马逊风; 张树义; 曹敏

    2005-01-01

    翼手类(Chiroptera)(俗称蝙蝠)分为小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera)和大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera),大蝙蝠又称果蝠或狐蝠,果蝠仅狐蝠科(Pteropodidae)1科188种.深入地了解其独特的婚配行为机制、独特的繁殖发育机制,对有效地开展果蝠的保护工作、合理地控制种群数量有积极意义.本文对果蝠的婚配制度及繁殖策略进行了阐述.

  15. 短嘴金丝燕的回声定位机制与其归巢行为的探究%Himalayan Swiftlet's Echolocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 陈发军; 黄时杰; 宗浩

    2007-01-01

    通过对短嘴金丝燕(Aerodramus brevirostris)的传统遮挡放飞实验和飞行行为的观察,研究短嘴金丝燕回声定位的机制,同时利用SONY MD录音并用Cool Edit 2.1软件进行声波分析,证明了该物种是能利用回声定位的鸟类.该物种定位的声波主频较低,所以其定位能力没有蝙蝠(Chiroptera)那样精确,个体主要还是依靠视觉定位,只有在全黑的情况下才利用声音定位的.

  16. Cabinet of Curiosities: Venom Systems and Their Ecological Function in Mammals, with a Focus on Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode-Margono, Johanna E; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2015-07-01

    Venom delivery systems (VDS) are common in the animal kingdom, but rare amongst mammals. New definitions of venom allow us to reconsider its diversity amongst mammals by reviewing the VDS of Chiroptera, Eulipotyphla, Monotremata, and Primates. All orders use modified anterior dentition as the venom delivery apparatus, except Monotremata, which possesses a crural system. The venom gland in most taxa is a modified submaxillary salivary gland. In Primates, the saliva is activated when combined with brachial gland exudate. In Monotremata, the crural spur contains the venom duct. Venom functions include feeding, intraspecific competition, anti-predator defense and parasite defense. Including mammals in discussion of venom evolution could prove vital in our understanding protein functioning in mammals and provide a new avenue for biomedical and therapeutic applications and drug discovery. PMID:26193318

  17. Cabinet of Curiosities: Venom Systems and Their Ecological Function in Mammals, with a Focus on Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Rode-Margono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Venom delivery systems (VDS are common in the animal kingdom, but rare amongst mammals. New definitions of venom allow us to reconsider its diversity amongst mammals by reviewing the VDS of Chiroptera, Eulipotyphla, Monotremata, and Primates. All orders use modified anterior dentition as the venom delivery apparatus, except Monotremata, which possesses a crural system. The venom gland in most taxa is a modified submaxillary salivary gland. In Primates, the saliva is activated when combined with brachial gland exudate. In Monotremata, the crural spur contains the venom duct. Venom functions include feeding, intraspecific competition, anti-predator defense and parasite defense. Including mammals in discussion of venom evolution could prove vital in our understanding protein functioning in mammals and provide a new avenue for biomedical and therapeutic applications and drug discovery.

  18. Species determination of Brazilian mammals implicated in the epidemiology of rabies based on the control region of mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carnieli Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of animals that are decomposing or have been run over or burnt and cannot be visually identified is a problem in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases. Many of these animals are wild and represent a valuable source of information for epidemiologic research as they may be carriers of an infectious agent. This article discusses the results obtained using a method for identifying mammals genetically by sequencing their mitochondrial DNA control region. Fourteen species were analyzed and identified. These included the main reservoirs and transmitters of rabies virus, namely, canids, chiroptera and primates. The results prove that this method of genetic identification is both efficient and simple and that it can be used in the surveillance of infectious diseases which includes mammals in their epidemiologic cycle, such as rabies.

  19. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus in Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumibcay Laarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus, captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV, was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea. Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses.

  20. Evolution of the placenta and associated reproductive characters in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony M; Mess, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics indicate that the order Chiroptera is monophyletic and that one of four lineages of microbats (Rhinolophoidea) shares a common origin with megabats. Against this background we undertook a comprehensive analysis of placental evolution in bats. We defined a...... range of characters and character states associated with female reproduction, early development, placentation and the neonate. These were then mapped on a pre-existing hypothesis of bat relationships that represents the current view from molecular studies. Our purpose was threefold. First, on the...... assumption of bat monophyly, we wished to establish the stem species pattern of extant chiropterans. Secondly, we asked whether there are derived character conditions in support of a common origin for Rhinolophoidea and the megabats. Thirdly, we looked for evolutionary character transformations that...

  1. Redescription and taxonomical considerations about Aonchotheca (Aonchotheca) pulchra n. comb. (Enoplida: Trichuridae), a nematode of Nyctinomops spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardia, Daniel Fontana Ferreira; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Fornazari, Felipe; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Langoni, Helio; Nascimento, Adjair Antônio do; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2014-01-01

    Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934) are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided. PMID:25271463

  2. Behavioral reactions of the bat Carollia perspicillata to abrupt changes in gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejtek, M; Delorme, M; Wassersug, R

    1995-06-01

    As part of an ongoing survey of the behavioral responses of vertebrates to abrupt changes in gravity, we report here on the reactions of bats (Carollia perspicillata) exposed to altered gravity during parabolic aircraft flight. In microgravity, mammals typically behave as if they were upside-down and exhibit repetitive righting reflexes, which often lead to long axis rolling. Since bats, however, normally rest upside-down, we hypothesized that they would not roll in microgravity. Only one of three specimens attempted to fly during microgravity. None rolled or performed any righting maneuvers. During periods of microgravity the bats partially extended their forearms but kept their wings folded and parallel to the body. Between parabolas and occasionally during microgravity the bats groomed themselves. Both the extended limbs and autogrooming may be stress responses to the novel stimulus of altered gravity. This is the first behavioral record of Chiroptera in microgravity. PMID:11541842

  3. Morphological study by scanning electron microscopy of the lingual papillae in the common European bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J F; Moro, J A; Verona, J A; Gato, A; Represa, J J; Barbosa, E

    1993-07-01

    There are many accounts of the tongues of mammals observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but apparently only one article about the tongue of the Chiroptera. In the present study the tongue surface (after removing extracellular material) of the European common bat (Pipistrellus pipstrellus) was examined. The tongue is covered with papillae and has an elevation between its medial and posterior half. There are three types of papillae: filiform, fungiform and circumvallate, and the filiform can be classified as strictly filiform, conical and crown-like. The shapes and disposition of these papillae are related to function, which is principally to retain captured food during flight. At higher magnification the surface of the filiform papillae has many pores and microridges, which may serve for the production and distribution of mucus over the papillary surface. PMID:7690226

  4. First record of Leishmania braziliensis presence detected in bats, Mato Grosso do Sul, southwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Julie Teresa; da Costa Lima Junior, Manoel Sebastião; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Cepa Matos, Maria de Fatima; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis, a zoonotic disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, has expanded beyond its natural range and is becoming increasingly urban. Using PCR and PCR-RFLP, we detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in two bats (Chiroptera) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an endemic area. This is the first record of L. (V.) braziliensis in bats. It is also the first record of any Leishmania sp. in bats in the state. The animals testing positive were found in both a rural site and an urban site. These results indicate the need for further research into the viability of Leishmania in bats and could potentially have implications for public health in Mato Grosso do Sul, given the large populations of urban bats, their mobility, and their ability to roost at close proximity to humans within residences and other buildings. PMID:23886850

  5. Integrating incomplete fossils by isolating conflicting signal in saturated and non-independent morphological characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Velazco, Paúl M; Warsi, Omar M; Smits, Peter D; Simmons, Nancy B

    2014-07-01

    Morphological characters are indispensable in phylogenetic analyses for understanding the pattern, process, and tempo of evolution. If characters are independent and free of systematic errors, then combining as many different kinds of characters as are available will result in the best-supported phylogenetic hypotheses. But since morphological characters are subject to natural selection for function and arise from the expression of developmental pathways, they may not be independent, a situation that may amplify any underlying homoplasy. Here, we use new dental and multi-locus genetic data from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) to quantify saturation and similarity in morphological characters and introduce two likelihood-based approaches to identify strongly conflicting characters and integrate morphological and molecular data. We implement these methods to analyze the phylogeny of incomplete Miocene fossils in the radiation of Phyllostomidae (New World Leaf-nosed Bats), perhaps the most ecologically diverse family of living mammals. Morphological characters produced trees incongruent with molecular phylogenies, were saturated, and showed rates of change higher than most molecular substitution rates. Dental characters encoded variation similar to that in other morphological characters, while molecular characters encoded highly dissimilar variation in comparison. Saturation and high rates of change indicate randomization of phylogenetic signal in the morphological data, and extensive similarity suggests characters are non-independent and errors are amplified. To integrate the morphological data into tree building while accounting for homoplasy, we used statistical molecular scaffolds and combined phylogenetic analyses excluding a small subset of strongly conflicting dental characters. The phylogenies revealed the Miocene nectar-feeding †Palynephyllum nests within the crown nectar-feeding South American subfamily Lonchophyllinae, while the Miocene genus

  6. Subsurface Characterization of Shallow Water Regions using Airborne Bathymetric Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, B.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Magruder, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the complex interactions between air, land, and water in shallow water regions is becoming increasingly critical in the age of climate change. To effectively monitor and manage these zones, scientific data focused on changing water levels, quality, and subsurface topography are needed. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to address this need as it can simultaneously provide detailed three-dimensional spatial data for both topographic and bathymetric applications in an efficient and effective manner. The key to useful data, however, is the correct interpretation of the incoming laser returns to distinguish between land, water, and objects. The full waveform lidar receiver captures the complete returning signal reflected from the Earth, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the characterization of this full waveform with respect to water surface depth penetration and subsurface classification, including sand, rock, and vegetation. Three assessments are performed to help characterize the laser interaction within the shallow water zone: evaluation of water surface backscatter as a function of depth and location, effects from water bottom surface roughness and reflectivity, and detection and classification of subsurface structure. Using the Chiroptera dual-laser lidar mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), both bathymetric and topographic mapping are possible. The Chiroptera system combines a 1064nm near infrared topographic laser with a 515nm green bathymetric laser to seamlessly map the land/water interface in coastal areas. Two survey sites are examined: Lake Travis in Austin, Texas, USA, and Lake Vättern in Jönköping, Sweden. Water quality conditions were found to impact depth penetration of the lidar, as a maximum depth of 5.5m was recorded at Lake Travis and 11m at Lake Vättern.

  7. 重庆穿洞遗址大马蹄蝠化石发现及其意义%Discovery and Significance of Hipposideros Armiger Fossils at Chuandong Site, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武仙竹; 王运辅; 王超

    2014-01-01

    The researchers from the Laboratory of Scientific Archaeology of Chonqing Normal University discovered a fossil sample of Hipposideros armiger at Chuandong Site, Fengjie County, Chongqing in 2008, which skull, left scapula and some limb bones, vertebras and ribs were well preserved. The sample was collected in a layer of red clay 58 centimeters below the cave ground, accompanied with some remains related with ancient Human activities such as mammal fossils and stone tools. The majority of the accompanying mammals were living species, and the minority of which were distinct species in Pleistocene. The living species included Crocidura ilensis, Chodsigoa smithii, Rattus norvegicus, Trogopterus xanthipes, Rhizomys sinensis, Atherurus macrourus、Arctonyx collaris, Panthera tigris, Sus scrofa, Hydropotes inermis, Cervus unicolor. The extinct species included Crocuta crocuta ultima, Megatapirus augustus. According to the primary taphonomy and fauna analysis at this site, a conclusion could be made that Chuandong Site was one in the Late Period of Pleistocene. Hipposideros armiger, a species of Chiroptera, whose living population habituate in tropic and subtropical zones of east hemisphere like Southern China, India, Nepal and some areas of Southeastern Asia. No fossil record of Hipposideros armiger was discovered outside China until now. Four sites where Hipposideros armiger fossil materials were gathered were reported before the discovery of Chuandong Site, which should be the fifth one, where the most complete Hipposideros armiger fossil material was collected in China. It is demonstrated with Chuandong fossil material study that Hipposideros armiger could be identified efficiently from other species of Chiroptera with the characters such as body size, skull shape and dental formula. The material at Chuandong Site contributes to not only Chiroptera identifications but also evolutionary study. The ulna and radius of Chuandong Hipposideros armiger fossil were completely

  8. Isolation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus from Brain Tissues of Bat in Yunnan Province%从云南省蝙蝠脑组织中分离出乙型脑炎病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海林; 张云智; 黄文丽; 米竹青; 龚鹤琴; 王静林

    2001-01-01

    In July 1997, a strain (GB30) of virus was isolated from 60 samples of brain tissues of Murina aurata (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) co llec ted in Gengma county, Yunnan province, China. Isolation of virus was negative fr om 4 samples of brain tissues of Rousettus leschenaulti (Chiroptera: Pteropo did ae) collected in Gengma. GB30 virus strain could regularly cause illness and dea th in suckling mice, produced evident CPE in BHK21 cells. It agglutinated red b lood cells of dove at pH5.75~7.4. This virus has been identified serologically by hemagglutination inhibition and immunofluorescent tests using Japanese enceph alitis (JE), dengue (DEN) type 1,2,3,4, and chikungunya (CHIK) viruses monoclona l antibodies, and JE and sindbis (SIN) viruses immune sera. It showed specific r eaction to JE virus only and no reaction with DEN 1~4, CHIK and SIN viruses. Th erefore it can be identified as JE virus. This is the first report on the isolat ion of JE virus from Murina aurata. The results showed that bats are conside red as the reservoir and amplifier host of JE virus transmission in nature.%为进一步阐明蝙蝠在保存乙脑病毒中的作用,于1997年7月,在云南省耿马 县捕捉蝙蝠64只,取脑组织作病毒分离,从一只金管鼻蝠脑组织中分离出1株病毒。该毒株 能引起BHK21细胞病变和乳鼠发病死亡,在pH5.75~7.4时能凝集鸽红血球,经用单克隆抗 体血凝抑制和免疫荧光试验鉴定,证实为乙型脑炎病毒。进一步证明蝙蝠在乙型脑炎病毒保 存和扩散中具有重要作用。从金管鼻蝠体内分离出乙型脑炎病毒属国内外首次报道。

  9. Phylogenetics of Rhinolophidea, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae Based on Partial Sequences of the Nuclear RAG2 Gene%基于核基因RAG2部分序列探索菊头蝠总科、蝙蝠科和鞘尾蝠科物种的系统发育关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小爱; 田东; 谷晓明

    2012-01-01

    采用PCR技术获得了翼手目(菊头蝠总科、蝙蝠科以及鞘尾蝠科)16种19个个体的核基因重组激活基因2(Recombination activating gene,RAG2)部分序列,长度为730~760 bp.结合从Genbank中提取的翼手目3科14个体的RAG2序列,通过构建贝叶斯(Bayesian inference,BI)和最大似然树对翼手目种属间的系统进化关系进行研究.研究表明:在葡头蝠总科中,菊头蝠科和蹄蝠科是两个独立的科,且在蹄蝠科中,大蹄蝠、中蹄蝠、普氏蹄蝠3种之间的亲缘关系非常近;蝙蝠科中的南蝠属与棕蝠属是姊妹群;长翼蝠亚科应提升为长翼蝠科.此外,鞘尾蝠科与犬吻蝠科形成姊妹群关系.%The partial sequences of nuclear RAG2 gene (Recombination activating gene, RAG2 )were obtained from 19 individuals of 16 species of Chiroptera( Rhinolophidea, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae) from Guizhou Province. The lengths of RAG2 are 730~760 bp. The evolutionary trees was produced by Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods, combined with the sequences RAG2 of 14 individuals of 3 families from Genbank, to study the relationship of species or genera of Chiroptera It suggested that: Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae were two separate families and H.pratti, H.armiger and H. larvatus have more closely genetic relationship in Hipposideridae, la genus and Eptesicus genus was sister group in Vespertilionidae. The subfamily Miniopterinae should be elevated to family status. In addition, Emballonuridae and Molossidae form sister group.

  10. Complementarity and efficiency of bat capture methods in a lowland tropical dry forest of Yucatán, Mexico Complementariedad y eficiencia de métodos de captura de murciélagos en una selva baja caducifolia de Yucatán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Pech-Canche

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of different methods for surveying bat assemblages has increased over the last few decades. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of bat inventories by comparing assemblages parameters (species richness, abundance and composition using the 3 most conventional capture methods (ground-level and sub-canopy mist nets and harp traps, in a lowland tropical dry forest in Yucatán, Mexico. In ground mist nets, only phyllostomid species were recorded, principally frugivorous and nectarivorous species, while in harp traps the majority were insectivorous species from other families. Our results indicate that for the order Chiroptera the most efficient combination of capture methods is the simultaneous use of ground mist nets and harp traps. However, an inventory of Phyllostomidae is reliably achieved with only ground mist nets. Also, a combination of ground and sub-canopy mist nets does not provide an efficient sampling strategy.El uso combinado de diferentes métodos de muestreo de ensambles de murciélagos se ha incrementado en las últimas décadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficiencia de los inventarios de murciélagos comparando los parámetros del ensamble (riqueza de especies, abundancia y composición usando los 3 métodos de captura convencionales (redes de niebla a nivel de sotobosque y sub-dosel, y trampas arpa, en una selva baja caducifolia de Yucatán, México. En las redes de sotobosque se registraron solamente especies de filostómidos, principalmente especies frugívoras y nectarívoras; mientras que en las trampas arpa, la mayoría fueron especies insectívoras de otras familias. Nuestros resultados indican que para el orden Chiroptera la combinación más eficiente de métodos de captura es el uso simultáneo de redes de sotobosque y trampas arpa. Sin embargo, se alcanza un inventario confiable de filostómidos sólo con las redes de sotobosque. Además, una combinación de redes de

  11. [Trichostrongyloidea nematodes, parasites of Microchiroptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Chabaud, A G

    1975-01-01

    1. a) List of Nematodes collected by Professor Aellen in european Microchiroptera. Additionnal morphological data to the study of Molinostrongylus alatus, M. panousei, M. skrjabini. Description of M. aelleni n. sp. b) Description of M. richardae n. sp., M. benexae n. sp. et M. bauchoti n. sp., parasites of malagasian Molossidae. c) Description of M. colleyi n. sp. and M. owyangi n. sp., parasites of Malaysian Vespertilioninae, and of Allintoschius dunni n. sp., discovered in Myotis mystacinus from Malaysia and Pipistrellus nanus from Africa. 2. Taking into account the characteristics of the synlophe, the 17 species of the genus Molinostrongylus may be divided into five groups, each one being reasonably well characteristic of the genus of their Chiropteran host. 3. The composition of the Trichostrongyloidea fauna of Chiroptera and its relationship with Trichostrongyloidea from other Mammals (Tupaiidae, Pholidotes, Primates, Sciuridés) are analysed. Six groups are separated and divided into two well defined lines: 1) genus Strongylacantha, and 2) 12 genera stemming more or less directly from the Molineinae, 4. The three conical outgrowths at the tip of the female tail which differenciate presently the Anoplostrogylinae from the Molineinae appear to be an unreliable characteristic. The two subfamilies form a complex group which will be better understood if the evolution of the synlophe and that of the caudal bursa of the males are taken into account. PMID:1211768

  12. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  13. Fossil Vertebrate Database from Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (Llucmajor, Mallorca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Díaz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented in this paper includes the fossil fauna collected in the cave named Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (CPV, located on the southern coast of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain. It holds 1481 catalogued items, 97.5% identified at species level. Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, and Amphibia are represented in the Database. The fauna collected in the cave includes the three endemic mammals present on Mallorca during the Early Pleistocene (Myotragus aff. kopperi, Hypnomys onicensis, and Nesiotites aff. ponsi. There are also represented two taxa of Chiroptera (Rhinolophus aff. mehelyi and Pipistrellus sp., 16 taxa of birds (6 of them identified at species level, one Reptilian taxon (Podarcis sp. and one Amphibian taxon (Discoglossus sp.. Most of fossils were collected during a single excavation campaign of 3 days (28-30th May, 2010. A few remains were obtained in two previous visits to the cave, in 2006 and 2009. All the specimens are curated and documented at the Vertebrate Collection of the IMEDEA [Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (CSIC-UIB]. The assemblage of CPV fossils is a part of the paleontological collection IMEDEA-PALEOVERT, included at the GBIF portal.

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum chagasi Infection in Wild Mammals from Maranhão State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; Mesquita, Eric Takashi Kamakura de Carvalho; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-11-01

    Trypanosoma and Leishmania are obligate parasites that cause important diseases in human and domestic animals. Wild mammals are the natural reservoirs of these parasites, which are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods. The present study aimed to detect the natural occurrence of trypanosomatids through serological diagnosis, PCR of whole blood and blood culture (hemoculture), and phylogenetic relationships using small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA), cytochrome b, and glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. Samples from 131 wild animals, including rodents, marsupials, and bats, were sampled in six areas in the state of Maranhão, in a transition zone of semiarid climates northeast of the equatorial humid Amazon. Serological analysis for Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi was performed in opossums by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and all animals were serologically negative. Nine positive hemocultures (6.77%) were isolated and cryopreserved and from mammals of the Didelphimorphia and Chiroptera orders and positioned in phylogenies on the basis of sequences from different genes with reference strains of Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi. From primary samples (blood and tissues) only one bat, Pteronotus parnellii, was positive to SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes and grouped with the L. infantum chagasi branch. The studies conducted in Maranhão State provide knowledge of parasite diversity. It is important to determine the presence of trypanosomatids in wild mammals with synanthropic habits. PMID:26501369

  15. [Using inter-SINE-PCR to study mammalian phylogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannikova, A A; Matveev, V A; Kramerov, D A

    2002-06-01

    Results of the use of the fingerprinting method related to short interspersed elements (SINEs), inter-SINE-PCR, in the study of phylogenetic and taxonomic relationship in mammals from orders Chiroptera (family Vespertilionidae) and Lipotyphla (family Erinaceidae) are reported. The inter-SINE-PCR method is based on the amplification of fragments situated between copies of SINEs, which are short retroposons spaced 100 to 1000 bp apart. Specifically selected primers were used, which are complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: the mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR), which is typical of all mammals and some other vertebrates, was used in the cases of bats and Erinaceidae, and the ERI-1 element recently isolated from the genome of the Daurian hedgehog was used in the case of Erinaceidae. The results support the current view on phylogenetic relationship between hedgehogs belonging to genera Erinaceus, Hemiechinus, and Paraechinus (but not the genus Atelerix). In bats, the phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a statistically valid topology only at lower taxonomic levels, whereas the topology for the genus and supragenus ranks was unresolved and fan-shaped. The benefits and limitations of the inter-SINE-PCR method are discussed. PMID:12138785

  16. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GenevieveSpanjerWright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  17. 东亚水鼠耳蝠形态描述与分类%MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION AND TAXONOMICAL STATUS OF MYOTIS PETAX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 江廷磊; 孙克萍; 王应祥; Tiunov,M.P.; 冯江

    2010-01-01

    水鼠耳蝠 Myotis daubentonii(Chiroptera,Vespertilionidae),广泛分布于欧洲和亚洲,亚种分化众多,在亚洲已报道有 M.d.ussuriensis,M.d.loukashkini,M.d.petax和M.d.laniger但其分类地位一直受到国内外学者的关注.中国的水鼠耳蝠长期以来被认为属于水鼠耳蝠M daubentonii亚种.最近有研究认为中国的水鼠耳蝠与欧洲的水鼠耳蝠M.daubentonii不同,并把"petax"提升为种.在中国境内相继采到17只鼠耳蝠标本,根据外形、头骨、牙齿、阴茎骨、线粒体DNA细胞色素b等特征,鉴定为东亚水鼠耳蝠Myotis petax,对中国水鼠耳蝠的种和亚种分类做一讨论.

  18. Caracterización espeleológica e inventario biológico de la Caverna del Diablo en el municipio de Becerril, Departamento del Cesar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Vides-Navarro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to characterize the most important aspects of the Devil´s cave, including biophysical, geological, speleological and morphological components. Methods: A descriptive research from observations in situ, specific technical work of topography, geology, speleology and biology, along with study of related literature has been conducted. Results: The methods used allowed us to learn about the natural richness inside the cave, with outstanding karst landforms (speleothems, presence of fish, crustaceans and other organisms that might be endemic. The information obtained indicates that the origin of the cavity is due to fluvial erosion processes and forced circulation of streams, evidenced in its shaped rosary surface on the interior walls of the structure. Landforms are mostly at the entrance of the cavity in varieties like Stalactites, Castings, Sandsicles and Gours. The biophysical component is the most distinctive aspect of the cave, consisting in a good dynamic of ventilation, permanent presence of water, high humidity and variety of wildlife, including taxa as Chiroptera, Araneae, Anura, Lepidoptera, Blattodea stand, Rodents, Oligochaeta, Dermaptera, siluriform and Decapods. Conclusions: Lithologically, the cavity is framed in limestone rocks rich in organic matter with variation in surface color belonging to the La Luna Formation, the low humidity of the cavity at its entrance and high carbonate content favored the formation of large numbers of speleothems. The inside observations and studies on the water stream showed that biophysical conditions of this place are suitable to house a rich diversity of wildlife.

  19. Impact of wind turbines on bats : literature review; Impacts des eoliennes sur les chauves-souris : revue de litterature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, F.

    2006-09-15

    As wind power development intensifies around the world, concerns are being raised regarding the impact on birds and chiroptera. Studies have been conducted to explore the possible causes of bat morality associated with wind power development in Quebec and to determine possible mitigation strategies. It is expected that wind energy development will increase in the province from 100 MW in 2003 to more than 3,500 MW by 2013. The regions that have high potential for wind energy development in Quebec include the Appalachian corridor, the Lower North Shore, the Magdelaine Islands, Anticosti Island, the Gaspe Peninsula and northern Quebec. The migration patterns of bats have been examined through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. Possible causes for bat mortality by wind turbines include seasonal migration routes, light, food and ultrasonic attraction. It was concluded that it is imperative to understand the causes of bat mortality in order to develop possible mitigation measures. 40 refs.

  20. 狐蝠对森林生态系统的作用%Important role of flying foxes (Megachiroptera) to forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杰; 张金国; 张恩泉; 张劲硕; 梁冰; 张树义; 沈钧贤

    2004-01-01

    翼手目(Chiroptera)为真正能飞翔的哺乳动物,现存19科1 107种,分别属于小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera)和大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera);其中大蝙蝠又称旧大陆狐蝠或果蝠(flyingfox),分布在热带和亚热带地区,仅狐蝠科188种,我国自然分布有9种.部分地区因栖息地丧失和过度捕杀导致狐蝠种群数量全球性或地区性下降或灭绝;狐蝠通过传播种子或传粉,促进森林生态系统的更新和基因交流.因此,狐蝠对森林生态系统的稳定、扩散、生物多样性以及衰退森林的恢复有重要作用.

  1. Phylogenomic analyses of bat subordinal relationships based on transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Bats, order Chiroptera, are one of the largest monophyletic clades in mammals. Based on morphology and behaviour bats were once differentiated into two suborders Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera Recently, researchers proposed alternative views of chiropteran classification (suborders Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera) based on morphological, molecular and fossil evidence. Since genome-scale data can significantly increase the number of informative characters for analysis, transcriptome RNA-seq data for 12 bat taxa were generated in an attempt to resolve bat subordinal relationships at the genome level. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 1470 orthologous genes and 634,288 aligned sites. We found strong support for the Yinpterochiroptera-Yangochiroptera classification. Next, we built expression distance matrices for each species and reconstructed gene expression trees. The tree is highly consistent with sequence-based phylogeny. We also examined the influence of taxa sampling on the performance of phylogenetic methods, and found that the topology is robust to sampling. Relaxed molecular clock estimates the divergence between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera around 63 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of Yinpterochiroptera, corresponding to the split between Rhinolophoidea and Pteropodidae (Old World Fruit bats), is estimated to have occurred 60 million years ago. Our work provided a valuable resource to further explore the evolutionary relationship within bats. PMID:27291671

  2. Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carvalho de Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha. More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.

  3. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  4. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  5. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatake, Hatsuho; Nashimoto, Makoto; Chiba, Shinji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  6. Comparison of three airborne laser bathymetry data sets for monitoring the German Baltic Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujin; Niemeyer, Joachim; Ellmer, Wilfried; Soergel, Uwe; Heipke, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Airborne laser bathymetry (ALB) can be used for hydrographic surveying with relative high resolution in shallow water. In this paper, we examine the applicability of this technique based on three flight campaigns. These were conducted between 2012 and 2014 close to the island of Poel in the German Baltic Sea. The first data set was acquired by a Riegl VQ-820-G sensor in November 2012. The second and third data sets were acquired by a Chiroptera sensor of Airborne Hydrography AB in September 2013 and May 2014, respectively. We examine the 3D points classified as seabed under different conditions during data acquisition, e.g. the turbidity level of the water and the flight altitude. The analysis comprises the point distribution, point density, and the area coverage in several depth levels. In addition, we determine the vertical accuracy of the 3D seabed points by computing differences to echo sounding data. Finally, the results of the three flight campaigns are compared to each other and analyzed with respect to the different conditions during data acquisition. For each campaign only small differences in elevation between the laser and the echo sounding data set are observed. The ALB results satisfy the requirements of IHO Standards for Hydrographic Surveys (S-44) Order 1b for several depth intervals.

  7. Digital neuromorphic processing for a simplified algorithm of ultrasonic reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Lin; Clarke, Chris

    2001-05-01

    Previously, most mammalian auditory systems research has concentrated on human sensory perception whose frequencies are lower than 20 kHz. The implementations almost always used analog VLSI design. Due to the complexity of the model, it is difficult to implement these algorithms using current digital technology. This paper introduces a simplified model of biosonic reception system in bats and its implementation in the ``Chiroptera Inspired Robotic CEphaloid'' (CIRCE) project. This model consists of bandpass filters, a half-wave rectifier, low-pass filters, automatic gain control, and spike generation with thresholds. Due to the real-time requirements of the system, the system employs Butterworth filters and advanced field programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures to provide a viable solution. The ultrasonic signal processing is implemented on a Xilinx FPGA Virtex II device in real time. In the system, 12-bit input echo signals from receivers are sampled at 1 M samples per second for a signal frequency range from 20 to 200 kHz. The system performs a 704-channel per ear auditory pipeline operating in real time. The output of the system is a coded time series of threshold crossing points. Comparing hardware implementation with fixed-point software, the system shows significant performance gains with no loss of accuracy.

  8. REVISED AND COMMENTED CHECKLIST OF MAMMAL SPECIES OF THE ROMANIAN FAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Murariu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the permanent influences of different factors (habitat degradation and fragmentation, deforestation, infrastructure and urbanization, natural extension or decreasing of some species’ distribution, increasing number of alien species etc., from time to time the faunistic structure of a certain area is changing. As a result of the permanent and increasing anthropic and invasive species’ pressure, our previous checklist of recent mammals from Romania (since 1984 became out of date. A number of 108 taxa are mentioned in this checklist, representing 7 orders of mammals: Insectivora (10 species, Chiroptera (30 sp., Lagomorpha (2 sp., Rodentia (35 sp., Cetacea (3 sp., Carnivora (19 sp., Artiodactyla (8 sp.. In this list are mentioned the scientific and vernacular names (in Romanian and English languages, species distribution and conservation status, according to the Romanian regulations. Thus, only 21 species have stable populations while 76 have populations in decline or in drastic decline. Other categories are not evaluated or even present an increase in their population.

  9. 世界翼手目动物分类系统和种类最新报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲硕; 张俊鹏; 梁冰; 张树义

    2005-01-01

    翼手目(Chiroptera)是哺乳动物纲的第二大目,其种类和数量仅次于啮齿目。俗称蝙蝠,是惟一真正会飞翔的哺乳动物类群。分布几乎遍及两极以外的世界各地,而以热带地区最为丰富。翼手目可能和灵长目共同起源于类似食虫目的最原始的真兽类,现生翼手目分为大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera)和小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera)。前者仅包括狐蝠科(Pteropodidae)一个科,分布于旧大陆热带、亚热带地区;后者种类繁多,分布范围广泛。

  10. Topography and Vegetation Characterization using Dual-Wavelength Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.; Bradford, B.; Magruder, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring Earth surface dynamics at an ever increasing resolution has helped to support the characterization of local topography, including vegetated and urban environments. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to characterize vegetation and landscapes as it provides detailed three-dimensional spatial data with multiple elevation recordings for each laser pulse. The full waveform LIDAR receiver is unique in this aspect as it can capture and record the complete temporal history of the reflected signal, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and ground surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the utility of co-collected, dual-wavelength, full waveform LIDAR data to characterize vegetation and landscapes through the extraction of waveform features, including total waveform energy, canopy energy distribution, and foliage penetration metrics. Assessments are performed using data collected in May 2014 over Monterey, CA, including the Naval Postgraduate School campus area as well as the Point Lobos State Natural Reserve situated on the Monterey coast. The surveys were performed with the Chiroptera dual-laser LIDAR mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), which can collect both green (515nm) and near infrared (1064nm) waveforms simultaneously. Making use of the dual waveforms allows for detailed characterization of the vegetation and landscape not previously possible with airborne LIDAR.

  11. A comparative study of prenatal development in Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, Hipposideros armiger and H. pratti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Binghua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats comprise the second largest order of mammals. However, there are far fewer morphological studies of post-implantation embryonic development than early embryonic development in bats. Results We studied three species of bats (Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, Hipposideros armiger and H. pratti, representing the two suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera. Using an established embryonic staging system, we identified the embryonic stages for M. schreibersii fuliginosus, H. armiger and H. pratti and described the morphological changes in each species, including the development of the complex and distinctive nose-leaves in H. armiger and H. pratti. Finally, we compared embryonic and fetal morphology of the three species in the present study with five other species for which information is available. Conclusion As a whole, the organogenetic sequence of bat embryos is uniform and the embryos appear homoplastic before Stage 16. Morphological differentiation between species occurs mainly after embryonic Stage 16. Our study provides three new bat species for interspecific comparison of post-implantation embryonic development within the order Chiroptera and detailed data on the development of nose-leaves for bats in the superfamily Rhinolophoidea.

  12. Vetufebrus ovatus n. gen., n. sp. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae vectored by a streblid bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae in Dominican amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poinar George O

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera.

  13. Mercury in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) maternity colonies and its correlation with freshwater acidity in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Megan E; Burgess, Neil M; Broders, Hugh G; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-02-17

    Insectivorous little brown bats are exposed to elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) through their preference for aquatic-based prey. Here we investigated spatial patterns of total Hg (THg) in fur from 10 little brown bat maternity colonies across Nova Scotia, and assessed relationships with the acidity of nearby lakes and rivers. Total Hg concentrations were measured in fur samples from 149 adult female little brown bats. Values showed significant variation among colonies (mean range 3.76-27.38 μg/g, dry weight), and 48% of individuals had Hg concentrations in excess of the 10 μg/g threshold associated with neurochemical changes in Chiroptera conspecifics (n = 26) from Virginia. Average surface water acidity parameters (pH and acid neutralization capacity) within an 8 km radius of each maternity roost showed strong negative associations with average colony fur THg concentrations. This suggests that freshwater acidity in foraging grounds explains much of the variation in average fur THg concentrations in little brown bat colonies. These findings highlight the significant role that water quality may have on Hg bioaccumulation within terrestrial species that feed on aquatic prey. PMID:25591047

  14. Assessing DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and data quality control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yi Shen

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of sequences of diverse species submitted to GenBank has grown explosively and not infrequently the data contain errors. This problem is extensively recognized but not for invalid or incorrectly identified species, sample mixed-up, and contamination. DNA barcoding is a powerful tool for identifying and confirming species and one very important application involves forensics. In this study, we use DNA barcoding to detect erroneous sequences in GenBank by evaluating deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergences to discover possible taxonomic problems and other sources of error. We use the mitochondrial DNA gene encoding cytochrome b (Cytb from turtles to test the utility of barcoding for pinpointing potential errors. This gene is widely used in phylogenetic studies of the speciose group. Intraspecific variation is usually less than 2.0% and in most cases it is less than 1.0%. In comparison, most species differ by more than 10.0% in our dataset. Overlapping intra- and interspecific percentages of variation mainly involve problematic identifications of species and outdated taxonomies. Further, we detect identical problems in Cytb from Insectivora and Chiroptera. Upon applying this strategy to 47,524 mammalian CoxI sequences, we resolve a suite of potentially problematic sequences. Our study reveals that erroneous sequences are not rare in GenBank and that the DNA barcoding can serve to confirm sequencing accuracy and discover problems such as misidentified species, inaccurate taxonomies, contamination, and potential errors in sequencing.

  15. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  16. Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, André Luiz R; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2014-12-01

    The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic "puzzle", as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs). These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders - Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera - responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild. PMID:25426421

  17. Wild and synanthropic reservoirs of Leishmania species in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz R. Roque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of a reservoir has changed significantly in the last century, making it necessary to study zoonosis from a broader perspective. One important example is that of Leishmania, zoonotic multi-host parasites maintained by several mammal species in nature. The magnitude of the health problem represented by leishmaniasis combined with the complexity of its epidemiology make it necessary to clarify all of the links in transmission net, including non-human mammalian hosts, to develop effective control strategies. Although some studies have described dozens of species infected with these parasites, only a minority have related their findings to the ecological scenario to indicate a possible role of that host in parasite maintenance and transmission. Currently, it is accepted that a reservoir may be one or a complex of species responsible for maintaining the parasite in nature. A reservoir system should be considered unique on a given spatiotemporal scale. In fact, the transmission of Leishmania species in the wild still represents an complex enzootic “puzzle”, as several links have not been identified. This review presents the mammalian species known to be infected with Leishmania spp. in the Americas, highlighting those that are able to maintain and act as a source of the parasite in nature (and are thus considered potential reservoirs. These host/reservoirs are presented separately in each of seven mammal orders – Marsupialia, Cingulata, Pilosa, Rodentia, Primata, Carnivora, and Chiroptera – responsible for maintaining Leishmania species in the wild.

  18. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.

  19. Carios mimon (Acari: Argasidae): description of adults and redescription of larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Marcili, Arlei; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Venzal, José Manuel; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2011-05-01

    Carios mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera, originally described from larvae collected on bats Mimon crenulatum from Bolivia and Eptesicus brasiliensis from Uruguay. Later it was also registered from Argentina and recently included among the Brazilian tick fauna. In Brazil, this species is very aggressive to man, resulting in intense inflammatory response and pain. It is known only by the larval description and its morphology resembles that from other species currently included into the genus Carios, formerly classified into the subgenus Alectorobius, genus Ornithodoros. Here we describe adults and redescribe the larva of C. mimon, based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Remarks about its morphological similarity with other species of this genus are also discussed. Molecular analysis inferred from a portion of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene placed C. mimon in a cluster supported by maximal bootstrap value (100%) with other argasid species (mostly bat parasites in the New World), which have been classified into either the genus Ornithodoros or Carios, depending on the Argasidae classification adopted by different authors. PMID:21161720

  20. Description of nymphal instars of Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, 1969 (Acari: Argasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Pevidor, Luisa Viana; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera in the Neotropical region, where it also bites humans aggressively. Here we describe for the first time all nymphal instars (N1, N2 and N3) of O. mimon based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Although the nymphal instars of O. mimon resemble each other closely, there are characters that differentiate them: the N3 are taller that N1 and N2; the genital primordium occurs in some N2 and all N3; the spiracular plate in N1 and N2 is cone-like, but in N3 it is semicircular; and the submarginal dorsal groove is less distinct in N1 but more evident in N3. Nymphs of 0. mimon closely resemble the bat-associated species of the genus Ornithodoros included in the Alectorobius group. We review prior descriptions of nymphs of the Alectorobius group and make comparisons with nymphs of O. minon, highlighting characters with diagnostic information, such as the idiosomal shape, presence of discs and hood and absence subapical protuberance of tarsus I. The description of nymphal instars of O. mimon herein presented, improves the taxonomy of the family Argasidae, performing a work more detailed about the immature stage of this species. PMID:26106682

  1. The broad spectrum of Trichinella hosts: from cold- to warm-blooded animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, studies on Trichinella have shown that the host range is wider than previously believed and new Trichinella species and genotypes have been described. Three classes of vertebrates are known to act as hosts, mammals, birds and reptiles, and infected vertebrates have been detected on all continents but Antarctica. Mammals represent the most important hosts and all Trichinella species are able to develop in this vertebrate class. Natural infections with Trichinella have been described in more than 150 mammalian species belonging to 12 orders (i.e., Marsupialia, Insectivora, Edentata, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Cetacea, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, Tylopoda and Primates). The epidemiology of the infection greatly varies by species relative to characteristics, such as diet, life span, distribution, behaviour, and relationships with humans. The non-encapsulated species Trichinella pseudospiralis, detected in both mammals (14 species) and birds (13 species), shows a cosmopolitan distribution with three distinguishable populations in the Palearctic, Nearctic and Australian regions. Two additional non-encapsulated species, Trichinella papuae, detected in wild pigs and saltwater crocodiles of Papua New Guinea, and Trichinella zimbabwensis, detected in farmed Nile crocodiles of Zimbabwe, can complete their life cycle in both mammals and reptiles. To the best of our knowledge, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are the only two parasites known to complete their entire life cycle independently of whether the host is warm-blooded or cold-blooded. This suggests that these two Trichinella species are capable of activating different physiological mechanisms, according to the specific vertebrate class hosting them. PMID:15970384

  2. Topsy-turvy locomotion: biomechanical specializations of the elbow in suspended quadrupeds reflect inverted gravitational constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Endo, Hideki; Hutchinson, John R

    2011-08-01

    Some tetrapods hang upside down from tree branches when moving horizontally. The ability to walk in quadrupedal suspension has been acquired independently in at least 14 mammalian lineages. During the stance (supportive) phase of quadrupedal suspension, the elbow joint flexor muscles (not the extensors as in upright vertebrates moving overground) are expected to contract to maintain the flexed limb posture. Therefore muscular control in inverted, suspended quadrupeds may require changes of muscle control, and even morphologies, to conditions opposite to those in upright animals. However, the relationships between musculoskeletal morphologies and elbow joint postures during the stance phase in suspended quadrupeds have not been investigated. Our analysis comparing postures and skeletal morphologies in Choloepus (Pilosa), Pteropus (Chiroptera), Nycticebus (Primates) and Cynocephalus (Dermoptera) revealed that the elbow joints of these animals were kept at flexed angles of 70-100 ° during the stance phase of quadrupedal suspension. At these joint angles the moment arms of the elbow joint flexors were roughly maximized, optimizing that component of antigravity support. Our additional measurements from various mammalian species show that suspended quadrupeds have relatively small extensor/flexor ratios in both muscle masses and maximum moment arms. Thus, in contrast to the pattern in normal terrestrial quadrupeds, suspended quadrupeds emphasize flexor over extensor muscles for body support. This condition has evolved independently multiple times, attendant with a loss or reduction of the ability to move in normal upright postures. PMID:21477151

  3. Foraging areas of Rousettus leschenaulti on the Hainan Island of China

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    Zhanhui TANG, Zhong CHEN, Jie MA, Guangjian ZHU, Xunfeng MA, Lianxi SHENG, Yuchun LI

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the foraging area of three individuals (1 female and 2 males of Rousettus leschenaulti (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in suburban Haikou City, Hainan Province, South China from November 2005 to January 2006 using radio telemetry. These animals left the daytime roosting sites about 90 min after sunset with no significant difference in departure time between the male and female bats. The average active times were 391.8 min for males and 533.7 min for the female, respectively. By reconstructing 93 radio-telemetry recording positions, we found that the long axis of foraging area of the bats ranged from 7.45 to 11.70 km. The foraging area of the female (3867 ha was larger than that of the males (1138 ha, and there was overlap between the foraging areas of different individuals. These bats usually kept the same flight routes across a few successive days from the daytime roosting site to the foraging areas. Our findings suggested that female R. leschenaulti may explore a larger foraging area than males. No obvious territorial behaviors were observed in our studied area [Current Zoology 56 (4: 479–484, 2010].

  4. Terrestrial locomotion imposes high metabolic requirements on bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Borrisov, Ivailo M; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L

    2012-12-15

    The evolution of powered flight involved major morphological changes in Chiroptera. Nevertheless, all bats are also capable of crawling on the ground and some are even skilled sprinters. We asked if a highly derived morphology adapted for flapping flight imposes high metabolic requirements on bats when moving on the ground. We measured the metabolic rate during terrestrial locomotion in mastiff bats, Molossus currentium, a species that is both a fast-flying aerial-hawking bat and an agile crawler on the ground. Metabolic rates of bats averaged 8.0±4.0 ml CO(2) min(-1) during a 1-min period of sprinting at 1.3±0.6 km h(-1). With rising average speed, mean metabolic rates increased, reaching peak values that were similar to those of flying conspecifics. Metabolic rates of M. currentium were higher than those of similar-sized rodents that sprinted at similar velocities under steady-state conditions. When M. currentium sprinted at peak velocities, its aerobic metabolic rate was 3-5 times higher than those of rodent species running continuously in steady-state conditions. Costs of transport (J kg(-1) m(-1)) were more than 10 times higher for running than for flying bats. We conclude that at the same speed bats experience higher metabolic rates during short sprints than quadruped mammals during steady-state terrestrial locomotion, yet running bats achieve higher maximal mass-specific aerobic metabolic rates than non-volant mammals such as rodents. PMID:22972883

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Drexler, Jan F; Kallies, René; Ličková, Martina; Bokorová, Silvia; Mananga, Gael D; Szemes, Tomáš; Leroy, Eric M; Krüger, Detlev H; Drosten, Christian; Klempa, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic l-segment showed that MAKV was the most closely related to other bat-borne hantaviruses and shared a most recent common ancestor with the Asian hantaviruses Xuan Son and Laibin. Breakdown of the virus load in a bat animal showed that MAKV resembles rodent-borne hantaviruses in its organ distribution in that it predominantly occurred in the spleen and kidney; this provides a first insight into the infection pattern of bat-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a tree of l gene sequences of all relevant hantavirus lineages was combined with phylogenetic fossil host hypothesis testing, leading to a statistically significant rejection of the mammalian superorder Euarchontoglires (including rodents) but not the superorder Laurasiatheria (including shrews, moles, and bats) as potential hosts of ancestral hantaviruses at most basal tree nodes. Our data supports the emerging concept of bats as previously overlooked hantavirus reservoir hosts. PMID:27051047

  6. Fleas (Siphonaptera) are Cretaceous, and evolved with Theria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiyun; Hastriter, Michael W; Whiting, Michael F; Dittmar, Katharina

    2015-09-01

    Fleas (order Siphonaptera) are highly-specialized, diverse blood-feeding ectoparasites of mammals and birds with an enigmatic evolutionary history and obscure origin. We here present a molecular phylogenetic study based on a comprehensive taxon sampling of 259 flea taxa, representing 16 of the 18 extant families of this order. A Bayesian phylogenetic tree with strong nodal support was recovered, consisting of seven sequentially derived lineages with Macropsyllidae as the earliest divergence, followed by Stephanocircidae. Divergence times of flea lineages were estimated based on fossil records and host specific associations to bats (Chiroptera), suggesting that the common ancestor of extant Siphonaptera diversified during the Cretaceous. However, most of the intraordinal divergence into extant lineages took place after the K-Pg boundary. Ancestral states of host association and biogeographical distribution were reconstructed, suggesting with high likelihood that fleas originated in the southern continents (Gondwana) and migrated from South America to their extant distributions in a relatively short time frame. Theria (placental mammals and marsupials) represent the most likely ancestral host group of extant Siphonaptera, with marsupials occupying a more important role than previously assumed. Major extant flea families evolved in connection to post K-Pg diversification of Placentalia. The association of fleas with monotremes and birds is likely due to later secondary host association. These results suggest caution in casually interpreting recently discovered Mesozoic fossil "dinosaur fleas" of Northeast Asia as part of what we currently consider Siphonaptera. PMID:25987528

  7. Pupal deposition and ecology of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae): Trichobius sp. (caecus group) in a Mexican cave habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Katharina; Dick, Carl W; Patterson, Bruce D; Whiting, Michael F; Gruwell, Matthew E

    2009-04-01

    We studied the deposition of pupae of the winged bat fly Trichobius sp. (caecus group; Diptera), an ectoparasite of Natalus stramineus (Chiroptera, Natalidae), in a natural cave in Tamaulipas, Mexico. For the first time, we show a strong spatial segregation of populations of a streblid bat fly at different stages of development. Using molecular techniques we were able to match developmental stages to adults. Only 5 pupae were present in the main bat roosts. The overwhelming majority occurred exclusively in the bat flyway passages at a considerable distance from roosting bats. Pupal density corresponded positively with the average flight height of bats in the cave passage. Taken together, observations suggest that these ectoparasites must actively seek out their hosts by moving onto passing or roosting bats. The scarceness of pupae in the main roost may be dictated by environmental constraints for their development. The estimated population of viable pupae far exceeds the population of imagoes on the bats, and predation on adults by spiders is common. PMID:18684039

  8. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  9. Bat Species Comparisons Based on External Morphology: A Test of Traditional versus Geometric Morphometric Approaches.

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    Daniela A Schmieder

    Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.

  10. Ultrastructural, Antigenic and Physicochemical Characterization of the Mojuí dos Campos (Bunyavirus Isolated from Bat in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    Wanzeller Ana LM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.

  11. c-myc gene sequences and the phylogeny of bats and other eutherian mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M M; Porter, C A; Goodman, M

    2000-09-01

    The complete protein-coding sequences of the c-myc proto-oncogene were determined for five species of four new orders of eutherian (placental) mammals. These newly obtained sequences were aligned to each other and to other available orthologs for the phylogenetic estimation of eutherian interordinal relationships. Several measures of sequence difference and base composition were first calculated to assess the major evolutionary properties of the three codon positions and two protein-coding exons of the gene. On the basis of these calculations, different parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood approaches were adopted, with the most sophisticated involving the separate, then combined, likelihood analyses of the third codon positions of exon 2 versus all other sites. These phylogenetic approaches provided clear support for the grouping of Chiroptera (bats) with Artiodactyla (ruminants, camels, and pigs) and Carnivora (cats, dogs, and their allies), an interordinal arrangement that receives strong corroboration from other lines of evidence including complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. In contrast, these analyses failed to provide strong to reasonable support for any other interordinal group. This study concludes with specific recommendations about sampling and other strategies for maximizing the phylogenetic contributions of the c-myc gene to the continued resolution of the eutherian ordinal tree. PMID:12116424

  12. Molecular Phylogeny of Hantaviruses Harbored by Insectivorous Bats in Côte d’Ivoire and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Hun Gu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera, captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981–2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona (family Hipposideridae, captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus (family Vespertilionidae, captured in Côte d’Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.

  13. Terrestrial mammal fauna and habitat in environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed the geological distribution of mammals, relationships between ecological distribution of mammals and land use, and vegetation type in the 49 environmental assessment reports of thermal and nuclear power stations in the coastal area of Japan. Seven orders and 17 families of 66 terrestrial mammal species including subspecies were listed from the reports. This is about 40% of the total species of terrestrial mammals observed in Japan. Mammals were divided into 3 groups: distributed in the nationwide, in limited districts, and in limited area. The geological distributions of Insectivora, Rodentia, Chiroptera and naturalized mammals, of which have not been well known, were arranged in a topographic map at the scale of 1:50,000 in this survey. The characteristics of power station sites were classified into 4 categories as follows: Industrial site, Industrial-agricultural mixed site, Industrial-agricultural-forest mixed site, and forest site. The relationships between site categories and species compositions were analyzed. The listed species were fifteen species in the industrial site, however, there were thirty six species in the forest site. The mammal species were classified into six groups by vegetation types of habitat; forest-dwelling, grassland-dwelling, farmland and orchard-dwelling, wide-dwelling except residential area, wide-dwelling mammals including residential area, and residential area-dwelling mammals. (author)

  14. Mamíferos de los bosques de roble Mammals of the Oak Forest

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    Otálora Ardila Aída

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado proceso de deforestación sobre los bosques andinos ha generado la formación de paisajes fragmentados. La distribución de los robledales en el país, se estableció con base en mapas de ecosistemas existentes. Los robledales de la zona de Encino y Charalá corresponden al fragmento de mayor extensión. Estos ecosistemas han sufrido procesos de fragmentación por la sobreexplotación de sus recursos. En estos robledales se registran 55 especies de mamíferos pertenecientes a 10 órdenes y 14 familias. Los órdenes Chiroptera y Rodentia son los más abundantes. En Encino y Charalá se estimó una pérdida de hábitat del 68.1% y las principales amenazas sobre estos robledales son las ejercidas por la presión antrópica. Se realizó una valoración del área de los parches de roble para las especies de mamíferos. Las especies grandes tuvieron una valoración mala, las medianas buena y regular y las especies pequeñas terrestres y arborícolas muy buena. Se sugiere un efecto del área de los fragmentos sobre las especies de mamíferos que podría reflejarse en la disminución de la riqueza de especies con la disminución del área de cada fragmento. Existe buena conectividad entre los fragmentos (cinco aislados. Esto significa que los fragmentos restantes funcionan como una unidad continua permitiendo el sostenimiento de una mayor diversidad de especies. Además, entre los fragmentos conectados existe una gran franja de páramo la cual contribuye a aumentarla conectividad entre los mismos y ofrece hábitats diferentes para algunas especies de mamíferos que pueden explotar los recursos del ecosistema paramuno.The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of Oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charalá and Encino Oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the

  15. Adaptation of Specialized Auditory System to Echolocation in CF-FM Bat%恒频-调频蝙蝠特化的听觉系统对回声定位的适应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娜; 付子英; 陈其才

    2014-01-01

    在漫长的生物演化过程中,蝙蝠演化出了能飞行和高度适应生存环境的生物声纳系统和行为.蝙蝠属于哺乳动物纲的翼手目(Chiroptera),是唯一能真正飞行的哺乳动物,其种类超过1000种,位列哺乳类动物的第二大目.根据其体型大小和形态特征将其分成大蝙蝠亚目(Megachiroptera)和小蝙蝠亚目(Microchiroptera).对蝙蝠的研究具有重要的科学意义和实际应用价值,如在听感觉方面与人类共享听觉的某些基本原理,研究结果有助于认识人类听觉.它们发出的回声定位信号规整,便于模拟后用于研究听觉系统对声信号加工的机制,尤其是在听中枢对复杂声信号处理方面,认识其细胞和分子机制才刚开始,它们是极好的模型动物.另外,在仿生学方面也具有极其重要的价值,回声定位蝙蝠的生物声纳系统具有极高的时间和空间分辨率,是极具诱惑力的研究课题.有关恒频-调频蝙蝠听觉结构和功能的研究,已有相当的时日,获得了不少新的认识,窥探到敏锐的听觉与回声定位行为之间的某些适应性的机制,本文对这方面的研究进展做了简要介绍和评述.%The evolution makes bats have abilities of flying,echolocating and highly adaptating to living surroundings.Bats,as the only true flying mammals,belong to the Chiroptera,ranking the second order of the mammals with more than 1000 species.They are classified into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera according to their size and morphological characteristics of the body.Because bats share some basic principles with human in auditory perception,the researches of bats can provide helpful information to understand the hearing of human.The echolocation signals emitted by bats are regular and can be easily imitated to study the mechanism of the signal processing in the central auditory system,especially in the processing of complex acoustic signals,bats is an excellent model animal

  16. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, E

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  17. More than a rabbit's tale – Encephalitozoon spp. in wild mammals and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hinney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the microsporidian genus Encephalitozoon, three species, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon intestinalis have been described. Several orders of the Class Aves (Passeriformes, Psittaciformes, Apodiformes, Ciconiiformis, Gruiformes, Columbiformes, Suliformes, Podicipediformes, Anseriformes, Struthioniformes, Falconiformes and of the Class Mammalia (Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Artyodactyla, Soricomorpha, Chiroptera, Carnivora can become infected. Especially E. cuniculi has a very broad host range while E. hellem is mainly distributed amongst birds. E. intestinalis has so far been detected only sporadically in wild animals. Although genotyping allows the identification of strains with a certain host preference, recent studies have demonstrated that they have no strict host specificity. Accordingly, humans can become infected with any of the four strains of E. cuniculi as well as with E. hellem or E. intestinalis, the latter being the most common. Especially, but not exclusively, immunocompromised people are at risk. Environmental contamination with as well as direct transmission of Encephalitozoon is therefore highly relevant for public health. Moreover, endangered species might be threatened by the spread of pathogens into their habitats. In captivity, clinically overt and often fatal disease seems to occur frequently. In conclusion, Encephalitozoon appears to be common in wild warm-blooded animals and these hosts may present important reservoirs for environmental contamination and maintenance of the pathogens. Similar to domestic animals, asymptomatic infections seem to occur frequently but in captive wild animals severe disease has also been reported. Detailed investigations into the epidemiology and clinical relevance of these microsporidia will permit a full appraisal of their role as pathogens.

  18. Interpretación paleoclimática de tas faunas de micromamíferos del Mioceno, Plioceno y Pleistoceno de la cuenca de Guadix-Baza (Granada, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesé, C.

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative and qualitative composition, and the general diversity of the micromammalian faunas (Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Insectivora and Chiroptera from 16 sedimentary fluvial-lacustrine sites from the Guadix-Baza basin, of ages extending from the Late Miocene until the Middle Pleistocene, is analised. The paleoecological and paleoclimatic interpretation of the data obtained in this analysis is the following: The high quantitative and qualitative change, and the relative decrease of the diversity that can be observed in the micromammal faunas from Granada at the beginning of the Villafranchian, seems to be related with an increase of the relative humidity and climatic cooling as regards to the Ruscinian. The relative increase of the diversity in the Middle Pleistocene, indicates a relative more temperate climate than that of the Lower Pleistocene.Se analiza la composición cuantitativa, cualitativa y la diversidad general de las faunas de micromamíferos (roedores, lagomorfos, insectívoros y quirópteros de 16 yacimientos sedimentarios fluviolacustres de la cuenca de Guadix-Baza, de edades comprendidas entre el final del Mioceno y el Pleistoceno medio. La interpretación paleoecológica y paleoclimática de los datos obtenidos en dicho análisis es la siguiente: El notable cambio cuantitativo y cualitativo, y la disminución de la diversidad que se aprecia en las faunas de micromamíferos granadinas al comienzo del Villafranquiense parece estar relacionado con un aumento de la humedad relativa y un enfriamiento del clima con respecto al Rusciniense. En el Pleistoceno medio, el aumento relativo de la diversidad y la composición de las faunas granadinas indican unas condiciones climáticas relativamente más benignas que las del Pleistoceno inferior.

  19. Dietary and flight energetic adaptations in a salivary gland transcriptome of an insectivorous bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Carleton J; Phillips, Caleb D; Goecks, Jeremy; Lessa, Enrique P; Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Tandler, Bernard; Gannon, Michael R; Baker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG) transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL) related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL) most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s) with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary 'bursts' of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event. PMID:24454705

  20. Adaptive evolution of the myo6 gene in old world fruit bats (family: pteropodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specialized adaptations occur among different bat lineages, such as echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing in laryngeal echolocating bats, large eyes and a strong dependence on vision in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae), and specialized high-carbohydrate but low-nitrogen diets in both Old World and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). To investigate what role(s) the Myo6 gene might fulfill in bats, we sequenced the coding region of the Myo6 gene in 15 bat species and used molecular evolutionary analyses to detect evidence of positive selection in different bat lineages. We also conducted real-time PCR assays to explore the expression levels of Myo6 in a range of tissues from three representative bat species. Molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Myo6 gene, which was widely considered as a hearing gene, has undergone adaptive evolution in the Old World fruit bats which lack laryngeal echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing. Real-time PCR showed the highest expression level of the Myo6 gene in the kidney among ten tissues examined in three bat species, indicating an important role for this gene in kidney function. We suggest that Myo6 has undergone adaptive evolution in Old World fruit bats in relation to receptor-mediated endocytosis for the preservation of protein and essential nutrients. PMID:23620821

  1. Heterothermy in Afrotropical mammals and birds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi

    2011-09-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the number of Afrotropical endotherms known to avoid mismatches between energy supply and demand by using daily torpor and/or hibernation. Among mammals, heterothermy has been reported in 40 species in six orders, namely Macroscelidea, Afrosoricida, Rodentia, Eulipotyphla, Primates and Chiroptera. These species span a range in body mass of 7-770 g, with minimum heterothermic body temperatures ranging from 1-27°C and bout length varying from 1 h to 70 days. Daily torpor is the most common form of heterothermy, with true hibernation being observed in only seven species, Graphiurus murinus, Graphiurus ocularis, Atelerix frontalis, Cheirogaleus medius, Cheirogaleus major, Microcebus murinus and Microcebus griseorufus. The traditional distinction between daily torpor and hibernation is blurred in some species, with free-ranging individuals exhibiting bouts of > 24 h and body temperatures < 16 °C, but none of the classical behaviours associated with hibernation. Several species bask in the sun during rewarming. Among birds, heterothermy has been reported in 16 species in seven orders, and is more pronounced in phylogenetically older taxa. Both in mammals and birds, patterns of heterothermy can vary dramatically among species occurring at a particular site, and even among individuals of a single species. For instance, patterns of heterothermy among cheirogalid primates in western Madagascar vary from daily torpor to uninterrupted hibernation for up to seven months. Other examples of variation among closely-related species involve small owls, elephant shrews and vespertilionid bats. There may also be variation in terms of the ecological correlates of torpor within a species, as is the case in the Freckled Nightjar Caprimulgus tristigma. PMID:21705792

  2. Faster speciation and reduced extinction in the tropics contribute to the Mammalian latitudinal diversity gradient.

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    Jonathan Rolland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in species richness from the poles to the tropics, referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient, is one of the most ubiquitous biodiversity patterns in the natural world. Although understanding how rates of speciation and extinction vary with latitude is central to explaining this pattern, such analyses have been impeded by the difficulty of estimating diversification rates associated with specific geographic locations. Here, we use a powerful phylogenetic approach and a nearly complete phylogeny of mammals to estimate speciation, extinction, and dispersal rates associated with the tropical and temperate biomes. Overall, speciation rates are higher, and extinction rates lower, in the tropics than in temperate regions. The diversity of the eight most species-rich mammalian orders (covering 92% of all mammals peaks in the tropics, except that of the Lagomorpha (hares, rabbits, and pikas reaching a maxima in northern-temperate regions. Latitudinal patterns in diversification rates are strikingly consistent with these diversity patterns, with peaks in species richness associated with low extinction rates (Primates and Lagomorpha, high speciation rates (Diprotodontia, Artiodactyla, and Soricomorpha, or both (Chiroptera and Rodentia. Rates of range expansion were typically higher from the tropics to the temperate regions than in the other direction, supporting the "out of the tropics" hypothesis whereby species originate in the tropics and disperse into higher latitudes. Overall, these results suggest that differences in diversification rates have played a major role in shaping the modern latitudinal diversity gradient in mammals, and illustrate the usefulness of recently developed phylogenetic approaches for understanding this famous yet mysterious pattern.

  3. 大足鼠耳蝠的翼型和回声定位声波特征%The wing shape and echolocation calls of Ricketti's big-footed bat(Myotis ricketti)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建平; 周善义; 谭敏; 洪体玉; 朱光剑; 张礼标

    2009-01-01

    From September to November 2007, we recorded and analyzed the echolocation calls of Ricketti' s big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti) , in call-recording cages using BatSound software. We also calculated measurements of wing shape for these bats. We compared the parameters of echolocation calls and wing shape between males and females. The results showed that only the interpulse interval was significantly different between males (68.49 ± 10. 99 ms) and females (83. 61±13. 77 ms) (t-test: t=-2.72, P <0. 01), while the pulse duration (male: 4. 28 ±0. 34 ms, female: 4. 64 ± 0. 97 ms) , the dominant frequency (40. 31±1. 36 kHz, 40. 20±1. 32 kHz ), the max frequency (72. 40 ±2. 37 kHz, 72. 20 ±2. 66 kHz), the min frequency (29. 00 ±1. 16 kHz, 28. 60 ± 1. 58 kHz) ,and the measurements of wing shape were not significantly different between males and females. M. rwketti had average wing loading( male;8. 61±0. 72 N/m~2 , female: 8. 51 ± 0. 81 N/m~2) , high aspect ratio (7. 96± 0. 31, 8. 09± 0. 34) and high wing tip shape index (2. 93± 1. 09, 2.48 ±1.02).%@@ 大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti Thomas,1894)属翼手目(Chiroptera),蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae),鼠耳蝠属(Myotis).

  4. Neotropical bats: estimating species diversity with DNA barcodes.

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    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI is frequently employed as an efficient method of species identification in animal life and may also be used to estimate species richness, particularly in understudied faunas. Despite numerous past demonstrations of the efficiency of this technique, few studies have attempted to employ DNA barcoding methodologies on a large geographic scale, particularly within tropical regions. In this study we survey current and potential species diversity using DNA barcodes with a collection of more than 9000 individuals from 163 species of Neotropical bats (order Chiroptera. This represents one of the largest surveys to employ this strategy on any animal group and is certainly the largest to date for land vertebrates. Our analysis documents the utility of this tool over great geographic distances and across extraordinarily diverse habitats. Among the 163 included species 98.8% possessed distinct sets of COI haplotypes making them easily recognizable at this locus. We detected only a single case of shared haplotypes. Intraspecific diversity in the region was high among currently recognized species (mean of 1.38%, range 0-11.79% with respect to birds, though comparable to other bat assemblages. In 44 of 163 cases, well-supported, distinct intraspecific lineages were identified which may suggest the presence of cryptic species though mean and maximum intraspecific divergence were not good predictors of their presence. In all cases, intraspecific lineages require additional investigation using complementary molecular techniques and additional characters such as morphology and acoustic data. Our analysis provides strong support for the continued assembly of DNA barcoding libraries and ongoing taxonomic investigation of bats.

  5. Updated list of bat species positive for rabies in Brazil Lista atualizada das espécies de morcegos positivas para raiva no Brasil

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    Miriam Martos Sodré

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated list of bat species positive for rabies in Brazil. It was developed based on database research via the internet, of international and national literature and annals of the most important technical and scientific meetings related to rabies and chiroptera in Brazil from 1996 to 2009. The new list of rabies positive bats consists of 41 species, belonging to 25 genera and three families: Phyllostomidae 43.9%, Vespertilionidae 29.3% and Molossidae 26.8%. In addition, questions were raised regarding the lack of data, including sex, age, circumstances and location of bat capture and incomplete and outdated species identification. Results of genetic and antigenic studies performed on Brazilian rabies positive bats were shown.Esse artigo apresenta uma lista atualizada de espécies positivas para raiva no Brasil e foi desenvolvida a partir da base de dados na internet da literatura nacional, internacional e dos anais das mais importantes reuniões técnicas e científicas, envolvendo raiva e morcegos no Brasil durante o período de 1996 a 2009. A nova lista de morcegos positivos para raiva consiste de 41 espécies, pertencentes a 25 gêneros e três famílias: Phyllostomidae 43.9%, Vespertilionidae 29.3% e Molossidae 26.8%. Também foram discutidas questões como a falta de dados sobre sexo, faixa etária e circunstâncias de captura dos animais e identificação incompleta ou desatualizada das espécies. Resultados dos estudos genéticos e antigênicos realizados em amostras de morcegos brasileiros positivos para raiva foram apresentados.

  6. Notes of Greater Long-tongued Fruit Bat Macroglossus sobrinus in China%中国安氏长舌果蝠的分类记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯庆; 王应祥; 林苏

    2007-01-01

    1992年3月和1999年12月,分别从云南南部西双版纳勐腊补崩和麻木树采到6号长舌果蝠,经与我国已记载过的翼手目(Chiroptera)狐蝠科(Pteropodidae)长舌果蝠亚科(Macroglossinae)的种类比较:其舌甚长,舌尖具刷状突起,舌面中央有三尖形乳突(tridentate papillae)、前臂长47.31~51.01 mm与长舌果蝠(Eonycteris spelaea)相似,但第二指具爪,翼膜止于第三趾趾基,上唇前缘无沟槽,鼻孔不突出,尾极短、隐于毛被中;头骨后部明显向后下方倾斜,齿槽后延线明显超过人字嵴上缘达及项间骨上缘水平,牙齿非常长而细弱,与长舌果蝠明显有别,这些特征与印度东北部和东南亚一带的安氏长舌果蝠(Macroglossus sobrinus)一致,为我国翼手目狐蝠科长舌果蝠亚科的属、种新纪录,本文对这一属、种作比较详细的记述;另对已记录的长舌果蝠(Eonycteris spelaea),根据新的资料作补充记述.

  7. Historical and Present Day Mercury Contamination From Gold Mining in Three Feeding Guilds of Bats From the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Divoll, T.

    2014-12-01

    Miners in many countries use mercury as an amalgam to separate gold from river sediments. In the last twenty years the price of gold has risen and the number of small-scale, artisanal gold mining operations in the Amazon basin have also increased. The influx of mercury into natural river systems has detrimental consequences for the surrounding ecosystem and for organisms, particularly those at higher trophic levels. Toxic mercury levels have been shown to impair reproductive, neurological and behavioral functioning of organisms. I used bats (Chiroptera) as a mammalian model system to study mercury contamination and accumulation due to gold mining from field caught and museum collection specimens in Amazonian Perú and showed that: (1) Total mercury concentrations in Amazonian bat species have increased over time since the 1920's; (2) Bat species from sites with current active mining have higher concentrations of mercury than non-mining sites, with some species having levels exceeding those considered toxic for mammals; (3) Higher trophic levels of bats (piscivores and insectivores) bioaccumulate more mercury than bats of lower trophic levels (frugivores); (4) Bats located in present day uncontaminated sites have the same mercury levels as bats collected in the 1920's from the Amazon basin. The variety of bat feeding guilds allowed for a comparison of how mercury accumulation is affected by diet within one taxonomic order. The novel use of museum specimens allowed for a look back into the historical timeline of mercury contamination in the Amazon basin. Bats represent a new and exciting study system since, like humans, they are mammals and should therefore show similar neurochemical and behavioral responses to this toxic element.

  8. Random sampling of the Central European bat fauna reveals the existence of numerous hitherto unknown adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovszky, Márton; Kohl, Claudia; Boldogh, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    From over 1250 extant species of the order Chiroptera, 25 and 28 are known to occur in Germany and Hungary, respectively. Close to 350 samples originating from 28 bat species (17 from Germany, 27 from Hungary) were screened for the presence of adenoviruses (AdVs) using a nested PCR that targets the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs. An additional PCR was designed and applied to amplify a fragment from the gene encoding the IVa2 protein of mastadenoviruses. All German samples originated from organs of bats found moribund or dead. The Hungarian samples were excrements collected from colonies of known bat species, throat or rectal swab samples, taken from live individuals that had been captured for faunistic surveys and migration studies, as well as internal organs of dead specimens. Overall, 51 samples (14.73%) were found positive. We detected 28 seemingly novel and six previously described bat AdVs by sequencing the PCR products. The positivity rate was the highest among the guano samples of bat colonies. In phylogeny reconstructions, the AdVs detected in bats clustered roughly, but not perfectly, according to the hosts' families (Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae and Pteropodidae). In a few cases, identical sequences were derived from animals of closely related species. On the other hand, some bat species proved to harbour more than one type of AdV. The high prevalence of infection and the large number of chiropteran species worldwide make us hypothesise that hundreds of different yet unknown AdV types might circulate in bats. PMID:26599097

  9. OASes and STING: adaptive evolution in concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzi, Alessandra; Pontremoli, Chiara; Forni, Diego; Clerici, Mario; Pozzoli, Uberto; Bresolin, Nereo; Cagliani, Rachele; Sironi, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    OAS (2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthases) proteins and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS, gene symbol: MB21D1) patrol the cytoplasm for the presence of foreign nucleic acids. Upon binding to double-stranded RNA or double-stranded DNA, OAS proteins and cGAS produce nucleotide second messengers to activate RNase L and STING (stimulator of interferon genes, gene symbol: TMEM173), respectively; this leads to the initiation of antiviral responses. We analyzed the evolutionary history of the MB21D1-TMEM173 and OAS-RNASEL axes in primates and bats and found evidence of widespread positive selection in both orders. In TMEM173, residue 230, a major determinant of response to natural ligands and to mimetic drugs (e.g., DMXAA), was positively selected in Primates and Chiroptera. In both orders, selection also targeted an α-helix/loop element in RNase L that modulates the enzyme preference for single-stranded RNA versus stem loops. Analysis of positively selected sites in OAS1, OAS2, and MB21D1 revealed parallel evolution, with the corresponding residues being selected in different genes. As this cannot result from gene conversion, these data suggest that selective pressure acting on OAS and MB21D1 genes is related to nucleic acid recognition and to the specific mechanism of enzyme activation, which requires a conformational change. Finally, a population genetics-phylogenetics analysis in humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas detected several positively selected sites in most genes. Data herein shed light into species-specific differences in infection susceptibility and in response to synthetic compounds, with relevance for the design of synthetic compounds as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25752600

  10. Drinking and flying: does alcohol consumption affect the flight and echolocation performance of phyllostomid bats?

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    Dara N Orbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.

  11. Habitat composition and connectivity predicts bat presence and activity at foraging sites in a large UK conurbation.

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    James D Hale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urbanization is characterized by high levels of sealed land-cover, and small, geometrically complex, fragmented land-use patches. The extent and density of urbanized land-use is increasing, with implications for habitat quality, connectivity and city ecology. Little is known about densification thresholds for urban ecosystem function, and the response of mammals, nocturnal and cryptic taxa are poorly studied in this respect. Bats (Chiroptera are sensitive to changing urban form at a species, guild and community level, so are ideal model organisms for analyses of this nature. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We surveyed bats around urban ponds in the West Midlands conurbation, United Kingdom (UK. Sites were stratified between five urban land classes, representing a gradient of built land-cover at the 1 km(2 scale. Models for bat presence and activity were developed using land-cover and land-use data from multiple radii around each pond. Structural connectivity of tree networks was used as an indicator of the functional connectivity between habitats. All species were sensitive to measures of urban density. Some were also sensitive to landscape composition and structural connectivity at different spatial scales. These results represent new findings for an urban area. The activity of Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber 1774 exhibited a non-linear relationship with the area of built land-cover, being much reduced beyond the threshold of ∼60% built surface. The presence of tree networks appears to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization for this species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that increasing urban density negatively impacts the study species. This has implications for infill development policy, built density targets and the compact city debate. Bats were also sensitive to the composition and structure of the urban form at a range of spatial scales, with implications for land-use planning and management

  12. Micromammals in the diet of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus at the W.W.F.'s Oasi San Giuliano (Matera, South Italy

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    Francesco Cecere

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of small mammals in the winter diet of a dormitory made up of 5 specimens living at the WWF's Oasi San Giuliano (province of Matera is analysed in the following study. The data confirm the presence of small mammals, Microtinae in particular, as a main prey of the Long-eared Owl. 1921 prey-individuals totalling 37695 grams in biomass were found. Rodentia are dominant (86.93% of the biomass; Microtus savii is of particular importance and represents 61.06% of the total biomass and was found in 60.42% of the pellets found. The second most frequently hunted species is the Apodemus sp.: 24.06% of the biomass, 37.08% of the frequency. The other mammals preyed on (Suncus etruscus, Crocidura sp., Pipistrellus sp., Vespertilius sp., Rattus sp., Moscardinus avellanarius are of little importance: 1.27% of the biomass. The owls preyed upon 9 of the 11 species of mammals present (the Talpa sp. and the Mus domesticus are absent. Affinity among different periods, estimated through Sorensen's Index, was found to be medium-high (0.67-0.72. The data analysis confirms the stenophagy of the Long-eared Owl, in this area that is characterised by extensive cereal cultivation and few shrubs and trees. In comparison with other Italian localities, a greater number of preyed species was recorded (8 mammals, 9 birds, 1 insect. Roost owls preyed mainly upon Chiroptera (0.36% compared with 0.1-0.2. Myotis capaccinii and Pipistrellus savii were also found in the diet of the Long-eared Owl for the first time in Italy.

  13. Small mammal communities of the "Monte Rufeno" Natural Reserve (Latium, Italy: data from Barn Owl Tyto alba pellets / I popolamenti di micromammiferi della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" (Lazio: dati da borre di barbagianni Tyto alba

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    Gaetano Aloise

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A high number of preys (7,147 specimens from barn owl pellets were collected in 15 sites of Monte Rufeno Natural Reserve. The 97.42% were small mammals, belonging to at least 6 species of Insectivora, 3 species of Chiroptera and 8 of Rodentia. The use of adequate indexes showed as expected, a high faunistic and biocenotic affinity among all sites of the Natural Reserve. Moreover, the values of trophic leve1 are analogous to the mean values found by others in the province of Rome. The biotic diversity is low and this result can be explained with predation of the barn owls over the most anthropizated areas out of the Natural Reserve. Faunistic and biocenotic indexes were utilized to compare the study area with other localities of Centra1 Italy characterized by typical mediterranean or temperate bioclimate. In one of the sites studied (Podernovo, seasonal changes of predation were analyzed. Riassunto In 15 siti posti all'interno della Riserva Naturale "Monte Rufeno" sono state raccolte numerose borre di Barbagianni Tyto alba in cui sono state rinvenute 7147 prede di cui il 97.42% costituito da micromammiferi. Alcuni indici ecologici (affinità biocenotica e faunistica, diversità biotica, termoxerofilia, antropizzazione, livello trofico sono stati applicati ai dati relativi ai micromammiferi terragnoli. Un confronto faunistico e biocenotico è stato effettuato tra i siti del comprensorio ed alcune località dell'Italia centrale caratteristiche di ambienti a bioclima mediterraneo o temperato. In uno dei siti studiati (Podernovo è stato possibile analizzare l'andamento stagionale della predazione.

  14. Too hot to sleep? Sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

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    Colleen T Downs

    Full Text Available The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed. Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%, compared with summer (15.6%. In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.

  15. New Insights into the Phylogeny and Gene Context Analysis of Binder of Sperm Proteins (BSPs.

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    Edith Serrano

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (SP proteins support the survival of spermatozoa acting not only at the plasma membrane but also by inhibition of capacitation, resulting in higher fertilizing ability. Among SP proteins, BSP (binder of sperm proteins are the most studied, since they may be useful for the improvement of semen diluents, storage and subsequent fertilization results. However, an updated and detailed phylogenetic analysis of the BSP protein superfamily has not been carried out with all the sequences described in the main databases. The update view shows for the first time an equally distributed number of sequences between the three families: BSP, and their homologs 1 (BSPH1 and 2 (BSPH2. The BSP family is divided in four subfamilies, BSP1 subfamily being the predominant, followed by subfamilies BSP3, BSP5 and BSP2. BSPH proteins were found among placental mammals (Eutheria belonging to the orders Proboscidea, Primates, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Chiroptera, Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla. However, BSPH2 proteins were also found in the Scandentia order and Metatheria clade. This phylogenetic analysis, when combined with a gene context analysis, showed a completely new evolutionary scenario for the BSP superfamily of proteins with three defined different gene patterns, one for BSPs, one for BSPH1/BSPH2/ELSPBP1 and another one for BSPH1/BSPH2 without ELSPBP1. In addition, the study has permitted to define concise conserved blocks for each family (BSP, BSPH1 and BSPH2, which could be used for a more reliable assignment for the incoming sequences, for data curation of current databases, and for cloning new BSPs, as the one described in this paper, ram seminal vesicle 20 kDa protein (RSVP20, Ovis aries BSP5b.

  16. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

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    A. Mould

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  17. Aportes al conocimiento de la mastofauna de la Serranía de Perijá (Cesar, Colombia

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    Muñoz Saba Yaneth

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende contribuir al conocimiento de la mastofauna presente en la serranía de Perijá. Se realizaron
    dos salidas de campo enmarcadas dentro del proyecto “Manejo Integral de la Zona de Páramo en la Serranía de Perijá” en las cuales se realizaron muestreos en dos diferentes regiones, en la localidad de Becerril y en el corregimiento de San José de Oriente; adicionalmente se examinó material de la serranía de Perijá depositado en el Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá. Para la captura de pequeños mamíferos no voladores se utilizaron trampas Sherman, de golpe, de caída y de pegante; para capturar murciélagos se usaron redes de niebla, y para registrar medianos y grandes mamíferos se hicieron recorridos de observación diurnos, búsqueda de rastros y entrevistas. Se registraron en total 61 especies de mamíferos pertenecientes a 11 órdenes; el orden más diverso fue Chiroptera con un total de 15 especies, seguido por el orden Carnívora con un total de 14 especies y el orden Rodentía con 13 especies. Se amplia la distribución latitudinal de las especies Platyrrhinus nigellus y Dermanura bogotensis; y se reporta como registro
    nuevo para Colombia la especie Marmosops neblina.

  18. Landscape ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cancino, Sury Antonio; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; De la Cruz-Felix, Himmler Keynes; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos Napoleón; Izeta-Alberdi, Amaia; Pech-May, Angélica; Mazariegos-Hidalgo, Carlos Jesús; Valdez-Tah, Alba; Ramsey, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    Landscape interactions of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) with Triatoma dimidiata (Td) depend on the presence and relative abundance of mammal hosts. This study analyzed a landscape adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, composed of conserved areas, crop and farming areas, and the human community of Zoh Laguna with reported Chagas disease cases. Sylvatic mammals of the Chiroptera, Rodentia, and Marsupialia orders were captured, and livestock and pets were sampled along with T. dimidiata in all habitats. Infection by T. cruzi was analyzed using mtDNA markers, while lineage and DTU was analyzed using the mini-exon. 303 sylvatic specimens were collected, corresponding to 19 species during the rainy season and 114 specimens of 18 species during dry season. Five bats Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Sturnira ludovici, Dermanura phaeotis (Dp) and one rodent Heteromys gaumeri were collected in the three habitats. All but Dp, and including Carollia brevicauda and Myotis keaysi, were infected with predominately TcI in the sylvatic habitat and TcII in the ecotone. Sigmodon hispidus was the rodent with the highest prevalence of infection by T. cruzi I and II in ecotone and domestic habitats. Didelphis viginiana was infected only with TcI in both domestic and sylvatic habitats; the only two genotyped human cases were TcII. Two main clades of T. cruzi, lineages I (DTU Ia) and II (DTU VI), were found to be sympatric (all habitats and seasons) in the Zoh-Laguna landscape, suggesting that no species-specific interactions occur between the parasite and any mammal host, in any habitat. We have also found mixed infections of the two principal T. cruzi clades in individuals across modified habitats, particularly in livestock and pets, and in both haplogroups of T. dimidiata. Results are contradictory to the dilution hypothesis, although we did find that most resilient species had an important role as T. cruzi hosts. Our study detected some complex trends in

  19. An LTR Retrotransposon-Derived Gene Displays Lineage-Specific Structural and Putative Species-Specific Functional Variations in Eutherians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Masahito; Koga, Akihiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the 11 eutherian-specific genes acquired from a sushi-ichi retrotransposon is the CCHC type zinc-finger protein-encoding gene SIRH11/ZCCHC16. Its contribution to eutherian brain evolution is implied because of its involvement in cognitive function in mice, possibly via the noradrenergic system. Although, the possibility that Sirh11/Zcchc16 functions as a non-coding RNA still remains, dN/dS ratios in pairwise comparisons between its orthologs have provided supportive evidence that it acts as a protein. It became a pseudogene in armadillos (Cingulata) and sloths (Pilosa), the only two extant orders of xenarthra, which prompted us to examine the lineage-specific variations of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 in eutherians. We examined the predicted SIRH11/ZCCHC16 open reading frame (ORF) in 95 eutherian species based on the genomic DNA information in GenBank. A large variation in the SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORF was detected in several lineages. These include a lack of a CCHC RNA-binding domain in its C-terminus, observed in gibbons (Hylobatidae: Primates) and megabats (Megachiroptera: Chiroptera). A lack of the N-terminal half, on the other hand, was observed in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini: Primates) and species belonging to New World and African Hystricognaths (Caviomorpha and Bathyergidae: Rodents) along with Cetacea and Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla). Among the hominoids, interestingly, three out of four genera of gibbons have lost normal SIRH11/ZCCHC16 function by deletion or the lack of the CCHC RNA-binding domain. Our extensive dN/dS analysis suggests that such truncated SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORFs are functionally diversified even within lineages. Combined, our results show that SIRH11/ZCCHC16 may contribute to the diversification of eutherians by lineage-specific structural changes after its domestication in the common eutherian ancestor, followed by putative species-specific functional changes that enhanced fitness and occurred as a consequence of complex natural selection events

  20. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Daniel; Field, Hume; McMichael, Lee; Vidgen, Miranda; Goldspink, Lauren; Broos, Alice; Melville, Deb; Kristoffersen, Joanna; de Jong, Carol; McLaughlin, Amanda; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Jordan, David; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV) which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus) were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs) were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410) had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436). The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral), identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous spread, and with

  1. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410 had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436. The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral, identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous

  2. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

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    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS, (ii anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by

  3. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from faecal samples of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum in Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Nigeria

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    Akobi Babatunji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats (Chiroptera are one of the most diverse groups of mammals which carry out important ecological and agricultural functions that are beneficial to humans. However, they are increasingly recognized as natural vectors for a number of zoonotic pathogens and favourable hosts for zoonotic infections. Large populations of the Straw-Coloured Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum colonize the main campus of the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, but the public health implications of faecal contamination and pollution by these flying mammals is unknown. This study characterized S. aureus obtained from faecal samples of these migratory mammals with a view to determining the clonal types of the isolates, and to investigate the possibility of these flying animals as potential reservoir for zoonotic S. aureus infections. Results One hundred and seven (107 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 560 faecal samples in eleven roosting sites from January 2008 to February 2010. A large proportion of the isolates were susceptible to antibiotics, and molecular characterization of 70 isolates showed that 65 (92.9% were assigned in coagulase type VI, while accessory gene typing classified 69 isolates into the following: type I (12; 17.1%, type II (3; 4.3%, type III (1; 1.4% and type IV (53; 75.7%. On the whole, the isolates were grouped in five (A-E main genotypes. Of the ten representative isolates selected for multilocus sequence typing (MLST, nine isolates were assigned with new sequence types: ST1725, ST1726, ST1727, ST2463-ST2467 and ST2470. Phylogenetic analysis provided evidence that S. aureus isolates in group C were closely related with ST1822 and associated clones identified in African monkeys, and group D isolates with ST75, ST883 and ST1223. The two groups exhibited remarkable genetic diversity compared to the major S. aureus clade. Conclusions Antibiotic resistance in faecal S. aureus isolates of E. helvum is low and multiple

  4. The multiple and complex and changeable scenarios of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the sylvatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ana Maria; Xavier, Samanta C C; Roque, André Luiz R

    2015-11-01

    isolates); however, in spite of being significantly less frequent (17%), TcII is also widely distributed. Concomitant DTU infection occurred in 16% of infected mammals of all biomes and included arboreal and terrestrial species, as well as bats. TcI/TcII concomitant infection was the most common and widely dispersed, with mixed TcI/TcII infections especially common in coatis and in Didelphimorphia. The second most common pattern of concomitant infection was TcI/TcIV, observed in Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia and Primates. Taken together, our results demonstrate the complexity of T. cruzi reservoir system and its transmission strategies, indicating that there is considerably more to be learned regarding ecology of T. cruzi. PMID:26200785

  5. The small mammals of an upper piedmontese Po plain site (Leinì, Turin prov. / La micromammalofauna di una stazione planiziaria piemontese

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    Giuseppe Osella

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 24 small mammals listed as living in Leinì (Piedmontese Po plain, near Turin, 245 m on sea level (only the red fox, Vulpes vulpes is not sure, are briefly analysed (Chiroptera excepted. List and analysis are the results of studies pursued for about 35 years. However, in Verona's Museum of Natural History, the housed materials are related to the last eighteen years (1966-1984 (Tab. I. For a complete analysis, this fauna is compared with the Veronese Po plain one, especially with the Busatello one (Gazzo Veronese-Ostiglia. This site is a stretch of marshes named "Valli Grandi Veronesi and Ostigliesi" (Tab. II. In this analysis, if we don't consider the not native species (Myocastor coypus and Mustela vison, the estinguished species (Lutra lutra, the Mediterranean species (living only along the border of the Po plain basin (Suncus etruscus and the hunting species (Lepus europaeus and Oryctolagus cuniculus we have 23 taxa for Lein and only 17 and 13, respectively, for Veronese Po plain and Busatello. The richer small mammal fauna of the Piedmontese Po plain is, above all, supported by different ecological conditions but the preservation of some species (e.g. Glis glis and Muscardinus avellanarius in Leinì is surely related also to historical problems and to a land anthropization pushed forward to a lesser degree. Riassunto Vengono elencate e brevemente commentate tutte le specie di micromammiferi presenti a Leinì (Torino, Chirotteri esclusi. Si tratta di un complesso di 24 specie (solo la volpe non è del tutto sicura per ognuna delle quali gli autori, sinteticamente, espongono le osservazioni raccolte in circa 35 anni. A maggior chiarimento del significato faunistico del popolamento, viene presa in esame anche la micromammalofauna della pianura padano veneta, precisamente la pianura veronese ed in particolar modo la

  6. Studio e conservazione di una colonia riproduttiva di Myotis emarginatus in Toscana

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    Paolo Agnelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Myotis emarginatus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae utilizza frequentemente gli edifici come rifugio estivo, sia per il riposo diurno che per la riproduzione. Negli anni 1996-2003, nel corso di indagini faunistiche sul territorio toscano, questa specie è stata rilevata nel 26% dei casi su 76 edifici rurali risultati occupati da pipistrelli e rappresenta ben il 50% degli esemplari rilevati. Il numero di esemplari di M. emarginatus in tali rifugi varia da 1 a 150 animali. Un edificio però può rendersi facilmente indisponibile per modificazioni nell?utilizzo da parte dell?uomo: ma cosa succede agli animali che si trovano improvvisamente senza casa? E quanto si può accrescere annualmente una colonia quando non viene disturbata? Nel 1997 nella Riserva Naturale Provinciale di Ponte a Buriano e Penna (AR, rilevammo una colonia riproduttiva di Myotis emarginatus stimata in circa 60 esemplari. Il rifugio estivo utilizzato fino al 2002 è costituito da una casa disabitata. Confrontando le stime effettuate dal 1997 al 2001 possiamo valutare l?accrescimento numerico della colonia: a partire dai circa 60 animali si è raggiunta la consistenza di 75 esemplari nel 2001, ossia circa il 25% in 5 anni (5% annuo di media. I conteggi sono stati effettuati a vista da almeno 3 persone, da breve distanza e in buona luce, ma poiché in questa specie gli esemplari si appendono alle travi addossandosi uno sopra l?altro, è impossibile effettuare un vero conteggio. Nell?estate 2001 abbiamo condotto una ricerca più accurata sull?utilizzo del rifugio: dai rilievi di un rilevatore di passaggio all?infrarosso e soprattutto dalle riprese di una videocamera, risulta che il numero degli esemplari era stato fortemente sottostimato: gli esemplari erano, infatti, ben 150 (femmine, ossia il doppio di quanto stimato sia pure in condizioni favorevoli. A Giugno (2001 abbiamo registrato la nascita di 101 piccoli, il cui tasso di mortalità prima dell

  7. ИНТЕГРАТИВНЫЙ ПОДХОД К ПРОБЛЕМЕ ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЯ РУКОКРЫЛЫХ (СHIROPTERA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ковалева, Ирина

    2013-01-01

    До сих пор отсутствует полноценная, общепризнанная теория происхождения рукокрылых (Chiroptera). Это связано во многом с тем, что центральный вопрос эволюции рукокрылых – происхождение летательных перепонок у рукокрылых – остаётся открытым. В результате интегративного подхода сформулировано новое представление о происхождении рукокрылых: летательная перепонка рукокрылых явилась результатом морфологических и молекулярно-генетических перестроек, произошедших в эмбриогенезе предковой формы рукок...

  8. A Study of Mammal Species Composition and Fauna in Jiangxi Province,China%江西哺乳动物组成及区系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂飞云; 韩卫杰; 刘晓华; 孙志勇; 黄晓凤; 黄挺

    2014-01-01

    弄清某一区域物种组成是区系研究的基础,也是生物多样性保护的基础。通过查阅文献,按照《中国兽类野外手册》采用的分类系统对江西省哺乳动物名录进行重新厘定,以确定江西哺乳动物组成及区系特点。经确认江西野生哺乳动物有10目28科70属104种。国家重点保护野生动物有23种,其中国家Ⅰ级重点保护动物7种。物种组成上以翼手目种类占优势,蝙蝠科种类比例最高。哺乳动物区系以东洋界占绝对优势,分布型以东洋型物种占优势,其次是南中国型;符合江西所处的东洋界华中区东部丘陵平原亚区的特点,并对某些野生兽类物种的分类地位或分布进行了探讨。%Species composition investigation in a certain region is the basis for fauna study and biodiversity protection.To confirm species composition and fauna ,a wild mammal List of Jiangxi Province was edited ac-cording to the classification system of the book entitled ‘A Guide to the Mammals of China ’ and other relevant literatures.The results confirm that there are 104 species of mammals within Jiangxi .These species belong to 10 orders,28 families and 70 genera.Twenty-three species are listed as nationally protected rare wild mammals . Seven of the species are first-class nationally protected rare wild mammals .The dominant species are bat spe-cies from Chiroptera , especially Vespertilionidae species .The mammal fauna are dominated by the oriental realm species .As viewed from distribution types ,the oriental type species are dominant ,and the Southern China type species are in the second place .All these characteristics are concordant with Jiangxi fauna ,which belongs to the eastern hill-plain sub-region,central China region,and oriental realm.In addition,the species status or distribution of several species of mammals is discussed in this study .

  9. Articoli teriologici nelle principali riviste pubblicate in Italia (1980-2003: analisi e tendenze

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    Luca Canova

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papers on mammalogy published on the main Italian journals from 1980 to 2003: trends and analysis We analysed articles on mammalogy published from 1980 to 2003 in the main journals published in Italy: Italian Journal of Zoology (IJZ, Ethology Ecology & Evolution (EEE and Hystrix. The number of articles increased throughout the study period as well as the average number of authors. The observed frequency of paper on Carnivora Rodentia and Arctiodactyla is higher than expected on the basis of their richness, here assumed as a index of their availability for researchers. This data could be interpreted as the effect of an increased availability of funds provided by Local Administration for game management (Arctiodactyla, the attractiveness of predators and the possibility to do research at community level with small grants (Rodentia. The hypothesis is supported by a very low research effort devoted to Cetacea and Chiroptera. We observed a decreasing trend in frequency of paper concerning "traditional" approaches, a stabilisation of paper concerning mammal zoogeography and eco-ethology and a linear increase in emerging subject such as game management, conservation biology and ecotoxicology. From a quantitative point of view, Hystrix is comparable to IJZ and EEE; however, printing punctuality must be considerably improved. Riassunto È stata analizzata, sotto il profilo quali-quantitativo, la produzione di articoli teriologici pubblicata su Italian Journal of Zoology, Ethology Ecology & Evolution e Hystrix fra il 1980 e il 2003. La quantità di articoli tende ad aumentare nel tempo, al pari del numero medio di autori per articolo. La frequenza di articoli inerenti Carnivori, Roditori e Artiodattili è maggiore di quanto atteso sulla base della ricchezza di specie in Italia, assunta come indice della disponibilità di specie nella

  10. Micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Superior del yacimiento de PRERESA en el valle del Manzanares y su contribución a la reconstrucción paleoambiental de la cuenca de Madrid durante el Pleistoceno

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    Sesé, C.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PRERESA (Getafe, Madrid is a site of the first third of the Late Pleistocene, at the end of MIS 5, of which 255 m2 have been excavated, and where 754 stone pieces and abundant remains of micro- and macrovertebrates have been recovered. This paper deals with the study of the following identified micromammals at the site: Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus europaeus; Soricomorpha: Crocidura russula; Chiroptera: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus cabrerae, Microtus duodecimcostatus; Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus. This faunal association, mainly due to the presence of Microtus cabrerae, belongs to the Late Pleistocene. The evolved stage of Microtus cabrerae and Arvicola aff. sapidus indicate the antiquity of this association within the first part of this period, which is consistent with the date of 84±5,6 ka BP obtained by OSL. All the taxa recorded in PRERESA are currently living in the area where the site is located, except Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae that became extinct in the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the Late Pleistocene. Observations on the material indicate that the accumulation of the small mammal remains could have been mainly caused by predators, most likely by pellets of birds of prey. The association of small mammals from PRERESA indicates temperate conditions with some moisture and vegetation development with some wooded areas and mainly open areas but mostly shrubby, herbaceous, wet and dry grasslands, and riparian vegetation. The comparison of the small mammals from PRERESA with those of the Middle Pleistocene sites from Áridos and Valdocarros, indicate a similarity of the climatic conditions and lansdcape in the low sections of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers in the moments that these sites represent (the advanced Middle Pleistocene and

  11. Rol de los murciélagos insectívoros en la transmisión de la rabia en Chile Role of insectivorous bats in the transmission of Rabies in Chile

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    MYRIAM FAVIC

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia de los animales silvestres en la trasmisión dela rabia en Chile no fue reconocida hasta 1985. A partir de entonces elpatrón epidemiológico de la rabia se ha caracterizado poruna endemia en quirópteros. En el año 1996, después de 24 años sin registrarsecasos de rabia en humanos, se reporta un caso en un niño infectadocon la variante antigénica 4 (VAg4, cuyo reservorio es el murciélagono hematófago Tadarida brasiliensis. Esta situacióndeterminó la necesidad de identificar con mayor precisiónlos ciclos silvestres del virus rábico, su dispersión territorialy los factores de riesgo que condicionan su trasmisión en el país. De un total de 250 cepas aisladas entre los años 1977 y 1997se reactivaron 119. Estas fueron analizadas por la técnica de inmunofluorescenciaindirecta con un panel de ocho anticuerpos monoclonales producido por elCenters for Disease Control and Prevention en Atlanta, Georgia, EstadosUnidos. El análisis determinó que todos los virus de murciélagospertenecen a la variante antigénica 4 (VAg4. De los 10 aislamientoscaninos, siete corresponden a la VAg4 y tres a la VAg1, cuyo reservorioes el perro. De los aislamientos de bovinos uno fue VAg1 y dos VAg4 y aquellosde tres felinos y un porcino también fueron VAg4. Se determinóque un caso bovino reportado en 1977 y los virus aislados de animales domésticosdesde 1990 corresponden a la Variante 4. Estos resultados permiten concluir que, en Chile los murciélagosno hematófagos han actuado como reservorio de la rabia silvestrecon anterioridad a 1985 y que posteriormente a este año son losúnicos reservorios, conocidos hasta el momento, que han originadocasos esporádicos de rabia en el hombre y los animales domésticosThe importance of wild animals in the epidemiology of rabies in Chilewas not recognized until 1985. Since then the epidemiology of rabies hasbeen characterized by the presence of an endemic cycle in the species ofthe Order Chiroptera. In

  12. A Histological Study on Sperm Storage in Scotophilus kuhli%小黄蝠精子储存的组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒琥; 潘颖; 王齐意; 张银映; 胡东雄; 李强; 吴毅

    2011-01-01

    Scotophilus kuhli is a kind of characteristic chiroptera distributes in the south of China. In order to examine sperm storage in Scotophilus kuhli, the gonadal development of Scotophilus kuhli were described by using histology slice in different months. The serum estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) content of Scotophilus kuhli were determined by u-sing Radioimmunoassay in different months. The results showed: In male, there was a part of empty pipes, and stored sperm in epididymis in another part in May. In July the epididymis pipes were tiny, empty and no sperm, but the testicle seminiferous tubules pipe already expanded. In early stage of Spermatogenic, the Spermatocytes appeared in thepipes, but there were no sperm. The testicle has no significantly change between July and August. In October many sperm were discovered in the epididymis pipe, and epididymis pipe was filled with sperm. There were no sperm in the atrophied seminiferous tubules pipe. In female, the wombs and oviduct the sperm were not discovered in July, August, October. In July ovary many primary follicles appeared, in August primary follicle had mostly grown the secondary follicle , the mature follicle appeared in October. In April the serum sex steroid T content of the male Scotophilus kuhli was in a high level, but in July and August, the T content decreased gradually, in October serum T content was in a lower level. Female serum E2 content increased gradually in April, July and August, but in October, was in a lower level. These results indicate that high levels of T are required for spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis but not for sperm storage. The estradiol level are correlated with the ovary development. Scotophilus kuhli is the reproductive strategy of sperm storage.%小黄蝠是分布在我国南方典型的翼手类.为探讨小黄蝠是否具有精子储存的现象,利用组织学切片技术,研究不同月份小黄蝠性腺的发育情况,采用放射免疫测定方法测定

  13. Tongue Length and Structure of Three Bat Species in Pteropodidae%狐蝠科3种蝙蝠舌长度及结构比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭梁静; 周善义; 刘奇; 陈毅; 沈琪琦; 赵娇; 张礼标

    2013-01-01

    We studied differences between the size and surface of tongue among three of Old World bats (Pteropodidae,Chiroptera),two frugivorous species (Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaultii) and one nectarivorous species (Eonycteris spelaea).The maximum tongue length were measured by two measurements of length inserted into the tube with diameter in 2 cm.L1 (including the snout and the tongue outside snout),and L3 (tongue length outside snout).The maximum of tongue length L1 was 29.19 ±0.52 mm for C.sphinx,35.05 ±0.82 mm for R.leschenaultii,and 49.34 ± 1.64 mm for E.spelaea; L3 in the three species were 16.25 ±0.53 mm,19.25 ± 0.79 mm,31.88 ± 1.56 mm,respectively.The two length measurements were converted with weight and resulted in 8.57 ± 0.17 mm/g1/3,7.90 ± 0.27 mm/g1/3,12.41 ± 0.40 mm/g1/3 for L1 in the three species and 4.77 ± 0.16 mm/g1/3,4.34 ± 0.22 mm/g1/3,8.01 ± 0.38 mm/g1/3 for L3 ; the anatomical tongue length after conversion were 5.56 ± 0.16 mm/g1/3,5.35 ± 0.14 mm/g1/3,6.65 ± 0.38 mm/g1/3,respectively.There were significant difference in these five variables among the three species,i.e.the value of five variables in nectarivorous bat were significantly longer than those of the other two frugivorous bats.By comparing tongue structure,we found that E.spelaea had a long and tapering brush-tipped tongue with many grooves on the surface and two sides,while the tips of C.sphinx and R.leschenaultia' s tongues were blunt and with less grooves and brush structures.Our results indicated that the tongue length and structure between Old World nectarivorous and frugivorous bats were different,which may result from the difference of foraging behaviour.%为探讨旧大陆食果和食蜜蝙蝠的食性类型不同是否造成其取食器官舌长度及结构的差异,本研究以2种食果蝙蝠犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)和棕果蝠(Rousettus leschenaultii)以及1种食蜜蝙蝠长舌果蝠(Eonycteris spelaea)为研究对象,比较了这3个物种间舌的

  14. The Italian bat roost project: a preliminary inventory of sites and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca sui Chirotter GIRC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Italian bat roost project, launched by the Italian Chiroptera Research Group (GIRC, aims to develop a constantly updated national database of bat roosts. Short-term objectives are to inventory roosts and identify the most important ones from a conservation perspective, in order to set priorities for management actions. Published records and field data from 1990 onwards are filed. To date, the database contains 1243 records from 750 roosts, covering 352 10x10 km UTM grid-cells. Among roosts, 167 were used for hibernation (S roosts, 244 for breeding (R roosts and 431 as either temporary roosts or for unknown needs, not verified or not considered in the survey (X roosts. Roosting sites occurred in buildings (45.1%, caves (35.3%, artificial underground sites (10.3%, trees (5.5%, bridges (2.1%, bat boxes (1.3% and rocky cliffs (0.4%. At least 29 species were found, and the number of roosts per species ranged between 1 and 261. S and/or R roosts fulfilling certain combinations of number of species and individuals or having at least 50 individuals of species cited in Annex II of the 92/43/EEC Directive (excluding Miniopterus schreibersii, adding Myotis punicus were classified as sites of special conservation interest. When meeting at least one such conditions, type X roosts that were not classified as either S or R, were considered potential sites of special conservation interest, for which further data collection is recommended. In all, 97 roosts of special conservation interest were identified: 30 S roosts, 60 R roosts and 7 roosts selected for both hibernation and breeding. 20 X roosts were identified as potential sites of special conservation interest. For at least 93.7% of roosts, factors potentially harming the bats were documented, particularly people access to the roost, and renovation of buildings used as a roost. In almost two thirds of such cases it was judged that conservation was not ensured