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Sample records for chiroptera myzopodidae endemic

  1. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (Chiroptera: Myzopodidae) endemic to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-06-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of the endotheliomonochorial type. There was a single layer of trophoblast cells. The cells of the maternal endothelium were large and basophilic, contained abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and rested on an irregular basement membrane. Blunt projections of endometrium extended into the placental disk and clusters of large cells occurred between the endometrial stroma and labyrinth. At the margins of the disk folds of trophoblast occurred and at the cranial end they formed an haemophagous region. The folds lateral to the disk included some peculiar tubular-appearing structures. There was a persistent yolk sac containing large endodermal cells around a largely collapsed lumen. Several features of placentation, such as the interhaemal barrier and the haemophagous region, are consistent with an association of Myzopodidae with Emballonuridae. No support was found for alternative hypotheses that include Myzopodidae in the noctilionoid or vespertilionoid lineages. PMID:18374977

  2. Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (chiroptera: myzopodidae) endemic to madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...

  3. Endemism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, J.E.

    1969-01-01

    In the Flore générale de l’Indochine, 217 families have been described, 1794 genera, c. 9000 species. There is an amount of endemism, on the basis of which attempts have been made towards an inner subdivision of the region. The problem is, that the endemism is of uncertain status. A few percentages

  4. The reassessment of the threatened status of the Indian endemic Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994 (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Hipposideridae

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    Bhargavi Srinivasulu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994, endemic to Kolar District, Karnataka, India was listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its restricted distribution and continuing decline in the quality of its habitat. The species has not been sighted or collected since its initial collection in the years 1983 and 1985 wherein eight individuals were collected from Therahalli and 41 individuals were collected from Hanumanhalli, respectively. Based on recent observations and collections from the type locality, we provide information about its distribution, threats, phylogenetic position and conservation status. We also provide an updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List categories.

  5. Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Geder Paulo Herrmann; Franciele Camila Luchese; Vanessa Daniele Mottin

    2005-01-01

    Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera) no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera) in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  6. Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  7. Ecological and Economic Importance of Bats (Order Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kasso, Mohammed; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra

    2013-01-01

    Order Chiroptera is the second most diverse and abundant order of mammals with great physiological and ecological diversity. They play important ecological roles as prey and predator, arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, pollination, material and nutrient distribution, and recycle. They have great advantage and disadvantage in economic terms. The economic benefits obtained from bats include biological pest control, plant pollination, seed dispersal, guano mining, bush meat and medicine, aes...

  8. Gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip

    2016-02-01

    Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danna; Qian, Kenan; Storey, Kenneth B; Hu, Yizhong; Zhang, Jiayong

    2016-07-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), is a circular molecule of 17,038 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNAs genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and one D-loop region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of the H-strand is 63.2% with individual nucleotides comprising T 29.8%, C 23.4%, A 33.3%, and G 13.5%. In BI and ML trees, we found M. lucifugus is a sister clade to M. brandtii, Myotis is a sister clade to Murina, and Pipistrellus is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI, >100% in ML). The monophyly of Myotis, Murina, and Plecotus is well supported (1.00 in BI, 100% in ML). PMID:26057009

  10. Gene structure and evolution of transthyretin in the order Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip

    2016-02-01

    Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested. PMID:26681450

  11. Chiroptera (Mammalia) del yacimiento del Mioceno medio de Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Sesé, C.

    1986-01-01

    The Chiroptera from Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, Spain), an Upper Aragonian karstic site, are described in this report. The faunal list of Chiroptera is as follows: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis and one chiropter, indeterminate family, different to the mentioned species. This fauna is typical of karstic sites and allows to compare it with those of other sites of the Miocene and Pliocene of west Europe and north Africa.
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  12. Patterns of genome size diversity in bats (order Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jillian D L; Bickham, John W; Gregory, T Ryan

    2013-08-01

    Despite being a group of particular interest in considering relationships between genome size and metabolic parameters, bats have not been well studied from this perspective. This study presents new estimates for 121 "microbat" species from 12 families and complements a previous study on members of the family Pteropodidae ("megabats"). The results confirm that diversity in genome size in bats is very limited even compared with other mammals, varying approximately 2-fold from 1.63 pg in Lophostoma carrikeri to 3.17 pg in Rhinopoma hardwickii and averaging only 2.35 pg ± 0.02 SE (versus 3.5 pg overall for mammals). However, contrary to some other vertebrate groups, and perhaps owing to the narrow range observed, genome size correlations were not apparent with any chromosomal, physiological, flight-related, developmental, or ecological characteristics within the order Chiroptera. Genome size is positively correlated with measures of body size in bats, though the strength of the relationships differs between pteropodids ("megabats") and nonpteropodids ("microbats").

  13. A New Species of Horseshoe Bat of the Genus Rhinolophus from China (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yi; MOTOKAWA, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.

  14. Comparative systematic value between dental and external: Skeletal features in western european chiroptera

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilla, Paloma; López Martínez, Nieves

    1986-01-01

    Diagnostic characters in biosystematics have low variability and congruent distribution. In mammals they are mainly external and skeletal features. The distribution of diagnostic and non-diagnostic characters often shows a poor degree of congruence. Dental characters of isolated teeth of 21 recent species of bats (Chiroptera) have been chosen and ¡malyzed to compare with the distribution of external and ske1etal diagnostic characters. The degree of congruence of these ...

  15. A new species of Lonchophylla Thomas (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja V., L.; Gardner, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.

  16. Comparative Aspects Of The Morphogenesis And Morphology Of The Wing Membranes Of Bats (Chiroptera) And Flying Lemurs (Dermoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalyova I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The heterogeneity of formation of different areas in the wing membrane of Chiroptera and Dermoptera was established. The web between metacarpals and digits (chiropatagium) was formed by the mesenchyme which initially formed the forelimb rudiment. The plagiopatagium and propatagium were formed by proliferation of the trunk mesenchymal cells.

  17. Chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats – evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Volleth, Marianne; Gollahon, Lauren S; Fu, Beiyuan; Cheng, William; Ng, Bee L.; Yang, Fengtang; Baker, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromos...

  18. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Graciolli; Alexsander Araújo Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae), with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae) from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae). Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934), Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographic...

  19. Ecologia molecular de Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera : Phyllostomidae) no Parque Estadual de Campinhos, Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Pollyana Patrício

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: Dentre mais de mil espécies de morcegos registradas mundialmente, a Subfamília Desmodontinae (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), endêmica da região Neotropical, contempla as três espécies de morcegos hematófagos conhecidas: Diaemus youngi, Diphylla ecaudata e Desmodus rotundus. Assim, este capítulo tem como objetivo descrever as características gerais, ecologia, comportamento alimentar e reprodutivo de D. rotundus já descritos na literatura. O morcego-vampiro-comum (D. rotundus) é a espécie...

  20. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isai Jorge de Castro; Claudia Regina Silva; Arley José Silveira Da Costa; Ana Carolina Moreira Martins

    2011-01-01

    Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae). Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phy...

  1. The endemic flora of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    of Greece. Three volumes are envisaged: the first deals with the Peloponnese; the second will cover Crete and the islands and the third, the rest of mainland Greece. It is planned to have a sound and scientific basis for plant conservation and education. Within the Balkans more than 60% of the endemic taxa...... or quite a lot about the plants, no intelligent steps can be taken towards protecting them. 520 of the c. 750 endemics are listed on the Red Data "endangered list" by the Council of Europe in 1986 but few know the nature or extent of the threat. Work is currently in preparation on an Endemic Flora...... have been mapped and it is already possible to recognize the hot-spots of biodiversity as these are linked to the centres of endemism. Determining the centres of diversity is an important and significant contribution to further conservation measures at the global level....

  2. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis

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    Reddy D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings.

  3. Complete sequences of eastern water bat, Myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) mitogenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondria genome sequences of myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) were first identified in the present study. The sequences were obtained from the four individuals and composition of nucleotide AT and GC was about 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. The lengths of mitogenomes were ranged from 17 296 to 17 299 bp. Total 51 variable sites were observed in the four mitogenomes and 38 sites were singleton polymorphic sites. Phylogenic study revealed that the species would have relatively closed evolutionary distance with m. macrodactylus rather than other species in the genus, myotis. Present study will provide important genomic materials supporting confirmation of taxon of species called bats, which is included in one of the largest orders among the mammals. PMID:26332748

  4. Bird and chiroptera inventories in Quebec : efficiency of a tried and tested method; Les inventaires d'oiseaux et de chiropteres au Quebec : l'efficacite d'une methode eprouvee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, M. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental monitoring at wind turbine arrays is needed before, during and after project development. Pesca Environmental evaluates the impact of proposed wind turbine arrays on birds and chiroptera by examining their migration patterns through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. In order to complete a feasibility study, spring migration patterns of birds and chiroptera must be documented and characterized. In addition to building an inventory of birds and chiroptera, Pesca examines bird behaviour and flight patterns and nesting locations. figs.

  5. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  6. CARPATHIANS ENDEMIC TAXA IN ARGEŞ COUNTY

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    Valeriu Alexiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Endemic plant species are the biogeographic elements why use the delimitation of biogeographical regions. Their presence explains, in the context of identifying phyto-historical factors, distribution of species and certain distribution patterns. Endemic areas, with pronounced as the basic unit of biogeography, indicates those particular geographic region, both in the growth areas and the evolutionary biological processes of speciation.In this study we proposed the following objectives: knowing the list Carpathian endemic species and endemic centers present in Argeş, also, areas of endemism in the Carpathians Mountains of the Argeş County.

  7. Il Vespertilio mustacchino Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae nuova specie per la Calabria

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    Dino Scaravelli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myotis mystacinus (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae new species for Calabria region, southern Italy A young male of whiskered bat Myotis mystacinus, dead the 13 July of 1995 in the building of Ecology Department, University of Calabria, in Rende (Cosenza, was found during the taxonomic revision of the bats in the Theriological Collection of "Museo di Storia Naturale della Calabria ed Orto Botanico" of the University of Calabria. This is the southern most sighting of the species in Italy. The bat checklist of the Calabria region includes now 21 species.

  8. Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) Challenge a Recent Origin of Extant Neotropical Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation. PMID:26865275

  9. The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat, Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Gwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was determined. The mitogenome of M. leucogaster is 16,723 bp in length with a total base composition of 32.8% A, 27.5% T, 25.3% C and 14.4% G. All the protein-coding genes (total length of 11,404 bp) were encoded in H-strand except for ND6 in L-strand. Total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1508 bp varying from 62 bp (tRNA(Ser(AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Gln)). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes were 972 and 1558 bp in length, respectively. The D-loop region was 1383 bp in length and included 54 copies of 6 bp tandem repeat (ACGCAT). PMID:25423531

  10. Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) Challenge a Recent Origin of Extant Neotropical Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation.

  11. Karyotypic evolution and phylogenetic relationships in the order Chiroptera as revealed by G-banding comparison and chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species. PMID:17310301

  12. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  13. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  14. Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the urbanized area in South of Brazil=Morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em áreas urbanizadas no sul do Brasil

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    Evanilde Benedito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems. O presente estudo inventariou espécies de morcegos ocorrentes numa área urbana, localizada no interior do campus-sede da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Noroeste do Paraná, apresentando informações sobre a dieta, reprodução e o horário de atividades das espécies capturadas. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre setembro de 2007 e agosto de 2008, sendo capturados 377 indivíduos, pertencentes a quatro espécies, integrantes da família Phyllostomidae: Artibeus lituratus (90%; Platyrrhinus lineatus (6,4%; Sturnira lilium (2,4%; e Carollia perspicillata (1,3%. Entre os frutos consumidos pelos morcegos destacam

  15. Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Costa Rica, Panama and western Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Velazco; Bruce Patterson

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Central America and western South America are described using molecular and morphological data. The two new species, which occur in Costa Rica and Panama and in western Ecuador, were previously confused with S. ludovici, and S. lilium and S. luisi, respectively. Sturnira now includes 22 described species, making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.

  16. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang Bae Yoon; Yung Chul Park

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitogenome (NC_021119) of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119). Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  17. Secondary structure and feature of mitochondrial tRNA genes of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

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    Kwang Bae Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.

  18. [Schistosomiasis endemic in Burkina Faso].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poda, J N; Traoré, A; Sondo, B K

    2004-02-01

    Burkina Faso, through the works of many teams of the OCCGE based in Bobo-Dioulasso, has signi-ficant data on several tropical endemics of which schistosomiasis. With the complementary works, it appears to be possible to establish a distribution of the schistosomiasis which reveals its importance. It will be the first stage of the planned national control program. The parasitologic data-gathering which covers the period of 1951 to 2000, used all the standard techniques. It is about Kato-Kartz and MIF for the intestinal schistosomiasis, centrifugation, filtration, serology reagent strips, macroscopy of urines and echography of the urinary system for the urinary schistosomiasis. All the eleven medical areas of the country have many sites submitted to parasitologic investigation. As regard the distribution of the two parasites involved with man (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), the data of prevalence (1% to 100%) and their distribution confirm their endemicity and the focal transmission. S. mansoni is located in eight medical areas particularly in the South and the West. S. haematobium is present in all the eleven medical areas of the country. In hydraulic planning as Sourou where the prevalences went from 23% to 70% for S. haematobium and from 0% to 69% for S. mansoni between 1987 and 1998. The situation requires a continuous monitoring. The spatial distribution of the six species of intermediate hosts shows that Bulinus truncatus and B. senegalensis Soudano-Sahelian species are present in all the ecological zones. B. globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi meet preferentially in the southern half of the country which reinforces the observation according to which the 14th northern parallel is often considered as the limit of septentrional extension of these two species. The other species Bulinus forskalii and B umbilicatus could have preference areas. All the species show a certain affinity with a type of biotope. The rarity and temporary aquatic systems lead to a

  19. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

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    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.

  20. First description of multivalent ring structures in eutherian mammalian meiosis: new chromosomal characterization of Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César

    2016-08-01

    Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria. PMID:27300547

  1. First description of multivalent ring structures in eutherian mammalian meiosis: new chromosomal characterization of Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae, Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César

    2016-08-01

    Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.

  2. Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Graciolli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.Ectoparasitos de morcegos (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, com a descrição de uma nova espécie de Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae do Brasil. Os poucos dados sobre ectoparasitismo em morcegos furipterídeos são restritos a moscas (Streblidae. Somente três espécies de estreblídeos eram conhecidas antes desse trabalho: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. Outra espécie de Synthesiostrebla é descrita aqui aumentando a distribuição geográfica do gênero para o lado leste dos Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. foi encontrada sobre Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 no sudeste do Brasil. Região anterior do corpo, asa, tergito 7, epiprocto e genitália masculina são ilustrados e uma chave de identificação para fêmeas também é apresentada.

  3. Clinical significance of neurocysticercosis in endemic villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral cysticercosis is the main cause of late-onset epilepsy in most developing countries. Data on the neuroepidemiology of cysticercosis in endemic populations is scarce. In an endemic village on the northern coast of Peru, 49 individuals with neurological symptomatology (41 epileptic and 8 non-epileptic) were screened for antibodies to Taenia solium, using a serum electroimmuno transfer blot assay. Fifteen subjects were seropositive, 14 (34%) of those with epilepsy but only one (13%) of those who were non-epileptic. A history of passing proglottides was associated with positive serology. Thirteen of the 15 seropositive individuals underwent cerebral computed tomography; only 7 (54%) were abnormal. A randomly selected sample of 20 pigs from the village was also tested, and 6 (30%) were seropositive. This study demonstrated the importance of cysticercosis in the aetiology of epilepsy in endemic villages and the close relationship between porcine and human infection

  4. Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903) (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae) on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae), from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Arzua; Pedro Marcos Linardi; Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti

    2002-01-01

    The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903), had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824). Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present ...

  5. Records of Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903 (Siphonaptera, Ischnopsyllidae on Myotis nigricans Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae, from the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arzua

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The flea, Myodopsylla wolffsohni wolffsohni (Rothschild, 1903, had been recorded for the first time in the State of Paraná in 1940, on the bat, Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Previously, this species of flea had only been recorded on Myotis nigricans, in the Amazonian region. This is the second record of M. w. wolffsohni on M. nigricans in Brazil, and the first in the State of Paraná. Although this flea has been found on undetermined Chiroptera in the State of Santa Catarina, the present record represents the meridional limit of geographic distribution for the infestation on M. nigricans.

  6. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.

  7. Voriconazole Use for Endemic Fungal Infections▿

    OpenAIRE

    Freifeld, Alison; Proia, Laurie; Andes, David; Baddour, Larry M.; Blair, Janis; Spellberg, Brad; Arnold, Sandra; Lentnek, Arnold; Wheat, L. Joseph

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective review of 24 patients with histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, or coccidioidomycosis treated with voriconazole (most for salvage therapy), the outcome was favorable (improved or stable) for 22 (95.8%) within 2 months of starting voriconazole and for 20 (83.3%) at the last follow-up. Prospective studies are required to determine its role in the treatment of endemic mycoses.

  8. Karyotype evolution in Rhinolophus bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) illuminated by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers. PMID:17899409

  9. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera from Syria

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    Adwan Shehab

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.

  10. Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans in buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic aquatic sites in Ghana.

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    Heather R Williamson

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is an emerging environmental bacterium in Australia and West Africa. The primary risk factor associated with Buruli ulcer is proximity to slow moving water. Environmental constraints for disease are shown by the absence of infection in arid regions of infected countries. A particularly mysterious aspect of Buruli ulcer is the fact that endemic and non-endemic villages may be only a few kilometers apart within the same watershed. Recent studies suggest that aquatic invertebrate species may serve as reservoirs for M. ulcerans, although transmission pathways remain unknown. Systematic studies of the distribution of M. ulcerans in the environment using standard ecological methods have not been reported. Here we present results from the first study based on random sampling of endemic and non-endemic sites. In this study PCR-based methods, along with biofilm collections, have been used to map the presence of M. ulcerans within 26 aquatic sites in Ghana. Results suggest that M. ulcerans is present in both endemic and non-endemic sites and that variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profiling can be used to follow chains of transmission from the environment to humans. Our results suggesting that the distribution of M. ulcerans is far broader than the distribution of human disease is characteristic of environmental pathogens. These findings imply that focal demography, along with patterns of human water contact, may play a major role in transmission of Buruli ulcer.

  11. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia

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    P. Craven

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Species richness, endemism and areas that are rich in both species and endemic species were assessed and mapped for Namibia. High species diversity corresponds with zones where species overlap. These are particularly obvious where there are altitudinal variations and in high-lying areas. The endemic flora of Namibia is rich and diverse. An estimated 16% of the total plant species in Namibia are endemic to the country. Endemics are in a wide variety of families and sixteen genera are endemic. Factors that increase the likelihood of endemism are mountains, hot deserts, diversity of substrates and microclimates. The distribution of plants endemic to Namibia was arranged in three different ways. Firstly, based on a grid count with the phytogeographic value o f the species being equal, overall endemism was mapped. Secondly, range restricted plant species were mapped individually and those with congruent distribution patterns were combined. Thirdly, localities that are important for very range-restricted species were identified. The resulting maps o f endemism and diversity were compared and found to correspond in many localities. When overall endemism is compared with overall diversity, rich localities may consist of endemic species with wide ranges. The other methods identify important localities with their own distinctive complement of species.

  12. Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Hong HUANG; Jian-Hua CHEN; Jun-Sheng YING; Ke-Ping MA

    2011-01-01

    We compiled and identified a list of Chinese. endemic seed plant species based on a large number of published References and expert reviews. The characters of these seed plant species and their distribution patterns were described at length. China is rich in endemic seed plants, with a total of 14 939 species (accounting for 52.1%of its total seed plant species) belonging to 1584 genera and 191 families. Temperate families and genera have a significantly higher proportion of endemism than cosmopolitan and tropical ones. The most primitive and derived groups have significantly higher endemism than the other groups. The endemism of tree, shrub, and liana or vine is higher than that of total species; in contrast, the endemism of herb is lower than that of total species. Geographically,these Chinese endemic plants are mainly distributed in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces, southwest China. Species richness and proportion of these endemic plants decrease with increased latitude and have a unimodal response to altitude. The peak value of proportion of endemism is at higher altitudes than that of total species and endemic species richness. The proportions of endemic shrub, liana or vine, and herb increase with altitude and have a clear unimodal curve. In contrast, the proportion of tree increases with altitude, with a sudden increase at~4000 m and has a completely different model. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive list of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their basic composition and distribution features.

  13. 河南西峡云华溶洞翼手目动物的调查%Preliminary Research of Chiroptera in Yunhua Karst Cave of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁子安; 刘冰许; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    In October 2001 and September 2010, the chiropteni in Yunhua Karat Care of Henan Province was investigated. The results showed that chiroptera in this area belong to 4 families, 4 genera and 7 species. Among them, 4 species (57.1%) were Oriental realm spe cies, and 3 species (42.9% ) were cosmopolitan species. According to the present status of chiroptera resources in Yunhua Karat Cave, de tailed countermeasures for bat protection were put forward.%2001年10月和2010年9月,对河南省西峡县云华洞翼手目动物进行了调查.通过标本采集、鉴定分类,初步查明该溶洞分布翼手目动物共7种,隶属4科4属.其中,东洋界种4种,占总数的57.1%;广布种3种,占总数的42.9%.此外,根据蝙蝠资源的现状,提出了具体的保护建议.

  14. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but rela...

  15. Controlling endemic cholera with oral vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira M Longini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although advances in rehydration therapy have made cholera a treatable disease with low case-fatality in settings with appropriate medical care, cholera continues to impose considerable mortality in the world's most impoverished populations. Internationally licensed, killed whole-cell based oral cholera vaccines (OCVs have been available for over a decade, but have not been used for the control of cholera. Recently, these vaccines were shown to confer significant levels of herd protection, suggesting that the protective potential of these vaccines has been underestimated and that these vaccines may be highly effective in cholera control when deployed in mass immunization programs. We used a large-scale stochastic simulation model to investigate the possibility of controlling endemic cholera with OCVs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We construct a large-scale, stochastic cholera transmission model of Matlab, Bangladesh. We find that cholera transmission could be controlled in endemic areas with 50% coverage with OCVs. At this level of coverage, the model predicts that there would be an 89% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%-98% reduction in cholera cases among the unvaccinated, and a 93% (95% CI 82%-99% reduction overall in the entire population. Even a more modest coverage of 30% would result in a 76% (95% CI 44%-95% reduction in cholera incidence for the population area covered. For populations that have less natural immunity than the population of Matlab, 70% coverage would probably be necessary for cholera control, i.e., an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Endemic cholera could be reduced to an annual incidence rate of < or = 1 case per 1,000 people in endemic areas with biennial vaccination with OCVs if coverage could reach 50%-70% depending on the level of prior immunity in the population. These vaccination efforts could be targeted with careful use of ecological data.

  16. O conhecimento sobre morcegos (Chiroptera: Mammalia do estado do Espírito Santo, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ordem Chiroptera apresenta importância relevante na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, sendo a ordem de mamíferos com maior diversidade de hábitos de vida. Dentre os estados da região Sudeste do Brasil, o Espírito Santo é um dos mais carentes em relação ao conhecimento de morcegos. Este estudo sintetizou o estado do conhecimento sobre quirópteros gerado no Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram catalogados os morcegos depositados no Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, no Laboratório de Estudos de Quirópteros da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH e University of Michigan Museum Zoology (UMMZ. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca por artigos publicados sobre morcegos do Espírito Santo. Foram revistos 49 artigos científicos, realizadas três teses de mestrado e 11 monografias. Considerando as coleções amostradas e artigos publicados totalizam-se 63 espécies de morcegos para o estado, provenientes de 37 dos 78 municípios do Espírito Santo. A maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos foi encontrada nos municípios de Linhares e Santa Teresa, o que é provavelmente reflexo da maior parte dos espécimes depositados nos museus também serem desses municípios. O Espírito Santo apresenta um grande potencial para se encontrar novas ocorrências de espécies, enfatizando a importância da realização de futuros estudos sobre morcegos no estado.The Order Chiroptera plays a vital role in ecosystem dynamics. Among the states of Southeastern Brazil, Espírito Santo State is the one with the least known bat fauna. This study reports on the current state of knowledge on Espírito Santo bats generating this data bank. We have catalogued the bats deposited in the Biology Museum Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, Laboratory of Bat Studies of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario

  17. Chromosomal evolution among leaf-nosed nectarivorous bats – evidence from cross-species chromosome painting (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Conclusion Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of

  18. Emended diagnosis of Xeronycteris vieirai (Mammalia: Chiroptera, with the first record of polyodontia for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. Nogueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga-endemic nectar-feeding bat, Xeronycteris vieirai Gregorin & Ditchfield, 2005 was described based on four specimens. Since then, only two additional specimens have been reported in the literature. Examination of a new specimen that closely agrees with the original description but presents two additional upper premolars, led us to review the type series of this taxon. Our analysis provided support to the recognition of the new specimen as a X. vieirai with supernumerary teeth and revealed new diagnostic characters that can help in the field identification of this species. Xeronycteris vieirai presents tricolored dorsal fur, entirely naked forearm, connection of the base of the spear of the noseleaf with the upper limit of the horseshoe with a marked ridge, and chin with simple dermal pads and a relatively slight cleft. Additional new characters described here include anterior zygomatic arches reduced and not extending laterally and upward with respect to upper toothrow, basioccipital pits deep and separated by a high and thin bone septum, and mandible with a pronounced ridge at anterior symphysis. We propose an emended diagnosis based on morphological characters and provide a rectification on the original notation related to the holotype.

  19. Evolutionary relationships of endemic/epidemic and sylvatic dengue viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E; Ni, H; Xu, R; Barrett, A D; Watowich, S J; Gubler, D J; Weaver, S C

    2000-04-01

    Endemic/epidemic dengue viruses (DEN) that are transmitted among humans by the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are hypothesized to have evolved from sylvatic DEN strains that are transmitted among nonhuman primates in West Africa and Malaysia by other Aedes mosquitoes. We tested this hypothesis with phylogenetic studies using envelope protein gene sequences of both endemic/epidemic and sylvatic strains. The basal position of sylvatic lineages of DEN-1, -2, and -4 suggested that the endemic/epidemic lineages of these three DEN serotypes evolved independently from sylvatic progenitors. Time estimates for evolution of the endemic/epidemic forms ranged from 100 to 1,500 years ago, and the evolution of endemic/epidemic forms represents relatively recent events in the history of DEN evolution. Analysis of envelope protein amino acid changes predicted to have accompanied endemic/epidemic emergence suggested a role for domain III in adaptation to new mosquito and/or human hosts. PMID:10708439

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

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    Beatrice Autino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF MALARIA IN ENDEMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Autino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in those 106 countries where the risk of contracting the infection with one or more of the Plasmodium species exists. According to estimates from the World Health Organization, over 200 million cases and about 655.000 deaths have occurred in 2010. Estimating the real health and social burden of the disease is a difficult task, because many of the malaria endemic countries have limited diagnostic resources, especially in rural settings where conditions with similar clinical picture may coexist in the same geographical areas. Moreover, asymptomatic parasitaemia may occur in high transmission areas after childhood, when anti-malaria semi-immunity occurs. Malaria endemicity and control activities are very complex issues, that are influenced by factors related to the host, to the parasite, to the vector, to the environment and to the health system capacity to fully implement available anti-malaria weapons such as rapid diagnostic tests, artemisinin-based combination treatment, impregnated bed-nets and insecticide residual spraying while waiting for an effective vaccine to be made available.

  2. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  3. Endemic taxa of vascular plants in the Polish Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Halina Piękoś-Mirkowa; Zbigniew Mirek

    2011-01-01

    The Carpathians, particularly their highest massif, the Tatra Mountains, exhibit the greatest richness of endemics in Poland. The present paper is a critical recapitulation of existing knowledge of endemism among the vascular plants of the Polish part of the Carpathians. It comprises a list of all 110 taxa (49 species, 26 microspecies of the genus Alchemilla and 35 conspicuous subspecies) that can be considered Carpathian endemics or subendemics. Their distribution, vertical ranges and habita...

  4. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  5. 广西翼手目动物布氏球果蝠新记录%A New Record of Sphaerias blanfordi of Chiroptera in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志营; 卢贞燕; 梁显堂

    2011-01-01

    One male specimen of Sphaerias blanfordi was collected in Guangxi Jinzhongshan National Natural Reserve in November 2010. It is a new record of Chiroptera in Guangxi,and the specimen was deposited in Museum of Guangxi Jinzhongshan National Natural Reserve.%2010年11月,在广西金钟山黑颈长尾雉国家级自然保护区采获1号雄性布氏球果蝠标本,为广西翼手目动物的新记录.标本保存于广西金钟山黑颈长尾雉国家级自然保护区管理局标本室.

  6. Research advancs in chemical communication among Chiroptera animals%翼手目动物化学通讯研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐占辉; 盛连喜; 张树义; 曹敏

    2005-01-01

    哺乳动物使用化学信息来判别周围环境状况或相互交流是普遍存在的现象,这种信息接受与交流方式与其他方式相比较具有很多的优点,与其他通讯方式的结合使用也可更大程度地提高信息接受与通讯的准确性.翼手目(Chiroptera)动物也存在着化学通讯这种信息交流的方式,化学信号在翼手目动物导航定位、探测和辨别食物资源、种内识别、母婴辨认等方面起着重要的作用.

  7. Origin and differentiation of endemism in the flora of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhengyi; SUN Hang; ZHOU Zhekun; PENG Hua; LI Dezhu

    2007-01-01

    The present paper analyzed 239 endemic genera in 67 families in the flora of seed plants in China.The results showed that there are five families containing more than ten endemic genera,namely,Gesneriaceae (27),which hereafter refers to the number of endemic genera in China,Composite (20),Labiatae (12),Cruciferae (11),and Umbelliferae (10),15 families with two endemic genera,and another 30 families with only one endemic genus.Four monotypic families (Ginkgoaceae,Davidiaceae,Eucommiaceae and Acanthochlamydaceae)are the most ancient,relict and characteristic in the flora of seed plants in China.Based on integrative data of systematics,fossil history,and morphological and molecular evidence of these genera,their origin,evolution and relationships were discussed.In gymnosperms,all endemic genera are relicts of the Arctic-Tertiary flora,having earlier evolutionary history,and can be traced back to the Cretaceous or to the Jurassic and even earlier.In angiosperms,the endemic genera are mostly relicts,and are represented in all lineages in the"Eight-Class System ofClassification of Angiosperms",and endemism can be found in almost every evolutionary stage of extant angiosperms.The relict genera once occupied huge areas in the northern hemisphere in the Tertiary or the late Cretaceous,while neo-endemism mostly originated in the late Tertiary.They came from Arctic-Tertiary,Paleo-tropical-Tertiary and Tethys-Tertiary florisitic elements,and the blend of the three elements with many genera of autochthonous origin.The endemism was formed when some dispersal routes such as the North Atlantic Land Bridge,and the Bering Bridge became discontinuous during the Tertiary,as well as the climate change and glaciations in the late Tertiary and the Quaternary.Therefore,the late Tertiary is the starting point of extant endemism of the flora in China.

  8. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  9. Harem size and male mating mating tactics in Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1994 and 2008, we studied the structure of harems in Nyctalus leisleri and factors that determine their size by monitoring 90 bat-boxes placed in a beech forest in the natural reserve Pian degli Ontani (Tuscany, northern Italy. The number of females in the harem positively correlated with the number of males defending a harem. The number of males in the mating area did not significantly influence harem size, whilst we found a significant correlation between the variance in harem size and mean harem size. This may be explained by the existence of an uneven aggregation favouring few males. A strong relation was found between males’ age (estimated by teeth wear and mean harem size.
    Riassunto Dimensioni dell'harem e tattiche riproduttive dei maschi di Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae. Sono presentati i risultati di uno studio sulla struttura dell'harem in Nyctalus leisleri e sui fattori che ne determinano la dimensione. Tra il 1994 e il 2008, sono stati monitorati 90 rifugi artificiali (bat-box per pipistrelli collocati in una faggeta della Riserva Statale di Pian degli Ontani (Pistoia, Toscana. Il numero di femmine presenti nel harem è risultato positivamente correlato con il numero di maschi presenti nell’area di accoppiamento. Il numero di maschi presenti non influenza la dimensione media dell'harem mentre una significativa correlazione positiva è stata evidenziata tra il valore della varianza delle dimensioni dell'harem e la sua dimensione media. Tale relazione suggerisce che le femmine tendono ad aggregarsi, favorendo i maschi più competitivi. Infine è stato evidenziato un modello generale dove sia i maschi giovani sia quelli ad età più avanzata (stimata in base all’usura dei denti hanno minor capacità di formare harem con un numero elevato di femmine.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4445

  10. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosasih, H.; Mast, Q. de; Widjaja, S.; Sudjana, P.; Antonjaya, U.; Ma'roef, C.; Riswari, S.F.; Porter, K.R.; Burgess, T.H.; Alisjahbana, B.; Ven, A. van der; Williams, M.

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a pros

  11. Endemic time-spaces of Finland: Aquatic regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Mustonen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the endemic time-spaces of Finnish aquatic regimes. More precisely, it examines the socio-ecological relationships between Finns and lakes, rivers, and marshes-mires. First, the 'engine' of endemic time-space research, land use, and occupancy documentation, is explored in the Finnish context. Then two catchment areas, Kokemäenjoki in Western Finland and Vuoksi in Eastern Finland, provide cases which illustrate both past endemic time-spaces and surviving aspects of cultural readings of lakes and rivers. The ongoing winter seining in Lake Puruvesi in North Karelia emerges as an unbroken practice, with deep roots, that maintains the endemic time-spaces of a traditional Finnish relationship with a lake. As industrial uses of catchment areas, zoning, and environmental permitting exclude endemic readings inherent on the land and waterscapes, solutions are explored through mapping, along with its limitations, as a form bridging the gap between local realities and resource extraction.

  12. Can migrants from high-endemic countries cause new HIV outbreaks among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou; M. van der Veen; R. Coutinho; M. Prins

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate how the sexual behaviour of migrants originating from HIV-endemic countries affects the spread of HIV among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries. Methods: A mathematical model is developed describing the transmission of HIV in heterosexual partnerships between African mi

  13. Urinary iodine excretion in relation to goiter prevalence in households of goiter endemic and non endemic regions of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Survey of goiter prevalence, among population of five endemic and four non endemic regions of Ethiopia was carried out prior to the distribution of iodate d salt. urine samples were collected from 327 subjects selected by systematic random sampling from endemic and 276 taken as non endemic. The lowest mean urinary iodine excretion (UIE) value was recorded in Bure (22 micro gl/day) and the highest in Alemmaya (148 micro gl/day). The highest goiter rate ( percent TGR) was recorded in Sawla 55.6 %) and the lowest (0.6 %) in Yabello. Iodine content of drinking was in the range of 0.4 - 48.5 micro gl. Iodine content of water source was correlated positively ( r0.8399) with the mean of UIE and TGR, however, indicates that sites considered as non endemic seem to be affected by iodine deficiency. The study results urge the need for intervention in controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders. 3 tab

  14. Syphilis and the endemic treponematoses : clinical, (histo-) pathological and laboratory studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.H. Engelkens (Herman)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTreponemal diseases important to mankind are sexually transmitted syphilis and the endemic nonvenereally transmitted treponematoses (yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis). Historically, the most important disease caused by treponemes is syphilis. During the last few decades, yaws, endemic s

  15. Advances in methods for measuring patterns of endemic plant diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemism, the restriction of a taxon’s distribution to a specified geographical area, is central to the study of biogeography. Understanding endemism not only concerns a number of evolutionary and biogeographical issues, but also plays an important role in maintaining biodiversity and in the selection of priority areas for conservation. In recent years, various measures and analytical methods have been used to investigate patterns of endemism for various taxa from different regions. The emergence of these new measurements has benefited from the construction of phylogenetic trees and the implementation of data from spatial statistics. Some of these measures, such as phylogenetic diversity, phylogenetic endemism, and biogeographically weighted evolutionary distinctiveness deserve much more attention. Here, we review progress in the methodology used to measure the distribution patterns of endemism. These metrics have generally developed from a single time or space perspective to space-time united patterns. Specifically, the metrics include species richness, phylogenetic diversity and evolutionary distinctiveness, plus all there in combination as well as the weight of species range size. Moreover, we propose that studies on the distribution patterns of Chinese endemic taxa should pay attention to species diversity, phylogenetic diversity, species β-diversity, and phylogenetic β-diversity. In particular, model simulation analysis should be emphasized and implemented during investigations. These studies will provide fundamental knowledge for comprehensive recognition of scale-induced differences and for the detection of mechanisms underlying the distribution patterns of endemic taxa, and therefore provide theoretical support for biodiversity conservation.

  16. REVIEW: Endemic plants of serpentine soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant adaptation to serpentine soils is a system ideal for studies in evolutionary ecology. Serpentine soils are characterized by low calcium to magnesium ratios with Ca at significantly lower concentrations relative to surrounding areas. Although some variation occurs between sites which identified three collective traits: poor plant productivity, high rates of endemism and vegetation type distinct from those of neighboring areas. The several morphological feature characteristic of serpentine-tolerant species is possess xeromorphic foliage, including reduced leaf size and sclerophylls, the stature is significantly reduced relative to counterparts on non serpentine soil and root systems of species growing on and off serpentine sites are often more developed on serpentine soils than on neighboring soils. Serpentine soils are ubiquitous, but patchily distributed and thus promote geographic isolation. Adaptation to edaphic conditions may also beget reproductive isolation. Adaptive mutation might be influenced frequently from related species inhabiting surrounding areas. For the future studies involving serpentine systems merge the fields of ecology, evolution, physiology, and genetics required for serpentine adaptation.

  17. Temporal stability of an endemic Mexican treefrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ruiz, Griselda; Venegas-Barrera, Crystian S; Sanchez-Sanchez, Hermilo; Manjarrez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of an amphibian population fluctuate independently over time, mainly in response to the temporal variation of environmental factors, especially precipitation and temperature. These temporal fluctuations may contribute to the size of an amphibian population and could be used to determine the current conservation status of a species. During a five year (2004-2008) period, we studied the relative abundance, sex ratio, and age-sex structure of a population of metamorphosed individuals of the endemic treefrog Hyla eximia in Central Mexico. We also studied the species' relationship with climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation. We found an interannual constant abundance during the study period. However, interannual differences were observed in the population structure by age-sex category (males, females, or juveniles), with decreased abundance of males and juveniles during the rainy months (August-November). The annual abundance of H. eximia was positively correlated with rainfall, but negatively with monthly temperature. We found the sex ratio was male-biased (2:1), except for year 2008. Also, differences in snout-vent length (SVL) were found between years, suggesting changes in recruitment of new individuals. We conclude that variations in abundance, and frequencies by age-sex category, of H. eximia are related to seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation characteristics of temperate zones. However, this temporal stability may suggest that anurans have an unusual capacity to persist even in the face of human-induced habitat change. PMID:26421242

  18. The dynamics of endemic malaria in populations of varying size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model for endemic malaria involving variable human and mosquito populations is analysed. A threshold parameter R0 exists and the disease can persist if and only if R0 exceeds 1. R0 is seen to be a generalisation of the basic reproduction ratio associated with the Ross-Macdonald model for malaria transmission. The disease free equilibrium always exist and is globally stable when R0 is below 1. A perturbation analysis is used to approximate the endemic equilibrium in the important case where the disease related death rate is nonzero. A diffusion approximation is used to approximate the quasi-stationary distribution of the associated stochastic model. Numerical simulations show that when R0 is distinctly greater than 1, the endemic deterministic equilibrium is globally stable. Furthermore, in quasi-stationarity, the stochastic process undergoes oscillations about a mean population whose size can be approximated by the stable endemic deterministic equilibrium. (author)

  19. Some observations on endemic macroalgae of the Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Abidi, S.A.H.

    The paper summarises current level of knowledge on the endemic Antarctic macroalgae. The macroalgal adaptation to low temperature, response to different photoperiod during the season, animal-macroalgal interaction and reproductive strategies...

  20. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  1. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

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    Ana María Abréu-Vélez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion: A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  2. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Abréu-Vélez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion : A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically.

  3. Endemic selenium intoxication of humans in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G Q; Wang, S Z; Zhou, R H; Sun, S Z

    1983-05-01

    An endemic disease was discovered in 1961 in parts of the population of Enshi County, Hubei Province of the People's Republic of China. During the years of the highest prevalence, from 1961 to 1964, the morbidity was almost 50% in the 248 inhabitants of the five most heavily affected villages; its cause was determined to be selenium intoxication. The most common sign of the poisoning was loss of hair and nails. In areas of high incidence, lesions of the skin, nervous system, and possibly teeth may have been involved. A case is reported of a middle-aged, female hemiplegic, whose illness and death apparently were related to selenosis. Daily dietary intakes of selenium, estimated after the peak prevalence had subsided, averaged 4.99 (range 3.20 to 6.69) mg and hair and blood selenium levels averaged 32.2 and 3.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Up to 1000x differences occurred when selenium contents of vegetables, cereals, scalp hair, blood, and urine from the selenosis areas were compared with those from Keshan disease (selenium deficiency) areas. The ultimate environmental source of selenium was a stony coal of very high selenium content (average more than 300 micrograms/g; one sample exceeded 80,000 micrograms/g). Selenium from the coal entered the soil by weathering and was available for uptake by crops because of the traditional use of lime as fertilizer in that region. This particular outbreak of human selenosis was due to a drought that caused failure of the rice crop, forcing the villagers to eat more high-selenium vegetables and maize and fewer protein foods. PMID:6846228

  4. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

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    Simon I Hay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia, 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+, and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 5 to or = 40% areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0.35 billion people are at this level of risk. Most of the rest live at intermediate risk (0.20 billion, with a smaller number (0.11 billion at low stable risk. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of P. falciparum malaria endemicity are common

  5. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

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    Carmen Elena Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  6. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    , industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test......"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...

  7. Evolutionary Relationships of Endemic/Epidemic and Sylvatic Dengue Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Eryu; Ni, Haolin; Xu, Renling; Barrett, Alan D. T.; Watowich, Stanley J.; Gubler, Duane J.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2000-01-01

    Endemic/epidemic dengue viruses (DEN) that are transmitted among humans by the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are hypothesized to have evolved from sylvatic DEN strains that are transmitted among nonhuman primates in West Africa and Malaysia by other Aedes mosquitoes. We tested this hypothesis with phylogenetic studies using envelope protein gene sequences of both endemic/epidemic and sylvatic strains. The basal position of sylvatic lineages of DEN-1, -2, and -4 suggested...

  8. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Bontemps, C.; Rogel, M. A.; Wiechmann, A.; Mussabekova, A.; Moody, S.; Simon, M F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, G. N.; Lacercat-Didier, L.; Dasilva, C.; Grether, R; Camargo-Ricalde, S. L.; Chen, W.M.; SPRENT, J. I.; Martinez-Romero, E.

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for ...

  9. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G.; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M.; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62–87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested. PMID:27377592

  10. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C; Borges, Paulo A V; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62-87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested. PMID:27377592

  11. A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. Methods and Findings A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2–10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2−10 ≤ 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2−10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2−10 ≥ 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the

  12. Dieta de morcegos filostomídeos (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em fragmento urbano do Instituto São Vicente, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pires Veiga Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os morcegos (Chiroptera, devido à sua diversidade e abundância exercem um importante papel ecológico para o ecossistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reportar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros capturados nos fragmentos do Instituto São Vicente, zona urbana do município de Campo Grande, MS. As coletas ocorreram entre setembro de 2011 e Junho de 2012, sendo realizadas com o auxílio de redes-de-neblina. Foram realizadas 154 capturas, com ocorrência de 10 espécies representantes de três famílias, sendo predominantes as espécies frugívoras. Dentre as capturas foram obtidas 41 amostras fecais, onde se verificou a presença de polpa, vestígios de artrópodes e sementes. O recurso mais utilizado por quirópteros foram plantas pioneiras, constatado através do predomínio de sementes da espécie Cecropia pachystachya, consumida em maior intensidade por Artibeus lituratus. Os resultados ressaltam a importância destes animais no ambiente, em especial no processo de regeneração dessas áreas através da dispersão de sementes.

  13. ANÁLISE HISTOMORFOLÓGICA E HISTOMORFOMÉTRICA DO TECIDO ÓSSEO MADURO DE Glossophaga soricina (PHYLLOSTOMIDAE:CHIROPTERA

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    Cibele Leandro da Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue has different models of vascularization, cellular distribution, mineralization and remodeling among mammals species. A variety of dietary habits associated with the mode of locomotion and habitat required from bats the establishment of different flying styles and some skeletal adaptations. This study aimed at examining the microscopic characteristics of mature bone tissue of Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera. Twelve animals of both genders were used, in which the right humerus were dissected, weighed, decalcified and submitted to routine histological processing. Semi-serial cuts of 5 micrometers were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E., picrosirius red and silver nitrate 50%. The histological preparations were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Lacunae density was significantly higher in humerus of females when compared to males (33.96 x 27.80, p = 0.02. Microscopic analysis indicated the presence of parallel collagen fibers distributed in the bone matrix. Lacunes presented various shapes and canaliculi are well distributed and individualized. Few Havers systems and canals were observed. The mature bone tissue of the humerus Glossophaga soricina share microscopic features with other mammals, however, differences in the structural organization are peculiar to this species.

  14. Suitability of DNA extracted from archival specimens of fruit-eating bats of the genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae for polymerase chain reaction and sequencing analysis

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    Mário Pinzan Scatena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.

  15. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: orders Didelphimorpha through Chiroptera (Excluding Rodentia) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  16. Flight metabolism in relation to speed in Chiroptera: testing the U-shape paradigm in the short-tailed fruit bat Carollia perspicillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C

    2013-06-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat. PMID:23430989

  17. Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the urbanized area in South of Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8783

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Maria Vianna Zanon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems.

  18. Changing trends of an endemic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Bhattacharya, Sameek; Rai, Ashish

    2009-08-01

    The incidence of severe burn is extremely high in the Low and Middle Income Countries with an estimated 90% of the world incidence of which 50% is in South East Asia. Through an earlier analysis of 11,196 burn admission over 8 years (1993-2000--Phase I) to our burn unit we established the endemic nature of the injury [Ahuja RB, Bhattacharya S. An analysis of 11,196 burn admissions and evaluation of conservative management techniques. Burns 2002;28:555-61]. A continued analysis of 5566 burn admissions over the next 7 years (2001-2007--Phase II) and its comparison with the Phase I reveals a significant change in the epidemiological profile. The average yearly admissions have fallen by 43.14%, from 1399.5 patients in Phase I to 795.14 patients in Phase II. This fall in average yearly admissions is predominant in the age group 16-35 years (52.61% decline) and 36-55 years (46.51% decline). The overall female to male ratio has also changed from 1.26:1 to 0.91:1. However, the overall mean %TBSA burn has reduced only mildly from 49.12% TBSA in Phase I to 44.39% in Phase II. During Phase II there was also a significant decline of 46.93% and 56.25% in the yearly admission of flame and scald burn respectively. Non-intentional incidents still remain the main mode of injury accounting for 87.12% in Phase I and 89.89% in Phase II. But, the yearly admissions of non-intentional burns fell from 1219.25 in Phase I to 714.71 in Phase II, which is a significant drop of 41.38%. Kitchen continues to dominate as the main location for flame incidents, but the yearly admission rate from kitchen accidents dropped from 897.5 patients in Phase I to 368.43 patients in Phase II. At the same time, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) leaks which accounted for only 0.72% of all kitchen accidents in Phase I rose to 10.74% in Phase II. Another redeeming feature is the reduction in overall mortality from 51.8% in Phase I to 40.20% in Phase II. Interestingly, a very significant negative correlation exists

  19. The endemic plants of Micronesia: a geographical checklist and commentary

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    Lorence, D.H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Micronesia-Polynesia bioregion is recognized as a global biodiversity hotspot. However, until now estimates regarding the number of endemic plant species for the region were not supported by any comprehensive published work for the region. The results of this study indicate that Micronesia has the world’s highest percentage of plant endemism per square kilometer out of all globally recognized insular biodiversity hotspots. A checklist of all endemic plant species for Micronesia is presented here with their corresponding geographical limits within the region. A summary of previous work and estimates is also provided noting the degree of taxonomic progress in the past several decades. A total of 364 vascular plant species are considered endemic to Micronesia, most of them being restricted to the Caroline Islands with a large percentage restricted to Palau. The checklist includes seven new combinations, one new name, and two unverified names that require additional study to verify endemic status. Overviews of each respective botanical family represented in the list are given including additional information on the Micronesian taxa. Recommendations for future work and potential projects are alluded to throughout the text highlighting major data gaps and very poorly known taxa. The following new combinations and names are made: Cyclosorus carolinensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorusgretheri (W. H. Wagner Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorusguamensis (Holttum Lorence, comb. nov., Cyclosorus palauensis (Hosokawa Lorence, comb. nov. , Cyclosorus rupiinsularis (Fosberg Lorence, comb. nov., Dalbergia hosokawae (Hosokawa Costion nom. nov., Syzygium trukensis (Hosokawa Costion & E. Lucas comb. nov.

  20. Does Large Genome Size Limit Speciation in Endemic Island Floras?

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    Maxim V. Kapralov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome sizes in plants vary by several orders of magnitude, and this diversity may have evolutionary consequences. Large genomes contain mainly noncoding DNA that may impose high energy and metabolic costs for their bearers. Here we test the large genome constraint hypothesis, which assumes that plant lineages with large genomes are diversifying more slowly Knight et al. (2005, using endemic floras of the oceanic archipelagos of the Canaries, Hawaii, and Marquesas Islands. In line with this hypothesis, the number of endemic species per genus is negatively correlated with genus-average genome size for island radiations on Hawaiian and Marquesas archipelagos. However, we do not find this correlation on the Canaries, which are close to the continent and therefore have higher immigration rate and lower endemism compared to Hawaii. Further work on a larger number of floras is required to test the generality of the large genome constraint hypothesis.

  1. Patterns of endemism within the Karoo National Park, South Africa

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    F. Rubin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of 864 plant taxa representing 355 genera and 93 families is given for the Karoo National Park. A total of 121 species are endemic to the Nama-Karoo, with Asteraceae the most common with 33 taxa. followed by Mesembryanthemaceae with 26 taxa. Phytochorological affinities indicate that 19.8% of the species are from the Nama- Karoo Biome only, another 19.8% are distributed over two biomes, and 41% of the species have a widespread distribution. The Karoo National Park conserves 30% of the recognized endemics of the Nama-Karoo Biome.

  2. The endemic species of Podocarpus in New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de David J.

    1980-01-01

    Among the more than a dozen species of Podocarpus sensu stricto known to occur on the island of New Guinea inch New Britain, five are not known elsewhere. Unlike most of the non-endemic species, these five are widely distributed on the island in their appropriate ecological zones. Only one of the fi

  3. Rediscovery of Curcuma sumatrana (Zingiberaceae) endemic to West Sumatra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyani, M.; Anggara, A.; Leong-Škorničková, J.

    2011-01-01

    A recent exploration of Sumatra resulted in the re-collection of Curcuma sumatrana, an endemic Zingiberaceae species of unclear identity that was first described by Miquel nearly 150 years ago. The history of this species is discussed, a detailed description with a colour plate is provided and a lec

  4. Ecological predictors of extinction risks of endemic mammals of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-Hua

    2014-07-01

    In this brief report, we analyzed ecological correlates of risk of extinction for mammals endemic to China using phylogenetic eigenvector methods to control for the effect of phylogenetic inertia. Extinction risks were based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and ecological explanatory attributes that include range size and climatic variables. When the effect of phylogenetic inertia were controlled, climate became the best predictor for quantifying and evaluating extinction risks of endemic mammals in China, accounting for 13% of the total variation. Range size seems to play a trivial role, explaining ~1% of total variation; however, when non-phylogenetic variation partitioning analysis was done, the role of range size then explained 7.4% of total variation. Consequently, phylogenetic inertia plays a substantial role in increasing the explanatory power of range size on the extinction risks of mammals endemic to China. Limitations of the present study are discussed, with a focus on under-represented sampling of endemic mammalian species.

  5. Iridoid glucosides in the endemic Picconia azorica (Oleaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chryssoula; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Martins, José;

    2015-01-01

    In our continued investigation of plants from the family Oleaceae we have now investigated Picconia azorica endemic to the Azores. Like most species within the family it contains the oleoside-based secoiridoid glucosides ligstroside and oleuropein as the main compounds and in addition verbascoside...

  6. Trichomonad infection in endemic and introduced columbids in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunbury, N

    2011-07-01

    Island endemic avifaunas face many threats, including the now well-documented impacts of pathogens. The impacts of pathogens on the endemic Seychelles avifauna, however, have been little studied. The protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae has been shown to reduce survival and reproductive success of the endemic Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri on the nearby island of Mauritius. I investigated trichomonad infection prevalence and pathogenicity in endemic Seychelles Blue Pigeons, Alectroenas pulcherrima, and two introduced species of columbid, the Madagascar Turtle-dove, Streptopelia picturata, and the Barred Ground Dove, Geopelia striata, on the Seychelles island of Mahé during September-October 2007. I asked whether: 1) trichomonad infections occur in these species; 2) prevalence varies among species; and 3) birds show any signs of pathogenicity consistent with tricho-monosis. I use the results to assess the potential threat of this pathogen to A. pulcherrima. All three species were infected with trichomonads, and the overall prevalence was 27.5%. Alectroenas pulcherrima had higher prevalence (47.1%) than the two introduced species combined (24.3%). No infected individuals showed any signs of disease. These findings suggest that trichomonad parasites should be considered as a potential disease threat to the A. pulcherrima population. PMID:21719842

  7. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, V.; Hendriks, K.; Beentjes, K.; Mennes, C.B.; Becking, L.E.; Geurts, R.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1–3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these

  8. Studies on bilharziasis endemicity in the vicinity of Basra, Iraq*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, H. H.; de Araoz, J.; Klimt, C. R.; al Ani, K.; Azzawi, J.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations into the distribution of snail genera and possible limiting environmental factors in the endemic and non-endemic areas of human bilharziasis in and near Basra, carried out in 1958 by the WHO Bilharziasis Control Project staff in Iraq. These investigations confirmed the existence of an abrupt line of demarcation between these areas immediately south of Basra. During June and October 1958, the known intermediate snail host, Bulinus truncatus, was not found in canals bordering on areas of either infected or non-infected human populations. From these findings and the evidence of previous investigations it is concluded that in southern Iraq, and particularly in Basra, B. truncatus has been demonstrated with difficulty, if at all. Nevertheless, transmission has continued to take place. Explanations of this apparent phenomenon are discussed and it is concluded that populations of B. truncatus may be completely absent for several years and that other snail genera may play a role in transmitting the disease. A study of environmental factors indicates that water velocities, salinity, turbidity, and pH in the endemic and non-endemic areas showed no significant differences, but that the continuous change in water flow may be a factor limiting B. truncatus colonization. It is also concluded that the salinity in the Shatt al Arab River originates from Lake Hammar and is not introduced from the Persian Gulf by tidal wave, as has been previously believed. PMID:14478047

  9. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented.

  10. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species. PMID:26214613

  11. Late endemic syphilis: case report of bejel with gummatous laryngitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, J. L.; Csonka, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    An elderly Bedouin woman originally thought, on clinical and histological grounds, to have tuberculosis of the larynx was found to have gummatous laryngitis due to late endemic syphilis (bejel). This disease is highly prevalent in the Bedouin tribes of the Middle East. Doctors dealing with Arab patients, either in the Middle East or elsewhere, should be aware of this possibility.

  12. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.S.F.T. Merckx; K.P. Hendriks; K.K. Beentjes; C.B. Mennes; L.E. Becking; K.T.C.A. Peijnenburg; A. Afendy; N. Arumugam; H. de Boer; A. Biun; M.M. Buang; P.P. Chen; A.Y.C. Chung; R.. Dow; F.A.A. Feijen; H. Feijen; C. Feijen-van Soest; J. Geml; R. Geurts; B. Gravendeel; P. Hovenkamp; P. Imbun; I. Ipor; S.B. Janssens; M. Jocqué; H. Kappes; E. Khoo; P. Koomen; F. Lens; R.J. Majapun; L.N. Morgado; S. Neupane; N. Nieser; J.T. Pereira; H. Rahman; S. Sabran; A. Sawang; R.M. Schwallier; P.S. Shim; H. Smit; N. Sol; M. Spait; M. Stech; F. Stokvis; J.B. Sugau; M. Suleiman; S. Sumail; D.C. Thomas; J. van Tol; F.Y.Y. Tuh; B.E. Yahya; J. Nais; R. Repin; M. Lakim; M. Schilthuizen

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism1, 2, 3, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood4. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of th

  13. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these comm

  14. Bats (CHIROPTERA) and their zoogeographic distribution characteristics in the Qinling and Daba Mountain Ranges%秦岭和大巴山区翼手类及其动物地理分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家炎; 裴俊峰

    2011-01-01

    There have been different ideas over whether or not the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges are part of the dividing line in Central China between the Palaearctic realm and the Oriental realm in the zoogeographical distribution of animals. Our predecessors have tried to prove this hypothesis from the perspectives of different disciplines by conducting surveys of birds, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and some mammals. The authors have carried out 3 major collections of bat ( CHIROPTERA) specimens in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges since 1964. Over 2 000 obtained specimens were I-dentified and classified as 32 species belonging to 4 families and 4 subfamilies. The analytical results indicate that 23 species belong to the Oriental realm, accounting for 71. 8% of the total, and 9 belong to the Palaearctic realm, accounting for 28. 2%. These species are all seen in every Chinese zoogeographic region and their frequencies range as follows: Central China region, Southwest China region, South China region, North China region, Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region, and Qinghai-Xizang region. Some of China' s endemic genera and species, including monotypic ones, also are distributed in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges. The authors believe that bats are a class affected by climate, topography, and vegetation , and their geographic distribution is relatively sensitive and therefore restricted. According to the regional composition and distribution characteristics of bats in the Qinling and Daba ranges, the Oriental realm is limited to the northern slopes of Qinling range while the Palaearctic realm gradually declines in number from the southern slopes of Qinling range to the northern slopes of Daba range. There is a gradual transition for bats between the two realms in the southern slopes of the Qinling range and the northern slopes of Daba range, demonstrating that this is a transitional region for bats. All this further proves that the view is correct to consider the Qinling

  15. Morcegos cavernícolas da região do Distrito Federal, centro-oeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Cave bats from the Distrito Federal area in Mid-Western Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Bredt

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1989 and 1995, twenty caves in the Distrito Federal area in mid-western Brazil were assessed for bat species richness, frequency, spatial distribution, behavior, reproduction and inter-specific cohabitation. The general state of conservation of the caves was also assessed. Of the 20 caves studied, 12 were less than 100 m long, five between 100 m and 300 m, and three were longerthan 300 m. Twenty-two species of six different families were observed: 16 species belonged to Phyllostomidae, two to Vespertilionidae and Mormoopidae and one to Furipteridae and Emballonuridae. In this study, 17 species were characterized as Distrito Federal cave dwellers. The most prevalent were Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata. The least prevalent were Lonchorhina aurita, Pteronotus gymnonotus and Phylloderma stenops. Since some Anoura caudifer, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Myotis nigricans, Micronycteris minuta, and Eptesicus brasiliensis individuals were captured only while going into the caves early in the night, they were not considered cave dwellers. Even though, they probably use the caves as a daytime roosting place. Surprisingly, Lonchophylla dekeyseri, considered to be the only endemic bat species in the Cerrado ecosystem, was observed in three of the surveyed caves. Further biological studies are necessary to determine the biology of L. dekeyseri and the necessity of its conservation. The bat colonies observed were usually of a small size. Few colonies of D. rotundus and Anoura geoffroyi contained more than 300 individuals of both sexes. Only a inale group of L. aurita was observed in the Distrito Federal area. Twelve of the surveyed caves were hard to access and therefore well protected. Four of the caves received some public visitation, two were located near limestone mines, one was located near an urban area. and one had both public visitation and deforestation near its entrance. In this latter cave, no bats were observed

  16. [Study on distribution of endemic arsenism in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yinlong; Liang, Chaoke; He, Gongli; Cao, Jingxiang

    2003-11-01

    Drinking water and burning coal endemic arsenism as a severe disease is confirmed by National Ministry of Health in China in 1992. It is not uniform survey of the disease for the whole country from its report in 1980 in xijiang. Therefore National Ministry of Scientific and Technology in China supports to study on distribution of endemic arsenism in 21 provinces in China, so that it can know the basic distribution of endemic arsenism in China, and the data results will be a guide for the disease prevention and control. The project used environmental epidemiology study including retrospective epidemiology, present situation survey of the disease in severe areas and sampling investigation in unknown areas, collecting data of exposure population and arsenism cases. At the same time, the data of arsenic level in environment were collected, and environment samples were analyzed by standard chemical method. The both data were statistical analysis by access database and SAS procedure in computer. Through the study, it achieves the expected aim that grasps spreading distribution of drinking water arsenism and burning coal arsenism, including arsenic level in water, coal, food and air, as well as patient's condition of the disease at macroscopic. Drinking water endemic arsenism distributed in 8 provinces, 40 counties, affecting 2,343,238 peoples, among 522566 peoples expositing to the drinking water arsenic higher than 0.05 mg/L, and 7821 arsenism patients were diagnosed. Burning coal endemic arsenism spreads in 2 provinces, 8 counties, affecting 333905 peoples, 48438 peoples exposing to high arsenic of burning coal pollution, and 2402 peoples causing chronic arsenic poising by coal burning. Drinking water endemic arsenism: Nemeng, Shanxi is a severe drinking water endemic region also. Wusu city in Xinjiang is old arsenism area, which reformed drinking water to decrease arsenic, so chronic arsenic poisoning condition decreasing. Reforming drinking water measures to decreees

  17. Nasal rhinosporiodiosis from uttar pradesh (India: a non-endemic zone: first case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Malhotra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhinosporiodiosis is a cosmopolitan disease of man and animals, endemic in India and Sri Lanka with main focus of infection in Southern Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh (UP is not known to be an endemic zone for this disease .We present here the first case of nasal Rhinosporiodiosis from this non-endemic zone.

  18. 翼手目(蝙蝠)适应性进化分子机制的研究进展%Advances on molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera (bats)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁运鹏; 于黎

    2015-01-01

    作为哺乳动物第二大目的翼手目(Chiroptera;俗称蝙蝠)在飞行能力、回声定位与听觉系统、食性、冬眠、免疫防御等诸多方面表现出显著而独特的适应性进化,是研究生物对环境适应性进化分子机制的热点模型之一。文章综述了翼手目适应性进化分子机制的研究进展,特别是近年来在基因组水平上开展的相关研究,显示出更为复杂的分子进化模式和功能分化。随着越来越多的翼手目物种基因组数据的产生,将有望揭示新的进化机制,并为后续的功能实验奠定基础,促进人们对翼手目这一类群的认识和了解,同时也为系统认识动物适应性进化分子机制做出贡献。%As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encoun-tered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chirop-tera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.

  19. Karyotypic Evolution in Malagasy Flying Foxes (Pteropodidae, Chiroptera) and Their Hipposiderid Relatives as Determined by Comparative Chromosome Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Goodman, Steven M; Taylor, Peter J; Schoeman, M Corrie; Yang, Fengtang; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Pteropodidae and Hipposideridae are 2 of the 9 chiropteran families that occur on Madagascar. Despite major advancements in the systematic study of the island's bat fauna, few karyotypic data exist for endemic species. We utilized G- and C-banding in combination with chromosome painting with Myotismyotis probes to establish a genome-wide homology among Malagasy species belonging to the families Pteropodidae (Pteropus rufus 2n = 38; Rousettus madagascariensis, 2n = 36), Hipposideridae (Hipposideros commersoni s.s., 2n = 52), and a single South African representative of the Rhinolophidae (Rhinolophus clivosus, 2n = 58). Painting probes of M. myotis detected 26, 28, 28, and 29 regions of homology in R. madagascariensis, P. rufus, H. commersoni s.s, and R. clivosus, respectively. Translocations, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions were responsible for karyotypic differences amongst the Malagasy pteropodids. Comparative chromosome painting revealed a novel pericentric inversion on P. rufus chromosome 4. Chromosomal characters suggest a close evolutionary relationship between Rousettus and Pteropus. H. commersoni s.s. shared several chromosomal characters with extralimital congeners but did not exhibit 2 chromosomal synapomorphies proposed for Hipposideridae. This study provides further insight into the ancestral karyotypes of pteropodid and hipposiderid bats and corroborates certain molecular phylogenetic hypotheses. PMID:27256929

  20. Responses to TRH in patients with endemic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to TRH was studied in 32 patients from an endemic goiter area, 20 of them had been previously treated with iodized oil. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, 40 and 120 minutes after de i.v. administration of 400μg of TRH, and serum levels of TSH, T3 and T4 were measured. The results obtained show that in endemic goiter area there is a modification in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism, with increased reserve of pituitary TSH and changes in T4 and T3 secretion. The injection of TRH gave exaggerated and delayed responses in the secretion of TSH and T3. Iodized oil used as a prophylatic method produced a disminution of pituitary TSH reserve, and of serum levels of TSH and T3, as a result of the return tonormality of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism. (author)

  1. Mapping phylogenetic endemism in R using georeferenced branch extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Greg R.; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2015-12-01

    Applications are needed to map biodiversity from large-scale species occurrence datasets whilst seamlessly integrating with existing functions in R. Phylogenetic endemism (PE) is a biodiversity measure based on range-restricted phylogenetic diversity (PD). Current implementations use area of occupancy (AOO) or frequency to estimate the spatial range of branch-length (i.e. phylogenetic range-rarity), rather than extent of occurrence (EOO; i.e. georeferenced phylogenetic endemism), which is known to produce different range estimates. We present R functions to map PD or PE weighted by AOO or EOO (new georeferenced implementation), taking as inputs georeferenced species occurrences and a phylogeny. Non-parametric statistics distinguish PD/PE from trivial correlates of species richness and sampling intensity.

  2. Centers of endemism and diversity patterns for typhlocybine leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Huang, Min; Wang, Xiu-Shuang; Ji, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2014-08-01

    This study identifies 'centers of endemism' for typhlocybine leafhoppers in China, revealing diversity patterns and congruence of patterns between total species richness and endemism. Distribution patterns of 774 Typhlocybinae (607 described and 167 undescribed species) were mapped on a 1.5° × 1.5° latitude/longitude grid. Total species richness, endemic species richness and weighted endemism richness were calculated for each grid cell. Grid cells within the top 5% highest values of weighted endemism richness were considered as 'centers of endemism'. Diversity patterns by latitude and altitude were obtained through calculating the gradient richness. A congruence of diversity patterns between total species richness and endemism was confirmed using correlation analysis. To investigate the bioclimatic factors (19 variables) contributing to the congruence between total species richness and endemism, we compared the factor's difference between non-endemic and endemic species using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Eleven centers of endemism, roughly delineated by mountain ranges, were identified in central and southern China, including the south Yunnan, Hengduan Mountains, Qinling Mountains, Hainan Island, Taiwan Island and six mountain areas located in western Sichuan, northwest Fujian, southeast Guizhou, southeast Hunan, central and western Guangdong, and north Zhejiang. Total species richness and endemic species richness decreased with increased latitude and had a consistent unimodal response to altitude. The proportions of endemism decreased with increased latitude and increased with rising altitude. Diversity patterns between total species richness and endemism were highly consistent, and 'Precipitation of Coldest Period' and 'Temperature of Coldest Period' may contribute to the congruence of pattern. Migration ability may play a role in the relationship of endemism and species richness; climate, environment factors and important geologic isolation events can also play

  3. Centers of endemism and diversity patterns for typhlocybine leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Huang, Min; Wang, Xiu-Shuang; Ji, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2014-08-01

    This study identifies 'centers of endemism' for typhlocybine leafhoppers in China, revealing diversity patterns and congruence of patterns between total species richness and endemism. Distribution patterns of 774 Typhlocybinae (607 described and 167 undescribed species) were mapped on a 1.5° × 1.5° latitude/longitude grid. Total species richness, endemic species richness and weighted endemism richness were calculated for each grid cell. Grid cells within the top 5% highest values of weighted endemism richness were considered as 'centers of endemism'. Diversity patterns by latitude and altitude were obtained through calculating the gradient richness. A congruence of diversity patterns between total species richness and endemism was confirmed using correlation analysis. To investigate the bioclimatic factors (19 variables) contributing to the congruence between total species richness and endemism, we compared the factor's difference between non-endemic and endemic species using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Eleven centers of endemism, roughly delineated by mountain ranges, were identified in central and southern China, including the south Yunnan, Hengduan Mountains, Qinling Mountains, Hainan Island, Taiwan Island and six mountain areas located in western Sichuan, northwest Fujian, southeast Guizhou, southeast Hunan, central and western Guangdong, and north Zhejiang. Total species richness and endemic species richness decreased with increased latitude and had a consistent unimodal response to altitude. The proportions of endemism decreased with increased latitude and increased with rising altitude. Diversity patterns between total species richness and endemism were highly consistent, and 'Precipitation of Coldest Period' and 'Temperature of Coldest Period' may contribute to the congruence of pattern. Migration ability may play a role in the relationship of endemism and species richness; climate, environment factors and important geologic isolation events can also play

  4. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India

    OpenAIRE

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have med...

  5. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette K Howard

    Full Text Available The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe, created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939 are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6% of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%. The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to

  6. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  7. Vegetative propagation of the Azorean endemic shrub Viburnum treleasei Gand.

    OpenAIRE

    MÓNICA MOURA; LUÍS SILVA

    2009-01-01

    Viburnum treleasei Gand. is a threatened hermaphroditic shrub or small tree endemic to the Azores islands. In this study we aimed at defining a fast, simple and cost-efficient propagation methodology that could be used by non-skilled workers in conservation action plans. Our objective was also to produce cleaner material for initiation of in vitro cultures and to determine the effects of season, placement of cuttings in the branch, placement of vegetative buds in cuttings and forcing solut...

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Turkish endemic Sonchus erzincanicus extracts

    OpenAIRE

    MAVİ, Ahmet; YİĞİT, Nimet; YİĞİT, DEMET; KANDEMİR, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Sonchus erzincanicus (Asteraceae) is a plant species that is endemic to Turkey and grows in Erzincan. Lipid peroxidation inhibition, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content of the methanol and water extracts of the plant were determined. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was also tested against 107 clinical isolates of human pathogenic microorganism strains belonging to Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseud...

  9. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  10. Richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    T. Contreras-MacBeath; M. B. Rodríguez; Sorani, V.; Goldspink, C.; G. McGregor Reid

    2014-01-01

    A study of richness and endemism of the freshwater fishes of Mexico, was carried out in order to identify hotspots and inform conservation efforts. This was done by mapping and overlaying individual species distributions by means of geographical information systems based on museum data. The study was able to confirm several previously proposed centres of freshwater fish richness (Southeastern Mexico, the Mesa Central, the Bravo-Conchos river system and the Panuco and Tuxpan-Nautla rivers). Se...

  11. The endemic mimic: blastomycosis an illness often misdiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradsher, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    One of the endemic fungi, Blastomyces dermatitidis, can cause epidemics of infection with multiple persons involved in a point source outbreak but more commonly causes sporadic cases of infection within the areas of endemicity. Blastomycosis can present as an acute pneumonia which is often misdiagnosed as acute pneumococcal pneumonia or the infection may present as a chronic pneumonia along with weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and a lung mass suggesting tuberculosis or carcinoma of the lung. Extrapulmonary infection with B. dermatitidis is protean with many different manifestations. Most commonly, skin or subcutaneous lesions are found with either a verrucous or warty appearance or in an ulcerative form. Cases have been misidentified as keratoacanthoma, pyoderma gangrenosum, carcinoma, or as Weber-Christian panniculitis if there are nodular subcutaneous lesions. Essentially any site or organ can have lesions of disseminated blastomycosis. In our series, cases of laryngeal carcinoma, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid nodules, granulomatous hypercalcemia, abnormal mammograms thought to represent breast carcinoma, otitis media with cranial extension, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause have been misdiagnosed and blastomycosis subsequently identified as the cause. This infection causes manifestations which mimic many other more commonly diagnosed conditions and must always be considered by clinicians practicing in the endemic region. PMID:25125734

  12. Epidemiology of Cyclospora cayetanensis: A review focusing in endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2010-09-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoon that has emerged as an important cause of endemic or epidemic diarrhoeal illness in children and adults worldwide. Humans appear to be the only natural hosts. However, the role of animals as natural reservoirs is uncertain but of increasing concern. Human-to-human spread of the parasite occurs indirectly via the environment through oocysts in contaminated water, food or soil. In endemic areas, risk factors associated with the infection include contaminated water or food, contact with soil or animals, type of sanitation and low socioeconomic status. Infections linked to soil contact provide reasons to believe that this route of spread may be more common than realised in disadvantaged community settings. C. cayetanensis is an important cause of traveller's diarrhoea and numerous large foodborne outbreaks associated with the globalisation of the food supply and importation of fruits and vegetables from developing countries have occurred. Waterborne outbreaks have also been reported. Implementation of measures to prevent or control the spread of Cyclospora oocysts in the environment is critical. In endemic areas, the most important steps to prevent infection are improving environmental sanitation and health education. Significant gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of human cyclosporiasis that highlight the need for continued research in several aspects of C. cayetanensis. PMID:20382099

  13. Rescue of endemic states in interconnected networks with adaptive coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, F; Miguel, M San

    2015-01-01

    We study the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model of epidemic spreading on two layers of networks interconnected by adaptive links, which are rewired at random to avoid contacts between infected and susceptible nodes at the interlayer. We find that the rewiring reduces the effective connectivity for the transmission of the disease between layers, and may even totally decouple the networks. Weak endemic states, in which the epidemics spreads only if the two layers are interconnected, show a transition from the endemic to the healthy phase when the rewiring overcomes a threshold value that depends on the infection rate, the strength of the coupling and the mean connectivity of the networks. In the strong endemic scenario, in which the epidemics is able to spread on each separate network, the prevalence in each layer decreases when increasing the rewiring, arriving to single network values only in the limit of infinitely fast rewiring. We also find that finite-size effects are amplified by the rewiring, as the...

  14. Traits influencing range contraction in New Zealand's endemic forest birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlato, Elizabeth H; Armstrong, Doug P; Innes, John G

    2015-10-01

    Understanding vulnerability of endemic taxa to predation is clearly important for conservation management. In New Zealand, predation by introduced mammals such as rats and mustelids is widely recognized as the primary factor responsible for declines of indigenous fauna. The aim of our study was to evaluate the vulnerability of New Zealand's surviving endemic forest bird species to impacts of introduced mammalian predators, and identify key life history attributes underlying this vulnerability. We measured range contraction following the introduction of exotic mammalian predators for 23 endemic forest bird species using information on both pre-human and current distributions. We used Bayesian modeling techniques to analyze whether variation in range contraction was associated with life history traits potentially influencing species' predation vulnerability, while accounting for phylogenetic relatedness. Our results showed that the extent of range contraction varied greatly among species, with some species remaining in available forest habitat throughout most of their pre-human range, and others having disappeared completely from the main islands. Cavity nesting was the key trait associated with more extensive range decline, suggesting that cavity-nesting species are more vulnerable to predation than species that nest in more open sites.

  15. The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Orem, William H.; Pavlovic MD PhD, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and insidious progression that typically occurs between the 4th and 6th decade in long‐resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 – 5% of the population. Though it does not follow typical Mendelian genetics, there is a familial pattern of occurrence. Although residents may live only a few kilometers apart, certain locations are highly affected while others close by, even as close as across the road, remain unscathed. Because of this geographic selectivity scientists have searched for an environmental cause. It is thought that exposure to the toxic plant Aristolochia clematitis is to blame. Genotoxic N‐heterocyclic or polycyclic aromatic containing coal water leachates entering cultivated soil and drinking water are also a possible cause due to the proximity and predictive power of endemic foci to coal deposits. Evidence for Ochratoxin A fungal poisoning also exists. High levels of phthalates have been measured in BEN‐endemic drinking water. BEN is a probably a multifactorial disease that may result from exposure through some of above‐mentioned environmental sources, with genetic factors contributing. This review will discuss recent research concerning the etiology, potential therapies for the treatment of nephropathy, and unexplored research directions for this chronic kidney disease.

  16. Rescue of endemic states in interconnected networks with adaptive coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, F; Serrano, M Ángeles; Miguel, M San

    2016-01-01

    We study the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model of epidemic spreading on two layers of networks interconnected by adaptive links, which are rewired at random to avoid contacts between infected and susceptible nodes at the interlayer. We find that the rewiring reduces the effective connectivity for the transmission of the disease between layers, and may even totally decouple the networks. Weak endemic states, in which the epidemics spreads when the two layers are interconnected but not in each layer separately, show a transition from the endemic to the healthy phase when the rewiring overcomes a threshold value that depends on the infection rate, the strength of the coupling and the mean connectivity of the networks. In the strong endemic scenario, in which the epidemics is able to spread on each separate network -and therefore on the interconnected system- the prevalence in each layer decreases when increasing the rewiring, arriving to single network values only in the limit of infinitely fast rewiring. We also find that rewiring amplifies finite-size effects, preventing the disease transmission between finite networks, as there is a non zero probability that the epidemics stays confined in only one network during its lifetime. PMID:27380771

  17. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  18. Balkan (endemic) nephropathy and foodborn ochratoxin A: preliminary results of a survey of foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, P; Hald, B; Plestina, R; Ceović, S

    1977-06-01

    Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) occurring in foodstuffs. The compound is causally associated with mycotoxic porcine nephropathy, a disease comparable with a human kidney disease, Balkan endemic nephropathy. A preliminary survey of home-produced foodstuffs in areas of Yugoslavia revealed that contamination with ochratoxin A is more frequent in an area where Balkan endemic nephropathy is prevalent (endemic area) than in area where this disease is absent. This indicates higher exposure to foodborn ochratoxin A in the endemic area. Thus further evidence is provided supporting the hypothesis that ochratoxin A is a disease determinant of Balkan endemic nephropathyk0 PMID:888703

  19. Taxonomy, distribution, and natural history of flying foxes (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae in the Mortlock Islands and Chuuk State, Caroline Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Buden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females

  20. Spatio-temporal Evolution on Geographic Boundaries of HFRS Endemic Areas in Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan Xun; WANG Zhi Qiang; GUO Jing; TANG Fang; SUN Xiu Bin; XUE Fu Zhong; KANG Dian Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. Methods The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. Results The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. Conclusion The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled.

  1. Evidence for endemic chikungunya virus infections in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Kosasih

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2% dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1% CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March. Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia.

  2. [Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Stanisław; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers. PMID:19856834

  3. Brucella epididymo-orchitis: a consideration in endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella sp. and may affect many parts of the body. Brucella epididymo-orchitis had been reported in up to 20% of patients with brucellosis. This is a case report of Brucella epididymo-orchitis in a Saudi male patient. He presented with a unilateral swelling of the left testicle. He had fever, arthralgia and night sweats. Ultrasound examination revealed enlarged left epididymis and testicle. Brucella serology was positive and the patient responded to treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin. Thus, brucella infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with epididymo-orchitis from an endemic area.

  4. Invasive ants disrupt frugivory by endemic island birds

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi E Davis; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Mac Nally, Ralph; Green, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Biological invasions can alter direct and indirect interactions between species, generating far-reaching changes in ecological networks that affect key ecological functions. We used model and real fruit assays to show that the invasion and formation of high-density supercolonies by the yellow crazy ant (YCA), Anoplolepis gracilipes, disrupt frugivory by endemic birds on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. The overall handling rates of model fruits by birds were 2.2–2.4-fold lower in ant-invaded t...

  5. A new world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmission intensity affects almost all aspects of malaria epidemiology and the impact of malaria on human populations. Maps of transmission intensity are necessary to identify populations at different levels of risk and to evaluate objectively options for disease control. To remain relevant operationally, such maps must be updated frequently. Following the first global effort to map Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in 2007, this paper describes the generation of a new world map for the year 2010. This analysis is extended to provide the first global estimates of two other metrics of transmission intensity for P. falciparum that underpin contemporary questions in malaria control: the entomological inoculation rate (PfEIR and the basic reproductive number (PfR. Methods Annual parasite incidence data for 13,449 administrative units in 43 endemic countries were sourced to define the spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission in 2010 and 22,212 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR surveys were used in a model-based geostatistical (MBG prediction to create a continuous contemporary surface of malaria endemicity within these limits. A suite of transmission models were developed that link PfPR to PfEIR and PfR and these were fitted to field data. These models were combined with the PfPR map to create new global predictions of PfEIR and PfR. All output maps included measured uncertainty. Results An estimated 1.13 and 1.44 billion people worldwide were at risk of unstable and stable P. falciparum malaria, respectively. The majority of the endemic world was predicted with a median PfEIR of less than one and a median PfRc of less than two. Values of either metric exceeding 10 were almost exclusive to Africa. The uncertainty described in both PfEIR and PfR was substantial in regions of intense transmission. Conclusions The year 2010 has a particular significance as an evaluation milestone for malaria global health policy. The

  6. Plasmodium vivax malaria endemicity in Indonesia in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal R F Elyazar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax imposes substantial morbidity and mortality burdens in endemic zones. Detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of this parasite is needed to combat it. We used model based geostatistics (MBG techniques to generate a contemporary map of risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesia in 2010. METHODS: Plasmodium vivax Annual Parasite Incidence data (2006-2008 and temperature masks were used to map P. vivax transmission limits. A total of 4,658 community surveys of P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR were identified (1985-2010 for mapping quantitative estimates of contemporary endemicity within those limits. After error-checking a total of 4,457 points were included into a national database of age-standardized 1-99 year old PvPR data. A Bayesian MBG procedure created a predicted PvPR(1-99 endemicity surface with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population surface. RESULTS: We estimated 129.6 million people in Indonesia lived at risk of P. vivax transmission in 2010. Among these, 79.3% inhabited unstable transmission areas and 20.7% resided in stable transmission areas. In western Indonesia, the predicted P. vivax prevalence was uniformly low. Over 70% of the population at risk in this region lived on Java and Bali islands, where little malaria transmission occurs. High predicted prevalence areas were observed in the Lesser Sundas, Maluku and Papua. In general, prediction uncertainty was relatively low in the west and high in the east. CONCLUSION: Most Indonesians living with endemic P. vivax experience relatively low risk of infection. However, blood surveys for this parasite are likely relatively insensitive and certainly do not detect the dormant liver stage reservoir of infection. The prospects for P. vivax elimination would be improved with deeper understanding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd distribution, anti

  7. Intergenerational representations of schistosomiasis in endemic area, Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Modena

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the intergenerational process of disease/health representations constitutes a requisite for the construction of projects and health education interventions. The objective of this work is to describe the meaning attributed to schistosomiasis in the family context. Twenty-one residents of an endemic area were interviewed. The interviews were submitted to content analysis. The results demonstrated different representations of the disease by the children, parents and grandparents. This paper discusses the differences in these representations and its impact in schistosomiasis control programs.

  8. Relationship between intra thyroid calcifications and thyroglobulin in endemic goiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccheroni, V.; Iagulli, M.P.; Vescini, F.; Bianchi, G.P.; Menini, S.; Vacirca, A.; Vallese, M.; Lodi, A. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di medicina interna, cardioangiologia e epatologia

    1999-06-01

    The authors have been looking for the presence of parameters associated with thyroid calcifications in patients affected by simple or nodular goiter, either sporadic or endemic. A multistep discriminant analysis taking the presence-absence of calcifications as dependent variant was applied and a new variable (TG1) was created to differentiate normal from supra physiologic concentrations of hTG. In conclusion, as far as a follicular hyperstimulation can be assumed, especially if long-lasting, the presence intra thyroid calcifications should rise clinical suspect toward an old goiter rather than a neoplastic lesion.

  9. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anielle de Pina-Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013. The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex. The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites

  10. Four new triterpenes from the endemic relict shrub Tetraena mongolica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sheng-An; Ding, Lin-Lin; Zhai, Hui-Yuan; Qin, Nan; Duan, Hong-Quan

    2012-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the endemic relict shrub Tetraena mongolica led to the isolation of four new triterpenes: 11α,12α:13β,28-diepoxyoleanane-3β-yl trans-caffeate (1), 3β-hydroxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanane-28-al (2), olean-11-en-28-al-3β-yl trans-caffeate (3), and 28-acetoxy-olean-12-en-3β-yl trans-caffeate (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. PMID:22873370

  11. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Di Santi, Sílvia Maria; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-08-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation's territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation's malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be (or

  12. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swenson Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000, based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (2 to > 200,000 km2 across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a

  13. Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Vander Heiden, Jason; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2013-03-01

    Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define Mycobacterium leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and

  14. Neurocysticercosis in Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. An endemic area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Coêlho, T D; Coêlho, M D

    1996-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is the central nervous system infestation by Cysticercus cellulosae, the larval form of Taenia solium. It is related to poor hygiene habits and sanitation; although Northeast is poorest Region of Brazil, it has been always stated as a non-endemic area. After the installation of computed tomography (CT) service, the incidence of neurocysticercosis began to raise in neurology services in Campina Grande PB, a city where people from the interior Paraíba can find specialized medical facilities. We analyse 5,883 CT record of the TomoHPI Computed Tomography Service from August 1993 to December 1995, observing 1.02% suggestive neurocysticercosis cases and classified them according to sex and age, procedence and socioeconomic condition. Distribution of cases according to age is homogeneous until the age of 50 (mean: 28.36 years old). Men and women are equally affected. Urban areas inhabitants represented 83.33%. Residents of Campina Grande represented 48.33% and 48.34% were residents of cities around Campina Grande (until 50 Km around) and other cities of Paraíba State. Fifty-eight patients were dependent to public health care system. We conclude that neurocysticercosis seems to be endemic in Paraiba State, demanding a more detailed study to determine its incidence/prevalence.

  15. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Toncheva, D.; Atanasova, S.; Polenakovic, M. [Inst. of Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Nish (Serbia Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a familial chronic tubulointerstitial disease with insidious onset and slow progression to terminal renal failure. Evidence has accumulated that BEN is an environmentally induced disease. There are three actual theories attempting to explain the environmental cause of this disease: (1) the aristolochic acid hypothesis, which considers that the disease is produced by chronic intoxication with Aristolochia, (2) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A, and (3) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low-rank coals in the vicinity to the endemic settlements. Moreover, it was suggested that BEN risk is influenced by inherited susceptibility. Therefore, it has been expected that molecular biological investigations will discover genetic markers of BEN and associated urothelial cancer, permitting early identification of susceptible individuals who may be at risk of exposure to the environmental agents. Since kidney pathophysiology is complex, gene expression analysis and highly throughput proteomic technology can identify candidate genes, proteins and molecule networks that eventually could play a role in BEN development. Investigation of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions could be the content of further studies determining the precise risk for BEN.

  16. Clinical features of endemic community-acquired psittacosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Branley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a large outbreak of community-acquired psittacosis in 2002 in residents of the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia, we reviewed new cases in this area over a 7-year period from 2003 to 2009. Using the 2010 criteria from the Centers for Disease Control National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, 85 patients with possible psittacosis were identified, of which 48 were identified as definite or probable infection. Clinical features of these cases are summarized. In addition to Chlamydia-specific serology, specimens, where available, underwent nucleic acid testing for chlamydial DNA using real-time PCR. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was detected in samples from 23 patients. Four of 18 specimens were culture positive. This is the first description of endemic psittacosis, and is characterized in this location by community-acquired psittacosis resulting from inadvertent exposure to birds. The disease is likely to be under-diagnosed, and may often be mistaken for gastroenteritis or meningitis given the frequency of non-respiratory symptoms, particularly without a history of contact with birds. Clinical characteristics of endemic and outbreak-associated cases were similar. The nature of exposure, risk factors and reasons for the occurrence of outbreaks of psittacosis require further investigation.

  17. Endemic systemic mycoses: coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María

    2011-09-01

    Endemic deep or systemic mycoses are common in specific geographical areas of the world. Coccidioidomycosis is present in semi-desert areas, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis in tropical regions and blastomycosis belongs to temperate climates. The two former are widely distributed in the American continent and some tropical regions of the world; the third is limited to Central and South America, and the last to North America and Central and East Africa. These mycoses all have a similar pathogenesis, as the inoculum enters the host through the respiratory tract. Cutaneous manifestations are secondary to lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination. These deep mycoses are exceptional in Europe. Most cases are observed in returning travelers from endemic areas, aid workers, archaeologists, speleologist and immigrants. However, there have been some autochthonous cases of histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum reported in European countries such as Italy and Germany. In this article, we provide up-to-date epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data on the four most important imported systemic mycoses in Europe.

  18. Hemoglobin E prevalence in malaria-endemic villages in Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win,Ne

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The population of Myanmar comprises 8 major indigenous races (Bamar, Kayin, Kachin, Shan, Rakhine, Mon, Chin, and Kayah. The Bamar reside in the 7 central divisions of the country, and the others reside in the 7 peripheral states that border neighboring countries, including China, Laos, and Thailand in the east and India and Bangladesh in the west. Both malaria and HbE are endemic in Myanmar, although the actual prevalence of the latter in the different indigenous races is not yet known. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed in 4 malaria-endemic villages, each having a different predominating indigenous race. The overall prevalence of HbE was 11.4% (52/456 villagers, ranging from 2-6% in the Kayin-predominant villages to 13.1-24.4% in the Bamar-predominant villages. Although the overall HbE prevalence in the villages studied was not significantly different from that of the general Myanmar population, this study strongly documented the influence of racial differences on the prevalence of HbE in Myanmar. To prevent and control severe thalassemia syndromes in Myanmar, extensive prevalence studies of the country?s indigenous races are suggested.

  19. One-year follow-up of renal function in endemic nephropathy families

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenović Aleksandra; Bukvić Danica; Đukanović Ljubica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Endemic nephropathy is familial, chronic tubulointerstitial disease with an insidious onset and asymptomatic, slow progressive course. Objective. The present study was undertaken with the aim to find out whether new persons with renal disorders can be detected among members of endemic families in the village of Šopić (Kolubara River region, Serbia). Methods. The study involved 44 members of five endemic families without history of renal disorders. Objective survey and laboratory...

  20. EBV Reactivation and Chromosomal Polysomies: Euphorbia tirucalli as a Possible Cofactor in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Mannucci; Anna Luzzi; Alessandro Carugi; Alessandro Gozzetti; Stefano Lazzi; Valeria Malagnino; Monique Simmonds; Maria Grazia Cusi; Lorenzo Leoncini; van den Bosch, Cornelia A.; Giulia De Falco

    2012-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is endemic in the Equatorial Belt of Africa, its molecular hallmark is an activated, MYC gene mostly due to a chromosomal translocation. Especially in its endemic clinical variant, Burkitt lymphoma is associated with the oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and holoendemic malaria acts as an amplifier. Environmental factors may also cooperate in Burkitt lymphomagenesis in the endemic regions, such as plants used as traditional herbal remedies. Euphorbia tirucalli, a plant know...

  1. Lassa fever in West Africa: evidence for an expanded region of endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogoba, N; Feldmann, H; Safronetz, D

    2012-09-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia (known as the Mano River region) and Nigeria and Lassa fever cases from these countries are being reported annually. Recent investigations have found evidence for an expanded endemicity zone between the two known Lassa endemic regions indicating that LASV is more widely distributed throughout the Tropical Wooded Savanna ecozone in West Africa. PMID:22958249

  2. Emergence of travel: Associated dengue fever in a non-endemic, hilly state

    OpenAIRE

    Santwana Verma; Anil Kanga; Digvijay Singh; Ghanshyam K Verma; Kiran Mokta; Sunite A Ganju; Vineeta Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Background: We assessed the occurrence of dengue fever in association with travel in a non-endemic hilly region. The clinical presentation and laboratory parameters of febrile patients with a travel history to an endemic region were studied, and the role of the laboratory in the diagnosis was affirmed. Materials and Methods: Febrile patients presenting with clinical features defining dengue with a history of travel to an endemic area constituted the study group.Serum samples were tested ...

  3. Southern Ocean areas of endemism: a reanalysis using benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís P Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biogeographic history of the Southern Ocean (SO fauna is complex and poorly studied, especially the areas of endemism. We reanalyzed the data of Marques & Peña Cantero (2010, along with other geographical records of endemic benthic hydroids below 45°S. A Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE based on 5° latitude by 5° longitude matrix with 61 species resulted in eight areas of endemism. We discuss these results in the context of different hypotheses of the evolution of the SO fauna and previously proposed biogeography patterns.

  4. Sacred groves of north Malabar: treasure trove of endemic and rare medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Subrahmanya Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Sacred groves are one of the finest examples of traditional in situ conservation practices and act as treasure house of endemic, endangered and rare plants. Endemic species of any geographical region, throw light on the biogeography of the area, areas of extinction and evolution of the flora. Twelve famous sacred groves of north Malabar region of Kerala were selected for study. Studies were aimed at the documentation of floristic diversity with special reference to endemic as well as RET medicinal plants and to know threats to them. Present inventory accounted for a total of 99 endemic angiosperms, of which 28 qualified for RET categories. Their role in germplasm conservation is evident from the fact that not a single plant is common to the groves studied and restriction of 47 endemic plants to any one of the grove. There are 59 endemic plants, of which 18 belong to RET category are in high demand due to their medicinal properties. Medicinal plant diversity varies from a minimum of 65% to a maximum of 91% while that of endemic plants ranges from 11% in Andallur to 18% in Edayilakkad. Present study revealed the endemic plant diversity of these groves and also their role in the conserving germplasms of wild yam, figs, pepper, mango and a variety of endemic medicinal plants. Like other groves of Kerala, these are also facing the threat of extinction from increasing anthropogenic activities and there is an urgent need of complete protection and public awareness for the existence of these near-climax communities.

  5. On the origin of endemic species in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-10-19

    Aim The geological and palaeo-climatic forces that produced the unique biodiversity in the Red Sea are a subject of vigorous debate. Here, we review evidence for and against the hypotheses that: (1) Red Sea fauna was extirpated during glacial cycles of the Pleistocene and (2) coral reef fauna found refuge within or just outside the Red Sea during low sea level stands when conditions were inhospitable. Location Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean. Methods We review the literature on palaeontological, geological, biological and genetic evidence that allow us to explore competing hypotheses on the origins and maintenance of shallow-water reef fauna in the Red Sea. Results Palaeontological (microfossil) evidence indicates that some areas of the central Red Sea were devoid of most plankton during low sea level stands due to hypersaline conditions caused by almost complete isolation from the Indian Ocean. However, two areas may have retained conditions adequate for survival: the Gulf of Aqaba and the southern Red Sea. In addition to isolation within the Red Sea, which separated the northern and southern faunas, a strong barrier may also operate in the region: the cold, nutrient-rich water upwelling at the boundary of the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Biological data are either inconclusive or support these putative barriers and refugia, but no data set, that we know of rejects them. Genetic evidence suggests that many endemic lineages diverged from their Indian Ocean counterparts long before the most recent glaciations and/or are restricted to narrow areas, especially in the northern Red Sea. Main conclusions High endemism observed in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden appears to have multiple origins. A cold, nutrient-rich water barrier separates the Gulf of Aden from the rest of the Arabian Sea, whereas a narrow strait separates the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden, each providing potential isolating barriers. Additional barriers may arise from environmental gradients

  6. Taxonomic notes and distribution extension of Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 ( Chiroptera : Hipposideridae ) from south India

    OpenAIRE

    Harpreet Kaur; Srinivasulu Chelmala; Bhargavi Srinivasulu; Tariq Shah; Gundena Devender; Aditya Srinivasulu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros durgadasi Khajuria, 1970 is endemic to India, and was known only from Katanga, Katangi, and Richhai villages, in Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh. During surveys conducted in Kolar district, Karnataka, India, we successfully mist-netted a few individuals belonging to the bicolor species group which, upon detailed external, craniodental and bacular studies were identified as Durga Das’s leaf-nosed bat. This paper reports the presence of this sp...

  7. Vertebrate distributions indicate a greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region of endemism

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    Şerban Procheş

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (MPA biodiversity hotspot (~274 316 km2 was primarily recognised based on its high plant endemism. Here we present the results of a qualitative biogeographical study of the endemic vertebrate fauna of south-eastern Africa, in an exercise that (1 refines the delimitation of the MPA hotspot, (2 defines zoogeographical units and (3 identifies areas of vertebrate endemism. Initially we listed 62 vertebrate species endemic and 60 near endemic to the MPA hotspot, updating previous checklists. Then the distributions of 495 vertebrate taxa endemic to south-eastern Africa were reviewed and 23 endemic vertebrate distributions (EVDs: distribution ranges congruent across several endemic vertebrate taxa were recognised, amongst which the most frequently encountered were located in the Eastern Escarpment, central KwaZulu-Natal, Drakensberg and Maputaland. The geographical patterns illustrated by the EVDs suggest that an expansion of the hotspot to incorporate sections of the Great Escarpment from the Amatola-Winterberg-Sneeuberg Mountains through the Drakensberg to the Soutpansberg would be justified. This redefinition gives rise to a Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA region of vertebrate endemism adding 135% more endemics with an increase of only 73% in surface area to the MPA hotspot. The GMPA region has a more natural boundary in terms of EVDs as well as vegetation units. An accurate delimitation of this hotspot, as well as a better understanding of biogeography in the region, would greatly benefit conservation planning and implementation. Towards these aims, we used EVDs to delimit non-overlapping zoogeographical units (including 14 areas of vertebrate endemism, facilitating numerical biogeographical analyses. More importantly, this study opens up possibilities of refining hotspot delimitation and identifying local conservation priorities in regions of the world where data do not allow numerical analyses.

  8. Sufficient conditions of endemic threshold on metapopulation networks

    CERN Document Server

    Takaguchi, Taro

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we focus on susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on metapopulation networks in which nodes represent subpopulations. Recent studies suggest that heterogeneous network structure between elements plays an important role in determining the threshold of infection rate at the onset of epidemics, one of fundamental quantities governing epidemic dynamics. We consider the general case in which the infection rate at each node depends on its population size, as shown in recent empirical observations. We prove that the sufficient condition for the endemic threshold (i.e., its upper bound), which was previously derived based on a mean-field approximation of network structure, also holds true for arbitrary networks. We also derive an improved condition which implies that networks with the rich-club property (that is, high connectivity between nodes with large number of links) are more favorable to disease spreading. The dependency of infection rate on population size introduces remarkable differ...

  9. [Endemic goiter in the extreme North of West Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzina, I G; Suplotova, L A; Osadchenko, G A

    1998-01-01

    Random examinations covering 8-60-year-old 4345 citizens of 12 settlements of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomic Territory discovered goiter endemia throughout the territory but most evident the endemy manifested in the Far North. The prevalence of endemic goiter among schoolchildren made up 52.8% (enlargement of the goiter of the 1st and 2nd degree), among adults-49.2%. By ultrasound investigation, the above percentages were 29 and 26.4%, respectively. This corresponds to moderate endemia. The median of urinary iodine excretion averaged in the territory 5.1 micrograms%, while overall iodine insufficiency (number of children with urinary iodine < 10 micrograms%) was 81.9%. In the Far North iodine excretion was less but goiter incidence was higher than normal. Thus, in the Far North goiter endemia is rather serious.

  10. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism: a challenge for diagnosis and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, Gaioli; González, Daniel E; Amoedo, Diego

    2009-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is a semimetal that is widely distributed in nature, in water and soil. In Argentine, the contamination of both waterways and groundwater represents the main environmental problem caused by this element. Chronic As poisoning is known as Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism (C.E.R.HA.). Long-term exposure to low concentrations of the element from the prenatal period onward results in the well-known symptoms of chronic As poisoning. CERHA develops progressively, compromising different organs and systems, most importantly the skin. One of the most important complications of CERHA is de development of neoplasias, mainly skin tumors. Childhood environmental health is a challenge in the new millennium and health care professionals play a fundamental role in the protection against environmental hazards such as chronic arsenic poisoning.

  11. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic focus of Abraka, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clement Isaac; Igho Benjamin Igbinosa; Duncan Ogheneocovo Umukoro; Dafe Palmer Aitaikuru

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigated the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) , a neglected tropical disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiens in an endemic focus of Nigeria, as it relates to age, sex and occupational differences. Methods:A total of 474 human subjects were screened using card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis kit. Positive samples were further investigated for parasite positivity in blood/serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results:Of the 474 screened, 44(9.3%) were seropositive with seroprevalence of 22(9.6%) in Urhouka, 14(9.5%) in Umeghe and 8(7.9%) for Ugonu. The number of seropositives, observed for weakly, moderately and strongly positives for the three communities were 4, 7 and 11 in Urhouka, 4, 5 and 5 in Umeghe and 3, 2 and 3 in Ugonu respectively. Among the 16 volunteers with detected parasite in their blood , 4 of them were weakly positive, 5 of them were moderately positive and 7 of them strongly positive. 4 volunteers from Urhouka community were found parasites in their CSF and they were all strongly positive. The difference between the seroprevalence of males and females was not statistically significant (OR=1.14, 95%CI=0.37-3.4, P>0.05). The prevalence difference between age group 21-30 years old and the youngest and oldest age groups was statistically significant (OR=3.5, 95% CI=1.08-12.57, P0.05). It was observed that farmers had significantly higher prevalence of HAT infection as well as greater risk of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection than inhabitants with other occupations (OR=3.25, 95%CI=0.99-11.79, P<0.05). Conclusions:Human activities such as farming and visits to the river have been identified as major risk factors to HAT. Also the breakdown of HAT control program has been advanced for the rise in HAT in Abraka, an endemic focus in Nigeria.

  12. Origin and intra-island diversification of Sulawesi endemic Adrianichthyidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokodongan, Daniel F; Yamahira, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    Although the family Adrianichthyidae is broadly distributed throughout East and Southeast Asia, 19 endemic species, over half of the family, are distributed in Sulawesi, which is an island in Wallacea. However, it remains unclear how this Adrianichthyidae biodiversity hotspot was shaped. In this study, we reconstructed molecular phylogenies for the Sulawesi adrianichthyids and estimated the divergence times of major lineages to infer the detailed history of their origin and subsequent intra-island diversification. The mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies revealed that Sulawesi adrianichthyids are monophyletic, which indicates that they diverged from a single common ancestor. Species in the earliest branching lineages are currently distributed in the central and southeastern parts of the island, indicating that the common ancestor colonized Sula Spur, which is a large promontory that projects from the Australian continental margin, from Asia by oversea dispersal c.a. 20Mya. The first diversification event on Sulawesi, the split of the genus Adrianichthys, occurred c.a. 16Mya, and resulted in the nesting of Adrianichthys within Oryzias. Strong geographic structure was evident in the phylogeny; many species in the lineages branching off early are riverine and widely distributed in the southeastern and southwestern arms of Sulawesi, which suggests that oversea dispersal between tectonic subdivisions of this island during the late Miocene (7-5Mya) contributed to the distributions and diversification of the early branching lineages. In contrast, most species in the lineages branched off later are endemic to a single tectonic lake or lake system in the central Sulawesi, suggesting that habitat fragmentation due to the Pliocene collisions (c.a. 4Mya) among the tectonic subdivisions was the primary factor for diversification of the late branching, lacustrine lineages. Adrianichthys and some Oryzias in a certain late branching lineage are sympatric in Lake Poso, which

  13. Origin and intra-island diversification of Sulawesi endemic Adrianichthyidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokodongan, Daniel F; Yamahira, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    Although the family Adrianichthyidae is broadly distributed throughout East and Southeast Asia, 19 endemic species, over half of the family, are distributed in Sulawesi, which is an island in Wallacea. However, it remains unclear how this Adrianichthyidae biodiversity hotspot was shaped. In this study, we reconstructed molecular phylogenies for the Sulawesi adrianichthyids and estimated the divergence times of major lineages to infer the detailed history of their origin and subsequent intra-island diversification. The mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies revealed that Sulawesi adrianichthyids are monophyletic, which indicates that they diverged from a single common ancestor. Species in the earliest branching lineages are currently distributed in the central and southeastern parts of the island, indicating that the common ancestor colonized Sula Spur, which is a large promontory that projects from the Australian continental margin, from Asia by oversea dispersal c.a. 20Mya. The first diversification event on Sulawesi, the split of the genus Adrianichthys, occurred c.a. 16Mya, and resulted in the nesting of Adrianichthys within Oryzias. Strong geographic structure was evident in the phylogeny; many species in the lineages branching off early are riverine and widely distributed in the southeastern and southwestern arms of Sulawesi, which suggests that oversea dispersal between tectonic subdivisions of this island during the late Miocene (7-5Mya) contributed to the distributions and diversification of the early branching lineages. In contrast, most species in the lineages branched off later are endemic to a single tectonic lake or lake system in the central Sulawesi, suggesting that habitat fragmentation due to the Pliocene collisions (c.a. 4Mya) among the tectonic subdivisions was the primary factor for diversification of the late branching, lacustrine lineages. Adrianichthys and some Oryzias in a certain late branching lineage are sympatric in Lake Poso, which

  14. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A multifactorial disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is of great clinical importance in the restricted areas of Bulgaria, Rumania, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. So far, studies on the etiological factors for BEN have not discovered any single environmental causative agent of this puzzling disease. These data reject the possibility of a purely environmental causation of BEN. The pattern of BEN transmission in the risk families is not typical for single gene disorders. Extensive epidemiological and genetic studies disclose characteristics of multifactorial (polygenic) inheritance of BEN. The evidences of 'familial tendency', variation of the risk for BEN depending on the number of sick parents and the degree of relatedness; the development of BEN in individuals from at-risk families who were born in non-endemic areas; the data that disease is not found in the gypsy population and the expressions of 3q25 cytogenetic marker suggest that the genetic factors play an important role as causative factors in BEN development. The possible impact of environmental triggers on individuals genetically predisposed to BEN could be supposed by the following data: the cytogenetic results of the increased frequency of folate sensitive Fra sites, spontaneous or radiation-induced aberrations in several bands in BEN patients, the data from the detailed analysis of breaks in BEN patients and controls that generate structural chromosome aberrations; the occurrence of BEN in immigrants. Genetical epidemiological approaches to etiology and prevention of BEN are proposed. The predisposing genes for BEN could be genes localized in a region between 3q25-3q26; transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), genetic heterogeneity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes; defects in the host's immune system. The predisposing genes for BEN patients with urinary tract tumors could be germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes and acquired somatic mutations in oncogenes

  15. Taxonomic status of the endemic South African bamboo, Thamnocalamus tessellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Soderstrom

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Thamnocalamus tessellatus (Nees Soderstrom & Ellis, comb. nov. [= Arundinaria tessellata (Nees Munro] is the only endemic South African bamboo and occurs from the eastern districts of the Cape, through Lesotho and Natal, to the eastern Orange Free State at elevations of about 1 500-2 500 m. The Mountain Bamboo, or‘Bergbamboes’ was first described by Nees in 1841 as a member of the genus Nastus because of the similarity, tohim, of the spikelets between it and N. borbonicus, but was later transferred to the all-encompassing genus of the time, Arundinaria, the type species of which is endemic to the south-eastern United States of America. Based onour present knowledge of bamboo genera, this South African species may be excluded from Nastus because the inflorescence is not a panicle but bracteate racemiform, the vegetative branches do not arise in a verticillate manner but are a series of subequal branches that are borne in a row above the nodal line and T. tessellatus has anandroecium of three stamens and not six as in Nastus. The Bergbamboes, with sympodial rhizomes and branchcomplement of several subequal branches, can also not be maintained in Arundinaria, for monopodial rhizomesand a single branch at the node are typical of this genus. The simple, ebracteate, and exserted inflorescence ofArundinaria is also quite distinct from that of the Bergbamboes. In order to place the South African bamboo more precisely we have made comparative studies of its leaf anatomy and epidermis, gross morphology, and analyses of its inflorescence and spikelets. The results of all thesestudies reveal a striking resemblance to members of the Sino-Himalayan genus, Thamnocalamus, to which we haveaccordingly transferred the species. The results are presented, together with an interpretation of the phylogeneticposition of the Bergbamboes and possible events that led to the disjunction of species in the genus.

  16. Kenyan endemic bird species at home in novel ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Teucher, Mike; Rödder, Dennis; Bleicher, Marie-Therese; Dieckow, Claudia; Wiese, Anja; Fischer, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Riparian thickets of East Africa harbor a large number of endemic animal and plant species, but also provide important ecosystem services for the human being settling along streams. This creates a conflicting situation between nature conservation and land-use activities. Today, most of this former pristine vegetation is highly degraded and became replaced by the invasive exotic Lantana camara shrub species. In this study, we analyze the movement behavior and habitat use of a diverse range of riparian bird species and model the habitat availability of each of these species. We selected the following four riparian bird species: Bare-eyed Thrush Turdus tephronotus, Rufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosus, Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Andropadus importunus insularis, and the Kenyan endemic Hinde's Babbler Turdoides hindei. We collected telemetric data of 14 individuals during a 2 months radio-tracking campaign along the Nzeeu River in southeast Kenya. We found that (1) all four species had similar home-range sizes, all geographically restricted and nearby the river; (2) all species mainly use dense thicket, in particular the invasive L. camara; (3) human settlements were avoided by the bird individuals observed; (4) the birds' movement, indicating foraging behavior, was comparatively slow within thickets, but significantly faster over open, agricultural areas; and (5) habitat suitability models underline the relevance of L. camara as suitable surrogate habitat for all understoreyed bird species, but also show that the clearance of thickets has led to a vanishing of large and interconnected thickets and thus might have negative effects on the population viability in the long run. PMID:27066236

  17. Population viability of the narrow endemic Helianthemum juliae (CISTACEAE) in relation to climate variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.V. Marrero-Gomez; J.G.B. Oostermeijer; E. Carque-Alamo; A. Banares-Baudet

    2007-01-01

    Narrow endemic plants are highly vulnerable to extinction as a result of human disturbance and climate change. We investigated the factors affecting the population viability of Helianthemum juliae, a perennial plant endemic to the Teide National Park on Tenerife, Canary Islands. One population was d

  18. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko;

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI...

  19. Differences in insect resistance between tomato species endemic to the Galapagos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucatti, A.F.; Heusden, van A.W.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vosman, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Galapagos Islands constitute a highly diverse ecosystem and a unique source of variation in the form of endemic species. There are two endemic tomato species, Solanum galapagense and S. cheesmaniae and two introduced tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum. Morphologic

  20. Serological description of Estonian patients with Lyme disease, a comparison with control sera from endemic and non-endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisand, Kai E; Utt, Meeme; Kisand, Kalle V; Prükk, Tiina; Uibo, Raivo

    2004-04-01

    Serological tests for Lyme disease are mostly not well standardized and cases of misinterpretation of test results by clinicians are rather common. The diagnostic value of serologic tests may also depend on the seroepidemiological situation of the population. The aim of the study was to compare the immunoblot pattern of Lyme borreliosis patients and control sera from endemic and non-endemic regions and to identify the most suitable interpretation criteria for our immunoblot test. Serum samples of 24 Estonian patients with Lyme disease, 12 sera from patients with tick-borne encephalitis, 40 Estonian control sera, and sera from 50 Laplanders from North Sweden where people usually never come into contact with ticks were tested for IgG antibodies to Borrelia. Sonicated lysate of Borrelia afzelii (strain ACA1) was used in immunoblot as source of antigens. In our test system the following interpretation criteria gave the specificity of 96% for Estonian population: > or = 1 band from p58, p21, p17 and p14 plus > or = 2 bands from p83/100, p39, p34, p30 and p25; or > or = 4 bands from p83/100, p39, p34, p30 and p25. The comparison of Estonian controls with Laplanders showed that subclinical infections with Borrelia are rather common in Estonia. Also the rate of other infections, giving rise to cross-reactive antibodies, may be more frequent in Estonians. The frequent reactions with Borrelia antigens in a healthy population complicate the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.

  1. Inferring the biogeographic origins of inter-continental disjunct endemics using a Bayes-DIVA approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AJ HARRIS; Jun WEN; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG

    2013-01-01

    The arcto-Tertiary relictual flora is comprised of many genera that occur non-contiguously in the temperate zones of eastern Asia,Europe,eastern North America,and westem North America.Within each distributional area,species are typically endemic and may thus be widely separated from closely related species within the other areas.It is widely accepted that this common pattern of distribution resulted from of the fragmentation of a once morecontinuous arcto-Tertiary forest.The historical biogeographic events leading to the present-day disjunction have often been investigated using a phylogenetic approach.Limitations to these previous studies have included phylogenetic uncertainty and uncertainty in ancestral range reconstructions.However,the recently described Bayes-DIVA method handles both types of uncertainty.Thus,we used Bayes-DIVA analysis to reconstruct the stem lineage distributions for 185 endemic lineages from 23 disjunct genera representing 17 vascular plant families.In particular,we asked whether endemic lineages within each of the four distributional areas more often evolved from (1) widespread ancestors,(2) ancestors dispersed from other areas,or (3) endemic ancestors.We also considered which of these three biogeographic mechanisms may best explain the origins of arcto-Tertiary disjunct endemics in the neotropics.Our results show that eastern Asian endemics more often evolved from endemic ancestors compared to endemics in Europe and eastern and western North America.Present-day endemic lineages in the latter areas more often arose from widespread ancestors.Our results also provide anecdotal evidence for the importance of dispersal in the biogeographic origins of arcto-Tertiary species endemic in the neotropics.

  2. Vegetation stability and the habitat associations of the endemic taxa of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gavin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Explanations for areas of endemism often involve relative climatic stability, or low climate velocity, over time scales ranging from the Pleistocene to the late Cenozoic. Given that many narrowly endemic taxa in forested landscapes display discrete habitat associations, habitat stability should be similarly important for endemic persistence. Furthermore, while past climate variability is exceedingly difficult to quantify on millennial time scales, past distributions of habitats may be robustly inferred from paleoecological records. The Olympic Peninsula, Washington, supports a biota with several insular features including 29 endemic plant and animal taxa. Here I present the geographic distribution and habitat of the endemic taxa, and then examine the vegetation stability of the past 14,300 years from five pollen records associated with discrete vegetation zones on the peninsula. I show that 11 endemics have distributions centered on dry alpine scree and rock in the northeastern quadrant of the peninsula, and nine occur in shaded riparian forests in the southwest. Vegetation turnover during the post-glacial period was smallest in these areas. However, another long pollen record from the western peninsula reveals existence of shrub tundra and greatly reduced forest cover, indicating southward displacement of shaded riparian habitats by perhaps as much as 100 km. Although this study supports an association of post-glacial vegetation stability with endemism, records spanning the glacial maximum indicate widespread tundra during long periods of the late Pleistocene and therefore suggest southern displacement of forest-associated endemics. While some of the alpine scree-associated endemics may have persisted in situ, many others likely arrived via a variety of dispersal trajectories. These histories include dispersal from southern refugia towards ocean barriers preventing further northward dispersal, contraction from more widespread distributions, and

  3. Aligning conservation goals: are patterns of species richness and endemism concordant at regional scales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation strategies commonly target areas of high species richness and/or high endemism. However, the correlation between richness and endemism at scales relevant to conservation is unclear; these two common goals of conservation plans may therefore be in conflict. Here the spatial concordance between richness and endemism is tested using five taxa in North America: butterflies, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles. This concordance is also tested using overall indices of richness and endemism (incorporating all five taxa. For all taxa except birds, richness and endemism were significantly correlated, with amphibians, reptiles, and the overall indices showing the highest correlations (rs = 0.527-0.676. However, 'priority sets' of ecoregions (i.e., the top 10% of ecoregions based on richness generally overlapped poorly with those based on endemism (< 50% overlap for all but reptiles. These results offer only limited support for the idea that richness and endemism are correlated at broad scales and indicate that land managers will need to balance these dual, and often conflicting, goals of biodiversity conservation.

  4. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities in three aedine mosquito species from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, S S; Pawar, K D; Gavhale, S D; Tikhe, C V; Charan, N S; Angel, B; Joshi, V; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2016-09-01

    Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female aedine mosquitoes. Differences in the composition and structure of bacterial communities in the midguts of mosquitoes may affect the vector's ability to transmit the disease. To investigate and analyse the role of midgut bacterial communities in viral transmission, midgut bacteria from three species, namely Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti), Fredwardsius vittatus (= Aedes vittatus) and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (all: Diptera: Culicidae), from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India were compared. Construction and analyses of six 16S rRNA gene libraries indicated that Serratia spp.-related phylotypes dominated all clone libraries of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is not endemic. In dengue-endemic areas, phylotypes related to Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter spp. and uncultivated bacterium dominated the clone libraries of S. aegypti, F. vittatus and S. albopicta, respectively. Diversity indices analysis and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays showed bacterial diversity and abundance in the midguts of S. aegypti to be higher than in the other two species. Significant differences observed among midgut bacterial communities of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is and is not endemic, respectively, may be related to the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes to carry dengue viruses and, hence, to the prevalence of disease in some areas. PMID:27094337

  5. A Long Neglected World Malaria Map: Plasmodium vivax Endemicity in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gething, Peter W.; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Smith, David L.; Battle, Katherine E.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Patil, Anand P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; Price, Ric N.; Müeller, Ivo; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current understanding of the spatial epidemiology and geographical distribution of Plasmodium vivax is far less developed than that for P. falciparum, representing a barrier to rational strategies for control and elimination. Here we present the first systematic effort to map the global endemicity of this hitherto neglected parasite. Methodology and Findings We first updated to the year 2010 our earlier estimate of the geographical limits of P. vivax transmission. Within areas of stable transmission, an assembly of 9,970 geopositioned P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) surveys collected from 1985 to 2010 were used with a spatiotemporal Bayesian model-based geostatistical approach to estimate endemicity age-standardised to the 1–99 year age range (PvPR1–99) within every 5×5 km resolution grid square. The model incorporated data on Duffy negative phenotype frequency to suppress endemicity predictions, particularly in Africa. Endemicity was predicted within a relatively narrow range throughout the endemic world, with the point estimate rarely exceeding 7% PvPR1–99. The Americas contributed 22% of the global area at risk of P. vivax transmission, but high endemic areas were generally sparsely populated and the region contributed only 6% of the 2.5 billion people at risk (PAR) globally. In Africa, Duffy negativity meant stable transmission was constrained to Madagascar and parts of the Horn, contributing 3.5% of global PAR. Central Asia was home to 82% of global PAR with important high endemic areas coinciding with dense populations particularly in India and Myanmar. South East Asia contained areas of the highest endemicity in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea and contributed 9% of global PAR. Conclusions and Significance This detailed depiction of spatially varying endemicity is intended to contribute to a much-needed paradigm shift towards geographically stratified and evidence-based planning for P. vivax control and elimination. PMID:22970336

  6. A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Gething

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current understanding of the spatial epidemiology and geographical distribution of Plasmodium vivax is far less developed than that for P. falciparum, representing a barrier to rational strategies for control and elimination. Here we present the first systematic effort to map the global endemicity of this hitherto neglected parasite. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We first updated to the year 2010 our earlier estimate of the geographical limits of P. vivax transmission. Within areas of stable transmission, an assembly of 9,970 geopositioned P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR surveys collected from 1985 to 2010 were used with a spatiotemporal Bayesian model-based geostatistical approach to estimate endemicity age-standardised to the 1-99 year age range (PvPR(1-99 within every 5×5 km resolution grid square. The model incorporated data on Duffy negative phenotype frequency to suppress endemicity predictions, particularly in Africa. Endemicity was predicted within a relatively narrow range throughout the endemic world, with the point estimate rarely exceeding 7% PvPR(1-99. The Americas contributed 22% of the global area at risk of P. vivax transmission, but high endemic areas were generally sparsely populated and the region contributed only 6% of the 2.5 billion people at risk (PAR globally. In Africa, Duffy negativity meant stable transmission was constrained to Madagascar and parts of the Horn, contributing 3.5% of global PAR. Central Asia was home to 82% of global PAR with important high endemic areas coinciding with dense populations particularly in India and Myanmar. South East Asia contained areas of the highest endemicity in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea and contributed 9% of global PAR. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This detailed depiction of spatially varying endemicity is intended to contribute to a much-needed paradigm shift towards geographically stratified and evidence-based planning for P. vivax control and elimination.

  7. Mycorrhizal dependency of some endemic and endangered Hawaiian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemma, J N; Koske, R E; Habte, M

    2002-02-01

    Four endemic species of Hawaiian plants were tested for their response to inoculation with a Hawaiian isolate of Glomus aggregatum (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus [AMF]) when grown in a native soil with or without P added to achieve different soil-solution P levels. The endangered species (Sesbania tomentosa [Fabaceae] and Colubrina oppositifolia [Rhamnaceae]) and two nonendangered species (Bidens sandvicensis and B. asymmetrica × sandvicensis [Asteraceae]) were tested. When soil-solution P levels in greenhouse trials were similar to unfertilized field soils (e.g., 0.005-0.020 mg P/L), shoots of inoculated plants were 2.1 to 7.0 times larger than noninoculated plants. Leaf tissue P levels and root biomass in these species showed similar responses to inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependencies ranging from 44 to 88% were measured when plants were grown in low-P soils and were -4-42% in soil with P levels typical of highly productive agricultural soils. A survey of P levels in a variety of native (nonagricultural) Hawaiian soils indicated the widespread occurrence of P-limited sites (mean = 0.010 mg P/L, range = <0.001-0.030 mg P/L; N = 41). The terms "ecological mycorrhizal dependency" (EMD) and "agricultural mycorrhizal dependency" (AMD) are introduced to refine the concept of mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:21669742

  8. Immunosuppressive principles from Achillea talagonica, an endemic species of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saeidnia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background and the purpose of study: Achillea talagonica Boiss. (Asteraceae grows in the western and central parts of Iran. This plant has long been used in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent for treatment of rheumatic pain. Previously, the immunosuppressive activity of the aqueous extract of this endemic plant in experimental animals was reported. In this research, isolation of the main immunologically active components of A. talagonica, which were effective on humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice is elucidated. Methods: In order to find the main immunosuppressive components of A. talagonica, methanol and methanol-water (80% and 50% v:v extracts were injected to BALB/c mice and the hemagglutinating antibody titer was assayed after immunization with SRBC (sheep red blood cells. Guided by this assay, active principles were separated by chromatographic methods. Results: Isolated compounds were identified as caffeic acid 9-O-glucoside (1, quercetin (2, luteolin (3, 3'-methoxy luteolin (4, proline (5 and choline (6 by comparison of their spectral data with those of reported in literatures. Immunosuppressive property of choline (5 mgkg-1 was comparable to those of prednisolone (10 mgkg-1; although, quercetin (20 mgkg-1 and caffeoyl glucoside (20 mgkg-1 decreased anti-SRBC titer in comparison with control groups. Major conclusion: Immunosuppressive effects of A. talagonica are due to some components belonging to betaine, flavonol and phenoilc esters.

  9. Vegetative propagation of the Azorean endemic shrub Viburnum treleasei Gand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA MOURA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viburnum treleasei Gand. is a threatened hermaphroditic shrub or small tree endemic to the Azores islands. In this study we aimed at defining a fast, simple and cost-efficient propagation methodology that could be used by non-skilled workers in conservation actionplans. Our objective was also to produce cleaner material for initiation of in vitro cultures and to determine the effects of season, placement of cuttings in the branch, placement of vegetative buds in cuttings and forcing solutions in shoot development. It was possible to produce clean shoots from cuttings using a forcing solution with 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (8-HQS, 2% sucrose and no growth regulators addition. Shoot development results obtained with apical and sub-apical cuttings indicate that V. treleasei possessesapical dominance and deep endodormancy. Apical semihardwood cuttings in autumn or airlayered branches in autumn and winter with 2 or 5% (w/w of IBA produced excellent rooting results which will allow reinforcing depleted populations of V. treleasei efficientlyand at reduced costs.

  10. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Abate

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%, in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL, we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF. We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  11. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina

    2015-06-12

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (pcolostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission. PMID:25829243

  12. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  13. Dados ecológicos dos quirópteros da Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoá, Santa Catarina, Brasil Ecological data of Chiroptera from Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoá, Santa Cantarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO SELECTED VIRUSES AND PARASITES IN INTRODUCED AND ENDEMIC CARNIVORES IN WESTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Julie; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Dollar, Luke; Rahajanirina, Leon Pierrot; Andrianaivoarivelo, Radosoa; Parker, Patricia; Dubovi, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox ). Introduced and endemic species were exposed to canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii . Domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) may be sources of infection for these pathogens. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma in captured fosa was >93%, and adults were more likely to be exposed than immature individuals. Our data provide a basis upon which to evaluate and manage risks of pathogen transmission between species. PMID:27195685

  15. Endemic species have highly integrated phenotypes, environmental distributions and phenotype-environment relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermant, M.; Prinzing, A.; Vernon, P.; Convey, P.; Hennion, F.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Abiotic environmental gradients; endemism level; functional biogeography; island biogeography; Kerguelen Islands; life-history traits; multi-species comparison; phenotypic integration; range size; sub-Antarctic Abstract Aim: Why are some species geographically restricted? Ecological explan

  16. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Mukaratirwa, S.;

    considered, on national scale, to be co-endemic with schistosomiasis. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database. We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number......This study investigates the number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa living in areas where two neglected tropical diseases, cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, are co-endemic. The World Health Organisation is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA......). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects among people suffering from neurocysticercosis. Both diseases are presumed to be widely distributed on the continent, but the co-endemicity is unclear. We carried out a meta-analysis of the literature of T...

  17. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO SELECTED VIRUSES AND PARASITES IN INTRODUCED AND ENDEMIC CARNIVORES IN WESTERN MADAGASCAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Julie; Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Dollar, Luke; Rahajanirina, Leon Pierrot; Andrianaivoarivelo, Radosoa; Parker, Patricia; Dubovi, Edward

    2016-07-01

    Introduced animals impact endemic populations through predation, competition, and disease transmission. Populations of endemic carnivores in Madagascar are declining, and pathogens transmitted from introduced species may further endanger these unique species. We assessed the exposure of introduced and endemic carnivores to common viral and parasitic pathogens in two national parks of Madagascar (Kirindy Mitea National Park and Ankarafantsika National Park) and their neighboring villages. We also identified variables associated with the presence of antibodies to these pathogens in fosa ( Cryptoprocta ferox ). Introduced and endemic species were exposed to canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and Toxoplasma gondii . Domestic dogs ( Canis familiaris ) and cats ( Felis catus ) may be sources of infection for these pathogens. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma in captured fosa was >93%, and adults were more likely to be exposed than immature individuals. Our data provide a basis upon which to evaluate and manage risks of pathogen transmission between species.

  18. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  19. Egg predators of an endemic Italian salamander, Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report new aquatic predators feeding on Northern spectacled salamander eggs, Salamandrina perspicillata, an endemic Italian species. Eggs were preyed upon by the leech, Trocheta bykowskii, and the trichopteran larvae of Potamophylax cingulatus and Halesus appenninus.

  20. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Peter A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLR and related downstream signaling pathways of innate immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic. Methods A post-PCR Ligation Detection Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88-Adaptor Like Protein (MAL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and TLR2 length polymorphisms in 170 residents of two regions of Kenya where malaria transmission is stable and high (holoendemic or episodic and low, 346 residents of a malaria holoendemic region of Papua New Guinea, and 261 residents of North America of self-identified ethnicity. Results The difference in historical malaria exposure between the two Kenyan sites has significantly increased the frequency of malaria protective alleles glucose-6-phoshpate dehydrogenase (G6PD and Hemoglobin S (HbS in the holoendemic site compared to the episodic transmission site. However, this study detected no such difference in the TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL allele frequencies between the two study sites. All polymorphisms were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium in the Kenyan and Papua New Guinean populations. TLR9 SNPs and length polymorphisms within the TLR2 5' untranslated region were the only mutant alleles present at a frequency greater than 10% in all populations. Conclusion Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria. Genotype frequencies are consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the Neutral Theory, suggesting that genetic drift has influenced allele frequencies to a greater extent than selective

  1. Boron toxicity characteristics of four northern California endemic tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaubig, B.A.; Bingham, F.T.

    A greenhouse study was undertaken to determine the characteristics of soil B toxicity for four tree species endemic to The Geysers area in northern California: digger pine (Pinus sabiniana Dougl. ex D. Don), California laurel (or, California bay) (Umbellularia californica (Hoo. and Arn. Nutt.)), madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh). Significant exponential relationships were found between soil B concentration and relative growth, and between tissue B concentration and relative growth for the four species. Significant linear relationships were found between both soil and tissue B concentration and foliar damage for the four species. Foliar damages over 25% of the leaf or needle area on digger pine, California laurel, madrone, and bigleaf maple, respectively, occurred at saturated soil extract concentrations (mmol B/L) of 1.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.08. Twenty-five percent foliar damage was associated with leaf or needle tissue concentrations (mmol B/kg) of 115, 100, 50, and 30 for the digger pine, California laurel, madrone, and bigleaf maple, respectively. Growth decrements of 25% occurred at saturated soil extract concentrations (mmol B/L) of 1.6, 0.3, 0.2, 0.5 for the digger pine, California laurel, madrone, and bigleaf maple, respectively. Twenty-five percent growth decrements were associated with leaf or needle tissue concentrations (mmol B/kg) of 140, 100, 20, and 7 for the digger pine, California laurel, madrone, and bigleaf maple, respectively. By comparison with two agronomic crops - cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) - the four tree species were placed into one of six B tolerance classes.

  2. Malaria situation in an endemic area, southeastern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Fekri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County.The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006-2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5.A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%.Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activities for health education and awareness.

  3. Evidence for widespread endemism among Antarctic micro-organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyverman, Wim; Verleyen, Elie; Wilmotte, Annick; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Willems, Anne; Peeters, Karolien; Van de Vijver, Bart; De Wever, Aaike; Leliaert, Frederik; Sabbe, Koen

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the enormous diversity of microbes, their multiple roles in the functioning of ecosystems, and their response to large-scale environmental and climatic changes, are at the forefront of the international research agenda. In Antarctica, where terrestrial and lacustrine environments are predominantly microbial realms, an active and growing community of microbial ecologists is probing this diversity and its role in ecosystem processes. In a broader context, this work has the potential to make a significant contribution to the long-standing debate as to whether microbes are fundamentally different from macroorganisms in their biogeography. According to the ubiquity hypothesis, microbial community composition is not constrained by dispersal limitation and is solely the result of species sorting along environmental gradients. However, recent work on several groups of microalgae is challenging this view. Global analyses using morphology-based diatom inventories have demonstrated that, in addition to environmental harshness, geographical isolation underlies the strong latitudinal gradients in local and regional diversity in the Southern hemisphere. Increasing evidence points to a strong regionalization of diatom floras in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, mirroring the biogeographical regions that have been recognized for macroorganisms. Likewise, the application of molecular-phylogenetic techniques to cultured and uncultured diversity revealed a high number of Antarctic endemics among cyanobacteria and green algae. Calibration of these phylogenies suggests that several clades have an ancient evolutionary history within the Antarctic continent, possibly dating back to 330 Ma. These findings are in line with the current view on the origin of Antarctic terrestrial metazoa, including springtails, chironomids and mites, with most evidence suggesting a long history of geographic isolation on a multi-million year, even pre-Gondwana break-up timescale.

  4. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

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    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9 or absence (TF = 0 of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure. Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073 and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060 in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05. More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5 was only associated with age group (p < 0.05. No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05 to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  5. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies.

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    Katie Hampson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries.We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000 human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%, followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20% and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%, with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%, and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%.This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to monitor the impacts of control efforts.

  6. High Genetic Diversity in Geographically Remote Populations of Endemic and Widespread Coral Reef Angelfishes (genus: Centropyge)

    OpenAIRE

    Munday, Philip L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Lynne van Herwerden; Jerry, Dean R.

    2013-01-01

    In the terrestrial environment, endemic species and isolated populations of widespread species have the highest rates of extinction partly due to their low genetic diversity. To determine if this pattern holds in the marine environment, we examined genetic diversity in endemic coral reef angelfishes and isolated populations of widespread species. Specifically, this study tested the prediction that angelfish (genus: Centropyge) populations at Christmas and Cocos Islands have low genetic divers...

  7. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    K. Föller; B. Stelbrink; Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-01-01

    Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four modes are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher ...

  8. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    K. Föller; B. Stelbrink; Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-01-01

    Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four types are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial ph...

  9. Patterns of Cave Biodiversity and Endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiller, Matthew L.; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20...

  10. INDUCTION OF ANAEROBIC PROCESSES IN BAIKAL ENDEMICS EULIMNOGAMMARUS VITTATUS (DYB. AND E. VERRUCOSUS (DYB. (AMPHIPODA, CRUSTACEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofeyev M.A.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The data confirming the ability of Baikalian endemic species Eulimnogammarus vittatus (Dyb. and E. verrucosus (Dyb. to activate anaerobic glycolysis under hypoxia are presented. The differences in the degree and the rate of lactic acid accumulation and remetabolisation in returning to aerobiosis are noted in the species concerned. On the example of E. vittatus the ability of Baikalian endemics to activate anaerobic lipolysis and process of anaerobic formation of succinate is shown

  11. INDUCTION OF ANAEROBIC PROCESSES IN BAIKAL ENDEMICS EULIMNOGAMMARUS VITTATUS (DYB.) AND E. VERRUCOSUS (DYB.) (AMPHIPODA, CRUSTACEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeyev M.A; Kirichenko K.A.; Rokhin A.V.; Bedulina D.S.; Chernyshova K.P.; Pobezhimova T.P.

    2006-01-01

    The data confirming the ability of Baikalian endemic species Eulimnogammarus vittatus (Dyb.) and E. verrucosus (Dyb.) to activate anaerobic glycolysis under hypoxia are presented. The differences in the degree and the rate of lactic acid accumulation and remetabolisation in returning to aerobiosis are noted in the species concerned. On the example of E. vittatus the ability of Baikalian endemics to activate anaerobic lipolysis and process of anaerobic formation of succinate is shown

  12. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sean M.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the r...

  13. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho Francisco AB; Behrens Ben C; Massad Eduardo; Behrens Ronald H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and durat...

  14. Identification of areas of endemism from species distribution models: Threshold selection and Nearctic mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Escalante; Gerardo Rodríguez-Tapia; Miguel Linaje; Patricia Illoldi-Rangel; Rafael González-López

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the relevance of threshold selection in species distribution models on the delimitation of areas of endemism, using as case study the North American mammals. We modeled 40 species of endemic mammals of the Nearctic region with Maxent, and transformed these models to binary maps using four different thresholds: minimum training presence, tenth percentile training presence, equal training sensitivity and specificity, and 0.5 logistic probability. We analyzed the binary maps with th...

  15. Impacts of forest logging on the species diversity of endemic seed plants from Hainan Island

    OpenAIRE

    Han Xu; Yide Li; Tushou Luo; Dexiang Chen; Mingxian Lin; Huai Yang

    2012-01-01

    Endemic seed plants are important floral components in tropical rainforests, and are often sensitive to human disturbance. However, few reports exist of the impacts of forest logging on these species. In this study, based on surveys of 164 quadrats of 25 m×25 m in Jianfengling, Hainan Island, the species composition and relationships between species richness of Hainan endemic seed plants and the total plant species richness were analyzed. Each of the 164 quadrats was grouped into one of three...

  16. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  17. On some Chiroptera from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge

    1964-01-01

    On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species. A

  18. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  19. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass

  20. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Meer, Martin H.

    2014-12-23

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as “vulnerable” by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity (M = 259–1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited (M = 3–9) with high self-replenishment (68–93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations

  1. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-01

    prevention or management services are provided efficiently. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Iron supplements for children living in malaria-endemic countries Why the review is important Children living in malarial areas commonly develop anaemia. Long-term anaemia is thought to delay a child's development and make children more likely to get infections. In areas where anaemia is common, health providers may give iron to prevent anaemia, but there is a concern amongst researchers that this may increase the risk of malaria. It is thought that the iron tablets will increase iron levels in the blood, and this will promote the growth of the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. We aimed to assess the effects of oral iron supplementation in children living in countries where malaria is common. Main findings of the review Cochrane researchers searched the available evidence up to 30 August 2015 and included 35 trials (31,955 children). Iron did not increase the risk of malaria, indicated by fever and the presence of parasites in the blood (high quality evidence). There was no increased risk of death among children treated with iron, although the quality of the evidence for this was low. Among children treated with iron, there was no increased risk of severe malaria (high quality evidence). Although it is hypothesized that iron supplementation might harm children who do not have anaemia living in malarial areas, there is probably no increased risk for malaria in these children (moderate quality evidence). In areas where health services are sufficient to help prevent and treat malaria, giving iron supplements (with or without folic acid) may reduce clinical malaria. In areas where these services are not available, iron supplementation (with or without folic acid) may increase the number of children with clinical malaria (low quality evidence). Overall, iron resulted in fewer anaemic children at follow up, and the end average change in haemoglobin from base line was higher with iron

  2. A review of contemporary patterns of endemism for shallow water reef fauna in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2015-11-03

    Aim The Red Sea is characterised by a unique fauna and historical periods of desiccation, hypersalinity and intermittent isolation. The origin and contemporary composition of reef-associated taxa in this region can illuminate biogeographical principles about vicariance and the establishment (or local extirpation) of existing species. Here we aim to: (1) outline the distribution of shallow water fauna between the Red Sea and adjacent regions, (2) explore mechanisms for maintaining these distributions and (3) propose hypotheses to test these mechanisms. Location Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Methods Updated checklists for scleractinian corals, fishes and non-coral invertebrates were used to determine species richness in the Red Sea and the rest of the Arabian Peninsula and assess levels of endemism. Fine-scale diversity and abundance of reef fishes within the Red Sea were explored using ecological survey data. Results Within the Red Sea, we recorded 346 zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate scleractinian coral species of which 19 are endemic (5.5%). Currently 635 species of polychaetes, 211 echinoderms and 79 ascidians have been documented, with endemism rates of 12.6%, 8.1% and 16.5% respectively. A preliminary compilation of 231 species of crustaceans and 137 species of molluscs include 10.0% and 6.6% endemism respectively. We documented 1071 shallow fish species, with 12.9% endemic in the entire Red Sea and 14.1% endemic in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Based on ecological survey data of endemic fishes, there were no major changes in species richness or abundance across 1100 km of Saudi Arabian coastline. Main conclusions The Red Sea biota appears resilient to major environmental fluctuations and is characterized by high rates of endemism with variable degrees of incursion into the Gulf of Aden. The nearby Omani and Arabian Gulfs also have variable environments and high levels of endemism, but these are not consistently distinct

  3. Seseli farrenyi: an Empordanese endemism close to extinction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero, J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seseli farrenyi is a narrow endemic from Catalonia (Spain. Only a very limited number of populations of this species are known, located in the north coast of the Creus Cape (Alt Empordà. This species has been catalogued as “Endangered” (EN according to the IUCN criteria, based on a series of studies performed in the late 1990s, which included censuses and detailed cartography. New censuses performed by the same researchers a decade later revealed a decline of 90% of the total number of individuals, as well as the loss of the species in its type locality. These data justify the classification of S. farrenyi as “Critically Endangered” (CR. The development of demographic studies in order to determine the causes of the population loss in this species should be a priority for its recovery plan, which is mandatory under the current legislation.Seseli farrenyi es un endemismo estrictamente catalán, que cuenta con un número muy reducido de poblaciones en la franja litoral norte del cabo de Creus (Alt Empordà. La especie ha sido catalogada como “En Peligro” (EN según los criterios de la UICN basándose en una serie de estudios realizados a finales de los años noventa, incluyendo censos y cartografía detallada. Tras poco más de una década, la realización de un nuevo censo por parte del mismo equipo de investigadores revela una pérdida de más del 90% del total de individuos, así como la desaparición de la localidad clásica de la especie, justificando elevar su categoría de amenaza a “En Peligro Crítico” (CR. Una de las prioridades del plan de recuperación para esta especie (la redacción y aplicación del cual se deriva de la inclusión de S. farrenyi en el Catàleg de Flora Amenaçada de Catalunya debería ser la realización de estudios demográficos que permitieran conocer las causas de este declive poblacional. [ct] Seseli farrenyi és un endemisme estrictament català, que compta amb un nombre molt reduït de

  4. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünver, Ahmet

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Statistical differences within bacteria were significant at pLas especies de Sideritis de usan tradicionalmente para la elaboración del té, como flavorizantes y con fines médicos en Turquía. En este estudio, se han determinado las actividades antimicrobiana y antioxidante de extractos de especies endémicas de la Familia Lamiaceae , como son Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC y Sideritis erythrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE. La actividad antibacteriana fue determinada mediante el método de difusión en agar con 15 especies de bacterias: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus , Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus feacalis, Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli O157:H7, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus y Yersinia enterocolitica. Se consideraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando p<0,05. El extracto de SC tuvo mayor actividad antimicrobiana que el extracto de SE. La bacteria más sensible fue P. aeruginosa , mientras que las más resistentes fueron E. feacalis para el extracto

  5. Microsporidian Parasites Found in the Hemolymph of Four Baikalian Endemic Amphipods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V Madyarova

    Full Text Available At present, approximately 187 genera and over 1300 species of Microsporidia have been described, among which almost half infect aquatic species and approximately 50 genera potentially infect aquatic arthropods. Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the oldest lakes in the world, and it has a rich endemic fauna with a predominance of arthropods. Among the arthropods living in this lake, amphipods (Crustacea are the most dominant group and are represented by more than 350 endemic species. Baikalian amphipods inhabit almost all depths and all types of substrates. The age and geographical isolation of this group creates excellent opportunities for studying the diversity, evolution and genetics of host-parasite relationships. However, despite more than 150 years of study, data investigating the microsporidia of Lake Baikal remain incomplete. In this study, we used molecular genetic analyses to detect microsporidia in the hemolymph of several endemic species of amphipods from Lake Baikal. We provide the first evidence that microsporidian species belonging to three genera (Microsporidium, Dictyocoela and Nosema are present in the hemolymph of Baikalian endemic amphipods. In the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, we detected SSU rDNA of microsporidia belonging to the genus Nozema. In the hemolymph of Pallasea cancellous, we found the DNA of Microsporidium sp. similar to that in other Baikalian endemic amphipods; Dictyocoela sp. was found in the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus marituji and Acanthogammarus lappaceus longispinus.

  6. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Polenakovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, Nish (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite broad investigations into the possible role of genetic factors, environmental agents and immune mechanisms, the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is only partially understood. An increased incidence of upper urothelial cancer in patients with BEN and in populations from endemic settlements has been demonstrated. Genetic studies have landed support for genetic predisposition to BEN. The similarity of the morphological and clinical pattern of BEN and Chinese herbs nephropathy has raised the possibility of a common etiologic agent, aristolochic acid (AA), described in 1969 by Ivic and confirmed by a recent study of AA-DNA adducts. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is studied extensively as the etiologic agent of BEN. Weathering of low-rank coals nearby the endemic villages produces water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines, similar to metabolic products of acetaminophen, which has a causal relationship with analgesic nephropathy. AA is confirmed as the etiologic agent of BEN; however, it may not be the sole risk factor. More research is needed on the patterns of BEN over time and between different endemic places. Therefore, it is important to test etiological hypotheses in different endemic foci, preferably as a multicentric research. An international approach to solving the etiology of BEN is needed in the coming years. The geographic correlation and presence of AA-DNA adducts in both BEN and associated urothelial cancer support the hypothesis that these diseases share a common etiology.

  7. The Northern Bolivian Altiplano: a region highly endemic for human fascioliasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, S; Anglés, R; Esteban, J G; Bargues, M D; Buchon, P; Franken, M; Strauss, W

    1999-06-01

    The worldwide importance of human infection by Fasciola hepatica has been recognized in recent years. The endemic region between Lake Titicaca and the valley of La Paz, Bolivia, at 3800-4100 m altitude, presents the highest prevalences and intensities recorded. Large geographical studies involving Lymnaea truncatula snails (malacological, physico-chemical, and botanic studies of 59, 28 and 30 water bodies, respectively, inhabited by lymnaeids; environmental mean temperature studies covering a 40-year period), livestock (5491 cattle) and human coprological surveys (2723 subjects, 2521 of whom were school children) were conducted during 1991-97 to establish the boundaries and distributional characteristics of this endemic Northern Altiplano region. The endemic area covers part of the Los Andes, Ingavi, Omasuyos and Murillo provinces of the La Paz Department. The human endemic zone is stable, isolated and apparently fixed in its present outline, the boundaries being marked by geographical, climatic and soil-water chemical characteristics. The parasite distribution is irregular in the endemic area, the transmission foci being patchily distributed and linked to the presence of appropriate water bodies. Prevalences in school children are related to snail population distribution and extent. Altiplanic lymnaeids mainly inhabit permanent water bodies, which enables parasite transmission during the whole year. A confluence of several factors mitigates the negative effects of the high altitude.

  8. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite. PMID:27470792

  9. Biogeography of Timor and Surrounding Wallacean Islands: Endemism in Ants of the Genus Polyrhachis Fr. Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Trainor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wallacean island of Timor is of particular biological interest due to its relatively large size and transitional location between the Indo-Malayan and Australasian biogeographic realms. However, the origins and levels of endemism of its invertebrate fauna are poorly known. A recent study of Timorese ants revealed a diverse fauna with predominantly Indo-Malayan affinities, but species-level taxonomy was considered to be too poorly understood for an analysis of levels of endemism. The highly diverse Old World tropical genus Polyrhachis represents a notable exception, and here we analyse levels of endemism in the Polyrhachis fauna of Timor and surrounding islands. We supplement the species listed in the previous study with additional collections to record a total of 35 species of Polyrhachis from Timor and surrounding islands. Only 14 (40% of the 35 species could be named (P. constricta, P. costulata, P. gab, P. sokolova, P. hera, P. illaudata, P. rixosa, P. acantha chrysophanes, P. saevissima, P. bicolor, P. cryptoceroides, P. dives, P. longipes and P. olybria, and the large majority of the remaining species have not previously been collected. These are very likely to be endemic to Timor and surrounding islands, and point to remarkably high levels (>50% of endemism in the regional ant fauna.

  10. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar. PMID:26639100

  11. Cholera at the Crossroads: The Association Between Endemic Cholera and National Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Benjamin L.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Eric D Mintz

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) national water and sanitation coverage levels and the infant mortality rate as predictors of endemic cholera in the 5-year period following water and sanitation coverage estimates using logistic regression, receiver operator characteristic curves, and different definitions of endemicity. Each was a significant predictors of endemic cholera at P < 0.001. Using a value of 250 for annual cases reported in 3 of 5 years, a national water access level of...

  12. Two new Plectranthus species (Lamiaceae and new distribution records from the Pondoland Centre of Plant Endemism, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Edwards

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Two newly discovered species of Plectranthus L'Hér. are described from the Pondoland Centre of Plant Endemism, on the eastern seaboard of South Africa.  P. brevimentum and P. stylesii are exceedingly narrow endemics known only from their type localities. The known distribution ranges of two other narrow endemics of the region.  P. emstii and P. praetermissus, are expanded with new distribution records.

  13. GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF SIS EPIDEMIC MODEL WITH A SIMPLE VACCINATION AND MULTIPLE ENDEMIC EQUILIBRIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An SIS epidemic model with a simple vaccination is investigated in this article.The efficiency of vaccine, the disease-related death rate and population dynamics are also considered in this model. The authors find two threshold R0 and Rc (Rc may not exist).There is a unique endemic equilibrium for R0 > 1 or Rc = R0; there are two endemic equilibria for Rc < R0 < 1; and there is no endemic equilibrium for R0 < Rc < 1. When Rc exists, there is a backward bifurcation from the disease-free equilibrium for R0 = 1.They analyze the stability of equilibria and obtain the globally dynamic behaviors of the model. The results acquired in this article show that an accurate estimation of the efficiency of vaccine is necessary to prevent and controll the spread of disease.

  14. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard;

    2002-01-01

    . For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total...... explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation.......By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log...

  15. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, E.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, K. K.;

    2002-01-01

    . For the ratio between endemic and native species, modified area is also the major significant variable, but with a negative regression slope. Multiple regression models show that some isolation measures are significant contributors and may explain some of the residual variation, but their contribution to total...... explained variation is in general small. The results show that the species area relationships are different for native and endemic species. This is discussed in relation to classical island biogeographical models, and the concepts of radiative speciation. Udgivelsesdato: 2002......By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log...

  16. Diversity, rarity and the evolution and conservation of the Canary Islands endemic flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Betancort, J. Alfredo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The endemic vascular flora of the Canary Islands comprises over 680, taxa collectively accounting for more than 50% of the total native flora. To investigate geographical patterns of diversity within the endemic flora, distribution data from published sources together with other field observation and herbarium data were used to compile a data matrix comprising the distributions of ca. 90% of endemic taxa scored on a 10 × 10km UTM grid. WORLDMAP was then used to investigate patterns of endemic diversity, range size rarity (a measure of endemicity, phylogenetic diversity and threatened taxon richness. Endemic taxon richness was found to be highly heterogeneous across the archipelago, with cells containing between one and 139 taxa each (0.05-22.82% of endemic diversity. Patterns of variation in range size rarity and phylogenetic diversity were found to be largely congruent with endemic diversity, although some cells exhibited markedly higher range size rarity scores than would be predicted by their endemic diversity scores. In contrast, the pattern of endangered taxon richness across the archipelago differed markedly from endemic taxon richness. Many cells in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria exhibit higher endangered taxon richness scores than would be predicted from their endemic richness scores whereas in Tenerife, El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera, the converse is generally true. The implications of the results both for understanding the evolution of Canary Island endemic diversity and for the conservation of the region’s unique and vulnerable flora are considered.La flora vascular endémica de las Islas Canarias comprende unos 680 táxones, lo que viene a representar más del 50% de la flora nativa. Con objeto de investigar patrones geográficos de diversidad en la flora endémica, se recopilaron los datos publicados que, junto con otras observaciones de campo y datos de herbario, sirvieron para completar una matriz de datos

  17. Comparison of mineral intake between children from endemic and non-endemic areas for Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet Autonomous Region: Pilote study

    OpenAIRE

    Dermience, Michael; Maesen, Philippe; Mathieu, Françoise; De Maertelaer, Viviane; Lognay, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and chronic osteochondropathy affecting between 0.74 million and 2.5 million people in the Tibet Autonomous Region and in several provinces of the People’s Republic of China. The etiology remains unclear, although a multifactorial hypothesis has been proposed (selenium/iodine deficiency; high concentration of organic matters in drinking water; and mycotoxin poisoning by fungi infecting cereals). The rural population is almost exclusive...

  18. A Comparison of Two Brazilian Populations of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) from Endemic and Non-endemic Areas to Infection with Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877)

    OpenAIRE

    Brito Ana C; Williams Paul; Fontes Gilberto; Rocha Eliana MM

    1997-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus is known to be an efficient insect host of Wuchereria bancrofti. In Brazil Cx. quinquefasciatus is widely distributed throughout the country and is often abundant in and around human habitations. In contrast, Bancroftian filariasis is limited to three foci in Brazil. Experiments were undertaken to compare the vector capacities of Cx. quinquefasciatus originating from Maceió (Alagoas), one of the endemic areas of W. bancrofti infection in Brazil, and Belo Horizonte (Mina...

  19. One-year follow-up of renal function in endemic nephropathy families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenović Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endemic nephropathy is familial, chronic tubulointerstitial disease with an insidious onset and asymptomatic, slow progressive course. Objective. The present study was undertaken with the aim to find out whether new persons with renal disorders can be detected among members of endemic families in the village of Šopić (Kolubara River region, Serbia. Methods. The study involved 44 members of five endemic families without history of renal disorders. Objective survey and laboratory analyzes that enabled determination of kidney functions (creatinine clearance, proteinuria, urine specific gravity and osmolality, fractional sodium excretion (FENa, the rate of tubular phosphate reabsorption (TRP, urine N-acetil-D-glycosaminidase and intestinal alkaline phosphatase were done in all examined persons three times during the 6-month intervals. Results. At the first examination, hypertension was detected in 23 (52% person, decreased creatinine clearance in two and proteinuria in 10 persons included in the study. In addition, proteinuria and tubular disorders were detected in 6, hypertension, proteinuria and/or tubular disorders in 9 persons. The analysis of the results obtained by three check-ups undertaken during one year showed that proteinuria and tubular disorders appeared intermittently in half of the examined endemic family members. All persons with detected renal disorders required further examination in order to establish accurate diagnosis of renal disease. Conclusion. Three check-ups performed at six-month intervals in the members of five endemic families detected various renal disorders including renal hypofunction. Regular systematic check-ups of endemic families could enable early detection of the disease and early initiation of measures for slowing down chronic renal disease progression.

  20. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Palma, Alvaro T.; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732

  1. Amphibian diversity and endemism in the swamp forests of Agusan Marsh, Agusan del Sur, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlita L. Almeria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Agusan Marsh, an ecologically significant wetland in the Philippines, consists of an extensivefloodplain heavily dissected by numerous rivers and streams making it a very important source offreshwater, storing more than 15% of the nation’s freshwater resource in the form of swamp forests.Since amphibians are very good indicators of climate change and ecosystem health, species diversity andendemism were assessed in sago swamp, terminalia, mixed swamp, and peat swamp forests in AgusanMarsh using a combination of cruising, pitfall trap and quadrat methods. Seventeen species with 41%endemism were recorded. Of the seven endemic species, five are Mindanao endemic. The twoundescribed species of Oreophryne and one Philautus could be new species and were observed in theterminalia, sago, and mixed swamp forests but not in the peat swamp forest. The peat swamp forestwhere the invasive Rhinella marina was abundant, had the least species richness owing to habitatdisturbance brought about by human encroachment. The highest species richness and abundance wereobserved in the terminalia forest primarily due to the presence of suitable microhabitats. Four vulnerablespecies were recorded in the marsh. Most of the vulnerable and endemic species were documented in theterminalia and mixed swamp forests. High diversity and more or less even distribution were observed inall sites. Three amphibian species are considered socio-economically important and are hunted for foodand bait for fish. The presence of endemic and vulnerable species indicates that Agusan Marsh is a keyconservation site. Logging and widespread mining, discharging tons of mine tailings into the rivers whichfind their way into the swamp forests are just some of the threats to the amphibians in the marsh.Conservation action is necessary to protect the endemic and vulnerable species in the swamp forests andthe Agusan marsh in general.

  2. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Friedlander

    Full Text Available The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA, in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri, which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC, in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures.

  3. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gaymer, Carlos F; Palma, Alvaro T; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures.

  4. Morphometric and morphological variation between two different populations of Phlebotomus major s.l. from endemic and non-endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badakhshan, Mehdi; Sadraei, Javid; Moin-Vaziri, Vahideh

    2011-06-01

    Populations of Phlebotomus major were examined in two endemic and nonendemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. Based on the shape of the aedeagus and ventrally located hairs of coxite and pharyngeal armatures, two morphotypes were found sympatrically in the endemic area of Borazjan. Significant differences in morphometric survey were observed in at least 11 measured characters. The aedeagus of the non-endemic Miyandoab morphotype, and also of a few specimens from Borazjan, is completely parallel throughout its length with a slightly expanded end. Ventrally located hairs of the middle coxite were longer and more compact. It is close morphologically to P. major neglectus (P. neglectus), which was recently recorded from Iran. It is also morphologically similar to P. notus, which has not yet been reported from Iran and needs further investigation. The aedeagus of the morphotype occurring only in Borazjan is narrower in the middle and the hairs are closer to the base of the coxite and are shorter and more outspread, which makes it similar to P. major krimensis or P. neglectus. The two morphotypes occurring sympatrically in Borazjan do not appear to be subspecies and it may be premature to propose them as separate species. Further investigation is needed to clarify the actual status of P. major s. l. in Iran.

  5. The family Rubiaceae in southern Assam with special reference to endemic and rediscovered plant taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Barbhuiya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of diversity, distribution and endemism of the family Rubiaceae for southern Assam has been made. The analyses are based on field observations in the three districts, viz., Cachar, Hailakandi and Karimganj, as well as data from existing collections and literature. The present study records 90 taxa recorded from southern Assam, four of which are endemic. Chassalia curviflora (Wall. Thwaites var. ellipsoides Hook. f. and Mussaenda keenanii Hook.f. are rediscovered after a gap of 140 years. Mussaenda corymbosa Roxb. is reported for the first time from northeastern India, while Chassalia staintonii (H.Hara Deb and Mondal is reported as a new record for Assam.

  6. Molecular evidence reveals a polyphyletic origin and chromosomal speciation of Lake Baikal's endemic asellid isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, B; Michel, E; Natyaganova, A V; Sherbakov, D Yu

    2003-06-01

    The six endemic isopod species of Lake Baikal have been regarded as a small species flock with uncertain affinities to related asellids. We provide evidence from 16S rRNA sequences for polyphyletic origins of Baikalian Asellidae. One clade of two species is related to the Eurasian genus Asellus. The other clade, Baicalasellus, shows affinities to North American asellids and may have a long evolutionary history within the lake basin. Some speciation events within Baicalasellus clearly have a chromosomal basis. In contrast with numerous taxa exhibiting monophyletic radiations in ancient lakes, the endemic Baikalian isopods arose by multiple invasions and chromosomal mechanisms. PMID:12755879

  7. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the mainland, possibly because surrounding oceans buffer against strong climate oscillations and because geography is a strong....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography...... determinant of island richness, endemism and network roles....

  8. Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rui

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838

  9. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  10. EBV Reactivation and Chromosomal Polysomies: Euphorbia tirucalli as a Possible Cofactor in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mannucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkitt lymphoma is endemic in the Equatorial Belt of Africa, its molecular hallmark is an activated, MYC gene mostly due to a chromosomal translocation. Especially in its endemic clinical variant, Burkitt lymphoma is associated with the oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and holoendemic malaria acts as an amplifier. Environmental factors may also cooperate in Burkitt lymphomagenesis in the endemic regions, such as plants used as traditional herbal remedies. Euphorbia tirucalli, a plant known to possess EBV-activating substances, has a similar geographical distribution to endemic Burkitt’s Lymphoma and is used as a hedge, herbal remedy and toy in the Lymphoma BeltI. In this study we aimed at determining if exposure to Euphorbia tirucalli could contribute to lymphomagenesis, and at which extent. Lymphoblastoid and cord blood-derived cell lines were treated with plant extracts, and the expression of EBV-coded proteins was checked, to assess EBV reactivation. The occurrence of chromosomal translocations was then investigated by FISH. Our preliminary results suggest that E. tirucalli is able to reactivate EBV and determine chromosomal alterations, which leads to c-MYC altered expression. The existence of genomic alterations might determine the accumulation of further genetic alteration, which could eventually lead to a transformed phenotype.

  11. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  12. A new species of Uvariopsis (Annonaceae), endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couvreur, Th.L.P.; Luke, W.R.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania enclose high levels of plant and animal diversity with many yet to be described species. Here we describe a new species of the pan-tropical plant family Annonaceae named Uvariopsis lovettiana. It closely resembles another Eastern Arc endemic species, U. bisexual

  13. Entomological and serological investigation of Japanese encephalitis in endemic area of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikky Nyari

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The findings showed the rapid dissemination of JEV within a population, facilitated by different species of Culex in the region. As JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, an immunization programme, an effective vector control strategy and application of standard hygiene practices in these endemic areas could result in a considerable reduction in morbidity and mortality due to JE.

  14. Societal Responses to Endemic Terror: Evidence from Driving Behavior in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, using data on traffic volume and fatal accident rates in Israel from 2001 to 2004--a period spanning much of the Second Intifada--we examine the population-level responses to endemic terror to uncover whether societies become habituated so that the response weakens following repeated attacks or whether they become increasingly…

  15. Does a ruderal strategy dominate the endemic flora of the West African forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To understand the distribution pattern of endemic plant species in West African rain forests, one of the global priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Location Upper Guinean forests, West Africa (Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Togo). Method

  16. Otiorhynchus alutaceus a. vittatus (Germar, 1817) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) HRVATSKI ENDEM I OPASAN ŠTETNIK

    OpenAIRE

    Britvec, Branko

    2007-01-01

    Razmotreni su podaci o nalazima Otiorhynchus alutaceus a. vittatus (Germar, 1817). Ustanovljeno je da se ta pipa pojavljuje kao endem u Hrvatskoj, ali istodobno i kao opasan štetnik vinove loze, koji ne smanjuje samo prinos nego i fi ziološki oslabljuje napadnute čokote.

  17. Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus endemic to Italy for biocontrol of aflatoxins in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective biological control of aflatoxin­producing Aspergillus flavus with atoxigenic members of that species requires suitable A. flavus well adapted to and resident in target agroecosystems. Eighteen atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus endemic in Italy were compared for ability to reduce aflatoxin c...

  18. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  19. Clinical course of digital dermatitis lesions in an endemically infected herd without preventive herd strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhauer, M.; Bartels, C.J.M.; Dopfer, D.; Schaik, van G.

    2008-01-01

    Lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in four separately housed groups in a herd with endemic digital dermatitis (E)D) were monitored weekly for 4 weeks in December 2004 for the presence of and transition between five stages (MO-M4) of DD. Cows were also monitored for the presence of heel horn eros

  20. Population genetic structure of Plasmodium falciparum across a region of diverse endemicity in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobegi Victor A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite population genetic structure varies among areas of differing endemicity, but this has not been systematically studied across Plasmodium falciparum populations in Africa where most infections occur. Methods Ten polymorphic P. falciparum microsatellite loci were genotyped in 268 infections from eight locations in four West African countries (Republic of Guinea, Guinea Bissau, The Gambia and Senegal, spanning a highly endemic forested region in the south to a low endemic Sahelian region in the north. Analysis was performed on proportions of mixed genotype infections, genotypic diversity among isolates, multilocus standardized index of association, and inter-population differentiation. Results Each location had similar levels of pairwise genotypic diversity among isolates, although there were many more mixed parasite genotype infections in the south. Apart from a few isolates that were virtually identical, the multilocus index of association was not significant in any population. Genetic differentiation between populations was low (most pairwise FST values  Conclusions Although proportions of mixed genotype infections varied with endemicity as expected, population genetic structure was similar across the diverse sites. Very substantial reduction in transmission would be needed to cause fragmented or epidemic sub-structure in this region.

  1. Emergence of tick-borne encephalitis in new endemic areas in Austria: 42 years of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, F X; Stiasny, K; Holzmann, H; Kundi, M; Sixl, W; Wenk, M; Kainz, W; Essl, A; Kunz, C

    2015-04-02

    Human infections with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)virus are a public health concern in certain regions of Europe, central and eastern Asia. Expansions of endemic areas and increased incidences have been associated with different factors including ecological changes supporting tick reproduction, socioeconomic changes increasing human outdoor activities and climatic changes favouring virus circulation in natural foci. Austria is among the most strongly affected countries in Central Europe, but the annual number of cases has strongly declined due to vaccination. Here,we have analysed changes of the incidence of TBE in the unvaccinated population of all federal states of Austria over a period of 42 years. The overall incidence in Austria has remained constant, but new strongly affected endemic regions have emerged in alpine valleys in the west of Austria. In parallel, the incidence in low-land regions in the north-east of the country is decreasing. There is no evidence for a shift to higher altitudes of infection sites in the traditional TBE zones,but the average altitudes of some newly established endemic areas in the west are significantly higher. Our analyses underscore the focal nature of TBE endemic areas and the potential of TBE virus to emerge in previously unaffected regions.

  2. Low genetic variability in the endangered Colombian endemic freshwater turtle Podocnemis lewyana (Testudines, Podocnemididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Ramírez, M.; Chiari, Y.; Castaño-Mora, O.V.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Magdalena River Turtle (Podocnemis lewyana) is a Colombian endemic species, endangered due to human exploitation and habitat destruction. To date, this species is poorly known ecologically and data on its genetic diversity are lacking. Here we report on the first genetic survey of the species ac

  3. Leucism in Mexican small-eared shrew Cryptotis mexicana (Mammalia : Soricomorpha), endemic to Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, Lazaro; Ramirez-Chaves, Hector E.; Cervantes, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Leucism is the partial or complete reduction of the fur pigmentation where eyes and skin maintain their normal coloration. In this paper, we report the record of an individual of the endemic Mexican shrew Cryptotis mexicana from Veracruz, Mexico, that displays leucism. This lack of pigmentation, unc

  4. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: Implications for their pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haluska, F.G.; Russo, G.; Croce, C.M. (Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Kant, J. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA)); Andreef, M. (Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, the authors analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors.

  5. Recombination drives genetic diversification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in a region of streptococcal endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, David J; Kaul, Santosh Y; Bramhachari, P V; Smeesters, Pierre R; Vu, Therese; Karmarkar, M G; Shaila, Melkote S; Sriprakash, Kadaba S

    2011-01-01

    Infection of the skin or throat by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) may result in a number of human diseases. To understand mechanisms that give rise to new genetic variants in this species, we used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to characterise relationships in the SDSE population from India, a country where streptococcal disease is endemic. The study revealed Indian SDSE isolates have sequence types (STs) predominantly different to those reported from other regions of the world. Emm-ST combinations in India are also largely unique. Split decomposition analysis, the presence of emm-types in unrelated clonal complexes, and analysis of phylogenetic trees based on concatenated sequences all reveal an extensive history of recombination within the population. The ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m) events (11:1) and per site r/m ratio (41:1) in this population is twice as high as reported for SDSE from non-endemic regions. Recombination involving the emm-gene is also more frequent than recombination involving housekeeping genes, consistent with diversification of M proteins offering selective advantages to the pathogen. Our data demonstrate that genetic recombination in endemic regions is more frequent than non-endemic regions, and gives rise to novel local SDSE variants, some of which may have increased fitness or pathogenic potential.

  6. Recombination drives genetic diversification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in a region of streptococcal endemicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J McMillan

    Full Text Available Infection of the skin or throat by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE may result in a number of human diseases. To understand mechanisms that give rise to new genetic variants in this species, we used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST to characterise relationships in the SDSE population from India, a country where streptococcal disease is endemic. The study revealed Indian SDSE isolates have sequence types (STs predominantly different to those reported from other regions of the world. Emm-ST combinations in India are also largely unique. Split decomposition analysis, the presence of emm-types in unrelated clonal complexes, and analysis of phylogenetic trees based on concatenated sequences all reveal an extensive history of recombination within the population. The ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m events (11:1 and per site r/m ratio (41:1 in this population is twice as high as reported for SDSE from non-endemic regions. Recombination involving the emm-gene is also more frequent than recombination involving housekeeping genes, consistent with diversification of M proteins offering selective advantages to the pathogen. Our data demonstrate that genetic recombination in endemic regions is more frequent than non-endemic regions, and gives rise to novel local SDSE variants, some of which may have increased fitness or pathogenic potential.

  7. EXISTENCE AND UNIQUENESS OF ENDEMIC STATES FOR THE AGE-STRUCTURED SEIR EPIDEMIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhi LI; Jing CHEN

    2006-01-01

    An age-structured SEIR epidemic model of a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated. Threshold results for the existence of endemic states are established for most cases. Under certain conditions, uniqueness is also shown. Threshold used are explicitly computable in term of demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model.

  8. Existence and Uniqueness of Endemic States for the Age-structured MSEIR Epidemic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-zhi Li; Geni Gupur; Guang-tian Zhu

    2002-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness of positive steady states for the age-structured MSEIR epidemic model with age-dependent transmission coefficient is considered. Threshold results for the existence of endemic states are established; under certain conditions, uniqueness is also shown.

  9. Recombination drives genetic diversification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis in a region of streptococcal endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, David J; Kaul, Santosh Y; Bramhachari, P V; Smeesters, Pierre R; Vu, Therese; Karmarkar, M G; Shaila, Melkote S; Sriprakash, Kadaba S

    2011-01-01

    Infection of the skin or throat by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) may result in a number of human diseases. To understand mechanisms that give rise to new genetic variants in this species, we used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to characterise relationships in the SDSE population from India, a country where streptococcal disease is endemic. The study revealed Indian SDSE isolates have sequence types (STs) predominantly different to those reported from other regions of the world. Emm-ST combinations in India are also largely unique. Split decomposition analysis, the presence of emm-types in unrelated clonal complexes, and analysis of phylogenetic trees based on concatenated sequences all reveal an extensive history of recombination within the population. The ratio of recombination to mutation (r/m) events (11:1) and per site r/m ratio (41:1) in this population is twice as high as reported for SDSE from non-endemic regions. Recombination involving the emm-gene is also more frequent than recombination involving housekeeping genes, consistent with diversification of M proteins offering selective advantages to the pathogen. Our data demonstrate that genetic recombination in endemic regions is more frequent than non-endemic regions, and gives rise to novel local SDSE variants, some of which may have increased fitness or pathogenic potential. PMID:21857905

  10. A new species of the genus Xiphophorus Heckel 1848, endemic to northern Coahuila, Mexico (Pisces: Poeciliidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schartl, Manfred; Schröder, Johannes Horst

    2013-01-01

    Xiphophorus meyeri n. sp. is described as an endemic to Muzquiz, Coahuila, Mexico. It appears to be the northernmost species of the genus. The new species is related to X. couchianus and X. gordoni, but differs morphologically from those by dorsal fin ray number, by the expression of some gonopodial features and most markedly by the appearance of macromelanophores or tr-melanophores.

  11. Circulating epstein-barr virus in children living in malaria-endemic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasti, N; Falk, K I; Donati, D;

    2005-01-01

    Children living in malaria-endemic regions have high incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), the aetiology of which involves Plasmodium falciparum malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Acute malarial infection impairs the EBV-specific immune responses with the consequent increase in the ...

  12. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba;

    2008-01-01

    New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...

  13. High endemism at cave entrances: a case study of spiders of the genus Uthina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Tingting; Zheng, Guo; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries. Both bPTP and BPP identified the 13 clades as 13 separate species, while GMYC identified 19 species. Furthermore, our results revealed high endemism at cave entrances. Of the 13 provisional species, twelve (one known and eleven new) are endemic to one or a cluster of caves, and all of them occurred only at cave entrances except for one population of one species. The only widely distributed species, U. luzonica, mostly occurred in epigean environments while three populations were found at cave entrances. Additionally, eleven new species of the genus are described. PMID:27775081

  14. Declining stocks of Lake Tana's endemic Barbus species flock (Pisces, Cyprinidae): natural variation or human impact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Wudneh, T.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The only remaining species flock of endemic, large cyprinid fishes is found in Lake Tana, Ethiopia. A monthly experimental trawl program was conducted in 1991-1993 and 1999-2001, sampling 12 stations distributed over three habitats differing in depth and distance to shore. The aim was to compare the

  15. Extra-intestinal amebiasis: clinical presentation in a non-endemic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S; Rønne-Rasmussen, J; Petersen, E;

    1993-01-01

    37/38 patients with reciprocal titers > or = 512 against Entamoeba histolytica in Denmark over a 5-year period were evaluated retrospectively in order to establish the clinical profile of extra-intestinal amebiasis in a non-endemic area. 24 of these had extra-intestinal amebiasis, all presenting 1...

  16. Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine against Endemic Hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis W Strain, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Biolchi, Alessia; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Beebeejaun, Kazim; Lucidarme, Jay; Findlow, Jamie; Ramsay, Mary E; Borrow, Ray

    2016-02-01

    Serum samples from children immunized with a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine demonstrated potent serum bactericidal antibody activity against the hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W strain circulating in England. The recent introduction of this vaccine into the United Kingdom national immunization program should also help protect infants against this endemic strain.

  17. Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine against Endemic Hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis W Strain, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Biolchi, Alessia; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Beebeejaun, Kazim; Lucidarme, Jay; Findlow, Jamie; Ramsay, Mary E; Borrow, Ray

    2016-02-01

    Serum samples from children immunized with a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine demonstrated potent serum bactericidal antibody activity against the hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W strain circulating in England. The recent introduction of this vaccine into the United Kingdom national immunization program should also help protect infants against this endemic strain. PMID:26811872

  18. Topography-driven isolation, speciation and a global increase of endemism with elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinbauer, Manuel; Field, R.; Grytnes, John-Arvid;

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Higher-elevation areas on islands and continental mountains tend to be separated by longer distances, predicting higher endemism at higher elevations; our study is the first to test the generality of the predicted pattern. We also compare it empirically with contrasting expectations from hyp...

  19. Alien Plant Species Mountain Endemic Tree Species in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Utomo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Up to now, montane rain forest of Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park, faces problem in the form of invasion of exotic plant species into the area.  Location of the area that borders with various land uses, such as Botanical Garden and agricultural land, make it very susceptible toward invasion of plant species from outside the area.  The collapse of large trees which normally constitute a mechanism of natural regeneration, was in fact stimulating the development of exotic species, particularly those which were invasive, inside the area. The objective of this research was to test the competitive ability of endemic species, which in this case was represented by Cleystocalyx operculata and Mischocarpus pentapetalus, toward exotic plant species, represented by Austroeupatoriun inulaefolium and Passiflora ligularis, during 5 months of study.  Growth rate of exotic plant species, as well as the dry weight biomass, were larger than those of endemic species.  Indirect estimation of competitive ability showed that competitive ability (β of endemic species were 4-5 times less, namely 0.0274 (for C. operculata and 0.0251 (for M. pentapetalus; as compared with those of exotic species, namely 0.125 (for P. ligularis and 0.1104 (for A. inulaefolium.  Direct test also proved that competitive ability (β of endemic species was lower than that of exotic species, as shown by relative crowding value   Estimation of future competitive ability, using diagram of input/ output ratio, showed also the disability of endemic species to compete with exotic species, where position of input/output ratio points were parallel with equilibrium line y=x. Considering those facts, there is urgent need for controlling these invasive exotic species inside the National Park area to maintain the sustainability of biodiversity and regeneration of endemic species in montane rain forest of Gunung Gede–Pangrango National Park.    Keywords: endemic, exotic, invasion

  20. Climate vs. topography – spatial patterns of plant species diversity and endemism on a high-elevation island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irl, Severin David Howard; Harter, David E. V.; Steinbauer, Manuel;

    2015-01-01

    Climate and topography are among the most fundamental drivers of plant diversity. Here, we assessed the importance of climate and topography in explaining diversity patterns of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity on the landscape scale of an oceanic island and evaluated the independ......Climate and topography are among the most fundamental drivers of plant diversity. Here, we assessed the importance of climate and topography in explaining diversity patterns of species richness, endemic richness and endemicity on the landscape scale of an oceanic island and evaluated...... for an integrated conservation approach acknowledging different diversity measures to protect the complete spectrum of diversity. High-elevation islands such as La Palma are highly suitable to study drivers of diversity and endemism, as they offer environmental gradients of continental magnitude on the landscape...

  1. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  2. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. PMID:25979965

  3. High genetic diversity and population structure in the endangered Canarian endemic Ruta oreojasme (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Marilena; Reid, Andrea; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Soto, Moisés; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Conti, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Insular species are expected to have low genetic diversity, for their populations are often small and isolated, and characterized by restricted gene flow and increased incidence of inbreeding. However, empirical results do not always match this expectation. For example, population genetic analyses of several Canarian endemics, based mainly on allozymes, show levels of genetic diversity exceptionally high for insular species. To investigate whether genetic variation in rare species endemic to Canary Islands is low, as predicted by theoretical expectations, or high, as documented in some previous studies, we analysed genetic diversity of the endangered Ruta oreojasme, a rare endemic of the island of Gran Canaria, using microsatellite markers, which are more variable than allozymes. Our analyses identified very high levels of genetic diversity (A = 7.625, P = 0.984, H o = 0.558, H e = 0.687) for R. oreojasme. Even though the distribution of the species is restricted to the South of Gran Canaria, only one population shows low genetic diversity, isolation and signs of a recent bottleneck/founder event. Some intrinsic characteristics of R. oreojasme (hermaphroditism, proterandry and polyploidy), the relative climatic stability of the Canarian archipelago during Quaternary glacials/interglacials, the size of most populations (thousands of individuals), its age, and the relative proximity of the archipelago to the mainland might have contributed to the high diversity that characterises this endemic. As expected, given the marked topographic complexity of Gran Canaria, we found marked genetic structure in R. oreojasme populations. Our results support the observation that Canarian endemics are characterised by unexpectedly high genetic diversity and provides important insights for potential applications to the conservation of R. oreojasme.

  4. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  5. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2014-11-01

    Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries. PMID:25410988

  6. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

  7. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2014-11-01

    Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

  8. Occurrence of free-living amoebae in communities of low and high endemicity for Buruli ulcer in southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddyani, Miriam; De Jonckheere, Johan F; Durnez, Lies; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Leirs, Herwig; Portaels, Françoise

    2008-11-01

    Buruli ulcer or Mycobacterium ulcerans disease occurs mainly in areas in proximity to standing or slowly running freshwater, habitats in which free-living amoebae occur. For this reason, a possible link between the habitat of M. ulcerans and free-living amoebae was investigated. Free-living amoebae and mycobacteria were isolated from water and biofilm specimens taken from protected and unprotected sources of water in villages known to have either high or low endemicity for Buruli ulcer in Benin. Amoebae were isolated from 78.8% of samples. A greater proportion of water bodies in areas of high endemicity had amoebae than in areas of low endemicity (83.3% versus 66.7%). Protected sources of water were significantly more likely to contain amoebae in areas of high endemicity than in areas of low endemicity (88.0% versus 11.1%). Several pathogenic free-living amoebae and mycobacteria were isolated. However, no M. ulcerans was isolated and no specimen was positive for IS2404 PCR. Our results show that the study area has a water hygiene problem, which is greater in areas of high Buruli ulcer endemicity than in areas of low endemicity. Our observations indicate that additional studies are required to explore the possible link between free-living amoebae and mycobacteria.

  9. Life forms of endemic carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the forest eco-systems of gorgany mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Pushkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the forest ecosystems of Gorgany Mountains 11 endemic carabids are found. It is about 12.2 % of all ground-beetles fauna of the investigated region. As a result of the morphometric analysis the life forms of endemic carabids are determined. The system of ground beetles’ life forms developed by I. Sharova (1981 is supplemented. All endemics we have rated among 1 class (Zoophages, 2 subclasses (Epigeobionts, Stratobionts and 5 life forms. The analysis of the carabid beetles’ life form spectrum in the forest ecosystems of Gorgany mountains attests to their broad settlement of ecological niches in the investigated region.

  10. Identification of a highly immunoreactive epitope of Brugia malayi TPx recognized by the endemic sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Gayatri, Subash Chellam; Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-12-01

    Filarial thiordoxin peroxidase is a major antioxidant that plays a crucial role in parasite survival. Although Brugia malayi TPx has been shown to be a potential vaccine candidate, it shares 63% homology with its mammalian counterpart, limiting its use as a vaccine or drug target. In silico analysis of TPx sequence revealed a linear B epitope in the host's nonhomologous region. The peptide sequence (TPx peptide(27-48)) was synthesized, and its reactivity with clinical sera from an endemic region was analyzed. The peptide showed significantly high reactivity (P patent infection. The high reactivity of the peptide with endemic immune sera equivalent to that of whole protein shows that it forms a dominant B epitope of TPx protein and thus could be utilized for incorporation into a multiepitope vaccine construct for filariasis. PMID:21158641

  11. The grasslands and wetlands of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical classification, description, and ecological and floristic interpretations are presented on the vegetation types of the grasslands and wetlands of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism. Relevés were compiled in 74 stratified random plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed eight associations. 11 subassociations and four variants. Many new syntaxa are described and ecologically interpreted. For each syntaxon. the species richness, endemism and conservation status was determined. The floristic and habitat information, proposed classification, general description and vegetation key are provided to aid future identification of conservation areas, land use planning and further research. An ordination (DECORANA. based on floristic data, confirmed the relationships that exist between plant communities and associated habitats and environmental gradients. Much of the plant community diversity and distribution can be ascribed to a heterogeneous environment, predominantly determined by soil moisture.

  12. Vegetation of the rock habitats of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plan Endemism, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Siebert

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical classification, description, and ecological and floristic interpretations are presented on the vegetation types of the ultramafic rock habitats of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism. Relevés were compiled in 100 stratified random plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed 17 plant communities, which are classified into 13 associations belonging to four proposed alliances. Many new syntaxa are ecologically interpreted and described. For each syntaxon, the species richness, endemism and conservation status was determined. Much of the plant community distribution can be ascribed to specific habitat preference. The floristic and habitat information, proposed classification, general description and vegetation key are provided to aid future identification of conservation areas, land use planning and research. An ordination (DECORANA based on floristic data confirmed potential relationships that could exist between the plant communities and associated habitats and environmental gradients.

  13. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fábio da Silva Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas.

  14. Changing of the HSP70 Content in the Baikal Endemic Sponges Lubomirskiidae Under Conditions of Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itskovich V.B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Baikal endemic sponges (Lubomirskiidae make up the bulk of the benthos biomass of the lake. For the first time the changes in the content of HSP70 in response to elevated environment temperature were analyzed in three endemic species of Baikal sponges: Baikalospongia bacillifera (Dybowski, 1880, B. intermedia (Dybowski, 1880 and Swartschewskia papyracea (Dybowski, 1880. Interspecific variability of constitutive HSP70 level was revealed for representatives of the three analyzed Lubomirskiidae species. After exposure at 13 °С for 3 and 7 days opposite changes were noted in the amount of HSP70. Under conditions of hyperthermia the protein level decrease at Baikalospongia species, while at the S. papyracea HSP70 content slightly increased. The differences in the mechanisms of stress adaptation probably affect the thermal resistance of the species, as well as are evidence supporting their specific status.

  15. Can Management Improve the Value of Shade Plantations for the Endemic Species of Sao Tome Island?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lima, Ricardo F.; Viegas, Leonel; Sole, Nelson;

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa and coffee are among the most valuable tropical crops, with much of their production in areas of high biodiversity. Although this could suggest a conflict between agricultural expansion and biodiversity conservation, these crops are normally grown in shade plantations—a more biodiversity......-friendly agroforestry system. Using São Tomé Island as a case study, we examined if shade plantation can benefit biodiversity by protecting extinction-prone island endemic species. We found that shade plantations held rich assemblages, even in comparison with forest: we estimated 30 bird and 74 tree species occurring...... species richness and abundance. These results show that shade plantations hold assemblages impoverished in endemic species, but that management can improve their value for the conservation of these species. Finally, we suggest that biodiversity-friendly certification and carbon markets are used...

  16. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel Wisbech; Fjeldså, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism....... Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography......, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the mainland, possibly because surrounding oceans buffer against strong climate oscillations and because geography is a strong...

  17. Endemic hydrothermal vent species identified in the open ocean seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnella, Giorgio; Böhnke, Stefanie; Indenbirken, Daniela; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Seifert, Richard; Mertens, Christian; Kurtz, Stefan; Perner, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal vent systems host microbial communities among which several microorganisms have been considered endemic to this type of habitat. It is still unclear how these organisms colonize geographically distant hydrothermal environments. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, we compare the bacterial communities of sixteen Atlantic hydrothermal vent samples with our own and publicly available global open ocean samples. Analysing sequences obtained from 63 million 16S rRNA genes, the genera we could identify in the open ocean waters contained 99.9% of the vent reads. This suggests that previously observed vent exclusiveness is, in most cases, probably an artefact of lower sequencing depth. These findings are a further step towards elucidating the role of the open ocean as a seed bank. They can explain the predicament of how species expected to be endemic to vent systems are able to colonize geographically distant hydrothermal habitats and contribute to our understanding of whether 'everything is really everywhere'. PMID:27573109

  18. Plasmodium falciparum: limited genetic diversity of MSP-2 in isolates circulating in Brazilian endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave-Sales, S; Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Faria, C P; Cerruti, C; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T; Zalis, M G

    2003-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of the surface merozoite protein 2 (MSP-2) was evaluated in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from individuals with uncomplicated malaria living in a Brazilian endemic area of Peixoto de Azevedo. The frequency of MSP-2 alleles and the survival of genetically different populations clones in 104 isolates were verified by Southern blot and SSCP-PCR. Single and mixed infections were observed in similar frequencies and the rate of detection of FC27 and 3D7 allelic families was equivalent. Eight alleles were identified and among them, the sequence polymorphism was mainly attributed to variations in the repetitive region. Interestingly, in three alleles nucleotide polymorphism was identical to that detected in a previous study, conducted in 1992, in a near Brazilian endemic area. This finding demonstrated the genetic similarity between two isolate groups, besides the certain temporal stability in the allelic patterns. The implications of these data for studies on the genetic diversity are also discussed. PMID:12880589

  19. Study on the sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Tian, J.; Qin, Y. [Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China). Institute of Sedimentary Geology

    2007-03-15

    The sources of endemic fluorosis in Weixin, Zhaotong of Yunnan Province has been studied using ion selective electrode (ISE) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results show that the main workable channel coal seams contain an average fluorine content of 67.8 x 10{sup -6}, which is much lower than that of Chinese and American common coals. The contents in the clay and the mixture of coal and clay reach to 2239 x 10{sup -6} and 863.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. (The mixture of clay and coal is the primary fuel in the local families.) The volatile yield of the mixture of coal and clay during combustion is about 89%. The fluorine in the clay is the main source of the endemic fluorosis. The high content of fluorine is closely related to the mixed-layer minerals of illite and smectite, apatite, hornblende, and K-feldspar. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes -environmental and water bug transmission- to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission.

  1. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  2. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Quiroz

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama and Panama provinces (central Panama near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  3. Endemic hydrothermal vent species identified in the open ocean seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnella, Giorgio; Böhnke, Stefanie; Indenbirken, Daniela; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Seifert, Richard; Mertens, Christian; Kurtz, Stefan; Perner, Mirjam

    2016-06-13

    Hydrothermal vent systems host microbial communities among which several microorganisms have been considered endemic to this type of habitat. It is still unclear how these organisms colonize geographically distant hydrothermal environments. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, we compare the bacterial communities of sixteen Atlantic hydrothermal vent samples with our own and publicly available global open ocean samples. Analysing sequences obtained from 63 million 16S rRNA genes, the genera we could identify in the open ocean waters contained 99.9% of the vent reads. This suggests that previously observed vent exclusiveness is, in most cases, probably an artefact of lower sequencing depth. These findings are a further step towards elucidating the role of the open ocean as a seed bank. They can explain the predicament of how species expected to be endemic to vent systems are able to colonize geographically distant hydrothermal habitats and contribute to our understanding of whether 'everything is really everywhere'.

  4. Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Kathryn A; Shearman, Deborah CA; Gilchrist, A Stuart; Sved, John A; Morrow, Jennifer L; Sherwin, William B; Riegler, Markus; Frommer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control ...

  5. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and intestinal helminth infection (IHI affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of

  6. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: endemics and emerging outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Seirin Lee, S.; Baker, R. E.; Gaffney, E.A.; White, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem,and can result in food shortages and disease endemics.Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods,the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pestresistance still remain,and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries,infecting over100 million worldwide in 2010.One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile...

  7. Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinspan, D.; Biagini, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with endemic chronic arsenical intoxication (HACRE) observed in several provinces in Argentina. Similar reports come from Chili, Mexico, Brasil, Bolivia, Peru and Japan. HACRE patients show no systemic, symptoms and specific manifestations are palmoplantar keratoderma, multiple cutaneous epitheliomas, mainly Bowen-type and respiratory or digestive carcinomas. The authors emphasize that these specific manifestations of HACRE are worth knowing for their possible social incidence.

  8. Effects of Climate Change on Habitat Availability and Configuration for an Endemic Coastal Alpine Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Michelle M.; Gergel, Sarah E.; Kathy Martin

    2015-01-01

    North America's coastal mountains are particularly vulnerable to climate change, yet harbour a number of endemic species. With little room "at the top" to track shifting climate envelopes, alpine species may be especially negatively affected by climate-induced habitat fragmentation. We ask how climate change will affect the total amount, mean patch size, and number of patches of suitable habitat for Vancouver Island White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura saxatilis; VIWTP), a threatened, ende...

  9. Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis: Mass Drug Administration in Endemic Areas of (Bidar District) Karnataka-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganath, T. S.; N Ramakrishna Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Background : Lymphatic Filariasis is a mosquito transmitted disease, caused by parasitic worm Wuchereria bancrofti. Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis was established in early 2000. The strategy recommended by the World Health Organization is annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) of single-dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg (DEC), distributed to inhabitants of Filariasis endemic areas, excluding children below 2 years of age, pregnant women, and seriously ill persons, an...

  10. Borneo: a quantitative analysis of botanical richness, endemicity and floristic regions based on herbarium records

    OpenAIRE

    Raes, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Based on the digitized herbarium records housed at the National Herbarium of the Netherlands I developed high spatial resolution patterns of Borneo's botanical richness, endemicity, and the floristic regions. The patterns are derived from species distribution models which predict a species occurrence based on the identified relationships between species recorded presences and the ecological circumstances at those localities. A new statistical method was developed to test the species distribut...

  11. High cadmium concentrations in areas with endemic fluorosis: A serious hidden toxin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Xiao, T.F.; Wang, S.J.; Lei, J.L.; Zhang, M.Z.; Gong, Y.Y.; Li, H.J.; Ning, Z.P.; He, L.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Institute of Geochemistry

    2009-07-15

    Environmental contamination with cadmium (Cd) and fluorine (F) and the associated health impacts on humans have raised significant concerns in the literature, but the additional health risks created by Cd have not been investigated in areas with endemic fluorine intoxication (fluorosis). Here, we report for the first time that naturally occurring Cd in areas where endemic fluorosis is related to coal combustion is a serious hidden toxin. The high Cd levels in rocks and soils of these areas may increase health risks to epidemiological level, irrespective of fluorine levels. We implemented a pilot study in a fluorosis-affected rural area within China's Three Gorges region, and revealed enrichment of Cd in local bedrock (4.48-187 mg kg{sup -1}), coal (11.5-53.4 mg kg{sup -1}), and arable soils (1.01-59.7 mg kg{sup -1}). Cadmium was also observed to concentrate in local food crops (0.58-14.9 mg kg{sup -1}) and in the urine of local residents (1.7-13.4 {mu} g L{sup -1}). A routine epidemiological investigation revealed that the two major Cd exposure pathways were through crop consumption and inhalation of emissions from coal combustion. Therefore, the naturally occurring Cd in areas with endemic fluorosis related to coal combustion represents a previously unrecognized toxin that must be addressed as part of efforts to control the endemic problem. The biogeochemical processes of Cd and the associated environmental effects will require additional in-depth study.

  12. Comparative studies of ecological niche variation among central and peripheral populations of Mediterranean endemic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Papuga, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is a biodiversity hotspot, characterized by its high plant richness and endemism. It is a place of prime interest to test biogeographical hypotheses, such as the centre-periphery hypothesis. Empirical evidences have brought little support to it as a rule, suggesting complex eco-evolutionary mechanisms shape genetic and demographic characteristics. This thesis proposes a new framework that supports a precise evaluation of species history, geography and ecology to invest...

  13. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Fábio da Silva Batista; Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da Matta; Thaise Yumie Tomokane; Acácio Duarte Pacheco; Fernando Tobias Silveira; Claudio Nazaretian Rossi; Mary Marcondes; Márcia Dalastra Laurenti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis ...

  14. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Two Endemic Plants from Aksaray in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozusaglam, Meltem Asan; Darilmaz, Derya Onal; Erzengin, Mahmut; Teksen, Mehtap; Erkul, Seher Karaman

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanol, ethanol, water, n-hexane and dicholoromethane extracts of two Allium species (Allium scabriflorum and Allium tchihatschewii) which are endemic for the flora of Turkey. The antimicrobial efficiency of the plant was evaluated according to disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods. The antimicrobial test results showed that the extracts of A. scabriflorum and A. tchihatschewii showed va...

  15. Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed sing...

  16. Endemics under threat: an assessment of the conservation status of Cuban bats

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Mancina; Làzrao Echenique-Diaz; Adrian Tejedor; Lainet Garcìa; Angel Daniel-Alvarez; Miguel Ortega-Huerta

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Reviewing available information from published literature, museum database, personal communications and from the authors own field data, the conservation status of Cuban bats has been assessed using six qualitative parameters: abundance, distribution, roosting habits, aggregation level, forest dependence, and degree of endemism. The resulting Red List is analogous to that of the IUCN, species having been included in four categories of risk. Four...

  17. Floristic similarity, diversity and endemism as indicators of refugia characteristics and needs in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P.; Zimmerman, Dale L.; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The floras of mountain ranges, and their similarity, beta diversity and endemism, are indicative of processes of community assembly; they are also the initial conditions for coming disassembly and reassembly in response to climate change. As such, these characteristics can inform thinking on refugia. The published floras or approximations for 42 mountain ranges in the three major mountain systems (Sierra-Cascades, Rocky Mountains and Great Basin ranges) across the western USA and southwestern Canada were analysed. The similarity is higher among the ranges of the Rockies while equally low among the ranges of the Sierra-Cascades and Great Basin. Mantel correlations of similarity with geographic distance are also higher for the Rocky Mountains. Endemism is relatively high, but is highest in the Sierra-Cascades (due to the Sierra Nevada as the single largest range) and lowest in the Great Basin, where assemblages are allochthonous. These differences indicate that the geologic substrates of the Cascade volcanoes, which are much younger than any others, play a role in addition to geographic isolation in community assembly. The pattern of similarity and endemism indicates that the ranges of the Cascades will not function well as stepping stones and the endemic species that they harbor may need more protection than those of the Rocky Mountains. The geometry of the ranges is complemented by geology in setting the stage for similarity and the potential for refugia across the West. Understanding the geographic template as initial conditions for the future can guide the forecast of refugia and related monitoring or protection efforts.

  18. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, Matthew L; Zigler, Kirk S

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20% of stygobionts (eight species) known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species) known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP) and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA) ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV). Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species) of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in Tennessee. PMID

  19. Evolutionary Mechanisms of Persistence and Diversification of a Calicivirus within Endemically Infected Natural Host Populations▿

    OpenAIRE

    Coyne, Karen P.; Gaskell, Rosalind M.; Dawson, Susan; Porter, Carol J.; Radford, Alan D

    2006-01-01

    In order to understand the evolutionary mechanisms of persistence and diversification within the Caliciviridae, we have been exploiting endemic infection of feline calicivirus within five geographically distinct household groups of cats. By sequencing immunodominant and variable regions of the capsid gene, we identified the relative contribution of the different evolutionary processes employed by the virus to ensure its long-term survival in the host population. Such strategies included progr...

  20. Artificial Autotetraploidy Induction Possibility of Two Iranian Endemic Mint (Mentha mozaffarianii) Ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Askar GHANI; Seyyed Hossein NEAMATI; Azizi, Majid; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Farsi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to polyploidy possibility induction of two Iranian endemic mint (Mentha mozaffarianii) ecotypes. For this purpose, three experiments were done. The first experiment was factorial, based on completely randomized design with three factors and three replications that rhizomes were used for treatment. The first factor including different colchicine concentrations (0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% that 0 as control). The second factor including two Mentha ecotypes (Ecot...

  1. Inbreeding Depression under Drought Stress in the Rare Endemic Echium wildpretii (Boraginaceae) on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlacek, Janosch; Schmid, Bernhard; Matthies, Diethart; Albrecht, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    How climate-change induced environmental stress may alter the effects of inbreeding in patchy populations of rare species is poorly understood. We investigated the fitness of progeny from experimental self- and cross-pollinations in eight populations of different size of Echium wildpretii, a rare endemic plant of the arid subalpine zone of the Canarian island of Tenerife. As control treatments we used open pollination and autonomous selfing. The seed set of open-pollinated flowers was 55% hig...

  2. A large community outbreak of waterborne giardiasis- delayed detection in a non-endemic urban area

    OpenAIRE

    Tveit Ingvar; Walde Anna; Søbstad Øystein; Schimmer Barbara; Nygård Karin; Langeland Nina; Hausken Trygve; Aavitsland Preben

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Giardia is not endemic in Norway, and more than 90% of reported cases acquire the infection abroad. In late October 2004, an increase in laboratory confirmed cases of giardiasis was reported in the city of Bergen. An investigation was started to determine the source and extent of the outbreak in order to implement control measures. Methods Cases were identified through the laboratory conducting giardia diagnostics in the area. All laboratory-confirmed cases were mapped bas...

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) 1

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmina El Bahloul; Nicolas Dauchot; Ikrame Machtoun; Fatima Gaboun; Pierre Van Cutsem

    2014-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach. Methods and Results: A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA)15, (GTA)8, and (TTC)8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci number, an ultra-hig...

  4. The Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Community in a Neotropical Forest Dominated by the Endemic Dipterocarp Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew E Smith; Henkel, Terry W; Uehling, Jessie K.; Alexander K Fremier; Clarke, H. David; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) plants and fungi can be diverse and abundant in certain tropical ecosystems. For example, the primarily paleotropical ECM plant family Dipterocarpaceae is one of the most speciose and ecologically important tree families in Southeast Asia. Pakaraimaea dipterocarpacea is one of two species of dipterocarp known from the Neotropics, and is also the only known member of the monotypic Dipterocarpaceae subfamily Pakaraimoideae. This Guiana Shield endemic is only known from the...

  5. Bioecological characteristics and endangerment mechanisms of Neocheiropteris palmatopedata, an endangered plant endemic to China

    OpenAIRE

    Yani Deng; Xiao Cheng; Yu Jiao; Guiju Chen

    2009-01-01

    Neocheiropteris palmatopedata, a rare and endangered species endemic to China, has a scattered distribution only in Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan provinces. Declining rapidly in population size and on the verge of extinction, it was listed as a plant of second-class protection in The List of Chinese Urgently Protected Wild Plants. To explore endangerment mechanisms of N. palmatopedata, we investigated its population and community structure, germination and growth characteristics as well as soil...

  6. Feasibility and Effectiveness of Basic Lymphedema Management in Leogane, Haiti, an Area Endemic for Bancroftian Filariasis

    OpenAIRE

    Addiss, David G.; Jacky Louis-Charles; Jacquelin Roberts; Frederic Leconte; Wendt, Joyanna M.; Marie Denise Milord; Lammie, Patrick J; Gerusa Dreyer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 14 million persons living in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis have lymphedema of the leg. Clinical studies indicate that repeated episodes of bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) lead to progression of lymphedema and that basic lymphedema management, which emphasizes hygiene, skin care, exercise, and leg elevation, can reduce ADLA frequency. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of basic lymphedema management or assesse...

  7. Thyroid nodules in Graves′ disease: implications in an endemically iodine deficient area.

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra A; Mishra S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The presence of thyroid nodules with Graves′ disease raises concern about co-existent thyroid malignancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid carcinoma and the need for surgical intervention in, patients with Graves′ disease with co-existent nodules in an endemically iodine deficient area (IDA). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study of 130 surgically managed patients of Graves′ disease (1990-1999). Out of these 35 (26.9&#...

  8. Endemic hepatitis b and c virus infection in a brazilian eastern amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo El Khouri; Quirino Cordeiro; Diogo Arantes Behling Pereira da Luz; Leandro Savoy Duarte; Mônica Elinor Alves Gama; Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection has been an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. However there are few investigations regarding the prevalence and possible risk factors for these diseases in Brazil, particularly in Amazon region, where there are some endemic focus. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the city of Buriticupu, MA, located in the Brazilian Eastern Amazon region, and try to explore the risk factors for th...

  9. Eastern Asian endemic seed plant genera and their paleogeographic history throughout the Northern Hemisphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven R. MANCHESTER; Zhi-Duan CHEN; An-Ming LU; Kazuhiko UEMURA

    2009-01-01

    We review the fossil history of seed plant genera that are now endemic to eastern Asia. Although the majority of eastern Asian endemic genera have no known fossil record at all, 54 genera, or about 9%, are reliably known from the fossil record. Most of these are woody (with two exceptions), and most are today either broadly East Asian, or more specifically confined to Sino-Japanese subcategory rather than being endemic to the Sino-Himalayan area. Of the "eastern Asian endemic" genera so far known from the fossil record, the majority formerly occurred in Europe and/or North America, indicating that eastern Asia served as a late Tertiary or Quaternary refugium for taxa. Hence, many of these genera may have originated in other parts of the Northern Hemisphere and expanded their ranges across continents and former sea barriers when tectonic and climatic conditions al-lowed, leading to their arrival in eastern Asia. Although clear evidence for paleoendemism is provided by the gymnosperms Amentotaxus, Cathaya, Cephalotaxus, Cunninghamia, Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Ginkgo, Ketel-eeria, Metasequoia, Nothotsuga, Pseudolarix, Sciadopitys, and Taiwania, and the angiosperms Cercidiphyllum, Choerospondias, Corylopsis, Craigia, Cyclocarya, Davidia, Dipelta, Decaisnea, Diplopanax, Dipteronia, Em-menopterys, Eucommia, Euscaphis, Hemiptelea, Hovenia, Koelreuteria, Paulownia, Phellodendron, Platycarya, Pteroceltis, Rehderodendron, Sargentodoxa, Schizophragma, Sinomenium, Tapiscia, Tetracentron, Toricellia,Trapella, and Trochodendron, we cannot rule out the possibility that neoendemism plays an important role espe-cially for herbaceous taxa in the present-day flora of Asia, particularly in the Sino-Himalayan region. In addition to reviewing paleobotanical occurrences from the literature, we document newly recognized fossil occurrences that expand the geographic and stratigraphic ranges previously known for Dipelta, Pteroceltis, and Toricellia.

  10. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-François Guégan; Philippe Legall; Jordi Landier; Laurent Marsollier; Estelle Marion; Sara Eyangoh; Solange Meyin A Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and do...

  11. Replicated evolution of trophic specializations in an endemic cichlid fish lineage from Lake Tanganyika

    OpenAIRE

    Rüber, Lukas; Verheyen, Erik; Meyer, Axel

    1999-01-01

    The current phylogenetic hypothesis for the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes of the tribe Eretmodini is based solely on morphology and suggests that more complex trophic morphologies derived only once from a less specialized ancestral condition. A molecular phylogeny of eretmodine cichlids based on partial mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b and control-region sequences was used to reconstruct the evolutionary sequence of trophic adaptations and to test alternative models of morphological di...

  12. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  13. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of turkish endemic Sideritis extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ünver, Ahmet; Özçelik, Hasan; Özcan, Musa; Sagdiç, Osman; Özkan, Gülcan

    2005-01-01

    Sideritis species are traditionally used as teas, flavoring agents and for medicinal purposes in Turkey . In this study, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sideritis condensata Boiss. & Heldr. (SC) and Sideritis eryhrantha v ar. erythrantha Boiss. & Heldr. (SE) endemic species' extracts of Lamiaceae were determined. These extracts were investigated for antibacterial activity by using the agar diffusion method against 15 species of bacteria: Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus,...

  14. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Süleyman Doğu; Muhittin Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic t...

  15. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish endemic Stachys rupestrıs Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Baştürk Kaya; Muhittin Dinç; Süleyman Doğu

    2015-01-01

    Stachys rupestris Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, is an endemic species that show deploying at Middle Taurus and Amanos mountains in Turkey. In this study, the stem and leaf anatomy of the individuals that were collected from Mersin-Aslanköy were investigated. The obtained data from the anatomical studies shows that S. rupestris represents the anatomical characteristics of Lamiaceae family. The stem in primer structure is quadrangular, with a vascular bundle at each corner and it has collenchy...

  16. Emergence of travel: Associated dengue fever in a non-endemic, hilly state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santwana Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We assessed the occurrence of dengue fever in association with travel in a non-endemic hilly region. The clinical presentation and laboratory parameters of febrile patients with a travel history to an endemic region were studied, and the role of the laboratory in the diagnosis was affirmed. Materials and Methods: Febrile patients presenting with clinical features defining dengue with a history of travel to an endemic area constituted the study group.Serum samples were tested for dengue-specific NS1 antigen and IgM, IgG antibodies. The demographic data were retrieved from the hospital information system. A hematological and biochemical workup was done and the results analyzed using percentage, proportion, mean, and median. Results: Out of 189 febrile patients, 58 were reactive to serological tests for dengue, with 47 (81% males. The presenting features were chills and rigors, myalgia, cough, sweating, and vomiting. Thrombocytopenia (74.35%, lymphopenia (52.94%, and leucopenia (47.05% were present in early disease, with AST >34 IU/L in 58.97% of the patients. The NS1 antigen was detectable between three and seven days of fever and the IgM antibodies after five days. The positivities to only NS1, both NS1 and IgM, and IgM alone were 60.34, 27.58, and 10.34%, respectively, and the median duration of fever was five, seven, and ten days, respectively. One case of dengue hemorrhagic fever and one of probable secondary dengue infection with detectable IgG were encountered. Conclusion: Dengue fever remains unsuspected in febrile cases in non-endemic regions. History of travel is an essential criterion to suspect dengue. A non-specific clinical presentation eludes diagnosis. Serological tests for antigen and antibodies, and hematological and biochemical markers are vital for distinguishing the diagnosis.

  17. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Niemiller

    Full Text Available Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species and 20% of stygobionts (eight species known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV. Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in

  18. Twentieth century turnover of Mexican endemic avifaunas: Landscape change versus climate drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Adolfo G. Navarro-Sigüenza; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Cuervo-Robayo, Angela P.; Berlanga, Humberto; Soberón, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Numerous climate change effects on biodiversity have been anticipated and documented, including extinctions, range shifts, phenological shifts, and breakdown of interactions in ecological communities, yet the relative balance of different climate drivers and their relationships to other agents of global change (for example, land use and land-use change) remains relatively poorly understood. This study integrated historical and current biodiversity data on distributions of 115 Mexican endemic ...

  19. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munguía-Pérez; E. Díaz-Cabrera; N. Martínez-Montiel; J. Muñoz-Rojas; R. Martínez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico), a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%), T. rubrum (7.5%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.5...

  20. Response of endemic afroalpine rodents to the removal of livestock grazing pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flavie VIAL; David W. MACDONALD; Daniel T. HAYDON

    2011-01-01

    The Bale Mountains of Ethiopia represent the world's largest continuous extent of afroalpine habitat.With a peak combined density of over 8000 individuals/km2,the endemic giant mole rat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus,Blick's grass rat Arvicanthis blicki and the brush-furred mouse Lophuromys melanonyx are the dominant wild herbivores within this ecosystem and may be affected by the presence of high densities of domestic livestock.The purpose of this study was to establish whether these endemic rodent populations could respond to the removal of grazing pressure inside three 0.25 hectare livestock exclosures (paired with grazed control plots) and to determine whether such response was mediated through concomitant changes in the vegetation structure.We hypothesised that livestock grazing negatively affects endemic rodent populations through competition or increased predation risk and we predicted an increase in rodent biomass following the removal of grazing pressure.We found no evidence of rodent populations responding to the removal of livestock after fourteen months.The short-term nature of the experimental design,environmental fluctuations and the ecosystem's inherent stochasticity may explain the apparent lack of a significant response.However,while this study is inconclusive,it emphasises the need for more long-term experimental investigations to assess the effects of domestic grazers on vegetation and on dependent communities.The effects of rapidly increasing livestock numbers in the Bale Mountains will require continued close monitoring of vegetation and endemic animal communities as the afroalpine is altered by external biotic and abiotic forces [Current Zoology 57 (6):741-750,2011].

  1. Fruit and seed discoveries in Stichoneuron membranaceum Hook. f. (Stemonaceae: an endemic to Indo-Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Majumdar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stichoneuron membranaceum Hook. f. is an endemic species of Indo-Myanmar hotspot whose fruit and seed remained unknown to science since 1850, until they were collected from Tripura, Northeast India. Based on these gatherings, this study is the first report about the development and morphological features of fruit and seed. Earlier historical collections of this species were discussed. Its preferred habitat, possible pollinating agents and seed dispersal mechanism were also investigated.

  2. Rabies Exposures, Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Deaths in a Region of Endemic Canine Rabies

    OpenAIRE

    Hampson, K.; Dobson, A.; Kaare, M.; Dushoff, J.; Magoto, M.; Sindoya, E.; Cleaveland, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Thousands of human deaths from rabies occur annually despite the availability of effective vaccines following exposure, and for disease control in the animal reservoir. Our aim was to assess risk factors associated with exposure and to determine why human deaths from endemic canine rabies still occur. Methods and Findings Contact tracing was used to gather data on rabies exposures, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) delivered and deaths in two rural districts in northwestern Tanzania ...

  3. Tropical Range Extension for the Temperate, Endemic South-Eastern Australian Nudibranch Goniobranchus splendidus (Angas, 1864)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nerida G.; Winters, Anne E; Karen L. Cheney

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to many tropical animals expanding southwards on the Australian coast concomitant with climate change, here we report a temperate endemic newly found in the tropics. Chromodorid nudibranchs are bright, colourful animals that rarely go unnoticed by divers and underwater photographers. The discovery of a new population, with divergent colouration is therefore significant. DNA sequencing confirms that despite departures from the known phenotypic variation, the specimen represents nor...

  4. Factors Influencing Germination Performance of Four Endemic Sideritis Species of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Mehmet Demir; Kulan, Engin Gökhan; Gümüşçü, Gönül; GÜMÜŞÇÜ, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The genus Sideritis is an indigenous plant to temperate and subtropical regions of Turkey, especially Mediterranean and Aegean region, and is extensively used as herbal tea and spice. The seeds of Sideritis species have a difficulty in germination, which limits their cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the germination performance of 4 endemic Sideritis species (Sideritis condensata, S. libanotica ssp. linearis, S. leptoclada and S. tmolea) harvested freshly or stored for 1 and 2...

  5. [Chronic endemic regional hydroarsenicism. The manifestations of arsenic poisoning caused by drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinspan, D; Biagini, R

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with endemic chronic arsenical intoxication (HACRE) observed in several provinces in Argentina. Similar reports come from Chili, Mexico, Brasil, Bolivia, Peru and Japan. HACRE patients show no systemic, symptoms and specific manifestations are palmoplantar keratoderma, multiple cutaneous epitheliomas, mainly Bowen-type and respiratory or digestive carcinomas. The authors emphasize that these specific manifestations of HACRE are worth knowing for their possible social incidence.

  6. Neurobrucellosis: clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic features and outcome. Unusual clinical presentations in an endemic region

    OpenAIRE

    Nurgul Ceran; Recai Turkoglu; Ilknur Erdem; Asuman Inan; Derya Engin; Hulya Tireli; Pasa Goktas

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection and has endemic characteristics. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. The aim of this study was to present unusual clinical manifestations and to discuss the management and outcome of a series of 18 neurobrucellosis cases. Initial clinical manifestations consist of pseudotumor cerebri in one case, white matter lesions and demyelinating syndrome in three cases, intracranial granuloma in one case, transverse myelitis in two cases, s...

  7. Controlling endemic disease in cattle populations: current challenges and future opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Maureen Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The British cattle population hosts a diverse community of endemic pathogens that impact the sustainability of beef and dairy production. As such, there has been a tremendous amount of ongoing research to develop more cost-effective strategies for controlling disease at the industry level. Cattle movements have come under particular scrutiny over the past decade both because of their role in spreading many economically important diseases and because the movements of individual ...

  8. Hair as Biomarker of Fluoride Exposure in a Fluoride Endemic Area and a Low Fluoridated Area

    OpenAIRE

    Parimi, Nalini; V. Viswanath; Kashyap, Bina; Patil, Pavan Uday

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine whether hair could be used as biomarker of fluoride exposure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 30 people living in an endemically fluoridated area and a low fluoridated area. Samples of hair from the occipital were taken and subjected to fluoride analysis by a fluoride ion electrode. Results: Lower fluoride levels in water supplies correlated with lower levels of fluoride in hair and more over higher fluoride levels in wate...

  9. Development of a Novel Rabies Simulation Model for Application in a Non-endemic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dog rabies is an endemic disease in large parts of the developing world and also epidemic in previously free regions. For example, it continues to spread in eastern Indonesia and currently threatens adjacent rabies-free regions with high densities of free-roaming dogs, including remote northern Australia. Mathematical and simulation disease models are useful tools to provide insights on the most effective control strategies and to inform policy decisions. Existing rabies models typic...

  10. Genetic differentiation and karyotype variation in Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum, an endemic species of Tuva Republic, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagina, Natalia S; Dorogina, Olga V; Krasnikov, Alexander A

    2016-05-01

    Overgrazing and mining affect vegetation, particularly in mountains. At times, it goes to such an extent that the plant species become vulnerable and slowly extinct from its habitat. Such endemic species need to be protected. One such endemic species Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum Kurbatsky, a vulnerable steppe vegetation of Tuva Republic, Russia was evaluated for its genetic diversity and taxonomic definition using molecular technique and chromosome number adjustment. The genetic differentiation among H. chaiyrakanicum, H. setigerum Turcz. and H. gmelinii Ledeb. genotypes was determined using five inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and then examined with Nei's genetic distance coefficient (D) and Shannon's information index (H). A total of 134 reproducible bands were detected with polymorphism percentage of 98%. The genetic diversity of H. chaiyrakanicum was found to be 0.343 while the Shannon index H(sp) was determined as 8 06. The chromosome number 2n = 16 is newly observed within the H. chaiyrakanicum. The genetic relationship based on ISSR data supported the taxonomic distinction of H. chaiyrakanicum from H. setigerum and H. gmelinii. We recommend both in situ and ex situ conservation strategies, specially germplasm sampling, to save this endemic species.

  11. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected.

  12. Acute hepatitis A in an elderly patient after care worker travel to high endemicity country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasheim, Erlend T; Seymour, Martin; Balogun, Koye; Ngui, Siew-Lin; Williams, Chris J; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is considered one of the most important vaccine-preventable diseases in travelers. HAV spreads from person to person via the fecal-oral route and gives rise to an estimated 1.4 million cases worldwide each year. In developing countries with poor sanitary conditions people tend to be infected during childhood and have few symptoms, whereas in developed countries with good sanitary conditions fewer people develop immunity during childhood. This leads to susceptible populations of adults, who are also more prone to severe complications. Here we describe two confirmed cases of hepatitis A associated with a nursing home. The index case was a care worker who had recently traveled to a high-endemicity country, and the second case was a resident at the nursing home where the index case worked. Both cases had an identical genotype IIIA strain, consistent with a transmission event. Current policy does not include a requirement for hepatitis A vaccine in care workers who travel to high endemicity countries despite the fact that infected care workers can potentially spread the disease to elderly patients and other groups at risk of severe complications from HAV infection. We suggest that employers should consider hepatitis A vaccine upon employment; particularly in care workers who plan to visit areas where HAV is known to be endemic.

  13. Bird communities in three forest types in the Pernambuco Centre of Endemism, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahert W. Lobo-Araújo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pernambuco Center of Endemism (PCE in northeastern Brazil is highly fragmented and degraded. Despite its potential conservation importance the bird fauna in this area is still relatively unknown and there are many remnant fragments that have not been systematically surveyed. Here, we report the results of bird surveys in five forest fragments (one pioneer, two ombrophilous and two seasonal. In total, 162 taxa were recorded, 12 of which are endemic to the PCE. The frequency of endangered species was lower than what has been reported in studies from the same area and most of the taxa considered to be at risk of extinction were sub-species of uncertain taxonomic validity. The comparatively low number of endemic/threatened species may be due to the small size of the fragments in the present study - a consequence of the high levels of habitat loss in this region. Analysis of species richness patterns indicates that ombrophilous forest fragments are acting as refuges for those bird species that are most sensitive to environmental degradation.

  14. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  15. How endemic countries can accelerate lymphatic filariasis elimination? An analytical review identify strategic and programmatic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya & Shailendra S. Tomar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is endemic in 81 countries in the world, and a number of these countries have targetedfor LF elimination. This review of literature and analysis was conducted to identify additional and sustainablestrategies to accelerate LF elimination from endemic countries. This review noted that adverse events due tomass drug administration (MDA of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablets, poor knowledge and information aboutLF amongst health workers & community members, and limited focus on information, education & communication(IEC activities and interpersonal communication are the major barriers in LF elimination. The new approachesto increase compliance with DEC tablets (including exploring the possibility for DEC fortification of salt,targeted education programmes for physicians and health workers, and IEC material and inter personalcommunication to improve the knowledge of community are immediately required. There is a renewed andpressing need to conduct operational research, evolve sustainable and institutional mechanisms for education ofphysicians and health workers, ensure quality of trainings on MDA, strengthen IEC delivery mechanisms,implement internal and external monitoring of MDA activities, sufficient funding in timely manner, and toimprove political and programmatic leadership. It is also time that lessons from other elimination programmesare utilized to accelerate targeted LF elimination from the endemic countries.

  16. Defining critical habitats of threatened and endemic reef fishes with a multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Steven W; Clarke, K Robert; Rushworth, Kelvin; Dalton, Steven J

    2014-12-01

    Understanding critical habitats of threatened and endemic animals is essential for mitigating extinction risks, developing recovery plans, and siting reserves, but assessment methods are generally lacking. We evaluated critical habitats of 8 threatened or endemic fish species on coral and rocky reefs of subtropical eastern Australia, by measuring physical and substratum-type variables of habitats at fish sightings. We used nonmetric and metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS, mMDS), Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), similarity percentages analysis (SIMPER), permutational analysis of multivariate dispersions (PERMDISP), and other multivariate tools to distinguish critical habitats. Niche breadth was widest for 2 endemic wrasses, and reef inclination was important for several species, often found in relatively deep microhabitats. Critical habitats of mainland reef species included small caves or habitat-forming hosts such as gorgonian corals and black coral trees. Hard corals appeared important for reef fishes at Lord Howe Island, and red algae for mainland reef fishes. A wide range of habitat variables are required to assess critical habitats owing to varied affinities of species to different habitat features. We advocate assessments of critical habitats matched to the spatial scale used by the animals and a combination of multivariate methods. Our multivariate approach furnishes a general template for assessing the critical habitats of species, understanding how these vary among species, and determining differences in the degree of habitat specificity. PMID:25302855

  17. Risks of endemicity, morbidity and perspectives regarding the control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2012-03-01

    Chagas disease, in the Amazon Region as elsewhere, can be considered an enzootic disease of wild animals or an anthropozoonosis, an accidental disease of humans that is acquired when humans penetrate a wild ecosystem or when wild triatomines invade human dwellings attracted by light or searching for human blood. The risk of endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region is associated with the following phenomena: (i) extensive deforestation associated with the displacement of wild mammals, which are the normal sources of blood for triatomines, (ii) adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings due to the need for a new source of blood for feeding and (iii) uncontrolled migration of human populations and domestic animals that are already infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from areas endemic for Chagas disease to the Amazon Region. Several outbreaks of severe acute cases of Chagas disease, as well as chronic cases, have been described in the Amazon Region. Control measures targeted to avoiding endemic Chagas disease in the Amazon Region should be the following: improving health education in communities, training public health officials and communities for vector and Chagas disease surveillance and training local physicians to recognise and treat acute and chronic cases of Chagas diseases as soon as possible.

  18. Origin and diversification of the endemic Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) based on molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brenden S; Hadfield, Michael G

    2004-08-01

    Tree snails of the endemic subfamily Achatinellinae comprise a diverse and important component of the Hawaiian fauna. In recent decades anthropogenic impacts have resulted in devastating extinction rates in Hawaiian tree snails. To address long-standing biogeographic, systematic, and evolutionary questions we used cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of 23 extant species spanning the range of the subfamily from five Hawaiian Islands. To investigate family-level relationships, data were analyzed from 11 terrestrial pulmonate families. Although nodal support for monophyly of the endemic Pacific family Achatinellidae and endemic Hawaiian subfamily Achatinellinae was strong, bifurcation order among deeper ingroup nodes was not well-supported by bootstrap resampling. We hypothesize that lineage extinction and rapidity of lineage formation may have rendered evolutionary reconstruction difficult using a standard phylogenetic approach. Use of an optimized evolutionary model, however, improved resolution and recovered three main clades. The diversification pattern inferred contradicts the traditional biogeographic hypothesis of a Maui origin of the achatinelline lineage. Taxa comprising the basal ingroup clade (Achatinella spp.) and seeding lineages for subsequent clades originated on O'ahu. Therefore it appears that the ancestral colonizing species of achatinellines arrived first on O'ahu from an unknown source, and that O'ahu is the Hawaiian origin of the subfamily. Species previously defined by morphological criteria were generally found to be phylogenetically distinct, and the overall colonization pattern follows the island-age progression rule with several instances of generic polyphyly and back-colonization.

  19. Resistance Detection of Aedes aegypti Larvae to Cypermethrin from Endemic Area in Cimahi City West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vector control programs using chemical insecticide e.g organochlorin, organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid (cypermethrin. When those insecticides were applied continuously, it may lead to vector resistance. The aim of this research was to detect any resistance of Ae. aegypti to cypermethrin in endemic areas of Cimahi. This research is a laboratory study that used biochemical test which referred to Lee’s method. Larva samples were collected from 8 villages, which are endemic area. Samples of larvae were collected from 15 villages belonged to dengue endemic areas in town of Cimahi, however, villages that meet the availability of larvae were only 8 villages. To detect the activity of monooxygenase enzyme, a biochemical assay was used in this research by created a reaction between larvae homogenate and sodium acetate substrate. The results of reaction were read using ELISA reader with spectrophotometer wave length of 595 nm. Overall, the results showed that most of the larvae in eight villages of Cimahi is still susceptible to cypermethrin. However, larvae from Cibabat village were 4% resistant, 2% tolerant, and 94% susceptible. On the other hand, Cigugur village showed that 12.7% larvae were tolerant and 87.3% still susceptible. Other villages like Cimahi, Cibeureum, Melong, Baros, Cipageran, and Pasirkaliki still remains susceptible. Resistance detection using biochemical assay of cypermethrin insecticide for Ae.aegypti resulting data stated that in 6 villages were still susceptible but in 3 other villages were already tolerant and 1 village was already resistance.

  20. Evaluation of cats as the source of endemic sporotrichosis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Carrie L; Neyra, Edgar; Bustamante, Beatriz

    2008-02-01

    Although contact with domestic cats has been shown to be a risk factor for sporotrichosis in endemic areas, systematic evaluation of apparently unaffected cats as possible reservoirs for infection has not been explored. The goals of this study were to identify the following aspects of sporotrichosis in the endemic area of Abancay, Peru: (i) the overall prevalence of sporotrichosis in the cat population, (ii) the most common site where the fungus can be isolated from these cats, and (iii) whether cats without identifiable skin lesions may be carriers of the fungus in the oral mucosa, nasal mucosa, or nails. One household cat in each of 85 neighborhoods within the endemic area of Abancay, Peru was randomly selected. Oral and nasal swabs, as well as nail clippings were taken from 84 of the cats. In addition, samples from skin lesions that were suspected to be due to sporotrichosis were collected from cats or members of families that owned the pets. Cultures inoculated with two nasal swabs and one set of nail clippings from two different cats yielded Sporothrix schenckii, the identity of which were confirmed by rDNA sequencing. The overall prevalence of Sporothrix schenckii colonization was 2.38% (95% CI 0.41-9.14) in this cat population. None of the skin lesion samples from the cats and only one such sample from a family member were positive for Sporothrix schenckii in culture. These results suggest a role for domestic cats as a possible reservoir for sporotrichosis infection in Abancay. PMID:17885948

  1. Calcium metabolism in fluorosis and endemic genu valgum using radioactive tracer, whole body counting and radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endemic fluorosis with extensive skeletal changes has been reported from several parts of India. In recent years a new condition, endemic genu valgum, has been recognized in one of these areas. In both conditions osteosclerosis, particularly of the spine, has been observed, but in genu valgum the most distinctive pathology is osteoporosis in bones of the extremities and presumably as a result the ''knock knees'' that give the syndrome its name. In this project certain aspects of calcium metabolism were investigated in endemic fluorosis and genu valgum and in appropriate control subjects. Calcium kinetics were studied by intravenously injecting a tracer dose of 47Ca and following for 10 days thereafter the concentration of the tracer in serum and excreta, as well as its total retention in the body (the latter measured by whole body counting). In addition calcium balance was measured on some of the subjects while resident in a metabolic ward. Statistical analysis of the results showed in general a higher metabolic activity of calcium in the fluorosis and genu valgum cases than in the controls (specifically, higher ''turnover'' of calcium in the blood pool and an apparently elevated bone mineralization rate). Whole body retention was somewhat greater in the patients than in the controls. Several measurements were also performed relative to blood chemistry, and in particular the serum concentration of 25-OHD3 (a metabolite of vitamin D) was measured. There was no evidence that vitamin D deficiency played a significant role in the causation of genu valgum

  2. An exact relationship between invasion probability and endemic prevalence for Markovian SIS dynamics on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Robert R; Sharkey, Kieran J

    2013-01-01

    Understanding models which represent the invasion of network-based systems by infectious agents can give important insights into many real-world situations, including the prevention and control of infectious diseases and computer viruses. Here we consider Markovian susceptible-infectious-susceptible (SIS) dynamics on finite strongly connected networks, applicable to several sexually transmitted diseases and computer viruses. In this context, a theoretical definition of endemic prevalence is easily obtained via the quasi-stationary distribution (QSD). By representing the model as a percolation process and utilising the property of duality, we also provide a theoretical definition of invasion probability. We then show that, for undirected networks, the probability of invasion from any given individual is equal to the (probabilistic) endemic prevalence, following successful invasion, at the individual (we also provide a relationship for the directed case). The total (fractional) endemic prevalence in the population is thus equal to the average invasion probability (across all individuals). Consequently, for such systems, the regions or individuals already supporting a high level of infection are likely to be the source of a successful invasion by another infectious agent. This could be used to inform targeted interventions when there is a threat from an emerging infectious disease.

  3. An exact relationship between invasion probability and endemic prevalence for Markovian SIS dynamics on networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Understanding models which represent the invasion of network-based systems by infectious agents can give important insights into many real-world situations, including the prevention and control of infectious diseases and computer viruses. Here we consider Markovian susceptible-infectious-susceptible (SIS dynamics on finite strongly connected networks, applicable to several sexually transmitted diseases and computer viruses. In this context, a theoretical definition of endemic prevalence is easily obtained via the quasi-stationary distribution (QSD. By representing the model as a percolation process and utilising the property of duality, we also provide a theoretical definition of invasion probability. We then show that, for undirected networks, the probability of invasion from any given individual is equal to the (probabilistic endemic prevalence, following successful invasion, at the individual (we also provide a relationship for the directed case. The total (fractional endemic prevalence in the population is thus equal to the average invasion probability (across all individuals. Consequently, for such systems, the regions or individuals already supporting a high level of infection are likely to be the source of a successful invasion by another infectious agent. This could be used to inform targeted interventions when there is a threat from an emerging infectious disease.

  4. Chytridiomycosis in endemic amphibians of the mountain tops of the Córdoba and San Luis ranges, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Julián N; Longo, Silvana; Robledo, Gerardo

    2013-02-28

    Chytridiomycosis is a major threat to amphibian conservation. In Argentina, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been recorded in several localities, and recently, it was registered in amphibians inhabiting low-elevation areas of mountain environments in Córdoba and San Luis provinces. In the present study, we searched for B. dendrobatidis in endemic and non-endemic amphibians on the mountain tops of Córdoba and San Luis provinces. We collected dead amphibians in the upper vegetation belt of the mountains of Córdoba and San Luis. Using standard histological techniques, the presence of fungal infection was confirmed in 5 species. Three of these species are endemic to the mountain tops of both provinces. Although there are no reported population declines in amphibians in these mountains, the presence of B. dendrobatidis in endemic species highlights the need for long-term monitoring plans in the area.

  5. Dicksonia timorense (Diksoniaceae, a hemi-epiphytic new species of tree fern endemic on Timor Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Adjie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dicksonia timorense B. Adjie is described and illustrated as an endemic new species from Timor Island, Indonesia. Population, hemi-epiphytic trait and phylogenetic relationship based on cpDNA sequences are discussed.

  6. The endemic gastropod fauna of Lake Titicaca: correlation between molecular evolution and hydrographic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Oliver; Hershler, Robert; Albrecht, Christian; Terrazas, Edmundo M; Apaza, Roberto; Fuentealba, Carmen; Wolff, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Lake Titicaca, situated in the Altiplano high plateau, is the only ancient lake in South America. This 2- to 3-My-old (where My is million years) water body has had a complex history that included at least five major hydrological phases during the Pleistocene. It is generally assumed that these physical events helped shape the evolutionary history of the lake's biota. Herein, we study an endemic species assemblage in Lake Titicaca, composed of members of the microgastropod genus Heleobia, to determine whether the lake has functioned as a reservoir of relic species or the site of local diversification, to evaluate congruence of the regional paleohydrology and the evolutionary history of this assemblage, and to assess whether the geographic distributions of endemic lineages are hierarchical. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Titicaca/Altiplano Heleobia fauna (together with few extralimital taxa) forms a species flock. A molecular clock analysis suggests that the most recent common ancestor (MRCAs) of the Altiplano taxa evolved 0.53 (0.28-0.80) My ago and the MRCAs of the Altiplano taxa and their extralimital sister group 0.92 (0.46-1.52) My ago. The endemic species of Lake Titicaca are younger than the lake itself, implying primarily intralacustrine speciation. Moreover, the timing of evolutionary branching events and the ages of two precursors of Lake Titicaca, lakes Cabana and Ballivián, is congruent. Although Lake Titicaca appears to have been the principal site of speciation for the regional Heleobia fauna, the contemporary spatial patterns of endemism have been masked by immigration and/or emigration events of local riverine taxa, which we attribute to the unstable hydrographic history of the Altiplano. Thus, a hierarchical distribution of endemism is not evident, but instead there is a single genetic break between two regional clades. We also discuss our findings in relation to studies of other regional biota and suggest that salinity tolerance was

  7. Evaluation of real-time PCR assay to detect Schistosoma mansoni infections in a low endemic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Espírito-Santo, Maria Cristina Carvalho; Alvarado-Mora, Mónica Viviana; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel; Botelho-Lima, Lívia Souza; Moreira, João Paulo; Amorim, Maria; Pedro Luiz Silva PINTO; Heath, Ashley R; Castilho, Vera Lúcia Pagliusi; Gonçalves, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Carrilho, Flair José; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gryschek, Ronaldo Cesar Borges

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, and 200 million people are estimated to be infected with schistosomiasis worldwide. In Brazil, schistosomiasis has been reported in 19 states, showing areas of high and medium endemicity and a wide range of areas of low endemicity (ALE). Barra Mansa in Rio de Janeiro state has an estimated prevalence of 1%. ALE represent a new challenge for the helminth control because about 75% of infected individuals are asymptomatic and ...

  8. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    Crayfishes and other freshwater aquatic fauna are particularly at risk globally due to anthropogenic demand, manipulation and exploitation of freshwater resources and yet are often understudied. The Ozark faunal region of Missouri and Arkansas harbours a high level of aquatic biological diversity, especially in regard to endemic crayfishes. Three such endemics, Orconectes eupunctus,Orconectes marchandi and Cambarus hubbsi, are threatened by limited natural distribution and the invasions of Orconectes neglectus.

  9. Pollinator specificity and pollen limitation in the San Diego mesa mint, Pogogyne abramsii, a vernal pool endemic /

    OpenAIRE

    Scioli, Justin Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Vernal pool ecosystems in California support a variety of narrowly distributed annual plants. As a result of the destruction, fragmentation, and degradation of vernal pool habitat, some vernal pool endemic plants are now considered threatened or endangered. The federally endangered San Diego mesa mint Pogogyne abramsii) is a vernal pool endemic now found only in a few locations in coastal San Diego County, California. To learn more about the pollination biology of this species, we conducted a...

  10. An integrated ecosystem trophic model for the North and Central Gulf of California: An alternative view for endemic species conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Uribe, J. Gabriel; Arreguín Sánchez, Francisco; Lercari-Bernier, Diego; Cruz Escalona, Víctor Hugo; Zetina Rejón, Manuel Jesús; Del Monte Luna, Pablo; Martínez-Aguilar, Susana

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the intricate interactions of endemic species with anthropogenic impacts of diverse economic interests on ecosystems is of paramount importance to the implementation of effective con-servation programs. A trophic mass-balance model was used to analyze the structural properties of the North and Central Gulf of California (NC-GulfCal) ecosystem, the most important fishing area in Mexico and where conservation efforts for protecting the endangered endemic porpoise known as vaqui...

  11. In vitro Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Radical Scavenging Activities and Chemical Constituents of the Endemic Thymus laevigatus (Vahl)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Al-Fatimi; Martina Wurster; Gudrun Schröder; Ulrike Lindequist

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Thymus laevigatus (Vahl), Lamiaceae (Labiatae), an endemic species of Yemen, are traditionally used in the treatment of various disorders including stomach and respiratory system. In a first biological and chemical study of this endemic species we investigated antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of different extracts of the leaves of this plant. The preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts composition was performed by TLC while the composition of the essen...

  12. Impacts of Tropical Forest Disturbance Upon Avifauna on a Small Island with High Endemism: Implications for Conservation

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    Martin Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are rapidly being lost across Southeast Asia and this is predicted to have severe implications for many of the region′s bird species. However, relationships between forest disturbance and avifaunal assemblages remain poorly understood, particularly on small island ecosystems such as those found in the biodiversity ′hotspot′ of Wallacea. This study examines how avifaunal richness varies across a disturbance gradient in a forest reserve on Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Particular emphasis is placed upon examining responses in endemic and red-listed species with high conservation importance. Results indicate that overall avian richness increases between primary and 30-year-old regenerating secondary forest and then decreases through disturbed secondary forest, but is highest in cleared farmland. However, high species richness in farmland does not signify high species distinctiveness; bird community composition here differs significantly from that found in forest sites, and is poor in supporting forest specialists and endemic species. Certain large-bodied endemics such as the Knobbed Hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix appear to be sensitive to moderate disturbance, with populations occurring at greatest density within primary forest. However, overall endemic species richness, as well as that of endemic frugivores and insectivores, is similar in primary and secondary forest types. Results indicate that well-established secondary forest in particular has an important role in supporting species with high conservational importance, possessing community composition similar to that found in primary forest and supporting an equally high richness of endemic species.

  13. Osservazioni in cattività sul ciclo stagionale del peso corporeo e sull'efficienza digestiva di Pipistrellus kuhlii e Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Verspertilionidae

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    Gianna Dondini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (Hypsugo savii, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (Tenebrio molitor. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months P. kuhlii and H. savii increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in P. kuhlii than in H. savii. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (Hypsugo savii, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad

  14. Dog bites in humans and estimating human rabies mortality in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

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    Tenzin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dog bites in humans are a public health problem worldwide. The issues of increasing stray dog populations, rabies outbreaks, and the risk of dogs biting humans have been frequently reported by the media in Bhutan. This study aimed to estimate the bite incidence and identify the risk factors for dog bites in humans, and to estimate human deaths from rabies in rabies endemic south Bhutan. METHODS: A hospital-based questionnaire survey was conducted during 2009-2010 among dog bites victims who visited three hospitals in Bhutan for anti-rabies vaccine injection. Decision tree modeling was used to estimate human deaths from rabies following dog bite injuries in two rabies endemic areas of south Bhutan. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty four dog bite victims were interviewed. The annual incidence of dog bites differed between the hospital catchment areas: 869.8 (95% CI: 722.8-1022.5, 293.8 (240-358.2 and 284.8 (251.2-323 per 100,000 people in Gelephu, Phuentsholing and Thimphu, respectively. Males (62% were more at risk than females (P<0.001. Children aged 5-9 years were bitten more than other age groups. The majority of victims (71% were bitten by stray dogs. No direct fatal injury was reported. In two hospital areas (Gelephu and Phuentsholing in south Bhutan the annual incidence of death from rabies was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.57-6.29 per 100,000 population. The decision tree model predicted an equivalent annual incidence of 4.67 (95% CI: 2.53-7.53 deaths/100,000 population at risk. In the absence of post exposure prophylaxis, the model predicted 19.24 (95% CI: 13.69-25.14 deaths/year in these two areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased educational awareness of people about the risk of dog bites and rabies is necessary, particularly for children in rabies endemic areas of Bhutan.

  15. Molecular dating of caprines using ancient DNA sequences of Myotragus balearicus, an extinct endemic Balearic mammal

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    Alcover Josep Antoni

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotragus balearicus was an endemic bovid from the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean that became extinct around 6,000-4,000 years ago. The Myotragus evolutionary lineage became isolated in the islands most probably at the end of the Messinian crisis, when the desiccation of the Mediterranean ended, in a geological date established at 5.35 Mya. Thus, the sequences of Myotragus could be very valuable for calibrating the mammalian mitochondrial DNA clock and, in particular, the tree of the Caprinae subfamily, to which Myotragus belongs. Results We have retrieved the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 base pairs, plus fragments of the mitochondrial 12S gene and the nuclear 28S rDNA multi-copy gene from a well preserved Myotragus subfossil bone. The best resolved phylogenetic trees, obtained with the cytochrome b gene, placed Myotragus in a position basal to the Ovis group. Using the calibration provided by the isolation of Balearic Islands, we calculated that the initial radiation of caprines can be dated at 6.2 ± 0.4 Mya. In addition, alpine and southern chamois, considered until recently the same species, split around 1.6 ± 0.3 Mya, indicating that the two chamois species have been separated much longer than previously thought. Conclusion Since there are almost no extant endemic mammals in Mediterranean islands, the sequence of the extinct Balearic endemic Myotragus has been crucial for allowing us to use the Messinian crisis calibration point for dating the caprines phylogenetic tree.

  16. Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis

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    Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%, double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9% and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7% for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.

  17. Desert springs: deep phylogeographic structure in an ancient endemic crustacean (Phreatomerus latipes.

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    Michelle T Guzik

    Full Text Available Desert mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia maintain an endemic fauna that have historically been considered ubiquitous throughout all of the springs. Recent studies, however, have shown that several endemic invertebrate species are genetically highly structured and contain previously unrecognised species, suggesting that individuals may be geographically 'stranded in desert islands'. Here we further tested the generality of this hypothesis by conducting genetic analyses of the obligate aquatic phreatoicid isopod Phreatomerus latipes. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships amongst P. latipes individuals were examined using a multilocus approach comprising allozymes and mtDNA sequence data. From the Lake Eyre region in South Australia we collected data for 476 individuals from 69 springs for the mtDNA gene COI; in addition, allozyme electrophoresis was conducted on 331 individuals from 19 sites for 25 putative loci. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses showed three major clades in both allozyme and mtDNA data, with a further nine mtDNA sub-clades, largely supported by the allozymes. Generally, each of these sub-clades was concordant with a traditional geographic grouping known as spring complexes. We observed a coalescent time between ∼2-15 million years ago for haplotypes within each of the nine mtDNA sub-clades, whilst an older total time to coalescence (>15 mya was observed for the three major clades. Overall we observed that multiple layers of phylogeographic history are exemplified by Phreatomerus, suggesting that major climate events and their impact on the landscape have shaped the observed high levels of diversity and endemism. Our results show that this genus reflects a diverse fauna that existed during the early Miocene and appears to have been regionally restricted. Subsequent aridification events have led to substantial contraction of the original habitat, possibly over repeated Pleistocene

  18. Hepatitis B and Schistosoma co-infection in a non-endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Gómez, J Á; Salas-Coronas, J; Lozano-Serrano, A B; Vázquez-Villegas, J; Soriano-Pérez, M J; Estévez-Escobar, M; Villarejo-Ordóñez, A; Cabezas-Fernández, M T

    2016-09-01

    Schistosomiasis is related to the development of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. Chronic co-infection with HBV and Schistosoma has been associated in endemic areas with a higher risk for a more severe liver disease. However, no studies have assessed the real importance of this co-infection in non-endemic regions. This is a retrospective observational study of Sub-Saharan immigrants attending between October 2004 and February 2014. Patients with chronic HBV infection with and without evidence of schistosomal infection were compared. Epidemiological, analytical, and microbiological data were analysed. Likelihood of liver fibrosis based on APRI and FIB-4 indexes was established. A total of 507 patients were included in the study, 170 (33.5 %) of them harbouring evidence of schistosome infection. No differences were found in transaminase, GGT, and ALP levels. In fibrosis tests, a higher proportion of patients with HVB and S. mansoni detection reached possible fibrosis scores (F > 2) when compared to patients without schistosomiasis: 17.4 vs 14.2 % and 4.3 % vs 4.2 % (using high sensitivity and high specificity cut-offs respectively), although differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.69, p = 0.96). For possible cirrhosis (F4) score, similar results were observed: 4.3 % of co-infected patients vs 2.1 % of mono-infected ones, p = 0.46. According to these datas, in non-endemic regions the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B is not substantially modified by schistosome co-infection. PMID:27272213

  19. Burden of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in an area of low endemicity in Brazil.

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    Netto, Maria José; Bonfim, Cristine; Brandão, Eduardo; Aguiar-Santos, Ana Maria; Medeiros, Zulma

    2016-11-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has two main components: interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and managing morbidity and preventing disability. However, interventions to prevent and manage LF-related disabilities in endemic communities have been of limited extent. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of morbidity and its correlation with filarial infection, thereby filling a gap that existed regarding the data on morbidity in Brazil. Presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria was investigated using the thick smear technique. Information on parasitosis-related clinical manifestations was obtained using a questionnaire applied by community health agents with previous training and capacitation to know about and identify the disease. To analyze correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used with the corresponding statistical significance test. 23,673 individuals were investigated: 323 presented microfilaremia (1.36%) and 741 (3.13%) had clinical complaints that were attributable to LF. Acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) was the most prevalent condition (2.2%). Lymphedema, ADLA and chyluria were more commonly reported among female patients. There were positive associations between all the clinical complaints reported and filarial infection. Hydrocele presented the most strongly positive association (r=0.699; p<0.001). The present study showed that there is an association between clinical condition reported and the rate of infection among people living in an area of low endemicity for LF. It contributes data that might provide support for healthcare systems and thus optimize disease management, through incorporating surveillance measures directed towards preventing disability and reducing the psychosocial and economic impact of the disease on poor populations living in areas endemic for LF.

  20. Conservation priorities in a biodiversity hotspot: analysis of narrow endemic plant species in New Caledonia.

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    Adrien S Wulff

    Full Text Available New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot facing extreme environmental degradation. Given the urgent need for conservation prioritisation, we have made a first-pass quantitative assessment of the distribution of Narrow Endemic Species (NES in the flora to identify species and sites that are potentially important for conservation action. We assessed the distributional status of all angiosperm and gymnosperm species using data from taxonomic descriptions and herbarium samples. We characterised species as being NES if they occurred in 3 or fewer locations. In total, 635 of the 2930 assessed species were classed as NES, of which only 150 have been subjected to the IUCN conservation assessment. As the distributional patterns of un-assessed species from one or two locations correspond well with assessed species which have been classified as Critically Endangered or Endangered respectively, we suggest that our distributional data can be used to prioritise species for IUCN assessment. We also used the distributional data to produce a map of "Hotspots of Plant Narrow Endemism" (HPNE. Combined, we used these data to evaluate the coincidence of NES with mining activities (a major source of threat on New Caledonia and also areas of conservation protection. This is to identify species and locations in most urgent need of further conservation assessment and subsequent action. Finally, we grouped the NES based on the environments they occurred in and modelled the habitat distribution of these groups with a Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Model (MaxEnt. The NES were separable into three different groups based primarily on geological differences. The distribution of the habitat types for each group coincide partially with the HPNE described above and also indicates some areas which have high habitat suitability but few recorded NES. Some of these areas may represent under-sampled hotspots of narrow endemism and are priorities for further field work.

  1. Divergent profile of emerging cutaneous leishmaniasis in subtropical Brazil: new endemic areas in the southern frontier.

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    Mariel Asbury Marlow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although known to be highly endemic in the Amazon regions of Brazil, the presence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the subtropical southern part of the country has largely been ignored. This study was conducted to demonstrate CL is emerging in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, as well as to characterize the epidemiological profile and Leishmania species involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this cross-sectional study, data from all CL cases from Santa Catarina, Brazil, reported to the Brazilian National Notifiable Diseases Information System from 2001 to 2009 were investigated. Amplification of the kDNA minicircle conserved region followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was conducted to screen for Leishmania species present in patient biopsy. Overall, 542 CL cases were reported, with majority resulting from autochthonous transmission (n = 401, 73.99% and occurring in urban zones (n = 422, 77.86%. Age, gender, zone of residence, origin of case, clinical form and case outcome were found to differ significantly by region. Imported cases were over seven times more likely to relapse (95% CI 2.56-21.09. Mapping of cases revealed new endemic areas in northeastern Santa Catarina with two species present. With the exception of three L. (Leishmania amazonensis cases (1.20%, majority of PCR positive samples were found to be L. (Viannia braziliensis (n = 248, 98.80%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CL is now endemic in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, with case profiles varying significantly by region. L. (V. braziliensis has been identified as the predominant species in the region.

  2. Remotely Sensed Environmental Conditions and Malaria Mortality in Three Malaria Endemic Regions in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlm, Clas; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in malaria endemic countries. The malaria mosquito vectors depend on environmental conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, for reproduction and survival. To investigate the potential for weather driven early warning systems to prevent disease occurrence, the disease relationship to weather conditions need to be carefully investigated. Where meteorological observations are scarce, satellite derived products provide new opportunities to study the disease patterns depending on remotely sensed variables. In this study, we explored the lagged association of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NVDI), day Land Surface Temperature (LST) and precipitation on malaria mortality in three areas in Western Kenya. Methodology and Findings The lagged effect of each environmental variable on weekly malaria mortality was modeled using a Distributed Lag Non Linear Modeling approach. For each variable we constructed a natural spline basis with 3 degrees of freedom for both the lag dimension and the variable. Lag periods up to 12 weeks were considered. The effect of day LST varied between the areas with longer lags. In all the three areas, malaria mortality was associated with precipitation. The risk increased with increasing weekly total precipitation above 20 mm and peaking at 80 mm. The NDVI threshold for increased mortality risk was between 0.3 and 0.4 at shorter lags. Conclusion This study identified lag patterns and association of remote- sensing environmental factors and malaria mortality in three malaria endemic regions in Western Kenya. Our results show that rainfall has the most consistent predictive pattern to malaria transmission in the endemic study area. Results highlight a potential for development of locally based early warning forecasts that could potentially reduce the disease burden by enabling timely control actions. PMID:27115874

  3. Whether the weather drives patterns of endemic amphibian chytridiomycosis: a pathogen proliferation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Skerratt, Lee F; Garland, Stephen; Kriticos, Darren; McCallum, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    The pandemic amphibian disease chytridiomycosis often exhibits strong seasonality in both prevalence and disease-associated mortality once it becomes endemic. One hypothesis that could explain this temporal pattern is that simple weather-driven pathogen proliferation (population growth) is a major driver of chytridiomycosis disease dynamics. Despite various elaborations of this hypothesis in the literature for explaining amphibian declines (e.g., the chytrid thermal-optimum hypothesis) it has not been formally tested on infection patterns in the wild. In this study we developed a simple process-based model to simulate the growth of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) under varying weather conditions to provide an a priori test of a weather-linked pathogen proliferation hypothesis for endemic chytridiomycosis. We found strong support for several predictions of the proliferation hypothesis when applied to our model species, Litoria pearsoniana, sampled across multiple sites and years: the weather-driven simulations of pathogen growth potential (represented as a growth index in the 30 days prior to sampling; GI30) were positively related to both the prevalence and intensity of Bd infections, which were themselves strongly and positively correlated. In addition, a machine-learning classifier achieved ~72% success in classifying positive qPCR results when utilising just three informative predictors 1) GI30, 2) frog body size and 3) rain on the day of sampling. Hence, while intrinsic traits of the individuals sampled (species, size, sex) and nuisance sampling variables (rainfall when sampling) influenced infection patterns obtained when sampling via qPCR, our results also strongly suggest that weather-linked pathogen proliferation plays a key role in the infection dynamics of endemic chytridiomycosis in our study system. Predictive applications of the model include surveillance design, outbreak preparedness and response, climate change scenario modelling and

  4. Whether the weather drives patterns of endemic amphibian chytridiomycosis: a pathogen proliferation approach.

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    Kris A Murray

    Full Text Available The pandemic amphibian disease chytridiomycosis often exhibits strong seasonality in both prevalence and disease-associated mortality once it becomes endemic. One hypothesis that could explain this temporal pattern is that simple weather-driven pathogen proliferation (population growth is a major driver of chytridiomycosis disease dynamics. Despite various elaborations of this hypothesis in the literature for explaining amphibian declines (e.g., the chytrid thermal-optimum hypothesis it has not been formally tested on infection patterns in the wild. In this study we developed a simple process-based model to simulate the growth of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd under varying weather conditions to provide an a priori test of a weather-linked pathogen proliferation hypothesis for endemic chytridiomycosis. We found strong support for several predictions of the proliferation hypothesis when applied to our model species, Litoria pearsoniana, sampled across multiple sites and years: the weather-driven simulations of pathogen growth potential (represented as a growth index in the 30 days prior to sampling; GI30 were positively related to both the prevalence and intensity of Bd infections, which were themselves strongly and positively correlated. In addition, a machine-learning classifier achieved ~72% success in classifying positive qPCR results when utilising just three informative predictors 1 GI30, 2 frog body size and 3 rain on the day of sampling. Hence, while intrinsic traits of the individuals sampled (species, size, sex and nuisance sampling variables (rainfall when sampling influenced infection patterns obtained when sampling via qPCR, our results also strongly suggest that weather-linked pathogen proliferation plays a key role in the infection dynamics of endemic chytridiomycosis in our study system. Predictive applications of the model include surveillance design, outbreak preparedness and response, climate change scenario

  5. Cryptic lineages and diversification of an endemic anole lizard (Squamata, Dactyloidae) of the Cerrado hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnizo, Carlos E; Werneck, Fernanda P; Giugliano, Lilian G; Santos, Marcella G; Fenker, Jéssica; Sousa, Lucas; D'Angiolella, Annelise B; Dos Santos, Adriana R; Strüssmann, Christine; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Dorado-Rodrigues, Tainá F; Gamble, Tony; Colli, Guarino R

    2016-01-01

    The Cerrado is a wide Neotropical savanna with tremendously high endemic diversity. Yet, it is not clear what the prevalent processes leading to such diversification are. We used the Cerrado-endemic lizard Norops meridionalis to investigate the main abiotic factors that promoted genetic divergence, the timings of these divergence events, and how these relate to cryptic diversity in the group. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genes from 21 sites of N. meridionalis to generate species tree, divergence time estimations, and estimate species limits. We also performed population-level analysis and estimated distribution models to test the roles of niche conservatism and divergence in the group diversification. We found that N. meridionalis is composed by at least five cryptic species. Divergence time estimations suggest that the deepest branches split back into the early-mid Miocene, when most of the geophysical activity of the Cerrado took place. The deep divergences found in N. meridionalis suggest that beta anoles invaded South America much earlier than previously thought. Recent published evidence supports this view, indicating that the Panama gap closed as early as 15 mya, allowing for an early invasion of Norops into South America. The spatial pattern of diversification within N. meridionalis follows a northwest-southeast direction, which is consistent across several species of vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado. Also, we found evidence for non-stationary isolation by distance, which occurs when genetic differentiation depends on space. Our preliminary data in two out of five lineages suggest that niche conservatism is an important mechanism that promoted geographic fragmentation in the group. PMID:26385121

  6. Feasibility and effectiveness of basic lymphedema management in Leogane, Haiti, an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis.

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    David G Addiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 14 million persons living in areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis have lymphedema of the leg. Clinical studies indicate that repeated episodes of bacterial acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA lead to progression of lymphedema and that basic lymphedema management, which emphasizes hygiene, skin care, exercise, and leg elevation, can reduce ADLA frequency. However, few studies have prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of basic lymphedema management or assessed the role of compressive bandaging for lymphedema in resource-poor settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 1995 and 1998, we prospectively monitored ADLA incidence and leg volume in 175 persons with lymphedema of the leg who enrolled in a lymphedema clinic in Leogane, Haiti, an area endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti. During the first phase of the study, when a major focus of the program was to reduce leg volume using compression bandages, ADLA incidence was 1.56 episodes per person-year. After March 1997, when hygiene and skin care were systematically emphasized and bandaging discouraged, ADLA incidence decreased to 0.48 episodes per person-year (P<0.0001. ADLA incidence was significantly associated with leg volume, stage of lymphedema, illiteracy, and use of compression bandages. Leg volume decreased in 78% of patients; over the entire study period, this reduction was statistically significant only for legs with stage 2 lymphedema (P = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Basic lymphedema management, which emphasized hygiene and self-care, was associated with a 69% reduction in ADLA incidence. Use of compression bandages in this setting was associated with an increased risk of ADLA. Basic lymphedema management is feasible and effective in resource-limited areas that are endemic for lymphatic filariasis.

  7. Cost risk benefit analysis to support chemoprophylaxis policy for travellers to malaria endemic countries

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    Coutinho Francisco AB

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of malaria endemic regions, tourists and travellers face a declining risk of travel associated malaria, in part due to successful malaria control. Many millions of visitors to these regions are recommended, via national and international policy, to use chemoprophylaxis which has a well recognized morbidity profile. To evaluate whether current malaria chemo-prophylactic policy for travellers is cost effective when adjusted for endemic transmission risk and duration of exposure. a framework, based on partial cost-benefit analysis was used Methods Using a three component model combining a probability component, a cost component and a malaria risk component, the study estimated health costs avoided through use of chemoprophylaxis and costs of disease prevention (including adverse events and pre-travel advice for visits to five popular high and low malaria endemic regions and malaria transmission risk using imported malaria cases and numbers of travellers to malarious countries. By calculating the minimal threshold malaria risk below which the economic costs of chemoprophylaxis are greater than the avoided health costs we were able to identify the point at which chemoprophylaxis would be economically rational. Results The threshold incidence at which malaria chemoprophylaxis policy becomes cost effective for UK travellers is an accumulated risk of 1.13% assuming a given set of cost parameters. The period a travellers need to remain exposed to achieve this accumulated risk varied from 30 to more than 365 days, depending on the regions intensity of malaria transmission. Conclusions The cost-benefit analysis identified that chemoprophylaxis use was not a cost-effective policy for travellers to Thailand or the Amazon region of Brazil, but was cost-effective for travel to West Africa and for those staying longer than 45 days in India and Indonesia.

  8. Hair Selenium Levels of School Children in Kashin-Beck Disease Endemic Areas in Tibet, China.

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    Chen, Zhuo; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Yonghua; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Nima, Cangjue; Zhao, Shengcheng; Wang, Jing; Ye, Bixiong; Danzeng, Sangbu; Deji, Yangzong

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the selenium (Se) deficiency is an important factor for the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). Although KBD is presently controlled in most regions of China, it is still active in the Tibetan Plateau. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status of selenium in school children by using the Se level in hair as a biomarker in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa in Tibet, China. Hair samples of 155 school children aged 6-15 years were collected in both KBD areas and non-KBD areas of Lhasa in 2013. The Se level in the hair samples was determined by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Se in children's hair was 0.232 μg/g in KBD areas of Lhasa, which was significantly higher than the data reported decades ago. A significant difference in hair Se was observed between the boys (0.255 μg/g) and the girls (0.222 μg/g) in the studied KBD areas (P hair Se did not vary by age or region. School children in KBD endemic areas in Lhasa likely have improved Se status as a result of high Se content staple food substitution with the enforcement of Free Education Policy and Nutrition Improvement Plan in Tibet. Nevertheless, there were still 20.3 % of students with low Se status (hair Se <0.20 μg/g), which showed that Se status of school children was also partly affected by low Se environment in KBD endemic areas of Lhasa.

  9. RISK FOR MALARIA IN UNITED STATES DONORS DEFERRED FOR TRAVEL TO MALARIA-ENDEMIC AREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryan; Steele, Whitney; Custer, Brian; Kleinman, Steven; Cable, Ritchard; Wilkinson, Susan; Wright, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Deferral for travel to malaria-endemic areas excludes many blood donors in the United States. Most transfusion-transmitted malaria is associated with lengthy residence in malaria-endemic areas rather than routine travel. This study compares the impact of existing deferral requirements to the risk that a presenting donor with malaria travel history harbors malaria parasites under current and hypothetical alternate regulations. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Deferred donors from six blood centers were sampled to estimate a national cohort of donors deferred annually for malaria travel to different geographic regions. Risk for malaria infection following travel to each region, and distribution of incubation periods for each malaria species were estimated for U.S. travelers. Region-specific travel risks were used to estimate the risk that a presenting blood donor with malaria travel might asymptomatically harbor malaria parasites at different intervals following return to the United States. RESULTS Travel to Africa presents risk for malaria infection >1000 times that of travel to malaria-endemic parts of Mexico, yet Mexico accounts for >10 times as many deferred donors. Shortening the deferral period from 12 to 3 months for travelers to Mexico increases the risk of collecting a contaminated unit by only 1 unit per 57 years (sensitivity analysis, 1 every 29 - 114 years), at annual gain of >56,000 donations. CONCLUSION This study provides the first systematic appraisal of the U.S. requirements for donor qualification regarding travel to malarial areas. Consideration should be given to relaxing the guidelines for travel to very low-risk areas such as Mexico. PMID:19903290

  10. Are local plague endemicity and ecological characteristics of vectors and reservoirs related? A case study in north-east Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne LAUDISOIT; Simon NEERINCKX; Rhodes H.MAKUNDI; Herwig LEIRS; Boris R.KRASNOV

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of plague endemicity in Tanzania is characterized by continuous re-appearance of the disease in some locations, while in other neighbouring villages the disease has never or seldom been observed. To understand the reasons for this pattern, we studied small mammal and flea species composition, diversity and relative abundances in two plague-endemic and two plague-free locations. We asked (a) whether fleas more abundant in plague-endemic locations differ in their characteristic abundance and the degree of their host specificity from fleas more abundant in plague-free locations and (b) whether hosts most abundant in plagne-endemic locations differ in the diversity of their flea assemblages from hosts most abundant in plague-free locations. We characterized (a) each host species by species richness and degree of taxonomic relatedness of its flea assemblages and (b) each flea species by its mean abundance and size, and degree of taxonomic relatedness of its host spectrum and compared their relative abundances between locations. No significant difference between plague-endemic and plague-free locations in either host density or any variable related to flea abundance or diversity was found. However, there was marginally significant effect of taxonomic distinctness of a flea assemblage harboured by a host on its probability to be more abundant in either plague-endemic or plague-free locations. Furthermore, hosts more abundant in plague-endemic locations tended to harbeur closely-related fleas. Finally, while opportunistic and specialist fleas were equally distributed in both sets of locations, fleas exploiting distantly-related hosts were found mainly in plague-free locations during the rainy season. We suggest that the observed patterns might arise due to seasonal and spatial differences in local microclimatic conditions and landscape connectivity.

  11. Dengue Virus Serotypes in Three Districts/Municipalities with Different Endemicity Level of Dengue in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF disease in Indonesia is increasing over years. DHF outbreaks happen in many provinces of Indonesia. West Java is a DHF endemic province. Nearly all districts/municipalities at the West Java Province are endemic areas and have reported DHF outbreaks. Factors supporting high incidence rate of DHF are tropical climate of Indonesia and the circulation of four dengue virus serotypes. The study aimed to identify dengue virus serotype distribution in the districts with different DHF endemic at the Province of Jawa Barat.The study was observational with cross sectional design. Samples consisted of 60 samples of blood serum of patients serologically infected by dengue virus. Samples came from three districts/municipalities with different DHF endemic. Dengue virus serotype of samples was detected using nested RT-PCR (Reserve Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction examination.Results showed that, four serotypes of dengue virus could be isolated from serum samples. Out of all positive samples, Den-2 was the serotype most frequently appeared (55% followed by Den-3 (29%, Den-1 (9.6% and Den-4 (6.4%. At dengue high endemic areas there were 4 serotypes of dengue virus Den-3 (6 times, Den-2(twice, Den-4 and Den-1 (once each. At medium endemic areas there were 4 serotypes of dengue virus, i.e. Den-2 (9 times, Den-3 (twice, Den-1 and Den-4 (once each. At low endemic areas there were two serotypes, i.e. Den-2 (6 times and Den-1 (once.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donor Screening for Babesia microti in Endemic Regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew S.; Leff, Jared A.; Pandya, Ankur; Cushing, Melissa; Shaz, Beth H.; Calfee, David P.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Mushlin, Alvin I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Babesia microti is the leading reported cause of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-transmitted infection in the United States (US). Donor screening assays are in development. Study Design and Methods A decision analytic model estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies for preventing transfusion-transmitted babesiosis (TTB) in a hypothetical cohort of transfusion recipients in Babesia-endemic areas of the US. Strategies included: (1) No screening, (2) Uniform Donor Health History Questionnaire (UDHQ), “status quo”, (3) Recipient risk-targeting using donor antibody (Ab) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening, (4) Universal endemic donor Ab screening, (5) Universal endemic donor Ab and PCR screening. Outcome measures were TTB cases averted, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ($/QALY). We assumed a societal willingness to pay of $1 million/QALY based on screening for other transfusion-transmitted infections. Results Compared to no screening, the UDHQ avoids 0.02 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $160,000/QALY whereas recipient risk-targeted strategy using Ab/PCR avoids 1.62 TTB cases per 100,000 RBC transfusions at an ICER of $713,000/QALY compared to the UDHQ. Universal endemic Ab screening avoids 3.39 cases at an ICER of $760,000/QALY compared to the recipient-risk targeted strategy. Universal endemic Ab/PCR screening avoids 3.60 cases and has an ICER of $8.8 million/QALY compared to universal endemic Ab screening. Results are sensitive to blood donor Babesia prevalence, TTB transmission probability, screening test costs, risk and severity of TTB complications, and impact of babesiosis diagnosis on donor quality of life. Conclusion Antibody screening for Babesia in endemic regions is appropriate from an economic perspective based on the societal willingness to pay for preventing infectious threats to blood safety. PMID

  13. Protein profiles of field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from different endemic areas of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bhakti Poerwadikarta

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonicated cell-free extract proteins of 14 field isolates ofBacillus anthracis from six different endemic areas of Indonesia were analyzed by the use of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE methods . The protein profiles of each field isolate tested demonstrated slightly different at the protein bands with molecular weights of 18, 37, 52, 65 and 70 kDa, and varied between the field isolates and vaccine strains. The variation could provide clues to the source of anthrax transmission whether it was originated from similar strain or not.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic species Korean aucha perch Coreoperca herzi (Teleostei, Centrarchiformes, Sinipercidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kwak, Yunyoung; Hong, Sung-Jun; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Jung, Byung Kwon; Park, Yeong-Jun; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the endemic species Korean aucha perch Coreoperca herzi (Teleostei, Centrarchiformes, Sinipercidae). The mitogenome, consisting of 16 495 base pairs (bp), encoded 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding region. The overall base composition of C. herzi is G + C: 46.3%, A + T: 53.7%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the C. herzi was closed to Coreoperca kawamebari. PMID:26181210

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Eon; Park, Gun-Seok; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Kgu-Hwan; Park, Hee Cheon; Lee, In-Jung; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Korean endemic species Microphysogobio yaluensis (Teleostei, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae). The mitogenome, consisted of 16 601 base pairs (bp), encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and 2 non-coding regions. The overall base composition of M. yaluensis was G + C: 43.8%, A + T: 56.2%, apparently with a slight AT bias. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. yaluensis was close to Hemibarbus mylodon. PMID:26260172

  16. Endemism due to climate change: Evidence from Poeciloneuron Bedd. (Clusiaceae) leaf fossil from Assam, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gaurav Srivastava; R C Mehrotra

    2013-04-01

    A fossil leaf resembling Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. (Clusiaceae) is described from the Late Oligocene (Chattian 28.4–23 Myr) sediments of Assam. The modern analogue is endemic to the Western Ghats which is situated in the same palaeolatitude. Its presence, along with other known fossil records, indicates that the seasonality in temperature was less pronounced and CMMT (cold month mean temperature) was not less than 18°C with plenty of rainfall, in the region during the period of deposition. The study also indicates that the plant phenology is sensitive towards climate change. The present study is in congruence with the global data.

  17. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Epidendrum puniceoluteum, an endemic orchid from the Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, F; Santos, M O; Palma-Silva, C; Barros, F; Meyer, D; Salatino, A; Souza, A P; Cozzolino, S

    2008-09-01

    Epidendrum puniceoluteum is an endemic orchid of Atlantic Rainforest, restricted to few populations only due to the destruction and fragmentation of its native habitat. Here, we report on the development of 10 microsatellite markers isolated from this orchid species. Genetic variability was characterized in two distant populations from Brazil coast. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from two to 12 and with an average of 6.4 alleles per locus. These microsatellites should be valuable tools for studying both fine-scale genetic structure of scattered E. puniceoluteum population and patterns will be useful genetic markers for other closely related taxa. PMID:21585988

  18. A case report of Brugian filariasis outside an endemic area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokmek, S; Warunyuwong, W; Rojanapanus, S; Jiraamornimit, C; Boitano, J J; Wongkamchai, S

    2013-12-01

    A 2-year-old boy living outside the endemic area of lymphatic filariasis in Surat Thani Province, Thailand, developed a high fever. To investigate the cause of his presenting symptoms, blood was collected and microfilariae were detected and identified as Brugia malayi using thick blood smear staining. The sources of the infection were investigated. Microfilariae from two domestic cats residing in the boy's village were detected and identified as B. pahangi using a high-resolution melting real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The possible sources of this cryptic infection are discussed.

  19. Prevalence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in an endemic area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo de Souza Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600, and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (S7(rBiogene. RESULTS: Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600 presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

  20. Chemical composition of essential oil of Senecio coincyi, an endemic species of the Central Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabal, Carlos; Martínez García, Felipe; Paz Arraiza, María; Guerrero García, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil has been studied of leaves of Senecio coincyi Rouy, an endemic species of Spain restricted to a very small area of the Central Iberian Peninsula. Samples from five locations were obtained by hydrodistillation and extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compound was 1-tridecene (28.1 +/- 8.5%). The presence of unsaturated hydrocarbons (1-undecene, 1-dodecene and 1-tridecene) seems to indicate a chemotaxonomic relationship between Senecio coincyi and S. congestus. PMID:21366061

  1. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föller, K.; Stelbrink, B.; Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four types are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial phase of diversification, or there may be a pronounced lag phase between colonization and subsequent diversification. As understanding the tempo of diversification in ancient lake environments may help reveal the underlying processes that drive speciation and extinction, we here use the Balkan Lake Ohrid as a model system and the largest species flock in the lake, the non-pyrgulinid Hydrobiidae, as a model taxon to study changes in diversification rates over time together with the respective drivers. Based on phylogenetic, molecular-clock, lineage-through-time plot, and diversification-rate analyses we found that this potentially monophyletic group is comparatively old and that it most likely evolved with a constant diversification rate. Preliminary data of the SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration On Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep-drilling program do indicate signatures of severe environmental/climatic perturbations in Lake Ohrid. However, so far there is no evidence for the occurrence of catastrophic environmental events. We therefore propose that the constant diversification rate observed in endemic gastropods has been caused by two factors: (i) a potential lack of catastrophic environmental events in Lake Ohrid and/or (ii) a probably high ecosystem resilience, buffering environmental changes. Parameters potentially contributing to the lake's high ecosystem resilience are its distinct bathymetry, ongoing tectonic activities, and karst hydrology. The current study not only

  2. Farm characteristics and farmer perceptions associated with bovine tuberculosis incidents in areas of emerging endemic spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughan, J M; Maye, D; Carmody, P; Brunton, L A; Ashton, A; Wint, W; Alexander, N; Naylor, R; Ward, K; Goodchild, A V; Hinchliffe, S; Eglin, R D; Upton, P; Nicholson, R; Enticott, G

    2016-07-01

    While much is known about the risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in herds located in high incidence areas, the drivers of bTB spread in areas of emerging endemicity are less well established. Epidemiological analysis and intensive social research identified natural and social risk factors that may prevent or encourage the spread of disease. These were investigated using a case-control study design to survey farmers in areas defined as recently having become endemic for bTB (from or after 2006). Telephone surveys were conducted for 113 farms with a recent history of a bTB incident where their officially tuberculosis free status had been withdrawn (OTFW) (cases) and 224 controls with no history of a bTB incident, matched on location, production type and the rate of endemic bTB spread. Farmers were questioned about a range of farm management strategies, farm characteristics, herd health, wildlife and biosecurity measures with a focus on farmer attitudes and behaviours such as farmers' perception of endemicity and feelings of control, openness and social cohesion. Data generated in the telephone surveys was supplemented with existing herd-level data and analysed using conditional logistic regression. Overall, herd size (OR 1.07), purchasing an animal at a cattle market compared to purchasing outside of markets (OR 2.6), the number of contiguous bTB incidents (2.30) and the number of inconclusive reactors detected in the 2 years prior to the case incident (OR 1.95) significantly increased the odds of a bTB incident. Beef herds using a field parcel more than 3.2km away from the main farm and dairy herds reporting Johne's disease in the previous 12 months were 3.0 and 4.7 times more likely to have a recent history of a bTB incident, respectively. Beef herds reporting maize growing near, but not on, their farm were less likely to be case herds. Operating a closed farm in the two years prior to the case breakdown did not reduce the odds of a bTB incident. Farmers

  3. Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet TEKİN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Four endemic taxa of Onobrychis Mill. genus, some of them being classified in the endangered threat category, were investigated for root and stem anatomy. Onobrychis quadrijuga, O. argyrea subsp. argyrea, O. tournefortii and O. albiflora were studied in regard to specific anatomy for the first time within the hereby study. Anatomical characters as the size and shape of the periderm, cortex, cambium cells in root and epidermis, collenchyma, cortex, cambium and pith cells in stem belonging to these four Onobrychis taxa were determined in detail. Based on the roots and stems measurements and analysis, specific anatomical differences between species were revealed.

  4. [Samuel Barnsley Pessoa and the social determinants of rural endemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, Gilberto

    2015-02-01

    This article analyzes the main aspects of the trajectory, the ideas and the academic and political activism of Samuel Barnsley Pessoa (1898-1976). It reveals that Samuel Pessoa's activism must also be understood in the context of his communist militancy and highlights the fact that one of the original contributions of his work was the establishment of the relationship between agrarian structure and rural endemic diseases, between large and unproductive estates and disease and adherence to a project of transformation of Brazilian society. PMID:25715136

  5. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  6. Symbiotic seed germination and protocorm development of Aa achalensis Schltr., a terrestrial orchid endemic from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Fracchia; Vanesa, Silvani; Eduardo, Flachsland; Graciela, Terada; Silvana, Sede

    2014-01-01

    Aa achalensis is an endangered terrestrial orchid endemic from Argentina. In vitro symbiotic seed germination was evaluated for its propagation. Five different fungal strains were isolated from this species: two Rhizoctonia-like related to Thanatephorus cucumeris and three ascomicetaceous fungi belonging to Phialophora graminicola and one to an uncultured Pezizaceae. All five isolates promoted seed germination being one T. cucumeris strain the most effective. After 16 weeks of growth, 30% of A. achalensis protocorms developed until seedlings with two/four leaves in this treatment. These findings open an opportunity to the knowledge and preservation of this species.

  7. The complete mitochondrial DNA of the endemic shortfin silverside, Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes, 1835).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A; De León, Francisco J García; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin silverside Chirostoma humboldtianum, is an endemic fish from the Mesa Central of Mexico, it is considered the "ancestral" species of the "peces blancos" and plays an important role as a potential species for aquaculture. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ921739), which has a total length of 16,447 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Atheriniformes. This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic, population and phylogeographic studies of this and other important atherinopsid species. PMID:25185796

  8. A third species of Polyspatha, an endemic African genus of Commelinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Faden

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyspatha oligospatha Faden, the third species in a small African endemic genus of Commelinaceae, is described.  It is widespread but has been overlooked because of its small stature and resemblance to small plants of P. paniculata.  It differs from both P. paniculata and P. hirsuta, the two other species, by its leaf pubescence, fewer, more widely spaced and usually patent spathes, deeply ridged seeds with numerous knobby, transversely interrupted ridges, and morning anthesis.  It occurs throughout the Congolian forests from Cameroon to Uganda, but it is also disjunct in Ivory Coast, across the Dahomey gap.

  9. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....

  10. Are Iberian endemics Iberian? A case-study using water beetles of family Dytiscidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribera, Ignacio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships and the geographical origin of 27 of the 34 species and of 3 of the 9 subspecies of Iberian endemic Dytiscidae are studied, based on species level phylogenies constructed with two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I. All Iberian endemic species for which more than one specimen was included were monophyletic with the exception of the complex Deronectes aubei sanfilippoi Fery & Brancucci, 1997-D. delarouzei (Jac. Du Val, 1857. The genus Stictotarsus as presently defined is polyphyletic, containing three different lineages: the S. duodecimpustulatus group —including the Iberian endemic S. bertrandi (Legros, 1956—, Trichonectes otini (Guignot, 1941 (new combination and the S. griseostriatus and S. roffii groups, which are in need of a new generic name. The genus Oreodytes is found to be paraphyletic, although with low bootstrap support. The species Nebrioporus (Nebrioporus martinii (Fairmaire, 1858 (new combination is transferred from the subgenus Zimmermannius to Nebrioporus. The Iberian populations of Stictotarsus griseostriatus (De Geer, 1774 and the endemic subspecies Oreodytes davisii rhianae Carr, 2001, O. sanmarkii alienus (Sharp, 1872 and Hydroporus normandi normandi Régimbart, 1903 do not form well characterised lineages, as measured with the mitochondrial markers used in this study. The Iberian endemic species of Dytiscidae are divided in three groups according to the type of vicariant origin: 1 within-Iberian species, when the sister species (or clade of the Iberian endemic is also and Iberian endemic; 2 Iberian/European, when the sister occurs in Europe north of the Pyrenees; and 3 Iberian/North African, when the sister occurs in North Africa. Within-Iberian endemics are found to be on average older than Iberian/European and Iberian/North African species, they have

  11. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Föller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four modes are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial phase of diversification, or there may be a pronounced lag phase between colonization and subsequent diversification. As understanding the tempo of diversification in ancient lake environments may help unrevealing the underlying processes that drive speciation and extinction, we here use the Balkan Lake Ohrid as a model system and the largest species flock in the lake, the non-pyrgulinid Hydrobiidae, as a model taxon to study changes in diversification rates over time together with the respective drivers. Based on phylogenetic, molecular-clock, lineage-through-time plot and diversification-rate analyses we found that this monophyletic group is comparatively old and that it most likely evolved with a constant diversification rate. Preliminary data of the SCOPSCO deep-drilling program do indicate signatures of severe environmental/climatic perturbations in Lake Ohrid. However, so far there is no evidence for the occurrence of catastrophic environmental events. We therefore propose that the rate homogeneity observed in endemic gastropods has been caused by two factors: (i a potential lack of catastrophic environmental events in Lake Ohrid and/or (ii a high ecosystem resilience, buffering environmental changes. Parameters potentially contributing to the lake's high ecosystem resilience are its distinct bathymetry, ongoing tectonic activities, and karst hydrology. The current study not only contributes to one of the overall goals of the SCOPSCO deep-drilling program – inferring

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of West Nile virus in horses in Israel (1997-2013--from endemic to epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Aharonson-Raz

    Full Text Available With the rapid global spread of West Nile virus (WNV and the endemic state it has acquired in new geographical areas, we hereby bring a thorough serological investigation of WNV in horses in a longstanding endemic region, such as Israel. This study evaluates the environmental and demographic risk factors for WNV infection in horses and suggests possible factors associated with the transition from endemic to epidemic state. West Nile virus seroprevalence in horses in Israel was determined throughout a period of more than a decade, before (1997 and after (2002 and 2013 the massive West Nile fever outbreak in humans and horses in 2000. An increase in seroprevalence was observed, from 39% (113/290 in 1997 to 66.1% (547/827 in 2002 and 85.5% (153/179 in 2013, with persistent significantly higher seroprevalence in horses situated along the Great Rift Valley (GRV area, the major birds' migration route in Israel. Demographic risk factors included age and breed of the horse. Significantly lower spring precipitation was observed during years with increased human incidence rate that occurred between 1997-2007. Hence, we suggest referring to Israel as two WNV distinct epidemiological regions; an endemic region along the birds' migration route (GRV and the rest of the country which perhaps suffers from cyclic epidemics. In addition, weather conditions, such as periods of spring drought, might be associated with the transition from endemic state to epidemic state of WNV.

  13. Climate change effects on an endemic-rich edaphic flora: resurveying Robert H. Whittaker's Siskiyou sites (Oregon, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Harrison, Susan; Grace, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Species with relatively narrow niches, such as plants restricted (endemic) to particular soils, may be especially vulnerable to extinction under a changing climate due to the enhanced difficulty they face in migrating to suitable new sites. To test for community-level effects of climate change, and to compare such effects in a highly endemic-rich flora on unproductive serpentine soils vs. the flora of normal (diorite) soils, in 2007 we resampled as closely as possible 108 sites originally studied by ecologist Robert H. Whittaker from 1949 to 1951 in the Siskiyou Mountains of southern Oregon, USA. We found sharp declines in herb cover and richness on both serpentine and diorite soils. Declines were strongest in species of northern biogeographic affinity, species endemic to the region (in serpentine communities only), and species endemic to serpentine soils. Consistent with climatic warming, herb communities have shifted from 1949-1951 to 2007 to more closely resemble communities found on xeric (warm, dry) south-facing slopes. The changes found in the Siskiyou herb flora suggest that biotas rich in narrowly distributed endemics may be particularly susceptible to the effects of a warming climate.

  14. Reproductive biology of an Alpic paleo-endemic in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrina, Maria; Casazza, Gabriele; Conti, Elena; Macrì, Carmelo; Minuto, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Climate change is known to have a profound influence on plant reproduction, mainly because it affects plant/pollinator interactions, sometimes driving plants to extinction. Starting from the Neogene, the European climate was subjected to severe alterations. Nevertheless, several genera, including Berardia, survived these climatic changes. Despite the numerous studies performed about the relationship between climate change and plant reproductive biology, equivalent studies on ancient species are lacking, even though they may furnish crucial information on the strategies that allowed them to survive drastic climatic fluctuations. We investigated floral and reproductive features in Berardia subacaulis (Asteraceae), describing pollen vectors, capitulum and florets phenology, evaluating reproductive efficiency and defining the reproductive mode of the plant with bagging experiments and test of apomixis. B. subacaulis grows in habitats with low pollination services; it is self-compatible, but many typical features favouring cross-pollination are still present: florets are characterized by incomplete protandry, capitulum protogyny and high pollen-ovule ratio. The plant is not apomictic and self-fertilization is allowed within each capitulum. Similarly to other European Alpine endemics supposed to belong to the Mediterranean ancient tropical flora, the reproductive mode observed in the monospecific genus Berardia assured reproduction also under a pollinator decline. Differently from the other endemics, it took advantage of its spontaneous self-pollination and compatibility and its generalist pollination service, common both among high altitude plants and in the Asteraceae. PMID:26886434

  15. How specific is the immune response to malaria in adults living in endemic areas?

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    B.A. Mannan, K. Patel, I. Malhotra, B. Ravindran & Shobhona Sharma

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available It is documented that people living in malaria endemic areas acquire immunity against malaria afterrepeated infections. Studies involving passive transfer of IgG from immune adults to the nonimmunesubjects have shown that circulating antibodies play an important role, and that immuneadults possess protective antibodies, which susceptible malaria patients do not. Through a differentialimmunoscreen, we have identified several novel cDNA clones, which react exclusively andyet extensively with immune sera samples. Specific antisera raised against the immunoclones inhibitthe growth of parasites in culture. The clones studied so far turn out to be novel conserved Plasmodiumgenes. In order to study the response of sera of adults from malaria endemic areas of Indiaand Africa to these immunogens, we carried out ELISA assays using these immunopeptides, otherP. falciparum specific antigens, peptides, antigens from other infections such as mycobacterial infectionsand other proteins such as BSA. Children from the same areas and normal healthy urbanpeople showed very little activity to each of these categories. A large percentage of adults from endemicareas responded positively to all the malarial immunogens tested. However, the same personsalso showed high response to other antigens and proteins as well. The implications of theseresults are reported in this paper.

  16. Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district. PMID:23453823

  17. Prophylaxis and treatment of endemic goiter with iodized oil in rural Ecuador and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, J; Fierro-Benitez, R; Pretell, E A; Stanbury, J B

    1969-12-01

    Endemic goiter is a health problem in many areas of the world; in some areas the disease is so severe that cretinism and other defects are found. In many areas geographic, economic, and other factors prevent the use of iodized salt as a preventive measure. Field studies were begun in 1966 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of parenteral administration of iodized oil in goiter prevention. Studies were carried out in Ecuador and Peru. In Ecuador 2 villages were chosen in which the prevalence of goiter was about 60%; in Peru 3 villages were chosen where incidence was about 50%. Prevalence of goiter decreased for 20 months during the study but then began to rise again with the maximum reduction seen up to age 18 and minimal reduction after 40 years of age. The control groups in the study experienced only slight decreases in rate of incidence. Cretinism has not yet appeared among the progeny of the population injected with iodized oil but several instances have appeared in control groups. The use of iodized oil as a public health procedure for the prevention of endemic goiter and its associated defects is an acceptable measure in regions where salt iodization cannot be done.

  18. Two new endemic species of Chrysopodes (Neosuarius (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae from the Galapagos Islands

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    Catherine Tauber

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new species that were previously undistinguished from the Galapagos endemic Chrysopodes (Neosuarius nigripilosus (Banks, are described. These descriptions double, from two to four, the number of endemic green lacewing species known from the archipelago. The four species include: Chrysoperla galapagoensis (Banks, Chrysopodes (N. nigricubitus sp. n.; C. (N. nigripilosus; and C. (N. pecki sp. n. Three of these species – C. (N. nigripilosus, C. (N. nigricubitus and Chrysoperla galapagoensis – each occur on more than one island, whereas C. (N. pecki is known only from the summits of two craters on Isabela Island. A suite of very distinctive features differentiates the three Galapagos Chrysopodes (N. species from their congeners on mainland South America. Subtle, but consistent characteristics separate the three Galapagos species from each other. The small degree of morphological divergence among the Galapagos lacewings is in marked contrast to the spectacular radiation of Hawaiian lacewings; the processes of diversification and speciation may differ significantly between the two island archipelagos.

  19. Catastrophic floods may pave the way for increased genetic diversity in endemic artesian spring snail populations.

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    Jessica Worthington Wilmer

    Full Text Available The role of disturbance in the promotion of biological heterogeneity is widely recognised and occurs at a variety of ecological and evolutionary scales. However, within species, the impact of disturbances that decimate populations are neither predicted nor known to result in conditions that promote genetic diversity. Directly examining the population genetic consequences of catastrophic disturbances however, is rarely possible, as it requires both longitudinal genetic data sets and serendipitous timing. Our long-term study of the endemic aquatic invertebrates of the artesian spring ecosystem of arid central Australia has presented such an opportunity. Here we show a catastrophic flood event, which caused a near total population crash in an aquatic snail species (Fonscochlea accepta endemic to this ecosystem, may have led to enhanced levels of within species genetic diversity. Analyses of individuals sampled and genotyped from the same springs sampled both pre (1988-1990 and post (1995, 2002-2006 a devastating flood event in 1992, revealed significantly higher allelic richness, reduced temporal population structuring and greater effective population sizes in nearly all post flood populations. Our results suggest that the response of individual species to disturbance and severe population bottlenecks is likely to be highly idiosyncratic and may depend on both their ecology (whether they are resilient or resistant to disturbance and the stability of the environmental conditions (i.e. frequency and intensity of disturbances in which they have evolved.

  20. Multiple Symbiodinium Strains Are Hosted by the Brazilian Endemic Corals Mussismilia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Lima, Arthur W; Walter, Juline M; Garcia, Gizele D; Ramires, Naiara; Ank, Glaucia; Meirelles, Pedro M; Nobrega, Alberto F; Siva-Neto, Inacio D; Moura, Rodrigo L; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-08-01

    Corals of genus Mussismilia (Mussidae) are one of the oldest extant clades of scleractinians. These Neogene relicts are endemic to the Brazilian coast and represent the main reef-building corals in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean (SAO). The relatively low-diversity/high-endemism SAO coralline systems are under rapid decline from emerging diseases and other local and global stressors, but have not been severely affected by coral bleaching. Despite the biogeographic significance and importance for understanding coral resilience, there is scant information about the diversity of Symbiodinium in this ocean basin. In this study, we established the first culture collections of Symbiodinium from Mussismilia hosts, comprising 11 isolates, four of them obtained by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). We also analyzed Symbiodinium diversity directly from Mussismilia tissue samples (N = 16) and characterized taxonomically the cultures and tissue samples by sequencing the dominant ITS2 region. Symbiodinium strains A4, B19, and C3 were detected. Symbiodinium C3 was predominant in the larger SAO reef system (Abrolhos), while Symbiodinium B19 was found only in deep samples from the oceanic Trindade Island. Symbiodinium strains A4 and C3 isolates were recovered from the same Mussismilia braziliensis coral colony. In face of increasing threats, these results indicate that Symbiodinium community dynamics shall have an important contribution for the resilience of Mussismilia spp. corals. PMID:25666537

  1. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  2. Unravelling the evolutionary history and future prospects of endemic species restricted to former glacial refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razgour, Orly; Salicini, Irene; Ibáñez, Carlos; Randi, Ettore; Juste, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The contemporary distribution and genetic composition of biodiversity bear a signature of species' evolutionary histories and the effects of past climatic oscillations. For many European species, the Mediterranean peninsulas of Iberia, Italy and the Balkans acted as glacial refugia and the source of range recolonization, and as a result, they contain disproportionately high levels of diversity. As these areas are particularly threatened by future climate change, it is important to understand how past climatic changes affected their biodiversity. We use an integrated approach, combining markers with different evolutionary rates and combining phylogenetic analysis with approximate Bayesian computation and species distribution modelling across temporal scales. We relate phylogeographic processes to patterns of genetic variation in Myotis escalerai, a bat species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. We found a distinct population structure at the mitochondrial level with a strong geographic signature, indicating lineage divergence into separate glacial refugia within the Iberian refugium. However, microsatellite markers suggest higher levels of gene flow resulting in more limited structure at recent time frames. The evolutionary history of M. escalerai was shaped by the effects of climatic oscillations and changes in forest cover and composition, while its future is threatened by climatically induced range contractions and the role of ecological barriers due to competition interactions in restricting its distribution. This study warns that Mediterranean peninsulas, which provided refuge for European biodiversity during past glaciation events, may become a trap for limited dispersal and ecologically limited endemic species under future climate change, resulting in loss of entire lineages. PMID:26346923

  3. The Scirtothrips dorsalis Species Complex: Endemism and Invasion in a Global Pest.

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    Aaron M Dickey

    Full Text Available Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcoding provided an adequate reference set is available. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a highly polyphagous plant pest with a rapidly expanding global distribution and this species, as currently recognized, may be comprised of cryptic species. Here we report the development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for S. dorsalis and seven nuclear markers via next-generation sequencing for identification use within the complex. We also report the delimitation of nine cryptic species and two morphologically distinguishable species comprising the S. dorsalis species complex using histogram analysis of DNA barcodes, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the multi-species coalescent. One member of the complex, here designated the South Asia 1 cryptic species, is highly invasive, polyphagous, and likely the species implicated in tospovirus transmission. Two other species, South Asia 2, and East Asia 1 are also highly polyphagous and appear to be at an earlier stage of global invasion. The remaining members of the complex are regionally endemic, varying in their pest status and degree of polyphagy. In addition to patterns of invasion and endemism, our results provide a framework both for identifying members of the complex based on their DNA barcode, and for future species delimiting efforts.

  4. Endemic and exotic tropical forests of Réunion Island observed by airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Dieudonné, Elsa; Hamonou, Eric; Duflot, Valentin; Strasberg, Dominique; Flores, Olivier; Fournel, Jacques; Tulet, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Tropical forests are vital ecosystems widely threatened across the globe and yet remain the most difficult forest type to document. They are strongly perturbed by anthropogenic activities, which lead to coexistence of endemic and exotic tree species. We present an experiment performed over Réunion Island in May 2014, on sites ranging from coastal to rain forest, including tropical montane cloud forest as found on the Bélouve plateau. Réunion Island is home to the last remnants of primary tropical forest in the Mascarene archipelago, and still shelters significant biodiversity. Three key ecological parameters have been extracted from the lidar measurements: the canopy height (CH), the forest leaf area index (LAI) and the apparent foliage profile. The mean values of estimated LAI are between ~5 and 8 m2/m2 and the mean CH values are ~15 m for both tropical montane cloud and rain forests. Good agreement is found between Lidar- and MODIS-derived LAI for moderate LAI, but the LAI retrieved from lidar is larger than MODIS on rain forest sites (~8 against ~6 m2/m2 from MODIS). Regarding the characterization of tropical biomes, we show that the rain and montane tropical forests can be well distinguished from the planted forests by the use of the three ecological parameters retrieved, as the endemic and exotic forests can also be well distinguished.

  5. Evaluating the role of vaccine to combat peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in endemic disease situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shumaila; Ali, Qurban

    2015-01-01

    Among the main intimidation to the sheep and goat population, PPR outbreaks are causing huge losses especially in endemic areas. During recent times, six outbreaks of PPR were confirmed at semi-organized goat farms/herds in various regions of Punjab province and Islamabad capital territory (ICT), Pakistan. The disease started after introduction of new animals at these farms with no history of previous PPR vaccination. The clinical signs appeared affecting respiratory and enteric systems and spread quickly. Disease caused mortality of 10-20% and morbidity of 20-40% within a time period of four weeks. Morbidity and mortality rates were 30.38% (86/283) and 15.55% (44/283), respectively. Three treatment regimes were executed to demonstrate the role of vaccination during outbreak at these farms. First was to use only the broad spectrum antibiotics (Penicillin & Streptomycin and/ or Trimethoprim and Sulfadiazine) at two farms (Texilla and Attock). Second treatment regime was to use the same broad spectrum antibiotic along with extensive fluid therapy (Farms at ICT-1 and ICT-2). The third regime was to use of broad spectrum antibiotic plus fluid therapy along with vaccinating the herd against PPR during first week of outbreak (ICT-3 and ICT-4). The third scheme of treatment gave the better results as there was no mortality in third week post-outbreak. Therefore, it is suggested to give proper importance to PPR vaccination along with conventional symptomatic treatment when dealing the PPR outbreaks in endemic disease conditions. PMID:26290722

  6. Phylogeography of Partamona rustica (Hymenoptera, Apidae), an Endemic Stingless Bee from the Neotropical Dry Forest Diagonal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha-Filho, Henrique; Congrains, Carlos; Carvalho, Antônio Freire; Ferreira, Kátia Maria; Del Lama, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The South America encompasses the highest levels of biodiversity found anywhere in the world and its rich biota is distributed among many different biogeographical regions. However, many regions of South America are still poorly studied, including its xeric environments, such as the threatened Caatinga and Cerrado phytogeographical domains. In particular, the effects of Quaternary climatic events on the demography of endemic species from xeric habitats are poorly understood. The present study uses an integrative approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Partamona rustica, an endemic stingless bee from dry forest diagonal in Brazil, in a spatial-temporal framework. In this sense, we sequenced four mitochondrial genes and genotyped eight microsatellite loci. Our results identified two population groups: one to the west and the other to the east of the São Francisco River Valley (SFRV). These groups split in the late Pleistocene, and the Approximate Bayesian Computation approach and phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that P. rustica originated in the west of the SFRV, subsequently colonising eastern region. Our tests of migration detected reduced gene flow between these groups. Finally, our results also indicated that the inferences both from the genetic data analyses and from the spatial distribution modelling are compatible with historical demographic stability. PMID:27723778

  7. Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

    2014-03-01

    Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna. PMID:24758132

  8. Ancient islands and modern invasions: disparate phylogeographic histories among Hispaniola's endemic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Nicholas D; Townsend, Andrea K; Rimmer, Christopher C; Townsend, Jason M; Latta, Steven C; Lovette, Irby J

    2011-12-01

    With its large size, complex topography and high number of avian endemics, Hispaniola appears to be a likely candidate for the in situ speciation of its avifauna, despite the worldwide rarity of avian speciation within single islands. We used multilocus comparative phylogeography techniques to examine the pattern and history of divergence in 11 endemic birds representing potential within-island speciation events. Haplotype and allele networks from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear intron loci reveal a consistent pattern: phylogeographic divergence within or between closely related species is correlated with the likely distribution of ancient sea barriers that once divided Hispaniola into several smaller paleo-islands. Coalescent and mitochondrial clock dating of divergences indicate species-specific response to different geological events over the wide span of the island's history. We found no evidence that ecological or topographical complexity generated diversity, either by creating open niches or by restricting long-term gene flow. Thus, no true within-island speciation appears to have occurred among the species sampled on Hispaniola. Divergence events predating the merging of Hispaniola's paleo-island blocks cannot be considered in situ divergence, and postmerging divergence in response to episodic island segmentation by marine flooding probably represents in situ vicariance or interarchipelago speciation by dispersal. Our work highlights the necessity of considering island geologic history while investigating the speciation-area relationship in birds and other taxa. PMID:21449896

  9. Habitat selection of endemic birds in temperate forests in a biodiversity "Hotspot"

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    Roberto A. Moreno-García

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our objective was to find habitat associations at a microhabitat level for two endemic birds in a Chilean temperate forest (biodiversity “hotspots”, in order to integrate biodiversity into forest planning.Area of study: Nahuelbuta Range, Chile.Material and methods: The two birds studied were Scelorchilus rubecula (Chucao Tapaculo and Scytalopus magellanicus (Magellanic Tapaculo, both belonging to the Rhinocryptidae family. Presence or absence of the two species was sampled in 57 census spots. Habitat was categorized according to presence/absence results. We assessed the influence of abiotic variables (altitude, exposure, slope and vegetation structure (percentage of understory cover, number of strata using a statistical cluster analysis.Main results: The two bird species selected the habitat. Most frequent presence was detected at a range of 600-1100 masl, but Magellanic Tapaculo was associated to more protected sites in terms of vegetation structure (50-75% for understory cover and 2-3 strata. Slope was the most relevant abiotic variable in habitat selection due to its linkage to vegetation traits in this area.Research highlights: Our results can help managers to integrate biodiversity (endemic fauna species into forest planning by preserving certain traits of the vegetation as part of a habitat (at a microhabitat level selected by the fauna species. That planning should be implemented with both an adequate wood harvesting cuts system and specific silvicultural treatments.Key words: Chile; Nahuelbuta; rhinocryptidae; cluster analysis; rorest planning; vegetation structure.

  10. Epidemic and Endemic Malaria Transmission Related to Fish Farming Ponds in the Amazon Frontier.

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    Izabel Cristina Dos Reis

    Full Text Available Fish farming in the Amazon has been stimulated as a solution to increase economic development. However, poorly managed fish ponds have been sometimes associated with the presence of Anopheles spp. and consequently, with malaria transmission. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of malaria in the state of Acre (and more closely within a single county to investigate the potential links between aquaculture and malaria transmission in this region. At the state level, we classified the 22 counties into three malaria endemicity patterns, based on the correlation between notification time series. Furthermore, the study period (2003-2013 was divided into two phases (epidemic and post-epidemic. Higher fish pond construction coincided both spatially and temporally with increased rate of malaria notification. Within one malaria endemic county, we investigated the relationship between the geolocation of malaria cases (2011-2012 and their distance to fish ponds. Entomological surveys carried out in these ponds provided measurements of anopheline abundance that were significantly associated with the abundance of malaria cases within 100 m of the ponds (P < 0.005; r = 0.39. These results taken together suggest that fish farming contributes to the maintenance of high transmission levels of malaria in this region.

  11. Burden of lymphatic filariasis morbidity in an area of low endemicity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Maria José; Bonfim, Cristine; Brandão, Eduardo; Aguiar-Santos, Ana Maria; Medeiros, Zulma

    2016-11-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has two main components: interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and managing morbidity and preventing disability. However, interventions to prevent and manage LF-related disabilities in endemic communities have been of limited extent. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of morbidity and its correlation with filarial infection, thereby filling a gap that existed regarding the data on morbidity in Brazil. Presence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria was investigated using the thick smear technique. Information on parasitosis-related clinical manifestations was obtained using a questionnaire applied by community health agents with previous training and capacitation to know about and identify the disease. To analyze correlations, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used with the corresponding statistical significance test. 23,673 individuals were investigated: 323 presented microfilaremia (1.36%) and 741 (3.13%) had clinical complaints that were attributable to LF. Acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA) was the most prevalent condition (2.2%). Lymphedema, ADLA and chyluria were more commonly reported among female patients. There were positive associations between all the clinical complaints reported and filarial infection. Hydrocele presented the most strongly positive association (r=0.699; pmanagement, through incorporating surveillance measures directed towards preventing disability and reducing the psychosocial and economic impact of the disease on poor populations living in areas endemic for LF. PMID:27427218

  12. Neurobrucellosis: clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic features and outcome. Unusual clinical presentations in an endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Ceran

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection and has endemic characteristics. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. The aim of this study was to present unusual clinical manifestations and to discuss the management and outcome of a series of 18 neurobrucellosis cases. Initial clinical manifestations consist of pseudotumor cerebri in one case, white matter lesions and demyelinating syndrome in three cases, intracranial granuloma in one case, transverse myelitis in two cases, sagittal sinus thrombosis in one case, spinal arachnoiditis in one case, intracranial vasculitis in one case, in addition to meningitis in all cases. Eleven patients were male and seven were female. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (83% and fever (44%. All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Duration of treatment (varied 3-12 months was determined on basis of the CSF response. In four patients presented with left mild sequelae including aphasia, hearing loss, hemiparesis. In conclusion, although mortality is rare in neurobrucellosis, its sequelae are significant. In neurobrucellosis various clinical and neuroradiologic signs and symptoms can be confused with other neurologic diseases. In inhabitants or visitors of endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be kept in mind in cases that have unusual neurological manifestations.

  13. Diversity, endemism and conservation of the freshwater crabs of China (Brachyura: Potamidae and Gecarcinucidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberlidge, Neil; Ng, Peter K L; Yeo, Darren C J; Naruse, Tohru; Meyer, Kirstin S; Esser, Lara J

    2011-03-01

    China lies at the heart of the global center of freshwater crab diversity in tropical Asia, where the 2 most diverse families occur: Potamidae (505 species, 95 genera) and Gecarcinucidae (344 species, 59 genera). China stands out as the country with the highest species richness of freshwater crabs globally. Its fauna comprises 243 species in 37 genera and in 2 families, and species discovery is still progressing at a rapid pace. The vast majority of the species are distributed in southwest, south central and eastern China in the Oriental zoogeographical region. China also stands out as having a highly endemic freshwater crab fauna at the species level (96%) and at the genus level (78%). Although the recent International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red list conservation assessment found only 6 out of 228 species (2%) to be threatened (5 potamids and 1 gecarcinucid), the majority (more than 75%) of Chinese species are regarded as data deficient, so the number of threatened species is likely to be a serious underestimate. Threats from increasing habitat destruction and pollution are a major concern due to the rapidly growing economy and massive developments taking place in China. There is therefore an urgent need for increased species exploration and for the development of a conservation strategy for China's threatened (and potentially threatened) endemic freshwater crab species.

  14. Conservation genetics and phylogeography of endangered and endemic shrub Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Kuo-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetraena mongolica (Zygophyllaceae, an endangered endemic species in western Inner Mongolia, China. For endemic species with a limited geographical range and declining populations, historical patterns of demography and hierarchical genetic structure are important for determining population structure, and also provide information for developing effective and sustainable management plans. In this study, we assess genetic variation, population structure, and phylogeography of T. mongolica from eight populations. Furthermore, we evaluate the conservation and management units to provide the information for conservation. Results Sequence variation and spatial apportionment of the atpB-rbcL noncoding spacer region of the chloroplast DNA were used to reconstruct the phylogeography of T. mongolica. A total of 880 bp was sequenced from eight extant populations throughout the whole range of its distribution. At the cpDNA locus, high levels of genetic differentiation among populations and low levels of genetic variation within populations were detected, indicating that most seed dispersal was restricted within populations. Conclusions Demographic fluctuations, which led to random losses of genetic polymorphisms from populations, due to frequent flooding of the Yellow River and human disturbance were indicated by the analysis of BEAST skyline plot. Nested clade analysis revealed that restricted gene flow with isolation by distance plus occasional long distance dispersal is the main evolutionary factor affecting the phylogeography and population structure of T. mongolica. For setting a conservation management plan, each population of T. mongolica should be recognized as a conservation unit.

  15. Plant endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Spain: taxonomic, distributional, and evolutionary aspects

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    García, Bernardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Causes related to a low number of endemics to Sierra de Gredos (central Iberian Peninsula are poorly understood. Taxonomic, distributional and genetic aspects of the 12 endemic taxa (species and subspecies are herein discussed. New populations found in the last years provide new chorological reports and taxa to science. As a result, we extend the distribution range of Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii and describe a new subspecies (Teucrium oxylepis subsp. Gredense. Genetic variation was investigated by sequencing the ITS (Internal Transcribed Sequence region, which is a widespread nuclear DNA region used to detect significant sequence divergence at the species and population levels. At the species level, only eight endemics to this large mountain range (c. 4,800 km2 indicates both limited speciation events coupled with their persistence, despite the high species richness of the flora of Sierra de Gredos (>2,500. According to the levels of ITS sequence divergence, significant isolation processes may have predated the Quaternary in Sierra de Gredos to account for divergence of the monotypic genus Pseudomisopates from its closest relatives (Misopates, Acanthorrhinum. Isolation of the other seven endemic species from their closest relatives has been a more recent process, as revealed by the limited ITS sequence variation obtained in this study. At the population level, no net nucleotide substitutions were observed between distant populations of the endemic species: Antirrhinum grosii, Astragalus devesae, Centaurea avilae, Dianthus gredensis, Echinospartum barnadesii, Pseudomisopates rivas-martinezii, Santolina oblongifolia. In contrast, the three populations of Sedum lagascae displayed a relatively high number (4 of nucleotide substitutions. These results, together with limited morphological differentiation, may reflect insufficient population isolation of seven of the eight endemic species of Sierra de Gredos in the Quaternary. Recurrent population

  16. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

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    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  17. Changing clinical picture of endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma with improved diagnostic technology: A systematic review

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    Kamulegeya A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the changes in anatomical locations of endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma (eBL by systematic review. We compared the reports before ultrasound became a routine investigation in Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL diagnosis with those that used ultrasound as part of pre therapeutic diagnosis. Methods: All alternative match terms able to capture the anatomical distribution of eBL were used as search terms for two electronic databases, namely Medline and “Web of Science”. Only reports that had reasonable case load were considered for analysis. However the case reports and case series with five or less patients were not included. Results: Medline produced more systematic review identified reports. The search terms “endemic Burkitt lymphoma Africa” yielded the highest number of articles in both databases but had a low precision, at 3.5. Pattern of organ involvement Burkitt lymphoma Africa had a precision at 100%. Medline recalled 27 reports that were not recalled by the Web of Science. Generally it appears that studies that have relied on laparotomies, autopsies and ultrasound have reported a higher abdominal involvement in eBL than those using clinical examination and plain radiographs. This points to the possibility of missed abdominal involvement due to diagnostic techniques. Conclusion: the review confirms that as more Sub Saharan African (SSA countries incorporate US as a routine investigation in management of eBL, we are likely to see more abdominal disease with or without facial manifestation

  18. Epidemic and Endemic Malaria Transmission Related to Fish Farming Ponds in the Amazon Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Izabel Cristina Dos; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Barros, Fábio Saito Monteiro de; Barcellos, Christovam; Kitron, Uriel; Camara, Daniel Cardoso Portela; Pereira, Glaucio Rocha; Keppeler, Erlei Cassiano; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Codeço, Cláudia Torres

    2015-01-01

    Fish farming in the Amazon has been stimulated as a solution to increase economic development. However, poorly managed fish ponds have been sometimes associated with the presence of Anopheles spp. and consequently, with malaria transmission. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of malaria in the state of Acre (and more closely within a single county) to investigate the potential links between aquaculture and malaria transmission in this region. At the state level, we classified the 22 counties into three malaria endemicity patterns, based on the correlation between notification time series. Furthermore, the study period (2003-2013) was divided into two phases (epidemic and post-epidemic). Higher fish pond construction coincided both spatially and temporally with increased rate of malaria notification. Within one malaria endemic county, we investigated the relationship between the geolocation of malaria cases (2011-2012) and their distance to fish ponds. Entomological surveys carried out in these ponds provided measurements of anopheline abundance that were significantly associated with the abundance of malaria cases within 100 m of the ponds (P fish farming contributes to the maintenance of high transmission levels of malaria in this region. PMID:26361330

  19. Accuracy of the Simplified Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index in Rural Communities with Endemic Fluorosis

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    Mauro Henrique N. G. Abreu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the values of the Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (TF index for the determination of the prevalence of dental fluorosis using either all teeth (gold standard or six upper anterior teeth (simplified TF index. The sample was made up of 396 individuals aged six to 22 years from three Brazilian cities with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high fluoride concentration. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was evaluated by a single trained examiner with excellent intraexaminer agreement (kappa = 0.95. Intraexaminer reproducibilities were calculated at tooth level. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the simplified TF compared to gold standard were 90.6 (95%CI: 86.6 to 93.6, 100 (95%CI: 95.3 to 100, 100 (95%CI: 98.3 to 100 and 77.5 (95%CI: 69.8 to 83.5, respectively. The ROC value was 0.953 (95%CI: 0.933 to 0.973. The simplified TF index proved suitable for determining the prevalence of dental fluorosis in regions with endemic fluorosis caused by the ingestion of water with high concentrations of fluoride.

  20. The cause of endemic fluorosis in western Guizhou Province, Southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifeng Dai; Deyi Ren; Shimin Ma [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2004-10-01

    The endemic fluorosis in western Guizhou Province, southwest China is usually attributed to a high-fluorine content in Late Permian coals. This study found that the average fluorine content in 50 coal channel samples from western Guizhou Province ranges from 16.6 to 500 {mu}g/g, with an average of 83.1 {mu}g/g, which is close to the world average (80 {mu}g/g) and that of Chinese coals (82 {mu}g/g). Additionally, the fluorine content of drinking water and fresh corn is too low to lead to fluorosis in western Guizhou Province. However, the clay used as an additive for coal-burning and as a binder in briquette-making by local residents has a very high content of fluorine, ranging from 100.8 to 2455.7 {mu}g/g, with an average of 1027.6 {mu}g/g. The endemic fluorosis is likely caused by fluorine in the clay. Therefore, in areas where unhealthy traditional coal-burning habits and customs are kept and furnaces without chimneys are used, the more clay used for a coal-burning additive and as a binder for briquettes, the more serious the fluorosis problem is. Short communication. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Ancient tepui summits harbor young rather than old lineages of endemic frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Patricia E; Ron, Santiago R; Señaris, J Celsa; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Noonan, Brice P; Cannatella, David C

    2012-10-01

    The flattop mountains (tepuis) of South America are ancient remnants of the Precambrian Guiana Shield plateau. The tepui summits, isolated by their surrounding cliffs that can be up to 1000 m tall, are thought of as "islands in the sky," harboring relict flora and fauna that underwent vicariant speciation due to plateau fragmentation. High endemicity atop tepui summits support the idea of an ancient "Lost World" biota. However, recent work suggests that dispersal between lowlands and summits has occurred long after tepui formation indicating that tepui summits may not be as isolated from the lowlands as researchers have long suggested. Neither view of the origin of the tepui biota (i.e., ancient vicariance vs. recent dispersal) has strong empirical support owing to a lack of studies. We test diversification hypotheses of the Guiana Shield highlands by estimating divergence times of an endemic group of treefrogs, Tepuihyla. We find that diversification of this group does not support an ancient origin for this taxon; instead, divergence times among the highland species are 2-5 Ma. Our data indicate that most highland speciation occurred during the Pliocene. Thus, this unparalleled landscape known as "The Lost World" is inhabited, in part, not by Early Tertiary relicts but neoendemics.

  2. Total thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter - is it really an option in endemic region?

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    Kalin Vidinov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral multinodular goiter is the most common indications for surgery in endemic iodine-deficiency regions such as Bulgaria. Total thyroidectomy is currently the preferred treatment for thyroid cancer, for multinodular goiter. However many surgeons and endocrinologist still choose not to perform or recommend total thyroidectomy or lobectomy for bilateral or unilateral disease. We sought to assess whether the results support the hypothesis that total thyroidectomy is safe and can be considered as the optimal surgical approach for treating BMG in endemic region such as Bulgaria. A total of 500 patients were included in this study. They underwent thyroid operation between 2004 and 2009. We excluded patients with thyroid cancer or suspicion of thyroid malignancy. We evaluated indications for total thyroidectomy, complication rates, local recurrence rate and long-term outcome after total thyroidectomy. All patients had bilateral goiter diagnosed with ultrasound (n = 500. The incidence of permanent bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was 0% and that of permanent unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and permanent hypocalcaemia occurred was 0.8 - 1.2 %. Hemorrhage requiring repeat surgery occurred in 0.4-2 % of patients. There was no wound infection, and postoperative mortality was 0%. Total thyroidectomy is safe and is associated with a low incidence of disabilities. Ttotal thyroidectomy has the advantages of immediate and permanent cure and no recurrences.

  3. Multiplicity and diversity of Plasmodium vivax infections in a highly endemic region in Papua New Guinea.

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    Cristian Koepfli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is highly endemic in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea and accounts for a large proportion of the malaria cases in children less than 5 years of age. We collected 2117 blood samples at 2-monthly intervals from a cohort of 268 children aged 1 to 4.5 years and estimated the diversity and multiplicity of P. vivax infection. All P. vivax clones were genotyped using the merozoite surface protein 1 F3 fragment (msp1F3 and the microsatellite MS16 as molecular markers. High diversity was observed with msp1F3 (H(E = 88.1% and MS16 (H(E = 97.8%. Of the 1162 P. vivax positive samples, 74% harbored multi-clone infections with a mean multiplicity of 2.7 (IQR = 1-3. The multiplicity of P. vivax infection increased slightly with age (P = 0.02, with the strongest increase in very young children. Intensified efforts to control malaria can benefit from knowledge of the diversity and MOI both for assessing the endemic situation and monitoring the effects of interventions.

  4. Application of GIS in epizootiological surveillance of swine trichinellosis in one endemic district in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, L; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2010-12-01

    Application of new tools for epizootiological investigations in veterinary medicine, such as Geographical Information Systems (GIS), offers a new approach and possibilities for the eradication or control of infectious diseases. GIS is particularly useful for research conducted in small areas strongly impacted by man. Trichinellosis is a world-wide zoonosis, which is endemic in some European countries, Balkan district and Serbia in particular. There are very few data on GIS application in the field of trichinellosis. We here present the application of GIS for mapping Trichinella spp. occurrence and spatial and temporal patterns of Trichinello infection in one endemic district in Serbia. Settlements with trichinellosis were marked and particular points of interest were designated. Data on prevalence of Trichinella infection in domestic swine accompanied by location of foci indicated the existence of disease geographical stationarity. This first report on GIS application in Serbia will facilitate trichinellosis surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella spp. circulation among domestic pigs, and populations of synanthropic and sylvatic animals.

  5. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in the Americas: hidden under the dengue umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Estrada-Franco, Jose G; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ferro, Cristina; Haddow, Andrew D; Weaver, Scott C

    2011-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is an emerging infectious disease in Latin America. Outbreaks have been recorded for decades in countries with enzootic circulation, and the recent implementation of surveillance systems has allowed the detection of additional human cases in countries and areas with previously unknown VEE activity. Clinically, VEE is indistinguishable from dengue and other arboviral diseases and confirmatory diagnosis requires the use of specialized laboratory tests that are difficult to afford in resource-limited regions. Thus, the disease burden of endemic VEE in developing countries remains largely unknown, but recent surveillance suggests that it may represent up to 10% of the dengue burden in neotropical cities, or tens-of-thousands of cases per year throughout Latin America. The potential emergence of epizootic viruses from enzootic progenitors further highlights the need to strengthen surveillance activities, identify mosquito vectors and reservoirs and develop effective strategies to control the disease. In this article, we provide an overview of the current status of endemic VEE that results from spillover of the enzootic cycles, and we discuss public health measures for disease control as well as future avenues for VEE research. PMID:21765860

  6. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  7. Endemic Fluorosis &Non-Ulcer Dyspepsia in J&K State

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    Inder Gupta, M.Kjyoti, Shashi Kant

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of endemic fluorosis in J&K State andcause of non-ulcer dyspepsia. A total of 1,61790 individuals in the age range of 5 to 70 years werestudied. In district, Doda 90% of the population studied were suffering from dental fluorosis, 12%were having skeletal deformities as well as bony pains and 60% ofthe population above the age of25 years were suffering from dyspepsia. In other districts only 26% of the population studied werehaving dental fluorosis, 7% had skeletal deformities and 42% were suffering from dyspepsia. Thenuoride content in water of different sources ranged from 1.153 to 27.216 PPM.Two hundred patients suffering from dental and skeletal fluorosis, having severe symptoms ofupper gastrioilllcstinal tract like retrosternal burning distention ofabdomen, pain epigastrium, soureructations and excessive flatulence or constipation were studied alongwith 10 control normalsubjects. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy studies showcd that 82 patients had mild to moderateantritis and pyloritis, 35 had multiple erosions in stomach, 36 had duodenitis and 47 had normalstudy. Histopathological examination of biopsies of stomach and jejunum revealed non-specificchanges but scanning electron microscopic examination showed scanty microvilli or bald epitheliumof the nlucosa, surface abrasions, desquamated epithelium and classical cracked clay appearance.This study concludes that fluorosis is in endemic form in J&K State and non-ulcer dyspepsia'is very common in these patients because of drinking of highly fluoridated waler.

  8. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Neurobrucellosis: clinical, diagnostic, therapeutic features and outcome. Unusual clinical presentations in an endemic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceran, Nurgul; Turkoglu, Recai; Erdem, Ilknur; Inan, Asuman; Engin, Derya; Tireli, Hulya; Goktas, Pasa

    2011-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection and has endemic characteristics. Neurobrucellosis is an uncommon complication of this infection. The aim of this study was to present unusual clinical manifestations and to discuss the management and outcome of a series of 18 neurobrucellosis cases. Initial clinical manifestations consist of pseudotumor cerebri in one case, white matter lesions and demyelinating syndrome in three cases, intracranial granuloma in one case, transverse myelitis in two cases, sagittal sinus thrombosis in one case, spinal arachnoiditis in one case, intracranial vasculitis in one case, in addition to meningitis in all cases. Eleven patients were male and seven were female. The most prevalent symptoms were headache (83%) and fever (44%). All patients were treated with rifampicin, doxycycline plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ceftriaxone. Duration of treatment (varied 3-12 months) was determined on basis of the CSF response. In four patients presented with left mild sequelae including aphasia, hearing loss, hemiparesis. In conclusion, although mortality is rare in neurobrucellosis, its sequelae are significant. In neurobrucellosis various clinical and neuroradiologic signs and symptoms can be confused with other neurologic diseases. In inhabitants or visitors of endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be kept in mind in cases that have unusual neurological manifestations.

  10. Newly established monoclonal antibody diagnostic assays for Schistosoma mansoni direct detection in areas of low endemicity.

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    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current available methods for diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni lack sufficient sensitivity, which results in underreporting of infectious in areas of low endemicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed three novel diagnostic methodologies for the direct detection of schistosome infection in serum samples. These three new methods were evaluated with positive patients from a low endemicity area in southeast Brazil. The basis of the assay was the production of monoclonal antibodies against the protein backbone of heavily glycosylated Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA. The antibodies were also selected for having no specificity to repeating poly-Lewis x units. Assays based on the detection CCA-protein should not encounter a limitation in sensitivity due to a biological background of this particular epitope. Three diagnostic methodologies were developed and validated, (i Immunomagnetic Separation based on improved incubation steps of non-diluted serum, (ii Direct Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and (iii Fluorescent Microscopy Analysis as a qualitative assay. The two quantitative assays presented high sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively and specificity (100%, equivalent to the analysis of 3 stool samples and 16 slides by Kato-Katz, showing promising results on the determination of cure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Immunomagnetic Separation technique showed excellent correlation with parasite burden by Cohen coefficient. The qualitative method detected 47 positive individuals out of 50 with the analysis of 3 slides. This easy-to-do method was capable of discriminating positive from negative cases, even for patients with low parasite burden.

  11. Development, identification and utilization of introgression lines using Chinese endemic and synthetic wheat as donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqing Gu; Bo Wei; Renchun Fan; Xu Jia; Xianping Wang; Xiangqi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome segmental introgression lines (ILs) are an effective way to utilize germplasm resources in crops. To improve agronomic traits of wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum) Shi 4185, four sets of ILs were developed. The donors were Chinese endemic subspecies accessions Yunnan wheat (T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense) YN3, Tibetan semi-wild wheat (T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum) XZ-ZM19450, and Xinjiang wheat (T. aestivum ssp. petropavlovskyi) XJ5, and synthetic wheat HC-XM1620 derived from a cross between T. durum acc. D67.2/P66.270 with Aegilops tauschii acc. 218. Totals of 356, 366, 445 and 457 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were polymorphic between Shi 4185 and YN3, XZ-ZM19450, XJ5 and HC-XM1620, respectively. In total, 991 ILs were identified, including 300 derived from YN3, covering 95%of the genome of Shi 4185, 218 from XZ-ZM19450 (79%), 279 from XJ5 (97%), and 194 from HC-ZX1620 (84%). The sizes and locations of each introgression were determined from a consensus SSR linkage map. Using the ILs, 11 putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for plant height (PH), spike length (SL) and grain number per spike (GNS). Comparative analyses of 24 elite ILs with the parents revealed that the four donor parents could be important resources to improve wheat SL and GNS. Our work offers a case for utilizing endemic landraces for QTL mapping and improvement of wheat cultivars using introgression lines.

  12. Ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcus; Lippi, Daniel L.; Silva, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Parrotfish are fundamental species in controlling algal phase-shifts and ensuring the resilience of coral reefs. Nevertheless, little is known on their ecological role in the south-western Atlantic Ocean. The present study analysed the ontogenetic foraging activity and feeding selectivity of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus zelindae using behavioural observation and benthic composition analyses. We found a significant negative relationship between fish size and feeding rates for S. zelindae individuals. Thus, terminal phase individuals forage with lower feeding rates compared to juveniles and initial phase individuals. The highest relative foraging frequency of S. zelindae was on epilithic algae matrix (EAM) with similar values for juveniles (86.6%), initial phase (88.1%) and terminal phase (88.6%) individuals. The second preferred benthos for juveniles was sponge (11.6%) compared with initial (4.5%) and terminal life phases (1.3%). Different life phases of S. zelindae foraged on different benthos according to their availability. Based on Ivlev’s electivity index, juveniles selected EAM and sponge, while initial phase and terminal phase individuals only selected EAM. Our findings demonstrate that the foraging frequency of the endemic parrotfish S. zelindae is reduced according to body size and that there is a slight ontogenetic change in feeding selectivity. Therefore, ecological knowledge of ontogenetic variations on resource use is critical for the remaining parrotfish populations which have been dramatically reduced in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27761330

  13. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

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    Xiao-Lei Huang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs. The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007. The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades.

  14. Study of the incidence and etiology of congenital hypothyroidism in an endemic goiter area after treatment with iodine enriched salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was performed in a severe endemic goiter area, Chengde district including 7 counties, after treatment with Iodine enriched salt, and Beijing city as a control area. From May 1985 to Sep. 1991, 26570 newborns in Beijing city and 16227 in Chengde were screened. The incidence of primary hypothyroidism in Beijing city was 1/8800 and that in Chengde 1/8100. Of all the 5 Ch detected, 3 from Beijing city and 2 from Chengde, were thyroid dysgenesis. Not a single case of endemic goiter cretinism (including both myxedematous and neurological cretinism) was found in our study. We conclude that Iodine deficiency is the only cause of endemic cretinism and this problem can be solved by Iodine enriched salt treatment

  15. Patterns of endemism along an elevation gradient in Sierra Nevada (Spain and Lefka Ori (Crete, Greece

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    Fernández-Calzado, R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: High mountains in the Mediterranean region of Europe are particularly rich in endemic vascular plants. We aimed to compare the altitudinal patterns of vascular plant species richness and the proportion of endemic species in two Mediterranean region: Lefka Ori on the island of Crete (Greece and Sierra Nevada on the Iberian peninsula. Location: Sierra Nevada, Granada (Spain; Lefka Ori, Crete (Greece. Methods: Data from standardised permanent plots settings on summit sites (comprising eight plot sectors, covering the upeermost 10 altitudinal metres of different elevations were used (GLORIA Multi-Summit approach; www.gloria.ac.at. Species numbers, rates of endemic species, and soils temperature were compared by means of ANCOVA and linear regression. Results: The two regions, though climatically similar, showed strikingly different patterns: In Sierra Nevada, the proportion of endemic vascular plants (species restricted to Sierra Nevada showed a stepwise increase from the lowest to the highest summit. In contrast, the proportion of endemic species restricted to Crete was not significantly different between the four summits in Lefka Ori. In both regions the observed trends were largely consistent with the altitudinal distribution of the endemic species obtained from standard floras. Main conclusions: The geographic positions of the two regions, i.e. island versus mainland and the higher elevation of Sierra Nevada are suggested to be the primary causes of the observed differences. The high degree of endemism in the cold environments of Mediterranean mountains’ upper bioclimatic zones indicates a pronounced vulnerability to the impacts of climate change. A continued and intensified species monitoring in the mountains around the Mediterranean basin, therefore, should be considered as a priority research task.Objetivo: Las zonas de alta montaña en la región mediterránea europea son particularmente ricas en plantas vasculares end

  16. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  17. Filarial-specific antibody response in East African bancroftian filariasis: effects of host infection, clinical disease, and filarial endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaoko, Walter G; Simonsen, Paul E; Meyrowitsch, Dan W;

    2006-01-01

    The effect of host infection, chronic clinical disease, and transmission intensity on the patterns of specific antibody responses in Bancroftian filariasis was assessed by analyzing specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, and IgE profiles among adults from two communities with high and low Wuchereria......:IgE ratios were higher in infection-positive individuals than in infection-negative ones, and higher in the high endemicity community than in the low endemicity one. Overall, these results indicate that specific antibody responses in Bancroftian filariasis are more related to infection status than...

  18. Elevated levels of plasma uric acid and its relation to hypertension in arsenic-endemic human individuals in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huda, Nazmul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Department of Medicine, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi 6000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Shakhawoat; Rahman, Mashiur [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7003 (Bangladesh); Islam, Khairul [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail 1902 (Bangladesh); Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Imam; Mohanto, Nayan Chandra; Alam, Shahnur; Aktar, Sharmin; Arefin, Afroza; Ali, Nurshad; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Aziz, Abdul; Saud, Zahangir Alam [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossainbio@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh)

    2014-11-15

    Blood uric acid has been recognized as a putative marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the major causes of arsenic-related morbidity and mortality. However, the association of arsenic exposure with plasma uric acid (PUA) levels in relation to CVDs has not yet been explored. This study for the first time demonstrated the associations of arsenic exposure with PUA levels and its relationship with hypertension. A total of 483 subjects, 322 from arsenic-endemic and 161 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited as study subjects. Arsenic concentrations in the drinking water, hair and nails of the study subjects were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. PUA levels were measured using a colorimetric method. We found that PUA levels were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas than those in non-endemic area. Arsenic exposure (water, hair and nail arsenic) levels showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. In multiple regression analyses, arsenic exposure levels were found to be the most significant contributors on PUA levels among the other variables that included age, body mass index, blood urea nitrogen, and smoking. There were dose–response relationships between arsenic exposure and PUA levels. Furthermore, diastolic and systolic blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with PUA levels. Finally, the average PUA levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive group than those in the normotensive group in both males and females living in arsenic-endemic areas. These results suggest that arsenic exposure-related elevation of PUA levels may be implicated in arsenic-induced CVDs. - Highlights: • PUA levels were higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than in non-endemic subjects. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed significant associations with PUA levels. • Drinking water, hair and nail arsenic showed dose–response relationships with

  19. Analysis of an investigational result of drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis in Hebei Province in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To find out the status of drinking-waterborne endemic fluorosis and the effect of preventive measures in Hebei Province,so as to provide a basis to prevent and cure fluorosis.Methods One affected county(city,district)with drinking-water-borne endemic fluorosis was sampled in every city and 10 water improvement projects were investigated in that county.Three villages were taken out in every county.The operating state of the projects,the water fluoride content,

  20. Histological and molecular biology diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in a patient without history of travel to endemic areas – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L’Ollivier C.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: in endemic areas, neurocysticercosis appears mainly as a single, large, spherical and non-enhancing intracranial cyst. Case presentation: an atypical case of neurocysticercosis (NCC in a French Caucasian, without history of travel to endemic areas, was confirmed by histology and molecular speciation. Imaging was atypical, showing several hook-bearing scolices visible in the cyst, while the serology employed was non-contributary. Conclusions: NCC should be considered when multiple taeniid scolices are observed within the same cystic lesion.

  1. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Lacerda Marcus VG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P

  2. Macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in Tanzanian endemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisimbi, John; Shalchi, Zaid; Mahroo, Omar A; Mhina, Celina; Sanyiwa, Anna J; Mabey, Denise; Mohamed, Moin; Plant, Gordon T

    2013-11-01

    Bilateral optic neuropathy in Dar es Salaam is now considered endemic and is estimated to affect 0.3-2.4% of young adults. The condition is characterized by a subacute bilateral loss of central vision of unknown aetiology. Findings of spectral domain optical coherence tomography have not previously been reported for these patients. All patients diagnosed with endemic optic neuropathy over a 2-year period at the Muhimbili National Hospital underwent spectral domain optical coherence tomography macular imaging. Scans were graded qualitatively for severity of retinal nerve fibre layer loss as well as the presence of microcystic macular changes, which have not previously been described in this condition. Of the 128 patients included (54.7% male; median age 20 years), severe retinal nerve fibre layer loss was found in 185 eyes (74.0%). There was full concordance in retinal nerve fibre layer thickness between the two eyes in 113 (91.1%) patients. Microcystic macular spaces were found in 16 (12.5%) patients and were bilateral in nine (7.0%) individuals. These changes were typically more prominent in the nasal than the temporal macula, predominantly involving the inner nuclear layer, and often occurred in an annular configuration that was evident on en face infra-red imaging, though not discernible on colour fundus photography or clinically. All patients with microcystic macular changes had severe thinning of the retinal nerve fibre layer (P = 0.02). Four patients in whom cystic spaces were demonstrated had sequential scans, and there was no detectable alteration in the configuration of these changes over a period of up to 16 months. This is the first study to document optical coherence tomography findings in endemic optic neuropathy. We have observed symmetrical severe loss of the caeco-central projection (papillomacular bundle) with otherwise well-preserved macular architecture. Also, we have observed microcystic retinal changes in a significant proportion of patients

  3. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, David J.; Meurk, Colin D.; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers’ perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis ‘purpurea’ (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H′) for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this

  4. Individual correlates of podoconiosis in areas of varying endemicity: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial form of elephantiasis resulting in lymphedema of the lower legs. Previous studies have suggested that podoconiosis arises from the interplay of individual and environmental factors. Here, our aim was to understand the individual-level correlates of podoconiosis by comparing 460 podoconiosis-affected individuals and 707 unaffected controls.This was a case-control study carried out in six kebeles (the lowest governmental administrative unit in northern Ethiopia. Each kebele was classified into one of three endemicity levels: 'low' (prevalence 5%. A total of 142 (30.7% households had two or more cases of podoconiosis. Compared to controls, the majority of the cases, especially women, were less educated (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.2, were unmarried (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.6-4.6 and had lower income (t = -4.4, p<0.0001. On average, cases started wearing shoes ten years later than controls. Among cases, age of first wearing shoes was positively correlated with age of onset of podoconiosis (r = 0.6, t = 12.5, p<0.0001. Among all study participants average duration of shoe wearing was less than 30 years. Between both cases and controls, people in 'high' and 'medium' endemicity kebeles were less likely than people in 'low' endemicity areas to 'ever' have owned shoes (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.7.Late use of shoes, usually after the onset of podoconiosis, and inequalities in education, income and marriage were found among cases, particularly among females. There were clustering of cases within households, thus interventions against podoconiosis will benefit from household-targeted case tracing. Most importantly, we identified a secular increase in shoe-wearing over recent years, which may give opportunities to promote shoe-wearing without increasing stigma among those at high risk of podoconiosis.

  5. Leishmaniasis and textbook: how are endemic diseases addressed in public education?

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    Débora Batista Reis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis, considered a public health problem in Brazil, because of their magnitude, geographic expansion and lethality. The disease is the etiologic agent trypanosamatid Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by the bite of Lutzomyia longipalpis, an insect of the order Diptera that has hematophagous habits. Typically considered rural, the disease emerged in the urban scene in Teresina, Piauí state, in the 80´s, reaching the other urban producing several epidemiological outbreaks. Control of the disease, based on the slaughter of seropositive dogs, chemical vector control and treatment of human patients as strategies recommended by the Ministry of Health, do not have satisfactory results, it is imperative to integrate these strategies to the actions of health education. Considering the role of the school in the dissemination of knowledge and the promotion of health education actions and, above all, the importance of the textbook as an important educational tool for the teaching-learning process, this study aimed to analyze the books as they are atopted by public schools of the city of Floriano, Piauí state, address endemic diseases, particularly leishmaniasis. Physical criteria, as aspects of the brochure and binding aspects and the contents were used in the analyzes. The selection of books was made by teachers and managers of schools based on the National Textbook Program (PNLD tab and then were approved in the pedagogical evaluation of the Ministry of Education. Copies of each level of education (primary and secondary were analyzed according to conceptual and physical aspects. The analysis of conceptual and methodological aspects was based on the literature and a thorough observation of the images that complement the content. The physical aspects were evaluated according to the type of binding, size, font size and spacing employ, didactic presentation order of the content and illustrations. It was found

  6. Portunoid crabs as indicators of the Red Sea fauna history and endemism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, Vassily; Türkay, Michael; Brösing, Andreas; Al-Aidaroos, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Peculiar environmental conditions and "turbulent" geological history make the Red Sea a laboratory of evolution and a significant area for understanding adaptation processes. To interpret the results of this basin-scale evolutionary experiment revised inventories of taxonomic diversity of particular groups of marine biota are essential. As one of the first results of the Red Sea Biodiversity Survey (RSBS) in the years 2011 - 2012 along the coast of Saudi Arabia (http://www.redseabiodiversity.org/) and examination of earlier collections and literature a revised species list is provided for the portunoid (swimming) crabs (Crustacea Decapoda Portunoidea). This superfamily is one of the most species rich and has one of the broadest habitat scopes among Brachyura in the global scale. The present assessment results in 54 shallow water species (including 2 recorded for the first time in the Red Sea during RSBS), 2 deep water species and 1 semipelagic species Charybdis smithii. Doubtful literature records of another 7 shallow water species remain unconfirmed. Among reliably recorded shallow water species 58 % belong to widespread Indo-West-Pacific (IWP) species, 13% are the species restricted to the western Indian Ocean, 11 % are endemics of the Arabian region (occurring also either in the western Gulf of Aden or along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, or in both areas) which are usually vicariant to the widespread IWP species, 11% are taxa that are similar to the species occurring elsewhere in the IWP but have morphological peculiarities and probably deserve a specific or subspecific status. Finally 4% of species (Thalamita murinae and Liocarcinus subcorrugatus) appear to be endemic for the Red Sea and show remarkable disjunctions from most closely related species. Carcinus sp. (probably C. aestuarii) is an introduced (but not established) species in the northern Red Sea. The deep water fauna of the Red Sea is unique because it lives in the warm (20.5-21.5 ° C

  7. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in non endemic countries: the role of international migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A Schmunis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human infection with the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi extends through North, Central, and South America, affecting 21 countries. Most human infections in the Western Hemisphere occur through contact with infected bloodsucking insects of the triatomine species. As T. cruzi can be detected in the blood of untreated infected individuals, decades after infection took place; the infection can be also transmitted through blood transfusion and organ transplant, which is considered the second most common mode of transmission for T. cruzi. The third mode of transmission is congenital infection. Economic hardship, political problems, or both, have spurred migration from Chagas endemic countries to developed countries. The main destination of this immigration is Australia, Canada, Spain, and the United States. In fact, human infection through blood or organ transplantation, as well as confirmed or potential cases of congenital infections has been described in Spain and in the United States. Estimates reported here indicates that in Australia in 2005-2006, 1067 of the 65,255 Latin American immigrants (16 per 1000 may be infected with T. cruzi, and in Canada, in 2001, 1218 of the 131,135 immigrants (9 per 1000 whose country of origin was identified may have been also infected. In Spain, a magnet for Latin American immigrants since the 2000, 5125 of 241,866 legal immigrants in 2003 (25 per 1000, could be infected. In the United States, 56,028 to 357,205 of the 7,20 million, legal immigrants (8 to 50 per 1000, depending on the scenario, from the period 1981-2005 may be infected with T. cruzi. On the other hand, 33,193 to 336,097 of the estimated 5,6 million undocumented immigrants in 2000 (6 to 59 per 1000 could be infected. Non endemic countries receiving immigrants from the endemic ones should develop policies to protect organ recipients from T. cruzi infection, prevent tainting the blood supply with T. cruzi, and implement secondary prevention of congenital

  8. Plant Endemism in the Helanshan Mountains%贺兰山植物区系的特有性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 梁存柱; 王炜; 王立新; 贾成朕

    2012-01-01

    贺兰山及其毗邻的东阿拉善和西鄂尔多斯地区生物多样性特殊,是中国8个生物多样性中心之一的南蒙古中心的核心区.本文就该地区生物多样性组成、特有类群及其分布与分化进行了分析,结果表明:1)贺兰山目前记录野生维管植物357属788种2亚种和28个变种.2)贺兰山分布有西鄂尔多斯特有亚科:四合木亚科(Tetraenoideae);2个东阿拉善和西鄂尔多斯特有属:四合木属(Tetraena)、革苞菊属(Tugarinovia);2个亚洲中部特有属:沙冬青属(Ammopiptanthus)和紊蒿属(Elachanthemum);上述4属均分布于山麓地带.3)贺兰山有特有与近特有种54个,特有变种15个,特有亚种1个,占贺兰山维管植物的7.3%.4)贺兰山特有植物区系既古老而又年轻,其山麓特有类群多为古老干旱区植物后裔,而山地特有类群多为晚近分化类群.5)贺兰山植物区系是一个强烈旱化的生物区系,特有植物旱生类型共占了42.6%,特别是山麓特有种,95%为旱生植物.%The Helanshan Mountains and its adjacent regions East Alashan-West Ordos Dryland of China is the core areas of the South Mongolian region,and one of the eight biodiversity centers in China. The plant biodiversity in this area is diverse and unique,its composition and spatial distribution were investigated,including endemic taxonomic groups,phylogenetic variations,and the spatial differentiation. Results indicate that there are 87 families,357 genera,788 species,and 30 varieties of wild vascular plants in the Helanshan Mountains. Among them, Tetraenoideae is West Ordos endemic subfamily, Tetraena and Tugarinovia are East Alashan-West Ordos endemic genera, and Ammopiptanthus and Elachanthemum are central Asia desert endemic genera. These 4 local and semi-local endemic generas are all distributed in piedmont areas. There are 54 species and 16 varieties of local and semi-local endemic species of vascular plants, accounting for 7. 3 % of all vascular

  9. 全国血吸虫病疫情资料回顾性调查Ⅲ传播控制和传播阻断后疫情回升地区疫情变化分析%Retrospective investigation on national endemic situation of schistosomiasis Ⅲ Changes of endemic situation in endemic rebounded counties after transmission of schistosomiasis under control or interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静; 张奕; 陈文; 熊孟涛; 林春; 张利娟; 徐俊芳; 张世清; 汪天平; 闻礼永; 周晓农; 林丹丹; 吴晓华; 朱蓉; 汪奇志; 吕尚标; 杨国静; 韩阳清; 肖瑛

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析我国血吸虫病流行区达到传播控制(传控)和传播阻断(传阻)后疫情回升地区的疫情变化情况,为修订血吸虫病控制和消灭标准、巩固达标地区防治成果提供参考.方法 选择全国7个血吸虫病流行省中的12个疫情回升县(市、区),采用回顾性调查法,收集各县达传控前10年和以后各年(至2008年或2009)的疫情数据及相关资料,分析其疫情变化情况及达标后疫情回升因素.结果 达传控后疫情回升县的疫情巩固时间平均为5±3年.山丘型和湖沼型流行区钉螺面积分别在达标后第7年和第12年回升至历史累计有螺面积的10%以上,水网型流行区钉螺面积相对稳定在较低水平;感染性钉螺密度的回升时间与活螺密度的回升高峰基本一致;湖沼型流行区在达传控后2年居民感染率即回升至>10%.达传阻后疫情回升县的疫情巩固时间平均为7±4年.达传阻后湖沼型、水网型和山丘型流行区的人群感染率均稳定在较低水平,但钉螺面积在达传阻后的3~6年先后回升至历史累计有螺面积的2%以上,而活螺密度和感染性钉螺密度则在钉螺面积回升的当年或随后2~3年相继出现回升.结论 受生物、自然、社会等诸多因素的影响,传控和传阻达标地区疫情回升主要表现为螺情回升.建议修订我国血吸虫病控制和消灭标准时,应综合考虑不同类型流行区的螺情变化规律、钉螺面积或感染性钉螺密度等因素对疫情的影响.传控和传阻地区应建立敏感而有效的监测预警体系,加强达标后的疫情监测和巩固工作.%Objective To analyze the changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission control or transmission interruption in endemic rebounded areas, so as to offer the information for modifying the criteria of schistosomiasis control and elimination, and consolidating

  10. Range extension of two poorly known endemic species of the genus Orophea Blume (Annonaceae

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    K. Sankararao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orophea malabarica Sasidh. & Sivar. and Orophea sivarajanii Sasidh., of the family Annonaceae were found growing in close proximity as undergrowth with restricted distribution in the evergreen forest of Makutta Ghat, Kodagu District, Karnataka State, India.  Earlier reports suggest that these are endemic to Kerala state of the Western Ghats and found distributed only in their type localities viz., Thrissur and Wayanad districts respectively. However, the present article reports extension of their range to new locations in Karnataka state and therefore become addition to the floral wealth of the state, as they were neither previously collected nor recorded from this region. The updated nomenclature, detailed description, flowering-fruiting seasons, distribution map, scanned herbarium specimens, field photographs, proposed conservation status and other relevant notes are provided in this communication. 

  11. Dengue in China: Comprehensive Phylogenetic Evaluation Reveals Evidence of Endemicity and Complex Genetic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rubing; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing threat of dengue outbreaks in China, it is still considered as an imported disease and its introduction and/or circulation patterns remain obscure. On the basis of the most extensive phylogenetic analysis to date, we showed highly complex genetic diversity of dengue viruses (DENVs) in south China with up to 20 different clades/lineages from multiple serotypes co-circulating in the same year. Despite that most of these clades/lineages were resulted from imported cases, evidence of local persistence of DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was observed, indicating its potential endemicity in Guangdong province. This study, therefore, provided an overview of DENV genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics in China, which will be useful for developing policies to prevent and control future dengue outbreaks in China. PMID:26458780

  12. Risk of hepatitis A decreased among Dutch travelers to endemic regions in 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sane, Jussi; de Sousa, Rita; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Petrignani, Mariska; Verhoef, Linda; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    We divided the number of travel-related hepatitis A cases notified in Dutch surveillance (2003-2011) by travel data obtained from an annual holiday survey to estimate the risk of hepatitis A among Dutch travelers. Of the 2,094 cases notified, 931 (44%) were imported. Morocco (n = 272, 29%), Turkey (n = 98, 11%), and Egypt (n = 87, 9%) accounted for the largest proportion of cases. Attack rates in returnees from high or intermediate endemic regions declined from 7.5 per 100,000 travelers (95% CI 6.7-8.4) in 2003-2005 to 3.5 (95% CI 3.0-4.0) in 2009-2011 (p < 0.01). Despite the decrease in risk, vaccination remains important, and routine risk monitoring should also be considered.

  13. Woody vegetation, endemism and conservation status in the seasonally dry forests of Jaen, Peru

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    José Luis Marcelo Peña

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight relictual areas of seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF from the surroundings Jaen city, in Cajamarca, were investigated using a rapid inventory technique. The areas were situated between 5°38’ and 5°48’ S and 78°41’ and 78°48’ W, and between 615 and 1100 m altitude. A total of 151 species, 103 genera and 40 families of woody plants were recorded. The area shows high diversity of woody plants in comparison with other neighbouring regions. Most notable is its endemism, which is the highest in the region of southwest Ecuador and Peru. However, the area is seriously threatened by demand for firewood and the need for land for crops, large cattle farms and housing.

  14. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

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    R. Munguía-Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico, a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%, T. rubrum (7.5%, and Aspergillus flavus (7.5%. A lower number of isolates was obtained in soils having acidic pH (5.19. Fungal diversity of Ascomycetes was also found in the studied area by sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. Our results showed a high prevalence of pathogenic and potential agents of mycoses, as well as the importance of molecular tools to identify microbial populations in soil.

  15. Conservation Status of a Recently Described Endemic Land Snail, Candidula coudensis, from the Iberian Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Moreira

    Full Text Available We assessed the distribution, population size and conservation status of Candidula coudensis, a recently described endemic land snail from Portugal. From March 2013 to April 2014, surveys were carried out in the region where the species was described. We found an extent of occurrence larger than originally described, but still quite small (13.5 km2. The species was found mainly in olive groves, although it occurred in a variety of other habitats with limestone soils, including grasslands, scrublands and stone walls. Minimum population estimate ranged from 110,000-311,000 individuals. The main identified potential threats to the species include wildfires, pesticides and quarrying. Following the application of IUCN criteria, we advise a conservation status of either "Least Concern" or "Near-threatened" under criterion D (restricted population.

  16. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish endemic Stachys rupestrıs Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baştürk Kaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stachys rupestris Montbret et Aucher ex Bentham, is an endemic species that show deploying at Middle Taurus and Amanos mountains in Turkey. In this study, the stem and leaf anatomy of the individuals that were collected from Mersin-Aslanköy were investigated. The obtained data from the anatomical studies shows that S. rupestris represents the anatomical characteristics of Lamiaceae family. The stem in primer structure is quadrangular, with a vascular bundle at each corner and it has collenchyma layer in rich. The leaf and stem epidermises are covered by long and short glandular trichomes. Leaves are amphistomatic and dorsiventral; and the mesophyll are formed of 3-4 layered palisade parenchyma at the upper part and 3-4 layered spongy parenchyma – at the lower part.

  17. Anatomical characteristics of Turkish steno-endemic Origanum leptocladum Boiss. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Doğu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Origanum leptocladum Boiss. is an endemic East Mediterranean element, naturally growing only in Ermenek district of Karaman province in Turkey. The aim of this study is to determine anatomical features of the species. The study materials were collected from Karaman-Ermenek in 2009 and then preserved in 70 % alcohol. O. leptocladum generally exhibits the anatomical feaures of the family Lamiaceae. Hovewer, herbaceaus stem is weakly-rectangle shaped or tends to be circular, the collenchymatic tissue at the corner of the stem and scleranchymatic pericycle around the vascular tissue are weakly-developed. The most striking anatomical feature is that leaf lamina is dorsiventral in the region near to midvein, but equifacial out of the midvein. According to the results, while the stomata are of mesomorphic type on the leaf surfaces, O. leptocladum has xeromorphic characters such as palisade richness in mesophyll, the occurrence of rich scleranchymatic tissue in midvein and cuticle thickness on leaf surface.

  18. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia P.J. Rua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32, Bacillus (N = 26, Shewanella (N = 17, Pseudovibrio (N = 12, and Ruegeria (N = 8 were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition. PMID:24660481

  2. Co-endemicity of Cysticercosis and Schistosomiasis in Africa - how many people are at risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal;

    countries were identified. The co-endemicity dataset was then combined with modelled data on population density for 2015 derived from the WorldPop database (http://www.worldpop.org). We used the open source GIS software QGIS and GRASS to overlay the two datasets and identified the number of people living......The World Health Organisation (WHO) is aiming for elimination of schistosomiasis by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA). However, the drug used for this, praziquantel, has been reported to cause dramatic side effects, even death, among people suffering from neurocysticercosis (NCC). Both...... surveys were discarded. The presence of T. solium was georeferenced with an online gazetteer using information on place names in the published literature. We found 117 reports of T. solium cysticercosis/taeniosis in Africa from 1970 to 2012. A total of 538 districts (admin level 4 or equivalent) in 25...

  3. Selective activation of TCR-G¿ cells in endemic Burkitt's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futagbi, Godfred; Welbeck, Jennifer E; Tetteh, John Kweku A;

    2007-01-01

    , age and sex matched children, were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-, phycoerythrin (PE)-, R-phycoerythrin (RPE)- and RPE-Cy5-conjugated antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CD69, CD95, HLA-DR, TCR-gammadelta, Vdelta1, Vdelta3, Vgamma9 and B-cells) and acquired on a flow cytometer. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: The overlap in geographical distribution of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL)--an aggressive Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell tumour occurring almost exclusively in the tropics--strongly suggests a link between the two diseases. It is suspected...... that the polyclonal B-cell activation in P. falciparum malaria may precipitate a breakdown in homeostatic T-cell control of EBV-immortalized B-cell proliferation. Previous studies have suggested that a particular T-cell subset, characterized by expression of Vdelta1+ gammadelta T-cell receptors, is...

  4. Considerations for screening live kidney donors for endemic infections: a viewpoint on the UNOS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M E; Kumar, D; Green, M; Ison, M G; Kaul, D; Michaels, M G; Morris, M I; Schwartz, B S; Echenique, I A; Blumberg, E A

    2014-05-01

    In February 2013, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network mandated that transplant centers perform screening of living kidney donors prior to transplantation for Strongyloides, Trypanosoma cruzi and West Nile virus (WNV) infection if the donor is from an endemic area. However, specific guidelines for screening were not provided, such as the optimal testing modalities, timing of screening prior to donation and the appropriate selection of donors. In this regard, the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice, together with disease-specific experts, has developed this viewpoint document to provide guidance for the testing of live donors for Strongyloides, T. cruzi and WNV infection, specifically identifying at-risk populations and testing algorithms, including advantages, limitations and interpretation of results. PMID:24636427

  5. The endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus as a potential vector of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Terán-Díaz, Berenice; Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2014-06-01

    The susceptibility of the endemic copepod Calanus pacificus californicus to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was established by the temporal analysis of WSSV VP28 transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The copepods were collected from a shrimp pond located in Bahia de Kino Sonora, Mexico, and challenged per os with WSSV by a virus-phytoplankton adhesion route. Samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 84 h postinoculation (hpi). The VP28 transcripts were not detected at early stages (0 and 24 hpi); however, some transcript accumulation was observed at 48 hpi and gradually increased until 84 hpi. Thus, these results clearly show that the copepod C. pacificus californicus is susceptible to WSSV infection and that it may be a potential vector for the dispersal of WSSV. However, further studies are still needed to correlate the epidemiological outbreaks of WSSV with the presence of copepods in shrimp ponds. PMID:24895865

  6. Animal-adapted members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex endemic to the southern African subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Clarke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC cause tuberculosis (TB in both animals and humans. In this article, three animal-adapted MTC strains that are endemic to the southern African subregion – that is, Mycobacterium suricattae, Mycobacterium mungi, and the dassie bacillus – are reviewed with a focus on clinical and pathological presentations, geographic distribution, genotyping methods, diagnostic tools and evolution. Moreover, factors influencing the transmission and establishment of TB pathogens in novel host populations, including ecological, immunological and genetic factors of both the host and pathogen, are discussed. The risks associated with these infections are currently unknown and further studies will be required for greater understanding of this disease in the context of the southern African ecosystem.Keywords: dassie bacillus; ecology; evolution; host jump; Mycobacterium mungi; Mycobacterium suricattae; Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; phylogeny

  7. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition.

  8. [Diagnosis of malaria in non-endemic countries : value, limitations and complementarity of existing methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier-Pinchart, M P; Pinel, C; Grillot, R; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    2000-01-01

    The biological diagnosis of malaria is urgent to avoid rapid and fatal outcome. Every year in France, 5,000 imported malaria cases are observed. Thin stained blood smear microscopical examination remains the reference method of diagnosis; however its performance is linked to the professional competence of the biologists. Thus easier methods have been developed (QBC test). Some of them, limited to the diagnosis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum do not require highly skilled personal to perform or interpret (antigen detection on dipsticks, tests Parasight or cardboard, ICT Malaria Pf), but limitations and errors occurred. These different tests must be complementary methods of traditional diagnosis. In association with microscopical examinations, they provide rapid and efficient diagnosis of malaria in non-endemic areas. Relying on our experience, the best association is: QBC + thin blood smear and depending of results antigen detection (ParaSight F, ICT Malaria Pf). PMID:10846235

  9. Sporulation properties and antimicrobial susceptibility in endemic and rare Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidaric, Valerija; Rupnik, Maja

    2016-06-01

    Increased sporulation and antibiotic resistance have been proposed to be associated with certain Clostridium difficile epidemic strains such as PCR ribotype 027. In this study we examined these properties in another widespread PCR ribotype, 014/020, in comparison to prevalent PCR ribotype 002 and a group of rarely represented PCR ribotypes. Highest sporulation was observed in 014/020 strains at 24 h, while after 72 h PCR ribotype 002 and rare PCR ribotypes formed higher total number of spores. PCR ribotype 014/020 strains exhibited slightly higher resistance to tested antimicrobials, followed by group of rare PCR ribotypes and less common PCR ribotype 002. Neither sporulation properties nor antibiotic resistance clearly differed in endemic and rare strains.

  10. Endemic carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with acquired metallo-beta-lactamase determinants in European hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagatolla, Cristina; Tonin, Enrico A; Monti-Bragadin, Carlo; Dolzani, Lucilla; Gombac, Francesca; Bearzi, Claudia; Edalucci, Elisabetta; Gionechetti, Fabrizia; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2004-03-01

    Acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) can confer broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance (including carbapenems) not reversible by conventional beta-lactamase inhibitors and are emerging resistance determinants of remarkable clinical importance. In 2001, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa carrying bla(VIM) MBL genes were found to be widespread (approximately 20% of all P. aeruginosa isolates and 70% of the carbapenem-resistant isolates) at Trieste University Hospital. Clonal diversity and heterogeneity of resistance determinants (either bla(VIM-1)-like or bla(VIM-2)-like) were detected among MBL producers. This evidence is the first that acquired MBLs can rapidly emerge and establish a condition of endemicity in certain epidemiologic settings. PMID:15109432

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline TANURE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1% and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%. Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6% in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of endemic and endangered plants from the Tatra Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Zubek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal status of 24 plant species considered as endemic, endangered in Poland and included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants is reported. Selected plants and rhizosphere soil samples were collected in the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians. Individuals of seriously threatened taxa were obtained from seeds and inoculated with available AM fungal strains under laboratory conditions. AM colonisation was found in 16 plants; 9 species were of the Arum-type, 4 - Paris and 3 taxa revealed intermediate morphology. The mycelium of the fine endophyte (Glomus tenue and dark septate fungi (DSE were observed in the material collected in the field. 20 AMF species (Glomeromycota found in the rhizosphere of the investigated plants were reported for the first time from the Tatra Mts. The results provide information that might be useful for conservation and restoration programmes of these species. Application of AMF in active plant protection projects is discussed.

  13. Description of three new troglobiontic species of Cybaeodes (Araneae, Liocranidae) endemic to the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Carles; De Mas, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Three new troglobiontic species of the spider genus Cybaeodes Simon endemic to caves in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula are described and illustrated: Cybaeodes indalo sp. n. from Almería, C. dosaguas sp. n. from València and C. magnus sp. n. from Alacant. The new species confirm the presence of Cybaeodes on the Iberian Peninsula and its wide distribution throughout the Western Mediterranean including Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, France, Spain and the islands of Sardinia, Sicily and Mallorca. A record of C. liocraninus (Simon), from an Iberian cave was probably based on misidentified specimens of C. magnus sp. n. C. liocraninus is known only from Algeria and should be removed from lists of the Iberian fauna. In addition, the three new species are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment. PMID:26249078

  14. Epidemiologic aspects of American visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic focus in Eastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta, A M; Villarroel, E; Rodriguez, N; Feliciangeli, M D; Mazzarri, M; Reyes, O; Rodriguez, V; Centeno, M; Barrios, R M; Ulrich, M

    1999-12-01

    An endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in eastern Venezuela has been evaluated in terms of patients (n = 48), immunologic reactivity to Leishmania in household contacts (n = 187) and neighborhood controls (n = 170), detection of Leishmania (L. donovani complex) in dogs and wild animals by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and characteristics of the sandfly population. The male:female ratio of patients was 1.18:1; 89.6% were Didelphis marsupialis), and a black rat (Rattus rattus). Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. evansi, both implicated in the transmission of AVL, were identified among the 386 sand flies examined. These observations provide the bases for an active control program as well as further studies of reservoirs and vector-host relationships in this area. PMID:10674675

  15. Transborder cooperation on the protection, surveillance and control of endemic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discuss some concern and challenges regards the Bulgarian-Greek transborder cooperation with respect the protection, surveillance and control of some endemic for this transborder region diseases like: Q-fever, Brucellosis, Lyme disease, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and Marseilles fever. The study examines transborder activities, including a background for the infection diseases state for the period 2004-2007, the problems of training and equipment of the specialists for sampling and identification of these diseases, development of strategy and conception for control of spreading of the infectious agents in 4 bulgarian regions / Blagoevgrad, Haskovo, Smoljan and Kardjeli/ and in the corresponding regions in Greece - Seres, Drama, Ksanti and Evro. Additionally, there is presented the role of local governmental representatives to manage these transnational border issues.(author)

  16. Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 - a novel deltapapillomavirus inducing endemic papillomatosis in the endangered Visayan spotted deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Jörgens, Dirk; Schubert, Christina; Heckel, Jens-Ove; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel papillomavirus - Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 (RalPV1) - which causes endemic fibropapillomatosis in the European conservation breeding population of the highly endangered Visayan spotted deer (Rusa alfredi). Degenerated papillomavirus-specific primers were used to amplify and sequence parts of the viral DNA. Subsequently, the complete genomic DNA was cloned and the sequence was determined. The RalPV1 genome has a length of 8029 bp, encodes the early proteins E6, E7, E1, E2 and E5, the two late proteins L1 and L2 and contains an upstream regulatory region. Highest sequence identities were observed with two deltapapillomaviruses, the Capreolus capreolus PV1 and Cervus elaphus PV1. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on the ORF L1 suggested that RalPV1 is a putative new type of the papillomavirus species Deltapapillomavirus 5. PMID:26555294

  17. Human neurocysticercosis case and an endemic focus of Taenia solium in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Chai, Jong-Yil; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Insisiengmay, Bounnaloth; Eom, Keeseon S

    2013-10-01

    A male patient with neurocysticercosis was identified in Montai Village, Xay District, Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR in February 2004. He had a history of diagnosis for neurocysticercosis by a CT scan in Thailand after an onset of epileptic seizure in 1993. A pig in the same district was found to contain Taenia solium metacestodes (=cysticerci); the slaughtered pig body contained more than 2,000 cysticerci. In addition to morphological identification, molecular identification was also performed on the cysticerci by DNA sequencing analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene; they were confirmed as T. solium metacestodes. The patient is regarded as an indigenous case of neurocysticercosis infected in an endemic focus of T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in Oudomxay Province, Lao PDR.

  18. Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A. Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae, their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.

  19. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  20. SIR model on a small-world network and the endemic state of an infectious disease

    CERN Document Server

    Dottori, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this work we performed a numerical study of an epidemic model that mimics the endemic state of whooping cough in the pre-vaccine era. We considered a stochastic SIR model on two-dimensional Watts-Strogatz-type networks and analyzed the influence of the network properties on the characterization of the quasi-stationary state. We computed probability density functions (PDF) for infected fraction of individuals and found that they are well fitted by gamma functions, excepted the tails of the distributions that are q-exponentials. We also computed the fluctuation power spectra of infective time series for different networks. We found that network effects can be partially absorbed by rescaling the rate of infective contacts of the model. An explicit relation between the effective transmission rate of the disease and the correlation of susceptible individuals with their infective nearest neighbours was obtained. This relation quantifies the known screening of infective individuals observed in these networks. We ...